Science.gov

Sample records for air monitoring surveys

  1. Locations and monitoring well completion logs of wells surveyed by U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, Fort Worth area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, M.D.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    Completion logs are presented for 16 monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, in the Fort Worth area, Texas. Natural gamma-ray logs are presented for selected monitoring wells. Also included are survey data for eight wells installed by Geo-Marine, Inc.

  2. A Survey of Wireless Sensor Network Based Air Pollution Monitoring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Wei Ying; Lo, Kin Ming; Mak, Terrence; Leung, Kwong Sak; Leung, Yee; Meng, Mei Ling

    2015-01-01

    The air quality in urban areas is a major concern in modern cities due to significant impacts of air pollution on public health, global environment, and worldwide economy. Recent studies reveal the importance of micro-level pollution information, including human personal exposure and acute exposure to air pollutants. A real-time system with high spatio-temporal resolution is essential because of the limited data availability and non-scalability of conventional air pollution monitoring systems. Currently, researchers focus on the concept of The Next Generation Air Pollution Monitoring System (TNGAPMS) and have achieved significant breakthroughs by utilizing the advance sensing technologies, MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). However, there exist potential problems of these newly proposed systems, namely the lack of 3D data acquisition ability and the flexibility of the sensor network. In this paper, we classify the existing works into three categories as Static Sensor Network (SSN), Community Sensor Network (CSN) and Vehicle Sensor Network (VSN) based on the carriers of the sensors. Comprehensive reviews and comparisons among these three types of sensor networks were also performed. Last but not least, we discuss the limitations of the existing works and conclude the objectives that we want to achieve in future systems. PMID:26703598

  3. A Survey of Wireless Sensor Network Based Air Pollution Monitoring Systems.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wei Ying; Lo, Kin Ming; Mak, Terrence; Leung, Kwong Sak; Leung, Yee; Meng, Mei Ling

    2015-12-12

    The air quality in urban areas is a major concern in modern cities due to significant impacts of air pollution on public health, global environment, and worldwide economy. Recent studies reveal the importance of micro-level pollution information, including human personal exposure and acute exposure to air pollutants. A real-time system with high spatio-temporal resolution is essential because of the limited data availability and non-scalability of conventional air pollution monitoring systems. Currently, researchers focus on the concept of The Next Generation Air Pollution Monitoring System (TNGAPMS) and have achieved significant breakthroughs by utilizing the advance sensing technologies, MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). However, there exist potential problems of these newly proposed systems, namely the lack of 3D data acquisition ability and the flexibility of the sensor network. In this paper, we classify the existing works into three categories as Static Sensor Network (SSN), Community Sensor Network (CSN) and Vehicle Sensor Network (VSN) based on the carriers of the sensors. Comprehensive reviews and comparisons among these three types of sensor networks were also performed. Last but not least, we discuss the limitations of the existing works and conclude the objectives that we want to achieve in future systems.

  4. Siting Air Monitoring Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes guidelines for consideration in selecting sites for air monitoring systems. Careful selection for spatial scale and specific sources assures that the collected data are accurately representing the situation. (Author/MA)

  5. Next Generation Air Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developing a rang...

  6. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  7. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  8. Basic Information about Air Emissions Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site is about types of air emissions monitoring and the Clean Air Act regulations, including Ambient Air Quality Monitoring, Stationary Source Emissions Monitoring, and Continuous Monitoring Systems.

  9. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  10. Space Derived Air Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.

  11. Air Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Stak-Tracker CEM (Continuous Emission Monitor) Gas Analyzer is an air quality monitor capable of separating the various gases in a bulk exhaust stream and determining the amounts of individual gases present within the stream. The monitor is produced by GE Reuter- Stokes, a subsidiary of GE Corporate Research & Development Center. The Stak-Tracker uses a Langley Research Center software package which measures the concentration of a target gas by determining the degree to which molecules of that gas absorb an infrared beam. The system is environmental-friendly, fast and has relatively low installation and maintenance costs. It is applicable to gas turbines and various industries including glass, paper and cement.

  12. Next-generation air monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. EPA is evaluating and developing a range of next-generation air monitoring (NGAM) technologie...

  13. Air Emissions Monitoring for Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Operating permits document how air pollution sources will demonstrate compliance with emission limits and also how air pollution sources will monitor, either periodically or continuously, their compliance with emission limits and all other requirements.

  14. Comprehensive air monitoring plan: general monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-31

    Recommendations are provided for general monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) in ambient air in parts of Colusa, Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma counties potentially impacted by emissions from geothermal development projects in the Geysers-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area. Recommendations for types, placement, performance guidelines, and criteria and procedure for triggering establishment and termination of CAMP monitoring equipment were determined after examination of four factors: population location; emission sources; meteorological considerations; and data needs of permitting agencies and applicants. Three alternate financial plans were developed. Locations and equipment for immediate installation are recommended for: two air quality stations in communities where the State ambient air quality standard for H/sub 2/S has been exceeded; three air quality trend stations to monitor progress in reduction of H/sub 2/S emissions; two meteorological observation stations to monitor synoptic wind flow over the area; and one acoustic radar and one rawinsonde station to monitor air inversions which limit the depth of the mixing layer.

  15. Air quality monitor and acid rain networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, H.

    1980-01-01

    The air quality monitor program which consists of two permanent air monitor stations (PAMS's) and four mobile shuttle pollutant air monitor stations (SPAMS's) is evaluated. The PAMS measures SO sub X, NO sub X particulates, CO, O3, and nonmethane hydrocarbons. The SPAMS measures O3, SO2, HCl, and particulates. The collection and analysis of data in the rain monitor program are discussed.

  16. Air Quality Monitoring and Sensor Technologies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientist Ron Williams presented on the features, examination, application, examples, and data quality of continuous monitoring study designs at EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training in July 2015.

  17. Workplace air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.; Burphy, B.L.

    1986-03-01

    Current air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities were surveyed as a part of an air monitoring upgrade task. A comprehensive questionnaire was developed and distributed to DOE contractors through the DOE field offices. Twenty-six facilities returned a completed questionnaire. Questionnaire replies indicate diversity in air sampling and monitoring practices among DOE facilities. The difference among the facilities exist in monitoring and sampling instrumentation, procedures, calibration, analytical methods, detection levels, and action levels. Many of these differences could be attributed to different operational needs.

  18. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  19. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  20. Air Pollution Monitoring for Communities Grants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA, through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program is providing funding to six institutions that will advance air monitoring technology while helping communities address unique air quality challenges.

  1. Air Pollution Monitoring for Communities Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program is providing funding to six institutions that will advance air monitoring technology while helping communities address unique air quality challenges.

  2. Air Monitoring, Measuring, and Emissions Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Measurement research is advancing the ability to determine the composition of sources of air pollution, conduct exposure assessments, improve monitoring capabilities and support public health research.

  3. Clean Air Markets - Monitoring Surface Water Chemistry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how EPA uses Long Term Monitoring (LTM) and Temporily Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) to track the effect of the Clean Air Act Amendments on acidity of surface waters in the eastern U.S.

  4. Alpha-environmental continuous air monitor inlet

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2003-01-01

    A wind deceleration and protective shroud that provides representative samples of ambient aerosols to an environmental continuous air monitor (ECAM) has a cylindrical enclosure mounted to an input on the continuous air monitor, the cylindrical enclosure having shrouded nozzles located radially about its periphery. Ambient air flows, often along with rainwater flows into the nozzles in a sampling flow generated by a pump in the continuous air monitor. The sampling flow of air creates a cyclonic flow in the enclosure that flows up through the cylindrical enclosure until the flow of air reaches the top of the cylindrical enclosure and then is directed downward to the continuous air monitor. A sloped platform located inside the cylindrical enclosure supports the nozzles and causes any moisture entering through the nozzle to drain out through the nozzles.

  5. Evaluation of workplace air monitoring locations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Cicotte, G.R.; Lynch, T.P. ); Aldrich, L.K. )

    1991-10-01

    Current federal guidance on occupational radiation protection recognizes the importance of conducting air flow studies to assist in the placement of air sampling and monitoring equipment. In support of this, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has provided technical assistance to Westinghouse Hanford Company for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of air sampling and monitoring locations at selected Hanford facilities. Qualitative air flow studies were performed using smoke aerosols to visually determine air movement. Three examples are provided of how air flow studies results, along with information on the purpose of the air sample being collected, were used as a guide in placing the air samplers and monitors. Preparatory steps in conducting an air flow study should include: (1) identifying type of work performed in the work area including any actual or potential release points; (2) determining the amounts of radioactive material available for release and its chemical and physical form; (3) obtaining accurate work area descriptions and diagrams; (4) identifying the location of existing air samplers and monitors; (5) documenting physical and ventilation configurations; (6) notifying appropriate staff of the test; and (7) obtaining necessary equipment and supplies. The primary steps in conducting an air flow study are measurements of air velocities in the work area, release of the smoke aerosol at selected locations in the work area and the observation of air flow patterns, and finally evaluation and documentation of the results. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Volunteers for Air Monitoring Project (VAMP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge National Lab., TN.

    An education and communication project of the Environment and Technology Assessment Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, is described in this report. The project for monitoring air dustfall resulted in the largest citizen-scientist air monitoring effort in the history of our nation. Nearly 21,000 public secondary school students and…

  7. Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) Operating Procedures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) is an air monitoring system designed for measuring nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) pollutants simultaneously. This self-contained system consists of a CairPol CairClip NO2 sensor, a Thermo Scientific personal DataRAM PM2.5...

  8. Community Air Monitoring Where You Live in EPA Region 5

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Community air monitoring projects that are using air sensor technology to monitor air quality in states in EPA’s Region 5 are providing the public with more information on the quality of the air they breathe.

  9. Community Air Monitoring Where You Live in EPA Region 8

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Community air monitoring projects that are using air sensor technology to monitor air quality in states in EPA’s Region 8 are providing the public with more information on the quality of the air they breathe.

  10. KCBX Air Monitoring Data - February 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    KCBX submitted spreadsheets of heavy metal amounts, PM10 concentration, carbon measurements, and continuous monitor data from its petroleum coke (pet coke) facilities in Chicago, Illinois, per EPA's Clean Air Act Section 114 request.

  11. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  12. Air Quality Monitoring And Forecasting In China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der A, Ronald; Mijling, Bas; De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel; Kelder, Hennie

    2010-10-01

    For the last decade the industrial activity of China has been growing at rapid pace, bringing economic wealth to its 1300 million inhabitants, but also generating an unprecedented level of air pollution. This deteriorates the air quality of the densely populated and industrialized areas such as Beijing, Shanghai and the Pearl River Delta, and increases the background pollution levels world-wide [1]. The AMFIC project aims at monitoring and forecasting the air quality in China by using satellite observations and model simulations, together with ground observations in China. The combination of these instruments and tools offers a unique possibility to investigate trends in air pollution and the effectiveness of air quality policy.

  13. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  14. Gulf War Air Power Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    16 Coalition Strikes against Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Targets ........................ 80 vi p 17 Daily Scud Launches during Desert Storm...against Saudi Arabia and Israel. Since Iraq was known to possess chemical munitions and was believed to have biological weapons, these threats raised...systems; key nuclear, biological , chemical, electrical, military, and oil production facilities; bridges, railroads, and port infrastructure; and air

  15. 76 FR 54462 - Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... teleconference of the Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee (AMMS) of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  16. Design and implementation air quality monitoring robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuanhua; Li, Jie; Qi, Chunxue

    2017-01-01

    Robot applied in environmental protection can break through the limitations in working environment, scope and mode of the existing environmental monitoring and pollution abatement equipments, which undertake the innovation and improvement in the basin, atmosphere, emergency and pollution treatment facilities. Actually, the relevant technology is backward with limited research and investment. Though the device companies have achieved some results in the study on the water quality monitoring, pipeline monitoring and sewage disposal, this technological progress on the whole is still much slow, and the mature product has not been formed. As a result, the market urges a demand of a new type of device which is more suitable for environmental protection on the basis of robot successfully applied in other fields. This paper designs and realizes a tracked mobile robot of air quality monitoring, which can be used to monitor air quality for the pollution accident in industrial parks and regular management.

  17. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2025 Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic air embolism monitor is a device used to detect air bubbles...

  18. 40 CFR 58.15 - Annual air monitoring data certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.15 Annual air monitoring data... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual air monitoring data... an annual air monitoring data certification letter to certify data collected at all SLAMS and at...

  19. Williams Air Force Base Air Quality Monitoring Study,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    During monitoring operations conducted from five ground stations at Williams Air Force Base (WAFB) near Phoenix, Arizona, air quallity data were collected... chemical spraying, which could explain the higher levels of THC. Pollution roses for CO and THC were constructed using April 17 - June 18 data, and the...mixing depth). They also provided information on the vertical mixing properties of the atmosphere and (as input for model calculations) insight into

  20. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, David K.; Tyree, William H.

    1989-04-11

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-pre The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP03533 between the Department of Energy and Rockwell International Corporation.

  1. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, D.K.; Tyree, W.H.

    1987-03-23

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-preamplifier combination. 2 figs.

  2. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  3. REVIEW OF THE RADNET AIR MONITORING NETWORK ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    RadNet, formerly known as ERAMS, has been operating since the 1970's, monitoring environmental radiation across the country, supporting responses to radiological emergencies, and providing important information on background levels of radiation in the environment. The original purpose of the system was to monitor fallout from weapons testing. Even though upgrades to and reconfiguration of the system have been planned for some time, the events of 9/11/01 gave impetus to a thorough upgrade of RadNet, primarily directed at providing more timely data and covering a larger portion of the nation's population. Moreover, the demands upon RadNet are now based upon homeland security support in addition to existing EPA monitoring responsibilities. Beginning in FY05 and continuing into FY13 up to135 near real-time air monitors will be put into operation across the country to provide decision making-data to EPA officials. Data will be transmitted from the monitors in all 50 states to a central database at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama. The data will then be assessed and verified and made available to federal and state officials and, eventually, the public. A data flow model is being constructed to provide the most effective and efficient use of verified data obtained from the new radNet system The objective of the near-real time air monitoring component of RadNet is to provide verified decision-making data to fed

  4. Changing the Paradigm of Air Pollution Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, approaches for monitoring air pollution generally use expensive, complex, stationary equipment,1,2 which limits who collects data, why data are collected, and how data are accessed. This paradigm is changing with the materialization of lower-cost, easy-to...

  5. OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper outlines recent developments in using optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments for air quality monitoring both for gaseous pollutants and airborne particulate matter (PM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been using open-path Fourier transform infrared...

  6. Developing Gyrfalcon surveys and monitoring for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Mark R.; Schempf, Philip F.; Booms, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    We developed methods to monitor the status of Gyrfalcons in Alaska. Results of surveys and monitoring will be informative for resource managers and will be useful for studying potential changes in ecological communities of the high latitudes. We estimated that the probability of detecting a Gyrfalcon at an occupied nest site was between 64% and 87% depending on observer experience and aircraft type (fixed-wing or helicopter). The probability of detection is an important factor for estimating occupancy of nesting areas, and occupancy can be used as a metric for monitoring species' status. We conclude that surveys of nesting habitat to monitor occupancy during the breeding season are practical because of the high probability of seeing a Gyrfalcon from aircraft. Aerial surveys are effective for searching sample plots or index areas in the expanse of the Alaskan terrain. Furthermore, several species of cliff-nesting birds can be surveyed concurrently from aircraft. Occupancy estimation also can be applied using data from other field search methods (e.g., from boats) that have proven useful in Alaska. We believe a coordinated broad-scale, inter-agency, collaborative approach is necessary in Alaska. Monitoring can be facilitated by collating and archiving each set of results in a secure universal repository to allow for statewide meta-analysis.

  7. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  8. Air inleak monitoring overcoming the `superheat` problem

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, C.; Rendle, C.

    1995-06-01

    Air inleak monitoring has been carried out for many years by Performance Engineers making the appropriate measurements of flow, temperature and absolute pressure. Instrumentation packages were produced in the late 1980s that brought together these measurements and made the necessary calculation, using firstly analog and subsequently digital techniques. These units used readings taken at one point long the air extraction pipework (Fig. 1). This single point approach has been shown to work satisfactorily on a number of installation, particularly those with large air inleak rates. There are, however, many installations where the procedure cannot work as a result of their being in `superheated mode`. The selection and design of sensors and sensing points to meet the fundamental physical requirements of the calculation process has resulted in the ability to monitor air inleak rates in a very wide range of conditions of both superheat and non-superheat for low and high air inleak rates. The paper discusses the observations made on installations in conventional and nuclear stations and the effect of changing pumping rates and other plant variables.

  9. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  10. Demonstration of autonomous air monitoring through robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Rancatore, R.

    1989-11-01

    The project included modifying an existing teleoperated robot to include autonomous navigation, large object avoidance, and air monitoring and demonstrating that prototype robot system in indoor and outdoor environments. The robot was also modified to carry a HNU PI-101 Photoionization Detector air monitoring device. A sonar range finder, which already was an integral part of the Surveyor, was repositioned to the front of the robot chassis to detect large obstacles in the path of the robot. In addition, the software of the onboard computer was also extensively modified to provide: navigation control, dynamic steering to smoothly follow the wire-course without hesitation, obstacle avoidance, autonomous shut down and remote reporting of toxic substance detection.

  11. Citizen Science Opportunities for Monitoring Air Quality Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Citizen Science Opportunities for Monitoring Air Quality fact sheet provides information on what citizen science is and the tools and resources available for citizen scientists interested in monitoring air quality.

  12. Monitoring Air Circulation Under Reduced Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygalov, Vadim

    Adequate air circulation is required for controlled environments to maintain uniform temperature and humidity control, and hence the ability to measure air flow accurately is important. Human and associated life support habitats (e.g.,. plant production systems) for future space missions will likely be operated at pressures less than 100 kPa to minimize gas leakage and structural mass. Under such reduced pressures, the outputs from conventional anemometers for monitoring air flow can change and require re-calibration. These effects of atmospheric pressure on different types of air flow measurements are not completely understood; hence we compared the performance of several air flow sensors across a range of hypobaric pressures. Sensors included a propeller type anemometer, a hot-wire anemometer, and a Pitot-tube based device. Theoretical schematics (including mathematical models) underlying these measurements were developed. Results demonstrated that changes in sensor outputs were predictable based on their operating principles, and that corrections could be developed for sensors calibrated under normal Earth atmosphere pressure ( 100 kPa) and then used at different pressures. The potential effects of hypobaric atmospheres and their altered air flows on plant physiology are also discussed.

  13. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  14. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  15. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  16. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  17. Test plan for air monitoring during the Cryogenic Retrieval Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Yokuda, E.

    1992-06-01

    This report presents a test plan for air monitoring during the Cryogenic Retrieval Demonstration (CRD). Air monitors will be used to sample for the tracer elements neodymium, terbium, and ytterbium, and dysprosium. The results from this air monitoring will be used to determine if the CRD is successful in controlling dust and minimizing contamination. Procedures and equipment specifications for the test are included.

  18. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  19. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  20. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  1. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  2. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  3. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  4. Preliminary air pollution monitoring in San Miguel, Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Fagundez, L A; Fernández, V L; Marino, T H; Martín, I; Persano, D A; Rivarola Y Benítez, M; Sadañiowski, I V; Codnia, J; Zalts, A

    2001-09-01

    Passive diffusion samplers were employed in San Miguel (Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area) for a preliminary air pollution monitoring. The highest loads were observed in downtown, compared with an urban background site. Total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) varied from 0.257 to 0.033 mg cm(-2) month(-1); dust was examined for particle nature and size distribution. A similar trend was observed for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and TSPM spatial distribution, suggesting that traffic is the major pollution source. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) values were low and rather homogeneous. Levels for the investigated pollutants are below EPA's guide line values. Geographic (flat area, near to Rio de La Plata) and climatologic factors (rainfalls and variable wind directions) contribute to disperse pollutants.

  5. Region 7 States Air Quality Monitoring Plans - Missouri

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) - Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska; Annual Monitoring Network Plans, Five-Year Monitoring Network Assessments, and approval documentation. Each year, states are required to submit an annual monitoring netwo

  6. Region 7 States Air Quality Monitoring Plans - Iowa

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) - Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska; Annual Monitoring Network Plans, Five-Year Monitoring Network Assessments, and approval documentation. Each year, states are required to submit an annual monitoring netwo

  7. Region 7 States Air Quality Monitoring Plans - Kansas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) - Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska; Annual Monitoring Network Plans, Five-Year Monitoring Network Assessments, and approval documentation. Each year, states are required to submit an annual monitoring netwo

  8. Region 7 States Air Quality Monitoring Plans - Nebraska

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) - Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska; Annual Monitoring Network Plans, Five-Year Monitoring Network Assessments, and approval documentation. Each year, states are required to submit an annual monitoring netwo

  9. Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, Bas; van der A, Ronald; Wang, Pucai

    2010-05-01

    Within the ESA-MOST Dragon 2 Programme, the AMFIC project consists of an integrated system for monitoring and forecasting tropospheric pollutants over China. Satellite data, in situ measurements and chemical transport model results are used to generate consistent air quality information over China. The system includes a data archive of the recent years, near real time data, and air quality forecasts for several days ahead, which can be find on http://www.amfic.eu. Air pollutants covered are nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, methane and aerosol. The AMFIC system has been used to evaluate the effect of the air quality measures which were taken by the Chinese authorities related to the Olympic Games and Paralympics in Beijing. Industrial activities and traffic in and around the city were reduced drastically to improve air quality. To compensate for the atypical meteorological conditions during the Olympic events, tropospheric NO2 column observations from GOME-2 and OMI are interpreted against simulations from the CHIMERE regional chemistry transport model. When compared with the pre-Olympic concentration levels, we find a NO2 reduction of 60% over Beijing and significant reductions in surrounding areas. After the Olympic period, NO2 concentrations slowly return to their pre-Olympic level. The satellite observations and model simulations of tropospheric NO2 column concentrations are also used to constrain NOx emissions over China by using data assimilation techniques. We will present the preliminary results of these efforts. The periodical update of the bottom-up emission inventory is expected to reveal emission trends and improve the air quality forecasts for China.

  10. Continuous air monitor filter changeout apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2008-07-15

    An apparatus and corresponding method for automatically changing out a filter cartridge in a continuous air monitor. The apparatus includes: a first container sized to hold filter cartridge replacements; a second container sized to hold used filter cartridges; a transport insert connectively attached to the first and second containers; a shuttle block, sized to hold the filter cartridges that is located within the transport insert; a transport driver mechanism means used to supply a motive force to move the shuttle block within the transport insert; and, a control means for operating the transport driver mechanism.

  11. Engineering with uncertainty: monitoring air bag performance.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2008-06-01

    Modern engineering is complicated by an enormous number of uncertainties. Engineers know a great deal about the material world and how it works. But due to the inherent limits of testing and the complexities of the world outside the lab, engineers will never be able to fully predict how their creations will behave. One way the uncertainties of engineering can be dealt with is by actively monitoring technologies once they have left the development and production stage. This article uses an episode in the history of automobile air bags as an example of engineers who had the foresight and initiative to carefully track the technology on the road to discover problems as early as possible. Not only can monitoring help engineers identify problems that surface in the field, it can also assist them in their efforts to mobilize resources to resolve problem.

  12. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, Marcus B.; Thompson, Cyril V.

    1998-01-01

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds.

  13. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, M.B.; Thompson, C.V.

    1998-07-14

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds. 3 figs.

  14. [Air quality monitoring on the International Space Station].

    PubMed

    Pakhomova, A A; Mukhamedieva, L N; Mikos, K N

    2006-01-01

    Chemical contamination of air in space cabins occurs mainly due to permanent offgassing of equipment and materials, and leaks. Methods and means of qualitative and quantitative air monitoring on the ISS are powerful enough as for routine so emergency (e.g. local fire, toxic leak) air control. The ISS air quality has suited to the adopted standards and crew safety requirements. Yet, there is a broad field of action toward improvement of the space cabin air monitoring.

  15. Vertical hydraulic generators experience with dynamic air gap monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.B.; Lyles, J.F )

    1992-12-01

    Until recently, dynamic monitoring of the rotor to stator air gap of hydraulic generators was not practical. Cost effective and reliable dyamic air gap monitoring equipment has been developed in recent years. Dynamic air gap monitoring was originally justified because of the desire of the owner to minimize the effects of catastrophic air gap failure. However, monitoring air gaps on a time basis has been shown to be beneficial by assisting in the assessment of hydraulic generator condition. The air gap monitor provides useful information on rotor and stator condition and generator vibration. The data generated by air gap monitors will assist managers in the decision process with respect to the timing and extent of required maintenance for a particular generating unit.

  16. Radon-immune air monitor for plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Gupton, E.D.

    1982-08-01

    The gross alpha activity in particulate-associated daughters of radon in the work environments may be many times that of one MPC/sub a/ of /sup 239/Pu or /sup 238/Pu. The daughters of radon emit both alpha and beta particles. The ratio of the alpha-to-beta activity is variable and a function of several factors. In spite of this variability, the ratio changes slowly with time and has upper and lower bounds in buildings that have controlled ventilation. This provides the basis for the development of an air monitor in which the radon interference is virtually eliminated. The radon-immune air monitor has three detectors: one that detects the alpha activity on the filter, one that detects the beta activity on the filter plus gamma background, and one that observes gamma background. The counts from these detectors are fed to a computer that is programmed with an algorithm for computing the non-radon-associated alpha activity.

  17. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  18. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  19. Environment surveys. [monitoring and protection of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    Environment applications are concerned with the quality, protection, and improvement of water, land, and air resources and, in particular, with the pollution of these resources caused by man and his works, as well as changes to the resources due to natural phenomena (for example, drought and floods). The broad NASA objectives related to the environment are directed toward the development and demonstration of the capability to monitor remotely and assess environmental conditions related to water quality, land and vegetation quality, wildlife resources, and general environment. The contributions of ERTS-1 to these subdiscipline areas are broadly summarized.

  20. Air Monitoring for Hazardous Gas Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Naylor, Guy; Haskell, William; Floyd, David; Curley, Charles; Griffin, Timothy P.; Adams, Frederick; Follistein, Duke

    2003-01-01

    The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and quantify various hazardous gases. Traditionally these systems are designed for leak detection of the cryogenic gases used for the propulsion of the Shuttle and other vehicles. Mass spectrometers are the basis of these systems, which provide excellent quantitation, sensitivity, selectivity, response and limits of detection. Unfortunately, these systems are large, heavy and expensive. This feature limits the ability to perform gas analysis in certain applications. Smaller and lighter mass spectrometer systems could be used in many more applications primarily due to the portability of the system. Such applications would include air analysis in confined spaces, in-situ environmental analysis and emergency response. In general, system cost is lowered as size is reduced. With a low cost air analysis system, several systems could be utilized for monitoring large areas. These networked systems could be deployed at job-sites for worker safety, throughout a community for pollution warnings, or dispersed in a battlefield for early warning of chemical or biological threats. Presented will be information on the first prototype of this type of system. Included will be field trial data, with this prototype performing air analysis autonomously from an aircraft.

  1. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  2. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duyzer, Jan; van den Hout, Dick; Zandveld, Peter; van Ratingen, Sjoerd

    2015-03-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in four large cities. The concentrations calculated at the location of the monitoring stations, compared well with the concentrations measured at the stations indicating that the models worked well. Therefore the calculated concentration distributions were used as a proxy for the actual concentration distributions across the cities. The distributions of these proxy concentrations across the city populations was determined and cumulative population distribution curves were estimated. The calculated annual mean values at the monitoring network stations were located on the population distribution curves to estimate the fractions of the populations that the monitoring network stations represent. This macro scale procedure is used to evaluate which subgroups of the monitoring stations can be reliably used to decide on compliance or to estimate the concentration the population is exposed to. In addition, the CAR model and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are used to investigate the effect of micro scale siting of the monitoring stations within the streets. The following observations were made: - Berlin and London networks cover the distribution of concentrations to which the population is exposed rather well, while Stuttgart and Barcelona have stations at sites with mainly the higher concentrations and the exposure is covered less well. - The networks in London and Berlin, with a substantial number of urban background stations, seem fit to monitor the average population exposure, contrary to those in Stuttgart and Barcelona with only a limited number of these stations. - The concentrations measured at street stations hardly reflect the calculated differences in street

  3. Cubesat Constellation Design for Air Traffic Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nag, Sreeja; Rios, Joseph Lucio; Gerhardt, David; Pham, Camvu

    2015-01-01

    Suitably equipped global and local air traffic can be tracked. The tracking information may then be used for control from ground-based stations by receiving the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signal. The ADS-B signal, emitted from the aircraft's Mode-S transponder, is currently tracked by terrestrial based receivers but not over remote oceans or sparsely populated regions such as Alaska or the Pacific Ocean. Lack of real-time aircraft time/location information in remote areas significantly hinders optimal planning and control because bigger "safety bubbles" (lateral and vertical separation) are required around the aircraft until they reach radar-controlled airspace. Moreover, it presents a search-and-rescue bottleneck. Aircraft in distress, e.g. Air France AF449 that crashed in 2009, take days to be located or cannot be located at all, e.g. Malaysia Airlines MH370 in 2014. In this paper, we describe a tool for designing a constellation of small satellites which demonstrates, through high-fidelity modeling based on simulated air traffic data, the value of space-based ADS-B monitoring and provides recommendations for cost-efficient deployment of a constellation of small satellites to increase safety and situational awareness in the currently poorly-served surveillance area of Alaska. Air traffic data has been obtained from the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET), developed at NASA Ames Research Center, simulated over the Alaskan airspace over a period of one day. The simulation is driven by MATLAB with satellites propagated and coverage calculated using AGI's Satellite ToolKit(STK10).

  4. Monitoring air pollution in the Bialowieza Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzahn, Elżbieta; Sondej, Izabela; Paluch, Rafał

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution, as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), affects forest health negatively and can initiate forest dieback. Long-term monitoring (since 1986) and analyses are conducted in the Bialowieza Forest due to the threat by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. This forest has a special and unique natural value, as confirmed by the various forms of protection of national and international rank. The main aim of monitoring is to determine the level and trends of deposition of air pollutants and their effects on selected forest stands and forest communities in the Bialowieza Forest. Concentration measurements of gaseous pollutants and the chemical composition of the precipitation are performed at seven points within the forest area (62 219 ha). Measurement gauges are measuring gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx) by the passive method and collecting precipitation at each point at a height of three meters. The period of measuring by the instruments is 30 days. All analyses are conducted according to the methodology of the European forest monitoring program in the certified Laboratory of Natural Environment Chemistry of the Polish Forest Research Institute (IBL). The concentration of pollutant gases (dry deposition) in the years 2002-2015 accounted for only 6-13% of the limit in Poland, as defined by the Polish Ministry of Environment, and are of no threat to the forest environment. Wet deposition of pollutants, which dependents directly from the amount of precipitation and its concentration of pollutants, varied strongly between different months and years. Total deposition (dry and wet) of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) was calculated for seasonal and annual periods. On an annual basis, wet deposition represented approximately 80% of the total deposition of S and N. Total deposition of S did not exceed the average deposition values for forests in north-eastern Europe (5-10 kg ha-1 year-1) at any of the seven measuring points. Total deposition of N did not

  5. Monitoring of pyrocatechol indoor air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eškinja, I.; Grabarić, Z.; Grabarić, B. S.

    Spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for monitoring of pyrocatechol (PC) indoor air pollution have been investigated. Spectrophotometric determination was performed using Fe(III) and iodine methods. The adherence to Beer's law was found in the concentration range between 0 and 12 μg ml - for iodine method at pH = 5.7 measuring absorbance at 725 nm, and in the range 0-30 μg ml - for Fe(III) method at pH = 9.5 measuring absorbance at 510 nm. The former method showed greater sensitivity than the latter one. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometric (CA) detection in flow injection analysis (FIA) using carbon paste electrode in phosphate buffer solution of pH = 6.5 was also used for pyrocatechol determination. The electrochemical methods allowed pyrocatechol quantitation in submicromolar concentration level with an overall reproducibility of ± 1%. The efficiency of pyrocatechol sampling collection was investigated at two temperatures (27 and 40°C) in water, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl solutions. Solution of 0.1 M HCl gave the best collection efficiency (95.5-98.5%). A chamber testing simulating the indoor pollution has been performed. In order to check the reliability of the proposed methods for monitoring of the indoor pyrocatechol pollution, the air in working premises with pyrocatechol released from meteorological charts during mapping and paper drying was analyzed using proposed methods. The concentration of pyrocatechol in the air during mapping was found to be 1.8 mg m -3 which is below the hygienic standard of permissible exposure of 20 mg m -3 (≈ 5 ppm). The release of pyrocatechol from the paper impregnated with pyrocatechol standing at room temperature during one year was also measured. The proposed methods can be used for indoor pyrocatechol pollution monitoring in working premises of photographic, rubber, oil and dye industries, fur and furniture dyeing and cosmetic or pharmaceutical premises where pyrocatechol and related

  6. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limite...

  7. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engageme...

  8. Monitoring Air Quality from Space using AURA Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, James F.; Chance, Kelly V.; Fishman, Jack; Torres, Omar; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2003-01-01

    Measurements from the Earth Observing System (EOS) AURA mission will provide a unique perspective on air quality monitoring. Ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and aerosols from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and carbon monoxide from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) will be simultaneously measured with the spatial resolution and coverage needed for improving our understanding of air quality. AURA data products useful for air quality monitoring will be given.

  9. Monitoring Puerto Rican avifauna using roadside surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardieck, K.L.; Peterjohn, B.G.; Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997 we began investigating the use of roadside point counts to monitor the long-term status and trends of Puerto Rican bird populations. If such a methodology proves feasible it may provide the empirical data needed for the development of sound conservation plans for the island's avifauna in much the same way that North American Breeding Bird Survey data are used by the avian conservation prioritization process of Partners in Flight, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Canadian Wildlife Service. By the end of the 2003 field season, we will have the data needed to quantitatively evaluate the utility of the program for tracking the population trends of Puerto Rican avifauna. Here we present data from the 2001 and 2002 field seasons to demonstrate the potential utility of these data for quantifying and portraying avian distributions, abundances, and population trend estimates. In 2001, 27 of the 44 available 5-mile roadside routes (11 stops/route) were sampled between 15 April and 15 May. At each stop a 5-minute point count was conducted. The surveys detected 5,471 individuals representing 70 species. Distribution and abundance maps are depicted for seven endemic species. In 2002, 29 routes were sampled. A total of 6,252 individuals was detected representing 79 species. Significantly fewer species and individuals were detected on wet zone routes as compared to moist and dry zone routes.

  10. Comprehensive air quality and meteorological monitoring program. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This data report contains air monitoring results for: total suspended particulates, particulates matter less than 10 micrometers, metals (including arsenic mercury), volatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, semivolatile organic compounds, air compounds, air stripper semivolatile organic compounds, basin F waste pile, pond A, tank farm vents (VOCs).

  11. Current air quality analytics and monitoring: a review.

    PubMed

    Marć, Mariusz; Tobiszewski, Marek; Zabiegała, Bożena; de la Guardia, Miguel; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the different tools and concepts that are commonly applied in air quality monitoring. The monitoring of atmosphere is extremely important as the air quality is an important problem for large communities. Main requirements for analytical devices used for monitoring include a long period of autonomic operation and portability. These instruments, however, are often characterized by poor analytical performance. Monitoring networks are the most common tools used for monitoring, so large-scale monitoring programmes are summarized here. Biomonitoring, as a cheap and convenient alternative to traditional sample collection, is becoming more and more popular, although its main drawback is the lack of standard procedures. Telemonitoring is another approach to air monitoring, which offers some interesting opportunities, such as ease of coverage of large or remote areas, constituting a complementary approach to traditional strategies; however, it requires huge costs.

  12. Compressed Air System Survey at Sierra Army Depot, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    time. Each station uses a paint gun (mostly HVLP guns with a capacity of 5 SCFM are used, but occasionally HPLV guns with a capacity of 8 SCFM may be...SCFM. d. Air release from the two CO monitors for a total of 30 SCFM. e. Occasional application of air guns , one unit at a given time, 5 SCFM...a. This shop used various types of air tools. The major air users in- clude air hammers, drills, sanders, air guns , and impact wrenches. Pneumatic

  13. A quantitative method for optimized placement of continuous air monitors.

    PubMed

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Rodgers, John C; Moxley, John S

    2003-11-01

    Alarming continuous air monitors (CAMs) are a critical component for worker protection in facilities that handle large amounts of hazardous materials. In nuclear facilities, continuous air monitors alarm when levels of airborne radioactive materials exceed alarm thresholds, thus prompting workers to exit the room to reduce inhalation exposures. To maintain a high level of worker protection, continuous air monitors are required to detect radioactive aerosol clouds quickly and with good sensitivity. This requires that there are sufficient numbers of continuous air monitors in a room and that they are well positioned. Yet there are no published methodologies to quantitatively determine the optimal number and placement of continuous air monitors in a room. The goal of this study was to develop and test an approach to quantitatively determine optimal number and placement of continuous air monitors in a room. The method we have developed uses tracer aerosol releases (to simulate accidental releases) and the measurement of the temporal and spatial aspects of the dispersion of the tracer aerosol through the room. The aerosol dispersion data is then analyzed to optimize continuous air monitor utilization based on simulated worker exposure. This method was tested in a room within a Department of Energy operated plutonium facility at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, U.S. Results from this study show that the value of quantitative airflow and aerosol dispersion studies is significant and that worker protection can be significantly improved while balancing the costs associated with CAM programs.

  14. Survey of remote data monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Logee, T.L.; Kendall, P.W.; Pollock, E.O.; Raymond, M.G.; Knapp, R.C. Jr.

    1984-09-01

    A self-contained data-logger device called an SDAS (Site Data Acquisition Subsystem) was built for the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) which could collect analog data from 96 channels, store the data for up to three days, and then transmit the stored data on request to a central facility by voice-grade telephone lines. This system has worked fairly well for the eight years that it has been in service. However, the design and components are getting old and newer dataloggers may be more reliable and accurate and less expensive. This report discusses the results of an extensive search for an SDAS replacement. The survey covered 62 models from 36 manufacturers. These numbers are not indicative of all the dataloggers or manufacturers available, but only those which appeared to have some qualifications for the NSDN datalogger replacement. This report views the datalogger as a system which is made up of sensors, a data acquisition and storage unit, a telecommunications subsystem, and a data processing subsystem. Therefore, there is a section on sensors used in the NSDN, telecommunications technology, and data processing requirements. These four components or subsystems are all necessary in order to have an integrated, successful remote data monitoring network.

  15. Survey of air cargo forecasting techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthan, A. R.; Vermuri, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Forecasting techniques currently in use in estimating or predicting the demand for air cargo in various markets are discussed with emphasis on the fundamentals of the different forecasting approaches. References to specific studies are cited when appropriate. The effectiveness of current methods is evaluated and several prospects for future activities or approaches are suggested. Appendices contain summary type analyses of about 50 specific publications on forecasting, and selected bibliographies on air cargo forecasting, air passenger demand forecasting, and general demand and modalsplit modeling.

  16. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  17. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  18. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  19. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  20. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  1. Guide for Indoor Air Quality Surveys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Influencing Indoor Air Quality ................... 5 Carbon Dioxide and Fresh Air ........................ 6 Relative Humidity...037, A Procedural Guide on Sick Building Syndrome (Liebhaber, 1987), and supplements AFOEHL Report 90-169, Recommended Carbon Dioxide and Relative...symptoms. The causes most implicated in the literature include comfort parameters such as carbon dioxide (C02) concentration, relative humidity

  2. Monitoring of the Atmosphere on the International Space Station with the Air Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Loh, Leslie J.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    During the early years of human spaceflight, short duration missions allowed for monitoring of the spacecraft environment to be performed via archival sampling, in which samples were returned to Earth for analysis. With the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the accompanying extended mission durations, the need for enhanced, real-time monitors became apparent. The Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA) operated on ISS for 7 years, where it assessed trace volatile organic compounds in the cabin air. The large and fixed-position VOA was eventually replaced with the smaller Air Quality Monitor (AQM). Since March 2013, the atmosphere of the U.S. Operating Segment (USOS) has been monitored in near real-time by a pair of AQMs. These devices consist of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) and currently target detection list of 22 compounds. These targets are of importance to both crew health and the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on ISS. Data is collected autonomously every 73 hours, though the units can be controlled remotely from mission control to collect data more frequently during contingency or troubleshooting operations. Due to a nominal three-year lifetime on-orbit, the initial units were replaced in February 2016. This paper will focus on the preparation and use of the AQMs over the past several years. A description of the technical aspects of the AQM will be followed by lessons learned from the deployment and operation of the first set of AQMs. These lessons were used to improve the already-excellent performance of the instruments prior to deployment of the replacement units. Data trending over the past several years of operation on ISS will also be discussed, including data obtained during a survey of the USOS modules. Finally, a description of AQM use for contingency and investigative studies will be presented.

  3. Definition of air quality measurements for monitoring space shuttle launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    A description of a recommended air quality monitoring network to characterize the impact on ambient air quality in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) (area) of space shuttle launch operations is given. Analysis of ground cloud processes and prevalent meteorological conditions indicates that transient HCl depositions can be a cause for concern. The system designed to monitor HCl employs an extensive network of inexpensive detectors combined with a central analysis device. An acid rain network is also recommended. A quantitative measure of projected minimal long-term impact involves the limited monitoring of NOx and particulates. All recommended monitoring is confined ti KSC property.

  4. Next Generation Air Monitoring (NGAM) VOC Sensor Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of next generation air monitor (NGAM) volatile organic compound (VOC) evaluations performed using both laboratory as well as field scale settings. These evaluations focused on challenging lower cost (<$2500) NGAM technologies to either controlle...

  5. Clean Air Markets - Part 75 Emissions Monitoring Policy Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about monitoring mass sulfur dioxide and mass carbon dioxide emissions, nitrogen oxide emission rate, and heat input by units affected by the Acid Rain Program and the Clean Air Interstate Rule.

  6. Special Ceremony Planned to Unveil Innovative Air Quality Monitoring Bench

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Nov. 5, 2015) The Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), the Myriad Botanical Gardens and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will unveil an innovative air quality monitoring park bench during a special ceremony at

  7. Draft Final Ambient Air Monitoring Plan July 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This work plan describes the ambient air sampling program for the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site and presents the locations, sampling strategies, and exposure limits for monitoring remedial activities in the Harbor.

  8. FAST-RESPONSE ISOTOPIC ALPHA CONTINUOUS AIR MONITOR (CAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Keith D. Patch

    2000-04-28

    The objective of this effort is to develop and test a novel Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) instrument for monitoring alpha-emitting radionuclides, using a technology that can be applied to Continuous Emission Monitoring (CEM) of thermal treatment system off gas streams. The CAM instrument will have very high alpha spectral resolution and provide real-time, on-line monitoring suitable for alerting workers of high concentrations of alpha-emitting radionuclides in the ambient air and for improved control of decontamination, dismantlement, and air emission control equipment. Base Phase I involves the design, development, and preliminary testing of a laboratory-scale instrument. Testing will initially be conducted using naturally-occurring radon progeny in ambient air. In the Optional Phase II, the Base Phase I instrument will be critically evaluated at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) with characterized plutonium aerosols; then an improved instrument will be built and field-tested at a suitable DOE site.

  9. WSN based indoor air quality monitoring in classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. K.; Chew, S. P.; Jusoh, M. T.; Khairunissa, A.; Leong, K. Y.; Azid, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Indoor air quality monitoring is essential as the human health is directly affected by indoor air quality. This paper presents the investigations of the impact of undergraduate students' concentration during lecture due to the indoor air quality in classroom. Three environmental parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and concentration of carbon dioxide are measured using wireless sensor network based air quality monitoring system. This simple yet reliable system is incorporated with DHT-11 and MG-811 sensors. Two classrooms were selected to install the monitoring system. The level of indoor air quality were measured and students' concentration was assessed using intelligent test during normal lecturing section. The test showed significant correlation between the collected environmental parameters and the students' level of performances in their study.

  10. Mobile Air Monitoring Data Processing Strategies and Effects on Spatial Air Pollution Trends

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection of real-time air quality measurements while in motion (i.e., mobile monitoring) is currently conducted worldwide to evaluate in situ emissions, local air quality trends, and air pollutant exposure. This measurement strategy pushes the limits of traditional data an...

  11. Journal Article: EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) in June of 1998, and operated it until November of 2004. The objective of NDAMN was to determine background air concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). NDAMN started with 10 sampling sites, adding more over time until the final count of 34 sites was reached by the beginning of 2003. Samples were taken quarterly, and the final sample count was 685. All samples were measured for 17 PCDD/PCDF congeners, 8 PCDD/PCDF homologue groups, and 7 dl-PCBs (note: 5 additional dl-PCBs were added for samples starting in the summer of 2002; 317 samples had measurements of 12 dl-PCBs). The overall average total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration in the United States was 11.2 fg TEQ m−3 with dl-PCBs contributing 0.8 fg TEQ m−3 (7%) to this total. The archetype dioxin and furan background air congener profile was seen in the survey averages and in most individual samples. This archetype profile is characterized by low and similar concentrations for tetra – through hexa PCDD/PCDF congeners, with elevations in four congeners – a hepta dioxin and furan congener, and both octa congeners. Sites were generally categorized as urban (4 sites), rural (23 sites), or remote (7 sites). The average TEQ concentrations over all sites and samples within these cat

  12. DESIGN OF LARGE-SCALE AIR MONITORING NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effects of air pollution on human health have received much attention in recent years. In the U.S. and other countries, there are extensive large-scale monitoring networks designed to collect data to inform the public of exposure risks to air pollution. A major crit...

  13. METHODOLOGY FOR SITING AMBIENT AIR MONITORS AT THE NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In siting a monitor to measure compliance with U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM), there is a need to characterize variations in PM concentration within a neighborhood-scale region in order to achieve monitor siting objectives.

    We p...

  14. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R.

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  15. Airborne survey of major air basins in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloria, H. R.; Bradburn, G.; Reinisch, R. F.; Pitts, J. N., Jr.; Behar, J. V.; Zafonte, L.

    1974-01-01

    An instrumented aircraft was used to study the chemical and transport properties of air pollution in two major urban centers in California and to survey certain aspects of air pollution within this state. State-of-the-art measurement techniques and sampling procedures are discussed. It is found that meteorological transport mechanisms are better portrayed by vertical pollutant profiles. Airborne measurements define the nature of the mixing layer for atmospheric pollutants. Results show that the pollutants are found to be concentrated in distinct layers up to at least 18,000 feet and the O3 buildup occurring in advected air masses is a result of a continuous photochemical aging of air mass.

  16. Infrared Laser System for Extended Area Monitoring of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowman, L. R.; Gillmeister, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution monitoring system using a spectrally scanning laser has been developed by the General Electric Company. This paper will report on an evaluation of a breadboard model, and will discuss applications of the concept to various ambient air monitoring situations. The system is adaptable to other tunable lasers. Operating in the middle infrared region, the system uses retroreflectors to measure average concentrations over long paths at low, safe power levels. The concept shows promise of meeting operational needs in ambient air monitoring and providing new data for atmospheric research.

  17. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-11-04

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  18. Devices and monitoring during neonatal ECMO: survey results.

    PubMed

    Allison, P L; Kurusz, M; Graves, D F; Zwischenberger, J B

    1990-01-01

    A survey of active ECMO centres regarding neonatal ECMO equipment and personnel was obtained by telephone interview in late summer 1989. Forty-seven of the centres in the USA listed in the Ann Arbor ELSO (Extracorporeal Life Support Organization) Registry at the time ( greater than 90%) were contacted and all participated. Nearly all use a roller pump, while less than 5% use a centrifugal pump. All programmes use a SciMed membrane oxygenator and 90% a SciMed heat exchanger. Heat exchanger water sources include the Gaymar T-pump (42%), Seabrook (25%) and Cincinnati Sub-Zero (23%) units. Eighty-seven per cent use a bladder box servo-regulated to the roller pump; these are most often custom-made (69%) but 13% of programmes use a commercially available (Seabrook) bladder box. Ten per cent use a pressure-regulated roller pump rather than a conventional (displacement) bladder box to detect decreases in venous return. Nearly 80% monitor circuit line pressures between the pump and patient. Seventeen per cent use an air bubble detector on the arterial side of the circuit. Only 10% use an arterial bubble trap and 6% an arterial line filter. Seventy-five per cent do not monitor gas line pressures into the membrane lung, but one-third do use a gas line pop-off valve to prevent elevated gas phase pressures. Seventy per cent reported use of continuous in-line measurement of mixed venous oxygen saturation; no programme reported any blood chemistries being monitored in line.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF AUTONOMOUS AIR MONITORING THROUGH ROBOTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous and/or tedious functions are often performed by on-site workers during investigation, mitigation and clean-up of hazardous substances. These functions include site surveys, sampling and analysis, excavation, and treatment and preparation of wastes for shipment to chemic...

  20. Monitoring Indoor Air Quality for Enhanced Occupational Health.

    PubMed

    Pitarma, Rui; Marques, Gonçalo; Ferreira, Bárbara Roque

    2017-02-01

    Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Because people spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, several studies have pointed out the impact of indoor air quality on the etiopathogenesis of a wide number of non-specific symptoms which characterizes the "Sick Building Syndrome", involving the skin, the upper and lower respiratory tract, the eyes and the nervous system, as well as many building related diseases. Thus, indoor air quality (IAQ) is recognized as an important factor to be controlled for the occupants' health and comfort. The majority of the monitoring systems presently available is very expensive and only allow to collect random samples. This work describes the system (iAQ), a low-cost indoor air quality monitoring wireless sensor network system, developed using Arduino, XBee modules and micro sensors, for storage and availability of monitoring data on a web portal in real time. Five micro sensors of environmental parameters (air temperature, humidity, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and luminosity) were used. Other sensors can be added for monitoring specific pollutants. The results reveal that the system can provide an effective indoor air quality assessment to prevent exposure risk. In fact, the indoor air quality may be extremely different compared to what is expected for a quality living environment. Systems like this would have benefit as public health interventions to reduce the burden of symptoms and diseases related to "sick buildings".

  1. The use of video for air pollution source monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, F.; Camara, A.

    1999-07-01

    The evaluation of air pollution impacts from single industrial emission sources is a complex environmental engineering problem. Recent developments in multimedia technologies used by personal computers improved the digitizing and processing of digital video sequences. This paper proposes a methodology where statistical analysis of both meteorological and air quality data combined with digital video images are used for monitoring air pollution sources. One of the objectives of this paper is to present the use of image processing algorithms in air pollution source monitoring. CCD amateur video cameras capture images that are further processed by computer. The use of video as a remote sensing system was implemented with the goal of determining some particular parameters, either meteorological or related with air quality monitoring and modeling of point sources. These parameters include the remote calculation of wind direction, wind speed, gases stack's outlet velocity, and stack's effective emission height. The characteristics and behavior of a visible pollutant's plume is also studied. Different sequences of relatively simple image processing operations are applied to the images gathered by the different cameras to segment the plume. The algorithms are selected depending on the atmospheric and lighting conditions. The developed system was applied to a 1,000 MW fuel power plant located at Setubal, Portugal. The methodology presented shows that digital video can be an inexpensive form to get useful air pollution related data for monitoring and modeling purposes.

  2. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 2, 2015 – November 8, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  3. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 16, 2015 – November 22, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  4. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - October 12, 2015 – October 18, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  5. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - March 7, 2013 - March 13, 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  6. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 30, 2015 – December 6, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  7. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 9, 2015 – November 15, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  8. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - February 1, 2016 – February 7, 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  9. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - October 26, 2015 – November 1, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  10. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - October 5, 2015 – October 11, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  11. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - September 28, 2015 – October 4, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  12. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - February 15, 2016 – February 21, 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  13. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - October 19, 2015 – October 25, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  14. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 23, 2015 – November 29, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  15. Noncontact Monitoring of Respiration by Dynamic Air-Pressure Sensor.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Tohru; Asada, Tetsunosuke; Sumi, Yoshihisa; Higuchi, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that a dynamic air-pressure sensor system allows respiratory status to be visually monitored for patients in minimally clothed condition. The dynamic air-pressure sensor measures vital information using changes in air pressure. To utilize this device in the field, we must clarify the influence of clothing conditions on measurement. The present study evaluated use of the dynamic air-pressure sensor system as a respiratory monitor that can reliably detect change in breathing patterns irrespective of clothing. Twelve healthy volunteers reclined on a dental chair positioned horizontally with the sensor pad for measuring air-pressure signals corresponding to respiration placed on the seat back of the dental chair in the central lumbar region. Respiratory measurements were taken under 2 conditions: (a) thinly clothed (subject lying directly on the sensor pad); and (b) thickly clothed (subject lying on the sensor pad covered with a pressure-reducing sheet). Air-pressure signals were recorded and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration were calculated. This information was compared with expiratory tidal volume measured simultaneously by a respirometer connected to the subject via face mask. The dynamic air-pressure sensor was able to receive the signal corresponding to respiration regardless of clothing conditions. A strong correlation was identified between expiratory tidal volume and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration for all subjects under both clothing conditions (0.840-0.988 for the thinly clothed condition and 0.867-0.992 for the thickly clothed condition). These results show that the dynamic air-pressure sensor is useful for monitoring respiratory physiology irrespective of clothing.

  16. Monitoring human exposure to urban air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Barale, R.; Barrai, I.; Marrazzini, A.

    1993-10-01

    A multidisciplinary study on a general population exposed to vehicle exhaust was undertaken in Pisa in 1991. Environmental factors such as air pollution and those associated with lifestyle were studied. Meanwhile, biological and medical indicators of health condition were investigated. Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronuclei in lymphocytes were included for the assessment of the genotoxic risk. Because of the large number (3800) of subjects being investigated, standardization of protocols was compulsory. The results on data reproducibility are reported. To assess the reliability of the protocol on a large scale, the population of Porto Tolle, a village located in northeast Italy, was studied and compared to a subset of the Pisa population. Preliminary results showed that probable differences between the two populations and individuals were present in terms of SCE frequencies. The study was potentially able to detect the effects of several factors such as age, smoking, genetics, and environment. The in vitro treatment of lymphocytes with diepoxybutane confirmed the presence of more responsive individuals and permitted us to investigate the genetic predisposition to genetic damage. The possible influence of environmental factors was studied by correlation analyses with external exposure to air pollutants as well as with several lifestyle factors. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, Michael; Allen, Shannon P.; Archuleta, Debra C.; Brock, Burgandy; Coronado, Melissa A.; Dewart, Jean M.; Eisele, William F. Jr.; Fuehne, David P.; Gadd, Milan S.; Green, Andrew A.; Lujan, Joan J.; MacDonell, Carolyn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-12

    In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements of airborne radionuclides near Los Alamos during the weeks following March 11. We report air-monitoring measurements of the fission products released from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear-power-plant accident in 2011. Clear gamma-spectrometry peaks were observed from Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, I-131, I132, Te-132, and Te-129m. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides, are adequate for an assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi did not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos. The data demonstrate the capabilities of the Los Alamos air-monitoring systems.

  18. Air Monitoring for Hazardous Gas Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Adams, Frederick W.; Naylor, Guy; Haskell, William; Floyd, David; Curley, Charles; Follistein, Duke W.

    2004-01-01

    The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab (HGDL) at Kennedy Space Center is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and quantify various hazardous gases. Traditionally these systems are designed for leak detection of the cryogenic gases used for the propulsion of the Shuttle and other vehicles. Mass spectrometers are the basis of these systems, which provide excellent quantitation, sensitivity, selectivity, response times and detection limits. A Table lists common gases monitored for aerospace applications. The first five gases, hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon are historically the focus of the HGDL.

  19. Journal Article: the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric CDDs, CDFs and coplanar PCBs at rural and nonimpacted locations throughout the United States. Currently operating at 32 sampling stations, NDAMN has three primary purposes: (1) to determine the atmospheric levels and occurrences of dioxin-like compounds in rural and agricultural areas where livestock, poultry and animal feed crops are grown; (2) to provide measurements of atmospheric levels of dioxin-like compounds in different geographic regions of the U.S.; and (3) to provide information regarding the long-range transport of dioxin-like compounds in air over the U.S. Designed in 1997, NDAMN has been implemented in phases, with the first phase consisting of 9 monitoring stations. Previously EPA has reported on the preliminary results of monitoring at 9 rural locations from June1998 through June 19991. The one-year measurement at the 9 stations indicated an annual mean TEQDF–WHO98 air concentration of 12 fg m-3. Since this reporting, NDAMN has been extended to include additional stations. The following is intended to be an update to this national monitoring effort. We are reporting the air monitoring results of 22 NDAMN stations operational over 9 sampling moments from June 1998 to December 1999. Fifteen stations are in rural areas, and 6 are located in National Parks. One station is located in suburban Wa

  20. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1996-01-01

    Progress and results in the development of an integrated air quality modeling, monitoring, fault detection, and isolation system are presented. The focus was on development of distributed models of the air contaminants transport, the study of air quality monitoring techniques based on the model of transport process and on-line contaminant concentration measurements, and sensor placement. Different approaches to the modeling of spacecraft air contamination are discussed, and a three-dimensional distributed parameter air contaminant dispersion model applicable to both laminar and turbulent transport is proposed. A two-dimensional approximation of a full scale transport model is also proposed based on the spatial averaging of the three dimensional model over the least important space coordinate. A computer implementation of the transport model is considered and a detailed development of two- and three-dimensional models illustrated by contaminant transport simulation results is presented. The use of a well established Kalman filtering approach is suggested as a method for generating on-line contaminant concentration estimates based on both real time measurements and the model of contaminant transport process. It is shown that high computational requirements of the traditional Kalman filter can render difficult its real-time implementation for high-dimensional transport model and a novel implicit Kalman filtering algorithm is proposed which is shown to lead to an order of magnitude faster computer implementation in the case of air quality monitoring.

  1. Feasibility of wake vortex monitoring systems for air terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. J.; Shrider, K. R.; Lawrence, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    Wake vortex monitoring systems, especially those using laser Doppler sensors, were investigated. The initial phases of the effort involved talking with potential users (air traffic controllers, pilots, etc.) of a wake vortex monitoring system to determine system requirements from the user's viewpoint. These discussions involved the volumes of airspace to be monitored for vortices, and potential methods of using the monitored vortex data once the data are available. A subsequent task led to determining a suitable mathematical model of the vortex phenomena and developing a mathematical model of the laser Doppler sensor for monitoring the vortex flow field. The mathematical models were used in combination to help evaluate the capability of laser Doppler instrumentation in monitoring vortex flow fields both in the near vicinity of the sensor (within 1 kilometer and at long ranges(10 kilometers).

  2. Air Force Engineering and Services Laboratory Herbicide Orange Monitoring Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Air Force leaders with the latest available cata in the continuing environmental monitoring and evaluation studies at these critical sites... monitoring and evaluation studies ot areas on Johnston Island, the Naval Construction Battalion Center, and Eglin APB, previously used for the... and evaluation program by collecting samples from NCBC, JI, and Eglin AFB on a semiannual basis. This report summarizes the data on samples collected

  3. Air quality monitoring in NIS (SERBIA) and health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Nikic, Dragana; Bogdanovic, Dragan; Nikolic, Maja; Stankovic, Aleksandra; Zivkovic, Nenad; Djordjevic, Amelija

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to indicate the significance of air quality monitoring and to determine the air quality fields for the assessment of air pollution health effects, with special attention to risk population. Radial basis function network was used for air quality index mapping. Between 1991 and 2005, on the territory of Nis, several epidemiological studies were performed on risk groups (pre-school children, school children, pregnant women and persons older than 65). The total number of subjects was 5837. The exposed group comprised individuals living in the areas with unhealthy AQI, while the control group comprised individuals living in city areas with good or moderate AQI. It was determined that even relatively low levels of air pollution had impact on respiratory system and the occurrence of anaemia, allergy and skin symptoms.

  4. Kuwaiti oil fires — Air quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Mohamed B.; Husain, Tahir

    Just before the Gulf War was concluded in early March 1991, more than 700 wells in Kuwaiti oil fields were set on fire. About 6 million barrels per day of oil were lost in flames and a large number of pools and lakes were formed. Burning wells in Kuwait emitted several thousand tons of gases such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and the oxides of nitrogen, as well as particulate matter, on a daily basis containing partially burned hydrocarbons and metals, all of which were potential for affecting human health and vegetation growth. This paper summarizes the real-time measurements of various gaseous pollutants in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia in Dhahran, Abqaiq, Rahimah, Jubail and Tanajib. The statistics on monthly variation of gaseous pollutants showed that pollution concentration in general was high in May 1991. The levels of typical pollutants such as sulfur dioxide (SO 2), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) in the ambient air were much lower than the permissible limits defined in the Meteorology and Environmental Protection Agency (MEPA) standards. The pollutants measured during the Kuwaiti Oil Fires were compared with the corresponding values measured in the previous year. The comparison shows that although the concentration of gaseous pollutants were within the MEPA limits, during the period of oil well fires, the concentration level increased persistently which might have been harmful for human health. The harmful effects of the major pollutants on human health and vegetation are also briefly discussed in the paper.

  5. Battery peak charge voltage monitor for dual air density satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    A battery peak charge voltage monitor was developed for use on the dual air density satellite (DADS). This device retains a reading of the maximum voltage reached by the spacecraft battery during periods of charging, and makes it available during periods of data transmission. The monitor is connected across the battery and operates solely from the battery; it is powered continuously with quiescent input current of only 3 milliamperes. Standard integrated circuits and a thin-film resistor network are utilized. The monitor occupies approximately 40 square centimeters of a printed-circuit board within a larger electronic package.

  6. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section 868.2025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a patient's blood stream. It may use Doppler or other ultrasonic principles. (b)...

  7. Monitoring of air pollution by plants methods and problems

    SciTech Connect

    Steubing, L.; Jager, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Ecosystem pollution is often discovered too late for preventive measure to be implemented. Papers include the topics of methods and problems of bioindication of air pollution. The participants discussed passive and active biological monitoring, including mapping of natural vegetation (lichens and mosses, for example) and plant exposure. Morphological and microscopical studies, chemical, physiological and biochemical investigations are presented.

  8. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Control of air contaminants is a crucial factor in the safety considerations of crewed space flight. Indoor air quality needs to be closely monitored during long range missions such as a Mars mission, and also on large complex space structures such as the International Space Station. This work mainly pertains to the detection and simulation of air contaminants in the space station, though much of the work is easily extended to buildings, and issues of ventilation systems. Here we propose a method with which to track the presence of contaminants using an accurate physical model, and also develop a robust procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. A part of this research concerns the modeling of air flow inside a spacecraft, and the consequent dispersal pattern of contaminants. Our objective is to also monitor the contaminants on-line, so we develop a state estimation procedure that makes use of the measurements from a sensor system and determines an optimal estimate of the contamination in the system as a function of time and space. The real-time optimal estimates in turn are used to detect faults in the system and also offer diagnoses as to their sources. This work is concerned with the monitoring of air contaminants aboard future generation spacecraft and seeks to satisfy NASA's requirements as outlined in their Strategic Plan document (Technology Development Requirements, 1996).

  9. Do conventional monitoring practices indicate in situ air sparging performance?

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.C.; Johnson, R.L.; Neaville, C.; Hansen, E.E.; Stearns, S.M.; Dortch, I.J.

    1995-12-31

    Short-term pilot tests play a key role in the selection and design of in situ air sparging systems. Most pilot tests are less than 24 h in duration and consist of monitoring changes in dissolved oxygen, water levels in wells, soil gas pressures, and soil gas contaminant concentrations while air is injected into the aquifer. These parameters are assumed to be indicators of air sparging feasibility and performance, and are also used in the design of full-scale systems. In this work the authors assess the validity of this critical assumption. Data are presented from a study site where a typical pilot-scale short-term test was conducted, followed by continued operation of a full-scale system for 110 days. Conventional sampling practices were augmented with more discrete and detailed assessment methods. In addition, a tracer gas was used to better understand air distributions, vapor flow paths, and vapor recovery efficiency. The data illustrate that conclusions regarding the performance and applicability of air sparging at the study site vary significantly depending on the monitoring approach used. There was no clear correlation between short-term pilot-test data and extended system performance when using data collected only from conventional groundwater monitoring wells. Attention is focused on petroleum hydrocarbons.

  10. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient Air Quality Monitoring... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App. C Appendix C to Part 58—Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology 1.0 Purpose 2.0 SLAMS Ambient Air Monitoring Stations 3.0 NCore Ambient...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient Air Quality Monitoring... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App. C Appendix C to Part 58—Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology 1.0 Purpose 2.0 SLAMS Ambient Air Monitoring Stations 3.0 NCore Ambient...

  12. Toward the Next Generation of Air Quality Monitoring Indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Angel; Reuben, Aaron; Shindell, Drew; deSherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an initiative to bridge the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution with the needs of policymakers and stakeholders to design the "next generation" of air quality indicators. As a first step this initiative assesses current monitoring and modeling associated with a number of important pollutants with an eye toward identifying knowledge gaps and scientific needs that are a barrier to reducing air pollution impacts on human and ecosystem health across the globe. Four outdoor air pollutants were considered e particulate matter, ozone, mercury, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) e because of their clear adverse impacts on human and ecosystem health and because of the availability of baseline data for assessment for each. While other papers appearing in this issue will address each pollutant separately, this paper serves as a summary of the initiative and presents recommendations for needed investments to provide improved measurement, monitoring, and modeling data for policyrelevant indicators. The ultimate goal of this effort is to enable enhanced public policy responses to air pollution by linking improved data and measurement methods to decision-making through the development of indicators that can allow policymakers to better understand the impacts of air pollution and, along with source attribution based on modeling and measurements, facilitate improved policies to solve it. The development of indicators represents a crucial next step in this process.

  13. Citizen Science Air Monitoring in the Ironbound Community ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) mission is to protect human health and the environment. To move toward achieving this goal, EPA is facilitating identification of potential environmental concerns, particularly in vulnerable communities. This includes actively supporting citizen science projects and providing communities with the information and assistance they need to conduct their own air pollution monitoring efforts. The Air Sensor Toolbox for Citizen Scientists1 was developed as a resource to meet stakeholder needs. Examples of materials developed for the Toolbox and ultimately pilot tested in the Ironbound Community in Newark, New Jersey are reported here. The Air Sensor Toolbox for Citizen Scientists is designed as an online resource that provides information and guidance on new, low-cost compact technologies used for measuring air quality. The Toolbox features resources developed by EPA researchers that can be used by citizens to effectively collect, analyze, interpret, and communicate air quality data. The resources include information about sampling methods, how to calibrate and validate monitors, options for measuring air quality, data interpretation guidelines, and low-cost sensor performance information. This Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) project provided an opportunity for the Office of Research and Development (ORD) to work collaboratively with EPA Region 2 to provide the Ironbound Community with a “Toolbox” specific for c

  14. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Angel; Reuben, Aaron; Shindell, Drew; de Sherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces an initiative to bridge the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution with the needs of policymakers and stakeholders to design the “next generation” of air quality indicators. As a first step this initiative assesses current monitoring and modeling associated with a number of important pollutants with an eye toward identifying knowledge gaps and scientific needs that are a barrier to reducing air pollution impacts on human and ecosystem health across the globe. Four outdoor air pollutants were considered - particulate matter, ozone, mercury, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) - because of their clear adverse impacts on human and ecosystem health and because of the availability of baseline data for assessment for each. While other papers appearing in this issue will address each pollutant separately, this paper serves as a summary of the initiative and presents recommendations for needed investments to provide improved measurement, monitoring, and modeling data for policy-relevant indicators. The ultimate goal of this effort is to enable enhanced public policy responses to air pollution by linking improved data and measurement methods to decision-making through the development of indicators that can allow policymakers to better understand the impacts of air pollution and, along with source attribution based on modeling and measurements, facilitate improved policies to solve it. The development of indicators represents a crucial next step in this process.

  15. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

  16. Aerosol deposition and losses in two alpha air monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

    1985-11-27

    We assessed particle deposition and loss occurring in two alpha-air monitors: an Eberline Alpha-3 Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) and a working-area transuranic aerosol monitor (WOTAMS). We investigated the dependence of particle size on losses in the sampling inlets and the real-time alpha detector areas for both instruments. We determined the uniformity of particle deposition on the filter to ascertain the effectiveness of the detector and collection-filter configuration. Results indicate that particle losses are a strong function of particle size in the CAM unit, with a 44% loss occurring for 6-..mu..m-diameter aerosols and a 0.3% loss for 0.6-..mu..m-diameter aerosols. Losses in the WOTAMS were less than 1% for particle diameters in the 0.6-to-7 ..mu..m range.

  17. Comparison of exposure estimation methods for air pollutants: ambient monitoring data and regional air quality simulation.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Fuentes, Montserrat; Zhang, Yang; Burr, Michael J; Bell, Michelle L

    2012-07-01

    Air quality modeling could potentially improve exposure estimates for use in epidemiological studies. We investigated this application of air quality modeling by estimating location-specific (point) and spatially-aggregated (county level) exposure concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) and ozone (O(3)) for the eastern U.S. in 2002 using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and a traditional approach using ambient monitors. The monitoring approach produced estimates for 370 and 454 counties for PM(2.5) and O(3), respectively. Modeled estimates included 1861 counties, covering 50% more population. The population uncovered by monitors differed from those near monitors (e.g., urbanicity, race, education, age, unemployment, income, modeled pollutant levels). CMAQ overestimated O(3) (annual normalized mean bias=4.30%), while modeled PM(2.5) had an annual normalized mean bias of -2.09%, although bias varied seasonally, from 32% in November to -27% in July. Epidemiology may benefit from air quality modeling, with improved spatial and temporal resolution and the ability to study populations far from monitors that may differ from those near monitors. However, model performance varied by measure of performance, season, and location. Thus, the appropriateness of using such modeled exposures in health studies depends on the pollutant and metric of concern, acceptable level of uncertainty, population of interest, study design, and other factors.

  18. SAMIRA - SAtellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nicolae, Doina; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellites, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. Despite considerable improvements in the past decades, Europe is still far from achieving levels of air quality that do not pose unacceptable hazards to humans and the environment. Main concerns in Europe are exceedances of particulate matter (PM), ground-level ozone, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While overall sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have decreased in recent years, regional concentrations can still be high in some areas. The objectives of SAMIRA are to improve algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from SEVIRI, and to develop robust methods for deriving column- and near-surface PM maps for the study area by combining satellite AOD with information from regional models. The benefit to existing monitoring networks (in situ, models, satellite) by combining these datasets using data fusion methods will be tested for satellite-based NO2, SO2, and PM/AOD. Furthermore, SAMIRA will test and apply techniques for downscaling air quality-related EO products to a spatial resolution that is more in line with what is generally required for studying urban and regional scale air quality. This will be demonstrated for a set of study sites that include the capitals of the four countries and the highly polluted areas along the border of Poland and the

  19. Automatic electrochemical ambient air monitor for chloride and chlorine

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, Theodore R.

    1976-07-13

    An electrochemical monitoring system has been provided for determining chloride and chlorine in air at levels of from about 10-1000 parts per billion. The chloride is determined by oxidation to chlorine followed by reduction to chloride in a closed system. Chlorine is determined by direct reduction at a platinum electrode in 6 M H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 electrolyte. A fully automated system is utilized to (1) acquire and store a value corresponding to electrolyte-containing impurities, (2) subtract this value from that obtained in the presence of air, (3) generate coulometrically a standard sample of chlorine mixed with air sample, and determine it as chlorine and/or chloride, and (4) calculate, display, and store for permanent record the ratio of the signal obtained from the air sample and that obtained with the standard.

  20. Heart-rate monitoring by air pressure and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Naoki; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2011-06-01

    Among lots of vital signals, heart-rate (HR) is an important index for diagnose human's health condition. For instance, HR provides an early stage of cardiac disease, autonomic nerve behavior, and so forth. However, currently, HR is measured only in medical checkups and clinical diagnosis during the rested state by using electrocardiograph (ECG). Thus, some serious cardiac events in daily life could be lost. Therefore, a continuous HR monitoring during 24 hours is desired. Considering the use in daily life, the monitoring should be noninvasive and low intrusive. Thus, in this paper, an HR monitoring in sleep by using air pressure sensors is proposed. The HR monitoring is realized by employing the causal analysis among air pressure and HR. The causality is described by employing fuzzy logic. According to the experiment on 7 males at age 22-25 (23 on average), the correlation coefficient against ECG is 0.73-0.97 (0.85 on average). In addition, the cause-effect structure for HR monitoring is arranged by employing causal decomposition, and the arranged causality is applied to HR monitoring in a setting posture. According to the additional experiment on 6 males, the correlation coefficient is 0.66-0.86 (0.76 on average). Therefore, the proposed method is suggested to have enough accuracy and robustness for some daily use cases.

  1. Journal Article: the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In June, 1998, the U.S. EPA established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN). The primary goal of NDAMN is determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric CDDs, CDFs, and coplanar PCBs at rural and nonimpacted locations throughout the United States. Currently operating at 32 sampling stations, NDAMN has three primary purposes: (1) to determine the atmospheric levels and occurrences of dioxin-like compounds in rural and agricultural areas where livestock, poultry and animal feed crops are grown; (2) to provide measurements of atmospheric levels of dioxin-like compounds in different geographic regions of the U.S.; and (3) to provide information regarding the long-range transport of dioxin-like compounds in air over the U.S. At Dioxin 2000, we reported on the preliminary results of monitoring at 9 rural locations from June 1998 through June 1999. By the end of 1999, NDAMN had expanded to 21 sampling stations. Then, at Dioxin 2001, we reported the results of the first 18 months of operation of NDAMN at 15 rural and 6 National Park stations in the United States. The following is intended to be an update to this national monitoring effort. We are reporting the air monitoring results of 17 rural and 8 National Park NDAMN stations operational over 4 sampling moments during calendar year 2000. Two stations located in suburban Washington DC and San Francisco, CA are more urban in character and serve as an indicator of CDD/F and cop

  2. Dynamic Monitoring of Cleanroom Fallout Using an Air Particle Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Radford

    2011-01-01

    The particle fallout limitations and periodic allocations for the James Webb Space Telescope are very stringent. Standard prediction methods are complicated by non-linearity and monitoring methods that are insufficiently responsive. A method for dynamically predicting the particle fallout in a cleanroom using air particle counter data was determined by numerical correlation. This method provides a simple linear correlation to both time and air quality, which can be monitored in real time. The summation of effects provides the program better understanding of the cleanliness and assists in the planning of future activities. Definition of fallout rates within a cleanroom during assembly and integration of contamination-sensitive hardware, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, is essential for budgeting purposes. Balancing the activity levels for assembly and test with the particle accumulation rate is paramount. The current approach to predicting particle fallout in a cleanroom assumes a constant air quality based on the rated class of a cleanroom, with adjustments for projected work or exposure times. Actual cleanroom class can also depend on the number of personnel present and the type of activities. A linear correlation of air quality and normalized particle fallout was determined numerically. An air particle counter (standard cleanroom equipment) can be used to monitor the air quality on a real-time basis and determine the "class" of the cleanroom (per FED-STD-209 or ISO-14644). The correlation function provides an area coverage coefficient per class-hour of exposure. The prediction of particle accumulations provides scheduling inputs for activity levels and cleanroom class requirements.

  3. Surveying and monitoring for vulnerability assessment of an ancient building.

    PubMed

    Fregonese, Luigi; Barbieri, Gaia; Biolzi, Luigi; Bocciarelli, Massimiliano; Frigeri, Aronne; Taffurelli, Laura

    2013-07-31

    This paper examines how surveying and monitoring improve our knowledge about ancient buildings, allow the interpretation of their structural response and help in the search for the best solutions for their conservation. The case study of Palazzo del Capitano in Mantua (Italy) is analyzed. In particular, the attention is focused on the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) for surveying and monitoring too, considering that the building structural control has been performed in combination with other traditional topographic techniques such as geometric leveling and topographic networks for 3D control based on measurements through total stations. The study of TLS monitoring has been tested only in the last decade and it is an innovative method for the detection of displacements of particular surfaces. Till now the research has focused only on the use of TLS monitoring to control large structures and in particular landscape situations; thus its use for a civil construction and historical buildings is a new field of investigation. Despite the fact technological development and new methodologies seem offer new future potential for the analysis of ancient buildings, currently there are still important limits for the application of the investigated surveying and monitoring techniques.

  4. Surveying and Monitoring for Vulnerability Assessment of an Ancient Building

    PubMed Central

    Fregonese, Luigi; Barbieri, Gaia; Biolzi, Luigi; Bocciarelli, Massimiliano; Frigeri, Aronne; Taffurelli, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how surveying and monitoring improve our knowledge about ancient buildings, allow the interpretation of their structural response and help in the search for the best solutions for their conservation. The case study of Palazzo del Capitano in Mantua (Italy) is analyzed. In particular, the attention is focused on the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) for surveying and monitoring too, considering that the building structural control has been performed in combination with other traditional topographic techniques such as geometric leveling and topographic networks for 3D control based on measurements through total stations. The study of TLS monitoring has been tested only in the last decade and it is an innovative method for the detection of displacements of particular surfaces. Till now the research has focused only on the use of TLS monitoring to control large structures and in particular landscape situations; thus its use for a civil construction and historical buildings is a new field of investigation. Despite the fact technological development and new methodologies seem offer new future potential for the analysis of ancient buildings, currently there are still important limits for the application of the investigated surveying and monitoring techniques. PMID:23912425

  5. SNRB{trademark} air toxics monitoring. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is currently conducting a project under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT II) Program to demonstrate its SO{sub x}NO{sub x}-Rox Box{trademark} (SNRB{trademark}) process in a 5 MWe Field Demonstration Unit at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio. The objective of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project was to provide data on SNRB{trademark} air toxics emissions control performance to B&W and to add to the DOE/EPRI/EPA data base by quantifying the flow rates of selected hazardous substances (or air toxics) in all of the major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} process as well as the power plant. Work under the project included the collection and analysis of representative samples of all major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} demonstration unit and the power plant, and the subsequent laboratory analysis of these samples to determine the partitioning of the hazardous substances between the various process streams. Material balances for selected air toxics were subsequently calculated around the SNRB{trademark} and host boiler systems, including the removal efficiencies across each of the major air pollution control devices. This report presents results of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project. In addition to the Introduction, a brief description of the test site, including the Boiler No. 8 and the SNRB{trademark} process, is included in Section H. The concentrations of air toxic emissions are presented in Section II according to compound class. Material balances are included in Section IV for three major systems: boiler, electrostatic precipitator, and SNRB{trademark}. Emission factors and removal efficiencies are also presented according to compound class in Sections V and VI, respectively. A data evaluation is provided in Section VII.

  6. Protocols of radiocontaminant air monitoring for inhalation exposure estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1995-09-01

    Monitoring the plutonium and americium particle emissions from soils contaminated during atmospheric nuclear testing or due to accidental releases is important for several reasons. First, it is important to quantify the extent of potential human exposure from inhalation of alpha-emitting particles, which is the major exposure pathway from transuranic radionuclides. Second, the information provided by resuspension monitoring is the basis of criteria that determine the target soil concentrations for management and cleanup of contaminated soil sites. There are other radioactive aerosols, such as the fission products (cesium and strontium) and neutron-activation products (europium isotopes), which may be resuspended and therefore necessary to monitor as well. This Standard Protocol (SP) provides the method used for radiocontaminant air monitoring by the Health and Ecological Assessment Division (formerly Environmental Sciences Division), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, as developed and tested at Nevada Test Site (NTS) and in the Marshall Islands. The objective of this SP is to document the applications and methods of monitoring of all the relevant variables. This protocol deals only with measuring air concentrations of radionuclides and total suspended particulates (TSP, or {open_quotes}dust{close_quotes}). A separate protocol presents the more difficult measurements required to determine transuranic aerosol emission rates, or {open_quotes}resuspension rate{close_quotes}.

  7. A survey on wearable biosensor systems for health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pantelopoulos, Alexandros; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    2008-01-01

    Wearable biosensor systems for health monitoring are an emerging trend and are expected to enable proactive personal health management and better treatment of various medical conditions. These systems, comprising various types of small physiological sensors, transmission modules and processing capabilities, promise to change the future of health care, by providing low-cost wearable unobtrusive solutions for continuous all-day and any-place health, mental and activity status monitoring. This paper presents a comprehensive survey on the research and development done so far on wearable biosensor systems for health-monitoring, by comparing a variety of current system implementations and approaches and identifying their technological shortcomings. A set of significant features, that best describe the functionality and the characteristics of wearable biosensor systems, has been selected to derive a thorough study. The aim of this survey is not to criticize, but to serve as a reference for current achievements and their maturity level and to provide direction for future research improvements.

  8. Surveying air traffic control specialist perception of scheduling regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Darrius E.

    While there have been several studies conducted on air traffic controller fatigue, there is a lack of research on the subject since the scheduling policy changes that took place in 2012. The effectiveness of these changes has yet to be measured. The goal of this study was to investigate air traffic control specialist views towards the number of hours scheduled between shifts, changes in perception since 2012 regulation changes, and external factors that impact fatigue. A total of 54 FAA air traffic control specialist completed an online questionnaire. The results from the survey showed that the majority of respondents felt the 2012 regulation changes were not sufficient to address fatigue issues, and work with some amount sleep deprivation. The factors that appeared to have the most significant effect on fatigue included facility level, age group, availability of recuperative breaks, and children under 18 in the home.

  9. Preliminary draft: comprehensive air-monitoring plan report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-15

    The topography of the CAMP Study Area, climate, and air pollution meteorology are described. The population analysis indicated limited growth during the next 10 years in the CAMP Study Area. Analysis of emission sources (current and projected) included a presentation of the types of emissions and their impact on the Study Area population (receptors). The general conclusion was drawn that of the non-condensible gases emitted, and considered pollutants, hydrogen sulfide was the only one for which monitoring would be recommended. Recommendations for type, placement, performance criteria, and the timing of establishment and terminating monitoring equipment were determined.

  10. Fiber optic sensors for structural health monitoring of air platforms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Mrad, Nezih; Yao, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided.

  11. Fiber Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Air Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Mrad, Nezih; Yao, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided. PMID:22163816

  12. Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring: Factors Affecting Network Design and Interpretation of Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing number of health studies identifying adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near large roadways has increased the interest in monitoring air quality in this microenvironment. Designing near-road air monitoring networks or interpret...

  13. Monitoring gray wolf populations using multiple survey methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ausband, David E.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Zager, Pete; Miller, David A.W.; Waits, Lisette P.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Mack, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral patterns and large territories of large carnivores make them challenging to monitor. Occupancy modeling provides a framework for monitoring population dynamics and distribution of territorial carnivores. We combined data from hunter surveys, howling and sign surveys conducted at predicted wolf rendezvous sites, and locations of radiocollared wolves to model occupancy and estimate the number of gray wolf (Canis lupus) packs and individuals in Idaho during 2009 and 2010. We explicitly accounted for potential misidentification of occupied cells (i.e., false positives) using an extension of the multi-state occupancy framework. We found agreement between model predictions and distribution and estimates of number of wolf packs and individual wolves reported by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Nez Perce Tribe from intensive radiotelemetry-based monitoring. Estimates of individual wolves from occupancy models that excluded data from radiocollared wolves were within an average of 12.0% (SD = 6.0) of existing statewide minimum counts. Models using only hunter survey data generally estimated the lowest abundance, whereas models using all data generally provided the highest estimates of abundance, although only marginally higher. Precision across approaches ranged from 14% to 28% of mean estimates and models that used all data streams generally provided the most precise estimates. We demonstrated that an occupancy model based on different survey methods can yield estimates of the number and distribution of wolf packs and individual wolf abundance with reasonable measures of precision. Assumptions of the approach including that average territory size is known, average pack size is known, and territories do not overlap, must be evaluated periodically using independent field data to ensure occupancy estimates remain reliable. Use of multiple survey methods helps to ensure that occupancy estimates are robust to weaknesses or changes in any 1 survey method

  14. Monitoring temporal trends of air pollution in an urban area using mosses and lichens as biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Gerdol, Renato; Marchesini, Roberta; Iacumin, Paola; Brancaleoni, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring air quality by using living organisms as biomonitors has received increasing attention in recent years. However, rather few studies were based on the concomitant use of passive biomonitoring (based on the different sensitivity of living organisms to air pollution) and active biomonitoring (based on their capacity to accumulate pollutants in the tissues). We carried out a repeated survey of an urban area in Northern Italy, with the objective of comparing temporal trends of different kinds of air pollutants with bioindication (passive biomonitoring) and bioaccumulation (active biomonitoring) techniques. During a five-year interval, temporal patterns of moss metal concentrations underwent significant changes probably due to intercurring variations in the importance of different pollution sources. Nitrogen (N) concentration in moss tissues also decreased and was paralleled by increasing diversity of epiphytic lichens. Increasing δ(15)N in moss tissues suggested a higher contribution of oxidized N species compared with reduced N species.

  15. Ambient air monitoring to support HLW repository site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Fransioli, P.M.; Dixon, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    Site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site includes an ambient air quality and meteorological monitoring program to provide information for environmental and site characterization issues. The program is designed to provide data for four basic purposes: Atmospheric dispersion calculations to estimate impacts of possible airborne releases of radiological material; Engineering design and extreme weather event characterization; Local climate studies for environmental impact analyses and climate characterization; and, Air quality permits required for site characterization work. The program is compiling a database that will provide the basis for analyses and reporting related to the purposes of the program. Except for reporting particulate matter and limited meteorological data to the State of Nevada for an air quality permit condition, the data have yet to be formally analyzed and reported.

  16. River Corridor Project Workplace Air Monitoring Technical Basis

    SciTech Connect

    MANTOOTH, D.S.

    2001-01-17

    This document provides the technical basis by which the workplace air monitoring and sampling program is operated in the River Corridor Project (RCP). Revision 2 addresses and incorporates changes in the air monitoring program drivers and implementing documents which occurred after the previous revision was issued. This revision also includes an additional RCP project to make Revision 2 applicable to the entire RCP. These changes occurred in the following areas: (1) Changes resulting from the conversion of the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1) into the Project Hanford Radiological Control Manual (F-5173). HNF-5173 is now the implementing document for 10CFR835. (2) Changes resulting from the issue of new and revised Hanford Site implementing procedures. (3) Changes resulting from the issue of new and revised, as well as the cancellation of RCP implementing procedures. (4) Addition of the 200 Area Accelerated Deactivation Project (ADP). (5) Modification of some air sampling/monitoring locations to better meet the needs of facility operations. (6) Changes resulting from the RCP reorganization.

  17. Development of a field-portable air monitor for Lewisite

    SciTech Connect

    Aldstadt, J.H.; Martin, A.F.; Olson, D.C. |

    1996-03-01

    The focus of this research is the development of a prototype field-portable ambient-air monitor for measuring trace levels of volatile organoarsenicals. Lewisite (dichloro[2-chlorovinyl]arsine) is a chemical warfare agent developed during World War I and stockpiled on a large scale by the former Soviet Union. A continuous air monitor for Lewisite at the eight-hour time-weighted-average concentration (3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) is necessary to protect the safety and health of arms control treaty inspectors. Flow injection is used to integrate an air sampling device based on liquid-phase extraction with a flow-through detector based on potentiometric stripping analysis. We describe a method for the sampling and preconcentration of organoarsenicals from ambient air by using a gas permeation membrane sampler. The sampler is designed to selectively preconcentrate analyte that permeates a silicone rubber membrane into a caustic carrier stream. Instrument design is described for the sampling and detection methodologies.

  18. Urgent problems of improving background air pollution monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Berlyand, M E; Volberg, N S; Lavrinenko, R F; Rusina, E N

    1988-01-01

    For more than 12 years, systematic observations of background air pollution have been carried out in accordance with the WMO Programme using the network of USSR stations located in sparsely populated settlements and in a number of neighbouring cities. The parameters involved include spectral radiation measurements, determination of chemical composition of precipitation and the concentrations of a number of atmospheric pollutants. Analysis of the data obtained allows conclusions to be drawn on the capabilities of the current system and to evaluate methods of improving it.In order to further improve the monitoring system, it is recommended that the system should perform the same observations on air pollution and precipitation as carried out by other international and national programs, and also to create centralized laboratories to deal with the analysis of samples from these monitoring stations. Additionally, solid sorbents are emerging as an effective means of sampling certain air pollutants. They may be sent by post, they increase the accuracy of measurements and allow air sampling intervals of up to 7-10 days, thus synchronizing this period with the interval of precipitation sampling.

  19. Monitored summer peak attic air temperatures in Florida residences

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.S.; Sherwin, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has analyzed measured summer attic air temperature data taken for some 21 houses (three with two different roof configurations) over the last several years. The analysis is in support of the calculation within ASHRAE Special Project 152P, which will be used to estimate duct system conductance gains that are exposed to the attic space. Knowledge of prevailing attic thermal conditions are critical to the duct heat transfer calculations for estimation of impacts on residential cooling system sizing. The field data were from a variety of residential monitoring projects that were classified according to intrinsic differences in roofing configurations and characteristics. The sites were occupied homes spread around the state of Florida. There were a variety of different roofing construction types, roof colors, and ventilation configurations. Data at each site were obtained from June 1 to September 30 according to the ASHRAE definition of summer. The attic air temperature and ambient air temperature were used for the data analysis. The attic air temperature was measured with a shielded type-T thermocouple at mid-attic height, halfway between the decking and insulation surface. The ambient air temperature was obtained at each site by thermocouples located inside a shielded exterior enclosure at a 3 to 4 m (10--12 ft) height. The summer 15-minute data from each site were sorted by the average ambient air temperature into the top 2.5% of the observations of the highest temperature. Within this limited group of observations, the average outside air temperature, attic air temperature, and coincident difference were reported.

  20. U.S. EPA, Air District Unveil Air Monitor at Busiest US-Mexico Border Crossing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The monitor measures PM 2.5 (fine particulate matter up to 2.5 microns in diameter), which can result in negative health effects when inhaled. The device, which begins operating today, will be used to collect real time data on the levels of air pollutants

  1. Topographic and spatial impacts of temperature inversions on air quality using mobile air pollution surveys.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Julie; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the spatial and topographic effects of temperature inversions on air quality in the industrial city of Hamilton, located at the western tip of Lake Ontario, Canada. The city is divided by a 90-m high topographic scarp, the Niagara Escarpment, and dissected by valleys which open towards Lake Ontario. Temperature inversions occur frequently in the cooler seasons, exacerbating the impact of emissions from industry and traffic. This study used pollution data gathered from mobile monitoring surveys conducted over a 3-year period, to investigate whether the effects of the inversions varied across the city. Temperature inversions were identified with vertical temperature data from a meteorological tower located within the study area. We divided the study area into an upper and lower zone separated by the Escarpment and further into six zones, based on location with respect to the Escarpment and industrial and residential areas, to explore variations across the city. The results identified clear differences in the responses of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to temperature inversions, based on the topographic and spatial criteria. We found that pollution levels increased as the inversion strengthened, in the lower city. However, the results also suggested that temperature inversions identified in the lower city were not necessarily experienced in the upper city with the same intensity. Further, pollution levels in the upper city appeared to decrease as the inversion deepened in the lower city, probably because of an associated change in prevailing wind direction and lower wind speeds, leading to decreased long-range transport of pollutants.

  2. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... monitoring agencies under the requirements of 40 CFR part 58, Ambient Air Quality Surveillance. For such..., Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Program'' EPA-454/B-08-003, December, 2008. Provisions...

  3. The TOMPs ambient air monitoring network - Continuous data on UK air quality for over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Graf, Carola; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Long-term air monitoring datasets are needed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess the effectiveness of source abatement measures and the factors controlling ambient levels. The Toxic Organic Micro Pollutants (TOMPs) Network, which has operated since 1991, collects ambient air samples at six sites across England and Scotland, using high-volume active air samplers. The network provides long-term ambient air trend data for a range of POPs at both urban and rural locations. Data from the network provides the UK Government, regulators and researchers with valuable information on emission/source controls and on the effectiveness of international chemicals regulation such as the Stockholm Convention and UN/ECE Protocol on POPs. The target chemicals of TOMPs have been polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and, since 2010, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The continuous monitoring of these compounds demonstrates the constant decline in UK air concentrations over the last two decades, with average clearance rates for PCDD/Fs in urban locations of 5.1 years and for PCBs across all sites 6.6 years. No significant declines in rural locations for PCDD/Fs have been observed. There is a strong observable link between the declining ambient air concentrations and the emission reductions estimated in the annually produced National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) dataset. These findings clearly demonstrate the unique strengths of long-term consistent datasets for the evaluation of the success of chemical regulation and control.

  4. 75 FR 51039 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... for Air Pollution Measurement Systems, Volume I,'' EPA/600/R-94/038a and ``Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement Systems, Volume II, Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Program'' EPA-454/B... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent...

  5. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... for Air Pollution Measurement Systems, Volume I,'' EPA/600/R-94/038a and ``Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement Systems, Volume II, Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Program'' EPA-454/B... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New...

  6. 76 FR 62402 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... for Air Pollution Measurement Systems, Volume I,'' EPA/600/R-94/038a and ``Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement Systems, Volume II, Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Program,'' EPA-454/B... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 23. Hughes, E.E. Development of Standard Reference Material for Air Quality Measurement. ISA... Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring E Appendix E to Part 58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App....

  8. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Material for Air Quality Measurement. ISA Transactions, 14:281-291, 1975. 24. Altshuller, A.D. and A.G... Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring E Appendix E to Part 58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App....

  9. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 23. Hughes, E.E. Development of Standard Reference Material for Air Quality Measurement. ISA... Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring E Appendix E to Part 58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App....

  10. Comparison of continuous air monitor utilization: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, J.C.; Whicker, J.J.; Voss, J.T.

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Metallurgy Research (CMR) building has been upgrading to different continuous air monitors (CAMs) over the past several years. During the transition, both the newer and older CAMs were positioned in the rooms for field testing and comparison. On December 19, 1996, an accidental release of plutonium aerosol occurred into a laboratory in the CMR building. The event occurred while the room was unoccupied, and no personnel were exposed from this incident. There were two fixed air samplers (FASs) and three CAMs operating in the room at the time the release occurred, including two of the recently installed Canberra Alpha Sentry CAMs and one older Eberline CAM. The apparent cause of the release was a procedure carried out in the basement involving the replacement of the HEPA filter in the ventilation exhaust of a slot-box in the laboratory. For a short period, the ventilation was disconnected from the slot-box in this room, but not from the chemical hood exhaust on the opposite side of the laboratory. Therefore, a condition was created where backflow could occur out of the slot-box and into the room. Eventually all three CAMs in the room alarmed, and the situation was successfully monitored and brought under control by health physics personnel. Data on CAM performance were logged, and Pu activity collected on CAM and FAS filters were measured. A comparison of the new and old continuous air monitoring programs was performed and many interesting lessons on CAM performance and CAM utilization were learned. Overall, this comparison showed the advantages of remote monitoring, timely spectral information, and concentration measurements resolved in time and space.

  11. Power of Sign Surveys to Monitor Population Trends.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Katherine C; Metzgar, Lee H; Patterson, David A; Steele, Brian M

    1992-11-01

    The urgent need for an effective monitoring scheme for grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) populations led us to investigate the effort required to detect changes in populations of low-density dispersed animals, using sign (mainly scats and tracks) they leave on trails. We surveyed trails in Glacier National Park for bear tracks and scats during five consecutive years. Using these data, we modeled the occurrence of bear sign on trails, then estimated the power of various sampling schemes. Specifically, we explored the power of bear sign surveys to detect a 20% decline in sign occurrence. Realistic sampling schemes appear feasible if the density of sign is high enough, and we provide guidelines for designs with adequate replication to monitor long-term trends of dispersed populations using sign occurrences on trails.

  12. Power of sign surveys to monitor population trend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, Katherine C.; Metzgar, Lee H.; Patterson, David A.; Steele, Brian M.

    1992-01-01

    The urgent need for an effective monitoring scheme for grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) populations led us to investigate the effort required to detect changes in populations of low—density dispersed animals, using sign (mainly scats and tracks) they leave on trails. We surveyed trails in Glacier National Park for bear tracks and scats during five consecutive years. Using these data, we modeled the occurrence of bear sign on trails, then estimated the power of various sampling schemes. Specifically, we explored the power of bear sign surveys to detect a 20% decline in sign occurrence. Realistic sampling schemes appear feasible if the density of sign is high enough, and we provide guidelines for designs with adequate replication to monitor long—term trends of dispersed populations using sign occurrences on trails.

  13. Objective classification of air quality monitoring sites over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Mathieu; Peuch, Vincent-Henri

    2012-02-01

    The observation sites that make up air quality monitoring networks can have very different characteristics (topography, climatology, distance to emission sources, etc), which are partially described in the meta-information provided with data sets. At the scale of Europe, the description of the sites depends on the institute(s) in charge of the air quality monitoring in each country, and is based on specific criteria that can be sometimes rather subjective. The purpose of this study is to build an objective, homogeneous, and pollutant-specific classification of European air quality monitoring sites, primarily for the purpose of model verification and chemical data assimilation. Most studies that tackled this issue so far were based on limited data sets, and often took into account additional external data such as population density, emission estimates, or land cover maps. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of a classification only based on the past time series of measured pollutants. The underlying idea is that the true fingerprint of a given monitoring site lies within its past observation values. On each site to be categorized, eight indicators are defined to characterize each pollutant time series (O 3, NO 2, NO, SO 2, or PM 10) of the European AirBase and the French BDQA (Base de Données de Qualité de l'Air) reference sets of validated data over the period 2002-2009. A Linear Discriminant Analysis is used to best discriminate the rural and urban sites. After projection on the Fisher axis, ten classes are finally determined on the basis of fixed thresholds, for each molecule. The method is validated by cross-validation and by direct comparison with the existing meta-data. The link between the classes obtained and the meta-data is strongest with NO, NO 2, and PM 10. Across Europe, the classification exhibits interesting large-scale features: some contrasts between different regions depend on the pollutant considered. Comparing the classes obtained

  14. Basewide environmental baseline survey, Reese Air Force Base, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-26

    This Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) has been prepared to document the environmental condition of real property at Reese Air Force Base (AFB), Texas, resulting from the storage, release, and disposal of hazardous substances and petroleum products and their derivatives over the installation`s history. Although primarily a management tool, this EBS is also used by the Air Force to meet its obligations under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S. Code Section 9620(h), as amended by the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) (Public Law 102-426). Table ES-1 lists all Category 1 uncontaminated property associated with Reese AFB based on information obtained through a records search, interviews, and visual inspections at Reese AFB and Figures ES-1a and ES-1b depict their locations.

  15. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution. PMID:26313263

  16. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative.

    PubMed

    Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D P; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution.

  17. Monitoring Trace Contaminants in Air Via Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Peter T.; Karr, Dane; Pearson, Richard; Valero, Gustavo; Wong, Carla

    1995-01-01

    Recent passage of the Clean Air Act with its stricter regulation of toxic gas emissions, and the ever-growing number of applications which require faster turnaround times between sampling and analysis are two major factors which are helping to drive the development of new instrument technologies for in-situ, on-line, real-time monitoring. The ion trap, with its small size, excellent sensitivity, and tandem mass spectrometry capability is a rapidly evolving technology which is well-suited for these applications. In this paper, we describe the use of a commercial ion trap instrument for monitoring trace levels of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. A number of sample introduction devices including a direct transfer line interface, short column GC, and a cryotrapping interface are employed to achieve increasing levels of sensitivity. MS, MS/MS, and MS/MS/MS methods are compared to illustrate trade-offs between sensitivity and selectivity. Filtered Noise Field (FNF) technology is found to be an excellent means for achieving lower detection limits through selective storage of the ion(s) of interest during ionization. Figures of merit including typical sample sizes, detection limits, and response times are provided. The results indicate the potential of these techniques for atmospheric assessments, the High Speed Research Program, and advanced life support monitoring applications for NASA.

  18. Monitoring air quality in mountains: Designing an effective network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitatively robust yet parsimonious air-quality monitoring network in mountainous regions requires special attention to relevant spatial and temporal scales of measurement and inference. The design of monitoring networks should focus on the objectives required by public agencies, namely: 1) determine if some threshold has been exceeded (e.g., for regulatory purposes), and 2) identify spatial patterns and temporal trends (e.g., to protect natural resources). A short-term, multi-scale assessment to quantify spatial variability in air quality is a valuable asset in designing a network, in conjunction with an evaluation of existing data and simulation-model output. A recent assessment in Washington state (USA) quantified spatial variability in tropospheric ozone distribution ranging from a single watershed to the western third of the state. Spatial and temporal coherence in ozone exposure modified by predictable elevational relationships ( 1.3 ppbv ozone per 100 m elevation gain) extends from urban areas to the crest of the Cascade Range. This suggests that a sparse network of permanent analyzers is sufficient at all spatial scales, with the option of periodic intensive measurements to validate network design. It is imperative that agencies cooperate in the design of monitoring networks in mountainous regions to optimize data collection and financial efficiencies.

  19. Home blood pressure monitoring: a survey of potential users.

    PubMed

    Kelly, P L; Harrison, D W

    1994-01-01

    Fifty respondents were surveyed using a recently developed questionnaire designed to evaluate the educational needs of the users of self-monitoring blood pressure apparatus. The categories evaluated included each subject's background and family health history, general knowledge about blood pressure, lifestyle factors affecting blood pressure, and factors affecting the measurement of blood pressure, as well as questions about owning a home monitor and recalibration and maintenance factors. The results indicate considerable disparity between the subjects' levels of knowledge about lifestyle factors affecting blood pressure and the subjects' knowledge of factors essential to accurate self-monitoring of blood pressure. The implications of and need for the design of educational training protocols are discussed.

  20. A Survey of Current Rotorcraft Propulsion Health Monitoring Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    A brief review is presented on the state-of-the-art in rotorcraft engine health monitoring technologies including summaries on current practices in the area of sensors, data acquisition, monitoring and analysis. Also, presented are guidelines for verification and validation of Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) and specifically for maintenance credits to extend part life. Finally, a number of new efforts in HUMS are summarized as well as lessons learned and future challenges. In particular, gaps are identified to supporting maintenance credits to extend rotorcraft engine part life. A number of data sources were consulted and include results from a survey from the HUMS community, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) documents, American Helicopter Society (AHS) papers, as well as references from Defence Science & Technology Organization (DSTO), Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  1. Evaluation of portable air samplers for monitoring airborne culturable bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Bell-Robinson, D. M.; Groves, T. O.; Stetzenbach, L. D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne culturable bacteria were monitored at five locations (three in an office/laboratory building and two in a private residence) in a series of experiments designed to compare the efficiency of four air samplers: the Andersen two-stage, Burkard portable, RCS Plus, and SAS Super 90 samplers. A total of 280 samples was collected. The four samplers were operated simultaneously, each sampling 100 L of air with collection on trypticase soy agar. The data were corrected by applying positive hole conversion factors for the Burkard portable, Andersen two-stage, and SAS Super 90 air samplers, and were expressed as log10 values prior to statistical analysis by analysis of variance. The Burkard portable air sampler retrieved the highest number of airborne culturable bacteria at four of the five sampling sites, followed by the SAS Super 90 and the Andersen two-stage impactor. The number of bacteria retrieved by the RCS Plus was significantly less than those retrieved by the other samplers. Among the predominant bacterial genera retrieved by all samplers were Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, and Streptococcus.

  2. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engagement with community members. EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is a prototype technology designed to add value to a community environment – VGP is a park bench equipped with air and meteorological instruments that measure ozone, fine particles, wind, temperature, and humidity at a one-minute time resolution, with the open-source Arduino microprocessor operating as the system controller. The data are streamed wirelessly to a database, passed through automatic diagnostic quality checks, and then made publically available on an engaging website. The station was designed to minimize power use; it consumes an estimated 15W and operates entirely on solar power, is engineered to run for several days with minimal solar radiation, and is capable of automatically shutting down components of the system to conserve power and restarting when power availability increases. Situated outside a public library in Durham, North Carolina, VGP has also been a gathering location for air quality experts to engage with community members. During the time span of June, 2013 through January, 2014, the station collected about 3500 hours of ozone and PM2.5 data, with over 90% up-time operating only on solar po

  3. Quality screening for air quality monitoring data in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter data obtained from the national air quality monitoring network in China has become an essential and critical data source for many current and forthcoming studies as well as the formulation and implementation of air pollution regulatory policies on particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). However, the quality control of this data is dubitable and can affect many future studies and policies. This study identifies and elucidates two significant quality control issues with the data. They are PM2.5 levels exceeding concurrent co-located PM10 levels and the registration of same concentrations for consecutive hours at some stations. Future studies utilizing particulate matter data need to acknowledge and address these issues to ensure accurate and reliable results.

  4. Evaluation of membrane filter field monitors for microbiological air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, N. D.; Oxborrow, G. S.; Puleo, J. R.; Herring, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Due to area constraints encountered in assembly and testing areas of spacecraft, the membrane filter field monitor (MF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-accepted Reyniers slit air sampler were compared for recovery of airborne microbial contamination. The intramural air in a microbiological laboratory area and a clean room environment used for the assembly and testing of the Apollo spacecraft was studied. A significantly higher number of microorganisms was recovered by the Reyniers sampler. A high degree of consistency between the two sampling methods was shown by a regression analysis, with a correlation coefficient of 0.93. The MF samplers detected 79% of the concentration measured by the Reyniers slit samplers. The types of microorganisms identified from both sampling methods were similar.

  5. Locating air quality monitoring station using wind impact area diagram.

    PubMed

    George, K V; Verma, P; Devotta, S

    2008-10-01

    In this study a new methodology is suggested to approximate the impact area downwind of an air pollution source, where air quality monitoring can be carried out to capture the maximum pollutant concentration. Hourly wind speed for a given month is grouped in to different wind speed ranges and the distance of pollutant travel is approximated from the average wind speed of that wind speed range. Since change in wind direction causes the impact distance to rotate, its rotation is approximated by the SD of wind direction change. Using this approach, area or region down wind of a source is determined and plotted. The pattern of monthly change of wind is better represented by the new type of diagram as compared to the wind rose diagram.

  6. A survey of light-scattering techniques used in the remote monitoring of atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deirmendjian, D.

    1980-01-01

    A critical survey of the literature on the use of light-scattering mechanisms in the remote monitoring of atmospheric aerosols, their geographical and spatial distribution, and temporal variations was undertaken to aid in the choice of future operational systems, both ground based and air or space borne. An evaluation, mainly qualitative and subjective, of various techniques and systems is carried out. No single system is found to be adequate for operational purposes. A combination of earth surface and space-borne systems based mainly on passive techniques involving solar radiation with active (lidar) systems to provide auxiliary or backup information is tentatively recommended.

  7. Survey of Ambient Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment Tools.

    PubMed

    Anenberg, Susan C; Belova, Anna; Brandt, Jørgen; Fann, Neal; Greco, Sue; Guttikunda, Sarath; Heroux, Marie-Eve; Hurley, Fintan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Medina, Sylvia; Miller, Brian; Pandey, Kiran; Roos, Joachim; Van Dingenen, Rita

    2016-09-01

    Designing air quality policies that improve public health can benefit from information about air pollution health risks and impacts, which include respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and premature death. Several computer-based tools help automate air pollution health impact assessments and are being used for a variety of contexts. Expanding information gathered for a May 2014 World Health Organization expert meeting, we survey 12 multinational air pollution health impact assessment tools, categorize them according to key technical and operational characteristics, and identify limitations and challenges. Key characteristics include spatial resolution, pollutants and health effect outcomes evaluated, and method for characterizing population exposure, as well as tool format, accessibility, complexity, and degree of peer review and application in policy contexts. While many of the tools use common data sources for concentration-response associations, population, and baseline mortality rates, they vary in the exposure information source, format, and degree of technical complexity. We find that there is an important tradeoff between technical refinement and accessibility for a broad range of applications. Analysts should apply tools that provide the appropriate geographic scope, resolution, and maximum degree of technical rigor for the intended assessment, within resources constraints. A systematic intercomparison of the tools' inputs, assumptions, calculations, and results would be helpful to determine the appropriateness of each for different types of assessment. Future work would benefit from accounting for multiple uncertainty sources and integrating ambient air pollution health impact assessment tools with those addressing other related health risks (e.g., smoking, indoor pollution, climate change, vehicle accidents, physical activity).

  8. High-Resolution Isotopic Monitoring of Cave Air CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töchterle, Paul; Dublyansky, Yuri; Mandic, Magda; Stöbener, Nils; Jost, Hj; Spötl, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at characterising the ventilation patterns in Spannagel Cave, a high-alpine cave system in the Zillertal Alps, Austria. A Thermo Scientific Delta Ray Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer was installed in a chamber ca. 100 m behind the cave entrance to monitor pCO2 and δ13C and δ18O of CO2 at high temporal resolution (up to 1 s). The air temperature was independently monitored inside and outside the cave. This study aims at characterising the ventilation patterns in Spannagel Cave, a high-alpine cave system in the Zillertal Alps, Austria. A Thermo Scientific Delta Ray Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer was installed in a chamber ca. 100 m behind the cave entrance to monitor pCO2 and δ13C and δ18O of CO2 at high temporal resolution (up to 1s). The air temperature was independently monitored inside and outside the cave. The data show two distinct patterns in terms of CO2 concentration and its isotopic composition, which are closely coupled with the temperature difference between the cave interior and the outside atmosphere. This gradient controls the direction of air flow in the cave on a seasonal to synoptic timescale (chimney-type ventilation). The summer circulation is characterised by CO2 closely resembling atmospheric values (pCO2 = 399 ± 12 ppm, δ13C = -8.5 ± 0.7 permil, δ18O = 8.1 ± 2.5 permil). The winter circulation mode features generally higher CO2 concentrations and lower isotopic compositions (pCO2 = 409 ± 14 ppm, δ13C = -10.1 ± 0.7 permil, δ18O = 2.3 ± 1.5 permil). The high temporal resolution of stable isotope data allows tracking cave air ventilation changes, including transient and short-lived ones. Moreover, the data make it possible to address concomitant geochemical processes, such as the input of atmospheric CO2 and the degassing of CO2 from seepage water. These processes would not be possible to quantify without the new generation of laser-based isotope ratio instruments represented by the Delta Ray.

  9. Air-quality monitoring and detection of air contamination in an enclosed environment.

    PubMed

    Skliar, M; Ramirez, W F

    1997-01-01

    We report on the development of an air-quality monitoring and early detection system for an enclosed environment with specific emphasis on manned spacecraft. The proposed monitoring approach is based on a distributed parameter model of contaminant dispersion and real-time contaminant concentration measurements. Kalman filtering is identified as a suitable method for generating on-line estimation of the spatial contamination profile, and an implicit Kalman filtering algorithm is shown to be preferable for rear-time implementation. The identification of the contaminant concentration profile allows for a straightforward solution of the early detection of an air contamination event and provides information that enables potential automatic diagnosis of an unknown contamination source.

  10. Rapid Analysis, Self-Calibrating Array for Air Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie L.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Lara, Liana; Huerta, Ramon; Vergara, Alexander; Muezzinoglua, Mehmet K.

    2012-01-01

    Human space missions have critical needs for monitoring and control for life support systems. These systems have monitoring needs that include feedback for closed loop processes and quality control for environmental factors. Sensors and monitoring technologies assure that the air environment and water supply for the astronaut crew habitat fall within acceptable limits, and that the life support system is functioning properly and efficiently. The longer the flight duration and the more distant the destination, the more critical it becomes to have carefully monitored and automated control systems for life support. Past experiments with the JPL ENose have demonstrated a lifetime of the sensor array, with the software, of around 18 months. The lifetime of the calibration, for some analytes, was as long as 24 months. We are working on a sensor array and new algorithms that will include sensor response time in the analysis. The preliminary array analysis for two analytes shows that the analysis time, of an event, can be dropped from 45 minutes to less than10 minutes and array training time can be cut substantially. We will describe the lifetime testing of an array and show lifetime data on individual sensors. This progress will lead to more rapid identification of analytes, and faster training time of the array.

  11. Avian survey and field guide for Osan Air Base, Korea.

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, J.

    2006-12-05

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Osan Air Base (AB). This ongoing survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Osan AB, and the 51st Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred ten bird species representing 35 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Natural Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Three species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's (KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected. The primary objective of the avian survey at Osan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex J.14.c of the 51st Fighter BASH Plan 91-212 (51 FW OPLAN 91-212). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Osan AB throughout the year and from the survey results, determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Osan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Osan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a that are also favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  12. Monitoring Whooping Crane Abundance Using Aerial Surveys: Influences on Detectability.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Bradley N; Butler, Matthew J

    2014-03-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana), an endangered species, has been counted on its winter grounds in Texas, USA, since 1950 using fixed-wing aircraft. Many shortcomings of the traditional survey technique have been identified, calling into question its efficacy, defensibility, repeatability, and usefulness into the future. To improve and standardize monitoring effort, we began investigating new survey techniques. Here we focus on efficacy of line transect-based distance sampling during aerial surveys. We conducted a preliminary test of distance sampling during winter 2010-2011 while flying the traditional survey, which indicated that detectability within 500 m of transects was 0.558 (SE = 0.031). We then used an experimental decoy survey to evaluate impacts of observer experience, sun position, distance from transect, and group size on detectability. Our results indicated decoy detectability increased with group size and exhibited a quadratic relationship with distance likely due to pontoons on the aircraft. We found that detectability was 2.704 times greater when the sun was overhead and 3.912 times greater when the sun was at the observer's back than when it was in the observer's eyes. We found that an inexperienced observer misclassified non-target objects more often than an experienced observer. During the decoy experiment we used marks on the struts to categorize distances into intervals, but we found that observers misclassified distances 46.7% of the time (95% CI = 37.0-56.6%). Also, we found that detectability of individuals within detected groups was affected by group size and distance from transect. We discuss how these results inform design and implementation of future whooping crane monitoring efforts. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Monitoring Whooping Crane Abundance Using Aerial Surveys: Influences on Detectability

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Bradley N; Butler, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana), an endangered species, has been counted on its winter grounds in Texas, USA, since 1950 using fixed-wing aircraft. Many shortcomings of the traditional survey technique have been identified, calling into question its efficacy, defensibility, repeatability, and usefulness into the future. To improve and standardize monitoring effort, we began investigating new survey techniques. Here we focus on efficacy of line transect-based distance sampling during aerial surveys. We conducted a preliminary test of distance sampling during winter 2010–2011 while flying the traditional survey, which indicated that detectability within 500 m of transects was 0.558 (SE = 0.031). We then used an experimental decoy survey to evaluate impacts of observer experience, sun position, distance from transect, and group size on detectability. Our results indicated decoy detectability increased with group size and exhibited a quadratic relationship with distance likely due to pontoons on the aircraft. We found that detectability was 2.704 times greater when the sun was overhead and 3.912 times greater when the sun was at the observer's back than when it was in the observer's eyes. We found that an inexperienced observer misclassified non-target objects more often than an experienced observer. During the decoy experiment we used marks on the struts to categorize distances into intervals, but we found that observers misclassified distances 46.7% of the time (95% CI = 37.0–56.6%). Also, we found that detectability of individuals within detected groups was affected by group size and distance from transect. We discuss how these results inform design and implementation of future whooping crane monitoring efforts. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26388657

  14. Movements of radio-marked California Ridgway's rails during monitoring surveys: implications for population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Overton, Cory T.; Schultz, Emily R.; Hull, Joshua M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The California Ridgway's rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus (hereafter California rail) is a secretive marsh bird endemic to tidal marshes in the San Francisco Bay (hereafter bay) of California. The California rail has undergone significant range contraction and population declines due to a variety of factors, including predation and the degradation and loss of habitat. Call-count surveys, which include call playbacks, based on the standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol have been conducted throughout the bay since 2005 to monitor population size and distribution of the California rail. However, call-count surveys are difficult to evaluate for efficacy or accuracy. To measure the accuracy of call-count surveys and investigate whether radio-marked California rails moved in response to call-count surveys, we compared locations of radio-marked California rails collected at frequent intervals (15 min) to California rail detections recorded during call-count surveys conducted over the same time periods. Overall, 60% of radio-marked California rails within 200 m of observers were not detected during call-count surveys. Movements of radio-marked California rails showed no directional bias (P = 0.92) irrespective of whether or not playbacks of five marsh bird species (including the California rail) were broadcast from listening stations. Our findings suggest that playbacks of rail vocalizations do not consistently influence California rail movements during surveys. However, call-count surveys may underestimate California rail presence; therefore, caution should be used when relating raw numbers of call-count detections to population abundance.

  15. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?...

  18. Can car air filters be useful as a sampling medium for air pollution monitoring purposes?

    PubMed

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Birgul, Askin; Ratola, Nuno; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Sweetman, Andy J; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    Urban air quality and real human exposure to chemical environmental stressors is an issue of high scientific and political interest. In an effort to find innovative and inexpensive means for air quality monitoring, the ability of car engine air filters (CAFs) to act as efficient samplers collecting street level air, to which people are exposed to, was tested. In particular, in the case of taxis, air filters are replaced after regular distances, the itineraries are almost exclusively urban, cruising mode is similar and, thus, knowledge of the air flow can provide with an integrated city air sample. The present pilot study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most important category of organic pollutants associated with traffic emissions. Concentrations of ΣPAHs in CAFs ranged between 650 and 2900 μg CAF(-1), with benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and indeno[123-cd]pyrene being the most abundant PAHs. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranged between 110 and 250 μg CAF(-1), accounting regularly for 5-15% of the total carcinogenic PAHs. The CAF PAH loads were used to derive road-level atmospheric PAH concentrations from a standard formula relating to the CAF air flow. Important parameters/assumptions for these estimates are the cruising speed and the exposure duration of each CAF. Based on information obtained from the garage experts, an average 'sampled air volume' of 48,750 m(3) per CAF was estimated, with uncertainty in this calculation estimated to be about a factor of 4 between the two extreme scenarios. Based on this air volume, ΣPAHs ranged between 13 and 56 ng m(-3) and BaP between 2.1 and 5.0 ng m(-3), suggesting that in-traffic BaP concentrations can be many times higher than the limit values set by the UK (0.25 ng m(-3)) and the European Union (1.0 ng m(-3)), or from active sampling stations normally cited on building roof tops or far from city centres. Notwithstanding the limitations of this approach, the very low cost, the continuous

  19. CubeSat constellation design for air traffic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Sreeja; Rios, Joseph L.; Gerhardt, David; Pham, Camvu

    2016-11-01

    Suitably equipped global and local air traffic can be tracked. The tracking information may then be used for control from ground-based stations by receiving the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signal. In this paper, we describe a tool for designing a constellation of small satellites which demonstrates, through high-fidelity modeling based on simulated air traffic data, the value of space-based ADS-B monitoring. It thereby provides recommendations for cost-efficient deployment of a constellation of small satellites to increase safety and situational awareness in the currently poorly-served surveillance area of Alaska. Air traffic data were obtained from NASA's Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool, for the Alaskan airspace over one day. The results presented were driven by MATLAB and the satellites propagated and coverage calculated using AGI's Satellite Tool. While Ad-hoc and precession spread constellations have been quantitatively evaluated, Walker constellations show the best performance in simulation. Sixteen satellites in two perpendicular orbital planes are shown to provide more than 99% coverage over representative Alaskan airspace and the maximum time gap where any airplane in Alaska is not covered is six minutes, therefore meeting the standard set by the International Civil Aviation Organization to monitor every airplane at least once every fifteen minutes. In spite of the risk of signal collision when multiple packets arrive at the satellite receiver, the proposed constellation shows 99% cumulative probability of reception within four minutes when the airplanes are transmitting every minute, and at 100% reception probability if transmitting every second. Data downlink can be performed using any of the three ground stations of NASA Earth Network in Alaska.

  20. Automated extinction monitor for the NLOT site survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Sharma, Tarun

    In order to search a few potential sites for the National Large Optical Telescope (NLOT) project, we have initiated a site survey program. Since, most of instruments used for the site survey are custom made, we also started developing our own site characterization instruments. In this process we have designed and developed a device called Automated Extinction Monitor (AEM) and installed the same at IAO, Hanle. The AEM is a small wide field robotic telescope, dedicated to record atmospheric extinction in one or more photometric bands. It gives very accurate statistics of the distribution of photometric nights. In addition to this, instrument also provides the measurement of sky brightness. Here we briefly describe overall instrument and initial results obtained.

  1. The importance of survey timing in monitoring breeding seabird numbers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.M.; Krohn, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    We conducted weekly aerial surveys of islands along the central Maine coast from April-June of 1993-1997 and used aerial photographs to determine peak nest count dates for Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-Backed Gulls (Larus marinus). These data also were used to determine the potential effect of survey timing on the ability to detect long-term trends in the abundance of these species. The number of cormorant nests in the study area peaked in mid-June, while Great Black-backed and Herring gulls peaked in late May and early June, respectively. Peak nesting dates generally were consistent for each island across years, but varied by up to a month between islands during a given year. A 10-year monitoring program using annual surveys conducted between 23 May and 23 June, or biennial surveys conducted from 2-17 June, would have an 80% probability of detecting annual changes of ??5% for all three species in this region. Received 1 November 2000, accepted 4 December 2000.

  2. Air Quality in Mecca and Surrounding Holy Places in Saudi Arabia during Hajj: Initial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. J.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Barletta, B.; Blake, N. J.; Gartner, A.; Khwaja, H. A.; Meinardi, S.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Peninsula experiences severe air pollution yet is highly understudied in terms of surface measurements of ozone and its precursors. Every year the air pollution in Saudi Arabia is intensified by additional traffic and activities during Hajj, the world's largest religious pilgrimage that draws 3‒4 million pilgrims to Mecca (population of 2 million). Using whole air sampling and high-precision measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and 97 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), we performed an initial survey of air quality in Mecca, its tunnels, and surrounding holy sites during the 2012 Hajj (October 24-27; n = 77). This is the first time such a campaign has been undertaken. Levels of the combustion tracer CO and numerous VOCs were strongly elevated along the pilgrimage route, especially in the tunnels of Mecca, and are a concern for human health. For example CO reached 57 ppmv in the tunnels, exceeding the 30-min exposure guideline of 50 ppmv. Benzene, a known carcinogen, reached 185 ppbv in the tunnels, exceeding the 1-hr exposure limit of 9 ppbv. The gasoline evaporation tracer i-pentane was the most abundant VOC during Hajj, reaching 1200 ppbv in the tunnels. Even though VOC concentrations were generally lower during a follow-up non-Hajj sampling period (April, 2013), many were still comparable to other large cities suffering from poor air quality. Major VOC sources during Hajj included vehicular exhaust, gasoline evaporation, liquefied petroleum gas, and air conditioners. Of the measured compounds, reactive alkenes (associated with gasoline evaporation) and CO showed the strongest potential to form ground-level ozone. Therefore efforts to curb ozone formation likely require dual targeting of both combustive and evaporative fossil fuel sources. However, modeling and other measurements (e.g., nitrogen oxides) are also needed to fully understand Mecca's oxidative environment. We also present specific recommendations to reduce VOC emissions and exposure in

  3. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Applikon MARGA Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The verification test was conducted oer a period of 30 days (October 1 to October 31, 2008) and involved the continuous operation of duplicate semi-continuous monitoring technologies at the Burdens Creek Air Monitoring Site, an existing ambient-air monitoring station located near...

  4. Air Launched Missile Systems, AFSC 466X0. Occupational Survey Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    This is a report of an occupational survey of the Air Launched Missile Systems career ladder conducted by the Occupational Analysis Flight, USAF... Occupational Measurement Squadron. The Technical Training Operations Directorate of Headquarters, Air Education Training Command, Randolph AFB TX

  5. Validation of a novel air toxic risk model with air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Gregory C; Dymond, Mary; Ellickson, Kristie; Thé, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Three modeling systems were used to estimate human health risks from air pollution: two versions of MNRiskS (for Minnesota Risk Screening), and the USEPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). MNRiskS is a unique cumulative risk modeling system used to assess risks from multiple air toxics, sources, and pathways on a local to a state-wide scale. In addition, ambient outdoor air monitoring data were available for estimation of risks and comparison with the modeled estimates of air concentrations. Highest air concentrations and estimated risks were generally found in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area and lowest risks in undeveloped rural areas. Emissions from mobile and area (nonpoint) sources created greater estimated risks than emissions from point sources. Highest cancer risks were via ingestion pathway exposures to dioxins and related compounds. Diesel particles, acrolein, and formaldehyde created the highest estimated inhalation health impacts. Model-estimated air concentrations were generally highest for NATA and lowest for the AERMOD version of MNRiskS. This validation study showed reasonable agreement between available measurements and model predictions, although results varied among pollutants, and predictions were often lower than measurements. The results increased confidence in identifying pollutants, pathways, geographic areas, sources, and receptors of potential concern, and thus provide a basis for informing pollution reduction strategies and focusing efforts on specific pollutants (diesel particles, acrolein, and formaldehyde), geographic areas (urban centers), and source categories (nonpoint sources). The results heighten concerns about risks from food chain exposures to dioxins and PAHs. Risk estimates were sensitive to variations in methodologies for treating emissions, dispersion, deposition, exposure, and toxicity.

  6. The National Aviation Operational Monitoring Service (NAOMS): A Documentation of the Development of a Survey Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.; Mauro, Robert; Statler, Irving C.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aviation Operational Monitoring Service (NAOMS) was a research project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program during the years from 2000 to 2005. The purpose of this project was to develop a methodology for gaining reliable information on changes over time in the rates-of-occurrence of safety-related events as a means of assessing the safety of the national airspace. The approach was a scientifically designed survey of the operators of the aviation system concerning their safety-related experiences. This report presents the results of the methodology developed and a demonstration of the NAOMS concept through a survey of nearly 20,000 randomly selected air-carrier pilots. Results give evidence that the NAOMS methodology can provide a statistically sound basis for evaluating trends of incidents that could compromise safety. The approach and results are summarized in the report and supporting documentation and complete analyses of results are presented in 14 appendices.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emissions, then the site is likely to be properly located nearby. This type of monitoring site would in all likelihood be a microscale type of monitoring site. If a monitoring site is to be used to determine air... account the heights of the flues, type of waste or fuel burned, and the sulfur content of the fuel....

  8. Conditional extraction of air-pollutant source signals from air-quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malby, Andrew R.; Whyatt, J. Duncan; Timmis, Roger J.

    2013-08-01

    Ambient air-quality data contain information about air-pollution sources that is currently under-exploited. This information could be used to assess trends in the emissions performance of specific sources, and to check at an early stage if policies or controls to reduce air-quality impacts from particular sources are working. Previous techniques for extracting such information have tended to adopt complex analyses and to rely on data from monitoring networks with many sites, thus limiting their applicability to non-specialist users and to networks with few sites. This paper describes simple techniques for 'conditionally' selecting data from one or two monitors, and for analysing and interpreting concentrations in terms of source performance or policy progress. Our techniques minimise the effects of variations in meteorology and source activity, so that the selected data give a more consistent indication of individual source performance. We demonstrate our techniques with a case study, in which we track the source performance of road traffic on the M4 motorway in London and show how impacts per vehicle have changed over time under different conditions of traffic flow and fleet composition.

  9. Magnetic evaluation of TSP-filters for air quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda-Miranda, Ana Gabriela; Böhnel, Harald N.; Molina-Garza, Roberto S.; Chaparro, Marcos A. E.

    2014-10-01

    We present the magnetic properties of the powders collected by high volume total suspended particle air samplers used to monitor atmospheric pollution in Santiago de Querétaro, a city of one million people in central Mexico. The magnetic measurements have been combined with scanning electron microscopy observations and analysis, in order to characterize the particles captured in the filters as natural and anthropogenic. The main goal of the study is to test if magnetic measurements on the sampled atmospheric dust can be effective, low-cost, proxy to qualitatively estimate the air quality, complementing the traditional analytical methods. The magnetic properties of the powder collected in the filters have been investigated measuring the low field magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis loops, thermomagnetic curves, and isothermal remanent magnetization. The rock magnetism data have been supplemented by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the main magnetic carrier is low-Ti magnetite in the PSD range with a contribution from SP particles, and small but significant contributions from hematite, maghemite and goethite particles. Total suspended particles in the atmosphere during the monitored days ranged between about 30 and 280 μg/m3. Magnetic susceptibility values are well correlated with the independently determined total suspended particles concentration (R = 0.93), but particle concentration does not correlate as well with IRM1T. This may be attributed to contributions from SP and paramagnetic particles to the susceptibility signal, but not to the remanence. The effects of climate in particle size, composition and concentration were considered in terms of precipitation and wind intensity, but they are actually minor. The main effect of climate appears to be the removal of SP particles during rainy days. There is a contribution to air pollution from natural mineral sources, which we attribute to low vegetation cover

  10. Twenty five year mortality and air pollution: results from the French PAARC survey

    PubMed Central

    Filleul, L; Rondeau, V; Vandentorren, S; Le Moual, N; Cantagrel, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Charpin, D; Declercq, C; Neukirch, F; Paris, C; Vervloet, D; Brochard, P; Tessier, J; Kauffmann, F; Baldi, I

    2005-01-01

    Aims and Methods: Long term effects of air pollution on mortality were studied in 14 284 adults who resided in 24 areas from seven French cities when enrolled in the PAARC survey (air pollution and chronic respiratory diseases) in 1974. Daily measurements of sulphur dioxide, total suspended particles, black smoke, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric oxide were made in 24 areas for three years (1974–76). Cox proportional hazards models controlling for individual confounders (smoking, educational level, body mass index, occupational exposure) were applied, and frailty models used to take into account spatial correlation. Indicators of air pollution were the mean concentration. Results: Models were run before and after exclusion of six area monitors influenced by local traffic (NO/NO2 >3 in ppb). After exclusion of these areas, analyses showed that adjusted risk ratios (95% CI) for TSP, BS, NO2, and NO for non-accidental mortality were 1.05 (1.02 to 1.08), 1.07 (1.03 to 1.10), 1.14 (1.03 to 1.25), and 1.11 (1.05 to 1.17) for 10 µg/m3 respectively. Consistent patterns for lung cancer and cardiopulmonary causes were observed. Conclusions: Urban air pollution assessed in the 1970s was associated with increased mortality over 25 years in France. PMID:15961621

  11. Plug-and-play web-based visualization of mobile air monitoring data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection of air measurements in real-time on moving platforms, such as wearable, bicycle-mounted, or vehicle-mounted air sensors, is becoming an increasingly common method to investigate local air quality. However, visualizing and analyzing geospatial air monitoring data r...

  12. US EPA Base Study Standard Operating Procedure for Continuous Monitoring of Outdoor Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The procedure described is intended for monitoring continuously and simultaneously outdoor air quality parameters that are most commonly associated with indoor air quality: the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO), temperature, nd relative humidity (RH).

  13. DIAL measurements for air pollution and fugitive-loss monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Rod A.; Woods, Peter T.; Milton, Martin J. T.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes a mobile differential absorption LIDAR system, which operates in the UV, visible, and IR spectral regions. This system can measure a range of important air pollutants emitted by industry, including SO2, NO2, NO, HCl, benzene, toluene, and a large range of other VOC's. These species can be monitored at fugitive and flammable levels at ranges of up to 1 km (for IR measurements) and 3 km (for UV measurements). Examples of measurements of fluxes emitted from large scale industrial sties are presented and discussed. Comparisons are given between measured fluxes and those calculated using the US Environmental Protection Agency's and American Petroleum Institute's standard procedures for estimating industrial emissions. The fluxes measured by DIAL are higher than the values derived from the API procedures. Possible reasons for discrepancies between the measured results and the EPA/API estimation procedures will be discussed.

  14. Monitoring Volcanoes by Use of Air-Dropped Sensor Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedar, Sharon; Rivellini, Tommaso; Webb, Frank; Blaes, Brent; Bracho, Caroline; Lockhart, Andrew; McGee, Ken

    2003-01-01

    already in use in the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP), which was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance to respond to volcanic crises around the world. The VMSs would add a greatly needed capability that would enable VDAP response teams to deploy their volcano-monitoring equipment in a more timely manner with less risk to personnel in the field.

  15. ASSESSING THE COMPARABILITY OF AMMONIUM, NITRATE AND SULFATE CONCENTRATIONS MEASURED BY THREE AIR QUALITY MONITORING NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne fine particulate matter across the United States is monitored by different networks, the three prevalent ones presently being the Clean Air Status and Trend Network (CASTNet), the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment Network (IMPROVE) and the Speciati...

  16. 75 FR 18782 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Alternate Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Alternate Monitoring Requirements for Indianapolis Power and Light--Harding Street Station AGENCY: Environmental... State Implementation Plan alternative monitoring requirements for Indianapolis Power and Light...

  17. Satellite Monitoring of Urban Air Pollution using MODIS and VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Sayer, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Due to rapid economical growth in many developing countries, the problem of deteriorating air quality is becoming an important societal issue of public health over mega cities around the world. Although there are many networks of surface PM2.5 and PM10 measurements in place to monitor the level of air pollutant over these urban sites, satellite data are still required to provide comprehensive information on the overall big picture regarding the spatial distribution of aerosols and their transport paths into the surrounding regions. In this paper, we will demonstrate the capability of a new satellite algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo over bright-reflecting surfaces such as urban areas. Such retrievals have been difficult to perform using previously available algorithms that use wavelengths from the mid-visible to the near IR because they have trouble separating the aerosol signal from the contribution due to the bright surface reflectance. The new algorithm, called Deep Blue, utilizes blue-wavelength measurements from instruments such as MODIS and VIIRS to infer the properties of aerosols, since the surface reflectance over land in the blue part of the spectrum is much lower than for longer wavelength channels. We have validated the satellite retrieved aerosol optical thickness from both MODIS Collection 6 and new VIIRS Deep Blue products with data from AERONET sunphotometers over urban sites. The comparisons show reasonable agreements between these two. These new satellite products will allow scientists to determine quantitatively the aerosol properties near sources using high spatial resolution measurements from MODIS and VIIRS instruments. The multiyear satellite measurements since 2000 from MODIS will be utilized to investigate the interannual variability of source, pathway, and aerosol loading associated with these urban pollutions. The quantitative effects of direct radiative forcing of these air borne aerosol

  18. Monitoring of air pollution in the atmosphere around Oman Liquid Natural Gas (OLNG) plant.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A

    2005-01-01

    This study was basically designed to assess the potential environmental air quality impacts arising from the existing two operational trains at the Oman Liquid Natural Gas (OLNG) plant. The results of the paper contain a baseline survey of the existing environment. The pollutants studied included methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and suspended particulate matters (dust PM 10). Meteorological parameters monitored simultaneously include wind speed and direction, air temperature, and relative humidity. The air quality data were used to determine the diurnal and monthly variations in the pollutants. Description levels of the pollutants with respect to meteorological data were also used in analysis. Moreover, a statistical analysis of the collected data was presented. Generally, the results indicated that the mean concentrations of pollutants were low to cause any significant impact in air quality. The area had no problem in meeting the air quality standards for CO and NO2. It was also found that there was a random relationship between CO and NMHC, and between NO and NOx (no apparent correlation). The diurnal peaks of NOx, NO2, THC, and NMHC over a 24-h period were observed at around 9:00-10:00 AM (morning peak). For NO, NO2, and NOx, another peak was seen at around 5:00 PM (evening peak). Furthermore, the measured concentrations for NO2, NOx, and CO were found higher in winter than in summer. The study would help to gain a better understanding of local background levels of air pollutants at the area prior to the construction of new industrial projects, and to prepare action plans for controlling pollution in the area.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...—Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 1. Monitoring Objectives and Spatial Scales 2.... References 1. Monitoring Objectives and Spatial Scales The purpose of this appendix is to describe monitoring... and path placement, are described in appendix E to this part. 1.2Spatial Scales. (a) To clarify...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...—Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 1. Monitoring Objectives and Spatial Scales 2.... References 1. Monitoring Objectives and Spatial Scales The purpose of this appendix is to describe monitoring... and path placement, are described in appendix E to this part. 1.2Spatial Scales. (a) To clarify...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...—Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 1. Monitoring Objectives and Spatial Scales 2.... References 1. Monitoring Objectives and Spatial Scales The purpose of this appendix is to describe monitoring... and path placement, are described in appendix E to this part. 1.2Spatial Scales. (a) To clarify...

  2. Biological monitoring of toxic metals - steel workers respiratory health survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Almeida, A. Bugalho de; Alves, L.; Freitas, M. C.; Moniz, D.; Alvarez, E.; Monteiro, P.; Reis, M.

    1999-04-01

    The aim of this work is to search for respiratory system aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. Workers from one sector of a steel plant in Portugal, Siderurgia Nacional (SN), were selected according to the number of years of exposure and labouring characteristics. The work reports on blood elemental content alterations and lung function tests to determine an eventual bronchial hyper-reactivity. Aerosol samples collected permit an estimate of indoor air quality and airborne particulate matter characterisation to further check whether the elemental associations and alterations found in blood may derive from exposure. Blood and aerosol elemental composition was determined by PIXE and INAA. Respiratory affections were verified for 24% of the workers monitored. There are indications that the occurrence of affections can be associated with the total working years. The influence of long-term exposure, health status parameters, and lifestyle factors in blood elemental variations found was investigated.

  3. Development of a multiple objective planning theory and system for sustainable air quality monitoring networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Liu, Wei-Lin; Chen, Chia-Hsing

    2006-01-15

    Air quality monitoring data are important bases for air quality management strategies planning and performance assessment. Therefore, the environmental protection authorities need to plan the air quality monitoring network effectively. However, in Taiwan, the national Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) and some county environmental protection bureaus (EPB) separately installed their own monitoring stations. This study developed an integrated methodology and computer system for planning air quality monitoring networks. The environmental, social, and economic objectives and sub-objectives, and their weights were identified using system analysis and multiple objective planning, based on the principles of sustainable development. A multiple objective optimization model and procedure for sustainable air quality monitoring networks planning are developed in this study. According to the procedure, a multiple objective planning system for sustainable air quality monitoring networks (MOPSSAQMN) is developed using computer software based on the modified bounded implicit enumeration algorithm with the constraint arrangement method. The air quality monitoring network of Taoyuan County, in northern Taiwan, was used as a case study to demonstrate the proposed method. Two satisfactory alternatives based on different conditions were generated using MOPSSAQMN. The compared results show that this study generated better alternatives than the current monitoring network. An installation schedule for the alternative was proposed, and its first step is now being implemented by the EPB of Taoyuan County Government. The procedure and computer system developed in this study can be used to assist the competent authorities to devise good and different alternatives for air quality monitoring networks planning.

  4. A survey of recent results in passive sampling of water and air by semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prest, Harry F.; Huckins, James N.; Petty, Jimmie D.; Herve, Sirpa; Paasivirta, Jaakko; Heinonen, Pertti

    1995-01-01

    A survey is presented of some recent results for passive sampling of water and air for trace organic contaminants using lipid-filled semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Results of water sampling for trace organochlorine compounds using simultaneously exposed SPMDs and the most universally applied biomonitor (bivalves) are discussed. In general, the total amounts of accumulated analytes available for analysis in bivalves and SPMDs were comparable. However, SPMD controls typically had negligible levels of contamination, which was not always the case for transplanted bivalves, even after prolonged depuration prior to exposure. In surveys of the spatial trends of organochlorines at a series of sites, data from bivalves and SPMDs provided the same picture of contaminant distribution and severity. An exception was ionizable contaminants such as the chlorinated phenolic compounds and their transformation products found in pulp mill effluents. In these cases the two monitoring approaches compliment each other, i.e. what is not found in bivalves appears in SPMDs and vice versa. SPMDs have also been applied in environments where biomonitoring is not feasible. SPMDs have shown their utility in studies of trace levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by locating and characterizing point sources. An example is given of their application to the calculation of contaminant half-lives from aqueous SPMD residues, a direct measurement of the persistence of contaminants in an environmental compartment. Similarly, results of air sampling with SPMDs in a relatively pristine coastal location are cited which reveal a tremendous enhancement in p,p′-DDE relative to open ocean values.

  5. Survey of projected growth and problems facing air transportation, 1975 - 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.; Wilson, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a survey conducted to determine the current opinion of people working in air transportation demand forecasting on the future of air transportation over the next ten years. In particular, the survey included questions on future demand growth, load factor, fuel prices, introduction date for the next new aircraft, the priorities of problems facing air transportation, and the probability of a substantial change in air transportation regulation. The survey participants included: airlines, manufacturers, universities, government agencies, and other organizations (financial institutions, private research companies, etc.). The results are shown for the average responses within the organization represented as well as the overall averages.

  6. The air quality monitoring program for the 1100-EM-1 remedial investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Laws, G.L.

    1990-09-01

    Air quality monitoring for the remedial investigation of the Hanford Site's 1100-EM-1 operable unit was conducted in the spring and fall of 1989 and during January 1990. The monitoring program was divided into two phases. The first phase examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions at three of the operable unit's waste sites before the beginning of intrusive remedial investigation activities. The second phase of monitoring examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions from two of the operable unit's waste sites during intrusive remedial investigation activities. Each phase of the program consisted of a series of monitoring events that measured pollutant concentrations at key locations upwind and downwind of individual waste sites. During each monitoring event, sampling was conducted to determine the air concentrations of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds and semivolatile organic compounds. Monitoring for heavy metals and asbestos was also conducted during some monitoring events. 8 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Wong, Ka Chun; Wei, Peng; Ye, Sheng; Huang, Hao; Yang, Fenhuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K.K.; Luk, Connie W.Y.; Ning, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring. PMID:26861336

  8. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Wong, Ka Chun; Wei, Peng; Ye, Sheng; Huang, Hao; Yang, Fenhuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K K; Luk, Connie W Y; Ning, Zhi

    2016-02-05

    This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring.

  9. An automatic monitor of formaldehyde in air by a monitoring tape method.

    PubMed

    Nakano, N; Nagashima, K

    1999-06-01

    An automatic monitor has been developed for measuring formaldehyde in air using a sensitive tape for formaldehyde. It is based on the color change of the tape on reaction with formaldehyde. The porous cellulose tape, containing silica gel as an absorbent and impregnated with the processing solution containing hydroxylamine sulfate, Methyl Yellow (pH indicator; pH 2.9-4.0, red-yellow), glycerin and methanol, was found to be a highly sensitive means of detecting formaldehyde and maintains a stable sensitivity. When the tape was exposed to a sample of air containing formaldehyde, the color of the tape changed from yellow to red. The degree of color change was proportional to the concentration of formaldehyde at a constant sampling time and flow rate, and it could be recorded by measuring the intensity of reflected light (555 nm). The tape could be used to detect down to 0.08 ppm (World Health Organization standard) of formaldehyde with a sampling time of 30 min and a flow rate of 100 mL min-1. Reproducibility tests showed that the relative standard deviation of response (n = 10) was 3.8% for 0.1 ppm formaldehyde. The monitor is simple, specific, capable of unattended operation and is recommended for both laboratory and field operation.

  10. Oil spill monitoring via microwave tomography enhanced GPR surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Affinito, Antonio; Bertolla, Luciana; Porsani, Jorge Luís; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Oil spill detection and monitoring deserve huge attention in environmental protection as well as for timely planning maintenance actions, with the final aim to mitigate soil pollution. In this frame, the requirement for detailed subsurface diagnostics, while performing non-invasive surveys, motivates the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems and their continuous development in order to improve the achievable performance. Moving in this direction, this paper aims at investigating the reconstruction capabilities of a full 3D microwave tomography approach as a tool for pollution characterization and imaging. The microwave tomography approach exploits a Born Approximation based model of the electromagnetic scattering phenomenon and is capable of accounting for the vectorial nature of the wave-material interaction. The reconstruction capabilities are assessed against experimental data referred to oil spill in dry and water saturated sand soils, gathered in laboratory controlled conditions at the Department of Geophysics of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. The provided results state that the full 3D microwave tomography approach is able to gain accurate images of the surveyed scenarios allowing to acquire information on the oil diffusion process in both the considered soils.

  11. Using Satellite Aerosol Retrievals to Monitor Surface Particulate Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chu, D. Allen; Mattoo, Shana; Holben, Brent N.; Schafer, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    The MODIS and MISR aerosol products were designed nearly two decades ago for the purpose of climate applications. Since launch of Terra in 1999, these two sensors have provided global, quantitative information about column-integrated aerosol properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) and relative aerosol type parameters (such as Angstrom exponent). Although primarily designed for climate, the air quality (AQ) community quickly recognized that passive satellite products could be used for particulate air quality monitoring and forecasting. However, AOD and particulate matter (PM) concentrations have different units, and represent aerosol conditions in different layers of the atmosphere. Also, due to low visible contrast over brighter surface conditions, satellite-derived aerosol retrievals tend to have larger uncertainty in urban or populated regions. Nonetheless, the AQ community has made significant progress in relating column-integrated AOD at ambient relative humidity (RH) to surface PM concentrations at dried RH. Knowledge of aerosol optical and microphysical properties, ambient meteorological conditions, and especially vertical profile, are critical for physically relating AOD and PM. To make urban-scale maps of PM, we also must account for spatial variability. Since surface PM may vary on a finer spatial scale than the resolution of standard MODIS (10 km) and MISR (17km) products, we test higher-resolution versions of MODIS (3km) and MISR (1km research mode) retrievals. The recent (July 2011) DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the mid-Atlantic offers a comprehensive network of sun photometers (DRAGON) and other data that we use for validating the higher resolution satellite data. In the future, we expect that the wealth of aircraft and ground-based measurements, collected during DISCOVER-AQ, will help us quantitatively link remote sensed and ground-based measurements in the urban region.

  12. 75 FR 45627 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of one new equivalent method for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...

  13. Assessment of Near-Source Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale Utilizing Mobile Monitoring Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle – an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate and gaseous po...

  14. Test/QA Plan (TQAP) for Verification of Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the semi-continuous ambient air monitoring technology (or MARGA) test and quality assurance plan is to specify procedures for a verification test applicable to commercial semi-continuous ambient air monitoring technologies. The purpose of the verification test is ...

  15. Overview of the new National Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring Network

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2010, EPA promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). As part of this new NAAQS, EPA required the establishment of a national near-road air quality monitoring network. This network will consist of one NO2 near-road monitoring st...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method...

  19. What is in my air? Feds facilitating citizen science in the EPA Next Generation Air Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. A.; Preuss, P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in the development of small-scale and inexpensive air pollutant sensors, coupled with the ubiquitous use of wireless and mobile technology, will transform the field of air quality monitoring. For the first time, the general public may purchase air monitors, which can measure their personal exposure to NOx, Ozone, black carbon, and VOCs for a few hundred dollars. Concerned citizens may now gather the data for themselves to answer questions such as, ';what am I breathing?' and ';is my air clean?' The research and policy community will have access to real-time air quality data collected at the local and regional scale, making targeted protection of environmental health possible. With these benefits come many questions from citizen scientists, policymakers, and researchers. These include, what is the quality of the data? How will the public interpret data from the air sensors and are there guidelines to interpret that data? How do you know if the air sensor is trustworthy? Recognizing that this revolution in air quality monitoring will proceed regardless of the involvement of the government, the Innovation Team at the EPA Office of Research and Development, in partnership with the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance and the Office of Air and Radiation, seized the opportunity to ensure that users of next generation air sensors can realize the full potential benefits of these innovative technologies. These efforts include releasing an EPA Draft Roadmap for Next Generation Air Monitoring, testing air sensors under laboratory and field conditions, field demonstrations of new air sensor technology for the public, and building a community of air sensor developers, researchers, local, state and federal officials, and community members through workshops and a website. This presentation will review the status of those programs, highlighting the particular programs of interest to citizen scientists. The Next Generation Air Monitoring program may serve

  20. Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air

    DOEpatents

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L.; Fryer, Michael O.; Hohorst, Frederick A.

    2004-03-23

    A system, method and apparatus is provided for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air. A sensor array senses an air sample from the indoor air and analyzes the air sample to obtain signatures representative of contaminants in the air sample. When the level or type of contaminant poses a threat or hazard to the occupants, the present invention takes corrective actions which may include introducing additional fresh air. The corrective actions taken are intended to promote overall health of personnel, prevent personnel from being overexposed to hazardous contaminants and minimize the cost of operating the HVAC system. The identification of the contaminants is performed by comparing the signatures provided by the sensor array with a database of known signatures. Upon identification, the system takes corrective actions based on the level of contaminant present. The present invention is capable of learning the identity of previously unknown contaminants, which increases its ability to identify contaminants in the future. Indoor air quality is assured by monitoring the contaminants not only in the indoor air, but also in the outdoor air and the air which is to be recirculated. The present invention is easily adaptable to new and existing HVAC systems. In sum, the present invention is able to monitor and adjust the quality of indoor air in real time by sensing the level and type of contaminants present in indoor air, outdoor and recirculated air, providing an intelligent decision about the quality of the air, and minimizing the cost of operating an HVAC system.

  1. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be substantially influenced by any one roadway. Computations were made to determine the separation... a written request from the State agency to waive one or more siting criteria for some monitoring... Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring E Appendix E to Part 58 Protection of Environment...

  2. Global Monitoring of Air Pollution Using Spaceborne Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, D. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Remer, L. A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The MODIS sensor onboard EOS-Terra satellite provides not only daily global coverage but also high spectral (36 channels from 0.41 to 14 microns wavelength) and spatial (250m, 500m and 1km) resolution measurements. A similar MODIS instrument will be also configured into EOS-Aqua satellite to be launched soon. Using the complementary EOS-Terra and EOS-Aqua sun-synchronous orbits (10:30 AM and 1:30 PM equator-crossing time respectively), it enables us also to study the diurnal changes of the Earth system. It is unprecedented for the derivation of aerosol properties with such high spatial resolution and daily global converge. Aerosol optical depth and other aerosol properties, e.g., Angstrom coefficient over land and particle size over ocean, are derived as standard products at a spatial resolution of 10 x 10 sq km. The high resolution results are found surprisingly useful in detecting aerosols in both urban and rural regions as a result of urban/industrial pollution and biomass burning. For long-lived aerosols, the ability to monitoring the evolution of these aerosol events could help us to establish an system of air quality especially for highly populated areas. Aerosol scenarios with city pollution and biomass burning will be presented. Also presented are the method used in the derivation of aerosol optical properties and preliminary results will be presented, and issue as well as obstacles in validating aerosol optical depth with AERONET ground-based observations.

  3. Environmental monitoring of chromium in air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Vitale, R J; Mussoline, G R; Rinehimer, K A

    1997-08-01

    Historical uses of chromium have resulted in its widespread release into the environment. In recent years, a significant amount of research has evaluated the impact of chromium on human health and the environment. Additionally, numerous analytical methods have been developed to identify and quantitate chromium in environmental media in response to various state and federal mandates such as CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, CAA, and SWDA. Due to the significant toxicity differences between trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] chromium, it is essential that chromium be quantified in these two distinct valence states to assess the potential risks to exposure to each in environmental media. Speciation is equally important because of their marked differences in environmental behavior. As the knowledge of risks associated with each valence state has grown and regulatory requirements have evolved, methods to accurately quantitate these species at ever-decreasing concentrations within environmental media have also evolved. This paper addresses the challenges of chromium species quantitation and some of the most relevant current methods used for environmental monitoring, including ASTM Method D5281 for air, SW-846 Methods 3060A, 7196A and 7199 for soils, sediments, and waste, and U.S. EPA Method 218.6 for water.

  4. Using Unmanned Air Systems to Monitor Methane in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clow, Jacqueline; Smith, Jeremy Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Methane is likely to be an important contributor to global warming, and our current knowledge of its sources, distributions, and transport is insufficient. It is estimated that there could be from 7.5 to 400 billion tons carbon-equivalent of methane in the arctic region, a broad range that is indicative of the uncertainty within the Earth Science community. Unmanned Air Systems (UASs) are often used for combat or surveillance by the military, but they also have been used for Earth Science field missions. In this study, we will analyze the utility of the NASA Global Hawk and the Aurora Flight Sciences Orion UASs compared to the manned DC-8 aircraft for conducting a methane monitoring mission. The mission will focus on the measurement of methane along the boundaries of Arctic permafrost thaw and melting glaciers. The use of Long Endurance UAS brings a new range of possibilities including the ability to obtain long- term and persistent observations and to significantly augment methane measurements/retrievals collected by satellite. Furthermore, we discuss the future of long endurance UAS and their potential for science applications in the next twenty to twenty-five years.

  5. Satellite-based monitoring of air quality within QUITSAT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Nicolantonio, W.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing of both trace gas constituents and Particulate Matter (PM) can be profitably exploited in Air Quality (AQ) assessment. The actual potential role of satellite observations is here highlighted combined with regional meteorological and Chemical Transport Models (CTM) in the context of air quality monitoring as experienced in QUITSAT Project over Northern Italy (from 43:09 to 46:39 N, from 6:19 to 14:23 E). QUITSAT (2006-2009) is a pilot project funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) in the framework of its institutional priorities for the Natural and Technological disaster management programme. AQ monitoring is in general based on local ground measurements. In recent years, this issue has been inserted in a more extended frame, in which CTM have joined ground-based data and satellite observations to provide a better characterization of AQ monitoring, forecasting and planning on a regional scale. In particular, two satellite-based products arisen from analysis methodologies developed in QUITSAT and relative to significant pollutants as PM2.5 and NO2 are presented within this work. The MODIS sensors capability (Terra and Aqua/NASA platforms) to retrieve Aerosol Optical Properties (AOP) has been used in a semi-empirical approach to estimate PM2.5 content at the ground. At first, PM2.5 concentration sampled in several sites over Northern Italy are employed in order to infer AOP to PM conversion parameters. A spatial-temporal coincidence procedure has been performed amongst EO and non-EO data. To take into account the aerosol columnar dispersion and the AOP dependence on the relative humidity (RH) meteorological fields (Planetary Boundary Layer and RH) simulated by MM5 are considered. MODIS aerosol level 2 products (MOD04 and MYD04 collection 5, 10x10 km2 spatial resolution) and PM2.5 samplings performed by Regional Environmental Agencies (ARPA Emilia Romagna and ARPA Lombardia) and carried out over further 6 measurements sites (located in Milano

  6. Onsite survey on the mechanism of passive aeration and air flow path in a semi-aerobic landfill.

    PubMed

    Matsuto, Toshihiko; Zhang, Xin; Matsuo, Takayuki; Yamada, Shuhei

    2015-02-01

    The semi-aerobic landfill is a widely accepted landfill concept in Japan because it promotes stabilization of leachates and waste via passive aeration without using any type of mechanical equipment. Ambient air is thought to be supplied to the landfill through a perforated pipe network made of leachate collection pipe laid along the bottom and a vertically erected gas vent. However, its underlying air flow path and driving forces are unclear because empirical data from real-world landfills is inadequate. The objective of this study is to establish scientific evidence about the aeration mechanisms and air flow path by an on-site survey of a full-scale, semi-aerobic landfill. First, all passive vents located in the landfill were monitored with respect to temperature level and gas velocity in different seasons. We found a linear correlation between the outflow rate and gas temperature, suggesting that air flow is driven by a buoyancy force caused by the temperature difference between waste in the landfill and the ambient temperature. Some vents located near the landfill bottom acted as air inflow vents. Second, we conducted a tracer test to determine the air flow path between two vents, by injecting tracer gas from an air sucking vent. The resulting slowly increasing gas concentration at the neighboring vent suggested that fresh air flow passes through the waste layer toward the gas vents from leachate collection pipes, as well as directly flowing through the pipe network. Third, we monitored the temperature of gas flowing out of a vent at night. Since the temperature drop of the gas was much smaller than that of the environment, the air collected at the gas vents was estimated to flow mostly through the waste layer, i.e., the semi-aerobic landfill has considerable aeration ability under the appropriate conditions.

  7. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors.

    PubMed

    McLean, Thomas D; Moore, Murray E; Justus, Alan L; Hudston, Jonathan A; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. The Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch's minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The measured alpha activity increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. Data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source has been used to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.

  8. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Thomas D.; Moore, Murray E.; Justus, Alan L.; Hudston, Jonathan A.; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. Furthermore, the Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch’s minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The alpha activity we measured increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. We also used data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.

  9. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors

    DOE PAGES

    McLean, Thomas D.; Moore, Murray E.; Justus, Alan L.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. Furthermore, the Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached tomore » the watch’s minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The alpha activity we measured increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. We also used data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.« less

  10. Domain Engineering Validation Case Study: Synthesis for the Air Traffic Display/Collision Warning Monitor Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    AD-A259 407 DTIC itELECTE JANI2 6 1993 C DOMAIN ENGINEERING VALIDATION CASE STUDY: SYNTHESIS FOR THE AIR TRAFFIC DISPLAY/COLLISION WARNING MONITOR...Kramer, DARPA/ SISTO, Arl., VA 22203 1-26-93 JK DOMAIN ENGINEERING VALIDATION CASE STUDY: SYNTHESIS FOR THE AIR TRAFFIC DISPLAY/COLLISION WARNING MONITOR...COLLISION WARNING MONITOR CASE STUDY WITH AUTOMATION ............... C-1 C .1 Introduction .............................................................. C -1

  11. Air pollution due to traffic, air quality monitoring along three sections of National Highway N-5, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mahboob; Athar, Makshoof

    2008-01-01

    Transportation system has contributed significantly to the development of human civilization; on the other hand it has an enormous impact on the ambient air quality in several ways. In this paper the air and noise pollution at selected sites along three sections of National Highway was monitored. Pakistan National Highway Authority has started a Highway Improvement program for rehabilitations and maintenance of National highways to improve the traffic flows, and would ultimately improve the air quality along highways. The ambient air quality and noise level was monitored at nine different locations along these sections of highways to quantify the air pollution. The duration of monitoring at individual location was 72 h. The most of the sampling points were near the urban or village population, schools or hospitals, in order to quantify the air pollution at most affected locations along these roads. A database consisting of information regarding the source of emission, local metrology and air quality may be created to assess the profile of air quality in the area.

  12. Environmental monitoring using autonomous vehicles: a survey of recent searching techniques.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Behzad; Crasta, Naveena; Crespi, Alessandro; Pascoal, António M; Ijspeert, Auke

    2017-02-27

    Autonomous vehicles are becoming an essential tool in a wide range of environmental applications that include ambient data acquisition, remote sensing, and mapping of the spatial extent of pollutant spills. Among these applications, pollution source localization has drawn increasing interest due to its scientific and commercial interest and the emergence of a new breed of robotic vehicles capable of operating in harsh environments without human supervision. The aim is to find the location of a region that is the source of a given substance of interest (e.g. a chemical pollutant at sea or a gas leakage in air) using a group of cooperative autonomous vehicles. Motivated by fast paced advances in this challenging area, this paper surveys recent advances in searching techniques that are at the core of environmental monitoring strategies using autonomous vehicles.

  13. Classification of Variable Objects in Massive Sky Monitoring Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, Przemek; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Belokurov, Vasily

    2012-03-01

    The era of great sky surveys is upon us. Over the past decade we have seen rapid progress toward a continuous photometric record of the optical sky. Numerous sky surveys are discovering and monitoring variable objects by hundreds of thousands. Advances in detector, computing, and networking technology are driving applications of all shapes and sizes ranging from small all sky monitors, through networks of robotic telescopes of modest size, to big glass facilities equipped with giga-pixel CCD mosaics. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will be the first peta-scale astronomical survey [18]. It will expand the volume of the parameter space available to us by three orders of magnitude and explore the mutable heavens down to an unprecedented level of sensitivity. Proliferation of large, multidimensional astronomical data sets is stimulating the work on new methods and tools to handle the identification and classification challenge [3]. Given exponentially growing data rates, automated classification of variability types is quickly becoming a necessity. Taking humans out of the loop not only eliminates the subjective nature of visual classification, but is also an enabling factor for time-critical applications. Full automation is especially important for studies of explosive phenomena such as γ-ray bursts that require rapid follow-up observations before the event is over. While there is a general consensus that machine learning will provide a viable solution, the available algorithmic toolbox remains underutilized in astronomy by comparison with other fields such as genomics or market research. Part of the problem is the nature of astronomical data sets that tend to be dominated by a variety of irregularities. Not all algorithms can handle gracefully uneven time sampling, missing features, or sparsely populated high-dimensional spaces. More sophisticated algorithms and better tools available in standard software packages are required to facilitate the adoption of

  14. Air Monitoring Leads to Discovery of New Contamination at Radioactive Waste Disposal Site (Area G) at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Kraig, D.H.; Conrad, R.C.

    1999-06-08

    Air monitoring at Area G, the low-level radioactive waste disposal area at Los Alamos National Laboratory, revealed increased air concentrations of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am at one location along the north boundary. This air monitoring location is a couple of meters north of a dirt road used to access the easternmost part of Area G. Air concentrations of {sup 238}Pu were essentially unaffected, which was puzzling because the {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu are present in the local, slightly contaminated soils. Air concentrations of these radionuclides increased about a factor of ten in early 1995 and remained at those levels until the first quarter of 1996. During the spring of 1996 air concentrations again increased by a factor of about ten. No other radionuclides were elevated and no other Area G stations showed elevations of these radionuclides. After several formal meetings didn't provide an adequate cause for the elevations, a gamma survey was performed and showed a small area of significant contamination just south of the monitor location. We found in February, 1995, a trench for a water line had been dug within a meter of so of the air stations. Then, during early 1996, the dirt road was rerouted such that its new path was directly over the unknown contamination. It appears that the trenching brought contaminated material to the surface and caused the first rise in air concentrations and then the rerouting of the road over the contamination caused the second rise, during 1996. We also found that during 1976 and 1977 contaminated soils from the clean-up of an old processing facility had been spread over the filled pits in the vicinity of the air monitors. These soils were very low in 238Pu which explains why we saw very little {sup 238}Pu in the increased air concentrations. A layer of gravel and sand was spread over the contaminated area. Although air concentrations of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am dropped considerably, the y have not returned to pre-1995 levels.

  15. Geophysical surveys for monitoring coastal salt water intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Simoniello, T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lapenna, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geophysical surveys have been exploited in a coastal forest reserve, at the mouth of the river Bradano in South Italy (Basilicata, southern Italy, N 40°22', E 16°51'), to investigate the subsurface saltwater contamination. Forest Reserve of Metapontum is a wood of artificial formation planted to protect fruit and vegetable cultivations from salt sea-wind; in particular it is constituted by a back dune pine forest mainly composed of Aleppo Pine trees (Pinus halepensis) and domestic pine trees (Pinus pinea). Two separate geophysical field campaigns, one executed in 2006 and a second executed in 2008, were performed in the forest reserve; in particular, electrical resistivity tomographies, resistivity and ground penetrating radar maps were elaborated and analyzed. In addition, chemical and physical analyses on soil and waters samples were performed in order to confirm and integrate geophysical data. The analyses carried out allowed an accurate characterization of salt intrusion phenomenon: the spatial extension and depth of the saline wedge were estimated. Primary and secondary salinity of the Metapontum forest reserve soil occurred because of high water-table and the evapo-transpiration rate which was much higher than the rainfall rate; these, of course, are linked to natural factors such as climate, natural drainage patterns, topographic features, geological structure and distance to the sea. Naturally, since poor land management, like the construction of river dams, indiscriminate extraction of inert from riverbeds that subtract supplies sedimentary, the alteration of the natural water balance, plays an important role in this process. The obtained results highlighted that integrated geophysical surveys gave a precious contribute for better evaluating marine intrusion wedge in coastal aquifers and providing a rapid, non-invasive and low cost tool for coastal monitoring.

  16. Optimized arrangement of constant ambient air monitoring stations in the Kanto region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Shintaro; Iizuka, Atsushi; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2015-03-10

    Continuous ambient air monitoring systems have been introduced worldwide. However, such monitoring forces autonomous communities to bear a significant financial burden. Thus, it is important to identify pollutant-monitoring stations that are less efficient, while minimizing loss of data quality and mitigating effects on the determination of spatiotemporal trends of pollutants. This study describes a procedure for optimizing a constant ambient air monitoring system in the Kanto region of Japan. Constant ambient air monitoring stations in the area were topologically classified into four groups by cluster analysis and principle component analysis. Then, air pollution characteristics in each area were reviewed using concentration contour maps and average pollution concentrations. We then introduced three simple criteria to reduce the number of monitoring stations: (1) retain the monitoring station if there were similarities between its data and average data of the group to which it belongs; (2) retain the station if its data showed higher concentrations; and (3) retain the station if the monitored concentration levels had an increasing trend. With this procedure, the total number of air monitoring stations in suburban and urban areas was reduced by 36.5%. The introduction of three new types of monitoring stations is proposed, namely, mobile, for local non-methane hydrocarbon pollution, and Ox-prioritized.

  17. The role of Environmental Health System air quality monitors in Space Station Contingency Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas F.; Wilson, Steve; Perlot, Susan; James, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health System's air-quality monitoring strategy and instrumentation. A two-tier system has been developed, consisting of first-alert instruments that warn the crew of airborne contamination and a volatile organic analyzer that can identify volatile organic contaminants in near-real time. The strategy for air quality monitoring on SSF is designed to provide early detection so that the contamination can be confined to one module and so that crew health and safety can be protected throughout the contingency event. The use of air-quality monitors in fixed and portable modes will be presented as a means of following the progress of decontamination efforts and ensuring acceptable air quality in a module after an incident. The technology of each instrument will be reviewed briefly; the main focus of this paper, however, will be the use of air-quality monitors before, during, and after contingency incidents.

  18. A Survey of Geosensor Networks: Advances in Dynamic Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Nittel, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    In the recent decade, several technology trends have influenced the field of geosciences in significant ways. The first trend is the more readily available technology of ubiquitous wireless communication networks and progress in the development of low-power, short-range radio-based communication networks, the miniaturization of computing and storage platforms as well as the development of novel microsensors and sensor materials. All three trends have changed the type of dynamic environmental phenomena that can be detected, monitored and reacted to. Another important aspect is the real-time data delivery of novel platforms today. In this paper, I will survey the field of geosensor networks, and mainly focus on the technology of small-scale geosensor networks, example applications and their feasibility and lessons learnt as well as the current research questions posed by using this technology today. Furthermore, my objective is to investigate how this technology can be embedded in the current landscape of intelligent sensor platforms in the geosciences and identify its place and purpose. PMID:22346721

  19. Monitoring bioeroding sponges: using rubble, Quadrat, or intercept surveys?

    PubMed

    Schönberg, C H L

    2015-04-01

    Relating to recent environmental changes, bioerosion rates of calcium carbonate materials appear to be increasing worldwide, often driven by sponges that cause bioerosion and are recognized bioindicators for coral reef health. Various field methods were compared to encourage more vigorous research on bioeroding sponges and their inclusion in major monitoring projects. The rubble technique developed by Holmes et al. (2000) had drawbacks often due to small specimen sizes: it was time-costly, generated large variation, and created a biased impression about dominant species. Quadrat surveys were most rapid but overestimated cover of small specimens. Line intercepts are recommended as easiest, least spatially biased, and most accurate, especially when comparing results from different observers. Intercepts required fewer samples and provided the best statistical efficiency, evidenced by better significances and test power. Bioeroding sponge abundances and biodiversities are influenced by water depth, sediment quality, and most importantly by availability of suitable attached substrate. Any related data should thus be standardized to amount of suitable substrate to allow comparison between different environments, concentrating on dominant, easily recognized species to avoid bias due to experience of observers.

  20. Assessing isocyanate exposures in polyurethane industry sectors using biological and air monitoring methods.

    PubMed

    Creely, K S; Hughson, G W; Cocker, J; Jones, K

    2006-08-01

    Isocyanates, as a chemical group, are considered to be the biggest cause of occupational asthma in the UK. Monitoring of airborne exposures to total isocyanate is costly, requiring considerable expertise, both in terms of sample collection and chemical analysis and cannot be used to assess the effectiveness of protection from wearing respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Biological monitoring by analysis of metabolites in urine can be a relatively simple and inexpensive way to assess exposure to isocyanates. It may also be a useful way to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures in place. In this study biological and inhalation monitoring were undertaken to assess exposure in a variety of workplaces in the non-motor vehicle repair sector. Companies selected to participate in the survey included only those judged to be using good working practices when using isocyanate formulations. This included companies that used isocyanates to produce moulded polyurethane products, insulation material and those involved in industrial painting. Air samples were collected by personal monitoring and were analysed for total isocyanate content. Urine samples were collected soon after exposure and analysed for the metabolites of different isocyanate species, allowing calculation of the total metabolite concentration. Details of the control measures used and observed contamination of exposed skin were also recorded. A total of 21 companies agreed to participate in the study, with exposure measurements being collected from 22 sites. The airborne isocyanate concentrations were generally very low (range 0.0005-0.066 mg m(-3)). A total of 50 of the 70 samples were <0.001 mg m(-3), the limit of quantification (LOQ), therefore samples below the LOQ were assigned a value of 1/2 LOQ (0.0005 mg m(-3)). Of the 70 samples, 67 were below the current workplace exposure limit of 0.02 mg m(-3). The highest inhalation exposures occurred during spray painting activities in a truck manufacturing

  1. Ambient air monitoring for organic compounds, acids, and metals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.H.; Eberhart, C.F.

    1992-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contracted Radian Corporation (Radian) to conduct a short-term, intensive air monitoring program whose goal was to estimate the impact of chemical emissions from LANL on the ambient air environment. A comprehensive emission inventory had identified more than 600 potential air contaminants in LANL`s emissions. A subset of specific target chemicals was selected for monitoring: 20 organic vapors, 6 metals and 5 inorganic acid vapors. These were measured at 5 ground level sampling sites around LANL over seven consecutive days in January 1991. The sampling and analytical strategy used a combination of EPA and NIOSH methods modified for ambient air applications.

  2. Ambient air monitoring for organic compounds, acids, and metals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.H. ); Eberhart, C.F. )

    1992-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contracted Radian Corporation (Radian) to conduct a short-term, intensive air monitoring program whose goal was to estimate the impact of chemical emissions from LANL on the ambient air environment. A comprehensive emission inventory had identified more than 600 potential air contaminants in LANL's emissions. A subset of specific target chemicals was selected for monitoring: 20 organic vapors, 6 metals and 5 inorganic acid vapors. These were measured at 5 ground level sampling sites around LANL over seven consecutive days in January 1991. The sampling and analytical strategy used a combination of EPA and NIOSH methods modified for ambient air applications.

  3. Quasi Real Time Data Analysis for Air Quality Monitoring with an Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Hanying; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Pelletier, Christine C.; Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, M. Amy

    2006-01-01

    Cabin Air Quality Monitoring: A) Functions; 1) Incident monitor for targeted contaminants exceeding targeted concentrations. Identify and quantify. 2) Monitor for presence of compounds associated with fires or overheating electronics. 3) Monitor clean-up process. B) Characteristics; 1) Low mass, low power device. 2) Requires little crew time for maintenance and calibration. 3) Detects, identifies and quantifies selected chemical species at or below 24 hour SMAC.

  4. Off-site air monitoring following methyl bromide chamber and building fumigations and evaluation of the ISCST air dispersion model

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, T.; Swgawa, R.; Wofford, P.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Pesticide Regulation`s preliminary risk characterization of methyl bromide indicated an inadequate margin of safety for several exposure scenarios. Characterization of the air concentrations associated with common methyl bromide use patterns was necessary to determine specific scenarios that result in an unacceptable margin of safety. Field monitoring data were used in conjunction with the Industrial Source Complex, Short Tenn (ISCST) air dispersion model to characterize air concentrations associated with various types of methyl bromide applications. Chamber and building fumigations were monitored and modelled. For each fumigation the emission rates, chamber or building specifications and on-site meteorological data were input into the ISCST model. The model predicted concentrations were compared to measured air concentrations. The concentrations predicted by the ISCST model reflect both the pattern and magnitude of the measured concentrations. Required buffer zones were calculated using the ISCST output.

  5. Lichens of wilderness areas in California: Baseline studies for monitoring air pollution. [Letharia; Melanelia; Pseudophebe minuscula

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, B.D.; Nash, T.H. III )

    1990-01-01

    The lichen floras of selected wilderness areas in California are being surveyed to provide baseline data for monitoring air pollution. A small number of permanent transects on trees and quadrats on rock were established, and Letharia spp. were collected for element analyses. In the San Gabriel Wilderness (immediately north of Los Angeles), a diverse lichen flora was found on rocks and (in some areas) on soil or hardwood trees, but not on conifers, and the thalli of several taxa (e.g., Melanelia spp. and Pseudephebe minuscula) showed clear signs of distortion or discoloration. No obvious signs of damaged thalli or depauperate floras have been found in the other wildernesses studied so far, except in the Agua Tibia Wilderness (near San Diego), which was largely destroyed by fire in the summer of 1989. The two wildernesses examined in the Sierra Nevada Mountains had very few corticolous lichen taxa and few taxa known to be pollution-sensitive, but this probably reflects climatic conditions more than pollution. Re-examination of the wildernesses in the future should provide information on any changes in the lichen vegetation due to changes in air quality.

  6. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Persistent organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hayley; MacLeod, Matthew; Guardans, Ramon; Scheringer, Martin; Barra, Ricardo; Harner, Tom; Zhang, Gan

    2013-12-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are global pollutants that can migrate over long distances and bioaccumulate through food webs, posing health risks to wildlife and humans. Multilateral environmental agreements, such as the Stockholm Convention on POPs, were enacted to identify POPs and establish the conditions to control their release, production and use. A Global Monitoring Plan was initiated under the Stockholm Convention calling for POP monitoring in air as a core medium; however long temporal trends (>10 years) of atmospheric POPs are only available at a few selected sites. Spatial coverage of air monitoring for POPs has recently significantly improved with the introduction and advancement of passive air samplers. Here, we review the status of air monitoring and modeling activities and note major uncertainties in data comparability, deficiencies of air monitoring and modeling in urban and alpine areas, and lack of emission inventories for most POPs. A vision for an internationally-integrated strategic monitoring plan is proposed which could provide consistent and comparable monitoring data for POPs supported and supplemented by global and regional transport models. Key recommendations include developing expertise in all aspects of air monitoring to ensure data comparability and consistency; partnering with existing air quality and meteorological networks to leverage synergies; facilitating data sharing with international data archives; and expanding spatial coverage with passive air samplers. Enhancing research on the stability of particle-bound chemicals is needed to assess exposure and deposition in urban areas, and to elucidate long-range transport. Conducting targeted measurement campaigns in specific source areas would enhance regional models which can be extrapolated to similar regions to estimate emissions. Ultimately, reverse-modeling combined with air measurements can be used to derive “emission” as an indicator to assess environmental

  7. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Volume 1. Planning and Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Marine Corps. It was divided into task forces, most of which were run by civilians working temporarily for the Air Force. The work produced by the Survey...United States’ coalition partners also made available individuals and records that were vital to the Survey’s work . Many participants in the war, including...authors discov- ered several points. First, planners had put forth an extraordinary amount of work on the first phase of the air campaign plan-the

  8. Mobile Air Monitoring: Measuring Change in Air Quality in the City of Hamilton, 2005-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew D.; DeLuca, Patrick F.; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the change in air pollutant concentrations between 2005 and 2010 occurring in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. After analysis of stationary air pollutant concentration data, we analyze mobile air pollutant concentration data. Air pollutants included in the analysis are CO, PM[subscript 2.5], SO[subscript 2], NO,…

  9. Monitoring Distributed Real-Time Systems: A Survey and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, Alwyn E.; Pike, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Runtime monitors have been proposed as a means to increase the reliability of safety-critical systems. In particular, this report addresses runtime monitors for distributed hard real-time systems. This class of systems has had little attention from the monitoring community. The need for monitors is shown by discussing examples of avionic systems failure. We survey related work in the field of runtime monitoring. Several potential monitoring architectures for distributed real-time systems are presented along with a discussion of how they might be used to monitor properties of interest.

  10. Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Manny

    Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

  11. METHODOLOGY OF AMBIENT AIR MONITORING FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last decade, several studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air in the U.S. specifically investigated (1) the sampling efficiency of two sorbents for PAH in air: XAD-2 and polyurethane foam (PUP); (2) the storage stability of PAH on quartz fiber fil...

  12. Air Pollution Monitoring Site Selection by Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Criteria air pollutants (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide) as well as toxic air pollutants are a global concern. A particular scenario that is receiving increased attention in the research is the exposure to t...

  13. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrone, Nicola; Aas, Wenche; Cinnirella, Sergio; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Pacyna, Jozef; Sprovieri, Francesca; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2013-12-01

    understanding the link between the magnitude of mercury emissions and the concentrations found in the fish that we consume. For air quality monitoring, priorities include expanding the existing data collection network and widening the scope of atmospheric mercury measurements (elemental, oxidised, and particulate species as well as mercury in precipitation). Presently, the only accurate indicators of mercury impacts on human and biological health are methylmercury concentrations in biota. However, recent advances in analytical techniques (stable mercury isotopes) and integrated modelling tools are allowing greater understanding of the relationship between atmospheric deposition, concentrations in water, methylation and uptake by biota. This article recommends an expansion of the current atmospheric monitoring network and the establishment of new coordinated measurements of total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in seawater and concurrent concentrations and trends in marine fish.

  14. URBAN SPRAWL MODELING, AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND RISK COMMUNICATION: THE NORTHEAST OHIO PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northeast Ohio Urban Sprawl, Air Quality Monitoring, and Communications Project (hereafter called the Northeast Ohio Project) provides local environmental and health information useful to residents, local officials, community planners, and others in a 15 county region in the ...

  15. 75 FR 22126 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    .... Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711. Designation of this new... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  16. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  17. Frequently Asked Questions from EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training Event, July 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training Event on July 9, 2015 in RTP, NC. Forty citizen scientists attended in person while over 500 others attended the live webinar. Several attendees posted questions, which EPA scientists have addressed here.

  18. Air pollution monitoring using emission inventories combined with the moss bag approach.

    PubMed

    Iodice, P; Adamo, P; Capozzi, F; Di Palma, A; Senatore, A; Spagnuolo, V; Giordano, S

    2016-01-15

    Inventory of emission sources and biomonitoring with moss transplants are two different methods to evaluate air pollution. In this study, for the first time, both these approaches were simultaneously applied in five municipalities in Campania (southern Italy), deserving attention for health-oriented interventions as part of a National Interest Priority Site. The pollutants covered by the inventory were CO, NOx, particulate matter (PM10), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and some heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn). The biomonitoring survey was based on the use of the devitalized moss Hypnum cupressiforme transplanted into bags, following a harmonized protocol. The exposure covered 40 agricultural and urban/residential sites, with half of them located in proximity to roads. The pollutants monitored were Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn, as well as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) only in five sites. Using the emission inventory approach, high emission loads were detected for all the major air pollutants and the following heavy metals: Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, over the entire study area. Arsenic, Pb, and Zn were the elements most accumulated by moss. Total PAH postexposure contents were higher than the preexposure values (~20-50% of initial value). Moss uptakes did not differ substantially among municipalities or within exposure sites. In the five municipalities, a similar spatial pattern was evidenced for Pb by emission inventory and moss accumulation. Both approaches indicated the same most polluted municipality, suggesting their combined use as a valuable resource to reveal contaminants that are not routinely monitored.

  19. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; Supper, W.

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  20. Construction and application of an intelligent air quality monitoring system for healthcare environment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Tung; Liao, Chi-Jui; Liu, Jung-Chun; Den, Walter; Chou, Ying-Chyi; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2014-02-01

    Indoor air quality monitoring in healthcare environment has become a critical part of hospital management and policy. Manual air sampling and analysis are cost-inhibitive and do not provide real-time air quality data and response measures. In this month-long study over 14 sampling locations in a public hospital in Taiwan, we observed a positive correlation between CO(2) concentration and population, total bacteria, and particulate matter concentrations, thus monitoring CO(2) concentration as a general indicator for air quality could be a viable option. Consequently, an intelligent environmental monitoring system consisting of a CO(2)/temperature/humidity sensor, a digital plug, and a ZigBee Router and Coordinator was developed and tested. The system also included a backend server that received and analyzed data, as well as activating ventilation and air purifiers when CO(2) concentration exceeded a pre-set value. Alert messages can also be delivered to offsite users through mobile devices.

  1. Comparison of Remote Sensing and Fixed-Site Monitoring Approaches for Examining Air Pollution and Health in a National Study Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Genevieve; Dobbin, Nina A.; Sun, Liu; Burnet, Richard T.; Martin, Randall V.; Davidson, Andrew; Cakmak, Sabit; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Lamsal, Lok N.; vanDonkelaar, Aaron; Peters, Paul A.; Johnson, Markey

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) has emerged as a cutting edge approach for estimating ground level ambient air pollution. Previous studies have reported a high correlation between ground level PM2.5 and NO2 estimated by RS and measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites. The current study examined associations between air pollution and adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes using multi-year averages of NO2 and PM2.5 from RS and from regulatory monitoring. RS estimates were derived using satellite measurements from OMI, MODIS, and MISR instruments. Regulatory monitoring data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. Self-reported prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, allergies, and chronic bronchitis were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (a national sample of individuals 12 years of age and older). Multi-year ambient pollutant averages were assigned to each study participant based on their six digit postal code at the time of health survey, and were used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution. RS derived estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with 6e10% increases in respiratory and allergic health outcomes per interquartile range (3.97 mg m3 for PM2.5 and 1.03 ppb for NO2) among adults (aged 20e64) in the national study population. Risk estimates for air pollution and respiratory/ allergic health outcomes based on RS were similar to risk estimates based on regulatory monitoring for areas where regulatory monitoring data were available (within 40 km of a regulatory monitoring station). RS derived estimates of air pollution were also associated with adverse health outcomes among participants residing outside the catchment area of the regulatory monitoring network (p < 0.05).

  2. Comparison of remote sensing and fixed-site monitoring approaches for examining air pollution and health in a national study population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prud'homme, Genevieve; Dobbin, Nina A.; Sun, Liu; Burnett, Richard T.; Martin, Randall V.; Davidson, Andrew; Cakmak, Sabit; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Lamsal, Lok N.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Peters, Paul A.; Johnson, Markey

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) has emerged as a cutting edge approach for estimating ground level ambient air pollution. Previous studies have reported a high correlation between ground level PM2.5 and NO2 estimated by RS and measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites. The current study examined associations between air pollution and adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes using multi-year averages of NO2 and PM2.5 from RS and from regulatory monitoring. RS estimates were derived using satellite measurements from OMI, MODIS, and MISR instruments. Regulatory monitoring data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. Self-reported prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, allergies, and chronic bronchitis were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (a national sample of individuals 12 years of age and older). Multi-year ambient pollutant averages were assigned to each study participant based on their six digit postal code at the time of health survey, and were used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution. RS derived estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with 6-10% increases in respiratory and allergic health outcomes per interquartile range (3.97 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 1.03 ppb for NO2) among adults (aged 20-64) in the national study population. Risk estimates for air pollution and respiratory/allergic health outcomes based on RS were similar to risk estimates based on regulatory monitoring for areas where regulatory monitoring data were available (within 40 km of a regulatory monitoring station). RS derived estimates of air pollution were also associated with adverse health outcomes among participants residing outside the catchment area of the regulatory monitoring network (p < 0.05). The consistency between risk estimates based on RS and regulatory monitoring as well as the associations between air pollution and health among participants living outside the catchment area for

  3. Six-Month Results for the Kelly Air Force Base Compressed Work Week Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Air Force Base workers Compressed work week 60 Attitude survey Lifestyle 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...10 APPENDIX A The Kelly AFB Attitude Survey ................. 13 B Responses to the Lifestyle and Job Relat i Questions (1-91) on the Survey (Sections...on CWS for a 6-month period. There are few published studies regarding the impact of CWS on the lifestyle or quality of life of the employee

  4. Government Monitoring of the Mental Health of Children in Canada: Five Surveys (Part I)

    PubMed Central

    Junek, Wade

    2012-01-01

    Objective Canadian governments spend billions of dollars yearly on programmatic interventions, intended to improve the mental health of children, without recommended monitoring of children’s mental health. The Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry monitored governments’ progress in producing reports. Method Five evolving surveys were done during 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008. Initially, progress was monitored then later surveys examined challenges that inhibited monitoring, the need for a national strategy, an indicator framework and an agency to do the monitoring and the role of non-government organizations. The 2008 survey requested the three most important indicators governments desired, and created clarity in the definition of monitoring reports in contents, criteria, qualities of indicators and potential names. For comparison purposes, a Partnership Model to survey populations was evaluated. Results Over five surveys, 13 of 14 governments affirmed the desire for monitoring and 64 publications were reviewed and categorized. No reports met criteria for ‘monitoring reports’. The Partnership Model was used successfully in 11 Provincial-Territorial governments. Conclusions It was reassuring that governments supported monitoring and were producing reports. The Partnership Model may offer a suitable alternative for governments. Results of 2006 and 2008, discussion, conclusions and references are in Part II. PMID:22299012

  5. Performance Evaluation of a Low-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level low-cost real-time air pollution measurements. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a public library in Durham, NC. It co...

  6. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  7. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  8. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  9. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  10. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  11. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of numerous sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement existing monitoring networks and ...

  12. A PARTICIPANT-BASED APPROACH TO INDOOR/OUTDOOR AIR MONITORING IN COMMUNITY HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community health studies of traffic-related air pollution have been hampered by the cost and participant burden associated with collecting household-level exposure data. The current study utilized a novel participant-based approach to collect indoor and outdoor air monitoring da...

  13. 77 FR 39959 - Draft Guidance To Implement Requirements for the Treatment of Air Quality Monitoring Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... National Weather Service, the National Climate Center, and local air monitoring stations. In addition, air agencies may use models such as Fifth Generation Pennsylvania State University/ National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Mode (MM5), Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and North...

  14. Journal Article: EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn): Design, Implementation, and Final Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) in June of 1998, and operated it until November of 2004. The objective of NDAMN was to determine background air concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (...

  15. *A participant-based approach to indoor/outdoor air monitoring in Community Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community health studies of traffic-related air pollution have been hampered by the cost and participant burden associated with collecting household-level exposure data. The current study utilized a participant-based approach to collect indoor and outdoor air monitoring data from...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this part to determine...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this part to determine...

  20. Community Air Monitoring, Educational Outreach, and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the poster is to provide an overview of the Village Green Project to attendees at the National Air Quality Conference. The emphasis on the presentation is the genesis of the project and community outreach.

  1. Some considerations on noise monitoring for air handling equipments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujoreanu, C.; Benchea, M.

    2017-02-01

    The HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) beneficiaries are in particular annoyed by the noise generated from the radiant unit and the air circulating ducts, since they are located inside the rooms and buildings. The comparatively experimental results highlight the relations between the air flow, pressure, power-charging and the sound level. The measurements are carried out at different fan’s speeds, ranging the power-charge from 30-100% while the duct air flow is slowly adjusted from full open to full closed, between 0-500 Pa. Third-octave band analysis of random noise of the handling units is realized in an anechoic room, using the measurement procedures that agrees the requirements of the ISO 3744:2011 and ISO 5136:2010 standards. For an accurate design of the HVAC system, the designer needs to know not only the sound power of the radiant unit, but also from all of the air paths, since the sound travels along with the conditioned air. The experimental methodology used in the paper is of real interest for the HVAC manufacturers, in order to rate the sound level of their products and to improve the noise attenuation.

  2. 75 FR 18757 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Alternate Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Alternate Monitoring Requirements for Indianapolis Power and Light--Harding Street Station AGENCY: Environmental... approve as ] a revision to its State Implementation Plan (SIP) alternative monitoring requirements for...

  3. Can we use fixed ambient air monitors to estimate population long-term exposure to air pollutants? The case of spatial variability in the Genotox ER study.

    PubMed

    Nerriere, Eléna; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Blanchard, Olivier; Momas, Isabelle; Ladner, Joël; Le Moullec, Yvon; Personnaz, Marie-Blanche; Lameloise, Philippe; Delmas, Véronique; Target, Alain; Desqueyroux, Hélène

    2005-01-01

    Associations between average total personal exposures to PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 and concomitant outdoor concentrations were assessed within the framework of the Genotox ER study. It was carried out in four French metropolitan areas (Grenoble, Paris, Rouen, and Strasbourg) with the participation, in each site, of 60-90 nonsmoking volunteers composed of two groups of equal size (adults and children) who carried the personal Harvard Chempass multipollutant sampler during 48 h along two different seasons ("hot" and "cold"). In each center, volunteers were selected so as to live (home and work/school) in three different urban sectors contrasted in terms of air pollution (one highly exposed to traffic emissions, one influenced by local industrial sources, and a background urban environment). In parallel to personal exposure measurements, a fixed ambient air monitoring station surveyed the same pollutants in each local sector. A linear regression model was accommodated where the dependent pollutant-specific variable was the difference, for each subject, between the average ambient air concentrations over 48 h and the personal exposure over the same period. The explanatory variables were the metropolitan areas, the three urban sectors, season, and age group. While average exposures to particles were underestimated by outdoor monitors, in almost all cities, seasons, and age groups, differences were lower for NO2 and, in general, in the other direction. Relationships between average total personal exposures and ambient air levels varied across metropolitan areas and local urban sectors. These results suggest that using ambient air concentrations to assess average exposure of populations, in epidemiological studies of long-term effects or in a risk assessment setting, calls for some caution. Comparison of personal exposures to PM or NO2 with ambient air levels is inherently disturbed by indoor sources and activities patterns. Discrepancies between measurement devices and local

  4. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    In the history of manned spaceflight, environmental monitoring has relied heavily on archival sampling. For short missions, this type of sample collection was sufficient; returned samples provided a snapshot of the presence of chemical and biological contaminants in the spacecraft air and water. However, with the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the subsequent extension of mission durations, soon to be up to one year, the need for enhanced, real-time environmental monitoring became more pressing. The past several years have seen the implementation of several real-time monitors aboard the ISS, complemented with reduced archival sampling. The station air is currently monitored for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (Air Quality Monitor [AQM]). The water on ISS is analyzed to measure total organic carbon and biocide concentrations using the Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), respectively. The current air and water monitors provide important data, but the number and size of the different instruments makes them impractical for future exploration missions. It is apparent that there is still a need for improvements in environmental monitoring capabilities. One such improvement could be realized by modifying a single instrument to analyze both air and water. As the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for target compounds present in air samples, and many of the compounds are also targets for water quality monitoring, this instrument provides a logical starting point to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent studies aimed at determining an appropriate method for introducing VOCs from water samples into the gas phase and our current work, in which an electro-thermal vaporization unit has been interfaced with the AQM to analyze target analytes at the

  5. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... assessment monitoring stations (PAMS) State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision for the Baton Rouge ozone nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... assessment monitoring stations (PAMS) State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision for the Baton Rouge ozone nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assessment monitoring stations (PAMS) State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision for the Baton Rouge ozone nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  8. REVIEW OF THE RADNET AIR MONITORING NETWORK UPGRADE AND EXPANSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    RadNet, formerly known as ERAMS, has been operating since the 1970's, monitoring environmental radiation across the country, supporting responses to radiological emergencies, and providing important information on background levels of radiation in the environment. The original ...

  9. Hand and shoe monitor using air ionization probes

    DOEpatents

    Fergus, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    A hand and shoe radiation monitor is provided which includes a probe support body defining a plurality of cells, within each cell there being an ionization probe. The support body provides structural strength for protecting the ionization probes from force applied to the support body during a radiation monitoring event. There is also provided a fast response time amplifier circuit for the output from the ionization probes.

  10. Hand and shoe monitor using air ionization probes

    SciTech Connect

    Fergus, R.W.

    1981-02-24

    A hand and shoe radiation monitor is provided which includes a probe support body defining a plurality of cells, within each cell there being an ionization probe. The support body provides structural strength for protecting the ionization probes from force applied to the support body during a radiation monitoring event. There is also provided a fast response time amplifier circuit for the output from the ionization probes.

  11. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report Supporting Radiological Air Surveillance Monitoring for the INL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, Thomas Jay

    2015-05-01

    This report documents the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site ambient air surveillance program. The development of the DQOs was based on the seven-step process recommended “for systematic planning to generate performance and acceptance criteria for collecting environmental data” (EPA 2006). The process helped to determine the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to meet current regulatory requirements and to follow U.S. Department of Energy guidance for environmental surveillance air monitoring design. It also considered the current air monitoring program that has existed at INL Site since the 1950s. The development of the DQOs involved the application of the atmospheric dispersion model CALPUFF to identify likely contamination dispersion patterns at and around the INL Site using site-specific meteorological data. Model simulations were used to quantitatively assess the probable frequency of detection of airborne radionuclides released by INL Site facilities using existing and proposed air monitors.

  12. A Survey of Modern Air Traffic Control. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    oceanic traffic would use combined hyperbolic-inertial navigation systems. System I could be implemented to meet the demanda for air traffic services...of Aviation c/o Flugrad Reykjavik ITALY Aeronautica Militare Ufficio del Delegato Nationale all’AGARD 3, Piazzale Adenauer Roma /EUR

  13. Use of Multi-Objective Air Pollution Monitoring Sites and Online Air Pollution Monitoring System for Total Health Risk Assessment in Hyderabad, India

    PubMed Central

    Anjaneyulu, Y.; Jayakumar, I.; Bindu, V. Hima; Sagareswar, G.; Rao, P.V. Mukunda; Rambabu, N.; Ramani, K. V.

    2005-01-01

    A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.). On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad “it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM”. These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000–15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS) environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real-time monitoring system was designed using advanced

  14. Use of multi-objective air pollution monitoring sites and online air pollution monitoring system for total health risk assessment in Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Anjaneyulu, Y; Jayakumar, I; Hima Bindu, V; Sagareswar, G; Mukunda Rao, P V; Rambabu, N; Ramani, K V

    2005-08-01

    A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.). On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad "it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM". These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000-15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS) environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real-time monitoring system was designed using advanced

  15. AirSWOT: An Airborne Platform for Surface Water Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Moller, D.; Smith, L. C.; Pavelsky, T. M.; Alsdorf, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    The SWOT mission, expected to launch in 2020, will provide global measurements of surface water extent and elevation from which storage change and discharge can be derived. SWOT-like measurements are not routinely used by the hydrology community, and their optimal use and associated errors are areas of active research. The purpose of AirSWOT, a system that has been proposed to NASA’s Instrument Incubator Program, is to provide SWOT-like measurements to the hydrology and ocean community to be used to advance the understanding and use of SWOT data in the pre-launch phase. In the post-launch phase, AirSWOT will be used as the SWOT calibration/validation platform. The AirSWOT payload will consist of Kaspar, a multi-beam Ka-band radar interferometer able to produce elevations over a 5 km swath with centimetric precision. The absolute elevation accuracy of the AirSWOT system will be achieved with a combination of high precision Inertial Motion Units (IMUs), ground calibration points, and advanced calibration techniques utilizing a priori knowledge. It is expected that the accuracy of AirSWOT will exceed or match SWOT’s accuracy requirements. In addition to elevation measurements, the AirSWOT payload will include a near-infrared camera able to provide coincident high-resolution optical imagery of the water bodies imaged by the radar. In its initial hydrology deployments, AirSWOT will investigate four field sites: the Ohio-Mississippi confluence, the lower Atchafalaya River on the Mississippi River Delta, the Yukon River basin near Fairbanks, and the Sacramento River, California. The Ohio-Mississippi confluence is targeted for its large discharge, modest slope, and control structures that modulate Ohio but not Mississippi River slopes and elevations. The lower Atchafalaya River includes low slopes, wetlands with differing vegetation types, and some open lakes. Vegetation includes Cyprus forests, floating macrophytes, and grass marshes, all of which impact radar returns

  16. Design of Sensor Data Processing Steps in an Air Pollution Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Young Jin; Lee, Yang Koo; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Yongmi; Nittel, Silvia; Beard, Kate; Nam, Kwang Woo; Ryu, Keun Ho

    2011-01-01

    Environmental monitoring is required to understand the effects of various kinds of phenomena such as a flood, a typhoon, or a forest fire. To detect the environmental conditions in remote places, monitoring applications employ the sensor networks to detect conditions, context models to understand phenomena, and computing technology to process the large volumes of data. In this paper, we present an air pollution monitoring system to provide alarm messages about potentially dangerous areas with sensor data analysis. We design the data analysis steps to understand the detected air pollution regions and levels. The analyzed data is used to track the pollution and to give an alarm. This implemented monitoring system is used to mitigate the damages caused by air pollution. PMID:22247663

  17. Can citizen science produce good science? Testing the OPAL Air Survey methodology, using lichens as indicators of nitrogenous pollution.

    PubMed

    Tregidgo, Daniel J; West, Sarah E; Ashmore, Mike R

    2013-11-01

    Citizen science is having increasing influence on environmental monitoring as its advantages are becoming recognised. However methodologies are often simplified to make them accessible to citizen scientists. We tested whether a recent citizen science survey (the OPAL Air Survey) could detect trends in lichen community composition over transects away from roads. We hypothesised that the abundance of nitrophilic lichens would decrease with distance from the road, while that of nitrophobic lichens would increase. The hypothesised changes were detected along strong pollution gradients, but not where the road source was relatively weak, or background pollution relatively high. We conclude that the simplified OPAL methodology can detect large contrasts in nitrogenous pollution, but it may not be able to detect more subtle changes in pollution exposure. Similar studies are needed in conjunction with the ever-growing body of citizen science work to ensure that the limitations of these methods are fully understood.

  18. Use Of The Operational Air Quality Monitor (AQM) For In-Flight Water Testing Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    A primary requirement for manned spaceflight is Environmental Health which ensures air and water contaminants, acoustic profiles, microbial flora, and radiation exposures within the cabin are maintained to levels needed for crew health and for vehicle system functionality. The reliance on ground analyses of returned samples is a limitation in the current environmental monitoring strategy that will prevent future Exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. This proposal attempts to address this shortcoming by advancing in-flight analyses of water and air. Ground analysis of in-flight, air and water samples typically employ vapor-phase analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and quantify organic compounds present in the samples. We envision the use of newly-developed direct ionization approaches as the most viable avenue leading towards an integrated analytical platform for the monitoring of water, air, and, potentially bio-samples in the cabin environment. Development of an in-flight instrument capable of analyzing air and water samples would be the logical next step to meeting the environmental monitoring needs of Exploration missions. Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides this specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant subset of common target compounds between air and water. Naturally, the following question arises, "Can the AQM be used for both air and water quality monitoring?" Previous directorate-level IR&D funding led to the development of a water sample introduction method for mass spectrometry using electrothermal vaporization (ETV). This project will focus on the integration of the ETV with a ground-based AQM. The capabilities of this integrated platform will be evaluated using a subset of toxicologically important compounds.

  19. Use of mobile and passive badge air monitoring data for NOX and ozone air pollution spatial exposure prediction models.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Riley, Erin A; Austin, Elena; Sasakura, Miyoko; Schaal, Lanae; Gould, Timothy R; Hartin, Kris; Simpson, Christopher D; Sampson, Paul D; Yost, Michael G; Larson, Timothy V; Xiu, Guangli; Vedal, Sverre

    2017-03-01

    Air pollution exposure prediction models can make use of many types of air monitoring data. Fixed location passive samples typically measure concentrations averaged over several days to weeks. Mobile monitoring data can generate near continuous concentration measurements. It is not known whether mobile monitoring data are suitable for generating well-performing exposure prediction models or how they compare with other types of monitoring data in generating exposure models. Measurements from fixed site passive samplers and mobile monitoring platform were made over a 2-week period in Baltimore in the summer and winter months in 2012. Performance of exposure prediction models for long-term nitrogen oxides (NOX) and ozone (O3) concentrations were compared using a state-of-the-art approach for model development based on land use regression (LUR) and geostatistical smoothing. Model performance was evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV). Models performed well using the mobile peak traffic monitoring data for both NOX and O3, with LOOCV R(2)s of 0.70 and 0.71, respectively, in the summer, and 0.90 and 0.58, respectively, in the winter. Models using 2-week passive samples for NOX had LOOCV R(2)s of 0.60 and 0.65 in the summer and winter months, respectively. The passive badge sampling data were not adequate for developing models for O3. Mobile air monitoring data can be used to successfully build well-performing LUR exposure prediction models for NOX and O3 and are a better source of data for these models than 2-week passive badge data.

  20. Characteristics and verification of a car-borne survey system for dose rates in air: KURAMA-II.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, S; Yoshida, T; Tsutsumi, M; Saito, K

    2015-01-01

    The car-borne survey system KURAMA-II, developed by the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, has been used for air dose rate mapping after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. KURAMA-II consists of a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector, a GPS device, and a control device for data processing. The dose rates monitored by KURAMA-II are based on the G(E) function (spectrum-dose conversion operator), which can precisely calculate dose rates from measured pulse-height distribution even if the energy spectrum changes significantly. The characteristics of KURAMA-II have been investigated with particular consideration to the reliability of the calculated G(E) function, dose rate dependence, statistical fluctuation, angular dependence, and energy dependence. The results indicate that 100 units of KURAMA-II systems have acceptable quality for mass monitoring of dose rates in the environment.

  1. Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) Quality Assurance Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many communities in the United States are potentially impacted by a wide variety of environmental pollution sources. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) encourages communities to advocate for environmental and public health mitigations and to raise awareness of air pol...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a description of the activities and accomplishments of the American Society for Testing and Materials' U. S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to the International Standards Organization's Technical Committee 146 on Air Quality. The purpose of the TAG is to re...

  3. 40 CFR 58.15 - Annual air monitoring data certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (through the appropriate Regional Office) a summary of the precision and accuracy data for all ambient air quality data collected at all SLAMS and at SPM stations using FRM, FEM, or ARMs. The summary of precision.... The summary of precision and accuracy must be submitted on the same schedule as the...

  4. MONITORING CYCLICAL AIR-WATER ELEMENTAL MERCURY EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experimental work has demonstrated that elemental mercury evasion from natural water displays a diel cycle; evasion rates during the day can be two to three times evasion rates observed at night. A study with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) found that diurnal PCB air/wa...

  5. Ubiquitous Computing for Remote Cardiac Patient Monitoring: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Kambhatla, Kashyap; Hu, Fei; Lifson, Mark; Xiao, Yang

    2008-01-01

    New wireless technologies, such as wireless LAN and sensor networks, for telecardiology purposes give new possibilities for monitoring vital parameters with wearable biomedical sensors, and give patients the freedom to be mobile and still be under continuous monitoring and thereby better quality of patient care. This paper will detail the architecture and quality-of-service (QoS) characteristics in integrated wireless telecardiology platforms. It will also discuss the current promising hardware/software platforms for wireless cardiac monitoring. The design methodology and challenges are provided for realistic implementation. PMID:18604301

  6. Survey of Technologies for Monitoring Containment Liners and Covers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report provides information on innovative long-term monitoring technologies to detect contaminant releases beneath a liner containment system and identify potential problems with the integrity of final containment covers.

  7. Survey of Condition Indicators for Condition Monitoring Systems (Open Access)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-29

    gear and shaft in the gearbox as well as the generator and main bearing. A condition monitoring system is designed to detect faults early on so...discrimination, which is arguably one of the most important aspects of a condition monitoring system . Fault discrimination is the ability to...separate out a faulted component from good components. If the fault discrimination is good, then the alarms the system provides are trustworthy and

  8. Neighborhood epidemiological monitoring and adult mental health: European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-04-01

    Little is monitored on perceived neighborhood noise, quality of drinking water, air quality, rubbish, traffic, etc. at a continental scale. This study was aimed to examine the relationships of such neighborhood risks and mental health in adults and the very old in an international and population-based setting across Europe. Data were retrieved from the European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012 including demographics, living conditions, income and financial situation, housing and local environment, family, work, health, social participation and quality of social services. Adults aged 18 and above were included for statistical analysis (n = 79,270). Analysis included chi-square test, t test and logistic regression modeling. People who lived in town or city tended to indicate certain major problems for them such as noise (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-2.53, P < 0.001), air quality (OR 2.76, 95% CI 2.54-3.00, P < 0.001), low quality of drinking water (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.23-1.43, P < 0.001), crime and/or violence (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.68-3.19, P < 0.001), rubbish (OR 3.68, 95% CI 3.41-3.97, P < 0.001) and traffic congestion (OR 2.64, 95% CI 2.45-2.85, P < 0.001). People who reported major problems on noise (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.96-2.45, P < 0.001), air quality (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.87-2.37, P < 0.001), low quality of drinking water (OR 2.40, 95% CI 2.14-2.68, P < 0.001), crime and/or violence (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.88-2.41, P < 0.001), rubbish (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.77-2.11, P < 0.001) and traffic congestion (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.34-1.68, P < 0.001) were also classified as having depression. Perceived neighborhood conditions were associated with adult mental health across Europe. Future neighborhood monitoring research moving from the etiological to neighborhood management would be suggested.

  9. [2011 after-service customer satisfaction survey of monitoring devices in Shanghai area].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Li, Bin; Qian, Jianguo; Cao, Shaoping; He, Dehua; Zheng, Yunxin

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Shanghai Medical Equipment Management Quality Control Center launched the fifth after-sale service satisfaction survey for medical devices in Shanghai area. There are 8 classes medical devices involving in the survey. This paper demonstrates the investigation results of monitoring devices which are from different manufacturers.

  10. [French survey on anesthesia systems and peroperative respiratory monitoring equipment].

    PubMed

    Bourgain, J L; Duranteau, J; Deriaz, H; Noviant, Y

    1986-01-01

    A national inquiry has been carried out in France. It concerned the anaesthetic systems and respiratory monitoring equipment in use at the moment, as well as that wished for. The equipment in use was very stereotyped: an open system with a respirator, for the most volumetric, and with a safety O2/N2O mixer. Monitoring is carried out with the pressure gauges and the measure of expiratory volume; only two thirds of the equipment had an alarm. The O2 and CO2 analysers were little used. Expired CO2 monitoring was only carried out in teaching hospitals and in big centres. Apart from this, the equipment was independent of the hospital and the type of surgery carried out. As for anaesthetic systems, 53% of centres would like obtain open systems, 15% closed systems; 32% did not answer. This increase in number of closed systems is not significant. However, a very strong wish for respirators with flow rate control and safety O2/N2O mixers was observed, whilst the safety parameters of these mixers were open to discussion. Respiratory monitoring was not just confined to the mechanical aspects, as 65% of centres wished to monitor FIO2. The big centres and the teaching hospitals were interested by the expiratory CO2 monitoring. This inquiry showed the interest in respiratory safety in operating theatres. Further studies should confirm or not the increasing interest in closed systems.

  11. Emissions and ambient air monitoring trends of lower olefins across Texas from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jessica L; Phillips, Tracie; Grant, Roberta L

    2015-11-05

    Texas has the largest ambient air monitoring network in the country with approximately 83 monitoring sites that measure ambient air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The lower olefins, including 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, isoprene, and propylene, are a group of VOCs that can be measured in both 24h/every sixth-day canister samples and continuous 1-h Automated Gas Chromatography (AutoGC) samples. Based on 2012 Toxics Release Inventory data, the total reported industrial air emissions in Texas for these olefins, as compared to total national reported air emissions, were 79% for 1,3-butadiene, 62% for ethylene, 76% for isoprene, and 54% for propylene, illustrating that Texas industries are some of the major emitters for these olefins. The purpose of this study was to look at the patterns of annual average air monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 using Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) data for these four lower olefins. It should be emphasized that monitors may not be located close to or downwind of the highest emitters of these lower olefins. In addition, air monitors only provide a snapshot in time of air concentrations for their respective locations, and may not be able to discriminate emissions between specific sources. In 2012, the highest annual average air concentration for 1,3-butadiene was 1.28 ppb by volume (ppbv), which was measured at the Port Neches monitoring site in Region 10-Beaumont. For ethylene, the highest 2012 annual average air concentration was 5.77 ppbv, which was measured at the Dona Park monitoring site in TCEQ Region 14-Corpus Christi. Although reported industrial emissions of isoprene are predominantly from the Houston and Beaumont regions, trees are natural emitters of isoprene, and the highest ambient air concentrations tend to be from regions with large areas of coniferous and hardwood forests. This was observed with TCEQ Region 5-Tyler, which had the two highest isoprene annual average air concentrations for

  12. Systems Health Monitoring — From Ground to Air — The Aerospace Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Mary

    2007-03-01

    The aerospace industry and the government are significantly investing in jet engine systems health monitoring. Government organizations such as the Air Force, Navy, Army, National Labs and NASA are investing in the development of state aware sensing for health monitoring of jet engines such as the Joint Strike Fighter, F119 and F100's. This paper will discuss on-going work in systems health monitoring for jet engines. Topics will include a general discussion of the approaches to engine structural health monitoring and the prognosis of engine component life. Real-world implementation challenges on the ground and in the air will be reviewed. The talk will conclude with a prediction of where engine health monitoring will be in twenty years.

  13. Fall 1994 wildlife and vegetation survey, Norton Air Force Base, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-15

    The fall 1994 wildlife and vegetation surveys were completed October 3-7, 1994, at Norton Air Force Base (AFB), California. Two biologists from CDM Federal Programs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regional biologist and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) lead biologist conducted the surveys. A habitat assessment of three Installation Restoration Project (IRP) sites at Norton Air Force Base was also completed during the fall survey period. The IRP sites include: Landfill No. 2 (Site 2); the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP) area; and Former Fire Training Area No. 1 (Site 5). The assessments were designed to qualitatively characterize the sites of concern, identify potential ecological receptors, and provide information for Remedial Design/Remedial Action activities. A Reference Area (Santa Ana River Wash) and the base urban areas were also characterized. The reference area assessment was performed to provide a baseline for comparison with the IRP site habitats. The fall 1994 survey is the second of up to four surveys that may be completed. In order to develop a complete understanding of all plant and animal species using the base, these surveys were planned to be conducted over four seasons. Species composition can vary widely during the course of a year in Southern California, and therefore, seasonal surveys will provide the most complete and reliable data to address changes in habitat structure and wildlife use of the site. Subsequent surveys will focus on seasonal wildlife observations and a spring vegetation survey.

  14. MONITORING THE AIR FOR TOXIC AND GENOTOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor p...

  15. APPLICATION OF JET REMPI AND LIBS TO AIR TOXIC MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses three advanced, laser-based monitoring techniques that the EPA is assisting in developing for real time measurement of toxic aerosol compounds. One of the three techniques is jet resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (Jet REMPI) coupled with a time-of-flig...

  16. Arkansas Receives EPA Grant to Monitor and Improve Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (July 2, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded more than $558,000 to the - Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) to monitor fine particulate matter, or PM 2.5. These are particles found in smoke and haze t

  17. EPA Grant Will Help Oklahoma Monitor and Improve Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (July 15, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded more than $646,000 to the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) to monitor fine particulate matter, or PM 2.5. These are particles found in smoke and haze th

  18. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, K.J.; Jolley, J.G.

    1994-06-01

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA{reg_sign} canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA{reg_sign}, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities.

  19. An Integrated Survey System for Addressing Abuse and Misconduct Toward Air Force Trainees During Basic Military Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    An Integrated Survey System for Addressing Abuse and Misconduct Toward Air Force Trainees During Basic Military Training Kirsten M. Keller, Laura...00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Integrated Survey System for Addressing Abuse and Misconduct Toward Air Force Trainees During...RAND Project AIR FORCE to help develop an integrated survey system to help address abuse and misconduct toward trainees in the BMT environment. This

  20. Air Monitoring Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  1. Project 57 Air Monitoring Report: October 1, 2013, through December 31, 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; McCurdy, Greg; Shadel, Craig; Miller, Julianne J.

    2016-02-01

    On April 24, 1957, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC, now the Department of Energy [DOE]) conducted the Project 57 safety experiment in western Emigrant Valley north east of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) on lands withdrawn by the Department of Defense (DoD) for the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). The test was undertaken to develop (1) a means of estimating plutonium distribution resulting from a nonnuclear detonation; (2) biomedical evaluation techniques for use in plutonium-laden environments; (3) methods of surface decontamination; and (4) instruments and field procedures for prompt estimation of alpha contamination (Shreve, 1958). Although the test did not result in the fission of nuclear materials, it did disseminate plutonium across the land surface. Following the experiment, the AEC fenced the contaminated area and returned control of the surrounding land to the DoD. Various radiological surveys have been performed in the area and in 2007, the DOE expanded the demarked contamination area by posting signs 200 to 400 feet (60 to 120 meters) outside of the original fence. Plutonium in soil is thought to attach preferentially to smaller particles. Therefore, redistribution of soil particulates by wind (dust) is the mechanism most likely to transport plutonium beyond the boundary of the Project 57 contamination area. In 2011, DRI installed two instrumentation towers to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The monitoring activity was implemented to determine if radionuclide contamination was detectable in samples of airborne dust and characterize meteorological and environmental parameters that influence dust transport. Collected data also permits comparison of radiological conditions at the Project 57 monitoring stations to conditions observed at Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations around the NTTR. Biweekly samples of airborne particulates are submitted for laboratory

  2. A 2013 Survey on Pressure Monitoring in Adult Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits: Modes and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Laura; Searles, Bruce; Darling, Edward Morse

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Pressure data acquired from multiple sites of extracorporeal circuits can be an important parameter to monitor for the safe conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Although previous surveys demonstrate that CPB circuit pressure monitoring is widely used, there are very little data cataloging specific applications of this practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to survey the perfusion community to catalog 1) primary CPB circuit site pressure monitoring locations; 2) type of manometers used; 3) pressure monitoring interface and servoregulation with pump console; and 4) the rationale and documentation associated with pressure monitoring during CPB. In June 2013, a validated 27-question online survey was sent directly through an e-mail link to the chief perfusionists in the northeast United States. Completed surveys were received from 75 of 117 surveys deployed yielding a 64% response rate. Arterial line pressure monitoring during CPB is reported by 99% with six distinct circuit site locations identified. Cardioplegia system pressure was monitored by 95% of the centers. For vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) users, the venous pressure was measured by 72% of the responding centers. Arterial line pressure servoregulation of the arterial pump was indicated by 61% of respondents and 75% of centers record arterial line pressure in their perfusion record. Most centers (77%) report the use of a transducer that is integrated into the pump console providing a digital pressure display, whereas 20% combine an aneroid gauge manometer with the integrated digital transducer. This study demonstrates that the practice of arterial line pressure monitoring during CPB is nearly universal. However, the selection of the pressure monitoring site on the circuit, modes of monitoring pressure, and their applications are highly variable across the perfusion community. PMID:26357797

  3. U.S. Air Force Turbine Engine Emission Survey. Volume II. Individual Engine Test Reports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    1» I MI HU III.I11M1,|IHIIPH|I»^^—»^ II 111.11 l|. I I | mi | . I I. I.,.L ENGINE J85 -5 17 ^ ^_._. rr •Wl...AD-AÜbl 665 UNCLASSIFIED SCOTT ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY INC PLUMSTEAOVILLE PA F/G 21/5 U.S. AIR FORCE TURBINE ENGINE EMISSION SURVEY...i run’ LEVEL CEEDOTR-7834 U.S. AIR FORCE TURBINE ENGINE EMISSION SURVEY VOL II INDIVIDUAL ENGINE TEST REPORTS v o-< 3 „ fi-^\\^92 ANTHONY F

  4. A western gray whale mitigation and monitoring program for a 3-D seismic survey, Sakhalin Island, Russia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S R; Richardson, W J; Yazvenko, S B; Blokhin, S A; Gailey, G; Jenkerson, M R; Meier, S K; Melton, H R; Newcomer, M W; Perlov, A S; Rutenko, S A; Würsig, B; Martin, C R; Egging, D E

    2007-11-01

    The introduction of anthropogenic sounds into the marine environment can impact some marine mammals. Impacts can be greatly reduced if appropriate mitigation measures and monitoring are implemented. This paper concerns such measures undertaken by Exxon Neftegas Limited, as operator of the Sakhalin-1 Consortium, during the Odoptu 3-D seismic survey conducted during 17 August-9 September 2001. The key environmental issue was protection of the critically endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), which feeds in summer and fall primarily in the Piltun feeding area off northeast Sakhalin Island. Existing mitigation and monitoring practices for seismic surveys in other jurisdictions were evaluated to identify best practices for reducing impacts on feeding activity by western gray whales. Two buffer zones were established to protect whales from physical injury or undue disturbance during feeding. A 1 km buffer protected all whales from exposure to levels of sound energy potentially capable of producing physical injury. A 4-5 km buffer was established to avoid displacing western gray whales from feeding areas. Trained Marine Mammal Observers (MMOs) on the seismic ship Nordic Explorer had the authority to shut down the air guns if whales were sighted within these buffers. Additional mitigation measures were also incorporated: Temporal mitigation was provided by rescheduling the program from June-August to August-September to avoid interference with spring arrival of migrating gray whales. The survey area was reduced by 19% to avoid certain waters <20 m deep where feeding whales concentrated and where seismic acquisition was a lower priority. The number of air guns and total volume of the air guns were reduced by about half (from 28 to 14 air guns and from 3,390 in(3) to 1,640 in(3)) relative to initial plans. "Ramp-up" (="soft-start") procedures were implemented. Monitoring activities were conducted as needed to implement some mitigation measures, and to assess

  5. Windsor, Ontario exposure assessment study: design and methods validation of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Amanda J; Xu, Xiaohong; Kulka, Ryan; You, Hongyu; Wallace, Lance; Mallach, Gary; Van Ryswyk, Keith; MacNeill, Morgan; Kearney, Jill; Rasmussen, Pat E; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Wang, Daniel; Poon, Raymond; Williams, Ron; Stocco, Corinne; Anastassopoulos, Angelos; Miller, J David; Dales, Robert; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2011-03-01

    The Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study evaluated the contribution of ambient air pollutants to personal and indoor exposures of adults and asthmatic children living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. In addition, the role of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution exposures upon asthmatic children's respiratory health was assessed. Several active and passive sampling methods were applied, or adapted, for personal, indoor, and outdoor residential monitoring of nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter (PM; PM-2.5 pm [PM2.5] and < or =10 microm [PM10] in aerodynamic diameter), elemental carbon, ultrafine particles, ozone, air exchange rates, allergens in settled dust, and particulate-associated metals. Participants completed five consecutive days of monitoring during the winter and summer of 2005 and 2006. During 2006, in addition to undertaking the air pollution measurements, asthmatic children completed respiratory health measurements (including peak flow meter tests and exhaled breath condensate) and tracked respiratory symptoms in a diary. Extensive quality assurance and quality control steps were implemented, including the collocation of instruments at the National Air Pollution Surveillance site operated by Environment Canada and at the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality site in Allen Park, Detroit, MI. During field sampling, duplicate and blank samples were also completed and these data are reported. In total, 50 adults and 51 asthmatic children were recruited to participate, resulting in 922 participant days of data. When comparing the methods used in the study with standard reference methods, field blanks were low and bias was acceptable, with most methods being within 20% of reference methods. Duplicates were typically within less than 10% of each other, indicating that study results can be used with confidence. This paper covers study design, recruitment, methodology, time activity diary, surveys, and quality

  6. Mapping forest canopy gaps using air-photo interpretation and ground surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, T.J.; Knutson, M.G.; Hines, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    Canopy gaps are important structural components of forested habitats for many wildlife species. Recent improvements in the spatial accuracy of geographic information system tools facilitate accurate mapping of small canopy features such as gaps. We compared canopy-gap maps generated using ground survey methods with those derived from air-photo interpretation. We found that maps created from high-resolution air photos were more accurate than those created from ground surveys. Errors of omission were 25.6% for the ground-survey method and 4.7% for the air-photo method. One variable of inter est in songbird research is the distance from nests to gap edges. Distances from real and simulated nests to gap edges were longer using the ground-survey maps versus the air-photo maps, indicating that gap omission could potentially bias the assessment of spatial relationships. If research or management goals require location and size of canopy gaps and specific information about vegetation structure, we recommend a 2-fold approach. First, canopy gaps can be located and the perimeters defined using 1:15,000-scale or larger aerial photographs and the methods we describe. Mapped gaps can then be field-surveyed to obtain detailed vegetation data.

  7. Wastewater Characterization Survey, Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    USAFOEHL REPORT 89-009EQO0105BWA WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION SURVEY, LAUGHLIN AFB TX CHARLES W. ATTEBERY, 1Lt, USAF, BSC o ROBERT D. BINOVI, Lt Col...including foreign nations. This report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. CHARLES W. ATTEBERY, ILt, USAF, BSC -SI-1kLTN R. BI...AS RPT C DTIC USERS UnclassWi ed 22a NAME Of RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b TELEPHONEA~nude Agia Co) 2.OFICS’ML Charles W. Attebery, ILt, USAF, BSC (512

  8. Air and water quality monitor assessment of life support subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ken; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Holder, D.; Humphries, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preprotype air revitalization and water reclamation subsystems (Mole Sieve, Sabatier, Static Feed Electrolyzer, Trace Contaminant Control, and Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporative Subsystem) were operated and tested independently and in an integrated arrangement. During each test, water and/or gas samples were taken from each subsystem so that overall subsystem performance could be determined. The overall test design and objectives for both subsystem and integrated subsystem tests were limited, and no effort was made to meet water or gas specifications. The results of chemical analyses for each of the participating subsystems are presented along with other selected samples which were analyzed for physical properties and microbiologicals.

  9. 76 FR 39103 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Air Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee... and Methods Subcommittee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... provide advice, information, and recommendations to the Administrator on the scientific and...

  10. A case study on determining air monitoring requirements in a radioactive materials handling area

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, G.J.; Bechtold, W.E.; Hoover, M.D.; Ghanbari, F.; Herring, P.S.; Jow, Hong-Nian

    1993-12-31

    A technical, defensible basis for the number and placement of air sampling instruments in a radioactive materials handling facility was developed. Historical air sampling data, process and physicochemical knowledge, qualitative smoke dispersion studies with video documentation, and quantitative trace gas dispersion studies were used to develop a strategy for number and placement of air samplers. These approaches can be used in other facilities to provide a basis for operational decisions. The requirements for retrospective sampling, personal sampling, and real-time monitoring are included. Other relevant operational decisions include selecting the numbers, placement, and appropriate sampling rates for instruments, identifying areas of stagnation or recirculation, and determining the adequacy and efficiency of any sampling transport lines. Justification is presented for using a graded approach to characterizing the workplace and determining air sampling and monitoring needs.

  11. Biological Monitoring of Air Pollutants and Its Influence on Human Beings.

    PubMed

    Cen, Shihong

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring air pollutants via plants is an economic, convenient and credible method compared with the traditional ways. Plants show different damage symptoms to different air pollutants, which can be used to determine the species of air pollutants. Besides, pollutants mass concentration scope can be estimated by the damage extent of plants and the span of polluted time. Based on the domestic and foreign research, this paper discusses the principles, mechanism, advantages and disadvantages of plant-monitoring, and exemplifies plenty of such plants and the minimum mass concentration and pollution time of the plants showing damage symptoms. Finally, this paper introduced the human health effects of air pollutants on immune function of the body, such as decrease of the body's immune function, decline of lung function, respiratory and circulatory system changes, inducing and promoting human allergic diseases, respiratory diseases and other diseases.

  12. Bioluminescent liquid light guide pad biosensor for indoor air toxicity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Eltzov, Evgeni; Cohen, Avital; Marks, Robert S

    2015-04-07

    Indoor air pollution became a recent concern found to be oftentimes worse than outdoor air quality. We developed a tool that is cheap and simple and enables continuous monitoring of air toxicity. It is a biosensor with both a nondisposable (monitor) and disposable (calcium alginate pads with immobilized bacteria) elements. Various parameters to enhance its signal have been tested (including the effect of the pad's orientation, it's exposure to either temperature or time with the air toxicant analyte, and various concentrations thereof). Lastly, the sensor has demonstrated its ability to sense the presence of chemicals in a real, indoor environment. This is the first step in the creation of a sensitive and simple operative tool that may be used in different indoor environments.

  13. The Air Sensor Citizen Science Toolbox: A Collaboration in Community Air Quality Monitoring and Mapping?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project GoalDevelop tools Citizen Scientists can use to assist them in conducting environmental monitoringResearch PlanIdentify a citizen science project as a potential pilot study locationEstablish their pollutant monitoring interestsDevelop a sensor package to meet their needs ...

  14. Survey of U.S. Army Monitor Jobs,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-04-01

    result of various internal factors such as fatigue, boredom, poor morale, and anxiety . Decrement in or errors of performance also occur as a result...requiring vigilance. 2. qestionnaire form to be completed for each duty position judged by the respondent to be a monitor job (Appendix A). The

  15. A Survey and Comparison of Human Monitoring of Complex Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    monitoring of a water network , a system was created that automatically FIGURE 1. WATER PLANT CONTROL ROOM <http... water network operation instead of focusing on local data from a limited number of SCADA sensors [2]. Additional benefits include an enhanced ability

  16. The Air Sensor Citizen Science Toolbox: A Collaboration in Community Air Quality Monitoring and Mapping

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research in Action: Collect air quality data to characterize near-road/near-source hotspots; Determine potential impact on nearby residences & roadways; Case study of successful use of such data; Relationship between distance to roadways and industrial sources, exposure to...

  17. Air Sensor Kit Performance Testing and Pollutant Mapping Supports Community Air Monitoring Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is collaborating on a research project with the South Coast Air Quality Management District in Diamond Bar, Calif. to gain an enhanced understanding of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations across the study area.

  18. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R.; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R2 > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air. PMID:25319343

  19. A survey of fatigue monitoring in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.

    1991-12-31

    The original design of nuclear power plants addressed fatigue concerns by including calculations of projected fatigue usage for specific components; the calculations were based on estimates of the number and severity of expected transients over the 40-year design life of the plants. In some cases, the transients occurring in the plants are not as severe as was anticipated in the original design analyses, while in other cases events have occurred that were not anticipated in the design basis documents. Field failures caused by fatigue have identified some of those cases. In response, several organizations in the United States and overseas have developed fatigue monitoring programs to more accurately estimate the fatigue usage. One basic approach consists of reconstructing the fatigue usage to date based on the transients recorded in the operating history instead of those projected in the design documents. Another approach includes monitoring the plant instrumentation to determine actual values for parameters such as temperature and pressure and using the measured values in the fatigue usage calculations instead of the values projected in the design documents. The use of existing plant instrumentation to measure temperature, pressure, flow rate, etc., along with the incorporation of conservative assumptions, had generally proven adequate for estimating fatigue usage; however, in some cases additional instrumentation installed for local monitoring can provide a more accurate estimate, especially where thermal stratification is known to occur. Fatigue monitoring can aid in identifying fatigue concerns not anticipated in the original design and for reducing the excessive conservatism in some of the original design calculations so that the fatigue lives of these components can be justified as they age. Fatigue monitoring can also assist efforts to reduce ongoing fatigue usage through design modifications and operating procedure changes.

  20. A survey of fatigue monitoring in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    The original design of nuclear power plants addressed fatigue concerns by including calculations of projected fatigue usage for specific components; the calculations were based on estimates of the number and severity of expected transients over the 40-year design life of the plants. In some cases, the transients occurring in the plants are not as severe as was anticipated in the original design analyses, while in other cases events have occurred that were not anticipated in the design basis documents. Field failures caused by fatigue have identified some of those cases. In response, several organizations in the United States and overseas have developed fatigue monitoring programs to more accurately estimate the fatigue usage. One basic approach consists of reconstructing the fatigue usage to date based on the transients recorded in the operating history instead of those projected in the design documents. Another approach includes monitoring the plant instrumentation to determine actual values for parameters such as temperature and pressure and using the measured values in the fatigue usage calculations instead of the values projected in the design documents. The use of existing plant instrumentation to measure temperature, pressure, flow rate, etc., along with the incorporation of conservative assumptions, had generally proven adequate for estimating fatigue usage; however, in some cases additional instrumentation installed for local monitoring can provide a more accurate estimate, especially where thermal stratification is known to occur. Fatigue monitoring can aid in identifying fatigue concerns not anticipated in the original design and for reducing the excessive conservatism in some of the original design calculations so that the fatigue lives of these components can be justified as they age. Fatigue monitoring can also assist efforts to reduce ongoing fatigue usage through design modifications and operating procedure changes.

  1. Application of a dry-gas meter for measuring air sample volumes in an ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2009-05-24

    Ambient air monitoring for non-research applications (e.g. compliance) occurs at locations throughout the world. Often, the air sampling systems employed for these purposes employee simple yet robust equipment capable of handling the rigors of demanding sampling schedules. At the Hanford Site (near Richland, Washington) concentrations of radionuclides in ambient air are monitored continuously at 44 locations. In 2004, mechanical dry-gas meters were incorporated into the Hanford Site ambient air sample collection system to allow the direct measurement of sample volumes. These meters replaced a portable airflow measurement system that required two manual flow measurements and a sample duration measurement to determine sample volume. A six-month evaluation of the dry-gas meters compared sample volumes calculated using the original flow rate method to the direct sample volume measurement (new method). The results of the evaluation indicate that use of the dry-gas meters result in accurate sample volume measurements and provide greater confidence in the measured sample volumes. In several years of in-network use, the meters have proven to be reliable and have resulted in an improved sampling system.

  2. Air Force Aerospace Medicine Enterprise Ambulatory Medical Care Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    28.7%;), Visual Function Screening (161,054 procedures, 15.4%), Screening Test Pure Tone, Air Only (107,551 procedures, 10.3%) and Color Vision...28.82 10,882 25.98 13,479 24.77 14,068 24.93 16,157 27.51 19,221 32.25 18,140 28.24 20,321 27.13 19,994 26.02 Visual Function Screening 91,625 17.58...5,117 26.15 4,613 21.61 5,253 26.55 5,688 26.53 9,385 30.66 11,820 29.36 6,453 22.67 6,852 23.53 Visual Function Screening 37,927 16.10 685 5.97

  3. Air War College Class of 1981 Retention Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    action direel ed tt)ward [urther" improvements in the human side ol Air Force ]itfe are, the best tangible solutions for making real progress in the... Ocf .-𔄁 00 0 a- m 0# o4 0 N I c (0 t-t -’ OIS 0’ 01 14 Nr (11 4 a 0 0 10 .0J Li I t 00 0l *4 -’K --- -- -- - - w am ;1 0~~U @1 -I4tl 0 1 -0m4 m In4...oriented. Do-gooders and fair- haired boys trying to lie, cheat, and steal to get ahead of their peers. Overemphasis on careerism by too many officers

  4. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys, 2006-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelle, R.D.

    2007-10-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 11 sites during the summer 2006 survey period and at 15 sites during fall 2006 and winter 2007 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 39,898 fish from 14 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 19% of fish enumerated followed by mountain whitefish (18%) and rainbow trout (14%). Day and night surveys were conducted during the summer 2006 period (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2006 (October) and winter 2007 (February/March) surveys. This is second annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  5. Ambient air monitoring plan for Ciudad Acuna and Piedra Negras, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Winberry, J.; Henning, L.; Crume, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Cities of Ciudad Acuna and Piedras Negras and the State of Coahuila in Mexico are interested in improving ambient air quality monitoring capabilities in the two cities through the establishment of a network of ambient air monitors. The purpose of the network is to characterize population exposure to potentially harmful air contaminants, possibly including sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particulate matter (TSP), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 100 micrometers PM-10, and lead. This report presents the results of an evaluation of existing air quality monitoring equipment and facilities in Ciudad Acuna and Piedras Negras. Additionally, the report presents recommendations for developing an air quality monitoring network for PM-10, SO{sub 2}, lead, and ozone in these cities, using a combination of both new and existing equipment. The human resources currently available and ultimately needed to operate and maintain the network are also discussed.

  6. Feasibility study for the modernization of the air quality monitoring network in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The project is part of the Ministry of Environment and Recoverable Resources`s (MARNR) goal of establishing a consolidated and effective monitoring program nationwide, which would allow for evaluations of air quality, identification of pollution sources and provide a basis for future air quality management decisions. The bilingual Spanish/English report consists of: (1) work plan; (2) evaluation of current monitoring stations and recommendations for improvement; (3) field evaluation report for existing MARNR network; (4) institutional analysis, revenue requirements, selection of funding mechanism, and three sets of attachments.

  7. Technical specification for transferring ambient air monitoring data to the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In September 1994, a team was formed to develop, document, and implement technical specifications for transmitting ambient air environmental compliance and monitoring data to the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS). The approach used to transmit this data is documented in the {open_quotes}Plan for Integrating Environmental Compliance and Monitoring Data into OREIS.{close_quotes} This plan addresses the consolidated data requirements defined by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) and the Tennessee Oversight Agreement (TOA) as they pertain to environmental compliance and monitoring data maintained by Energy Systems` Oak Ridge Environmental Management organizations. Ibis document describes. the requirements, responsibilities, criteria, and format for transmitting ambient air compliance and monitoring data to OREIS.

  8. Field assessment of the Village Green Project: an autonomous community air quality monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wan; Hagler, Gayle S W; Williams, Ronald W; Sharpe, Robert N; Weinstock, Lewis; Rice, Joann

    2015-05-19

    Continuous, long-term, and time-resolved measurement of outdoor air pollution has been limited by logistical hurdles and resource constraints. Measuring air pollution in more places is desired to address community concerns regarding local air quality impacts related to proximate sources, to provide data in areas lacking regional air monitoring altogether, or to support environmental awareness and education. This study integrated commercially available technologies to create the Village Green Project (VGP), a durable, solar-powered air monitoring park bench that measures real-time ozone, PM2.5, and meteorological parameters. The data are wirelessly transmitted via cellular modem to a server, where automated quality checks take place before data are provided to the public nearly instantaneously. Over 5500 h of data were successfully collected during the first ten months of pilot testing in Durham, North Carolina, with about 13 days (5.5%) of downtime because of low battery power. Additional data loss (4-14% depending on the measurement) was caused by infrequent wireless communication interruptions and instrument maintenance. The 94.5% operational time via solar power was within 1.5% of engineering calculations using historical solar data for the location. The performance of the VGP was evaluated by comparing the data to nearby air monitoring stations operating federal equivalent methods (FEM), which exhibited good agreement with the nearest benchmark FEMs for hourly ozone (r(2) = 0.79) and PM2.5 (r(2) = 0.76).

  9. Air quality perception of pedestrians in an urban outdoor Mediterranean environment: A field survey approach.

    PubMed

    Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon; Psiloglou, Basil

    2017-01-01

    Perception plays a significant role on people's response to preventive measures. In the view of public awareness, the aim of this study was to explore factors that affect air quality perception and to reveal its potential patterns. Air quality perception of individuals, in terms of dust and overall air quality, was examined in relation to air pollutants concentrations, meteorological variables, personal characteristics as well as their thermal sensation and health condition. The data used were obtained from environmental measurements, in situ and from stations, and questionnaire surveys conducted in an outdoor urban Mediterranean area, Athens, Greece. The participants were asked to report their air quality perception and thermal sensation based on predefined scales. A thermal index, Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), was estimated to obtain an objective measure of thermal sensation. Particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were associated with dust perception. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) were associated to air quality perception. Age, area of residence, health symptoms and thermal sensation also affected the perception of air quality. Dusty or poor air quality conditions were more likely to be reported when pollutants' concentrations were increased. Younger people, participants residing in the city center, experiencing health symptoms or warm thermal sensation showed a trend towards reporting more unfavorable air quality conditions.

  10. Monitoring Iodine-129 in Air and Milk Samples Collected Near the Hanford Site: An Investigation of Historical Iodine Monitoring Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2006-01-01

    While other research has reported on the concentrations of 129I in the environment surrounding active nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, there is a shortage of information regarding how the concentrations change once facilities close. At the Hanford Site, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) chemical separation plant was operational between 1983 and 1990, during which time 129I concentrations in air and milk were measured. After the cessation of operations in 1990, plant emissions decreased 2.5 orders of magnitude over an 8 year period, and monitoring of environmental levels continued. An evaluation of air and milk 129I concentration data spanning the PUREX operation and post closure period was conducted to compare the changes in environmental levels of 129I measured. Measured concentrations over the monitoring period were below levels that could result in a potential human dose greater than 10 uSv. There was a significant and measurable difference in the measured air concentrations of 129I at different distances from the source, indicating a distinct Hanford fingerprint. Correlations between stack emissions of 129I and concentrations in air and milk indicate that atmospheric emissions were responsible for the 129I concentrations measured in environmental samples. The measured concentrations during PUREX operation were similar to observations made around a fuel reprocessing plant in Germany.

  11. Method and apparatus for monitoring oxygen partial pressure in air masks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Mark E. (Inventor); Pettit, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring an oxygen partial pressure in an air mask and providing a tactile warning to the user. The oxygen partial pressure in the air mask is detected using an electrochemical sensor, the output signal from which is provided to a comparator. The comparator compares the output signal with a preset reference value or range of values representing acceptable oxygen partial pressures. If the output signal is different than the reference value or outside the range of values, the air mask is vibrated by a vibrating motor to alert the user to a potentially hypoxic condition.

  12. Pico2 Monitoring of Transferred Jejunum Perfusion Using an Air Tonometry Technique After Hypopharyngeal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Hiroyuki; Imanishi, Yorihisa; Ito, Fumihiro; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Kato, Takashi; Nameki, Hideo; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of intraluminal Pco2 (Pico2) monitoring by air tonometry for the assessment of the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum after surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer. Pico2 in the transplanted jejunum of 24 patients was monitored using air tonometry after radical surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer from 2003 to 2010. All but 1 patient, who removed the catheter before monitoring began, were monitored safely. Pico2 in the transferred jejunum correlated with arterial Pco2 (Paco2) that was measured concurrently, and dissociation of Pico2 from Paco2 was observed in cases with vascular complication. In those cases without postoperative vascular complication, the Pico2 value gradually increased for 3 hours but then decreased by 12 hours after surgery. Three patients experienced major vascular complication. All 3 patients had continuous elevation of Pico2 >100 mm Hg, although vascular flow in 1 patient recovered by removal of a venous thrombosis and reanastomosis of the vein 7.5 hours after surgery. Four other patients who experienced elevation of Pico2 had their skin suture released for decompression of their neck wound, resulting in a decrease in Pico2 after treatment. The current results demonstrated that continuous monitoring of Pico2 by air tonometry accurately reflects the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum, and this method is one of the best options for postoperative monitoring of jejunum blood perfusion. PMID:25789955

  13. Johnston Island air quality monitoring systems user's guide: System description and standard operating procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, S.

    1991-02-01

    This document is an overview of Monitor Labs air-quality monitoring systems installed at the Johnston Island JCAD Facility during 1990 by personnel from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). All Johnston Island personnel involved with air-quality monitoring should become familiar with this document. It supplements other training and documentation. This report is written from a user's standpoint and assumes that the reader has some familiarity with air-quality systems. It represents a consolidation of information from many different sources, including training classes video tapes, Monitor Labs manuals, personal experiences with the systems, and verbal communications with Monitor Labs employees. This document includes background information on the project and descriptions of the systems and all components; it makes suggestions for daily, weekly, and quarterly standard operating procedures; it details the installation and tests performed by LLNL/Monitor Labs personnel in bringing the systems on-line; it gives the current status of the systems; and it provides suggestions for future modifications and/or additions. 7 figs.

  14. Development of a Portable Gamma-ray Survey System for the Measurement of Air Dose Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Jun; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kawano, Yoh; Amaya, Yoshihiro; Izumikawa, Takuji; Katsuragi, Yoshinori; Shiiya, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Tsubasa; Takahashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Hidenori; Naito, Makoto

    BIo-Safety Hybrid Automatic MOnitor-Niigata (BISHAMON), a portable gamma-ray survey system, was developed to support victims of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. BISHAMON is capable of constructing a map of the distribution of ambient dose equivalent rates using vehicle-mounted or on-foot survey methods. In this study, we give an overview of BISHAMON and its measurement results including a comparison with those of other systems such as KURAMA.

  15. Ultrahigh sensitivity heavy noble gas detectors for long-term monitoring and monitoring air. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.D.; Gross, K.

    1998-06-01

    'The primary objective of this research project is to develop heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for: (1) long-term monitoring of transuranic waste, spent fuel, and other uranium and thorium bearing wastes, and (2) alpha particle air monitors that discriminate between radon emissions and other alpha emitters. A University of Cincinnati/Argonne National Laboratory (UC/ANL) Team has been assembled to complete this detector development project. DOE needs that are addressed by this project include improved long-term monitoring capability and improved air monitoring capability during remedial activities. Successful development and implementation of the proposed detection systems could significantly improve current capabilities with relatively simple and inexpensive equipment. As of June 1, 1998, the UC/ANL Team has: (1) made significant progress toward characterizing the fluid transfer process which is the basis for this detector development project and (2) evaluated several radiation detectors and several potential pulse processing schemes. The following discussion describes the progress made during the first year of this project and the implications of this progress.'

  16. Intra-urban spatial variability in wintertime street-level concentrations of multiple combustion-related air pollutants: the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS).

    PubMed

    Clougherty, Jane E; Kheirbek, Iyad; Eisl, Holger M; Ross, Zev; Pezeshki, Grant; Gorczynski, John E; Johnson, Sarah; Markowitz, Steven; Kass, Daniel; Matte, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Although intra-urban air pollution differs by season, few monitoring networks provide adequate geographic density and year-round coverage to fully characterize seasonal patterns. Here, we report winter intra-urban monitoring and land-use regression (LUR) results from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS). Two-week integrated samples of fine particles (PM(2.5)), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) were collected at 155 city-wide street-level locations during winter 2008-2009. Sites were selected using stratified random sampling, randomized across sampling sessions to minimize spatio-temporal confounding. LUR was used to identify GIS-based source indicators associated with higher concentrations. Prediction surfaces were produced using kriging with external drift. Each pollutant varied twofold or more across sites, with higher concentrations near midtown Manhattan. All pollutants were positively correlated, particularly PM(2.5) and BC (Spearman's r=0.84). Density of oil-burning boilers, total and truck traffic density, and temporality explained 84% of PM(2.5) variation. Densities of total traffic, truck traffic, oil-burning boilers and industrial space, with temporality, explained 65% of BC variation. Temporality, built space, bus route location, and traffic density described 67% of nitrogen dioxide variation. Residual oil-burning units, nighttime population and temporality explained 77% of SO(2) variation. Spatial variation in combustion-related pollutants in New York City was strongly associated with oil-burning and traffic density. Chronic exposure disparities and unique local sources can be identified through year-round saturation monitoring.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Industrial Hygiene Air Monitoring Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, A D.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.

    2004-12-10

    Tests were performed to evaluate the accuracy, precision and response time of certain commercially available handheld toxic gas monitors. The tests were conducted by PNNL in the Chemical Chamber Test Facility for CH2MHill Hanford Company. The instruments were tested with a set of dilute test gases including ammonia, nitrous oxide, and a mixture of organic vapors (acetone, benzene, ethanol, hexane, toluene and xylene). The certified gases were diluted to concentrations that may be encountered in the outdoor environment above the underground tank farms containing radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site, near Richland, Washington. The challenge concentrations are near the lower limits of instrument sensitivity and response time. The performance test simulations were designed to look at how the instruments respond to changes in test gas concentrations that are similar to field conditions.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Industrial Hygiene Air Monitoring Sensors, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, A D.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.

    2005-01-24

    Tests were performed to evaluate the accuracy, precision and response time of certain commercially available handheld toxic gas monitors. The tests were conducted by PNNL in the Chemical Chamber Test Facility for CH2MHill Hanford Company. The instruments were tested with a set of dilute test gases including ammonia, nitrous oxide, and a mixture of organic vapors (acetone, benzene, ethanol, hexane, toluene and xylene). The certified gases were diluted to concentrations that may be encountered in the outdoor environment above the underground tank farms containing radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site, near Richland, Washington. The challenge concentrations are near the lower limits of instrument sensitivity and response time. The performance test simulations were designed to look at how the instruments respond to changes in test gas concentrations that are similar to field conditions.

  19. EPA, San Diego County Air District to Unveil Air Monitor in San Ysidro

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    LOS ANGELES - On Tuesday, U.S. EPA Regional Administrator Jared Blumenfeld, along with representatives from the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD), U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the U.S. General Services Administration, will

  20. Wavelets-based clustering of air quality monitoring sites.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Sónia; Scotto, Manuel G; Monteiro, Alexandra; Alonso, Andres M

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims at providing a variance/covariance profile of a set of 36 monitoring stations measuring ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) hourly concentrations, collected over the period 2005-2013, in Portugal mainland. The resulting individual profiles are embedded in a wavelet decomposition-based clustering algorithm in order to identify groups of stations exhibiting similar profiles. The results of the cluster analysis identify three groups of stations, namely urban, suburban/urban/rural, and a third group containing all but one rural stations. The results clearly indicate a geographical pattern among urban stations, distinguishing those located in Lisbon area from those located in Oporto/North. Furthermore, for urban stations, intra-diurnal and daily time scales exhibit the highest variance. This is due to the more relevant chemical activity occurring in high NO2 emissions areas which are responsible for high variability on daily profiles. These chemical processes also explain the reason for NO2 and O3 being highly negatively cross-correlated in suburban and urban sites as compared with rural stations. Finally, the clustering analysis also identifies sites which need revision concerning classification according to environment/influence type.

  1. Derivation of continuous air monitor equations for DAC and DAC-h.

    PubMed

    Justus, Alan L

    2010-05-01

    Equations are derived that provide the numerical algorithms necessary for the calculations of both concentration (such as #DAC) and exposure (such as #DAC-h) within continuous air monitors (CAMs) employing collection media. Both calculations utilize measured counts over certain CAM counting intervals. The relationship to similar, although oft misinterpreted, equations given in International Organization for Standardization Standard 11929-5:2005 is detailed.

  2. 76 FR 15974 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... particulate matter (TSP) (High-Volume Method, 40 CFR Part 50, Appendix B), with a particular extraction and... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Four New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  3. RECOMMENDED METHODS FOR AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF NO, NO2, NOY, AND INDIVIDUAL NOZ SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most appropriate monitoring methods for reactive nitrogen oxides are identified subject to the requirements for diagnostic testing of air quality simulation models. Measurements must be made over 1 h or less and with an uncertainty of

  4. U.S. EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network: Analytical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), furans (CDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at rural and non-impacted locatio...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... strategy development. Data from FRM, FEM, and ARM monitors for NAAQS pollutants will be used for comparing... used to evaluate the regional air quality models used in developing emission strategies, and to track... geography without large sources, and extends from tens to hundreds of kilometers. (6) National and...

  6. Accumulation of organic air constituents by plant surfaces. Spruce needles for monitoring airborne chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Reischl, A.; Thoma, H.; Reissinger, M.; Hutzinger, O. )

    1988-10-01

    The needles of the spruce (Picea abies) were used to monitor ambient air for organic trace substances. Analyses of spruce needles in an industrialized area demonstrated that the concentrations of these substances were much higher than those in a nonindustrialized area.

  7. HUMAN EXPOSURE AIR MONITORING: EXAMPLES FROM THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US-EPA and North Carolina Central University (NCCU) have a cross-pollination agenda to help share research opportunities between the two institutions. This presentation provides NCCU with an understanding of current air monitoring research the US EPA is involved in and some o...

  8. Test/QA Plan for Verification of Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Systems - Second Round

    EPA Science Inventory

    Test/QA Plan for Verification of Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Systems - Second Round. Changes reflect performance of second round of testing at new location and with various changes to personnel. Additional changes reflect general improvements to the Version 1 test/QA...

  9. 40 CFR 50.14 - Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... data influenced by exceptional events. 50.14 Section 50.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....14 Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events. Link to an amendment... exceptional event from use in determinations by demonstrating to EPA's satisfaction that such event caused...

  10. 40 CFR 50.14 - Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... data influenced by exceptional events. 50.14 Section 50.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....14 Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events. (a) Requirements. (1) A... quality standard that are directly due to an exceptional event from use in determinations by...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... among data needs and available resources. This regulation intends to provide for national air monitoring... measurement programs. The research grade sites are not required by regulation; however, they are included here... conventional measurement of NOX, particularly in areas with relatively fresh sources of nitrogen...

  12. A low-cost sensing system for cooperative air quality monitoring in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Brienza, Simone; Galli, Andrea; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Paolo

    2015-05-26

    Air quality in urban areas is a very important topic as it closely affects the health of citizens. Recent studies highlight that the exposure to polluted air can increase the incidence of diseases and deteriorate the quality of life. Hence, it is necessary to develop tools for real-time air quality monitoring, so as to allow appropriate and timely decisions. In this paper, we present uSense, a low-cost cooperative monitoring tool that allows knowing, in real-time, the concentrations of polluting gases in various areas of the city. Specifically, users monitor the areas of their interest by deploying low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. In addition, they can share the collected data following a social networking approach. uSense has been tested through an in-field experimentation performed in different areas of a city. The obtained results are in line with those provided by the local environmental control authority and show that uSense can be profitably used for air quality monitoring.

  13. Episodic Impacts from California Wildfires Identified in Las Vegas Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollutant concentrations near major highways are usually attributed to a combination of nearby traffic emissions and regional background, and generally presumed to be additive in nature. During a recent year-long near-road monitoring study conducted in Las Vegas, NV, a substa...

  14. Integration of Air Quality Modeling and Monitoring Data for Enhanced Health Exposure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to assess the environmental impact of air pollution on human health it is necessary to establish the concentrations to which the population is exposed. The obvious way to determine this is to measure these quantities. However, given the limited number of monitoring stati...

  15. Calibrating Personal Air Monitoring. Module 7. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on calibrating personal air monitoring devices. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each part of the…

  16. Air quality monitoring data could help lower emissions during Superfund cleanups

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, L.O. )

    1994-05-01

    Many Superfund projects include extensive air quality monitoring efforts. However, even when large volumes of air quality and meteorological data are collected, they often are used mainly for documentation, rather than as interactive tools to protect the public. This need not be so. If remedial actions were designed to include routine data evaluations and contingency plans to reduce emissions when action levels are exceeded, air quality monitoring could help minimize public exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) during cleanups. This article describes ambient air quality and meteorological monitoring programs conducted by URS Consultants Inc. (Denver) at the Sand Creek Industrial Superfund site in Commerce City, Colo., and the Vertac Chemical Co. Superfund site in Jacksonville, Ark. The Sand Creek project includes structure demolition, excavation and removal of soils and demolition debris, soil-vapor extraction of HAPs, and soil thermal treatment to remove pesticides and other hazardous organics. A rotary-kiln incinerator is used on the Vertac project to destroy solvents, pesticides, and other dioxin- and furan-contaminated materials.

  17. Development and evaluation of optical fiber NH3 sensors for application in air quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu; Wieck, Lucas; Tao, Shiquan

    2013-02-01

    Ammonia is a major air pollutant emitted from agricultural practices. Sources of ammonia include manure from animal feeding operations and fertilizer from cropping systems. Sensor technologies with capability of continuous real time monitoring of ammonia concentration in air are needed to qualify ammonia emissions from agricultural activities and further evaluate human and animal health effects, study ammonia environmental chemistry, and provide baseline data for air quality standard. We have developed fiber optic ammonia sensors using different sensing reagents and different polymers for immobilizing sensing reagents. The reversible fiber optic sensors have detection limits down to low ppbv levels. The response time of these sensors ranges from seconds to tens minutes depending on transducer design. In this paper, we report our results in the development and evaluation of fiber optic sensor technologies for air quality monitoring. The effect of change of temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide concentration on fiber optic ammonia sensors has been investigated. Carbon dioxide in air was found not interfere the fiber optic sensors for monitoring NH3. However, the change of humidity can cause interferences to some fiber optic NH3 sensors depending on the sensor's transducer design. The sensitivity of fiber optic NH3 sensors was found depends on temperature. Methods and techniques for eliminating these interferences have been proposed.

  18. Simulating future uncertainty to guide the selection of survey designs for long-term monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garman, Steven L.; Schweiger, E. William; Manier, Daniel J.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    A goal of environmental monitoring is to provide sound information on the status and trends of natural resources (Messer et al. 1991, Theobald et al. 2007, Fancy et al. 2009). When monitoring observations are acquired by measuring a subset of the population of interest, probability sampling as part of a well-constructed survey design provides the most reliable and legally defensible approach to achieve this goal (Cochran 1977, Olsen et al. 1999, Schreuder et al. 2004; see Chapters 2, 5, 6, 7). Previous works have described the fundamentals of sample surveys (e.g. Hansen et al. 1953, Kish 1965). Interest in survey designs and monitoring over the past 15 years has led to extensive evaluations and new developments of sample selection methods (Stevens and Olsen 2004), of strategies for allocating sample units in space and time (Urquhart et al. 1993, Overton and Stehman 1996, Urquhart and Kincaid 1999), and of estimation (Lesser and Overton 1994, Overton and Stehman 1995) and variance properties (Larsen et al. 1995, Stevens and Olsen 2003) of survey designs. Carefully planned, “scientific” (Chapter 5) survey designs have become a standard in contemporary monitoring of natural resources. Based on our experience with the long-term monitoring program of the US National Park Service (NPS; Fancy et al. 2009; Chapters 16, 22), operational survey designs tend to be selected using the following procedures. For a monitoring indicator (i.e. variable or response), a minimum detectable trend requirement is specified, based on the minimum level of change that would result in meaningful change (e.g. degradation). A probability of detecting this trend (statistical power) and an acceptable level of uncertainty (Type I error; see Chapter 2) within a specified time frame (e.g. 10 years) are specified to ensure timely detection. Explicit statements of the minimum detectable trend, the time frame for detecting the minimum trend, power, and acceptable probability of Type I error (

  19. Multiple geophysical surveys for old landfill monitoring in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ke; Tong, Huanhuan; Giannis, Apostolos; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Victor W-C

    2017-01-01

    One-dimensional boring presents limitations on mapping the refuse profile in old landfills owning to waste heterogeneity. Electrical imaging (EI) and multiple-analysis of surface wave (MASW) were hereby deployed at an old dumping ground in Singapore to explore the subsurface in relation to geotechnical analysis. MASW estimated the refuse boundary with a higher precision as compared to EI, due to its endurance for moisture variation. EI and MASW transection profiles suggested spots of interest, e.g., refuse pockets and leachate mounds. 3D inversion of EI and MASW data further illustrated the transformation dynamics derived by natural attenuation, for instance the preferential infiltration pathway. Comparison of geophysical surveys at different years uncovered the subterranean landfill conditions, indicating strong impacts induced by aging, precipitation, and settlement. This study may shed light on a characterization framework of old landfills via combined geophysical models, thriving landfill knowledge with a higher creditability.

  20. Air quality management in the WHO European Region--results of a quality assurance and control programme on air quality monitoring (1994-2004).

    PubMed

    Mücke, Hans-Guido

    2008-07-01

    Since the last decade the WHO Collaborating Centre for Air Quality Management and Air Pollution Control, Berlin, Germany, operates a quality assurance and control (QA/QC) programme on air quality monitoring in the WHO European Region. As main activity Intercomparison workshops have been established for air monitoring network laboratories on a regular basis to harmonise air quality measurements, analysis and calibration techniques. 36 air hygiene laboratories of public health and environmental institutions of 24 countries participated in twelve Intercomparisons between 1994 and 2004. The majority was carried out for NO, NO(2), SO(2) and O(3). The results were predominantly satisfactory for automatic methods. The results of manual methods were mainly in a good, and for several concentration levels partly very good accordance with the data obtained by the monitors.

  1. Quantification Method for Electrolytic Sensors in Long-Term Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Masson, Nicholas; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Hannigan, Michael

    2015-10-27

    Traditional air quality monitoring relies on point measurements from a small number of high-end devices. The recent growth in low-cost air sensing technology stands to revolutionize the way in which air quality data are collected and utilized. While several technologies have emerged in the field of low-cost monitoring, all suffer from similar challenges in data quality. One technology that shows particular promise is that of electrolytic (also known as amperometric) sensors. These sensors produce an electric current in response to target pollutants. This work addresses the development of practical models for understanding and quantifying the signal response of electrolytic sensors. Such models compensate for confounding effects on the sensor response, such as ambient temperature and humidity, and address other issues that affect the usability of low-cost sensors, such as sensor drift and inter-sensor variability.

  2. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks.

  3. Quantification Method for Electrolytic Sensors in Long-Term Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Nicholas; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Hannigan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Traditional air quality monitoring relies on point measurements from a small number of high-end devices. The recent growth in low-cost air sensing technology stands to revolutionize the way in which air quality data are collected and utilized. While several technologies have emerged in the field of low-cost monitoring, all suffer from similar challenges in data quality. One technology that shows particular promise is that of electrolytic (also known as amperometric) sensors. These sensors produce an electric current in response to target pollutants. This work addresses the development of practical models for understanding and quantifying the signal response of electrolytic sensors. Such models compensate for confounding effects on the sensor response, such as ambient temperature and humidity, and address other issues that affect the usability of low-cost sensors, such as sensor drift and inter-sensor variability. PMID:26516860

  4. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge

    2003-06-13

    At the Sleipner gas field, excess CO{sub 2} is sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. A high precision micro-gravity survey was carried out on the seafloor to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. Simple modeling of the first year data give inconclusive results, thus a more detailed approach is needed. Work towards this is underway.

  5. Airborne measurements of air pollution chemistry and transport. 1: Initial survey of major air basins in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloria, H. R.; Pitts, J. N., Jr.; Behar, J. V.; Bradburn, G. A.; Reinisch, R. F.; Zafonte, L.

    1972-01-01

    An instrumented aircraft has been used to study photochemical air pollution in the State of California. Simultaneous measurements of the most important chemical constituents (ozone, total oxidant, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, as well as several meteorological variables) were made. State-of-the-art measurement techniques and sampling procedures are discussed. Data from flights over the South Coast Air Basin, the San Francisco Bay Area, the San Joaquin Valley, the Santa Clara and Salinas Valleys, and the Pacific Ocean within 200 miles of the California coast are presented. Pollutants were found to be concentrated in distant layers up to at least 18,000 feet. In many of these layers, the pollutant concentrations were much higher than at ground level. These findings bring into serious question the validity of the present practice of depending solely on data from ground-based monitoring stations for predictive models.

  6. Environmental continuous air monitor inlet with combined preseparator and virtual impactor

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2007-06-19

    An inlet for an environmental air monitor is described wherein a pre-separator interfaces with ambient environment air and removes debris and insects commonly associated with high wind outdoors and a deflector plate in communication with incoming air from the pre-separator stage, that directs the air radially and downward uniformly into a plurality of accelerator jets located in a manifold of a virtual impactor, the manifold being cylindrical and having a top, a base, and a wall, with the plurality of accelerator jets being located in the top of the manifold and receiving the directed air and accelerating directed air, thereby creating jets of air penetrating into the manifold, where a major flow is deflected to the walls of the manifold and extracted through ports in the walls. A plurality of receiver nozzles are located in the base of the manifold coaxial with the accelerator jets, and a plurality of matching flow restrictor elements are located in the plurality of receiver nozzles for balancing and equalizing the total minor flow among all the plurality of receiver nozzles, through which a lower, fractional flow extracts large particle constituents of the air for collection on a sample filter after passing through the plurality of receiver nozzles and the plurality of matching flow restrictor elements.

  7. Filter for on-line air monitor unaffected by radon progeny and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Terrance D.; Edwards, Howard D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for testing air having contaminants and radon progeny therein. The apparatus includes a sampling box having an inlet for receiving the air and an outlet for discharging the air. The sampling box includes a filter made of a plate of sintered stainless steel. The filter traps the contaminants, yet allows at least a portion of the radon progeny to pass therethrough. A method of testing air having contaminants and radon progeny therein. The method includes providing a testing apparatus that has a sampling box with an inlet for receiving the air and an outlet for discharging the air, and has a sintered stainless steel filter disposed within said sampling box; drawing air from a source into the sampling box using a vacuum pump; passing the air through the filter; monitoring the contaminants trapped by the filter; and providing an alarm when a selected level of contaminants is reached. The filter traps the contaminants, yet allows at least a portion of the radon progeny to pass therethrough.

  8. Estimation of change in populations and communities from monitoring survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Busch, David E.; Trexler, Joel C.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring surveys provide fundamental information for use in environmental decision making by permitting assessment of both current population (or community) status and change in status, by providing a historical context of the present status, and by documenting response to ongoing management. Conservation of species and communities has historically been based upon monitoring information, and prioritization of species and habitats for conservation action often requires reliable, quantitative results. Although many monitoring programs exist for populations, species, and communities, as well as for biotic and abiotic features of the environment, estimation of population and community change from surveys can sometimes be controversial, and demands on monitoring information have increased greatly in recent years. Information is often required at multiple spatial scales for use in geographic information systems, and information needs exist for description of regional patterns of change in populations, communities, and ecosystems. Often, attempts are made to meet these needs using information collected for other purposes or at inappropriate geographic scales, leading to information that is difficult to analyze and interpret. In this chapter, we address some of the constraints and issues associated with estimating change in wildlife species and species groups from monitoring surveys, and use bird surveys as our primary examples.

  9. Air monitoring for volatile organic compounds at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Sytsma, L.F.; Cohut, V.J.; Cobo, H.A.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of CWA. Deterioration of the buildings and violations of environmental laws led to closure of the complex in 1986. Since that time, all equipment, piping, and conduit in the buildings have been removed. The buildings have been declared free of surface CWA contamination as a result of air sampling using the military system. However, no air sampling has been done to determine if other hazardous volatile organic compounds are present in the PPC, although a wide range of toxic and/or hazardous materials other than CWA was used in the PPC. The assumption has been that the air in the PPC is not hazardous. The purpose of this air-monitoring study was to screen the indoor air in the PPC to confirm the assumption that the air does not contain volatile organic contaminants at levels that would endanger persons in the buildings. A secondary purpose was to identify any potential sources of volatile organic contaminants that need to be monitored in subsequent sampling efforts.

  10. Design of a small personal air monitor and its application in aircraft.

    PubMed

    van Netten, Chris

    2009-01-15

    A small air sampling system using standard air filter sampling technology has been used to monitor the air in aircraft. The device is a small ABS constructed cylinder 5 cm in diameter and 9 cm tall and can be operated by non technical individuals at an instant notice. It is completely self contained with a 4 AAA cell power supply, DC motor, a centrifugal fan, and accommodates standard 37 mm filters and backup pads. The monitor is totally enclosed and pre assembled in the laboratory. A 45 degrees twist of the cap switches on the motor and simultaneously opens up the intake ports and exhaust ports allowing air to pass through the filter. A reverse 45 degrees twist of the cap switches off the motor and closes all intake and exhaust ports, completely enclosing the filter. The whole monitor is returned to the laboratory by standard mail for analysis and reassembly for future use. The sampler has been tested for electromagnetic interference and has been approved for use in aircraft during all phases of flight. A set of samples taken by a BAe-146-300 crew member during two flights in the same aircraft and analyzed by GC-MS, indicated exposure to tricresyl phosphate (TCP) levels ranging from 31 to 83 nanograms/m(3) (detection limit <4.5 nanograms/m(3)). The latter elevated level was associated with the use of the auxiliary power unit (APU) in the aircraft. It was concluded that the air sampler was capable of monitoring air concentrations of TCP isomers in aircraft above 4.5 nanogram/m(3).

  11. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    SciTech Connect

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  12. The meteorological monitoring system for the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dianic, Allan V.

    1994-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) are involved in many weather-sensitive operations. Manned and unmanned vehicle launches, which occur several times each year, are obvious example of operations whose success and safety are dependent upon favorable meteorological conditions. Other operations involving NASA, Air Force, and contractor personnel, including daily operations to maintain facilities, refurbish launch structures, prepare vehicles for launch, and handle hazardous materials, are less publicized but are no less weather-sensitive. The Meteorological Monitoring System (MMS) is a computer network which acquires, processes, disseminates, and monitors near real-time and forecast meteorological information to assist operational personnel and weather forecasters with the task of minimizing the risk to personnel, materials, and the surrounding population. CLIPS has been integrated into the MMS to provide quality control analysis and data monitoring. This paper describes aspects of the MMS relevant to CLIPS including requirements, actual implementation details, and results of performance testing.

  13. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2010-05-25

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. Radiological emissions at the PNNL Site result from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site would meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor and estimate offsite air emissions of radioactive materials. The result is a program that monitors the impact to the public from the PNNL Site.

  14. Assessment of Near-Source Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale Utilizing a Mobile Monitoring Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle – an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate and gaseous po...

  15. High-Density, High-Resolution, Low-Cost Air Quality Sensor Networks for Urban Air Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, M. I.; Popoola, O. A.; Stewart, G.; Bright, V.; Kaye, P.; Saffell, J.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring air quality in highly granular environments such as urban areas which are spatially heterogeneous with variable emission sources, measurements need to be made at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. Current routine air quality monitoring networks generally are either composed of sparse expensive installations (incorporating e.g. chemiluminescence instruments) or higher density low time resolution systems (e.g. NO2 diffusion tubes). Either approach may not accurately capture important effects such as pollutant "hot spots" or adequately capture spatial (or temporal) variability. As a result, analysis based on data from traditional low spatial resolution networks, such as personal exposure, may be inaccurate. In this paper we present details of a sophisticated, low-cost, multi species (gas phase, speciated PM, meteorology) air quality measurement network methodology incorporating GPS and GPRS which has been developed for high resolution air quality measurements in urban areas. Sensor networks developed in the Centre for Atmospheric Science (University of Cambridge) incorporated electrochemical gas sensors configured for use in urban air quality studies operating at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. It has been demonstrated that these sensors can be used to measure key air quality gases such as CO, NO and NO2 at the low ppb mixing ratios present in the urban environment (estimated detection limits <4ppb for CO and NO and <1ppb for NO2. Mead et al (submitted Aug., 2012)). Based on this work, a state of the art multi species instrument package for deployment in scalable sensor networks has been developed which has general applicability. This is currently being employed as part of a major 3 year UK program at London Heathrow airport (the Sensor Networks for Air Quality (SNAQ) Heathrow project). The main project outcome is the creation of a calibrated, high spatial and temporal resolution data set for O3, NO, NO2, SO2, CO, CO2, VOCstotal, size-speciated PM

  16. Health Monitoring Survey of Bell 412EP Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Brian E.; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2016-01-01

    Health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) use vibration-based Condition Indicators (CI) to assess the health of helicopter powertrain components. A fault is detected when a CI exceeds its threshold value. The effectiveness of fault detection can be judged on the basis of assessing the condition of actual components from fleet aircraft. The Bell 412 HUMS-equipped helicopter is chosen for such an evaluation. A sample of 20 aircraft included 12 aircraft with confirmed transmission and gearbox faults (detected by CIs) and eight aircraft with no known faults. The associated CI data is classified into "healthy" and "faulted" populations based on actual condition and these populations are compared against their CI thresholds to quantify the probability of false alarm and the probability of missed detection. Receiver Operator Characteristic analysis is used to optimize thresholds. Based on the results of the analysis, shortcomings in the classification method are identified for slow-moving CI trends. Recommendations for improving classification using time-dependent receiver-operator characteristic methods are put forth. Finally, lessons learned regarding OEM-operator communication are presented.

  17. Jaguar surveying and monitoring in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culver, Melanie

    2016-06-10

    This project established and implemented a noninvasive system for detecting and monitoring jaguars. The study area incorporates most of the mountainous areas north of the United States-Mexico international border and south of Interstate 10, from the Baboquivari Mountains in Arizona to the Animas Mountains in New Mexico. We used two primary methods to detect exact jaguar locations: paired motion-sensor trail cameras, and genetic testing of large carnivore scat collected in the field. We emphasize that this project used entirely noninvasive methods and no jaguars were captured, radiocollared, baited, or harassed in any way. Scat sample collection occurred during the entire field part of the study, but was intensified with the use of a trained scat detection dog following the first jaguar photo detection event (photo detection event was October 2012, scat detection dog began working January 2013). We also collected weather, vegetation, and geographic information system (GIS) data to analyze in conjunction with photo and video data. The results of this study are intended to aid and inform future management and conservation practices for jaguars and ocelots in this region.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING USING LOCATION SPECIFIC AIR MONITORING IN BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.; Hanks, D.; Degange, J.; Brant, H.; Hall, G.; Cable-Dunlap, P.; Anderson, B.

    2011-06-07

    Since the introduction of safeguards strengthening measures approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (1992-1997), international nuclear safeguards inspectors have been able to utilize environmental sampling (ES) (e.g. deposited particulates, air, water, vegetation, sediments, soil and biota) in their safeguarding approaches at bulk uranium/plutonium handling facilities. Enhancements of environmental sampling techniques used by the IAEA in drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear materials or activities will soon be able to take advantage of a recent step change improvement in the gathering and analysis of air samples at these facilities. Location specific air monitoring feasibility tests have been performed with excellent results in determining attribute and isotopic composition of chemical elements present in an actual test-bed sample. Isotopic analysis of collected particles from an Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) collection, was performed with the standard bulk sampling protocol used throughout the IAEA network of analytical laboratories (NWAL). The results yielded bulk isotopic values expected for the operations. Advanced designs of air monitoring instruments such as the ACE may be used in gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) to detect the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or enrichments not declared by a State. Researchers at Savannah River National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing the next generation of ES equipment for air grab and constant samples that could become an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. Location specific air monitoring to be used to establish a baseline environmental signature of a particular facility employed for comparison of consistencies in declared operations will be described in this paper. Implementation of air monitoring will be contrasted against the use of smear ES

  19. Monitoring for opioid-induced advancing sedation and respiratory depression: ASPMN membership survey of current practice.

    PubMed

    Jungquist, Carla R; Willens, Joyce S; Dunwoody, Danielle R; Klingman, Karen J; Polomano, Rosemary C

    2014-09-01

    Adverse events secondary to opioid-induced advancing sedation and respiratory depression continue to occur during hospitalizations despite efforts to increase awareness and clinical practice guidelines to address prevention strategies. In 2009, ASPMN surveyed membership on current practices surrounding this topic. ASPMN clinical practice guidelines were then published in 2011. In winter of 2013, ASPMN membership was again surveyed to assess progress in preventing adverse events. This is a report of the follow-up membership survey. In general, monitoring practices are slowly improving over time, but there are many facilities that have not instituted best practices for avoiding adverse events.

  20. Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, George S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper surveys the use of aerothermodynamic facilities which have been useful in the study of external flows and propulsion aspects of hypersonic, air-breathing vehicles. While the paper is not a survey of all facilities, it covers the utility of shock tunnels and conventional hypersonic blow-down facilities which have been used for hypersonic air-breather studies. The problems confronting researchers in the field of aerothermodynamics are outlined. Results from the T5 GALCIT tunnel for the shock-on lip problem are outlined. Experiments on combustors and short expansion nozzles using the semi-free jet method have been conducted in large shock tunnels. An example which employed the NASA Ames 16-Inch shock tunnel is outlined, and the philosophy of the test technique is described. Conventional blow-down hypersonic wind tunnels are quite useful in hypersonic air-breathing studies. Results from an expansion ramp experiment, simulating the nozzle on a hypersonic air-breather from the NASA Ames 3.5 Foot Hypersonic wind tunnel are summarized. Similar work on expansion nozzles conducted in the NASA Langley hypersonic wind tunnel complex is cited. Free-jet air-frame propulsion integration and configuration stability experiments conducted at Langley in the hypersonic wind tunnel complex on a small generic model are also summarized.

  1. Monitoring air pollution: use of early warning systems for public health.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank J; Fuller, Gary W; Walton, Heather A; Fussell, Julia C

    2012-01-01

    Research confirming the detrimental impact poor ambient air quality and episodes of abnormally high pollutants has on public health, plus differential susceptibility, calls for improved understanding of this complex topic among all walks of society. The public and particularly, vulnerable groups, should be aware of their quality of air, enabling action to be taken in the event of increased pollution. Policy makers must have a sound awareness of current air quality and future trends, to identify issues, guide policies and monitor their effectiveness. These attitudes are dependent upon air pollution monitoring, forecasting and reporting, serving all interested parties. Apart from the underlying national regulatory obligation a country has in reporting air quality information, data output serves several purposes. This review focuses on provision of real-time data and advanced warnings of potentially health-damaging events, in the form of national air quality indices and proactive alert services. Some of the challenges associated with designing these systems include technical issues associated with the complexity of air pollution and its science. These include inability to provide precise exposure concentrations or guidance on long-term/cumulative exposures or effects from pollutant combinations. Other issues relate to the degree to which people are aware and positively respond to these services. Looking to the future, mobile devices such as cellular phones, equipped with sensing applications have potential to provide dynamic, temporally and spatially precise exposure measures for the mass population. The ultimate aim should be to empower people to modify behaviour-for example, when to increase medication, the route/mode of transport taken to school or work or the appropriate time to pursue outdoor activities-in a way that protects their health as well as the quality of the air they breathe.

  2. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys and Rotary Screw Trap, 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelle, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2006 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 37,938 fish from 15 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 15% of fish enumerated followed by rainbow trout (10%) and mountain whitefish (7%). Day surveys were conducted during the summer period 2007 (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2007 (October) surveys. The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) program from August through November of 2007. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 999 wild Oncorhynchus mykiss and 5,107 wild run O. tshawytscha were PIT tagged during the study period. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 22.3% for juvenile O. tshawytscha and 9.0% for juvenile O. mykiss. Rotary screw traps operated 7 days a week and remote capture operations were conducted when flow and temperature regimes permitted. This is third annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  3. Long-term air quality monitoring at the South Pole by the NOAA program Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, E.; Rodhaine, B.A.; Komhyr, W.D.; Oltmans, S.J.; Steele, L.P.

    1988-02-01

    The objectives of the NOAA program of Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change (GMCC) for the South Pole include measurements of atmospheric changes which can potentially impact climate. This paper discusses the long-term GMCC South Pole air chemistry data for carbon dioxide, total ozone, surface ozone, methane, halocarbons, nitrous oxide, and aerosol concentrations, comparing the findings with GMCC data for other regions. Special consideration is given to the results of recent GMCC ozonesonde operations and to an asessment of Dobson ozone spectrophotometer data taken at South Pole by NOAA since 1964. Data are discussed in the framework of Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon. 49 references.

  4. Personal Air Pollution Exposure Monitoring using Low Cost Sensors in Chennai City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy Yasa, Pavan; Shiva, Nagendra S. N.

    2016-04-01

    Air quality in many cities is deteriorating due to rapid urbanization and motorization. In the past, most of the health impacts studies in the urban areas have considered stationary air quality monitoring station data for health impact assessment. Since, there exist a spatial and temporal variation of air quality because of rapid change in land use pattern and complex interaction between emission sources and meteorological conditions, the human exposure assessment using stationary data may not provide realistic information. In such cases low cost sensors monitoring is viable in providing both spatial and temporal variations of air pollutant concentrations. In the present study an attempt has been made to use low cost sensor for monitoring the personal exposure to the two criteria pollutants CO and PM2.5 at 3 different locations of Chennai city. Maximum and minimum concentrations of CO and PM2.5 were found to be 5.4ppm, 0.8ppm and 534.8μg/m3, 1.9μg/m3 respectively. Results showed high concentrations near the intersection and low concentrations in the straight road.

  5. Ambient air quality monitoring during the H1N1 influence period in Pune (India).

    PubMed

    Pathak, M; Deshpande, A; Mirashe, P K; Sorte, R B; Ojha, A

    2010-10-01

    Ambient air quality in an urban area is directly linked with activity level in the city including transport, business and industrial activities. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) has established an ambient air quality network in the city including state-of-the-art continuous air quality monitoring stations which indicate short duration air quality variations for criteria and non-criteria pollutants. The influence of H1N1 outbreak in Pune hitting its worst pandemic condition, led the civic authorities to implement stringent isolation measures including closure of schools, colleges, business malls, cinema halls, etc. Additionally, the fear of such a pandemic brought the city to a stand still. It was therefore necessary to assess the impacts of such activity level on ambient air quality in the city. It has been observed that such events have positive impacts on air quality of the city. There was a decrease in PM concentration almost to the tune of 30 to 40% if the impacts of precipitation, i.e. seasonal variations, are taken into account. Similarly, the non criteria pollutants too showed a marked but unusual decrease in their concentrations in this ever growing city. The influence of these in turn led to lowered concentrations of secondary pollutants, i.e. O3. Overall, the ambient air quality of Pune was found to be improved during the study period.

  6. Open hardware, low cost, air quality stations for monitoring ozone in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marco; Donzella, Davide; Pintus, Fabio; Fedi, Adriano; Ferrari, Daniele; Massabò, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Ozone concentrations in urban and coastal area are a great concern for citizens and, consequently regulator. In the last 20 years the Ozone concentration is almost doubled and it has attracted the public attention because of the well know harmful impacts on human health and biosphere in general. Official monitoring networks usually comprise high precision, high accuracy observation stations, usually managed by public administrations and environmental agency; unfortunately due to their high costs of installation and maintenance, the monitoring stations are relatively sparse. This kind of monitoring networks have been recognized to be unsuitable to effectively characterize the high variability of air quality, especially in areas where pollution sources are various and often not static. We present a prototype of a low cost station for air quality monitoring, specifically developed for complementing the official monitoring stations improving the representation of air quality spatial distribution. We focused on a semi-professional product that could guarantee the highest reliability at the lowest possible cost, supported by a consistent infrastructure for data management. We test two type of Ozone sensor electrochemical and metal oxide. This work is integrated in the ACRONET Paradigm ® project: an open-hardware platform strongly oriented on environmental monitoring. All software and hardware sources will be available on the web. Thus, a computer and a small amount of work tools will be sufficient to create new monitoring networks, with the only constraint to share all the data obtained. It will so possible to create a real "sensing community". The prototype is currently able to measure ozone level, temperature and relative humidity, but soon, with the upcoming changes, it will be able also to monitor dust, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, always through the use of commercial sensors. The sensors are grouped in a compact board that interfaces with a data

  7. Recognizing the Challenges of Ambient Air Monitoring in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, T. G.; Nicodemus, M. A.; Howard, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to better estimate environmental exposure, the U.S. Army Public Health Command has been operating an ambient air monitoring station in Shuaiba Port, Kuwait since 2002. The focus has primarily been on monitoring criteria pollutants at a busy sea port where local industry (oil refineries, cement plant, petrochemical production, etc.) heavily impacts air quality. To compound the issues associated with day to day monitoring at a busy sea port, the region often experiences sand storms and temperatures up to 60°C. Average daily particulate matter concentrations at Shuaiba Port are an order of magnitude higher than similar industrial areas in the U.S. On days when sand storms occur ambient PM concentrations can be two or three orders higher than average daily U.S. concentrations. For example, 24-hour average PM10 concentrations from 2004-2010 for the month of June were 395 μg/m3. During sand storms, 24-hour average concentrations can reach as high as 4,000 μg/m3. This poster presents 2004-2010 particulate matter data collected at Shuaiba Port, Kuwait and outlines logistical and environmental challenges associated with air monitoring in the region.

  8. Monitoring of grout material injected under a reservoir using electrical and electromagnetic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Oyama, Takahiro; Kawashima, Fumiharu; Tsukada, Tomoyuki; Jyomori, Akira

    2010-02-01

    In order to reduce leakage from a reservoir, a large amount of cement milk (grout) was injected from boreholes drilled around the shores of the reservoir, and monitored to establish the infiltration of cement milk into the bedrock under the reservoir. From laboratory tests using rock core samples, it was revealed that the resistivity of cement milk is much lower than that of the groundwater at this location. Therefore, it was expected that the resistivity of the zones filled with cement milk would be significantly reduced. Geophysical surveys are expected to be suitable methods to check the effectiveness of grouting in improving the water-retaining performance of a reservoir. DC electrical surveys (seven in total) and two Controlled Source Audio-frequency Magneto-Telluric (CSAMT) surveys were conducted along survey lines in the reservoir to monitor the infiltration of cement milk during the grouting. Extremely low resistivity zones (10Ωm or less) were observed in resistivity sections obtained by 2D inversion. The zones are inferred to be fractured zones filled with cement milk. In sections showing the rate of change of resistivity, three zones that showed significant change showed gradual expansion to deeper parts as the grouting progressed. These zones correspond to highly permeable zones detected by Lugeon tests at grout boreholes. We have confirmed that it is possible to measure the resistivity change by DC electrical and CSAMT surveys from the surface of the reservoir. It seems that such monitoring results could be reflected in future grouting plans.

  9. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Rotary Screw Traps,Snorkel Surveys, and Steelhead Redd Surveys, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelle, R.D.; Desgroseiller, Tom; Cotter, Michael

    2009-02-17

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCRFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program from March through November of 2008. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 16,782 wild salmonids were PIT tagged during the study period. Of this, 3,961(23.6%) were wild Oncorhynchus mykiss, 6,987 (41.6%) were wild spring run O. tshawytscha, and 5,591 (33.3%) were identified as wild O. tshawytscha of unknown run. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 40.3% at the upper (Rkm 11.0) trap and 7.8% for the lower (Rkm 2.0) trap. These efficiencies were pooled for emigrant O. tshawytscha and O. mykiss. The MCRFRO conducted effectiveness monitoring snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the winter period and 30 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2008 as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. The 2008 steelhead spawning grounds surveys were conducted weekly in the main Entiat River from rkm 1.1 to 44.2. A total of 222 steelhead redds were identified over the period from February 28 to June 16 2008 with April being the peak spawning month. Approximately 80% of the steelhead redds were located downstream of the rkm 26.

  10. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Rotary Screw Traps, Snorkel Surveys, and Steelhead Redd Surveys, 2008-2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelle, R.D.; Desgroseillier, Tom; Cotter, Michael

    2009-04-14

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCRFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program from March through November of 2008. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 16,782 wild salmonids were PIT tagged during the study period. Of this, 3,961(23.6%) were wild Oncorhynchus mykiss, 6,987 (41.6%) were wild spring run O. tshawytscha, and 5,591 (33.3%) were identified as wild O. tshawytscha of unknown run. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 40.3% at the upper (Rkm 11.0) trap and 7.8% for the lower (Rkm 2.0) trap. These efficiencies were pooled for emigrant O. tshawytscha and O. mykiss. The MCRFRO conducted effectiveness monitoring snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the winter period and 30 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2008 as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. The 2008 steelhead spawning grounds surveys were conducted weekly in the main Entiat River from rkm 1.1 to 44.2. A total of 222 steelhead redds were identified over the period from February 28 to June 16 2008 with April being the peak spawning month. Approximately 80% of the steelhead redds were located downstream of the rkm 26.

  11. Threatened and Endangered Species Survey for Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Larson, Vickie L.; Hall, Patrice; Hensley, Melissa A.

    1997-01-01

    A review of previous environmental work conducted at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB) indicated that several threatened, endangered, or species of special concern occurred or had the potential to occur there. This study was implemented to collect more information on protected species at PAFB. A map of landcover types was prepared for PAFB using aerial photography, groundtruthing, and a geographic information system (GIS). Herbaceous vegetation was the most common vegetation type. The second most abundant vegetation type was disturbed shrubs/exotics. The beach and associated dune vegetation comprised 3.2% of the land area, but was the most extensive natural community within PAFB. A few isolated mangrove communities exist along the Banana River. Seventy-seven species of vascular plants occurred on the dunes, including four species listed by state agencies: spider lily (Hymenocallis latifolia), prickly pear cactus (Opuntia stricta), beach star (Remirea maritima), and inkberry (Scaevola plumien). Surveys of other habitats revealed eighty-four species of vascular plants including two state-listed species: spider lily and prickly pear cactus. Many of these areas are dominated by invasive, exotic species, particularly Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) and Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia), and native species of open or disturbed sites such as camphorweed (Heterotheca subaxillaris) and beardgrass (Andropogon spp.). Due to the isolation of PAFB from other natural areas, most exotic plant populations on the base are not an immediate threat to intact native plant communities. Dune habitat was surveyed for the southeastem beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris) by quarterly trapping along eight 100 m transects. No beach mice were found. The limited extent of dune habitat, its fragmented condition, and the isolation of PAFB from extant populations of the beach mouse probably accounts for its absence. Surveys of birds on PAFB found an avifauna

  12. A Method for Monitoring Organic Chlorides, Hydrochloric Acid and Chlorine in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, J. E.; Menichelli, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    While not commonly presented in nonurban atmospheres, organic chlorides, hydrochloric acid and chlorine are significant in industrial air pollution and industrial hygiene. Based on a microcoulometer, a much more sensitive method than has heretofore been available has been developed for monitoring these air impurities. The method has a response time (90%) of about twenty seconds, requires no calibration, is accurate to +/- 2.5%, and specific except for bromide and iodide interferences. The instrument is portable and has been operated unattended for 18 hours without difficulty.

  13. One-Year Results for the Kelly Air Force Base Compressed Work Week Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    home and at work, resulting in social stability. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Compressed Work Week Lifestyle .44 Attitude Survey Air Force Base...for 1-year. Few published studies have investigated the impact of CWS on the lifestyle or quality of life of the employee, particularly over extended...grouped into lifestyle subcategories (family, community, health, leisure, social, cultural, sleep, and finances) or job related subcategories

  14. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Minton, John M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time environmental monitoring on ISS is necessary to provide data in a timely fashion and to help ensure astronaut health. Current real-time water TOC monitoring provides high-quality trending information, but compound-specific data is needed. The combination of ETV with the AQM showed that compounds of interest could be liberated from water and analyzed in the same manner as air sampling. Calibration of the AQM using water samples allowed for the quantitative analysis of ISS archival samples. Some calibration issues remain, but the excellent accuracy of DMSD indicates that ETV holds promise for as a sample introduction method for water analysis in spaceflight.

  15. Use of large-scale, multi-species surveys to monitor gyrfalcon and ptarmigan populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Fuller, Mark; Smith, Paul; Dunn, Leah; Watson, Richard T.; Cade, Tom J.; Fuller, Mark; Hunt, Grainger; Potapov, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of three large-scale, multi-species surveys in the Arctic to provide information on abundance and habitat relationships of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and ptarmigan. The Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring (PRISM) has surveyed birds widely across the arctic regions of Canada and Alaska since 2001. The Arctic Coastal Plain survey has collected abundance information on the North Slope of Alaska using fixed-wing aircraft since 1992. The Northwest Territories-Nunavut Bird Checklist has collected presenceabsence information from little-known locations in northern Canada since 1995. All three surveys provide extensive information on Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) and Rock Ptarmigan (L. muta). For example, they show that ptarmigan are most abundant in western Alaska, next most abundant in northern Alaska and northwest Canada, and least abundant in the Canadian Archipelago. PRISM surveys were less successful in detecting Gyrfalcons, and the Arctic Coastal Plain Survey is largely outside the Gyrfalcon?s breeding range. The Checklist Survey, however, reflects the expansive Gyrfalcon range in Canada. We suggest that collaboration by Gyrfalcon and ptarmigan biologists with the organizers of large scale surveys like the ones we investigated provides an opportunity for obtaining useful information on these species and their environment across large areas.

  16. AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO ADDRESSING NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE AIR QUALITY CONCERNS: THE INTEGRATION OF GIS, URBAN MORPHOLOGY, PREDICTIVE METEOROLOGY, AND AIR QUALITY MONITORING TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a project that combines the capabilities of urban geography, raster-based GIS, predictive meteorological and air pollutant diffusion modeling, to support a neighborhood-scale air quality monitoring pilot study under the U.S. EPA EMPACT Program. The study ha...

  17. 33 CFR 150.613 - What are the requirements for a noise monitoring and hearing protection survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... noise monitoring and hearing protection survey? 150.613 Section 150.613 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Workplace Safety and Health Noise and Hearing Protection § 150.613 What are the requirements for a noise monitoring and hearing protection survey? (a) The deepwater port operator must measure noise and...

  18. 33 CFR 150.613 - What are the requirements for a noise monitoring and hearing protection survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... noise monitoring and hearing protection survey? 150.613 Section 150.613 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Workplace Safety and Health Noise and Hearing Protection § 150.613 What are the requirements for a noise monitoring and hearing protection survey? (a) The deepwater port operator must measure noise and...

  19. 33 CFR 150.613 - What are the requirements for a noise monitoring and hearing protection survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... noise monitoring and hearing protection survey? 150.613 Section 150.613 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Workplace Safety and Health Noise and Hearing Protection § 150.613 What are the requirements for a noise monitoring and hearing protection survey? (a) The deepwater port operator must measure noise and...

  20. 33 CFR 150.613 - What are the requirements for a noise monitoring and hearing protection survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... noise monitoring and hearing protection survey? 150.613 Section 150.613 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Workplace Safety and Health Noise and Hearing Protection § 150.613 What are the requirements for a noise monitoring and hearing protection survey? (a) The deepwater port operator must measure noise and...

  1. 33 CFR 150.613 - What are the requirements for a noise monitoring and hearing protection survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... noise monitoring and hearing protection survey? 150.613 Section 150.613 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Workplace Safety and Health Noise and Hearing Protection § 150.613 What are the requirements for a noise monitoring and hearing protection survey? (a) The deepwater port operator must measure noise and...

  2. Air Pollution Monitoring and Mining Based on Sensor Grid in London

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yajie; Richards, Mark; Ghanem, Moustafa; Guo, Yike; Hassard, John

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed infrastructure based on wireless sensors network and Grid computing technology for air pollution monitoring and mining, which aims to develop low-cost and ubiquitous sensor networks to collect real-time, large scale and comprehensive environmental data from road traffic emissions for air pollution monitoring in urban environment. The main informatics challenges in respect to constructing the high-throughput sensor Grid are discussed in this paper. We present a two-layer network framework, a P2P e-Science Grid architecture, and the distributed data mining algorithm as the solutions to address the challenges. We simulated the system in TinyOS to examine the operation of each sensor as well as the networking performance. We also present the distributed data mining result to examine the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:27879895

  3. Advanced Systems for Air and Water Quality Monitoring in Long Duration Human Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chutjian, Ara

    2005-03-01

    Any space mission involving extended astronaut travel time must have an accompanying system for monitoring the quality of the onboard air and water. These systems must not only meet the detection criteria for undesirable species, at the detection limits set by NASA and the National Academy of Sciences. They must also meet generic requirements such as having low mass, volume, and power; requiring minimal astronaut assistance, and having minimal need for consumables. We will briefly review the criteria for acceptable air and water contamination levels. We will then review the monitoring methods presently in use, and those being developed. These methods include, for example, GCMS, ion mobility spectrometry, the ``electronic nose,'' infrared absorption, and solid phase extraction with colorimetry.

  4. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Potential Impact Categories for Radiological Air Emission Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2012-06-05

    In 2002, the EPA amended 40 CFR 61 Subpart H and 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 to include requirements from ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities for major emission points. Additionally, the WDOH amended the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 Radiation protection-air emissions to include ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements for major and minor emission points when new permitting actions are approved. A result of the amended regulations is the requirement to prepare a written technical basis for the radiological air emission sampling and monitoring program. A key component of the technical basis is the Potential Impact Category (PIC) assigned to an emission point. This paper discusses the PIC assignments for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Integrated Laboratory emission units; this revision includes five PIC categories.

  5. Air Pollution Monitoring and Mining Based on Sensor Grid in London.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yajie; Richards, Mark; Ghanem, Moustafa; Guo, Yike; Hassard, John

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed infrastructure based on wireless sensors network and Grid computing technology for air pollution monitoring and mining, which aims to develop low-cost and ubiquitous sensor networks to collect real-time, large scale and comprehensive environmental data from road traffic emissions for air pollution monitoring in urban environment. The main informatics challenges in respect to constructing the high-throughput sensor Grid are discussed in this paper. We present a twolayer network framework, a P2P e-Science Grid architecture, and the distributed data mining algorithm as the solutions to address the challenges. We simulated the system in TinyOS to examine the operation of each sensor as well as the networking performance. We also present the distributed data mining result to examine the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  6. Autonomous Mobile Platform for Monitoring Air Emissions from Industrial and Municipal Waste Water Ponds.

    PubMed

    Fu, Long; Huda, Quamrul; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Lucas; Hashisho, Zaher

    2017-02-02

    Significant amounts of volatile organic compounds and greenhouse gases are generated from wastewater lagoons and tailings ponds in Alberta. Accurate measurements of these air pollutants and greenhouse gases are needed to support management and regulatory decisions. A mobile platform was developed to measure air emissions from tailings pond in the oil sands region of Alberta. The mobile platform was tested in 2015 in a municipal wastewater treatment lagoon. With a flux chamber and a CO2/CH4 sensor on board, the mobile platform was able to measure CO2 and CH4 emissions over two days at two different locations in the pond. Flux emission rates of CO2 and CH4 that were measured over the study period suggest the presence of aerobic and anaerobic zones in the wastewater treatment lagoon. The study demonstrated the capabilities of the mobile platform in measuring fugitive air emissions and identified the potential for the applications in air and water quality monitoring programs. Implications The Mobile Platform demonstrated in this study has the ability to measure greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fugitive sources such as municipal wastewater lagoons. This technology can be used to measure emission fluxes from tailings pond with better detection of spatial and temporal variations of fugitive emissions. Additional air and water sampling equipment could be added to the mobile platform for a broad range of air and water quality studies in the oil sands region of Alberta.

  7. 1995 Area 1 bird survey/Zone 1, Operable Unit 2, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Robins Air Force Base is located in Warner Robins, Georgia, approximately 90 miles southeast of Atlanta, Georgia. As part of the Baseline Investigation (CDM Federal 1994) a two day bird survey was conducted by M. C. Wade (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and B.A. Beatty (CDM Federal Programs) in May 1995. The subject area of investigation includes the sludge lagoon, Landfill No. 4, and the wetland area east of the landfill and west of Hannah Road (including two ponds). This is known as Area 1. The Area 1 wetlands include bottomland hardwood forest, stream, and pond habitats. The objectives of this survey were to document bird species using the Area I wetlands and to see if the change in hydrology (due to the installation of the Sewage Treatment Plant effluent diversion and stormwater runon control systems) has resulted in changes at Area 1 since the previous survey of May 1992 (CDM Federal 1994).

  8. Next-generation air monitoring – an overview of EPA research to develop real-time instrumentation packages for stationary and mobile monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards small-scale, real-time, wireless detectors, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developi...

  9. Monte Carlo based calibration of an air monitoring system for gamma and beta+ radiation.

    PubMed

    Sarnelli, A; Negrini, M; D'Errico, V; Bianchini, D; Strigari, L; Mezzenga, E; Menghi, E; Marcocci, F; Benassi, M

    2015-11-01

    Marinelli beaker systems are used to monitor the activity of radioactive samples. These systems are usually calibrated with water solutions and the determination of the activity in gases requires correction coefficients accounting for the different mass-thickness of the sample. For beta+ radionuclides the different distribution of the positrons annihilation points should be also considered. In this work a Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4 is used to compute correction coefficients for the measurement of the activity of air samples.

  10. Monitor of the concentration of particles of dense radioactive materials in a stream of air

    DOEpatents

    Yule, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    A monitor of the concentration of particles of radioactive materials such as plutonium oxide in diameters as small as 1/2 micron includes in combination a first stage comprising a plurality of virtual impactors, a second stage comprising a further plurality of virtual impactors, a collector for concentrating particulate material, a radiation detector disposed near the collector to respond to radiation from collected material and means for moving a stream of air, possibly containing particulate contaminants, through the apparatus.

  11. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  12. Assessing relocation strategies of urban air quality monitoring stations by GA-based compromise programming.

    PubMed

    Tseng, C C; Chang, N B

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents a GA-based compromise programming technique for assessing the relocation strategy of urban air quality monitoring network with respect to the multi-objective and multi-pollutant design criteria. While the impact of conservative, quasi-stable, and reactive pollutants are considered in the design principles via a simulation analysis, cost, effectiveness, and efficiency characteristics are postulated in the optimization process. Therefore, technical coverage for illustrating the needs of siting air quality monitoring stations (AQMS) includes both the air quality simulation and optimization modeling analyses in a two-stage analytical framework simultaneously. It starts from determining the spatial interrelationship among those candidate sites using various types of air quality simulation models as an integrated means. And the outputs drawn from the simulation models can then be used as the required inputs in the compromise programming model in order to screen all those siting alternatives that may satisfy the planning goals subject to the essential constraints throughout the multi-objective optimization process. For the illustrating purposes, a series of technical settings for finding the optimal relocation scenarios of AQMS were examined in the case study for the city of Kaohsiung in South Taiwan where the long-term violations of official standards of ozone and particulates turn out to be critical. It not only expresses the ideas of relocation strategy but also indicates how to utilize those alternatives in the decision-making process for improving the functionality of air quality monitoring in the urban environment. Experience gained in this study clearly indicates that the more the number of pollutants and objectives considered simultaneously, the higher the number of candidate sites to be selected in the relocation strategy.

  13. Tracking hazardous air pollutants from a refinery fire by applying on-line and off-line air monitoring and back trajectory modeling.

    PubMed

    Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2013-10-15

    The air monitors used by most regulatory authorities are designed to track the daily emissions of conventional pollutants and are not well suited for measuring hazardous air pollutants that are released from accidents such as refinery fires. By applying a wide variety of air-monitoring systems, including on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, and off-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for measuring hazardous air pollutants during and after a fire at a petrochemical complex in central Taiwan on May 12, 2011, we were able to detect significantly higher levels of combustion-related gaseous and particulate pollutants, refinery-related hydrocarbons, and chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride monomer, and dichloromethane, inside the complex and 10 km downwind from the fire than those measured during the normal operation periods. Both back trajectories and dispersion models further confirmed that high levels of hazardous air pollutants in the neighboring communities were carried by air mass flown from the 22 plants that were shut down by the fire. This study demonstrates that hazardous air pollutants from industrial accidents can successfully be identified and traced back to their emission sources by applying a timely and comprehensive air-monitoring campaign and back trajectory air flow models.

  14. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2012-11-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. The original DQO (PNNL-19427) considered radiological emissions at the PNNL Site from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. This first revision considers PNNL Site changes subsequent to the implementation of the original DQO. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site changes would continue to meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor air emissions and estimate offsite impacts of radioactive material operations. The result is an updated program to monitor the impact to the public from the PNNL Site. The team used the emission unit operation parameters and local meteorological data as well as information from the PSF Potential-to-Emit documentation and Notices of Construction submitted to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The locations where environmental monitoring stations would most successfully characterize the maximum offsite impacts of PNNL Site emissions from the three PSF buildings with major emission units were determined from these data. Three monitoring station locations were determined during the original revision of this document. This first revision considers expanded Department of Energy operations south of the PNNL Site and relocation of the two offsite, northern monitoring stations to sites near the PNNL Site fenceline. Inclusion of the southern facilities resulted in the proposal for a fourth monitoring station in the southern region. The southern expansion added two minor emission unit facilities and one diffuse emission unit facility. Relocation of the two northern stations was possible due to the use of solar power, rather than the previous limitation of the need for access to AC power, at these more remote locations. Addendum A contains all the changes brought about by the revision 1

  15. Respirable particulate monitoring with remote sensors. (Public health ecology: Air pollution)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Severs, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of monitoring atmospheric aerosols in the respirable range from air or space platforms was studied. Secondary reflectance targets were located in the industrial area and near Galveston Bay. Multichannel remote sensor data were utilized to calculate the aerosol extinction coefficient and thus determine the aerosol size distribution. Houston Texas air sampling network high volume data were utilized to generate computer isopleth maps of suspended particulates and to establish the mass loading of the atmosphere. In addition, a five channel nephelometer and a multistage particulate air sampler were used to collect data. The extinction coefficient determined from remote sensor data proved more representative of wide areal phenomena than that calculated from on site measurements. It was also demonstrated that a significant reduction in the standard deviation of the extinction coefficient could be achieved by reducing the bandwidths used in remote sensor.

  16. Spatial Analysis of Air Quality Monitor Data in China, Japan, and South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, Berkeley Earth published a widely-reported study concluding that air pollution contributes to 1.6 million deaths per year in China. This presentation will provide an update on that work with additional data for China and new analysis for South Korea and Japan. In China, two years of data from more than 1500 monitoring stations allows local trends to be estimated. Preliminary review indicates a trend towards improving air quality across most of China with decreasing emissions at most major population centers. Such improvements are consistent with tightening emissions standards and the decreasing usage of coal. In addition, new spatial analysis has been applied to ~900 monitoring sites in Japan and ~120 sites in South Korea. This new analysis provides information on air quality, pollutant source distributions, and implied mortality in these countries. Finally, boundary crossing fluxes in South Korea and Japan have been used to estimate the fraction of air pollution in Japan and South Korea that has being imported from sources in China.

  17. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  18. Low-cost monitoring of Campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, M S R; Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Christensen, L S; Wieczorek, K; Osek, J; Hoorfar, J

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100 Campylobacter cell equivalents (CCE)/m3. Airborne particle counts were used to analyze the size distribution of airborne particles (0.3 to 10 μm) in the chicken houses in relation to the level of airborne Campylobacter. No correlation was found. Using air sampling, Campylobacter was detected in the flocks right away, while boot swab samples were positive after 2 weeks. All samples collected were positive for Campylobacter from week 2 through the rest of the rearing period for both sampling techniques, although levels 1- to 2-log CCE higher were found with air sampling. At week 8, the levels were approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain enumeration data useful for quantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter.

  19. Monitoring Air Quality over China: Evaluation of the modeling system of the PANDA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouarar, Idir; Katinka Petersen, Anna; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Xuemei; Fan, Qi; Wang, Lili

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution has become a pressing problem in Asia and specifically in China due to rapid increase in anthropogenic emissions related to growth of China's economic activity and increasing demand for energy in the past decade. Observed levels of particulate matter and ozone regularly exceed World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines in many parts of the country leading to increased risk of respiratory illnesses and other health problems. The EU-funded project PANDA aims to establish a team of European and Chinese scientists to monitor air pollution over China and elaborate air quality indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. PANDA combines state-of-the-art air pollution modeling with space and surface observations of chemical species to improve methods for monitoring air quality. The modeling system of the PANDA project follows a downscaling approach: global models such as MOZART and MACC system provide initial and boundary conditions to regional WRF-Chem and EMEP simulations over East Asia. WRF-Chem simulations at higher resolution (e.g. 20km) are then performed over a smaller domain covering East China and initial and boundary conditions from this run are used to perform simulations at a finer resolution (e.g. 5km) over specific megacities like Shanghai. Here we present results of model simulations for January and July 2010 performed during the first year of the project. We show an intercomparison of the global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem) simulations and a comprehensive evaluation with satellite measurements (NO2, CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) at several surface stations. Using the WRF-Chem model, we demonstrate that model performance is influenced not only by the resolution (e.g. 60km, 20km) but also the emission inventories used (MACCity, HTAPv2), their resolution and diurnal variation, and the choice of initial and boundary conditions (e.g. MOZART, MACC analysis).

  20. Comparative analysis of different survey methods for monitoring fish assemblages in coastal habitats

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Duncan G.L.; McIver, Reba; Schmidt, Allison L.; Thériault, Marie-Hélène; Boudreau, Monica; Courtenay, Simon C.; Lotze, Heike K.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are among the most productive yet increasingly threatened marine ecosystems worldwide. Particularly vegetated habitats, such as eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds, play important roles in providing key spawning, nursery and foraging habitats for a wide range of fauna. To properly assess changes in coastal ecosystems and manage these critical habitats, it is essential to develop sound monitoring programs for foundation species and associated assemblages. Several survey methods exist, thus understanding how different methods perform is important for survey selection. We compared two common methods for surveying macrofaunal assemblages: beach seine netting and underwater visual census (UVC). We also tested whether assemblages in shallow nearshore habitats commonly sampled by beach seines are similar to those of nearby eelgrass beds often sampled by UVC. Among five estuaries along the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, our results suggest that the two survey methods yield comparable results for species richness, diversity and evenness, yet beach seines yield significantly higher abundance and different species composition. However, sampling nearshore assemblages does not represent those in eelgrass beds despite considerable overlap and close proximity. These results have important implications for how and where macrofaunal assemblages are monitored in coastal ecosystems. Ideally, multiple survey methods and locations should be combined to complement each other in assessing the entire assemblage and full range of changes in coastal ecosystems, thereby better informing coastal zone management. PMID:27018396

  1. A holistic approach for optimal design of air quality monitoring network expansion in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mofarrah, Abdullah; Husain, Tahir

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an objective methodology for determining the optimum number of ambient air quality stations in a monitoring network. The methodology integrates the multiple-criteria method with the spatial correlation technique. The pollutant concentration and population exposure data are used in this methodology in different ways. In the first stage, the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) with triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs) is used to identify the most desirable monitoring locations. The network configuration is then determined on the basis of the concept of sphere of influences (SOIs). The SOIs are dictated by a predetermined cutoff value ( rc) in the spatial correlation coefficients ( r) between the pollutant concentrations at the monitoring stations identified from first step and the corresponding concentrations at neighboring locations in the region. Finally, the optimal station locations are ranked by using combined utility scores gained from the first and second steps. The expansion of air quality monitoring network of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia is used as a case study to demonstrate the proposed methodology.

  2. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: II. Exposure Monitoring Surveys and Development of Exposure Groups

    PubMed Central

    Coble, Joseph B.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Yereb, Daniel; Stanevich, Rebecca; Blair, Aaron; Silverman, Debra T.; Attfield, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a cross-section of jobs located underground and on the surface. Air samples taken to measure REC were also analyzed for respirable organic carbon (ROC). Concurrent measurements to assess exposure to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), two gaseous components of DE, were also taken. The REC measurements were used to develop quantitative estimates of average exposure levels by facility, department, and job title for the epidemiologic analysis. Each underground job was assigned to one of three sets of exposure groups from specific to general: (i) standardized job titles, (ii) groups of standardized job titles combined based on the percentage of time in the major underground areas, and (iii) larger groups based on similar area carbon monoxide (CO) air concentrations. Surface jobs were categorized based on their use of diesel equipment and proximity to DE. A total of 779 full-shift personal measurements were taken underground. The average REC exposure levels for underground jobs with five or more measurements ranged from 31 to 58 μg m−3 at the facility with the lowest average exposure levels and from 313 to 488 μg m−3 at the facility with the highest average exposure levels. The average REC exposure levels for surface workers ranged from 2 to 6 μg m−3 across the seven facilities. There was much less contrast in the ROC compared with REC exposure levels measured between surface and underground workers within each facility, as well as across the facilities. The average ROC levels underground ranged from 64 to 195 μg m−3, while on the surface, the average ROC levels ranged from 38 to 71 μg m−3 by facility, an ∼2- to 3-fold difference. The average NO and

  3. Using Social Media to Detect Outdoor Air Pollution and Monitor Air Quality Index (AQI): A Geo-Targeted Spatiotemporal Analysis Framework with Sina Weibo (Chinese Twitter)

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Ming-Hsiang; Fu, Xiaokang

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a serious problem in many developing countries today. This study focuses on monitoring the dynamic changes of air quality effectively in large cities by analyzing the spatiotemporal trends in geo-targeted social media messages with comprehensive big data filtering procedures. We introduce a new social media analytic framework to (1) investigate the relationship between air pollution topics posted in Sina Weibo (Chinese Twitter) and the daily Air Quality Index (AQI) published by China’s Ministry of Environmental Protection; and (2) monitor the dynamics of air quality index by using social media messages. Correlation analysis was used to compare the connections between discussion trends in social media messages and the temporal changes in the AQI during 2012. We categorized relevant messages into three types, retweets, mobile app messages, and original individual messages finding that original individual messages had the highest correlation to the Air Quality Index. Based on this correlation analysis, individual messages were used to monitor the AQI in 2013. Our study indicates that the filtered social media messages are strongly correlated to the AQI and can be used to monitor the air quality dynamics to some extent. PMID:26505756

  4. Opportunistic mobile air pollution monitoring: A case study with city wardens in Antwerp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Bossche, Joris; Theunis, Jan; Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Botteldooren, Dick; De Baets, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential of opportunistic mobile monitoring to map the exposure to air pollution in the urban environment at a high spatial resolution. Opportunistic mobile monitoring makes use of existing mobile infrastructure or people's common daily routines to move measurement devices around. Opportunistic mobile monitoring can also play a crucial role in participatory monitoring campaigns as a typical way to gather data. A case study to measure black carbon was set up in Antwerp, Belgium, with the collaboration of city employees (city wardens). The Antwerp city wardens are outdoors for a large part of the day on surveillance tours by bicycle or on foot, and gathered a total of 393 h of measurements. The data collection is unstructured both in space and time, leading to sampling bias. A temporal adjustment can only partly counteract this bias. Although a high spatial coverage was obtained, there is still a rather large uncertainty on the average concentration levels at a spatial resolution of 50 m due to a limited number of measurements and sampling bias. Despite of this uncertainty, large spatial patterns within the city are clearly captured. This study illustrates the potential of campaigns with unstructured opportunistic mobile monitoring, including participatory monitoring campaigns. The results demonstrate that such an approach can indeed be used to identify broad spatial trends over a wider area, enabling applications including hotspot identification, personal exposure studies, regression mapping, etc. But, they also emphasize the need for repeated measurements and careful processing and interpretation of the data.

  5. Evaluation of the Eberline AMS-3A and AMS-4 Beta continuous air monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.L.; Sisk, D.R.

    1996-03-01

    Eberline AMS-3A-1 and AMS-4 beta continuous air monitors were tested against the criteria set forth in the ANSI Standards N42.18, Specification and Performance of On-site Instrumentation for Continuously Monitoring Radioactivity in Effluents, and ANSI N42.17B, Performance Specification for Health Physics Instrumentation - Occupational Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring Instrumentation. ANSI N42.18 does not, in general, specify testing procedures for demonstrating compliance with the criteria set forth in the standard; therefore, wherever possible, the testing procedures given in ANSI N42.17B were adopted. In all cases, the more restrictive acceptance criteria and/or the more demanding test conditions of the two standards were used.

  6. PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING A REAL-TIME AIR POLLUTION MONITORING AND OUTREACH PROGRAM FOR YOUR COMMUNITY: THE AIRBEAT PROJECT OF ROXBURY, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Roxbury Air Monitoring (AirBeat) Project. The purpose of AirBeat is to make real-time air quality monitoring information (for ozone, black carbon, and fine particulates) available to the Boston MA community of Roxbur...

  7. Sorbent-based sampling methods for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in air Part 1: Sorbent-based air monitoring options.

    PubMed

    Woolfenden, Elizabeth

    2010-04-16

    Sorbent tubes/traps are widely used in combination with gas chromatographic (GC) analytical methods to monitor the vapour-phase fraction of organic compounds in air. Target compounds range in volatility from acetylene and freons to phthalates and PCBs and include apolar, polar and reactive species. Airborne vapour concentrations will vary depending on the nature of the location, nearby pollution sources, weather conditions, etc. Levels can range from low percent concentrations in stack and vent emissions to low part per trillion (ppt) levels in ultra-clean outdoor locations. Hundreds, even thousands of different compounds may be present in any given atmosphere. GC is commonly used in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) detection especially for environmental monitoring or for screening uncharacterised workplace atmospheres. Given the complexity and variability of organic vapours in air, no one sampling approach suits every monitoring scenario. A variety of different sampling strategies and sorbent media have been developed to address specific applications. Key sorbent-based examples include: active (pumped) sampling onto tubes packed with one or more sorbents held at ambient temperature; diffusive (passive) sampling onto sorbent tubes/cartridges; on-line sampling of air/gas streams into cooled sorbent traps; and transfer of air samples from containers (canisters, Tedlar) bags, etc.) into cooled sorbent focusing traps. Whichever sampling approach is selected, subsequent analysis almost always involves either solvent extraction or thermal desorption (TD) prior to GC(/MS) analysis. The overall performance of the air monitoring method will depend heavily on appropriate selection of key sampling and analytical parameters. This comprehensive review of air monitoring using sorbent tubes/traps is divided into 2 parts. (1) Sorbent-based air sampling option. (2) Sorbent selection and other aspects of optimizing sorbent-based air monitoring methods. The paper presents

  8. Real-time expert system diagnostics and monitoring for the High Resolution Microwave Survey Targeted Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macalou, A.; Glass, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    An automated monitoring and diagnostics system (MDS) using virtual real-time software was developed for NASA's High Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) Targeted Search System (TSS). The four main tasks required of the MDS were monitoring and recording system health, alerting operators of problems, diagnosing poor system performance, and performing an emergency system shutdown. The MDS was implemented using commercial expert system software tools in addition to interface hardware and software developed on site. The expert system used objects, rules, and schematics in its TSS knowledge representation. The MDS was successfully integrated into the HRMS computer environment, and its performance met or exceeded its requirements.

  9. Microbiological monitoring of air quality in a university canteen: an 11-year report.

    PubMed

    Osimani, A; Aquilanti, L; Tavoletti, S; Clementi, F

    2013-06-01

    Over the past decade, an increased tendency to consume meals at dining facilities outside the home has been highlighted; moreover, meals supplied in food businesses have been involved in many foodborne disease outbreaks. Therefore, microbial air contamination in food processing facilities could be a concern and an increase of microbial loads could represent a risk factor, especially for the potential contamination of foods due to undesirable spoiling and pathogenic bacteria. In this paper, the results of an 11-year microbiological monitoring of air quality in a university canteen are reported. The study, which started in the year 2000, was performed within a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan implementation of a canteen that produces about 1,000 meals a day in order to verify the effectiveness of corrective actions on the indoor air quality. The primary food preparation room, the kitchen, and three cold rooms underwent air sampling by using a calibrated impaction sampler. Our investigation detected a general and progressive improvement in the air quality of the canteen since the beginning of the study, thus suggesting the appropriateness of the corrective action undertaken during the HACCP implementation program.

  10. Site location optimization of regional air quality monitoring network in China: methodology and case study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junyu; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Liu, Panwei; Zhong, Liuju; Lai, Senchao

    2011-11-01

    Regional air quality monitoring networks (RAQMN) are urgently needed in China due to increasing regional air pollution in city clusters, arising from rapid economic development in recent decades. This paper proposes a methodological framework for site location optimization in designing a RAQMN adapting to air quality management practice in China. The framework utilizes synthetic assessment concentrations developed from simulated data from a regional air quality model in order to simplify the optimal process and to reduce costs. On the basis of analyzing various constraints such as cost and budget, terrain conditions, administrative district, population density and spatial coverage, the framework takes the maximum approximate degree as an optimization objective to achieve site location optimization of a RAQMN. An expert judgment approach was incorporated into the framework to help adjust initial optimization results in order to make the network more practical and representative. A case study was used to demonstrate the application of the framework, indicating that it is feasible to conduct site optimization for a RAQMN design in China. The effects of different combinations of primary and secondary pollutants on site location optimization were investigated. It is suggested that the network design considering both primary and secondary pollutants could better represent regional pollution characteristics and more extensively reflect temporal and spatial variations of regional air quality. The work shown in this study can be used as a reference to guide site location optimization of a RAQMN design in China or other regions of the world.

  11. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    PubMed

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  12. Atmospheric Parameter Climatologies from AIRS: Monitoring Short-, and Longer-Term Climate Variabilities and 'Trends'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Gyula; Susskind, Joel

    2008-01-01

    The AIRS instrument is currently the best space-based tool to simultaneously monitor the vertical distribution of key climatically important atmospheric parameters as well as surface properties, and has provided high quality data for more than 5 years. AIRS analysis results produced at the GODDARD/DAAC, based on Versions 4 & 5 of the AIRS retrieval algorithm, are currently available for public use. Here, first we present an assessment of interrelationships of anomalies (proxies of climate variability based on 5 full years, since Sept. 2002) of various climate parameters at different spatial scales. We also present AIRS-retrievals-based global, regional and 1x1 degree grid-scale "trend"-analyses of important atmospheric parameters for this 5-year period. Note that here "trend" simply means the linear fit to the anomaly (relative the mean seasonal cycle) time series of various parameters at the above-mentioned spatial scales, and we present these to illustrate the usefulness of continuing AIRS-based climate observations. Preliminary validation efforts, in terms of intercomparisons of interannual variabilities with other available satellite data analysis results, will also be addressed. For example, we show that the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) interannual spatial variabilities from the available state-of-the-art CERES measurements and from the AIRS computations are in remarkably good agreement. Version 6 of the AIRS retrieval scheme (currently under development) promises to further improve bias agreements for the absolute values by implementing a more accurate radiative transfer model for the OLR computations and by improving surface emissivity retrievals.

  13. Development of Atmospheric Air 85Kr Monitoring Methodology on the Territory of the USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yury

    2014-05-01

    Highly sensitive, low-background and high-performance method of beta-radioactivity measurements of the gas samples was developed in mid-eighties at Khlopin Radium institute. This method was based on the use of the serial automated installation for liquid scintillation measurements and special scintillating cells. Cells were equipped with the gas valve, and their internal surface were covered by a thin layer of organic scintillator. This method found was successfully was applied for 85Kr activity measurements in atmospheric krypton samples and for 85Kr concentration measurements in atmospheric air. For the first time, method developed for 85Kr activity measurements, was practically tested in May - June, 1986, while studying radioactive pollution characteristics in the air basin of Russia and Ukraine after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Thus for sampling of atmospheric krypton the industrial krypton-xenon mix manufactured at air-separating plants, located in the cities of Cherepovets, Lipetsk, Krivoi Rog and Enakiyevo was used. In the end of April and in the first half of May it was determined that 1,5-fold excess concentrations of 85Kr in atmospheric air were observed in atmospheric air of considerable part of the European territory of Russia and Ukraine During the period from 1987 to 1991 this method was used for monitoring of 85Kr on the territory of the former USSR in the air basin of Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Industrial krypton-xenon mix manufactured at 14 large air-separating plants was also used for sampling. Six of them were situated in Russia (Novomoskovsk, Lipetsk, Cherepovets, Chelyabinsk, Nizhni Tagil, Orsk). Seven - in Ukraine (Enakiyevo, Kommunarsk, Krivoi Rog, Makeyevka, Mariupol, Severodonetsk, Dneprodzerzhinsk). One plant was situated in Temirtau, in Kazakhstan. The analysis indicated that in Krivoi Rog; Dneprozhzerzhinsk; Severodonetsk; Makeyevka; Mariupol; Enakiyevo; Kommunarsk; Novomoskovsk and Cherepovets the average 85Kr concentration in

  14. The role of sample surveys for monitoring the condition of the nation's lakes.

    PubMed

    Larsen, D P; Thornton, K W; Urquhart, N S; Paulsen, S G

    1994-09-01

    In order to meet a growing need to determine the condition of the nation's ecosystems and how their condition is changing, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed EMAP, the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. A common survey design serves as the foundation on which to base monitoring of status and trends among diverse ecosystem types. In this paper, we describe the need for a statistically based survey design, briefly summarize the basic EMAP design, describe how that design is tailored for the selection of a probability sample of lakes on which to make measurements of lake condition, and illustrate the process for selecting a sample of lakes in the northeastern United States. Finally, we illustrate how measurements taken on the sample of lakes can be summarized, with known uncertainty, to describe the condition of a population of lakes.

  15. Using Mobile Monitoring to Assess Spatial Variability in Urban Air Pollution Levels: Opportunities and Challenges (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, T.

    2010-12-01

    Measuring air pollution concentrations from a moving platform is not a new idea. Historically, however, most information on the spatial variability of air pollutants have been derived from fixed site networks operating simultaneously over space. While this approach has obvious advantages from a regulatory perspective, with the increasing need to understand ever finer scales of spatial variability in urban pollution levels, the use of mobile monitoring to supplement fixed site networks has received increasing attention. Here we present examples of the use of this approach: 1) to assess existing fixed-site fine particle networks in Seattle, WA, including the establishment of new fixed-site monitoring locations; 2) to assess the effectiveness of a regulatory intervention, a wood stove burning ban, on the reduction of fine particle levels in the greater Puget Sound region; and 3) to assess spatial variability of both wood smoke and mobile source impacts in both Vancouver, B.C. and Tacoma, WA. Deducing spatial information from the inherently spatio-temporal measurements taken from a mobile platform is an area that deserves further attention. We discuss the use of “fuzzy” points to address the fine-scale spatio-temporal variability in the concentration of mobile source pollutants, specifically to deduce the broader distribution and sources of fine particle soot in the summer in Vancouver, B.C. We also discuss the use of principal component analysis to assess the spatial variability in multivariate, source-related features deduced from simultaneous measurements of light scattering, light absorption and particle-bound PAHs in Tacoma, WA. With increasing miniaturization and decreasing power requirements of air monitoring instruments, the number of simultaneous measurements that can easily be made from a mobile platform is rapidly increasing. Hopefully the methods used to design mobile monitoring experiments for differing purposes, and the methods used to interpret those

  16. The deployment of carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) for ambient air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-06-16

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring.

  17. The Deployment of Carbon Monoxide Wireless Sensor Network (CO-WSN) for Ambient Air Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C.; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011–2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1–1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring. PMID:24937527

  18. A Next Generation Air Monitor: Combining Orion and ISS Requirements for a Common Major Constituent Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchfield, David E.; Tissandier, Michael; Niu, William Hsein-Chi; Lewis, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer-based instrument designed to provide critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents; nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor on-board the International Space Station. The analyzer has been an integral part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) since the station went on-line. The Orion Air Monitor (OAM) was derived from the MCA and heavily optimized for reduced mass, lower power, faster water vapor response, and maintenance-free operation. The resulting OAM is approximately the size of the analyzer portion of the MCA, orbital-replacement unit 02 (ORU 02), while incorporating the functions of three other modules: Data Processing and Communication (ORU 01), Verification Gas Assembly (ORU 08), and Low Voltage Power Supply (ORU 04). The overlap in MCA and OAM requirements makes it possible to derive a common Air Monitor design that spans both applications while minimally impacting the weight and power limits imposed by the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Benefits to ISS include the retirement of ORUs 01, 04, and 08, reducing up-mass and eliminating EEE parts obsolescence issues through the extended ISS mission phases. Benefits to MPCV and future deployed habitats under the Constellation program include greater interchangeability across ECLSS subsystems. This paper discusses the results of the requirements development study, where a superset of ISS and Orion air monitoring requirements were distilled; evaluated against increases in OAM functionality, mass, and power; and traded-off where possible using simple operating mode modifications. A system architecture and preliminary design addressing the common requirements will be presented.

  19. Temporal trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in arctic air: 20 years of monitoring under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP).

    PubMed

    Hung, Hayley; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios A; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Aas, Wenche; Breivik, Knut; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Sigurdsson, Arni; Hakola, Hannele; Bossi, Rossana; Skov, Henrik; Sverko, Ed; Barresi, Enzo; Fellin, Phil; Wilson, Simon

    2016-10-01

    Temporal trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) measured in Arctic air are essential in understanding long-range transport to remote regions and to evaluate the effectiveness of national and international chemical control initiatives, such as the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs. Long-term air monitoring of POPs is conducted under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) at four Arctic stations: Alert, Canada; Stórhöfði, Iceland; Zeppelin, Svalbard; and Pallas, Finland, since the 1990s using high volume air samplers. Temporal trends observed for POPs in Arctic air are summarized in this study. Most POPs listed for control under the SC, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and chlordanes, are declining slowly in Arctic air, reflecting the reduction of primary emissions during the last two decades and increasing importance of secondary emissions. Slow declining trends also signifies their persistence and slow degradation under the Arctic environment, such that they are still detectable after being banned for decades in many countries. Some POPs, e.g. hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and lighter PCBs, showed increasing trends at specific locations, which may be attributable to warming in the region and continued primary emissions at source. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) do not decline in air at Canada's Alert station but are declining in European Arctic air, which may be due to influence of local sources at Alert and the much higher historical usage of PBDEs in North America. Arctic air samples are screened for chemicals of emerging concern to provide information regarding their environmental persistence (P) and long-range transport potential (LRTP), which are important criteria for classification as a POP under SC. The AMAP network provides consistent and comparable air monitoring data of POPs for trend development and acts as a bridge between national monitoring programs and SC's Global Monitoring

  20. 2010 Lead (Pb) Air Monitoring Requirements & 2013 Method for Determination of Lead (Pb) in Total Suspended Particulate Matter Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a variety of fact sheets and other documents that are supplementary to the 2010 final revisions to lead (Pb) ambient air monitoring requirements and the 2013 final method for determination of Pb in total suspended particulate matter.