Science.gov

Sample records for air navigation aids

  1. Development of visual-display aid to air navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matcovich, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    The developments are discussed in the design of a liquid-crystal, visual display, air navigation aid, which uses two VOR signals to locate the aircraft. The system concepts, liquid crystal materials, stability tests, and the electronic system are described. It is concluded that a navigational aid of this type is technically feasible, but not at the projected low cost.

  2. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  3. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  4. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  5. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  6. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  7. Mosul Air Traffic Control Tower and Navigational Aids, Mosul, Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-25

    Range ( DVOR ) • Ground-to-air radio communications systems • Glide-Slope/Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) Lights • Wind Direction Indicator...16 • Doppler VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range ( DVOR ) • Glide-Slope/Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) Lights • Wind Direction Indicator...Contractor Quality Control DVOR Doppler VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range ER Engineering Regulation FOB Forward Operating Base GRN Gulf Region North

  8. Inertial Navigation System Aiding Using Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM AIDING USING VISION THESIS James O. Quarmyne, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENG-13-M-40 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...protection in the United States AFIT-ENG-13-M-40 INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM AIDING USING VISION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of...AIDING USING VISION James O. Quarmyne, B.S.E.E. Second Lieutenant, USAF Approved: Meir Pachter, PhD (Chairman) Date John F. Raquet, PhD (Committee Member

  9. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  10. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  11. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  12. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  13. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  14. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  15. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  16. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  17. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  18. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  19. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  20. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  1. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  2. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  3. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  4. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  5. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  6. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  7. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  8. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  9. Fully Self-Contained Vision-Aided Navigation and Landing of a Micro Air Vehicle Independent from External Sensor Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockers, Roland; Susca, Sara; Zhu, David; Matthies, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Direct-lift micro air vehicles have important applications in reconnaissance. In order to conduct persistent surveillance in urban environments, it is essential that these systems can perform autonomous landing maneuvers on elevated surfaces that provide high vantage points without the help of any external sensor and with a fully contained on-board software solution. In this paper, we present a micro air vehicle that uses vision feedback from a single down looking camera to navigate autonomously and detect an elevated landing platform as a surrogate for a roof top. Our method requires no special preparation (labels or markers) of the landing location. Rather, leveraging the planar character of urban structure, the landing platform detection system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect landing targets and produce approach waypoints for autonomous landing. The vehicle control algorithm uses a Kalman filter based approach for pose estimation to fuse visual SLAM (PTAM) position estimates with IMU data to correct for high latency SLAM inputs and to increase the position estimate update rate in order to improve control stability. Scale recovery is achieved using inputs from a sonar altimeter. In experimental runs, we demonstrate a real-time implementation running on-board a micro aerial vehicle that is fully self-contained and independent from any external sensor information. With this method, the vehicle is able to search autonomously for a landing location and perform precision landing maneuvers on the detected targets.

  10. 33 CFR 100.45 - Establishment of aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishment of aids to... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.45 Establishment of aids to navigation. The District Commander will establish and maintain only those aids to navigation necessary...

  11. 33 CFR 100.45 - Establishment of aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Establishment of aids to... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.45 Establishment of aids to navigation. The District Commander will establish and maintain only those aids to navigation necessary...

  12. 33 CFR 100.45 - Establishment of aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishment of aids to... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.45 Establishment of aids to navigation. The District Commander will establish and maintain only those aids to navigation necessary...

  13. 33 CFR 100.45 - Establishment of aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Establishment of aids to... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.45 Establishment of aids to navigation. The District Commander will establish and maintain only those aids to navigation necessary...

  14. 33 CFR 100.45 - Establishment of aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of aids to... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.45 Establishment of aids to navigation. The District Commander will establish and maintain only those aids to navigation necessary...

  15. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  16. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  17. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  18. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  19. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  20. Gravity aided inertial navigation system (GAINS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jircitano, Albert; Dosch, Daniel E.

    The paper describes a new autonomous covert INS uniquely suited to underwater applications. Unlike the conventional INS, schuler and siderial errors are bounded without external navigation aids or active instrumentation of ground speed. As a result, the system exhibits excellent long-term navigation performance while maintaining the inherent covertness of the INS system. A conventional INS is integrated with a gravity gradiometer capable of measuring gravity field components independently of platform accelerations. This new integration scheme takes advantage of navigation system velocity error observability. Parametric performance results are presented for GAINS, varying gyro, gravimeter, gradiometer, depth sensor quality, and gravity field activity.

  1. Crew-Aided Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.

    2015-01-01

    A sextant provides manual capability to perform star/planet-limb sightings and offers a cheap, simple, robust backup navigation source for exploration missions independent from the ground. Sextant sightings from spacecraft were first exercised in Gemini and flew as the lost-communication backup for all Apollo missions. This study characterized error sources of navigation-grade sextants for feasibility of taking star and planetary limb sightings from inside a spacecraft. A series of similar studies was performed in the early/mid-1960s in preparation for Apollo missions. This study modernized and updated those findings in addition to showing feasibility using Linear Covariance analysis techniques. The human eyeball is a remarkable piece of optical equipment and provides many advantages over camera-based systems, including dynamic range and detail resolution. This technique utilizes those advantages and provides important autonomy to the crew in the event of lost communication with the ground. It can also provide confidence and verification of low-TRL automated onboard systems. The technique is extremely flexible and is not dependent on any particular vehicle type. The investigation involved procuring navigation-grade sextants and characterizing their performance under a variety of conditions encountered in exploration missions. The JSC optical sensor lab and Orion mockup were the primary testing locations. For the accuracy assessment, a group of test subjects took sextant readings on calibrated targets while instrument/operator precision was measured. The study demonstrated repeatability of star/planet-limb sightings with bias and standard deviation around 10 arcseconds, then used high-fidelity simulations to verify those accuracy levels met the needs for targeting mid-course maneuvers in preparation for Earth reen.

  2. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  3. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  4. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  5. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  6. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  7. 75 FR 8390 - St. Croix River Aids to Navigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard St. Croix River Aids to Navigation AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of public... the aids to navigation in the St. Croix River. DATES: A public meeting will be held on Tuesday, March... review the current Aids to Navigation system on the St. Croix River and discuss concerns and...

  8. 33 CFR 66.05-25 - Change and modification of State aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aids to navigation. 66.05-25 Section 66.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-25 Change and modification of State aids to navigation. Wherever a State Administrator determines...

  9. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  10. 33 CFR 66.05-25 - Change and modification of State aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aids to navigation. 66.05-25 Section 66.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-25 Change and modification of State aids to navigation. Wherever a State Administrator determines...

  11. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  12. 33 CFR 66.05-25 - Change and modification of State aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... aids to navigation. 66.05-25 Section 66.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-25 Change and modification of State aids to navigation. Wherever a State Administrator determines...

  13. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  14. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  15. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  16. 33 CFR 66.05-25 - Change and modification of State aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aids to navigation. 66.05-25 Section 66.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-25 Change and modification of State aids to navigation. Wherever a State Administrator determines...

  17. 33 CFR 66.05-25 - Change and modification of State aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aids to navigation. 66.05-25 Section 66.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-25 Change and modification of State aids to navigation. Wherever a State Administrator determines...

  18. 33 CFR 149.505 - What are the general requirements for aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for aids to navigation? 149.505 Section 149.505 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation General § 149.505 What are the general requirements for aids to navigation? The following requirements apply to navigation aids under this subpart: (a) Section 66.01-5 of this chapter,...

  19. 33 CFR 149.505 - What are the general requirements for aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for aids to navigation? 149.505 Section 149.505 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation General § 149.505 What are the general requirements for aids to navigation? The following requirements apply to navigation aids under this subpart: (a) Section 66.01-5 of this chapter,...

  20. 33 CFR 149.505 - What are the general requirements for aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for aids to navigation? 149.505 Section 149.505 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation General § 149.505 What are the general requirements for aids to navigation? The following requirements apply to navigation aids under this subpart: (a) Section 66.01-5 of this chapter,...

  1. 33 CFR 149.505 - What are the general requirements for aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for aids to navigation? 149.505 Section 149.505 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation General § 149.505 What are the general requirements for aids to navigation? The following requirements apply to navigation aids under this subpart: (a) Section 66.01-5 of this chapter,...

  2. 33 CFR 149.505 - What are the general requirements for aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for aids to navigation? 149.505 Section 149.505 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation General § 149.505 What are the general requirements for aids to navigation? The following requirements apply to navigation aids under this subpart: (a) Section 66.01-5 of this chapter,...

  3. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 1: GPS aided navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matchett, G. A.; Vogel, M. A.; Macdonald, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical studies related to space shuttle navigation are presented. Studies related to the addition of NAVSTAR Global Positioning System user equipment to the shuttle avionics suite are presented. The GPS studies center about navigation accuracy covariance analyses for both developmental and operational phases of GPS, as well as for various orbiter mission phases.

  4. 33 CFR 150.705 - What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? 150.705 Section 150.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.705 What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? (a)...

  5. 33 CFR 150.715 - What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lights used as aids to navigation? 150.715 Section 150.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.715 What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation? (a) Each light under part...

  6. 33 CFR 150.705 - What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? 150.705 Section 150.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.705 What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? (a)...

  7. 33 CFR 150.710 - What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... supplying power to aids to navigation? 150.710 Section 150.710 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.710 What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation? The power of...

  8. 33 CFR 150.705 - What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? 150.705 Section 150.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.705 What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 150.705 - What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? 150.705 Section 150.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.705 What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? (a)...

  10. 33 CFR 150.705 - What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? 150.705 Section 150.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.705 What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? (a)...

  11. 33 CFR 150.715 - What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lights used as aids to navigation? 150.715 Section 150.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.715 What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation? (a) Each light under part...

  12. 33 CFR 150.710 - What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... supplying power to aids to navigation? 150.710 Section 150.710 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.710 What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation? The power of...

  13. 33 CFR 150.715 - What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lights used as aids to navigation? 150.715 Section 150.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.715 What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation? (a) Each light under part...

  14. 33 CFR 150.715 - What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lights used as aids to navigation? 150.715 Section 150.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.715 What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation? (a) Each light under part...

  15. 33 CFR 150.710 - What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... supplying power to aids to navigation? 150.710 Section 150.710 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.710 What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation? The power of...

  16. 33 CFR 150.715 - What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lights used as aids to navigation? 150.715 Section 150.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.715 What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation? (a) Each light under part...

  17. 33 CFR 150.710 - What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... supplying power to aids to navigation? 150.710 Section 150.710 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.710 What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation? The power of...

  18. 33 CFR 150.710 - What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... supplying power to aids to navigation? 150.710 Section 150.710 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.710 What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation? The power of...

  19. Simulation Platform for Vision Aided Inertial Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-18

    34 International Journal of Computer Vision, 91-110. 77 Misra , P., & Enge, P. (2006). Global Positioning System: Signals, Measurements and Performance...Inertial Navigation System (INS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) solutions have become the backbone of many modern positioning and navigation systems...be periodically corrected by some other type of navigation system. One of the best sources of measurements for position come from the Global

  20. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  1. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  2. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  3. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  4. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  5. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  6. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  7. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  8. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  9. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  10. Navigation and Alignment Aids Concept of Operations and Supplemental Design Information. Revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Cryan, Scott P.

    2016-01-01

    The IDSS Navigation and Alignment Aids Concept of Operations and Supplemental Design Information document provides supplemental information to the IDSS IDD. The guide provides insight into the navigation and alignment aids design, and how those aids can be utilized by incoming vehicles for proximity operations and docking. The navigation aids are paramount to successful docking.

  11. 47 CFR 22.365 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 22... Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become a hazard to air navigation. In general, antenna structure owners...

  12. 47 CFR 22.365 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 22... Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become a hazard to air navigation. In general, antenna structure owners...

  13. 47 CFR 22.365 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 22... Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become a hazard to air navigation. In general, antenna structure owners...

  14. 47 CFR 22.365 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 22... Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become a hazard to air navigation. In general, antenna structure owners...

  15. 47 CFR 22.365 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 22... Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become a hazard to air navigation. In general, antenna structure owners...

  16. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  17. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  18. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  19. 43 CFR 2651.6 - Airport and air navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airport and air navigation facilities... Village Selections § 2651.6 Airport and air navigation facilities. (a) Every airport and air navigation.... (b) The surface of all other lands of existing airport sites, airway beacons, or other...

  20. Crew-Aided Autonomous Navigation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Manual capability to perform star/planet-limb sightings provides a cheap, simple, and robust backup navigation source for exploration missions independent from the ground. Sextant sightings from spacecraft were first exercised in Gemini and flew as the loss-of-communications backup for all Apollo missions. This study seeks to procure and characterize error sources of navigation-grade sextants for feasibility of taking star and planetary limb sightings from inside a spacecraft. A series of similar studies was performed in the early/mid-1960s in preparation for Apollo missions, and one goal of this study is to modernize and update those findings. This technique has the potential to deliver significant risk mitigation, validation, and backup to more complex low-TRL automated systems under development involving cameras.

  1. Visual navigation aid for planetary UAV risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, C. A.; Bottkol, M. S.; Madison, R. W.; DeBitetto, P. A.; Young, M.

    2007-09-01

    Unlike the navigation problem of Earth operations, the precise navigation of a vehicle in a remote planetary environment presents a challenging problem for either absolute or relative navigation. There exist no GPS/INS solutions due to a lack of a GPS constellation, few or no accurately surveyed markers for use in terminal sensing measurements, and highly uncertain terrain elevation maps used by a TERCOM system. These, and other, issues prompted the investigation of the potential use of a visual navigation aid to supplement an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and radar altimeter suite of a planetary airplane for the purpose of the identifying the potential benefit of visual measurements to the overall navigation solution. The mission objective used in the study, described herein, requires the precise relative navigation of the airplane over an uncertain terrain. Unlike the previously successful employment of visual aided navigation on the MER1 landing vehicle, the mission objectives require that the airplane traverse a precise flight pattern over the objective terrain at relatively low altitudes for hundreds of kilometers, and is more akin to a velocity correlator application than a terminal fix problem. The results of the investigation indicate that a good knowledge of aircraft altitude is required in order to obtain the desired performance for velocity estimate accuracy. However, it was determined that the direction of the velocity vector can be obtained without a high accuracy height estimate. The characterization of the dependency of velocity estimate accuracy upon the variety of factors involved in the process is the primary focus of this report. This report describes the approach taken in this investigation to both define the architecture of the solution for minimal impact upon payload requirements, and the analysis of the potential gains to the overall navigation problem. Also described as part of the problem definition are the initially assumed contribution

  2. Design and performance analysis of a low-cost aided dead reckoning navigator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebre-Egziabher, Demoz

    The Federal Aviation Administration is leading the National Airspace System (NAS) modernization effort, in part, by supplanting traditional air traffic services with the Global Positioning System (GPS) aided by the Wide and Local Area Augmentation Systems (WAAS & LAAS). Making GPS the primary-means of navigation will enhance safety, flexibility and efficiency of operations for all aircraft ranging from single engine general aviation aircraft to complex commercial jet-liners. This transformation of the NAS will be gradual and the build-up to a primary-means GPS capability is expected to occur concurrently with the de-commissioning of a significant number of existing ground-based navigational facilities. If an alternate means of navigation is not available during this transition period, temporary interruptions of GPS services due to intentional or unintentional interference could present significant problems for aircraft lacking backup navigation capability. To successfully deal with such outage scenarios, a NAS architecture consisting of a skeletal network of Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) transponders to provide a redundant navigation capability alongside GPS/WAAS during this transition period is proposed. DME range measurements fused with a low cost dead-reckoning system can provide a navigation performance comparable to VOR and LORAN. This navigation scheme allows reducing the number of operational radio-navigation aids while maintaining an adequate coverage for navigation during the transition to a primary-means GPS NAS. The dead-reckoning navigation system is based on the fusion of a single low-end DME receiver with low cost inertial, air-data and magnetic sensors. These sensors are already part of the newer general aviation aircraft's suite of navigation sensors. Estimator architectures for fusing the information from the various sensors is presented. The performance of this navigator depends on the calibration and on-line estimation of sensor errors

  3. Navigating the Complex World of Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    The financial-aid policies and practices of colleges and universities have made too many headlines in recent times to remain the domain of technical experts. Boards of trustees, like other constituencies that are responsible for the health and well-being of postsecondary institutions, should be asking how issues being raised about student…

  4. Optic flow aided navigation and 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollason, Malcolm

    2013-10-01

    An important enabler for low cost airborne systems is the ability to exploit low cost inertial instruments. An Inertial Navigation System (INS) can provide a navigation solution, when GPS is denied, by integrating measurements from inertial sensors. However, the gyrometer and accelerometer biases of low cost inertial sensors cause compound errors in the integrated navigation solution. This paper describes experiments to establish whether (and to what extent) the navigation solution can be aided by fusing measurements from an on-board video camera with measurements from the inertial sensors. The primary aim of the work was to establish whether optic flow aided navigation is beneficial even when the 3D structure within the observed scene is unknown. A further aim was to investigate whether an INS can help to infer 3D scene content from video. Experiments with both real and synthetic data have been conducted. Real data was collected using an AR Parrot quadrotor. Empirical results illustrate that optic flow provides a useful aid to navigation even when the 3D structure of the observed scene is not known. With optic flow aiding of the INS, the computed trajectory is consistent with the true camera motion, whereas the unaided INS yields a rapidly increasing position error (the data represents ~40 seconds, after which the unaided INS is ~50 metres in error and has passed through the ground). The results of the Monte Carlo simulation concur with the empirical result. Position errors, which grow as a quadratic function of time when unaided, are substantially checked by the availability of optic flow measurements.

  5. A research on SLAM aided INS/GPS navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Menglong; Cui, Pingyuan

    2007-11-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) aided INS/GPS navigation system is a landmark based terrain aided autonomous integrated system that has the capability for online map building and simultaneously utilizing the generated map to bind the errors in the Inertial Navigation System (INS) when GPS is not available. If GPS information is available, the SLAM integrated system builds a landmark-based map using an INS/GPS solution. If GPS is not available, the previously newly generated map is used to constrain the INS errors. The SLAM augmented INS/GPS system shows two capabilities of landmark tracking and mapping using GPS information and more importantly, aiding the INS under GPS denied situation. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by computer simulation.

  6. AFTI/SITAN (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/Sandia Inertial Terrain-Aided Navigation) final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fellerhoff, J.R.

    1988-11-01

    Sandia Inertial Terrain-Aided Navigation (SITAN) provides continuous position fixes to an inertial navigation system (INS) by real-time comparison of radar altimeter ground clearance measurements with stored digital terrain elevation data (DTED). This is accomplished by using an extended Kalman filter algorithm to estimate the errors in the reference trajectory provided by an INS. In this report, Sandia National Laboratories documents the results of a reimbursable effort funded by the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL) Avionics Laboratory to flight test SITAN as implemented onboard the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI)F-16. 5 refs., 101 figs., 1 tab.

  7. 46 CFR 4.05-20 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 4.05-20 Section 4.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC... accident to aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under...

  8. 46 CFR 185.230 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 185.230 Section 185.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under...

  9. 46 CFR 122.230 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 122.230 Section... Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.230 Report of accident to aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under the jurisdiction of the Coast Guard, or is...

  10. 46 CFR 4.05-20 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 4.05-20 Section 4.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC... accident to aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under...

  11. 46 CFR 185.230 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 185.230 Section 185.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under...

  12. 46 CFR 185.230 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 185.230 Section 185.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under...

  13. 46 CFR 4.05-20 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 4.05-20 Section 4.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC... accident to aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under...

  14. 46 CFR 185.230 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 185.230 Section 185.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under...

  15. 46 CFR 4.05-20 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 4.05-20 Section 4.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC... accident to aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under...

  16. 46 CFR 122.230 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 122.230 Section... Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.230 Report of accident to aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under the jurisdiction of the Coast Guard, or is...

  17. 46 CFR 185.230 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 185.230 Section 185.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under...

  18. 46 CFR 122.230 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 122.230 Section... Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.230 Report of accident to aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under the jurisdiction of the Coast Guard, or is...

  19. 46 CFR 122.230 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 122.230 Section... Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.230 Report of accident to aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under the jurisdiction of the Coast Guard, or is...

  20. 46 CFR 4.05-20 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 4.05-20 Section 4.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC... accident to aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under...

  1. 46 CFR 122.230 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 122.230 Section... Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.230 Report of accident to aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under the jurisdiction of the Coast Guard, or is...

  2. 46 CFR 131.910 - Notices to mariners and aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notices to mariners and aids to navigation. 131.910... OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 131.910 Notices to mariners and aids to navigation. Each master and mate shall... Imagery and Mapping Agency regarding aids to navigation in the area in which the vessel operates....

  3. 46 CFR 131.910 - Notices to mariners and aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notices to mariners and aids to navigation. 131.910... OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 131.910 Notices to mariners and aids to navigation. Each master and mate shall... Imagery and Mapping Agency regarding aids to navigation in the area in which the vessel operates....

  4. 46 CFR 131.910 - Notices to mariners and aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notices to mariners and aids to navigation. 131.910... OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 131.910 Notices to mariners and aids to navigation. Each master and mate shall... Imagery and Mapping Agency regarding aids to navigation in the area in which the vessel operates....

  5. 46 CFR 131.910 - Notices to mariners and aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notices to mariners and aids to navigation. 131.910... OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 131.910 Notices to mariners and aids to navigation. Each master and mate shall... Geospatial-Intelligence Agency regarding aids to navigation in the area in which the vessel operates....

  6. 46 CFR 131.910 - Notices to mariners and aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notices to mariners and aids to navigation. 131.910... OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 131.910 Notices to mariners and aids to navigation. Each master and mate shall... Imagery and Mapping Agency regarding aids to navigation in the area in which the vessel operates....

  7. Navigating the AIDS industry: being poor and positive in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Boesten, Jelke

    2011-01-01

    This article shows how poor people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania navigate a myriad of actors, agencies and organizations to obtain the aid they need to survive. It focuses on community-based organizations which establish networks of care through which people obtain care, treatment and financial support. A case study of a roadside town in Tanzania illustrates that these community-based networks of care — essential to the survival of many — are partly the product of the AIDS industry, which encourages the establishment of community-based organizations and voluntary service delivery rather than more formalized systems of care. Community-based organizations, however, are so poorly supported that they often deploy self-destructive strategies. The need to strategically navigate the AIDS industry creates tension and even conflict among HIV-positive activists, the people they represent and the wider community, which undermines rather than strengthens community-based interventions. Whilst the AIDS industry promises inclusion of HIV-positive people in the response to HIV/AIDS, it succeeds only partially, with the result that it may potentially do more harm than good.

  8. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation.

    PubMed

    Nitti, Davide O; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria T; Greco, Mario; Pinelli, Gianpaolo

    2015-07-28

    This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR) and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM). A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimated UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system.

  9. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Nitti, Davide O.; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria T.; Greco, Mario; Pinelli, Gianpaolo

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR) and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM). A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimate UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system. PMID:26225977

  10. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s)...

  11. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s)...

  12. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become...

  13. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become...

  14. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s)...

  15. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s)...

  16. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become...

  17. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become...

  18. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become...

  19. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s)...

  20. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  1. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  2. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  3. 46 CFR 35.20-1 - Notice to mariners; aids to navigation-T/OCLB.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice to mariners; aids to navigation-T/OCLB. 35.20-1... § 35.20-1 Notice to mariners; aids to navigation—T/OCLB. (a) Licensed officers are required to acquaint... Agency regarding aids to navigation, and neglect to do so is evidence of neglect of duty. It is...

  4. 46 CFR 167.65-45 - Notice to mariners; aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice to mariners; aids to navigation. 167.65-45... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-45 Notice to mariners; aids to... Coast Guard and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency regarding aids to navigation, and neglect...

  5. 46 CFR 35.20-1 - Notice to mariners; aids to navigation-T/OCLB.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice to mariners; aids to navigation-T/OCLB. 35.20-1... § 35.20-1 Notice to mariners; aids to navigation—T/OCLB. (a) Licensed officers are required to acquaint... Agency regarding aids to navigation, and neglect to do so is evidence of neglect of duty. It is...

  6. 46 CFR 35.20-1 - Notice to mariners; aids to navigation-T/OCLB.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice to mariners; aids to navigation-T/OCLB. 35.20-1... § 35.20-1 Notice to mariners; aids to navigation—T/OCLB. (a) Licensed officers are required to acquaint... Agency regarding aids to navigation, and neglect to do so is evidence of neglect of duty. It is...

  7. 46 CFR 35.20-1 - Notice to mariners; aids to navigation-T/OCLB.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice to mariners; aids to navigation-T/OCLB. 35.20-1... § 35.20-1 Notice to mariners; aids to navigation—T/OCLB. (a) Licensed officers are required to acquaint... Agency regarding aids to navigation, and neglect to do so is evidence of neglect of duty. It is...

  8. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  9. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  10. 46 CFR 35.20-1 - Notice to mariners; aids to navigation-T/OCLB.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice to mariners; aids to navigation-T/OCLB. 35.20-1... § 35.20-1 Notice to mariners; aids to navigation—T/OCLB. (a) Licensed officers are required to acquaint... Agency regarding aids to navigation, and neglect to do so is evidence of neglect of duty. It is...

  11. 46 CFR 167.65-45 - Notice to mariners; aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice to mariners; aids to navigation. 167.65-45... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-45 Notice to mariners; aids to... Coast Guard and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency regarding aids to navigation, and neglect to...

  12. 46 CFR 167.65-45 - Notice to mariners; aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice to mariners; aids to navigation. 167.65-45... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-45 Notice to mariners; aids to... Coast Guard and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency regarding aids to navigation, and neglect to...

  13. 46 CFR 167.65-45 - Notice to mariners; aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice to mariners; aids to navigation. 167.65-45... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-45 Notice to mariners; aids to... Coast Guard and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency regarding aids to navigation, and neglect to...

  14. 46 CFR 167.65-45 - Notice to mariners; aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice to mariners; aids to navigation. 167.65-45... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-45 Notice to mariners; aids to... Coast Guard and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency regarding aids to navigation, and neglect to...

  15. Autonomous navigation system. [gyroscopic pendulum for air navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhav, S. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An inertial navigation system utilizing a servo-controlled two degree of freedom pendulum to obtain specific force components in the locally level coordinate system is described. The pendulum includes a leveling gyroscope and an azimuth gyroscope supported on a two gimbal system. The specific force components in the locally level coordinate system are converted to components in the geographical coordinate system by means of a single Euler transformation. The standard navigation equations are solved to determine longitudinal and lateral velocities. Finally, vehicle position is determined by a further integration.

  16. An Effective Terrain Aided Navigation for Low-Cost Autonomous Underwater Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling; Cheng, Xianghong; Zhu, Yixian; Dai, Chenxi; Fu, Jinbo

    2017-03-25

    Terrain-aided navigation is a potentially powerful solution for obtaining submerged position fixes for autonomous underwater vehicles. The application of terrain-aided navigation with high-accuracy inertial navigation systems has demonstrated meter-level navigation accuracy in sea trials. However, available sensors may be limited depending on the type of the mission. Such limitations, especially for low-grade navigation sensors, not only degrade the accuracy of traditional navigation systems, but further impact the ability to successfully employ terrain-aided navigation. To address this problem, a tightly-coupled navigation is presented to successfully estimate the critical sensor errors by incorporating raw sensor data directly into an augmented navigation system. Furthermore, three-dimensional distance errors are calculated, providing measurement updates through the particle filter for absolute and bounded position error. The development of the terrain aided navigation system is elaborated for a vehicle equipped with a non-inertial-grade strapdown inertial navigation system, a 4-beam Doppler Velocity Log range sensor and a sonar altimeter. Using experimental data for navigation performance evaluation in areas with different terrain characteristics, the experiment results further show that the proposed method can be successfully applied to the low-cost AUVs and significantly improves navigation performance.

  17. In-flight angular alignment of inertial navigation systems by means of radio aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, W.

    1972-01-01

    The principles involved in the angular alignment of the inertial reference by nondirectional data from radio aids are developed and compared with conventional methods of alignment such as gyro-compassing and pendulous vertical determination. The specific problem is considered of the space shuttle reentry and a proposed technique for the alignment of the inertial reference system some time before landing. A description is given of the digital simulation of a transponder interrogation system and of its interaction with the inertial navigation system. Data from reentry simulations are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of in-flight inertial system alignment. Concluding remarks refer to other potential applications such as space shuttle orbit insertion and air navigation of conventional aircraft.

  18. Determining the Navigational Aids Use on the Internet: The Information Technologies Teacher Candidates' Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzu, Abdullah; Firat, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The Internet users who fail to cope with navigation may generally face various problems such as disorientation, distraction, low motivation and abandonment of information retrieval. Therefore, navigational aids are frequently used in today's Web browsers and Web sites to help users navigate on the Internet. However, it is asserted that…

  19. 75 FR 998 - Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal AGENCY: U.S. Coast Guard, DHS..., the Department of Transportation has determined that sufficient alternative navigation aids...

  20. Context-Aided Sensor Fusion for Enhanced Urban Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Martí, Enrique David; Martín, David; García, Jesús; de la Escalera, Arturo; Molina, José Manuel; Armingol, José María

    2012-01-01

    The deployment of Intelligent Vehicles in urban environments requires reliable estimation of positioning for urban navigation. The inherent complexity of this kind of environments fosters the development of novel systems which should provide reliable and precise solutions to the vehicle. This article details an advanced GNSS/IMU fusion system based on a context-aided Unscented Kalman filter for navigation in urban conditions. The constrained non-linear filter is here conditioned by a contextual knowledge module which reasons about sensor quality and driving context in order to adapt it to the situation, while at the same time it carries out a continuous estimation and correction of INS drift errors. An exhaustive analysis has been carried out with available data in order to characterize the behavior of available sensors and take it into account in the developed solution. The performance is then analyzed with an extensive dataset containing representative situations. The proposed solution suits the use of fusion algorithms for deploying Intelligent Transport Systems in urban environments. PMID:23223080

  1. Terrain aided navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles with coarse maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ling; Cheng, Xianghong; Zhu, Yixian

    2016-09-01

    Terrain aided navigation (TAN) is a form of geophysical localization technique for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) operating in GPS-denied environments. TAN performance on sensor-rich AUVs has been evaluated in sea trials. However, many challenges remain before TAN can be successfully implemented on sensor-limited AUVs, especially with coarse maps. To improve TAN performance over coarse maps, a Gaussian process (GP) is proposed for the modeling of bathymetric terrain and integrated into the particle filter (GP-PF). GP is applied to provide not only the bathymetric value prediction through learning a set of bathymetric data from coarse maps but also the variance of the prediction. As a measurement update, calculated on bathymetric deviation is performed through the PF to obtain absolute and bounded positioning accuracy. Through the analysis of TAN performance on experimental data for two different terrains with map resolutions of 10-50 m, both the ability of the proposed model to represent the actual bathymetric terrain with accuracy and the effect of the GP-PF for TAN on sensor-limited systems in suited terrain are demonstrated. The experiment results further verify that there is an inverse relationship between the coarseness of the map and the overall TAN accuracy in rough terrains, but there is hardly any relationship between them in relatively flat terrains.

  2. End-to-end design consideration of a radar altimeter for terrain-aided navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Joohwan; Choi, Sanghyouk; Paek, Inchan; Park, Dongmin; Yoo, Kyungju

    2013-10-01

    We present a preliminary simulation study of an interferometric SAR altimeter for the terrain-aided navigation application. Our simulation includes raw SAR data generation, azimuth compression, leading edge detection of the echo signal, maximum likelihood angle estimation and the Bayesian state estimation. Sour results show that radar altimeter performance can be improved with the feedback loop from the rear-end navigation part.

  3. Pilot-Assisted Inertial Navigation System Aiding Using Bearings-Only Measurements Taken Over Time

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    PILOT-ASSISTED INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM AIDING USING BEARINGS -ONLY MEASUREMENTS TAKEN OVER TIME THESIS Anthony T. Mirabile, 1st Lieutenant, USAF...NAVIGATION SYSTEM AIDING USING BEARINGS -ONLY MEASUREMENTS TAKEN OVER TIME THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering...USING BEARINGS -ONLY MEASUREMENTS TAKEN OVER TIME THESIS Anthony T. Mirabile, B.S.E.E. 1st Lieutenant, USAF Committee Membership: Dr. Meir Pacther Chair Dr

  4. Airborne laser scanner aided inertial for terrain referenced navigation in unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadlamani, Ananth Kalyan

    A dead-reckoning terrain referenced navigation (TRN) system that uses airborne laser ranging sensors to aid an aircraft inertial navigation system (INS) is presented. Improved navigation performance is achieved through estimation of vehicle velocity and position using terrain measurements. The system only uses aircraft sensors and simultaneously performs the dual functions of mapping and navigation in unknown environments. The theory, algorithms and results of the system performance are presented using simulations and flight test data. This dissertation focuses primarily on the use of dual airborne laser scanners (ALS) for aiding an INS. Dual ALS measurements are used to generate overlapping terrain models, which are then used to estimate the INS velocity and position errors and constrain its drift. By keeping track of its errors, a navigation-grade INS is aided in a feed-forward manner. This dead-reckoning navigation algorithm is generic enough to be easily extendable to use other optical sensors. Data integrity, sensor alignment and the effects of vegetation noise, attitude and heading accuracy are analyzed. Furthermore, a feedback coupled aiding scheme is presented in which a tactical-grade inertial measurement unit (IMU) is aided with dual ALS measurements by feeding the estimated velocity back into the IMU computations. The proposed system can potentially serve as a backup during temporary Global Positioning System (GPS) signal outages, or it can be used to coast for extended periods of time. Although it has elements of conventional TRN, this system does not require a terrain database since its in-flight mapping capability generates the terrain data for navigation. Hence, the system can be used in both non-GPS as well as unknown terrain environments. The navigation system is dead-reckoning in nature and errors accumulate over time, unless the system can be reset periodically by geo-referenced terrain data or a position estimate from another navigation aid.

  5. 14 CFR 171.61 - Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air navigation certificate: Revocation and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES True Lights § 171.61 Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  6. 14 CFR 171.61 - Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air navigation certificate: Revocation and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES True Lights § 171.61 Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  7. 14 CFR 171.61 - Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air navigation certificate: Revocation and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES True Lights § 171.61 Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  8. 14 CFR 171.61 - Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air navigation certificate: Revocation and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES True Lights § 171.61 Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  9. 14 CFR 171.61 - Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air navigation certificate: Revocation and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES True Lights § 171.61 Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  10. Learning at Air Navigation Services after Initial Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teperi, Anna-Maria; Leppanen, Anneli

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to find out the means used for individual, group and organizational learning at work at one air navigation service provider after the initial training period. The study also aims to find out what practices need to be improved to enhance learning at work. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected…

  11. Accuracy Evaluation of Stereo Vision Aided Inertial Navigation for Indoor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griessbach, D. G.; Baumbach, D. B.; Boerner, A. B.; Zuev, S. Z.

    2013-11-01

    Accurate knowledge of position and orientation is a prerequisite for many applications regarding unmanned navigation, mapping, or environmental modelling. GPS-aided inertial navigation is the preferred solution for outdoor applications. Nevertheless a similar solution for navigation tasks in difficult environments with erroneous or no GPS-data is needed. Therefore a stereo vision aided inertial navigation system is presented which is capable of providing real-time local navigation for indoor applications. A method is described to reconstruct the ego motion of a stereo camera system aided by inertial data. This, in turn, is used to constrain the inertial sensor drift. The optical information is derived from natural landmarks, extracted and tracked over consequent stereo image pairs. Using inertial data for feature tracking effectively reduces computational costs and at the same time increases the reliability due to constrained search areas. Mismatched features, e.g. at repetitive structures typical for indoor environments are avoided. An Integrated Positioning System (IPS) was deployed and tested on an indoor navigation task. IPS was evaluated for accuracy, robustness, and repeatability in a common office environment. In combination with a dense disparity map, derived from the navigation cameras, a high density point cloud is generated to show the capability of the navigation algorithm.

  12. NAVSIM 2: A computer program for simulating aided-inertial navigation for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, William S.

    1987-01-01

    NAVSIM II, a computer program for analytical simulation of aided-inertial navigation for aircraft, is described. The description is supported by a discussion of the program's application to the design and analysis of aided-inertial navigation systems as well as instructions for utilizing the program and for modifying it to accommodate new models, constraints, algorithms and scenarios. NAVSIM II simulates an airborne inertial navigation system built around a strapped-down inertial measurement unit and aided in its function by GPS, Doppler radar, altimeter, airspeed, and position-fix measurements. The measurements are incorporated into the navigation estimate via a UD-form Kalman filter. The simulation was designed and implemented using structured programming techniques and with particular attention to user-friendly operation.

  13. 75 FR 1799 - Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal AGENCY: U.S. Coast Guard, DHS... Register of January 7, 2010 (75 FR 998). The document announced termination of the Long Range Aids...

  14. An Imaging Sensor-Aided Vision Navigation Approach that Uses a Geo-Referenced Image Database

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Hu, Qingwu; Wu, Meng; Gao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    In determining position and attitude, vision navigation via real-time image processing of data collected from imaging sensors is advanced without a high-performance global positioning system (GPS) and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Vision navigation is widely used in indoor navigation, far space navigation, and multiple sensor-integrated mobile mapping. This paper proposes a novel vision navigation approach aided by imaging sensors and that uses a high-accuracy geo-referenced image database (GRID) for high-precision navigation of multiple sensor platforms in environments with poor GPS. First, the framework of GRID-aided vision navigation is developed with sequence images from land-based mobile mapping systems that integrate multiple sensors. Second, a highly efficient GRID storage management model is established based on the linear index of a road segment for fast image searches and retrieval. Third, a robust image matching algorithm is presented to search and match a real-time image with the GRID. Subsequently, the image matched with the real-time scene is considered to calculate the 3D navigation parameter of multiple sensor platforms. Experimental results show that the proposed approach retrieves images efficiently and has navigation accuracies of 1.2 m in a plane and 1.8 m in height under GPS loss in 5 min and within 1500 m. PMID:26828496

  15. An Imaging Sensor-Aided Vision Navigation Approach that Uses a Geo-Referenced Image Database.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Hu, Qingwu; Wu, Meng; Gao, Yang

    2016-01-28

    In determining position and attitude, vision navigation via real-time image processing of data collected from imaging sensors is advanced without a high-performance global positioning system (GPS) and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Vision navigation is widely used in indoor navigation, far space navigation, and multiple sensor-integrated mobile mapping. This paper proposes a novel vision navigation approach aided by imaging sensors and that uses a high-accuracy geo-referenced image database (GRID) for high-precision navigation of multiple sensor platforms in environments with poor GPS. First, the framework of GRID-aided vision navigation is developed with sequence images from land-based mobile mapping systems that integrate multiple sensors. Second, a highly efficient GRID storage management model is established based on the linear index of a road segment for fast image searches and retrieval. Third, a robust image matching algorithm is presented to search and match a real-time image with the GRID. Subsequently, the image matched with the real-time scene is considered to calculate the 3D navigation parameter of multiple sensor platforms. Experimental results show that the proposed approach retrieves images efficiently and has navigation accuracies of 1.2 m in a plane and 1.8 m in height under GPS loss in 5 min and within 1500 m.

  16. Polarimetric Enhancements to Electro-Optical Aided Navigation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force ...Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education

  17. Navigation in GPS Denied Environments: Feature-Aided Inertial Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Navigation Sensors and Integration Technology ( Capteurs de navigation a faible cout et technologie d’integration) RTO-EN-SET-116(2010) 14. ABSTRACT...order of 1-2 km. Now, there are many applications that require meter or sub-meter level accuracy (such as precision agriculture). Previously, due to...sufficient for many applications . Ironically, it is in just such urban/indoor locations where many people spend most of their time. (In fact, odds

  18. Integration of Visibility Sensors in NOAA PORTS® to aid in Decision Making for Safe Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenstein, E. B.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS®) provides real-time water level, currents and meteorological data for aid to navigation in twenty-three major ports and harbors. In response to PORTS® users' requests for visibility data, NOS began testing several varieties of visibility sensors for operations in a marine environment. Extensive testing resulted in the selection of the Vaisala FS11 visibility sensor. The FS11 sensor uses forward scattering technology to measure the amount of scattering in a small volume of air between the transmitter and receiver, resulting in an extrapolated visibility at a set height out to 75 km. Two sensors have been successfully operating in the Mobile Bay PORTS® at Middle Bay Port and Pinto Island since installation in 2010. The sensors are positioned at a height of 3 m above the ground, 24 km apart along the western shore of the bay in areas susceptible to fog formation. Real-time data from these sensors are disseminated on NOAA's Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (COOPS) PORTS® website every 6 minutes (min) and for distances up to 10 km (5.4 nm) from the instrument. This has proven to aid port pilots' decision making for safe movement of vessels in the harbor. Additionally, the Pinto Island sensor is located directly adjacent to the shipping channel - an area with high levels of atmospheric particulates of high carbon content. These particulates do not appear to have negatively affected sensor performance. This success has prompted interest in visibility sensors from other harbors with PORTS®. The ports of San Francisco, Narragansett Bay, Chesapeake Bay, Jacksonville FL, and Gulfport MS are planning or exploring the addition of visibility sensors to their PORTS® to aid in navigation. Additionally, the NOAA/COOPS Ocean System Test Evaluation Program (OSTEP) has continued with additional field testing of the FS11

  19. Real Time Mars Approach Navigation Aided by the Mars Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Mogensen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    A NASA Mars technology project is described that is building a prototype embedded real time Mars approach navigation capability which can be hosted on the Mars Network's Electra transceiver. The paper motivates the reason for doing real time Mars approach navigation via a set of analyses demonstrating its utility for enabling Mars pin-point landing (less than 1-km landing error). The development approach, software design, and test results are discussed. Finally, the way forward towards a flight demonstration on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is presented.

  20. Real Time Mars Approach Navigation Aided by the Mars Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Mogensen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    A NASA Mars technology project is described that is building a prototype embedded real time Mars approach navigation capability which can be hosted on the Mars Network's Electra transceiver. The paper motivates the reason for doing real time Mars approach navigation via a set of analyses demonstrating its utility for enabling Mars pin-point landing (< 1-km landing error). The development approach, software design, and test results are discussed. Finally, the way forward towards a flight demonstration on the Mars Science Laboratory is presented.

  1. All Source Adaptive Fusion for Aided Navigation in Non-GPS Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    providing navigation aiding in the GPS - denied environment as well as obstacle avoidance and 3-D digital terrain mapping in the presence of GPS. The 3-D...fusing optical flow, star-tracking measurements with inertial data, navigation accuracy in a GPS - denied environment is obtained that is superior to...degrees. Figure 8 shows the target location errors (TLE) for INS/GPS only, compared with the results for INS/GPS plus feature tracking, again with GPS

  2. Air Navigation. Flying Training. AFM 51-40. NAVAIR 00-80V-49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Training Command, Randolph AFB, TX.

    This manual provides information on all phases of air navigation for navigators and student navigators in training. It develops the art of navigation from the simplest concepts to the most advanced procedures and techniques. The text contains explanations on how to measure, map, and chart the earth; how to use basic instruments to obtain…

  3. Error Characterization of Vision-Aided Navigation Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    iv EKF Extended Kalman Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System...Satellite Systems ( GNSS ), of which GPS is an example, suffer from availability restrictions when satellite signals are physically blocked in areas...ION GNSS 2006, 1093–1103. Sep 2006. [24] Veth, M., J. Raquet, and M. Pachter. “Stochastic Constraints for Efficient Image Correspondence Search”. IEEE

  4. Flight evaluation of differential GPS aided inertial navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnally, B. David; Paielli, Russell A.; Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Warner, David N., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithms are described for integration of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) data with Inertial Navigation System (INS) data to provide an integrated DGPS/INS navigation system. The objective is to establish the benefits that can be achieved through various levels of integration of DGPS with INS for precision navigation. An eight state Kalman filter integration was implemented in real-time on a twin turbo-prop transport aircraft to evaluate system performance during terminal approach and landing operations. A fully integrated DGPS/INS system is also presented which models accelerometer and rate-gyro measurement errors plus position, velocity, and attitude errors. The fully integrated system was implemented off-line using range-domain (seventeen-state) and position domain (fifteen-state) Kalman filters. Both filter integration approaches were evaluated using data collected during the flight test. Flight-test data consisted of measurements from a 5 channel Precision Code GPS receiver, a strap-down Inertial Navigation Unit (INU), and GPS satellite differential range corrections from a ground reference station. The aircraft was laser tracked to determine its true position. Results indicate that there is no significant improvement in positioning accuracy with the higher levels of DGPS/INS integration. All three systems provided high-frequency (e.g., 20 Hz) estimates of position and velocity. The fully integrated system provided estimates of inertial sensor errors which may be used to improve INS navigation accuracy should GPS become unavailable, and improved estimates of acceleration, attitude, and body rates which can be used for guidance and control. Precision Code DGPS/INS positioning accuracy (root-mean-square) was 1.0 m cross-track and 3.0 m vertical. (This AGARDograph was sponsored by the Guidance and Control Panel.)

  5. The Vector Matching Method in Geomagnetic Aiding Navigation.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhongguo; Zhang, Jinsheng; Zhu, Wenqi; Xi, Xiaoli

    2016-07-20

    In this paper, a geomagnetic matching navigation method that utilizes the geomagnetic vector is developed, which can greatly improve the matching probability and positioning precision, even when the geomagnetic entropy information in the matching region is small or the geomagnetic contour line's variety is obscure. The vector iterative closest contour point (VICCP) algorithm that is proposed here has better adaptability with the positioning error characteristics of the inertial navigation system (INS), where the rigid transformation in ordinary ICCP is replaced with affine transformation. In a subsequent step, a geomagnetic vector information fusion algorithm based on Bayesian statistical analysis is introduced into VICCP to improve matching performance further. Simulations based on the actual geomagnetic reference map have been performed for the validation of the proposed algorithm.

  6. The Vector Matching Method in Geomagnetic Aiding Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhongguo; Zhang, Jinsheng; Zhu, Wenqi; Xi, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a geomagnetic matching navigation method that utilizes the geomagnetic vector is developed, which can greatly improve the matching probability and positioning precision, even when the geomagnetic entropy information in the matching region is small or the geomagnetic contour line’s variety is obscure. The vector iterative closest contour point (VICCP) algorithm that is proposed here has better adaptability with the positioning error characteristics of the inertial navigation system (INS), where the rigid transformation in ordinary ICCP is replaced with affine transformation. In a subsequent step, a geomagnetic vector information fusion algorithm based on Bayesian statistical analysis is introduced into VICCP to improve matching performance further. Simulations based on the actual geomagnetic reference map have been performed for the validation of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27447645

  7. Image-Aided Navigation Using Cooperative Binocular Stereopsis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    Alternatively to maintaining all tracked features in a SLAM network , the motion of a feature over time can be used in a navigation estimator without including...not require that the positions of features be carried forward in memory. Instead, the optimal vehicle motion over a single time interval is estimated...Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.1.2.2 Multiple Vehicle Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.1.3 Concept Diagram

  8. GPS Auto-Navigation Design for Unmanned Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, Caroline C. A.; Heinzen, Stearns N.; Hall, Charles E., Jr.; Chokani, Ndaona

    2003-01-01

    A GPS auto-navigation system is designed for Unmanned Air Vehicles. The objective is to enable the air vehicle to be used as a test-bed for novel flow control concepts. The navigation system uses pre-programmed GPS waypoints. The actual GPS position, heading, and velocity are collected by the flight computer, a PC104 system running in Real-Time Linux, and compared with the desired waypoint. The navigator then determines the necessity of a heading correction and outputs the correction in the form of a commanded bank angle, for a level coordinated turn, to the controller system. This controller system consists of 5 controller! (pitch rate PID, yaw damper, bank angle PID, velocity hold, and altitude hold) designed for a closed loop non-linear aircraft model with linear aerodynamic coefficients. The ability and accuracy of using GPS data, is validated by a GPS flight. The autopilots are also validated in flight. The autopilot unit flight validations show that the designed autopilots function as designed. The aircraft model, generated on Matlab SIMULINK is also enhanced by the flight data to accurately represent the actual aircraft.

  9. Sensor-based navigation of air duct inspection mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Kyoungchul; Choi, H. J.; Kim, Jae-Seon; Ko, Kuk Won; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2001-02-01

    12 This paper deals with an image sensor system and its position estimation algorithm for autonomous duct cleaning and inspection mobile robots. For the real application, a hierarchical control structure that consists of robot motion controller and image sensor system is designed considering the efficient and autonomous motion behaviors in narrow space such as air ducts. The sensor's system consists of a CCD camera and two laser sources to generate slit beams. The image of the structured lights is used for calculating the geometric parameters of the air ducts which are usually designed with a rectangular section. With the acquired 3D information about the environment, the mobile robot with two differential driving wheels is able to autonomously navigates along the duct path without any human intervention. For real time navigation, the relative position estimation of the robot are performed from 3D image reconstructed by the sensor system. The calibration and image processing methods used for the sensor system are presented with the experimental data. The experimental results show the possibility of the sensor based navigation which is important for effective duct cleaning by small mobile robots.

  10. RFID based indoor navigational aid for persons with severe visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Andrew Y J; Sharma, Satish K

    2007-01-01

    A flexible, low cost, and portable indoor navigational aid for persons who are blind or have severe visual impairments remains an unmet need and a technical challenge. Whereas devices using global positioning system (GPS) signals hold promise for navigational assistance in the outdoor environment, they do not work where GPS signals are absent or greatly attenuated. Thus a network of navigational beacons is needed for the indoor environment. This paper describes the promise of an indoor navigational aid that relies on a network of custom extended-range RFID tags. RFID (radio-frequency identification) technology has the advantages of being low cost, unobtrusive, and highly flexible in the sense that sight impaired travelers can use personalized RFID tags to mark indoor locations of their particular interest. However, commercially available RFID tags have very short detection ranges. To make them suitable as indoor electronic beacons, their range of detection must be greatly extended. Some of the technical challenges and proposed solutions that can extend the detection range are discussed in this paper following an overview of the proposed RFID based indoor navigational aid.

  11. 76 FR 77585 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Lighting and Navigation Aid Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...Projects funded under the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) must meet the requirements of 49 U.S.C. 50101, Buy American Preferences. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is considering issuing waivers to foreign manufacturers of certain airport lighting and navigation aid equipment that is lit with Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting. This notice requests information from manufacturers of......

  12. Semiotic evaluation of Lithuania military air navigation charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovodas, Donatas; Česnulevičius, Algimantas

    2014-06-01

    Research of semiotic aspects Lithuanian military air navigation charts was based on the semantic, graphic and information load analysis. The aim of semantic analysis was to determine how the conventional cartographical symbols, used in air navigation charts, correspond with carto-linguistic and carto-semiotic requirements. The analysis of all the markings was performed complex and collected by questionnaire were interviewed various respondents: pilots, cartographers and other chart users. The researches seek two aims: evaluate information and graphical load of military air navigation charts. Information load evaluated to calculate all objects and phenomenon, which was in 25 cm² of map. Charts analysis showed that in low flight charts (LFC) average information load are 4 - 5 times richer than in the operational maps. Map signs optimization on LFC has to be managed very carefully, choosing signs that can reduce the load of information and helps for the information transfer process. Graphical load of maps evaluated of aeronautical maps is not great (5 - 12%) and does not require reduction the information load and generalization of charts. Air navigation charts analysis pointed that not all air navigation sings correspond carto-semiotic requirements and must be improved. The authors suggested some new sings for military air navigation chart, which are simpler, equivalent to human psychophysical perception criteria, creates faster communication and less load on the chart. Badania semiotycznych aspektów litewskich wojskowych map żeglugi powietrznej bazowały na semantycznej, graficznej i informacyjnej analizie treści tych map. Celem analizy semantycznej było określenie na ile tradycyjne symbole kartograficzne stosowane na mapach nawigacji lotniczej są zgodne z wymogami języka kartograficznego oraz zasadami stosowania znaków kartograficznych. Powyższe analizy przeprowadzono w sposób kompleksowy, informacje zebrano za pomocą ankiet, przeprowadzając wywiady w r

  13. 75 FR 997 - Record of Decision (ROD) on the U.S. Coast Guard Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Record of Decision (ROD) on the U.S. Coast Guard Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran... ``USCG Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Program'' Web site at http://loranpeis.uscg.e2m-inc.com....1D., and ``Aids to Navigation Authorized,'' which appears at 14 U.S.C. 81. Dated: January 4,...

  14. Coupled Inertial Navigation and Flush Air Data Sensing Algorithm for Atmosphere Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kutty, Prasad; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for atmospheric state estimation based on a coupling between inertial navigation and flush air data-sensing pressure measurements. The navigation state is used in the atmospheric estimation algorithm along with the pressure measurements and a model of the surface pressure distribution to estimate the atmosphere using a nonlinear weighted least-squares algorithm. The approach uses a high-fidelity model of atmosphere stored in table-lookup form, along with simplified models propagated along the trajectory within the algorithm to aid the solution. Thus, the method is a reduced-order Kalman filter in which the inertial states are taken from the navigation solution and atmospheric states are estimated in the filter. The algorithm is applied to data from the Mars Science Laboratory entry, descent, and landing from August 2012. Reasonable estimates of the atmosphere are produced by the algorithm. The observability of winds along the trajectory are examined using an index based on the observability Gramian and the pressure measurement sensitivity matrix. The results indicate that bank reversals are responsible for adding information content. The algorithm is applied to the design of the pressure measurement system for the Mars 2020 mission. A linear covariance analysis is performed to assess estimator performance. The results indicate that the new estimator produces more precise estimates of atmospheric states than existing algorithms.

  15. High-precision image aided inertial navigation with known features: observability analysis and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weiping; Wang, Li; Niu, Xiaoji; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Hui; Tang, Min; Hu, Xiangyun

    2014-10-17

    A high-precision image-aided inertial navigation system (INS) is proposed as an alternative to the carrier-phase-based differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (CDGNSSs) when satellite-based navigation systems are unavailable. In this paper, the image/INS integrated algorithm is modeled by a tightly-coupled iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF). Tightly-coupled integration ensures that the integrated system is reliable, even if few known feature points (i.e., less than three) are observed in the images. A new global observability analysis of this tightly-coupled integration is presented to guarantee that the system is observable under the necessary conditions. The analysis conclusions were verified by simulations and field tests. The field tests also indicate that high-precision position (centimeter-level) and attitude (half-degree-level)-integrated solutions can be achieved in a global reference.

  16. Research on aided navigation based on terrain elevation matching and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yanping; Liu, Xinxue; Cai, Yanping; Zhu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The matching function of terrain-aided navigation is not only related to the algorithm, also associated with the terrain characteristics of matching area. Aiming at terrain matching area selection and matching algorithm of the terrain height matching system, the method of terrain information entropy is put forward on the basis of statistical characteristics of the terrain roughness, signal-to-noise ratio, and then COR algorithm, MAD algorithm, MSD algorithm is adopted for real-time map and reference map matching, finally shows the simulation comparison of three kinds of matching algorithm. Result of simulation shows that among the index of matching accuracy and speed of three kinds of algorithm, COR algorithm possess fastest calculation speed and lowest precision, matching accuracy of MSD is slightly higher than MAD algorithm and calculation speed of MSD is placed in the middle, and the simulation results provide selection basis for terrain-aided inertial navigation.

  17. Development of performance measures based on visibility for effective placement of aids to navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Tae Hyun; Kim, Yeon-Gyu; Gong, In-Young; Park, Sekil; Kim, Ah-Young

    2015-05-01

    In order to develop the challenging process of placing Aids to Navigation (AtoN), we propose performance measures which quantifies the effect of such placement. The best placement of AtoNs is that from which the navigator can best recognize the information provided by an AtoN. The visibility of AtoNs depends mostly on light sources, the weather condition and the position of the navigator. Visual recognition is enabled by achieving adequate contrast between the AtoN light source and background light. Therefore, the performance measures can be formulated through the amount of differences between these two lights. For simplification, this approach is based on the values of the human factor suggested by International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). Performance measures for AtoN placement can be evaluated through AtoN Simulator, which has been being developed by KIOST/KRISO in Korea and has been launched by Korea National Research Program. Simulations for evaluation are carried out at waterway in Busan port in Korea.

  18. Development of performance measures based on visibility for effective placement of aids to navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Tae Hyun; Kim, Yeon-Gyu; Gong, In-Young; Park, Sekil; Kim, Ah-Young

    2015-09-01

    In order to develop the challenging process of placing Aids to Navigation (AtoN), we propose performance measures which quantifies the effect of such placement. The best placement of AtoNs is that from which the navigator can best recognize the information provided by an AtoN. The visibility of AtoNs depends mostly on light sources, the weather condition and the position of the navigator. Visual recognition is enabled by achieving adequate contrast between the AtoN light source and background light. Therefore, the performance measures can be formulated through the amount of differences between these two lights. For simplification, this approach is based on the values of the human factor suggested by International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). Performance measures for AtoN placement can be evaluated through AtoN Simulator, which has been being developed by KIOST/KRISO in Korea and has been launched by Korea National Research Program. Simulations for evaluation are carried out at waterway in Busan port in Korea.

  19. F-15 air navigation multiple indicator (ANMI) prototype development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, Joyce; George, Steven P.; Altadonna, Lynn P.; Blowers, Dan

    1995-06-01

    The F-15 Air Navigation Multiple Indicator (ANMI) is the vertical situation display in the F-15A/B and C/D aircraft. The Air Force established the ANMI Prototype Development Program as a form, fit and function replacement for the existing Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) display. Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) is the lead agency for the development with financial support from the Producibility, Reliability and Maintainability (PRAM) Program Office at Wright-Patterson. SAIC was selected to design the prototype unit. Figure 1 is an exploded view of this prototype. The F-15 ANMI development required SAIC to address many new challenges. Four unique technical challenges were: (1) the development of a high resolution liquid crystal display (LCD), (2) the interface with an analog signal used to drive the existing CRT, (3) the development of a NTSC output, and (4) the sunlight readable, Night Vision Goggle compatible backlight. These technical aspects of the development are detailed in the body of this paper.

  20. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-07-10

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies-INS and LiDAR SLAM-into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform-NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment.

  1. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies—INS and LiDAR SLAM—into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform—NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment. PMID:26184206

  2. Methods and software tools for computer-aided design of the spacecraft guidance, navigation and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somov, Yevgeny; Oparin, Gennady

    2017-01-01

    We shortly present results on development and employment of the software systems for computer-aided design of the spacecraft guidance. navigation and control systems - modeling, synthesis, nonlinear analysis, simulation and graphic mapping of dynamic processes.

  3. Coupled Inertial Navigation and Flush Air Data Sensing Algorithm for Atmosphere Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kutty, Prasad; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for atmospheric state estimation that is based on a coupling between inertial navigation and flush air data sensing pressure measurements. In this approach, the full navigation state is used in the atmospheric estimation algorithm along with the pressure measurements and a model of the surface pressure distribution to directly estimate atmospheric winds and density using a nonlinear weighted least-squares algorithm. The approach uses a high fidelity model of atmosphere stored in table-look-up form, along with simplified models of that are propagated along the trajectory within the algorithm to provide prior estimates and covariances to aid the air data state solution. Thus, the method is essentially a reduced-order Kalman filter in which the inertial states are taken from the navigation solution and atmospheric states are estimated in the filter. The algorithm is applied to data from the Mars Science Laboratory entry, descent, and landing from August 2012. Reasonable estimates of the atmosphere and winds are produced by the algorithm. The observability of winds along the trajectory are examined using an index based on the discrete-time observability Gramian and the pressure measurement sensitivity matrix. The results indicate that bank reversals are responsible for adding information content to the system. The algorithm is then applied to the design of the pressure measurement system for the Mars 2020 mission. The pressure port layout is optimized to maximize the observability of atmospheric states along the trajectory. Linear covariance analysis is performed to assess estimator performance for a given pressure measurement uncertainty. The results indicate that the new tightly-coupled estimator can produce enhanced estimates of atmospheric states when compared with existing algorithms.

  4. Underwater terrain-aided navigation based on multibeam bathymetric sonar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ziqi; Bian, Hongyu; Zielinski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Underwater terrain-aided navigation is used to complement traditional inertial navigation employed by autonomous underwater vehicles during lengthy missions. It can provide fixed estimations by matching real-time depth data with a digital terrain map. This study presents the concept of using image processing techniques in the underwater terrain matching process. A traditional gray-scale histogram of an image is enriched by incorporation with spatial information in pixels. Edge corner pixels are then defined and used to construct an edge corner histogram, which it employs as a template to scan the digital terrain map and estimate the fixes of the vehicle by searching the correlation peak. Simulations are performed to investigate the robustness of the proposed method, particularly in relation to its sensitivity to background noise, the scale of real-time images, and the travel direction of the vehicle. At an image resolution of 1 m2/pixel, the accuracy of localization is more than 10 meters.

  5. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  6. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  7. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  8. Flight results from a study of aided inertial navigation applied to landing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Carson, T. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Schmidt, S. F.; Conrad, B.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the approach and landing performance of a Kalman filter aided inertial navigation system using flight data obtained from a series of approaches and landings of the CV-340 aircraft at an instrumented test area. A description of the flight test is given, in which data recorded included: (1) accelerometer signals from the platform of an INS; (2) three ranges from the Ames-Cubic Precision Ranging System; and (3) radar and barometric altimeter signals. The method of system evaluation employed was postflight processing of the recorded data using a Kalman filter which was designed for use on the XDS920 computer onboard the CV-340 aircraft. Results shown include comparisons between the trajectories as estimated by the Kalman filter aided system and as determined from cinetheodolite data. Data start initialization of the Kalman filter, operation at a practical data rate, postflight modeling of sensor errors and operation under the adverse condition of bad data are illustrated.

  9. Navigation Aiding by a Hybrid Laser-Camera Motion Estimator for Micro Aerial Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Atman, Jamal; Popp, Manuel; Ruppelt, Jan; Trommer, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) equipped with various sensors are able to carry out autonomous flights. However, the self-localization of autonomous agents is mostly dependent on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). In order to provide an accurate navigation solution in absence of GNSS signals, this article presents a hybrid sensor. The hybrid sensor is a deep integration of a monocular camera and a 2D laser rangefinder so that the motion of the MAV is estimated. This realization is expected to be more flexible in terms of environments compared to laser-scan-matching approaches. The estimated ego-motion is then integrated in the MAV’s navigation system. However, first, the knowledge about the pose between both sensors is obtained by proposing an improved calibration method. For both calibration and ego-motion estimation, 3D-to-2D correspondences are used and the Perspective-3-Point (P3P) problem is solved. Moreover, the covariance estimation of the relative motion is presented. The experiments show very accurate calibration and navigation results. PMID:27649203

  10. Land Vehicle Navigation with the Integration of GPS and Reduced INS: Performance Improvement with Velocity Aiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Songlai; Wang, Jinling

    The movement of a land vehicle is constrained because the vehicle always remains on the Earth's surface and only experiences small pitch and roll angles. So the GPS/INS integrated system for land vehicle navigation could be reconfigured to be the integration of GPS and reduced INS to cut down the costs. In a reduced INS, the vertical accelerometer and two horizontal gyros could be omitted from the system. But both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that this configuration may result in the divergence of height solution and large velocity errors. To improve the system performances, precise velocity derived from GPS carrier phase measurements, together with the GPS single point positioning solution, is used to aid the reduced INS. Field test results have demonstrated that first, the aiding from GPS precise velocity overcomes the divergence problem of the integrated height solutions and improves the integrated velocity and secondly the proposed novel integration scheme could achieve comparable navigation accuracy with that from the GPS and full INS integrated system.

  11. Decision Aids for Naval Air ASW

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-15

    referred to as the target’s Location, with a capital "L.") The following description will describe a single iteration through the loop. 4.4.2 Underlying...Crawford M. L. Metersky American Psycological Association Naval Air Development Center Office of Educational Affairs Code 2031 1200 17th Street, NW

  12. 21 CFR 874.3305 - Wireless air-conduction hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wireless air-conduction hearing aid. 874.3305...-conduction hearing aid. (a) Identification. A wireless air-conduction hearing aid is a wearable sound... notification. The wireless air-conduction hearing aid is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  13. Design and implementation of a GPS-aided inertial navigation system for a helicopter UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastelan, David R.

    Helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) benefit from vertical takeoff and landing, hover, low-speed, and cruising flight capabilities. This versatility has the expense of nonlinear, unstable, and underactuated system dynamics. These challenges and numerous potential applications make the helicopter UAV an interesting testbed for nonlinear control. A platform for such development has been established in the Applied Nonlinear Controls Lab (ANCL). A miniature helicopter was augmented with a manual/autonomous takeover system and the ANCL Avionics. This payload contains a global positioning system (GPS) receiver, inertial sensors, and communications and computing hardware. Allan variance analysis of inertial sensor data enabled the derivation of a GPS-aided inertial navigation system that was implemented on the ANCL Avionics. This extended Kalman filter (EKF)-based algorithm estimates vehicle position, velocity, and attitude necessary for system identification tasks and control system feedback. Performance validation of this algorithm was demonstrated in simulation and in experimental ground and flight tests.

  14. Using Electromagnetic Navigation Bronchoscopy and Dye Injection to Aid in Video-Assisted Lung Resection.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jordan; Lee, Thomas J; Joiner, Theresa; Wrightson, William

    2016-11-01

    Small (2 cm) peripheral lung lesions and ground glass opacities remain a difficult subset of lung lesions for the diagnosis and management of lung cancer. Surgical biopsy is more difficult for these lesions because intraoperative localization has to be made without the aid of direct visualization or manual palpation. Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy can be used in the operating room to identify a small peripheral lesion and marked using an injection of methylene blue, which can be seen on the visceral pleura of the lung. We present our initial experience using this technique. The sample was eight patients who had peripheral lesions with an average size of 19 mm. Surgical wedge biopsy was diagnostic in all cases, with an average procedure time of 28 minutes. There were no complications from this procedure. In conclusion, these data suggest that electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy can be performed safely with high diagnostic accuracy by the operating thoracic surgeon, but further data are needed to establish its utility and safety.

  15. 6-DOF Pose Estimation of a Robotic Navigation Aid by Tracking Visual and Geometric Features.

    PubMed

    Ye, Cang; Hong, Soonhac; Tamjidi, Amirhossein

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a 6-DOF Pose Estimation (PE) method for a Robotic Navigation Aid (RNA) for the visually impaired. The RNA uses a single 3D camera for PE and object detection. The proposed method processes the camera's intensity and range data to estimates the camera's egomotion that is then used by an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) as the motion model to track a set of visual features for PE. A RANSAC process is employed in the EKF to identify inliers from the visual feature correspondences between two image frames. Only the inliers are used to update the EKF's state. The EKF integrates the egomotion into the camera's pose in the world coordinate system. To retain the EKF's consistency, the distance between the camera and the floor plane (extracted from the range data) is used by the EKF as the observation of the camera's z coordinate. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method results in accurate pose estimates for positioning the RNA in indoor environments. Based on the PE method, a wayfinding system is developed for localization of the RNA in a home environment. The system uses the estimated pose and the floorplan to locate the RNA user in the home environment and announces the points of interest and navigational commands to the user through a speech interface.

  16. The Effects of Spatial Visualization Ability and Graphical Navigational Aids on Cognitive Load and Learning from Web-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morozov, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to research investigating the effects of individual differences and online instructional design on learning. Learning performance was compared across three hypertext formats incorporating different navigational aids. The hierarchical map represented the physical structure of the hypertext in one condition, while the network…

  17. Application of Precision Navigator System in Sandy Hook Channel under Conditions of Degraded Aids-to-Navigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    Displays Navigation Human Factors Ship Controllability Simulation -. 17b Identifiera/Open-Ended Items Pre-nav 4- 4 17c. COSATI FieldlGroup I -. 1. Avail...3.5.2 Visual With Precision Navigator Mode ..... ..... 3-5 3.6 Human Factors .. ........ ...................... 3-6 3.7 Conclusions... fracks , Visual -uiy ooe . ............ ...... .. . . .. -i through L’ - 1 6 Data Plots of ’vessei Yttcks, Precision iavigator N; ode

  18. Urban, Indoor and Subterranean Navigation Sensors and Systems (Capteurs et systemes de navigation urbains, interieurs et souterrains)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    ant’s navigation skill has been extensively studied by R. Wehner, 3-39 University of Zürich Figure 3-49 The navigation skills of sea turtles have...capabilities provided by advanced navigation sensors and systems: • Networked and collaborative operations; • Autonomous land, sea and air vehicles...systems, they can form a dead reckoning navigation system. When used as an aid to an inertial navigation system they provide error growth control

  19. 6-DOF Pose Estimation of a Robotic Navigation Aid by Tracking Visual and Geometric Features

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Cang; Hong, Soonhac; Tamjidi, Amirhossein

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a 6-DOF Pose Estimation (PE) method for a Robotic Navigation Aid (RNA) for the visually impaired. The RNA uses a single 3D camera for PE and object detection. The proposed method processes the camera’s intensity and range data to estimates the camera’s egomotion that is then used by an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) as the motion model to track a set of visual features for PE. A RANSAC process is employed in the EKF to identify inliers from the visual feature correspondences between two image frames. Only the inliers are used to update the EKF’s state. The EKF integrates the egomotion into the camera’s pose in the world coordinate system. To retain the EKF’s consistency, the distance between the camera and the floor plane (extracted from the range data) is used by the EKF as the observation of the camera’s z coordinate. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method results in accurate pose estimates for positioning the RNA in indoor environments. Based on the PE method, a wayfinding system is developed for localization of the RNA in a home environment. The system uses the estimated pose and the floorplan to locate the RNA user in the home environment and announces the points of interest and navigational commands to the user through a speech interface. Note to Practitioners This work was motivated by the limitations of the existing navigation technology for the visually impaired. Most of the existing methods use a point/line measurement sensor for indoor object detection. Therefore, they lack capability in detecting 3D objects and positioning a blind traveler. Stereovision has been used in recent research. However, it cannot provide reliable depth data for object detection. Also, it tends to produce a lower localization accuracy because its depth measurement error quadratically increases with the true distance. This paper suggests a new approach for navigating a blind traveler. The method uses a single 3D time

  20. A study of mercuric oxide and zinc-air battery life in hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, C; Lacey, N K

    1997-09-01

    The requirement to phase out mercuric oxide (mercury) batteries on environmental grounds has led to the widespread introduction of zinc-air technology. The possibility arises that high drain hearing aids may not be adequately catered for by zinc-air cells, leading to poor performance. This study investigated the hearing aid user's ability to perceive differences between zinc-air and mercury cells in normal everyday usage. The data was collected for 100 experienced hearing aid users in field trials. Users report 50 per cent greater life for zinc-air cells in high power aids and 28 per cent in low power aids. The average life of the zinc-air cells range from 15 days in high power to 34 days in low power aids. Users are able to perceive a difference in sound quality in favour of zinc-air cells for low and medium power aids. The hearing aid population is not disadvantaged by phasing out mercury cells.

  1. Using APEX to Model Anticipated Human Error: Analysis of a GPS Navigational Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSelst, Mark; Freed, Michael; Shefto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The interface development process can be dramatically improved by predicting design facilitated human error at an early stage in the design process. The approach we advocate is to SIMULATE the behavior of a human agent carrying out tasks with a well-specified user interface, ANALYZE the simulation for instances of human error, and then REFINE the interface or protocol to minimize predicted error. This approach, incorporated into the APEX modeling architecture, differs from past approaches to human simulation in Its emphasis on error rather than e.g. learning rate or speed of response. The APEX model consists of two major components: (1) a powerful action selection component capable of simulating behavior in complex, multiple-task environments; and (2) a resource architecture which constrains cognitive, perceptual, and motor capabilities to within empirically demonstrated limits. The model mimics human errors arising from interactions between limited human resources and elements of the computer interface whose design falls to anticipate those limits. We analyze the design of a hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) device used for radical and navigational decisions in small yacht recalls. The analysis demonstrates how human system modeling can be an effective design aid, helping to accelerate the process of refining a product (or procedure).

  2. Integrated multisensor navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangraas, Frank

    1988-01-01

    The multisensor navigation systems research evolved from the availability of several stand alone navigation systems and the growing concern for aircraft navigation reliability and safety. The intent is to develop a multisensor navigation system during the next decade that will be capable of providing reliable aircraft position data. These data will then be transmitted directly, or by satellite, to surveillance centers to aid the process of air traffic flow control. In order to satisfy the requirements for such a system, the following issues need to be examined: performance, coverage, reliability, availability, and integrity. The presence of a multisensor navigation system in all aircraft will improve safety for the aviation community and allow for more economical operation.

  3. Computer-aided conceptual design of Air Cushion Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, E. G. U.; Lavis, D. R.

    This paper describes the development and use of a computer-aided design tool which has been used to explore preferred options for amphibious Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and Surface-Effect Ship (SES) designs in support of U.S. Navy and U.S. Army programs. The tool, referred to as the ACV Design Synthesis Model (ADSM), is an interactive computer program which provides a description of feasible ACV or SES concepts that could be developed, by a competent design team, to perform the mission described by the input parameters. The paper discusses how the program was used to explore parametrically the design of a range of self-propelled hoverbarges to meet requirements of the U.S. Army Logistics Over the Shore (LOTS) phases of an amphibious landing. Examples of results are presented to illustrate the method used in determining design and performance trade-offs.

  4. Computer simulation program for parallel SITAN. [Sandia Inertia Terrain-Aided Navigation, in FORTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas, R.D.; Sheives, T.C.

    1980-11-01

    This computer program simulates the operation of parallel SITAN using digitized terrain data. An actual trajectory is modeled including the effects of inertial navigation errors and radar altimeter measurements.

  5. Enhanced Image-Aided Navigation Algorithm with Automatic Calibration and Affine Distortion Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    frame, but it does accelerate with respect to the true inertial frame due to the relative rotation between celestial bodies . However, for terrestrial...Earth, and vehicle-fixed navigation frame. . . . . . . . 9 2.2 Earth-fixed navigation frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3 Aircraft body ...distorted image with new SIFT features. . . . . . 65 3.12 Sample nearest neighbor feature match. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3.13 Nature of visual

  6. Vision-Aided Context-Aware Framework for Personal Navigation Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeedi, S.; Moussa, A.; El-Sheimy, N., , Dr.

    2012-07-01

    The ubiquity of mobile devices (such as smartphones and tablet-PCs) has encouraged the use of location-based services (LBS) that are relevant to the current location and context of a mobile user. The main challenge of LBS is to find a pervasive and accurate personal navigation system (PNS) in different situations of a mobile user. In this paper, we propose a method of personal navigation for pedestrians that allows a user to freely move in outdoor environments. This system aims at detection of the context information which is useful for improving personal navigation. The context information for a PNS consists of user activity modes (e.g. walking, stationary, driving, and etc.) and the mobile device orientation and placement with respect to the user. After detecting the context information, a low-cost integrated positioning algorithm has been employed to estimate pedestrian navigation parameters. The method is based on the integration of the relative user's motion (changes of velocity and heading angle) estimation based on the video image matching and absolute position information provided by GPS. A Kalman filter (KF) has been used to improve the navigation solution when the user is walking and the phone is in his/her hand. The Experimental results demonstrate the capabilities of this method for outdoor personal navigation systems.

  7. Decision-Aiding and Optimization for Vertical Navigation of Long-Haul Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, Nicholas J. M.; Sheridan, Thomas B.

    1996-01-01

    different airspace design and air traffic management policies. A decision aid is proposed which would combine the pilot's notion of optimility with the GA-based optimization, provide the pilot with a number of alternative pareto-optimal trajectories, and allow him to consider un-modelled attributes and constraints in choosing among them. A solution to the problem of displaying alternatives in a multi-attribute decision space is also presented.

  8. Decision-Aiding and Optimization for Vertical Navigation of Long-Haul Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, Nicholas J. M.; Sheridan, Thomas B.

    1996-01-01

    different airspace design and air traffic management policies. A decision aid is proposed which would combine the pilot's notion of optimality with the GA-based optimization, provide the pilot with a number of alternative pareto-optimal trajectories, and allow him to consider unmodelled attributes and constraints in choosing among them. A solution to the problem of displaying alternatives in a multi-attribute decision space is also presented.

  9. An Investigation of the Relative Safety of Alternative Navigational System Designs for the New Sunshine Skyway Bridge: A CAORF (Computer Aided Operations Research Facility) Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    characteristics. Pilots were required to provided no added margin of safety beyond the bridge - use greater crab angles during thunderstorm scenarios...electronic navigation aids may would combine dolphins, complete island and horseshoe . "provide significantly improved navigational data" to island stuctures...The next two bridge piers on should not be so close to bridges that the success of navigat- either side would be protected by a horseshoe shaped ing

  10. Narrowing the College Opportunity Gap: Helping Students and Families Navigate the Financial Aid Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The number of students enrolling in post-secondary institutions in the U.S. has slowly been rising over the last 10 years, yet gaps continue to exist in terms of who attends college and persists through graduation. Minority and low income students often lack the guidance needed to navigate the college enrollment process and as a result, remain…

  11. Users' Evaluations of Four Electronic Travel Aids Aimed at Navigation for Persons Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roentgen, Uta R.; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; de Witte, Luc P.

    2011-01-01

    Eighteen persons with visual impairments evaluated four systematically selected navigation systems. Their performance on 11 tasks, provided ratings, satisfaction on seven aspects of the assistive devices, and explanatory comments show generally valuable functionality and usability, as well as individual marked preferences for various features of…

  12. Improving Real World Performance of Vision Aided Navigation in a Flight Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-15

    5 II. Relevant Background and Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.1 Mathematical Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2...as follows. Chapter II proves a mathematical back- ground for navigation state estimation, imaging scenarios, image keypoint extraction and...chapter provides a mathematical background for the research presented inlater chapters of the dissertation. First, an overview of the notation used in

  13. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race World Championship, an event scheduled to be held over water. This regulation is necessary to protect...

  14. Ionospheric electron density inversion for Global Navigation Satellite Systems radio occultation using aided Abel inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Min Yang; Lin, Charles C. H.; Tsai, Ho Fang; Lin, Chi Yen

    2017-01-01

    The Abel inversion of ionospheric electron density profiles with the assumption of spherical symmetry applied for radio occultation soundings could introduce a greater systematic error or sometimes artifacts if the occultation rays trespass regions with larger horizontal gradients in electron density. The aided Abel inversions have been proposed by considering the asymmetry ratio derived from ionospheric total electron content (TEC) or peak density (NmF2) of reconstructed observation maps since knowledge of the horizontal asymmetry in ambient ionospheric density could mitigate the inversion error. Here we propose a new aided Abel inversion using three-dimensional time-dependent electron density (Ne) based on the climatological maps constructed from previous observations, as it has an advantage of providing altitudinal information on the horizontal asymmetry. Improvement of proposed Ne-aided Abel inversion and comparisons with electron density profiles inverted from the NmF2- and TEC-aided inversions are studied using observation system simulation experiments. Comparison results show that all three aided Abel inversions improve the ionospheric profiling by mitigating the artificial plasma caves and negative electron density in the daytime E region. The equatorial ionization anomaly crests in the F region become more distinct. The statistical results show that the Ne-aided Abel inversion has less mean and RMS error of error percentage above 250 km altitudes, and the performances for all aided Abel inversions are similar below 250 km altitudes.

  15. LIDAR-Aided Inertial Navigation with Extended Kalman Filtering for Pinpoint Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busnardo, David M.; Aitken, Matthew L.; Tolson, Robert H.; Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2011-01-01

    In support of NASA s Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project, an extended Kalman filter routine has been developed for estimating the position, velocity, and attitude of a spacecraft during the landing phase of a planetary mission. The proposed filter combines measurements of acceleration and angular velocity from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) with range and Doppler velocity observations from an onboard light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. These high-precision LIDAR measurements of distance to the ground and approach velocity will enable both robotic and manned vehicles to land safely and precisely at scientifically interesting sites. The filter has been extensively tested using a lunar landing simulation and shown to improve navigation over flat surfaces or rough terrain. Experimental results from a helicopter flight test performed at NASA Dryden in August 2008 demonstrate that LIDAR can be employed to significantly improve navigation based exclusively on IMU integration.

  16. Feature and Pose Constrained Visual Aided Inertial Navigation for Computationally Constrained Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian; Hudson, Nicolas; Tweddle, Brent; Brockers, Roland; Matthies, Larry

    2011-01-01

    A Feature and Pose Constrained Extended Kalman Filter (FPC-EKF) is developed for highly dynamic computationally constrained micro aerial vehicles. Vehicle localization is achieved using only a low performance inertial measurement unit and a single camera. The FPC-EKF framework augments the vehicle's state with both previous vehicle poses and critical environmental features, including vertical edges. This filter framework efficiently incorporates measurements from hundreds of opportunistic visual features to constrain the motion estimate, while allowing navigating and sustained tracking with respect to a few persistent features. In addition, vertical features in the environment are opportunistically used to provide global attitude references. Accurate pose estimation is demonstrated on a sequence including fast traversing, where visual features enter and exit the field-of-view quickly, as well as hover and ingress maneuvers where drift free navigation is achieved with respect to the environment.

  17. Pectoral fins aid in navigation of a complex environment by bluegill sunfish under sensory deprivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V

    2013-08-15

    Complex structured environments offer fish advantages as places of refuge and areas of greater potential prey densities, but maneuvering through these environments is a navigational challenge. To successfully navigate complex habitats, fish must have sensory input relaying information about the proximity and size of obstacles. We investigated the role of the pectoral fins as mechanosensors in bluegill sunfish swimming through obstacle courses under different sensory deprivation and flow speed conditions. Sensory deprivation was accomplished by filming in the dark to remove visual input and/or temporarily blocking lateral line input via immersion in cobalt chloride. Fish used their pectoral fins to touch obstacles as they swam slowly past them under all conditions. Loss of visual and/or lateral line sensory input resulted in an increased number of fin taps and shorter tap durations while traversing the course. Propulsive pectoral fin strokes were made in open areas between obstacle posts and fish did not use the pectoral fins to push off or change heading. Bending of the flexible pectoral fin rays may initiate an afferent sensory input, which could be an important part of the proprioceptive feedback system needed to navigate complex environments. This behavioral evidence suggests that it is possible for unspecialized pectoral fins to act in both a sensory and a propulsive capacity.

  18. Gravity Gradiometry and Map Matching: An Aid to Aircraft Inertial Navigation Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Aeronautics and Astronautics Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and...depressed; unable, unselfish, or you feel undeserving. We are all children of the same God, and we all want you to come home . The Creators of heaven...and earth always provide an inner voice that leads you back to the true path. Thank you to my Father in heaven, my family at home , and my friends

  19. Computer program for design and performance analysis of navigation-aid power systems. Program documentation. Volume 1: Software requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goltz, G.; Kaiser, L. M.; Weiner, H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program has been developed for designing and analyzing the performance of solar array/battery power systems for the U.S. Coast Guard Navigational Aids. This program is called the Design Synthesis/Performance Analysis (DSPA) Computer Program. The basic function of the Design Synthesis portion of the DSPA program is to evaluate functional and economic criteria to provide specifications for viable solar array/battery power systems. The basic function of the Performance Analysis portion of the DSPA program is to simulate the operation of solar array/battery power systems under specific loads and environmental conditions. This document establishes the software requirements for the DSPA computer program, discusses the processing that occurs within the program, and defines the necessary interfaces for operation.

  20. Study of the Performance of Aids to Navigation Systems - Phase 1, An Empirical Model Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-19

    Pesch , .. L. /Masakasy, J. G. /Clark Di . A. /Atkins .-. S.... -------- 00o Document I available to the U. S. public through the National Technical...APPROACH _8. Perfo.n*g Ognizotion Rep.. N, Aui°,is Bertsche, W.R., Pesch , A.J., Masakasy, J.L., v P 3.fG, o" O I rO I olton Name arid Adress 10. Work Unit...observed 4’L1 B-" 0. 0 - Jo Do r? cto SITUATION’ 1 S ITUA TION 2. PIGURfi 11-. PEAl,. NAVIGATIONAL WORKLOADS EXHIBITED) IN THE ENGLISH CHANNELS LIMITED

  1. Loosely Coupled GPS-Aided Inertial Navigation System for Range Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heatwole, Scott; Lanzi, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) aims to replace the human element of range safety operations, as well as reduce reliance on expensive, downrange assets for launches of expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). The system consists of multiple navigation sensors and flight computers that provide a highly reliable platform. It is designed to ensure that single-event failures in a flight computer or sensor will not bring down the whole system. The flight computer uses a rules-based structure derived from range safety requirements to make decisions whether or not to destroy the rocket.

  2. Wind-Based Navigation of a Hot-air Balloon on Titan: A Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furfaro, Roberto; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Elfes, Alberto; Reh, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Current analysis of data streamed back to Earth by the Cassini spacecraft features Titan as one of the most exciting places in the solar system. NASA centers and universities around the US, as well as the European Space Agency, are studying the possibility of sending, as part of the next mission to this giant moon of Saturn, a hot-air balloon (Montgolfier-type) for further and more in-depth exploration. The basic idea would be to design a reliable, semi-autonomous, and yet cheap Montgolfier capable of using continuous flow of waste heat from a power source to lift the balloon and sustain its altitude in the Titan environment. In this paper we study the problem of locally navigating a hot-air balloon in the nitrogen-based Titan atmosphere. The basic idea is to define a strategy (i.e. design of a suitable guidance system) that allows autonomous and semi-autonomous navigation of the balloon using the available (and partial) knowledge of the wind structure blowing on the saturnian satellite surface. Starting from first principles we determined the appropriate thermal and dynamical models describing (a) the vertical dynamics of the balloon and (b) the dynamics of the balloon moving on a vertical plane (2-D motion). Next, various non-linear fuzzy-based control strategies have been evaluated, analyzed and implemented in MATLAB to numerically simulate the capability of the system to simultaneously maintain altitude, as well as a scientifically desirable trajectory. We also looked at the ability of the balloon to perform station keeping. The results of the simulation are encouraging and show the effectiveness of such a system to cheaply and effectively perform semiautonomous exploration of Titan.

  3. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation lights. 66.10-35 Section 66.10-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights....

  4. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation lights. 66.10-35 Section 66.10-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights....

  5. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation lights. 66.10-35 Section 66.10-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights....

  6. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation lights. 66.10-35 Section 66.10-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights....

  7. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights. 66.10-35 Section 66.10-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights....

  8. Satellite-aided evaluation of population exposure to air pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; George, Anthony J.; Bryant, Nevin A.

    1979-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 set schedules for states to implement regional, spatial assessments of air quality impacts. Accordingly, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently published guidelines for quantifying population exposure to adverse air quality impact by using air quality and population data by census tracts. Our research complements the EPA guidelines in that it demonstrates the ability to determine population exposure to air pollution through computer processing that utilizes Landsat satellite-derived land use information. Three variables-a 1985 estimate of total suspended particulates for 2-km2 grid cells, Landsat-derived residential land cover data for 0.45-ha cells, and population totals for census tracts-were spatially registered and cross-tabulated to produce tabular and map products illustrating relative air quality exposure for residential population by 2-km2 cells. It would cost $20,000 to replicate our analysis for an area similar in size to the 4000-km2 Portland area. Once completed, the spatially fine, computer-compatible air quality and population data are amenable to the timely and efficient generation of population-at-risk tabular and map information on a continuous or periodic basis.

  9. Air-Flow Navigated Crystal Growth for TIPS Pentacene-Based Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    He, Zhengran; Chen, Jihua; Sun, Zhenzhong; Szulczewski, Greg; Li, Dawen

    2012-01-01

    6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS pentacene) is a promising active channel material of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) due to its solubility, stability, and high mobility. However, the growth of TIPS pentacene crystals is intrinsically anisotropic and thus leads to significant variation in the performance of OTFTs. In this paper, air flow is utilized to effectively reduce the TIPS pentacene crystal anisotropy and enhance performance consistency in OTFTs, and the resulted films are examined with optical microscopy, grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, and thin-film transistor measurements. Under air-flow navigation (AFN), TIPS pentacene drop-cast from toluene solution has been observed to form thin films with improved crystal orientation and increased areal coverage on substrates, which subsequently lead to a four-fold increase of average hole mobility and one order of magnitude enhancement in performance consistency defined by the ratio of average mobility to the standard deviation of the field-effect mobilities.

  10. Institute of Navigation, Annual Meeting, 47th, Williamsburg, VA, June 10-12, 1991, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-11-01

    The present volume of navigation and exploration discusses space exploration, mapping and geodesy, aircraft navigation, undersea navigation, land and vehicular location, international and legal aspects of navigation, the history of navigation technology and applications, Loran development and implementation, GPS and GLONASS developments, and search and rescue. Topics addressed include stabilization of low orbiting spacecraft using GPS, the employment of laser navigation for automatic rendezvous and docking systems, enhanced pseudostatic processing, and the expanding role of sensor fusion. Attention is given to a gravity-aided inertial navigation system, recent developments in aviation products liability and navigation, the ICAO future air navigation system, and Loran's implementation in NAS. Also discussed are Inmarsat integrated navigation/communication activities, the GPS program status, the evolution of military GPS technology into the Navcore V receiver engine, and Sarsat location algorithms.

  11. Satellite-aided evaluation of population exposure to air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, W. J.; George, A. J., Jr.; Bryant, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of population exposure to air pollution through the computer processing of Landsat digital land use data, along with total suspended particulate estimates and population data by census tracts, is demonstrated. Digital image processing was employed to analyze simultaneously data from Landsat MSS bands 4 through 7 in order to extract land use and land cover information. The three data sets were spatially registered in a digital format, compatible with integrated computer processing, and cross-tabulated. A map illustrating relative air quality by 2-sq km cells for the residential population in the Portland, Oregon area is obtained.

  12. AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  13. The Global Framework for Providing Information about Volcanic-Ash Hazards to International Air Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, R. W.; Guffanti, M.

    2009-12-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) created the International Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW) in 1987 to establish a requirement for international dissemination of information about airborne ash hazards to safe air navigation. The IAVW is a set of operational protocols and guidelines that member countries agree to follow in order to implement a global, multi-faceted program to support the strategy of ash-cloud avoidance. Under the IAVW, the elements of eruption reporting, ash-cloud detecting, and forecasting expected cloud dispersion are coordinated to culminate in warnings sent to air traffic controllers, dispatchers, and pilots about the whereabouts of ash clouds. Nine worldwide Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC) established under the IAVW have the responsibility for detecting the presence of ash in the atmosphere, primarily by looking at imagery from civilian meteorological satellites, and providing advisories about the location and movement of ash clouds to aviation meteorological offices and other aviation users. Volcano Observatories also are a vital part of the IAVW, as evidenced by the recent introduction of a universal message format for reporting the status of volcanic activity, including precursory unrest, to aviation users. Since 2003, the IAVW has been overseen by a standing group of scientific, technical, and regulatory experts that assists ICAO in the development of standards and other regulatory material related to volcanic ash. Some specific problems related to the implementation of the IAVW include: the lack of implementation of SIGMET (warning to aircraft in flight) provisions and delayed notifications of volcanic eruptions. Expected future challenges and developments involve the improvement in early notifications of volcanic eruptions, the consolidation of the issuance of SIGMETs, and the possibility of determining a “safe” concentration of volcanic ash.

  14. Vertical Navigation Control Laws and Logic for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M.; Khong, Thuan H.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical navigation (VNAV) outer-loop control system was developed to capture and track the vertical path segments of energy-efficient trajectories that are being developed for high-density operations in the evolving Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The VNAV control system has a speed-on-elevator control mode to pitch the aircraft for tracking a calibrated airspeed (CAS) or Mach number profile and a path control mode for tracking the VNAV altitude profile. Mode control logic was developed for engagement of either the speed or path control modes. The control system will level the aircraft to prevent it from flying through a constraint altitude. A stability analysis was performed that showed that the gain and phase margins of the VNAV control system significantly exceeded the design gain and phase margins. The system performance was assessed using a six-deg-of-freedom non-linear transport aircraft simulation and the performance is illustrated with time-history plots of recorded simulation data.

  15. HUMAN ENGINEERING FOR AN EFFECTIVE AIR-NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC-CONTROL SYSTEM, AND APPENDIXES 1 THRU 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-03-14

    Henneman F. C.Frnick W. E. Kappauf WA R. Garner E. B. Newman F. C . Frick A. C . Williams, Jr.SW. R. Garner j.• JW. Gebhord W. F. Grether A report...Psychology Washington, D. C . UNCLASSIFIED ATI 133 954 (COPIES OSTAIMAULE FROM ASTIA-OSC) OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY RESECNH FOUNDATION, COLmUS HUMAN...Air Navigation Development Board, A-9 Civil Aeronautics Administration Washington 25, D. C . Dear Dr. Ewing: The attached report, entitled Human

  16. Computer aided optimal design of compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, F. W.; Sharma, A.; Ragsdell, K. M.

    1980-07-01

    An automated procedure for the design of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems is presented. The procedure relies upon modern nonlinear programming algorithms, decomposition theory, and numerical models of the various system components. Two modern optimization methods are employed; BIAS, a Method of Multipliers code and OPT, a Generalized Reduced Gradient code. The procedure is demonstrated by the design of a CAES facility employing the Media, Illinois Galesville aquifer as the reservoir. The methods employed produced significant reduction in capital and operating cost, and in number of aquifer wells required.

  17. Human Factors Considerations for Performance-Based Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    A transition toward a performance-based navigation system is currently underway in both the United States and around the world. Performance-based navigation incorporates Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) procedures that do not rely on the location of ground-based navigation aids. These procedures offer significant benefits to both operators and air traffic managers. Under sponsorship from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken a project to document human factors issues that have emerged during RNAV and RNP operations and propose areas for further consideration. Issues were found to include aspects of air traffic control and airline procedures, aircraft systems, and procedure design. Major findings suggest the need for human factors-specific instrument procedure design guidelines. Ongoing industry and government activities to address air-ground communication terminology, procedure design improvements, and chart-database commonality are strongly encouraged.

  18. 21 CFR 874.3305 - Wireless air-conduction hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wireless air-conduction hearing aid. 874.3305 Section 874.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-amplifying device, intended to compensate for impaired hearing that incorporates wireless technology in...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3305 - Wireless air-conduction hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wireless air-conduction hearing aid. 874.3305 Section 874.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-amplifying device, intended to compensate for impaired hearing that incorporates wireless technology in...

  20. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3950... system is a wearable sound-amplifying device intended to compensate for impaired hearing without occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3950... system is a wearable sound-amplifying device intended to compensate for impaired hearing without occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  2. Pragmatic Divestment of KC-135 Navigators in the Special Operations Air Refueling Mission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    not only remain as the KC-46 arrives, but inbound navigators will continue arriving until 2018. This thesis applies the Delphi method, a process...officers, and enable the complex SOAR mission to endure. In order to best achieve these results, the experts recommended halting all inbound navigator...Training Life Cycle Costs ...............................................10 Status of Resources and Training System (SORTS

  3. IEEE PLANS '90 - Position Location and Navigation Symposium, Las Vegas, NV, Mar. 20-23, 1990, Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on position, location, and navigation are presented. The general topics addressed include: space-based navigation systems; inertial sensor development; other radio navigation system technologies; surveying, mapping, and digital electronics technology; positioning, pointing, and stabilization of space systems; inertial systems development and applications; integrated communicaiton/navigration systems and standard avionics; application of statistical filtering to navigation technology; GPS applications and equipment in civil, governmental, and commercial areas. Also discussed are: integrated navigation and targeting systems; civil aviation and marine navigation/traffic control; geodesy, gravity measurement, and earth reference systems; GPS military applications and equipment; integrated aircraft navigation and flight control; land vehicle navigation, positioning, and information systems; differential GPS; GPS/inertial navigation; terrain aided air vehicle navigation.

  4. 78 FR 68861 - Certain Navigation Products, Including GPS Devices, Navigation and Display Systems, Radar Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ..., Navigational Aids, Mapping Systems and Related Software; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C... and display systems, radar systems, navigational aids, mapping systems and related software by reason... products, including GPS devices, navigation and display systems, radar systems, navigational aids,...

  5. A high-accuracy two-position alignment inertial navigation system for lunar rovers aided by a star sensor with a calibration and positioning function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Lei, Chaohua; Yang, Yanqiang; Liu, Ming

    2016-12-01

    An integrated inertial/celestial navigation system (INS/CNS) has wide applicability in lunar rovers as it provides accurate and autonomous navigational information. Initialization is particularly vital for a INS. This paper proposes a two-position initialization method based on a standard Kalman filter. The difference between the computed star vector and the measured star vector is measured. With the aid of a star sensor and the two positions, the attitudinal and positional errors can be greatly reduced, and the biases of three gyros and accelerometers can also be estimated. The semi-physical simulation results show that the positional and attitudinal errors converge within 0.07″ and 0.1 m, respectively, when the given initial positional error is 1 km and the attitudinal error is 10°. These good results show that the proposed method can accomplish alignment, positioning and calibration functions simultaneously. Thus the proposed two-position initialization method has the potential for application in lunar rover navigation.

  6. 78 FR 18615 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ...; routing measures; marine information; diving safety; and aids to navigation systems. The meeting will be...; routing measures; marine information; diving safety; and aids to navigation systems. The meeting will...

  7. 77 FR 67658 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... measures, marine information, diving safety, and aids to navigation systems. The meeting will be open to... measures, marine information, diving safety, and aids to navigation systems. Agenda: The NAVSAC will...

  8. 78 FR 68077 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... equipment; routing measures; marine information; diving safety; and aids to navigation systems. The meeting...; and aids to navigation systems. The meeting will be held at the Renaissance Portsmouth Hotel...

  9. Inertial Navigation Components and Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    INERTIAL NAVIGATION , SYMPOSIA, INERTIAL GUIDANCE, INSTRUMENTATION, GYROSCOPES, OPTIMIZATION, STABILIZED PLATFORMS, GYRO COMPASSES, ALIGNMENT, CALIBRATION, COST EFFECTIVENESS, AIR TO SURFACE MISSILES.

  10. An analysis of the adaptability of Loran-C to air navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlefield, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The sources of position errors characteristics of the Loran-C navigation system were identified. Particular emphasis was given to their point on entry as well as their elimination. It is shown that the ratio of realized accuracy to theoretical accuracy of the Loran-C is highly receiver dependent.

  11. Assessment of broadcast media airings of AIDS-related public service announcements--United States, 1987-1990.

    PubMed

    1991-08-09

    Television and radio public service announcements (PSAs) are an integral part of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) public information campaigns. This report summarizes an assessment of airings of AIDS PSAs in the United States during October 1987-December 1990 that were produced by CDC's "America Responds to AIDS" (ARTA) campaign and other groups.* The assessment used data obtained from Broadcast Advertisers Reports (BAR) of the Arbitron Company.

  12. Navigating the System

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Care Navigating The System Related Topics on AIDS.gov Civil Rights Insurance Types of Lab Tests ... InTouch TeleVox OnTimeRx Last revised: 06/01/2012 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  13. 76 FR 63934 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... measures, marine information, diving safety, and aids to navigation systems. The meeting will be open to... information, diving safety, and aids to navigation systems. Agenda The NAVSAC will meet to review, discuss and... provide an opinion on the continued used of radar beacons (RACONS) as aids to navigation. (4) NAVSAC...

  14. 77 FR 19302 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... measures, marine information, diving safety, and aids to navigation systems. The meeting will be open to..., routing measures, marine information, diving safety, and aids to navigation systems. Agenda The NAVSAC... the future mix of visual and electronic Aids to Navigation (ATON). (6) Automatic Identification...

  15. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  16. Verification and Validation of Numerical Models for Air/Water Flow on Coastal and Navigation Fluid-Structure Interaction Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M.; Dimakopoulos, A.; DeLataillade, T.

    2015-12-01

    Performance analysis and optimization of coastal and navigation structures is becoming feasible due to recent improvements in numerical methods for multiphase flows and the steady increase in capacity and availability of high performance computing resources. Now that the concept of fully three-dimensional air/water flow modelling for real world engineering analysis is achieving acceptance by the wider engineering community, it is critical to expand careful comparative studies on verification,validation, benchmarking, and uncertainty quantification for the variety of competing numerical methods that are continuing to evolve. Furthermore, uncertainty still remains about the relevance of secondary processes such as surface tension, air compressibility, air entrainment, and solid phase (structure) modelling so that questions about continuum mechanical theory and mathematical analysis of multiphase flow are still required. Two of the most popular and practical numerical approaches for large-scale engineering analysis are the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) and Level Set (LS) approaches. In this work we will present a publically available verification and validation test set for air-water-structure interaction problems as well as computational and physical model results including a hybrid VOF-LS method, traditional VOF methods, and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) results. The test set repository and test problem formats will also be presented in order to facilitate future comparative studies and reproduction of scientific results.

  17. Aids to Navigation Turn Lights Principal Findings: Effects of Turn Lighting Characteristics, Buoy Arrangements, and Ship Size on Nighttime Piloting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    simulator-based experiment on floating visual aids to naviga- tion was conducted at the Maritime Administration’s Computer Aided Operation Research...step of recognition is often called "identification." "Identification" seems to be the more familiar concept to the maritime industry; so that, rather...E. Galanter (eds.). Handbook of Mathematical Psychology. (Volume 1). New York: Wiley, 1963. 16T. Engen . "Psychophysics I: Discrimination and Detection

  18. From Medical Image Computing to Computer Aided Intervention: Development of a Research Interface for Image Guided Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Papademetris, Xenophon; DeLorenzo, Christine; Flossmann, Sven; Neff, Markus; Vives, Kenneth P.; Spencer, Dennis D.; Staib, Lawrence H.; Duncan, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper describes the development and application of a research interface to integrate research image analysis software with a commercial image guided surgery navigation system. This interface enables bi-directional transfer of data such as images, visualizations and tool positions in real time. Methods We describe both the design and the application programming interface of the research interface, as well as show the function of an example client program. The resulting interface provides a practical and versatile link for bringing image analysis research techniques into the operating room (OR). Results We present examples from the successful use of this research interface in both phantom experiments and in real neurosurgeries. In particular we demonstrate that the integrated dual-computer system achieves tool tracking performance that is comparable to the more typical single-computer scenario. Conclusions Network interfaces for this type are viable solutions for the integration of commercial image-guided navigation systems and research software. PMID:19301361

  19. Autocalibrating vision guided navigation of unmanned air vehicles via tactical monocular cameras in GPS denied environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Koray

    This thesis presents a novel robotic navigation strategy by using a conventional tactical monocular camera, proving the feasibility of using a monocular camera as the sole proximity sensing, object avoidance, mapping, and path-planning mechanism to fly and navigate small to medium scale unmanned rotary-wing aircraft in an autonomous manner. The range measurement strategy is scalable, self-calibrating, indoor-outdoor capable, and has been biologically inspired by the key adaptive mechanisms for depth perception and pattern recognition found in humans and intelligent animals (particularly bats), designed to assume operations in previously unknown, GPS-denied environments. It proposes novel electronics, aircraft, aircraft systems, systems, and procedures and algorithms that come together to form airborne systems which measure absolute ranges from a monocular camera via passive photometry, mimicking that of a human-pilot like judgement. The research is intended to bridge the gap between practical GPS coverage and precision localization and mapping problem in a small aircraft. In the context of this study, several robotic platforms, airborne and ground alike, have been developed, some of which have been integrated in real-life field trials, for experimental validation. Albeit the emphasis on miniature robotic aircraft this research has been tested and found compatible with tactical vests and helmets, and it can be used to augment the reliability of many other types of proximity sensors.

  20. A Common Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Infrastructure for Accommodating Space Vehicles in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSuetendael, RIchard; Hayes, Alan; Birr, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Suborbital space flight and space tourism are new potential markets that could significantly impact the National Airspace System (NAS). Numerous private companies are developing space flight capabilities to capture a piece of an emerging commercial space transportation market. These entrepreneurs share a common vision that sees commercial space flight as a profitable venture. Additionally, U.S. space exploration policy and national defense will impose significant additional demands on the NAS. Air traffic service providers must allow all users fair access to limited airspace, while ensuring that the highest levels of safety, security, and efficiency are maintained. The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will need to accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the NAS. To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under some common communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure. As part of NextGen, the FAA has been developing the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) which utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track and separate aircraft. Another key component of NextGen, System-Wide Information Management/ Network Enabled Operations (SWIM/NEO), is an open architecture network that will provide NAS data to various customers, system tools and applications. NASA and DoD are currently developing a space-based range (SBR) concept that also utilizes GPS, communications satellites and other CNS assets. The future SBR will have very similar utility for space operations as ADS-B and SWIM has for air traffic. Perhaps the FAA, NASA, and DoD should consider developing a common space-based CNS infrastructure to support both aviation and space transportation operations. This paper suggests specific areas of research for developing a CNS infrastructure that can accommodate spacecraft and other new types of vehicles as an integrated part of NextGen.

  1. Advances in Techniques and Technologies for Air Vehicle Navigation and Guidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    machine et la responsabilite de [a mission. Un troisieme type d’aideenvisageable est I’aide a laconduite. Elie represente un prolongement naturel de [a...l’angle de prise do vue et de corrections inter- capteurs . 42-7 IL METHODE DE RECALAGE ROBUSTE 1. Cholx des algorlthmes optimaux Un syst~me de recalage...en ocuvre ou do fiabilitd mfit fixo travorsant le rotor, syst~fe de rotation dos captours au bout d’un mit dloignant ces capteurs de Ia zone

  2. 33 CFR 64.31 - Determination of hazard to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of hazard to navigation. 64.31 Section 64.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARKING OF STRUCTURES, SUNKEN VESSELS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS...

  3. 33 CFR 64.31 - Determination of hazard to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of hazard to navigation. 64.31 Section 64.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARKING OF STRUCTURES, SUNKEN VESSELS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS...

  4. 33 CFR 64.31 - Determination of hazard to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of hazard to navigation. 64.31 Section 64.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARKING OF STRUCTURES, SUNKEN VESSELS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS...

  5. 33 CFR 64.31 - Determination of hazard to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of hazard to navigation. 64.31 Section 64.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARKING OF STRUCTURES, SUNKEN VESSELS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS...

  6. 33 CFR 64.31 - Determination of hazard to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of hazard to navigation. 64.31 Section 64.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARKING OF STRUCTURES, SUNKEN VESSELS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS...

  7. GPS-aided inertial technology and navigation-based photogrammetry for aerial mapping the San Andreas fault system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.

    2004-01-01

    Aerial mapping of the San Andreas Fault System can be realized more efficiently and rapidly without ground control and conventional aerotriangulation. This is achieved by the direct geopositioning of the exterior orientation of a digital imaging sensor by use of an integrated Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and an Inertial Navigation System (INS). A crucial issue to this particular type of aerial mapping is the accuracy, scale, consistency, and speed achievable by such a system. To address these questions, an Applanix Digital Sensor System (DSS) was used to examine its potential for near real-time mapping. Large segments of vegetation along the San Andreas and Cucamonga faults near the foothills of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains were burned to the ground in the California wildfires of October-November 2003. A 175 km corridor through what once was a thickly vegetated and hidden fault surface was chosen for this study. Both faults pose a major hazard to the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area and a near real-time mapping system could provide information vital to a post-disaster response.

  8. Design of a multi-sensor sonar system for indoor range measurement as a navigational aid for the blind.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Maroof H; Barreto, Armando

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the methodology for the design of a sonar-based ranging and guidance system. The intended application of the system is to help a blind person avoid obstacles as he/she navigates his/her environment. Six sonar transceivers are arranged radially on a headgear worn by the user. The transceivers detect discrete range data at discrete-time sampling instances. A panoramic map of the environment is generated from the discrete-space sensory data. The paper emphasizes the challenges faced during the measurement of omnidirectional ranging information in indoor environments. Situations have been identified where erroneous range readings are generated due to channel cross talk caused by echo bouncing off multiple surfaces. Several sonar control and measurement schemes were developed and tested to avoid these situations. The results and performance of these different control schemes are compared in this paper. A microcontroller-based system commands the sonar ping sequences, acquires the echo return times and computes the ranges. The set of range data is transmitted to a PC, which utilizes the information to build a spatialized audio map of the surrounding obstacles. The hardware and software layout for the system are described in this paper.

  9. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  10. 32 CFR 644.3 - Navigation Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Navigation Projects. 644.3 Section 644.3 National... HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.3 Navigation Projects. (a) Land to be acquired in fee. All... channel improvements, navigation pools, navigation aids, and spoil disposal areas for future...

  11. 32 CFR 644.3 - Navigation projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Navigation projects. 644.3 Section 644.3 National... HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.3 Navigation projects. (a) Land to be acquired in fee. All... channel improvements, navigation pools, navigation aids, and spoil disposal areas for future...

  12. 32 CFR 644.3 - Navigation projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation projects. 644.3 Section 644.3... ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.3 Navigation projects. (a) Land to be acquired in fee... for channel improvements, navigation pools, navigation aids, and spoil disposal areas for...

  13. 32 CFR 644.3 - Navigation projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Navigation projects. 644.3 Section 644.3 National... HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.3 Navigation projects. (a) Land to be acquired in fee. All... channel improvements, navigation pools, navigation aids, and spoil disposal areas for future...

  14. 32 CFR 644.3 - Navigation projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation projects. 644.3 Section 644.3... ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.3 Navigation projects. (a) Land to be acquired in fee... for channel improvements, navigation pools, navigation aids, and spoil disposal areas for...

  15. Occupational and public field exposure from communication, navigation, and radar systems used for air traffic control.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc

    2012-12-01

    Electromagnetic exposure (occupational and general public) to 14 types of air traffic control (ATC) systems is assessed. Measurement methods are proposed for in situ exposure assessment of these ATC systems. In total, 50 sites are investigated at 1,073 locations in the frequency range of 255 kHz to 24 GHz. For all installations, typical and maximal exposure values for workers and the general public are provided. Two of the 14 types of systems, Non-Directional Beacons (NDB) (up to 881.6 V m) and Doppler Very High Frequency (VHF) Omni-directional Range (DVOR) (up to 92.3 V m), exhibited levels requiring recommended minimum distances such that the ICNIRP reference levels are not exceeded. Cumulative exposure of all present radiofrequency (RF) sources is investigated, and it is concluded that the ATC source dominates the total exposure in its neighborhood.

  16. 78 FR 19277 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... SECURITY United States Coast Guard Navigation Safety Advisory Council; Meeting AGENCY: United States Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee meeting: correction. SUMMARY: The Navigation...; navigation regulations and equipment; routing measures; marine information; diving safety; and aids...

  17. Serendipity, International Cooperation and Navigational Aids: A History of Radio Echo Sounding (RES) Technologies, 1958-1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetti, S.; Dean, K.; Naylor, S.; Siegert, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    This paper explores the history of RES and examines major technological advances that fostered the use of this technique in the sub-glacial exploration of Antarctica. The paper will especially focus on three themes: the role played by accidental discoveries in the origins of RES; the importance of international collaboration in its technological development; and the need of establishing new technological networks in the deployment of RES apparatus during Antarctic missions. The origins of RES can be traced back to two important -albeit accidental- findings. First, during post-war US military operations in the Antarctic radio altimeters produced gross errors in height indication. Furthermore, during the IGY ionospheric research and sounding was hampered by interference due to bottom echoes. These serendipitous events helped to figure out that the Antarctic ice was transparent to certain frequencies, and therefore new radio technologies could be used to sound what lay beneath it. The establishment of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Antarctic Treaty (AT) provided a new international framework vital to the development of RES technologies. This allowed researchers from different countries to come together and discuss important technological features for the first time. At a technical level, the setting up of international experiments (such as those of 1963 and 1964 in Greenland) gave an opportunity for experts from different countries to compare the performance of new RES apparatus. At a political level, the parallel debate within the AT community on the allocation of Antarctic radio frequencies helped radio engineers to work out ways to circumvent interference with radio communications. Finally, the deployment of RES equipment in Antarctic exploration relied upon a number of technological aids to improve the potential and accuracy of geophysical sounding. The use of new aircrafts, guidance systems, and computers proved vital in many

  18. An architecture for integrating distributed and cooperating knowledge-based Air Force decision aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, Richard O.; Tucker, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    MITRE has been developing a Knowledge-Based Battle Management Testbed for evaluating the viability of integrating independently-developed knowledge-based decision aids in the Air Force tactical domain. The primary goal for the testbed architecture is to permit a new system to be added to a testbed with little change to the system's software. Each system that connects to the testbed network declares that it can provide a number of services to other systems. When a system wants to use another system's service, it does not address the server system by name, but instead transmits a request to the testbed network asking for a particular service to be performed. A key component of the testbed architecture is a common database which uses a relational database management system (RDBMS). The RDBMS provides a database update notification service to requesting systems. Normally, each system is expected to monitor data relations of interest to it. Alternatively, a system may broadcast an announcement message to inform other systems that an event of potential interest has occurred. Current research is aimed at dealing with issues resulting from integration efforts, such as dealing with potential mismatches of each system's assumptions about the common database, decentralizing network control, and coordinating multiple agents.

  19. 33 CFR 74.01-15 - Charges for placement of temporary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... temporary aids. 74.01-15 Section 74.01-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION CHARGES FOR COAST GUARD AIDS TO NAVIGATION WORK Charges to the Public § 74.01-15 Charges for placement of temporary aids. Charges for placement of temporary aids will...

  20. 33 CFR 74.01-15 - Charges for placement of temporary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... temporary aids. 74.01-15 Section 74.01-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION CHARGES FOR COAST GUARD AIDS TO NAVIGATION WORK Charges to the Public § 74.01-15 Charges for placement of temporary aids. Charges for placement of temporary aids will...

  1. 33 CFR 74.01-15 - Charges for placement of temporary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... temporary aids. 74.01-15 Section 74.01-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION CHARGES FOR COAST GUARD AIDS TO NAVIGATION WORK Charges to the Public § 74.01-15 Charges for placement of temporary aids. Charges for placement of temporary aids will...

  2. 33 CFR 74.01-15 - Charges for placement of temporary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... temporary aids. 74.01-15 Section 74.01-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION CHARGES FOR COAST GUARD AIDS TO NAVIGATION WORK Charges to the Public § 74.01-15 Charges for placement of temporary aids. Charges for placement of temporary aids will...

  3. 33 CFR 74.01-15 - Charges for placement of temporary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... temporary aids. 74.01-15 Section 74.01-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION CHARGES FOR COAST GUARD AIDS TO NAVIGATION WORK Charges to the Public § 74.01-15 Charges for placement of temporary aids. Charges for placement of temporary aids will...

  4. FAA navigation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, N. A.

    1978-01-01

    The FAA navigation program, which includes two major activity areas: those associated with certification of navigation systems to meet current requirements and those associated with building the data base needed to define future system improvements is examined. The near term activities, including the VORTAC upgrading program, the development of the technical data base needed for certification of LORAN C and OMEGA as a part of the current air navigation system, and the development of area navigation standards are examined in regard to cost factors and user requirements. Future system activities discussed include analysis of alternative system configurations made up of system elements including VORTAC VOR-DME, OMEGA and differential OMEGA, LORAN C, and GPS. The interrelationships between the near and far term programs are discussed. A helicopter IFR program which includes an assessment of the operational suitability of several navigation system alternatives for meeting helicopter navigation requirements for CONUS and offshore operations is reported.

  5. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  6. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  7. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  8. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  9. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  10. Space shuttle navigation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Sciabarrasi, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analysis of space shuttle navigation for each of the major mission phases is presented. A covariance analysis program for prelaunch IMU calibration and alignment for the orbital flight tests (OFT) is described, and a partial error budget is presented. The ascent, orbital operations and deorbit maneuver study considered GPS-aided inertial navigation in the Phase III GPS (1984+) time frame. The entry and landing study evaluated navigation performance for the OFT baseline system. Detailed error budgets and sensitivity analyses are provided for both the ascent and entry studies.

  11. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jaegyu; Ahn, Woo-Guen; Seo, Seungwoo; Lee, Jang Yong; Park, Jun-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS) is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo). In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services) SC (special committee)-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias) during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP) or fluctuations in the received signal quality. PMID:26569251

  12. Magnetic Field Aided Indoor Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    at a deep subsurface fracture. . .or when a highly conductive active magma chamber at a volcanic site moves before an eruption” [1]. The second cause...is brought about “as a result of the loading of rock surfaces as a major dam is filled or at a volcano as a result of a change in the magma chamber

  13. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / Summer ... and have resulted in a dramatic decrease in AIDS deaths in the U.S. NIH Research to Results ...

  14. AUTOMATIC NAVIGATION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    NAVIGATION, REPORTS), (*CONTROL SYSTEMS, *INFORMATION THEORY), ABSTRACTS, OPTIMIZATION, DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING, GAME THEORY, NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, CORRELATION TECHNIQUES, FOURIER ANALYSIS, INTEGRAL TRANSFORMS, DEMODULATION, NAVIGATION CHARTS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, DISTRIBUTION THEORY , TIME SHARING, GRAPHICS, DIGITAL COMPUTERS, FEEDBACK, STABILITY

  15. Computer-Aided Air-Traffic Control In The Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    1995-01-01

    Developmental computer-aided system for automated management and control of arrival traffic at large airport includes three integrated subsystems. One subsystem, called Traffic Management Advisor, another subsystem, called Descent Advisor, and third subsystem, called Final Approach Spacing Tool. Data base that includes current wind measurements and mathematical models of performances of types of aircraft contributes to effective operation of system.

  16. Tuition Pricing and Aid Strategies: A Practical Approach. AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Paul L.

    This paper examines the applicability of net tuition revenue models for a highly selective, elite priced, private research university in the southern U.S. Pricing and aid strategies for this university seem to be driven by intuitive assumptions about the economy, market forces, needs-blind admissions, student satisfaction, net price…

  17. Assessing Pricing and Aid Strategies: Rethinking Planning and Evaluation Practices. AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.

    This paper explores the need for a better understanding of the influences of prices and student aid on student enrollment and college budgets. The theory of net price has not been found to adequately explain changes in enrollment. Based on a critical review of recent research on student price response, this paper develops an alternative approach…

  18. National Institutes of Health, Office of AIDS Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Term(s): Main Navigation for the Office of AIDS Research Homepage ABOUT OAR SCIENTIFIC AREAS STRATEGIC PLAN ... HIV/AIDS INFORMATION Welcome to the Office of AIDS Research. Welcome to the Office of AIDS Research ...

  19. 14 CFR 121.349 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes not navigated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operations under VFR over routes not navigated by pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. 121... pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Navigation equipment requirements—General. No... conducted under IFR or over the top, unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating...

  20. 14 CFR 121.349 - Communication and navigation equipment for operations under VFR over routes not navigated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operations under VFR over routes not navigated by pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. 121... pilotage or for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Navigation equipment requirements—General. No... conducted under IFR or over the top, unless— (1) The en route navigation aids necessary for navigating...

  1. Microcomputer CADD (Computer Aided Design and Drafting) and the Air Force Civil Engineer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    thanks go to the folks at Autodesk , Inc. and AT&T Information Systems for their generous loan of software and microcomputers to the Academy’s Civil ...CADD AND THE AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER AUTHOR(S) MAJOR NEIL H. FRAVEL FACULTY ADVISOR MAJOR ROBERT L. PETERS, ACSC/3823 STUS SPONSOR MRS. RITA M. GREGORY...NO I’I TITLE tinclude Securtty Clatficaton, MICROCOMPUTER CADD AND THE AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER I 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Fravel, Neil H., Major

  2. Design Principles for Personalized Decision Aiding: An Application to Tactical Air Force Route Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    contingency plans have not been in- corporated in an option, but significant information is likely to become available during its execution. 2.6.1.4...Technology Corporation , 16 September 1983. Riemenschneider, R.A., Rockmore, A.J., and Wikman, T.A.A. Route planning aid: System specification (PAR Report...83-135). New Hartford, NY: PAR Technology Corporation , 31 October 1983. Savage, L.J. The foundations of statistics. NY: Wiley, 1954. Schum, D

  3. 33 CFR 144.01-30 - First-aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid kit. 144.01-30 Section 144.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-30 First-aid kit....

  4. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University, a program emphasizing graduate and undergraduate student research, proceeded along six avenues during the past year: investigation of fuel use characteristics of general aviation aircraft, experimentation with an ultrasonic altimeter, single pilot instrument flight, application of fiber optics in flight control systems, voice recognition inputs for navigation/communication receiver tuning, and computer aided aircraft design.

  5. Inertial Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    also been well-known for some time. However, inertial navigation systems (called inertial guidance systems in rocket technology) which are composed of... navigation technology has developed rapidly, and the precision of inertial navigation has increased greatly. In 1944, the ’V-2’ rocket made the first...gyroscopes, accelerometers, and electronic computers have only been on the market for a little over twenty years. In the past twenty years, inertial

  6. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Lai, Wei-Hsiang; Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm × 6 cm × 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm × 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm -2 and 0.4 mg cm -2, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm -2 at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm -2 at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 °C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of parallel connected and

  7. Analysis of air quality observations with the aid of the source-receptor relationship approach.

    PubMed

    Astitha, Marina; Kallos, George; Mihalopoulos, Nikos

    2005-04-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to analyze time series of air quality measurements (O3, SO2, SO4(2-), NOx) conducted at a remote place in the eastern Mediterranean (Finokalia at Crete Island in 1999) to obtain concrete information on potential contributions from emission sources. For the definition of a source-receptor relationship, advanced meteorological and dispersion models appropriate to identify "areas of influence" have been used. The model tools used are the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and the Lagrangian-type particle dispersion model (forward and backward in time), with capabilities to derive influence functions and definition of "areas of influence." When high levels of pollutants have been measured at the remote location of Finokalia, particles are released from this location (receptor) and traced backward in time. The influence function derived from particle distributions characterizes dispersion conditions in the atmosphere and also provides information on potential contributions from emission sources within the modeling domain to this high concentration. As was shown in the simulation results, the experimental site of Finokalia in Crete is influenced during the selected case studies, primarily by pollutants emitted from the urban conglomerate of Athens. Secondarily, it is influenced by polluted air masses arriving from Italy and/or the Black Sea Region. For some specific cases, air pollutants monitored at Finokalia were possibly related to war activities in the West Balkan Region (Kosovo).

  8. Micro Navigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, B. R.; Kia, T.; Chau, S. N.

    2001-01-01

    Miniature high-performance low-mass space avionics systems are desired for planned future outer planetary exploration missions (i.e. Europa Orbiter/Lander, Pluto-Kuiper Express). The spacecraft fuel and mass requirements enabling orbit insertion is the driving requirement. The Micro Navigator is an integrated autonomous Guidance, Navigation & Control (GN&C)micro-system that would provide the critical avionics function for navigation, pointing, and precision landing. The Micro Navigator hardware and software allow fusion of data from multiple sensors to provide a single integrated vehicle state vector necessary for six degrees of freedom GN&C. The benefits of this MicroNavigator include: 1) The Micro Navigator employs MEMS devices that promise orders of magnitude reductions in mass power and volume of inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes), celestial sensing devices (startracker, sun sensor), and computing element; 2) The highly integrated nature of the unit will reduce the cost of flight missions. a) The advanced miniaturization technologies employed by the Micro Navigator lend themselves to mass production, and therefore will reduce production cost of spacecraft. b) The integral approach simplifies interface issues associated with discrete components and reduces cost associated with integration and test of multiple components; and 3) The integration of sensors and processing elements into a single unit will allow the Micro Navigator to encapsulate attitude information and determination functions into a single object. This is particularly beneficial for object-oriented software architectures that are used in advanced spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. PATIENT NAVIGATION

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Battaglia, Tracy A.; Dudley, Donald J.; Garcia, Roland; Greene, Amanda; Calhoun, Elizabeth; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; Paskett, Electra D.; Raich, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Background First implemented in 1990, patient navigation interventions are emerging as an approach to reduce cancer disparities. However, there is lack of consensus about how patient navigation is defined, what patient navigators do, and what their qualifications should be. Little is known about the efficacy and cost effectiveness of patient navigation. Methods We conducted a qualitative synthesis of published literature on cancer patient navigation. Using the keywords “navigator” or “navigation” and “cancer,” we identified 45 articles from Pubmed and reference searches that were published or in press through October 2007. 16 provided data on efficacy of navigation in improving timeliness and receipt of cancer screening, diagnostic follow-up care, and treatment. Patient navigation services are defined and differentiated from other outreach services. Results Overall there is evidence for some degree of efficacy for patient navigation in increasing participation in cancer screening and adherence to diagnostic follow-up care following an abnormality, with increases in screening ranging from 10.8% to 17.1% and increases in adherence to diagnostic follow-up care ranging from 21% to 29.2%, when compared to control patients. There is less evidence regarding efficacy of patient navigation in reducing either late stage cancer diagnosis or delays in initiation of cancer treatment or improving outcomes during cancer survivorship. There were methodological limitations in most studies, such as lack of control groups, small sample sizes, and contamination with other interventions. Conclusions Although cancer-related patient navigation interventions are being increasingly adopted across the U.S. and Canada, further research is necessary to evaluate their efficacy and cost-effectiveness in improving cancer care. PMID:18780320

  10. Photonics aided ultra-wideband W-band signal generation and air space transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-02-01

    We achieve several field trial demonstrations of ultra-wideband W-band millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal generation and its long-distance air space transmission based on some enabling technologies and advanced devices. First, we demonstrated photonics generation and up to 1.7-km wireless delivery of 20-Gb/s polarization division multiplexing quadrature phase shift keying (PDM-QPSK) signal at W-band, adopting both optical and antenna polarization multiplexing. Then, we demonstrated photonics generation and up to 300-m wireless delivery of 80-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signal at W-band, adopting both optical and antenna polarization multiplexing as well as multi-band multiplexing. We also demonstrated photonics generation and up to 100-m wireless delivery of 100-Gb/s QPSK signal at W-band, adopting antenna polarization multiplexing.

  11. Selected bibliography of OMEGA, VLF and LF techniques applied to aircraft navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A bibliography is presented which includes references to the OMEGA navigation system, very low frequencies, time-frequency measurements, air traffic control, radio navigation, and applications of OMEGA.

  12. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  13. Flight performance of a navigation, guidance, and control system concept for automatic approach and landing of space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, F. G.; Foster, J. D.; Hegarty, D. M.; Smith, D. W.; Drinkwater, F. J., III; Wingrove, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Unpowered automatic approaches and landings were conducted to study navigation, guidance, and control problems associated with terminal area approach and landing for the space shuttle vehicle. The flight tests were performed in a Convair 990 aircraft equipped with a digital flight control computer connected to the aircraft control system and displays. The tests were designed to evaluate the performance of a navigation and guidance concept that utilized blended radio/inertial navigation with VOR, DME, and ILS as the ground navigation aids. Results from 36 automatic approaches and landings from 11,300 m (37,000 ft) to touchdown are presented. Preliminary results indicate that this concept may provide sufficient accuracy to accomplish automatic landing of the shuttle orbiter without air-breathing engines.

  14. Situation awareness and driving performance in a simulated navigation task.

    PubMed

    Ma, R; Kaber, D B

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify task and vehicle factors that may affect driver situation awareness (SA) and its relationship to performance, particularly in strategic (navigation) tasks. An experiment was conducted to assess the effects of in-vehicle navigation aids and reliability on driver SA and performance in a simulated navigation task. A total of 20 participants drove a virtual car and navigated a large virtual suburb. They were required to follow traffic signs and navigation directions from either a human aid via a mobile phone or an automated aid presented on a laptop. The navigation aids operated under three different levels of information reliability (100%, 80% and 60%). A control condition was used in which each aid presented a telemarketing survey and participants navigated using a map. Results revealed perfect navigation information generally improved driver SA and performance compared to unreliable navigation information and the control condition (task-irrelevant information). In-vehicle automation appears to mediate the relationship of driver SA to performance in terms of operational and strategic (navigation) behaviours. The findings of this work support consideration of driver SA in the design of future vehicle automation for navigation tasks.

  15. Potential applications of satellite navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaenzer, G.

    The applicability of Navstar GPS to civil air navigation is discussed. The accuracy of current air-navigation systems is reviewed; the basic principle and accuracy of GPS navigation are characterized; the relatively low cost of GPS receiving equipment is pointed out; and particular attention is given to hybrid systems combining GPS with inertial navigation. It is predicted that CAT III landings will be possible using such hybrid systems when the GPS satellites are fully deployed, even without access to the military GPS code. Techniques for GPS-based precision landings, reduced-noise landings, landings on parallel runways, control of taxiing maneuvers, and aircraft-based geodetic measurements are briefly described and illustrated with diagrams.

  16. 14 CFR 121.121 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.121... Operations § 121.121 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... (including to any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are...

  17. 14 CFR 121.103 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.103... § 121.103 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each... regular, provisional, refueling or alternate airports), that suitable navigation aids are available...

  18. 14 CFR 125.51 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 125.51... and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.51 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in... any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are available...

  19. 75 FR 23793 - Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee... improvements, aids to navigation, area projects impacting safety on the Houston Ship Channel, and...

  20. 14 CFR 121.103 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.103... § 121.103 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each... regular, provisional, refueling or alternate airports), that suitable navigation aids are available...

  1. 14 CFR 121.121 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.121... Operations § 121.121 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... (including to any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are...

  2. 14 CFR 121.103 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.103... § 121.103 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each... regular, provisional, refueling or alternate airports), that suitable navigation aids are available...

  3. 14 CFR 125.51 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 125.51... and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.51 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in... any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are available...

  4. 14 CFR 121.121 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.121... Operations § 121.121 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... (including to any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are...

  5. 14 CFR 125.51 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 125.51... and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.51 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in... any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are available...

  6. 14 CFR 125.51 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 125.51... and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.51 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in... any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are available...

  7. 75 FR 6215 - Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee... improvements, aids to navigation, area projects impacting safety on the Houston Ship Channel, and various...

  8. 14 CFR 125.51 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 125.51... and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.51 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in... any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are available...

  9. 14 CFR 121.103 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.103... § 121.103 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each... regular, provisional, refueling or alternate airports), that suitable navigation aids are available...

  10. 14 CFR 121.103 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.103... § 121.103 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each... regular, provisional, refueling or alternate airports), that suitable navigation aids are available...

  11. 14 CFR 121.121 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.121... Operations § 121.121 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... (including to any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are...

  12. 14 CFR 121.121 - En route navigation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false En route navigation facilities. 121.121... Operations § 121.121 En route navigation facilities. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... (including to any destination, refueling or alternate airports) unless suitable navigation aids are...

  13. Satellite Navigation Backup Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-19

    Stakeholder 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Ov era ll All AC All G A Go v/S tnd s To tal U S US AC US G A US G ov /St nd s To tal E uro pe Eu rop...Engineering and Technology of Ohio University, Jacob L. Campbell contains a good survey of TRN technology history, applications, and component trade...71 Honeywell Precision Terrain Aided Navigation (PTAN) summary found in Jacob L. Campbell citation. NGATS Institute

  14. A STOL terminal area navigation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, F.; Warner, D. N., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanization and performance of a STOL terminal area navigation system are described. The purpose of the navigation system is to allow flying with precision 4D-guidance along complex flight paths in the terminal area, and to develop requirements for STOL operations in the 1980s. The navigation aids include an experimental microwave landing system, MODILS. The systems description begins with the navigation aids. It is shown how the data are transformed and combined with other data to obtain position and velocity estimates. Also presented are some of the design changes and other features that were introduced as a result of flight testing. The various ways of displaying navigation-derived data are given. Finally, simulator and flight test results are discussed.

  15. Space shuttle entry and landing navigation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Crawford, B. S.

    1974-01-01

    A navigation system for the entry phase of a Space Shuttle mission which is an aided-inertial system which uses a Kalman filter to mix IMU data with data derived from external navigation aids is evaluated. A drag pseudo-measurement used during radio blackout is treated as an additional external aid. A comprehensive truth model with 101 states is formulated and used to generate detailed error budgets at several significant time points -- end-of-blackout, start of final approach, over runway threshold, and touchdown. Sensitivity curves illustrating the effect of variations in the size of individual error sources on navigation accuracy are presented. The sensitivity of the navigation system performance to filter modifications is analyzed. The projected overall performance is shown in the form of time histories of position and velocity error components. The detailed results are summarized and interpreted, and suggestions are made concerning possible software improvements.

  16. Basic Navigator Battery: An Experimental Selection Composite for Undergraduate Navigator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Frank M.; Kantor, Jeffrey E.

    High rates of attrition among students in Undergraduate Navigator Training (UNT) is a major concern for Air Training Command. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the Basic Navigator Battery (BNB), a multi-test experimental selection instrument, for its potential to increase the validity of the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test…

  17. Oceanic Area System Improvement Study (OASIS). Volume VI. North Atlantic, Central East Pacific, and Caribbean Regions Navigation Systems Description.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Accuracy and Reliability of NAT Navigation . . . .. 33 3.5 NAT Navigation Financial Information .......... ... 33 4. CEP NAVIGATION...35 4.1 Routes ........ ........................ 35 4.2 Navigation Aids . . ........ . ......... 35 4.3 CEP Navigation Accuracy and Reliability ...to predict when they will pass by certain points so other aircraft approaching those points can cross them without excessive delay (i.e., without

  18. 33 CFR 149.323 - What are the requirements for first aid kits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for first aid kits? 149.323 Section 149.323 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... first aid kit must be maintained in a space designated as a medical treatment room or, if there is...

  19. A Reinforcement Learning Model Equipped with Sensors for Generating Perception Patterns: Implementation of a Simulated Air Navigation System Using ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) Technology.

    PubMed

    Álvarez de Toledo, Santiago; Anguera, Aurea; Barreiro, José M; Lara, Juan A; Lizcano, David

    2017-01-19

    Over the last few decades, a number of reinforcement learning techniques have emerged, and different reinforcement learning-based applications have proliferated. However, such techniques tend to specialize in a particular field. This is an obstacle to their generalization and extrapolation to other areas. Besides, neither the reward-punishment (r-p) learning process nor the convergence of results is fast and efficient enough. To address these obstacles, this research proposes a general reinforcement learning model. This model is independent of input and output types and based on general bioinspired principles that help to speed up the learning process. The model is composed of a perception module based on sensors whose specific perceptions are mapped as perception patterns. In this manner, similar perceptions (even if perceived at different positions in the environment) are accounted for by the same perception pattern. Additionally, the model includes a procedure that statistically associates perception-action pattern pairs depending on the positive or negative results output by executing the respective action in response to a particular perception during the learning process. To do this, the model is fitted with a mechanism that reacts positively or negatively to particular sensory stimuli in order to rate results. The model is supplemented by an action module that can be configured depending on the maneuverability of each specific agent. The model has been applied in the air navigation domain, a field with strong safety restrictions, which led us to implement a simulated system equipped with the proposed model. Accordingly, the perception sensors were based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology, which is described in this paper. The results were quite satisfactory, and it outperformed traditional methods existing in the literature with respect to learning reliability and efficiency.

  20. A Reinforcement Learning Model Equipped with Sensors for Generating Perception Patterns: Implementation of a Simulated Air Navigation System Using ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) Technology

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez de Toledo, Santiago; Anguera, Aurea; Barreiro, José M.; Lara, Juan A.; Lizcano, David

    2017-01-01

    Over the last few decades, a number of reinforcement learning techniques have emerged, and different reinforcement learning-based applications have proliferated. However, such techniques tend to specialize in a particular field. This is an obstacle to their generalization and extrapolation to other areas. Besides, neither the reward-punishment (r-p) learning process nor the convergence of results is fast and efficient enough. To address these obstacles, this research proposes a general reinforcement learning model. This model is independent of input and output types and based on general bioinspired principles that help to speed up the learning process. The model is composed of a perception module based on sensors whose specific perceptions are mapped as perception patterns. In this manner, similar perceptions (even if perceived at different positions in the environment) are accounted for by the same perception pattern. Additionally, the model includes a procedure that statistically associates perception-action pattern pairs depending on the positive or negative results output by executing the respective action in response to a particular perception during the learning process. To do this, the model is fitted with a mechanism that reacts positively or negatively to particular sensory stimuli in order to rate results. The model is supplemented by an action module that can be configured depending on the maneuverability of each specific agent. The model has been applied in the air navigation domain, a field with strong safety restrictions, which led us to implement a simulated system equipped with the proposed model. Accordingly, the perception sensors were based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology, which is described in this paper. The results were quite satisfactory, and it outperformed traditional methods existing in the literature with respect to learning reliability and efficiency. PMID:28106849

  1. 75 FR 56538 - Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders to Aid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... ] Consent Agreement, Air Products is required, among other things, to divest 15 air separation units (``ASUs... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Air.... Comments should refer to``Air Products, Inc., File No. 101 0093'' to facilitate the organization...

  2. INL Autonomous Navigation System

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Autonomous Navigation System provides instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The system permits high-speed autonomous navigation including obstacle avoidance, waypoing navigation and path planning in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  3. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  4. Low cost omega navigation receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a low cost Omega navigation receiver is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the completion and testing of a modular, multipurpose Omega receiver which utilizes a digital memory-aided, phase-locked loop to provide phase measurement data to a variety of applications interfaces. The functional units contained in the prototype device are described. The receiver is capable of receiving and storing phase measurements for up to eight Omega signals and computes two switch-selectable lines of position, displaying this navigation data in chart-recorded form.

  5. 33 CFR 144.01-30 - First-aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First-aid kit. 144.01-30 Section...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-30 First-aid kit. On each manned platform a first-aid kit approved by the Commandant or the U.S. Bureau of Mines shall...

  6. 33 CFR 144.01-30 - First-aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First-aid kit. 144.01-30 Section...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-30 First-aid kit. On each manned platform a first-aid kit approved by the Commandant or the U.S. Bureau of Mines shall...

  7. 33 CFR 144.01-30 - First-aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First-aid kit. 144.01-30 Section...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-30 First-aid kit. On each manned platform a first-aid kit approved by the Commandant or the U.S. Bureau of Mines shall...

  8. 33 CFR 144.01-30 - First-aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First-aid kit. 144.01-30 Section...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-30 First-aid kit. On each manned platform a first-aid kit approved by the Commandant or the U.S. Bureau of Mines shall...

  9. 33 CFR 164.38 - Automatic radar plotting aids (ARPA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic radar plotting aids... plotting aids (ARPA). (a) The following definitions are used in this section— Bulk means material in any... cargo residue. (b) An Automatic Radar Plotting Aid (ARPA) that complies with the standard for...

  10. 33 CFR 164.38 - Automatic radar plotting aids (ARPA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic radar plotting aids... plotting aids (ARPA). (a) The following definitions are used in this section— Bulk means material in any... cargo residue. (b) An Automatic Radar Plotting Aid (ARPA) that complies with the standard for...

  11. Neutron probe measurements of air saturation near an air sparging well

    SciTech Connect

    Acomb, L.J.; McKay, D.; Currier, P.; Berglund, S.T.; Sherhart, T.V.; Benediktsson, C.V.

    1995-12-31

    In situ air sparging is being used to remediate diesel-fuel-contaminated soils in the zone of water table fluctuation at a remote Alaskan Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) air navigation aid site. A neutron probe was used to measure changes in percent air saturation during air sparging in a uniform, aeolian sand. Air was injected about 15 ft below the water table at air flowrates of 4 to 16 ft{sup 3}/min (cfm). The neutron probe data show that during air sparging the distribution of injected air changed through time, initially expanding outward from the sparge well screen, then consolidating around the air sparging well, until a steady-state condition was reached. The maximum radius of influence, measured at an air flowrate of 16 cfm, was about 15 ft during steady-state flow. At all air flowrates the percent air saturation was highest near the air sparging well and decreased radially away from the sparging well. Near the sparging well, the percent air saturation ranged from about 30% to >50% at air injection rates of 4 to 16 cfm. Where the percent air saturation is similar to that in the vadose zone, volatilization and biodegradation may occur at rates similar to those in the vadose zone. Selected air saturation results are presented, and dissolved oxygen and saturated zone pressure data are summarized.

  12. Viking navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneil, W. J.; Rudd, R. P.; Farless, D. L.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Mitchell, R. T.; Rourke, K. H.; Euler, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the navigation of the Viking spacecraft throughout their flight from Earth launch to Mars landing is given. The flight path design, actual inflight control, and postflight reconstruction are discussed in detail. The preflight analyses upon which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based are discussed. The inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions and, finally, the results of any postflight analyses are presented.

  13. Fundamentals of satellite navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, A. H.

    The basic operating principles and capabilities of conventional and satellite-based navigation systems for air, sea, and land vehicles are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams. Consideration is given to autonomous onboard systems; systems based on visible or radio beacons; the Transit, Cicada, Navstar-GPS, and Glonass satellite systems; the physical laws and parameters of satellite motion; the definition of time in satellite systems; and the content of the demodulated GPS data signal. The GPS and Glonass data format frames are presented graphically, and tables listing the GPS and Glonass satellites, their technical characteristics, and the (past or scheduled) launch dates are provided.

  14. A study of navigation in virtual space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darken, Rudy; Sibert, John L.; Shumaker, Randy

    1994-01-01

    In the physical world, man has developed efficient methods for navigation and orientation. These methods are dependent on the high-fidelity stimuli presented by the environment. When placed in a virtual world which cannot offer stimuli of the same quality due to computing constraints and immature technology, tasks requiring the maintenance of position and orientation knowledge become laborious. In this paper, we present a representative set of techniques based on principles of navigation derived from real world analogs including human and avian navigation behavior and cartography. A preliminary classification of virtual worlds is presented based on the size of the world, the density of objects in the world, and the level of activity taking place in the world. We also summarize an informal study we performed to determine how the tools influenced the subjects' navigation strategies and behavior. We conclude that principles extracted from real world navigation aids such as maps can be seen to apply in virtual environments.

  15. Aircraft Instrument, Fire Protection, Warning, Communication, Navigation and Cabin Atmosphere Control System (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with manipulative skills and theoretical knowledge concerning aircraft instrument systems like major flight and engine instruments; fire protection and fire fighting systems; warning systems and navigation systems; aircraft cabin control systems, such as…

  16. Navigational Aids: The Phenomenology of Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mälkki, Kaisu; Green, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Although the notion of transformative learning points to a desirable destination for educational endeavors, the difficulty in the journey is often neglected. Our intention is to map the experiential micro-processes involved in transformative learning such that the phenomenon is illuminated from a first-person rather than third-person point of…

  17. [Navigation aid through the information overload].

    PubMed

    Günther, Judith; Schindler, Birgit; Suter, Katja

    2014-10-01

    We live in the modern information society. "To be informed" has a crucial impact on the personal, professional, economic and social development. The knowledge of things and their relationships is essential for acute decisions as well as for long-term planning. And at no time it was easier to get the information required within shorter time periods--no matter to whatsoever. The offer of information of the World Wide Web is inexhaustible. This also applies to information about all possible therapeutic and pharmaceutical issues. But is the information found reliable, too? And are easily accessible sources credible? Can we deal with the information overload at these days or do we actually risk paddling only on the surface of the "information-sea", without ever perceiving the actual information depth and width, less to use it? How can we protect being taken in by marketing strategies? The present article describes a structured proceed when seeking literature to find useful medical and pharmaceutical information in a time saving manner.

  18. Performance Enhancements of Ranging Radio Aided Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    c22 c23 c31 c32 c33 37775 (2.1) pb = Cbap a (2.2) The DCM has the following properties if used with a right hand Cartesian frame: 1. Det(Cba) Cba...3 F11m = 26666666664 03 I3 03 03 03 CneGC e n 2Cne eieCen (fn) Cnb 03 03 03 (Cne!eie) 03 Cnb 03 03 03 1a I3 03 03 03 03 03 1 b I3 ...represents the distance to the landmark and is found from the z component of yn, pbcam, and s¯ c. d = [yn]z pn+Cnbp b cam z [CnbC b cs ¯ c]z (3.27) Now

  19. Aiding GPS With Additional Satellite Navigation Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    10 FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 GBCC Ground Based Control Complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11...Precision Service (HPS), which is like PPS in GPS. GLONASS uses Frequency Division Multiple Access ( FDMA ) unlike the CDMA used in GPS. Every GLONASS...GLONASS uses FDMA , its receiver design is more costly compared to GPS. The GLONASS user segment is small and located primarily in Russia. There are

  20. An Integrity Framework for Image-Based Navigation Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    AN INTEGRITY FRAMEWORK FOR IMAGE-BASED NAVIGATION SYSTEMS DISSERTATION Craig D. Larson, Captain, USAF AFIT/DEE/ENG/ 10 -03 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE...United States AFIT/DEE/ENG/ 10 -03 AN INTEGRITY FRAMEWORK FOR IMAGE-BASED NAVIGATION SYSTEMS DISSERTATION Presented to the Faculty Graduate School of...UNLIMITED AFIT/DEE/ENG/ 10 -03 Abstract The value of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) in a multitude of both military and civilian navigation and

  1. Evidence toward an expanded international civil aviation organization (ICAO) concept of a single unified global communication navigation surveillance air traffic management (CNS/ATM) system: A quantitative analysis of ADS-B technology within a CNS/ATM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Gregory S.

    This research dissertation summarizes research done on the topic of global air traffic control, to include technology, controlling world organizations and economic considerations. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) proposed communication, navigation, surveillance, air traffic management system (CNS/ATM) plan is the basis for the development of a single global CNS/ATM system concept as it is discussed within this study. Research will be evaluated on the efficacy of a single technology, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) within the scope of a single global CNS/ATM system concept. ADS-B has been used within the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Capstone program for evaluation since the year 2000. The efficacy of ADS-B was measured solely by using National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) data relating to accident and incident rates within the Alaskan airspace (AK) and that of the national airspace system (NAS).

  2. A Model Simulating the Impact of Reagan's Student Financial Aid Proposals on the Institution. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John D.; Matt, Joseph J.

    A model was developed at Arizona State University (ASU) to simulate the effect of President Reagan's proposed 1983 cuts in student financial aid in terms of programs and student credit hour load. The model allows administrators to simulate the impact on various student groups. The analysis involved 3,141 full-time undergraduates with financial aid…

  3. Anticipating Mathematics Performance: A Cross-Validation Comparison of AID3 and Regression. AIR 1988 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Allan M.; And Others

    In response to the increasing importance of student performance in required classes, research was conducted to compare two prediction procedures, linear modeling using multiple regression and nonlinear modeling using AID3. Performance in the first college math course (College Mathematics, Calculus, or Business Calculus Matrices) was the dependent…

  4. 3D Air Quality and the Clean Air Interstate Rule: Lagrangian Sampling of CMAQ Model Results to Aid Regional Accountability Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Szykman, Jim; Pierce, Robert B.; Gilliland, A. B.; Engel-Cox, Jill; Weber, Stephanie; Kittaka, Chieko; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Scheffe, Rich; Dimmick, Fred; Tikvart, Joe

    2008-01-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is expected to reduce transport of air pollutants (e.g. fine sulfate particles) in nonattainment areas in the Eastern United States. CAIR highlights the need for an integrated air quality observational and modeling system to understand sulfate as it moves in multiple dimensions, both spatially and temporally. Here, we demonstrate how results from an air quality model can be combined with a 3d monitoring network to provide decision makers with a tool to help quantify the impact of CAIR reductions in SO2 emissions on regional transport contributions to sulfate concentrations at surface monitors in the Baltimore, MD area, and help improve decision making for strategic implementation plans (SIPs). We sample results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using ensemble back trajectories computed with the NASA Langley Research Center trajectory model to provide Lagrangian time series and vertical profile information, that can be compared with NASA satellite (MODIS), EPA surface, and lidar measurements. Results are used to assess the regional transport contribution to surface SO4 measurements in the Baltimore MSA, and to characterize the dominant source regions for low, medium, and high SO4 episodes.

  5. Final-Approach Spacing Aids (FASA) evaluation for terminal-area, time-based air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Capron, William R.; Lohr, Gary W.; Crawford, Daniel J.; Tang, Dershuen A.; Rodgers, William G., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A jointly funded (NASA/FAA) real-time simulation study was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to gather comparative performance data among three candidate final-approach spacing aid (FASA) display formats. Several objective measures of controller performance and their display eye-scan behavior as well as subjective workload and rating questionnaires were used. For each of two representative pattern-speed procedures (a 170-knot procedure and a 210-knot procedure with speed control aiding), data were gathered, via twelve FAA controllers, using four final-controller display format conditions (manual/ARTS 3, graphic marker, DICE countdown, and centerline slot marker). Measured runway separations were more precise with both the graphic marker and DICE countdown formats than with the centerline slot marker and both (graphic and DICE) improved precision relative to the manual/ARTS 3 format. For three separate rating criteria, the subject controllers ranked the FASA formats in the same order: graphic marker, DICE countdown, and centerline slot marker. The increased precision measured with the 210-knot pattern-speed procedure may indicate the potential for the application of speed-control aiding where higher pattern speeds are practical after the base-to-final turn. Also presented are key FASA issues, a rationale for the formats selected for testing, and their description.

  6. A microcomputer-based low-cost Omega navigation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, R. W.; Salter, R. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The application of a low cost, commercially available microcomputer as the navigation processor for a simplified OMEGA navigation system is an area of current research. The interface of a low cost front end OMEGA sensor is described and an example of the phase processing software and navigation routines is given. Emphasis is placed on the description of results obtained with the software version of the OMEGA burst filter known as the memory aided phase locked loop.

  7. Terrestrial navigation based on integrated GPS and INS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Sam S.; Goh, Terence K. L.; Jiang, T. Y.; Koopman, R.; Chan, S. W.; Fong, A. M.

    1998-07-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) have complimentary features that can be exploited in an integrated system, thus resulting in improved navigation performance. The INS is able to provide accurate aiding data on short-term vehicle dynamics, while the GPS provides accurate data on long-term vehicle dynamics. In this paper, a complete solution is presented for terrestrial navigation based on integrated GPS and INS using Kalman filtering technique.

  8. Vision/INS Integrated Navigation System for Poor Vision Navigation Environments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsun; Hwang, Dong-Hwan

    2016-10-12

    In order to improve the performance of an inertial navigation system, many aiding sensors can be used. Among these aiding sensors, a vision sensor is of particular note due to its benefits in terms of weight, cost, and power consumption. This paper proposes an inertial and vision integrated navigation method for poor vision navigation environments. The proposed method uses focal plane measurements of landmarks in order to provide position, velocity and attitude outputs even when the number of landmarks on the focal plane is not enough for navigation. In order to verify the proposed method, computer simulations and van tests are carried out. The results show that the proposed method gives accurate and reliable position, velocity and attitude outputs when the number of landmarks is insufficient.

  9. Vision/INS Integrated Navigation System for Poor Vision Navigation Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngsun; Hwang, Dong-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of an inertial navigation system, many aiding sensors can be used. Among these aiding sensors, a vision sensor is of particular note due to its benefits in terms of weight, cost, and power consumption. This paper proposes an inertial and vision integrated navigation method for poor vision navigation environments. The proposed method uses focal plane measurements of landmarks in order to provide position, velocity and attitude outputs even when the number of landmarks on the focal plane is not enough for navigation. In order to verify the proposed method, computer simulations and van tests are carried out. The results show that the proposed method gives accurate and reliable position, velocity and attitude outputs when the number of landmarks is insufficient. PMID:27754350

  10. Real-Time GPS-Alternative Navigation Using Commodity Hardware

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Hypothesis The thrust of this research was to improve a state-of-the- art image-aided inertial navigation system developed in previous research at AFIT...novel, and even now is state-of-the- art GPS-alternative navigation. The previous system was built to test and demonstrate image-aided inertial...of-the- art . There have been a few attempts to augment CPU-based image processing by using programmable hardware. The objective of this type of

  11. Navigation for space shuttle approach and landing using an inertial navigation system augmented by data from a precision ranging system or a microwave scan beam landing guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Carson, T. M.; Schmidt, S. F.

    1970-01-01

    A preliminary study has been made of the navigation performance which might be achieved for the high cross-range space shuttle orbiter during final approach and landing by using an optimally augmented inertial navigation system. Computed navigation accuracies are presented for an on-board inertial navigation system augmented (by means of an optimal filter algorithm) with data from two different ground navigation aids; a precision ranging system and a microwave scanning beam landing guidance system. These results show that augmentation with either type of ground navigation aid is capable of providing a navigation performance at touchdown which should be adequate for the space shuttle. In addition, adequate navigation performance for space shuttle landing is obtainable from the precision ranging system even with a complete dropout of precision range measurements as much as 100 seconds before touchdown.

  12. Development of Computer Software to Aid Environmental Decision Makers in the Education and Training of Air Force Remedial Project Managers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    the MITRE Air Force site coordinator education report, the environmental education research being done by the School of Aerospace Medicine, and the...Each iteration is a result 56 of discussions with Lt Col Maricle and Maj Duncan- and a review of the environmental education research completed by the

  13. 33 CFR 164.38 - Automatic radar plotting aids (ARPA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic radar plotting aids... plotting aids (ARPA). (a) The following definitions are used in this section— Bulk means material in any... Radar Plotting Aids” (Appendix A), and that has both audible and visual alarms, must be installed...

  14. 33 CFR 164.38 - Automatic radar plotting aids (ARPA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic radar plotting aids... plotting aids (ARPA). (a) The following definitions are used in this section— Bulk means material in any... Radar Plotting Aids” (Appendix A), and that has both audible and visual alarms, must be installed...

  15. 33 CFR 164.38 - Automatic radar plotting aids (ARPA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic radar plotting aids... plotting aids (ARPA). (a) The following definitions are used in this section— Bulk means material in any... Radar Plotting Aids” (Appendix A), and that has both audible and visual alarms, must be installed...

  16. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Aids On this page: What is a hearing aid? ... the ear through a speaker. How can hearing aids help? Hearing aids are primarily useful in improving ...

  17. 77 FR 35618 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV... traffic procedures and air navigation, it is certified that this rule, when promulgated, will not have a... Airspace, Incorporation by reference, Navigation (air). Adoption of the Amendment In consideration of...

  18. Investigation into the use of satellite data in aiding characterization of particulate air quality in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Alston, Erica J; Sokolik, Irina N; Doddridge, Bruce G

    2011-02-01

    Poor air quality episodes occur often in metropolitan Atlanta, GA. The primary focus of this research is to assess the capability of satellites as a tool in characterizing air quality in Atlanta. Results indicate that intracity PM2.5 (particulate matter < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) concentrations show similar patterns as other U.S. urban areas, with the highest concentrations occurring within the city. PM2.5 and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aerosol optical depth (AOD) have higher values in the summer than spring, yet MODIS AOD doubles in the summer unlike PM2.5. Most (80%) of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aerosol index (AI) is below 0.5 with little differences between spring and summer. Using this value as a constraint of the carbonaceous aerosol signal in the urban area, aerosol transport events such as wildfire smoke associated with higher positive AI values can be identified. The results indicate that MODIS AOD is well correlated with PM2.5 on a yearly and seasonal basis with correlation coefficients as high as 0.8 for Terra and 0.7 for Aqua. A possible alternative view of the PM2.5 and AOD relationship is seen through the use of AOD thresholds. These probabilistic thresholds provide a means to describe the air quality index (AQI) through the use of multiyear AOD records for a specific area. The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are used to classify the AOD into different AQI codes and probabilistically determine thresholds of AOD that represent most of a specific AQI category. For example, 80% of cases of moderate AQI days have AOD values between 0.5 and 0.6. The development of AOD thresholds provides a useful tool for evaluating air quality from the use of satellites in regions where there are sparse ground-based measurements of PM2.5.

  19. Culture of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Epithelial Cells at Air-Liquid Interface Can Alter Ciliary Phenotype but Remains a Robust and Informative Diagnostic Aid

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Janice L.; Williams, Gwyneth; Rutman, Andrew; Goggin, Patricia M.; Adam, Elizabeth C.; Page, Anthony; Evans, Hazel J.; Lackie, Peter M.; O’Callaghan, Christopher; Lucas, Jane S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) requires the analysis of ciliary function and ultrastructure. Diagnosis can be complicated by secondary effects on cilia such as damage during sampling, local inflammation or recent infection. To differentiate primary from secondary abnormalities, re-analysis of cilia following culture and re-differentiation of epithelial cells at an air-liquid interface (ALI) aids the diagnosis of PCD. However changes in ciliary beat pattern of cilia following epithelial cell culture has previously been described, which has brought the robustness of this method into question. This is the first systematic study to evaluate ALI culture as an aid to diagnosis of PCD in the light of these concerns. Methods We retrospectively studied changes associated with ALI-culture in 158 subjects referred for diagnostic testing at two PCD centres. Ciliated nasal epithelium (PCD n = 54; non-PCD n = 111) was analysed by high-speed digital video microscopy and transmission electron microscopy before and after culture. Results Ciliary function was abnormal before and after culture in all subjects with PCD; 21 PCD subjects had a combination of static and uncoordinated twitching cilia, which became completely static following culture, a further 9 demonstrated a decreased ciliary beat frequency after culture. In subjects without PCD, secondary ciliary dyskinesia was reduced. Conclusions The change to ciliary phenotype in PCD samples following cell culture does not affect the diagnosis, and in certain cases can assist the ability to identify PCD cilia. PMID:24586956

  20. Bayesian statistics and information fusion for GPS-denied navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copp, Brian Lee

    It is well known that satellite navigation systems are vulnerable to disruption due to jamming, spoofing, or obstruction of the signal. The desire for robust navigation of aircraft in GPS-denied environments has motivated the development of feature-aided navigation systems, in which measurements of environmental features are used to complement the dead reckoning solution produced by an inertial navigation system. Examples of environmental features which can be exploited for navigation include star positions, terrain elevation, terrestrial wireless signals, and features extracted from photographic data. Feature-aided navigation represents a particularly challenging estimation problem because the measurements are often strongly nonlinear, and the quality of the navigation solution is limited by the knowledge of nuisance parameters which may be difficult to model accurately. As a result, integration approaches based on the Kalman filter and its variants may fail to give adequate performance. This project develops a framework for the integration of feature-aided navigation techniques using Bayesian statistics. In this approach, the probability density function for aircraft horizontal position (latitude and longitude) is approximated by a two-dimensional point mass function defined on a rectangular grid. Nuisance parameters are estimated using a hypothesis based approach (Multiple Model Adaptive Estimation) which continuously maintains an accurate probability density even in the presence of strong nonlinearities. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by the simulated use of terrain referenced navigation and wireless time-of-arrival positioning to estimate a reference aircraft trajectory. Monte Carlo simulations have shown that accurate position estimates can be obtained in terrain referenced navigation even with a strongly nonlinear altitude bias. The integration of terrain referenced and wireless time-of-arrival measurements is described along with

  1. An Agent-Based Model for Navigation Simulation in a Heterogeneous Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Complex navigation (e.g. indoor and outdoor environments) can be studied as a system-of-systems problem. The model is made up of disparate systems that can aid a user in navigating from one location to another, utilizing whatever sensor system or information is available. By using intelligent navigation sensors and techniques (e.g. RFID, Wifi,…

  2. 77 FR 65461 - Amendment of Area Navigation Route Q-1; CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Area Navigation Route Q-1; CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: This action amends the legal description of area navigation (RNAV) route Q-1... Reyes, CA, navigation aid, and listing of the points in the proper order. DATES: Effective Date:...

  3. 77 FR 9841 - Modification of Area Navigation Route T-288; WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Area Navigation Route T-288; WY AGENCY... navigation (RNAV) route T-288 by extending the route westward from the Rapid City, SD, VORTAC to the Gillette... Rapid City in the event of navigation aid outages. RNAV routes are published in paragraph 6011 of...

  4. 76 FR 76070 - Proposed Modification of Area Navigation Route T-288; WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of Area Navigation Route T-288; WY...: This action proposes to modify low altitude area navigation (RNAV) route T-288 by extending the route... airway structure and providing alternative routing in the event of navigation aid (NAVAID) outages....

  5. 76 FR 2916 - Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee; Meetings AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: The Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee... to discuss waterway improvements, aids to navigation, area projects impacting safety on the...

  6. 77 FR 65253 - Amendment of Area Navigation Route T-240; AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Area Navigation Route T-240; AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation... description of area navigation (RNAV) route T-240 in Alaska by removing one waypoint that is no longer... route description is amended to include the names of the navigation aids that comprise the route....

  7. Mars rover local navigation and hazard avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, B. H.; Gennery, D. B.; Mishkin, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    A Mars rover sample return mission has been proposed for the late 1990's. Due to the long speed-of-light delays between earth and Mars, some autonomy on the rover is highly desirable. JPL has been conducting research in two possible modes of rover operation, Computer-Aided Remote Driving and Semiautonomous Navigation. A recently-completed research program used a half-scale testbed vehicle to explore several of the concepts in semiautonomous navigation. A new, full-scale vehicle with all computational and power resources on-board will be used in the coming year to demonstrate relatively fast semiautonomous navigation. The computational and power requirements for Mars rover local navigation and hazard avoidance are discussed.

  8. Dynamic Transportation Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

    Miniaturization of computing devices, and advances in wireless communication and sensor technology are some of the forces that are propagating computing from the stationary desktop to the mobile outdoors. Some important classes of new applications that will be enabled by this revolutionary development include intelligent traffic management, location-based services, tourist services, mobile electronic commerce, and digital battlefield. Some existing application classes that will benefit from the development include transportation and air traffic control, weather forecasting, emergency response, mobile resource management, and mobile workforce. Location management, i.e., the management of transient location information, is an enabling technology for all these applications. In this chapter, we present the applications of moving objects management and their functionalities, in particular, the application of dynamic traffic navigation, which is a challenge due to the highly variable traffic state and the requirement of fast, on-line computations.

  9. Do Sign Language Videos Improve Web Navigation for Deaf Signer Users?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajardo, Inmaculada; Parra, Elena; Canas, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of video-based sign language (SL) navigation aids to improve Web search for Deaf Signers was tested by two experiments. Experiment 1 compared 2 navigation aids based on text hyperlinks linked to embedded SL videos, which differed in the spatial contiguity between the text hyperlink and SL video (contiguous vs. distant). Deaf Signers'…

  10. Modeling Navigation System Performance of a Satellite-Observing Star Tracker Tightly Integrated with an Inertial Measurement Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    comes into question. Many research areas seek to compensate for perceived GPS vulnerabilities. Some of those are video- aided navigation [87], [86], [88...celestial navigation aids in the sense of using stars for reference. This dissertation seeks to investigate the pertinent parameter space and antic...Cramér-Rao lower bound. Northrop Grumman developed the LN-120G Stellar-Inertial-GPS system that uses a star tracker to aid aircraft navigation [26]. This

  11. Garrett County Aids AID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Garrett County, Maryland volunteered to act as a pre-overseas learning laboratory for AID (Agency for International Development) interns who practiced data collection and planning techniques with the help of local citizenry. (JC)

  12. Opportunity Egress Aid Contacts Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's egress aid touching the martian soil at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken after the rear lander petal hyperextended in a manuever to tilt the lander forward. The maneuver pushed the front edge lower, placing the tips of the egress aids in the soil. The rover will drive straight ahead to exit the lander.

  13. Investigation Into the Use of Satellite Data in Aiding Characterization of Particulate Air Quality in the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Erica J.; Sokolik, Irina, N.; Doddridge, Bruce G.

    2011-01-01

    Poor air quality episodes occur often in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. The primary focus of this research is to assess the capability of satellites as a tool in characterizing air quality in Atlanta. Results indicate that intra-city PM2.5 concentrations show similar patterns as other U.S. urban areas, with the highest concentrations occurring within the city. Both PM2.5 and MODIS AOD show more increases in the summer than spring, yet MODIS AOD doubles in the summer unlike PM2.5. A majority of OMI AI is below 0.5. Using this value as an ambient measure of carbonaceous aerosols in the urban area, aerosol transport events can be identified. Our results indicate that MODIS AOD is well correlated with PM2.5 on a yearly and seasonal basis with correlation coefficients as high as 0.8 for Terra and 0.7 for Aqua. A possible alternative view of the PM2.5 and AOD relationship is seen through the use of AOD thresholds. These probabilistic thresholds provide a means to describe the AQI through the use of past AOD for a specific area. We use the NAAQS to classify the AOD into different AQI codes, and probabilistically determine thresholds of AOD that represent the majority of a specific AQI category. For example, the majority 80% of moderate AQI days have AOD values between 0.5 - 0.6. The development of thresholds could be a tool used to evaluate air quality from the use of satellites in regions where there are sparse ground-based measurements of PM2.5.

  14. Inertial navigation/calibration/precise time and frequency capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, L. M.; Barnaba, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center was conceived in 1959 to be the US Air Force Inertial Navigation and Metrology Center. This paper will show the mission capabilities of the Inertial Navigation Maintenance Center and the Air Force Measurement and Standards Laboratory. Highlighted will be the precise time and frequency program developed by AGMC to support Air Force precise time and frequency requirements worldwide. A description of the past, present, and future precise time and frequency activities will be presented.

  15. 33 CFR 149.323 - What are the requirements for first aid kits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... first aid kits? 149.323 Section 149.323 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lifesaving Equipment Manned Deepwater Port Requirements § 149.323 What are the requirements for first aid kits? (a) Each manned deepwater port must have an industrial first aid kit, approved by an...

  16. 33 CFR 149.323 - What are the requirements for first aid kits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... first aid kits? 149.323 Section 149.323 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lifesaving Equipment Manned Deepwater Port Requirements § 149.323 What are the requirements for first aid kits? (a) Each manned deepwater port must have an industrial first aid kit, approved by an...

  17. 33 CFR 149.323 - What are the requirements for first aid kits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... first aid kits? 149.323 Section 149.323 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lifesaving Equipment Manned Deepwater Port Requirements § 149.323 What are the requirements for first aid kits? (a) Each manned deepwater port must have an industrial first aid kit, approved by an...

  18. 33 CFR 149.323 - What are the requirements for first aid kits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... first aid kits? 149.323 Section 149.323 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lifesaving Equipment Manned Deepwater Port Requirements § 149.323 What are the requirements for first aid kits? (a) Each manned deepwater port must have an industrial first aid kit, approved by an...

  19. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  20. Autonomous navigation of USAF spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. R., Jr.

    1983-12-01

    The U. S. Air Force is developing satellite-borne sensors to enable autonomous navigation of spacecraft in the near future. This study compares the observations from several medium-accuracy space sensors, such as the existing telescopic space sextant, with those of future matrix-type sensors. The large field of view of matrix sensors will allow them to determine the Earth horizon to approximately an order of magnitude better than current infrared sensors by observing atmospheric refraction of stellar light. This horizon determination will give the matrix sensors an accuracy of less than 1 km. The limiting factor in Earth-horizon determination is the modeling of atmospheric refraction effects. For high-accuracy requirements (100 meters or less), the Global Positioning System (GPS) offers the only near-term solution. A relative navigation technique using range and Doppler data is proposed for autonomous navigation of the GPS satellites. The navigation accuracy of this technique is evaluated by consider covariance analysis and by processing corrupted data through a reduced-order onboard Sequentially Partitioned Algorithm. The algorithm is stable and for the GPS system produces in-plane accuracy of 40 meters over twenty days. However, out-of-plane motion is shown to be unobservable in the GPS-to-GPS tracking mode, and errors of up to 1.5 km over 60 days are experienced. For this reason, a supplemental transmitter on the ground or in a different orbit is recommended.

  1. 33 CFR 183.222 - Flotation material and air chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flotation material and air chambers. 183.222 Section 183.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.222 Flotation material and air...

  2. Personal Navigation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-31

    the capabilities of prototype hardware for navigation in GPS - denied and significantly challenged environments. Two technologies, developed at...building operational navigation sequence: GPS position initialization, handover to Deep Integration tracking, GPS - denied navigation, and finally satellite...Vertical Gait CEP relative to entry Max Relative Error Position error at entry Entry to exit Time GPS denied or challenged Draper Indoor Course

  3. Coastal Navigation Portfolio Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-19

    CIRP.aspx Coastal Inlets Research Program Coastal Navigation Portfolio Management The Coastal Navigatoin Portfolio Management work unit...across the vast coastal navigation portfolio of projects. The USACE maintains a vast infrastructure portfolio of deep-draft coastal entrance...the Corps needs to be able to direct resources at the navigation projects that are most critical to overall marine transportation system performance

  4. Dual MIMU Pedestrian Navigation by Inequality Constraint Kalman Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yuanxin

    2017-01-01

    The foot-mounted inertial navigation system is an important method of pedestrian navigation as it, in principle, does not rely any external assistance. A real-time range decomposition constraint method is proposed in this paper to combine the information of dual foot-mounted inertial navigation systems. It is well known that low-cost inertial pedestrian navigation aided with both ZUPT (zero velocity update) and the range decomposition constraint performs better than those in their own respective methods. This paper recommends that the separation distance between the position estimates of the two foot-mounted inertial navigation systems be restricted by an ellipsoidal constraint that relates to the maximum step length and the leg height. The performance of the proposed method is studied by utilizing experimental data, and the results indicate that the method can effectively correct the dual navigation systems’ position over the traditional spherical constraint. PMID:28241448

  5. Dual MIMU Pedestrian Navigation by Inequality Constraint Kalman Filtering.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yuanxin

    2017-02-22

    The foot-mounted inertial navigation system is an important method of pedestrian navigation as it, in principle, does not rely any external assistance. A real-time range decomposition constraint method is proposed in this paper to combine the information of dual foot-mounted inertial navigation systems. It is well known that low-cost inertial pedestrian navigation aided with both ZUPT (zero velocity update) and the range decomposition constraint performs better than those in their own respective methods. This paper recommends that the separation distance between the position estimates of the two foot-mounted inertial navigation systems be restricted by an ellipsoidal constraint that relates to the maximum step length and the leg height. The performance of the proposed method is studied by utilizing experimental data, and the results indicate that the method can effectively correct the dual navigation systems' position over the traditional spherical constraint.

  6. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin HIV/AIDS HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is the virus ... HIV/AIDS. Why Is the Study of HIV/AIDS a Priority for NIAID? Nearly 37 million people ...

  7. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... to restrict your daily activities. Properly fitted hearing aids and aural rehabilitation (techniques used to identify and ...

  8. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hearing Aids KidsHealth > For Teens > Hearing Aids Print A A ... with certain types of hearing loss. How Hearing Aids Help So you went to audiologist and found ...

  9. Colloquium on Helicopter Guidance and Navigation Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    34rounded by aluminium sarinds which iarry t.-e auxrtnt as seon in Fig ~ One method of detection is to shine a high frequency mm-wave radar onto the...which are used for survey pux-oses. The accuracy requirement is of the order of 10 metres and this has led to same interesting work which will be...help survey operations in territory in which no ground aids axe available. 3. Possible Navigation S,stoms. The navigation systems which can be considered

  10. Inertial navigation for the urban warrior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwell, John

    1999-07-01

    Individual soldier geolocation in situations such as urban warfare where loss of Global Positioning System (GPS) track can impact mission success has become a critical problem. Concepts such as RF 'time difference of arrival' and 'dead reckoning' techniques have not demonstrated their ability to support navigation reliably inside buildings on their own. Inertial navigation is the only technology that operates independence of external assets. The advent of micromechanical inertial sensor technology has resulting low-cost, very small, low-power navigation system capable of fitting in a soldier's boot. A miniature navigator consisting of three micromechanical gyroscope and accelerometer packages, including supporting application- specific integrated circuit chips, and capable of operating in support of such a mission has been developed. However, because of accelerometer and gyroscope drift, navigating inertially over long time periods using even the most precise and most expensive inertial senor available today remains close to impossible. Inertial augmentation techniques are therefore required, and the concept of personal inertial navigation systems aided by zero velocity updating of the accelerometers with each footfall has been examined and shown to be sufficient to determine the location of an individual soldier accurately within a large building complex after hours of operation. In addition to the accelerometer, updates of the gyro via zero attitude rate techniques is an additional means to further enhance the position accuracy, as well as to provide an attitude reference in support of soldier carried targeting sensors.

  11. Space Shuttle Navigation in the GPS Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle navigation architecture was originally designed in the 1970s. A variety of on-board and ground based navigation sensors and computers are used during the ascent, orbit coast, rendezvous, (including proximity operations and docking) and entry flight phases. With the advent of GPS navigation and tightly coupled GPS/INS Units employing strapdown sensors, opportunities to improve and streamline the Shuttle navigation process are being pursued. These improvements can potentially result in increased safety, reliability, and cost savings in maintenance through the replacement of older technologies and elimination of ground support systems (such as Tactical Air Control and Navigation (TACAN), Microwave Landing System (MLS) and ground radar). Selection and missionization of "off the shelf" GPS and GPS/INS units pose a unique challenge since the units in question were not originally designed for the Space Shuttle application. Various options for integrating GPS and GPS/INS units with the existing orbiter avionics system were considered in light of budget constraints, software quality concerns, and schedule limitations. An overview of Shuttle navigation methodology from 1981 to the present is given, along with how GPS and GPS/INS technology will change, or not change, the way Space Shuttle navigation is performed in the 21 5 century.

  12. Celestial Navigation in the USA, Fiji, and Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2015-05-01

    Today there are many coastal communities that are home to navigators who use stars for position finding at night; I was, however, unaware of this fact when I began researching celestial navigation practices in 1997. My project focused on three communities: the Moce Islanders of Fiji, the Kerkennah Islanders in Tunisia, and the U.S. Navy officers and students at the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. My goal was to answer the question of why people continue to navigate by the stars, but also to understand the role of technology in their navigation practices. Using anthropology techniques of ethnography including participant observation, formal and informal interviews, audio and videotaping, I gathered data over five years at the three communities. I began by learning the details of how they use the stars for navigation. Next, I learned about who did the navigation and where they learned to navigate. I gathered opinions on various navigation aids and instruments, and opinions about the future of using the stars for navigation. I listened to the stories that they told about navigating. In the United States I worked in English, in Fiji, in Fijian and English, and in Tunisia, French and English. For the formal interviews I worked with translators. The navigators use stars for navigating today but the future of their techniques is not certain. Though practiced today, these celestial navigation traditions have undergone and continue to undergo changes. New navigational technologies are part of the stimulation for change, thus 'a meeting of different worlds' is symbolized by peoples encounters with these technologies.

  13. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragsdale, A.

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  14. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, A.

    1985-01-01

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  15. 33 CFR 165.906 - Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., navigational equipment, or any other structure. (1) Less than 41 feet. Vessels less than 41 feet in height are... Lakefront Air Traffic Control Tower before navigating through the restricted area(s); (2) Navigate promptly... height; and (3) Promptly inform the Burke Lakefront Air Traffic Control Tower after clearing...

  16. 33 CFR 165.906 - Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., navigational equipment, or any other structure. (1) Less than 41 feet. Vessels less than 41 feet in height are... Lakefront Air Traffic Control Tower before navigating through the restricted area(s); (2) Navigate promptly... height; and (3) Promptly inform the Burke Lakefront Air Traffic Control Tower after clearing...

  17. Improved artificial bee colony algorithm based gravity matching navigation method.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Guang Tao; Wang, Qiu Ying; Yu, Chun Yang

    2014-07-18

    Gravity matching navigation algorithm is one of the key technologies for gravity aided inertial navigation systems. With the development of intelligent algorithms, the powerful search ability of the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm makes it possible to be applied to the gravity matching navigation field. However, existing search mechanisms of basic ABC algorithms cannot meet the need for high accuracy in gravity aided navigation. Firstly, proper modifications are proposed to improve the performance of the basic ABC algorithm. Secondly, a new search mechanism is presented in this paper which is based on an improved ABC algorithm using external speed information. At last, modified Hausdorff distance is introduced to screen the possible matching results. Both simulations and ocean experiments verify the feasibility of the method, and results show that the matching rate of the method is high enough to obtain a precise matching position.

  18. 76 FR 13084 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Western United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Western... action establishes seven High Altitude Area Navigation (RNAV) routes in the Western United States (U.S... procedures and air navigation, it is certified that this rule, when promulgated, will not have a...

  19. National Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    frequency (RF) aids: the Global Positioning System (GPS), TACAN, VOR/DME, etc., which evolved from RF navigation systems, such as Gee and LORAN ...solutions to enhance efficiency and exploit source diversity 3) Promote, where appropriate, fusion of PNT with new and evolving communications... enhancements will result in greater capabilities that will be more commonly available. 2. Monitor PNT signals to verify service levels, observe

  20. Civil Navigation Signal Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    2015 04 29 _GPS Civil Navigation Signal Status UNCLASSIFIED/APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE UNCLASSIFIED/APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE Space and Missile...Systems Center Maj Michael Zollars 29 Apr 15 Civil Navigation Signal Status Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Civil Navigation Signal Status 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  1. ICE navigation support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efron, L.; Muellerschoen, R. J.; Premkumar, R. I.

    1986-08-01

    The International Cometary Explorer (ICE) encounter with Comet Giacobini-Zinner took place 7 years after the spacecraft's original launch on 12 August 1978 as the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3), part of a three-spacecraft project to study the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere. Transfer to an interplanetary trajectory was performed via a 119-km-altitute, gravity-assist, lunar swingby on December 1983. Navigation support during interplanetary cruise and comet encounter was provided by orbit determination utilizing radio metric data from the DSN 64-meter antennas in Goldstone, California and Madrid, Spain. Orbit solutions yielding predictions of 50-km geocentric delivery accuracy in the target aim plane were achieved during interplanetary cruise and at comet encounter using 6-to-12-week data arcs between periodic attitude-change maneuvers. One-sigma two-way range and range rate residuals were consistently 40 meters and 0.2 mm/s or better, respectively. Non-gravitational forces affected the comet's motion during late August and early September 1985 and caused a 2300-km shift in the orbit of the comet relative to the spacecraft. This necessitated a final ICE orbit trim maneuver 3 days prior to encounter. Near-real-time assessment of two-way 2-GHz (S-band) Doppler pseudo-residuals during the June and July 1985 trajectory change maneuvers aided in calibration of the spacecraft's thrusters in preparation for this final critical maneuver. Post-flight analysis indicates tail centerline passage was achieved within 10 seconds of the predicted time and geocentric position uncertainty at encounter was less than 40 km.

  2. Mixing navigation on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tao

    2008-05-01

    In this article, we propose a mixing navigation mechanism, which interpolates between random-walk and shortest-path protocol. The navigation efficiency can be remarkably enhanced via a few routers. Some advanced strategies are also designed: For non-geographical scale-free networks, the targeted strategy with a tiny fraction of routers can guarantee an efficient navigation with low and stable delivery time almost independent of network size. For geographical localized networks, the clustering strategy can simultaneously increase efficiency and reduce the communication cost. The present mixing navigation mechanism is of significance especially for information organization of wireless sensor networks and distributed autonomous robotic systems.

  3. Environmental Assessment: Relocation and Construction of the Panama City-Bay County International Airport (PFN) Doppler Very High Frequency Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigation Aid (VORTAC) to Tyndall Air Force Base (TAFB)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    are considered moderately permeable and capable of transmitting water readily, although clayey sands and hardpan layers (found within the formation...lower portions are highly permeable and of the Miocene age (greater than 10 million years ago). The Intercoastal Formation extends to approximately...330 feet bls and overlays a highly permeable limestone formation of the Miocene age, which extends to 600 feet bls (TAFB 1999). 3.6.2 Topography

  4. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  5. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  6. Autonomous Optical Lunar Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; Crouse, Brian; D'souza, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The performance of optical autonomous navigation is investigated for low lunar orbits and for high elliptical lunar orbits. Various options for employing the camera measurements are presented and compared. Strategies for improving navigation performance are developed and applied to the Orion vehicle lunar mission

  7. Maps and navigation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, A

    1922-01-01

    Different maps and scales are discussed with particular emphasis on their use in aviation. The author makes the observation that current navigation methods are slow and dangerous and should be replaced by scientific methods of navigation based on loxodromy and the use of the compass.

  8. Navigator program risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Padilla, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, program risk management as applied to the Navigator Program: In Search of New Worlds will be discussed. The Navigator Program's goals are to learn how planetary systems form and to search for those worlds that could or do harbor life.

  9. Guidance, Navigation, and Control Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkel, Heather; Tamblyn, Scott; Jackson, William L.; Foster, Chris; Brazzel, Jack; Manning, Thomas R.; Clark, Fred; Spehar, Pete; Barrett, Jim D.; Milenkovic, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    The Rendezvous and Proximity Operations Program (RPOP) is real-time guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) domain piloting-aid software that provides 3D Orbiter graphics and runs on the Space Shuttle's Criticality-3 Payload and General Support Computer (PGSC) in the crew cockpit. This software provides the crew with Situational Awareness during the rendezvous and proximity operations phases of flight. RPOP can be configured from flight to flight, accounting for mission-specific flight scenarios and target vehicles, via initialization load (I-load) data files. The software provides real-time, automated, closed-loop guidance recommendations and the capability to integrate the crew s manual backup techniques. The software can bring all relative navigation sensor data, including the Orbiter's GPC (general purpose computer) data, into one central application to provide comprehensive situational awareness of the rendezvous and proximity operations trajectory. RPOP also can separately maintain trajectory estimates (past, current, and predicted) based on certain data types and co-plot them, in order to show how the various navigation solutions compare. RPOP s best estimate of the relative trajectory is determined by a relative Kalman filter processing data provided by the sensor suite s most accurate sensor, the trajectory control sensor (TCS). Integrated with the Kalman filter is an algorithm that identifies the reflector that the TCS is tracking. Because RPOP runs on PC laptop computers, the development and certification lifecycles are more agile, flexible, and cheaper than those that govern the Orbiter FSW (flight software) that runs in the GPC. New releases of RPOP can be turned around on a 3- to 6-month template, from new Change Request (CR) to certification, depending on the complexity of the changes.

  10. Evaluation of navigation interfaces in virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestre, Daniel R.

    2014-02-01

    When users are immersed in cave-like virtual reality systems, navigational interfaces have to be used when the size of the virtual environment becomes larger than the physical extent of the cave floor. However, using navigation interfaces, physically static users experience self-motion (visually-induced vection). As a consequence, sensorial incoherence between vision (indicating self-motion) and other proprioceptive inputs (indicating immobility) can make them feel dizzy and disoriented. We tested, in two experimental studies, different locomotion interfaces. The objective was twofold: testing spatial learning and cybersickness. In a first experiment, using first-person navigation with a flystick ®, we tested the effect of sensorial aids, a spatialized sound or guiding arrows on the ground, attracting the user toward the goal of the navigation task. Results revealed that sensorial aids tended to impact negatively spatial learning. Moreover, subjects reported significant levels of cybersickness. In a second experiment, we tested whether such negative effects could be due to poorly controlled rotational motion during simulated self-motion. Subjects used a gamepad, in which rotational and translational displacements were independently controlled by two joysticks. Furthermore, we tested first- versus third-person navigation. No significant difference was observed between these two conditions. Overall, cybersickness tended to be lower, as compared to experiment 1, but the difference was not significant. Future research should evaluate further the hypothesis of the role of passively perceived optical flow in cybersickness, but manipulating the virtual environment'sperrot structure. It also seems that video-gaming experience might be involved in the user's sensitivity to cybersickness.

  11. Air Force Human Resources Laboratory Annual Report - Fiscal Year 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    D of the other conditions. resource not only to the Air Force, but also to those segments of DoD where data collected on the ASPT Utilisation: The...requiring low-level navigation for threat avoidance. simulation. A segment including imagery of a bridge 85...8217.% J, i.4 AFHRL GEOGRAPICAL LOCATIONS tmd TRAEININ SOSWM DIV LOWRY All (KMW) CO M O UIGUT-PAIIE SM(DAY1UN)ON WERAIUNS TRAINING DIV ILAS AID (MuiWI) AZ

  12. Airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    1992-01-01

    Proper interpretation of airborne gravimetry and altimetry requires good knowledge of aircraft trajectory. Recent advances in precise navigation with differential GPS have made it possible to measure gravity from the air with accuracies of a few milligals, and to obtain altimeter profiles of terrain or sea surface correct to one decimeter. These developments are opening otherwise inaccessible regions to detailed geophysical mapping. Navigation with GPS presents some problems that grow worse with increasing distance from a fixed receiver: the effect of errors in tropospheric refraction correction, GPS ephemerides, and the coordinates of the fixed receivers. Ionospheric refraction and orbit error complicate ambiguity resolution. Optimal navigation should treat all error sources as unknowns, together with the instantaneous vehicle position. To do so, fast and reliable numerical techniques are needed: efficient and stable Kalman filter-smoother algorithms, together with data compression and, sometimes, the use of simplified dynamics.

  13. Algorithm for navigated ESS.

    PubMed

    Baudoin, T; Grgić, M V; Zadravec, D; Geber, G; Tomljenović, D; Kalogjera, L

    2013-12-01

    ENT navigation has given new opportunities in performing Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (ESS) and improving surgical outcome of the patients` treatment. ESS assisted by a navigation system could be called Navigated Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (NESS). As it is generally accepted that the NESS should be performed only in cases of complex anatomy and pathology, it has not yet been established as a state-of-the-art procedure and thus not used on a daily basis. This paper presents an algorithm for use of a navigation system for basic ESS in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The algorithm includes five units that should be highlighted using a navigation system. They are as follows: 1) nasal vestibule unit, 2) OMC unit, 3) anterior ethmoid unit, 4) posterior ethmoid unit, and 5) sphenoid unit. Each unit has a shape of a triangular pyramid and consists of at least four reference points or landmarks. As many landmarks as possible should be marked when determining one of the five units. Navigated orientation in each unit should always precede any surgical intervention. The algorithm should improve the learning curve of trainees and enable surgeons to use the navigation system routinely and systematically.

  14. Mathematical specifications of the Onboard Navigation Package (ONPAC) simulator (revision 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J. B.; Long, A. C.; Wooden, W.

    1981-01-01

    The mathematical theory of the computational algorithms employed in the onboard navigation package system is described. This system, which simulates an onboard navigation processor, was developed to aid in the design and evaluation of onboard navigation software. The mathematical formulations presented include the factorized UDU(T) form of the extended Kalman filter, the equations of motion of the user satellite, the user clock equations, the observation equations and their partial derivatives, the coodinate transformations, and the matrix decomposition algorithms.

  15. Navigation lights color study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose G.; Alberg, Matthew T.

    2015-05-01

    The chromaticity of navigation lights are defined by areas on the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram. The corner coordinates for these areas are specified in the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS). The navigation light's color of white, red, green, and yellow are bounded by these areas. The chromaticity values specified by the COLREGS for navigation lights were intended for the human visual system (HVS). The HVS can determine the colors of these lights easily under various conditions. For digital color camera imaging systems the colors of these lights are dependent on the camera's color spectral sensitivity, settings, and color correction. At night the color of these lights are used to quickly determine the relative course of vessels. If these lights are incorrectly identified or there is a delay in identifying them this could be a potential safety of ship concern. Vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for sight, at night, need to detect, identify, and discriminate navigation lights for navigation and collision avoidance. The introduction of light emitting diode (LED) lights and lights with different spectral signatures have the potential to be imaged very differently with an RGB color filter array (CFA) color camera than with the human eye. It has been found that some green navigation lights' images appear blue verse green. This has an impact on vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for navigation. This paper will characterize color cameras ability to properly reproducing navigation lights' color and survey a set of navigation light to determine if they conform to the COLREGS.

  16. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  17. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  18. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  19. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  20. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  1. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  2. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1300 Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska;...

  4. Optical flow and inertial navigation system fusion in the UAV navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A.; Miller, A.; Miller, B.; Stepanyan, K.

    2016-10-01

    In recent years navigation on the basis of computation of the camera path and the distance to obstacles with the aid of field of image motion velocities (i.e. optical flow, OF) became highly demanded particularly in the area of relatively small and even micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Video sequences captured by onboard camera gives the possibility of the OF calculation with the aid of relatively simple algorithms like Lucas-Kanade. The complete OF is the linear function of linear and angular velocities of the UAV which provides an additional means for the navigation parameters estimation. Such UAV navigation approach presumes that on-board camera gives the video sequence of the underlying surface images providing the information about the UAV evolutions. Navigation parameters are extracted on the basis of exact OF formulas which gives the observation process description for estimation based on Kalman filtering. One can expect the high accuracy of the estimated parameters (linear and angular velocities) because their number is substantially less than the number of measurements (practically the number of the camera pixels).

  5. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the air-conduction hearing aid and the bone-conduction hearing aid, but... subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to § 874.9. (2) Class II for the bone-conduction hearing aid....

  6. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the air-conduction hearing aid and the bone-conduction hearing aid, but... subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to § 874.9. (2) Class II for the bone-conduction hearing aid....

  7. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the air-conduction hearing aid and the bone-conduction hearing aid, but... subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to § 874.9. (2) Class II for the bone-conduction hearing aid....

  8. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the air-conduction hearing aid and the bone-conduction hearing aid, but... subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to § 874.9. (2) Class II for the bone-conduction hearing aid....

  9. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the air-conduction hearing aid and the bone-conduction hearing aid, but... subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to § 874.9. (2) Class II for the bone-conduction hearing aid....

  10. E-Aid Office 2000: Financial Aid Software Selection, Implementation, and Operation. Monograph. A NASFAA Series, Number 12. Practical Information for Student Aid Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.

    This monograph provides guidance to financial aid administrators in navigating the waters of computer systems selection and implementation. It outlines the various areas where aid officers rely on computer assistance and discusses technology-driven personnel issues, institution-wide system integration, and emerging technologies that will affect…

  11. Application of inertial navigation to wellbore positional surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, A.C.

    1982-06-01

    There is an increasing need for higher accuracy in wellbore directional and positional surveying than is currently available using conventional techniques. Among the factors contributing to this need are closed interspacing of wells particularly from offshore platforms, deeper and more highly deviated wells, smaller target formations and the requirement for rapid drilling of relief wells in the case of blowouts. The application of inertial navigation system (INS) of suitable size and cost for this type of application is not inherently accurate enough to offer significant improvements in well-surveying accuracy. Techniques to improve accuracy are, in general, based on the fact that the dynamics associated with the propagation of the navigator errors are very well known. Inertial systems are routinely aided using external data from a number of sources. Such aiding may take the form of an external position or velocity measurement which is compared to the position or velocity indicated by the navigator. Kalman filter theory provides a convenient formulation for generation of a minimum variance estimate of the state vector of a linear system. The theory may be extended to the nonlinear case through the use of linearization about a state trajectory. This approach is currently seeing wide use in aiding of inertial navigation systems. The approach proposed here would use the Kalman filter formulation for estimation of the INS errors and updating of the navigator. This formulation also provides a structure for estimation of various instrument parameters which should improve system performance.

  12. Navigating Ski Slopes Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162902.html Navigating Ski Slopes Safely National Ski Areas Association offers advice on ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many people head for the slopes at the first sign of snow, but it's ...

  13. Spatial cognition and navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretz, Anthony J.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment that provides data for the development of a cognitive model of pilot flight navigation is described. The experiment characterizes navigational awareness as the mental alignment of two frames of reference: (1) the ego centered reference frame that is established by the forward view out of the cockpit and (2) the world centered reference frame that is established by the aircraft's location on a map. The data support a model involving at least two components: (1) the perceptual encoding of the navigational landmarks and (2) the mental rotation of the map's world reference frame into alignment with the ego centered reference frame. The quantitative relationships of these two factors are provided as possible inputs for a computational model of spatial cognition during flight navigation.

  14. Bibliography of Training Aids. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Inst., Arlington, VA.

    A revision of ED 018 650, this annotated bibliography prepared by the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute lists training materials, films, and ancillary visual aids available from 34 member companies for use in air-conditioning and refrigeration training programs. Over 160 visual training aids are listed, arranged under the following…

  15. Onboard Navigation Systems Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The space shuttle onboard navigation systems characteristics are described. A standard source of equations and numerical data for use in error analyses and mission simulations related to space shuttle development is reported. The sensor characteristics described are used for shuttle onboard navigation performance assessment. The use of complete models in the studies depend on the analyses to be performed, the capabilities of the computer programs, and the availability of computer resources.

  16. Automated Satellite Image Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    3b TIME . Master’s Thesis I . December 1992 16 SUPPIEMENoARY NOATIO; The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect...demand greater navigational accuracy. At the same time there is an increasing operational requirement to attain this greater accuracy via a method that is...resolution of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images (1.1 km) can be achieved. This "optimal" navigation has been achieved by the

  17. Development of simulation techniques suitable for the analysis of air traffic control situations and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A terminal area simulation is described which permits analysis and synthesis of current and advanced air traffic management system configurations including ground and airborne instrumentation and new and modified aircraft characteristics. Ground elements in the simulation include navigation aids, surveillance radars, communication links, air-route structuring, ATC procedures, airport geometries and runway handling constraints. Airborne elements include traffic samples with individual aircraft performance and operating characteristics and aircraft navigation equipment. The simulation also contains algorithms for conflict detection, conflict resolution, sequencing and pilot-controller data links. The simulation model is used to determine the sensitivities of terminal area traffic flow, safety and congestion to aircraft performance characteristics, avionics systems, and other ATC elements.

  18. Odometry and insect navigation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Harald

    2011-05-15

    Animals have needed to find their way about almost since a free-living life style evolved. Particularly, if an animal has a home--shelter or nesting site--true navigation becomes necessary to shuttle between this home and areas of other activities, such as feeding. As old as navigation is in the animal kingdom, as diverse are its mechanisms and implementations, depending on an organism's ecology and its endowment with sensors and actuators. The use of landmarks for piloting or the use of trail pheromones for route following have been examined in great detail and in a variety of animal species. The same is true for senses of direction--the compasses for navigation--and the construction of vectors for navigation from compass and distance cues. The measurement of distance itself--odometry--has received much less attention. The present review addresses some recent progress in the understanding of odometers in invertebrates, after outlining general principles of navigation to put odometry in its proper context. Finally, a number of refinements that increase navigation accuracy and safety are addressed.

  19. Next Generation GPS Ground Control Segment (OCX) Navigation Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, Willy; Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Harvey, Nate; Miller, Kevin; Romans, Larry; Weiss, Jan; Doyle, Larry; Solorzano, Tara; Petzinger, John; Stell, Al

    2010-01-01

    In February 2010, a Raytheon-led team was selected by The Air Force to develop, implement, and operate the next generation GPS ground control segment (OCX). To meet and exceed the demanding OCX navigation performance requirements, the Raytheon team partnered with ITT (Navigation lead) and JPL to adapt major elements of JPL's navigation technology, proven in the operations of the Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) System. Key design goals for the navigation subsystem include accurate ephemeris and clock accuracy (user range error), ease of model upgrades, and a smooth and safe transition from the legacy system to OCX.We will describe key elements of the innovative architecture of the OCX navigation subsystem,and demonstrate the anticipated performance of the system through high fidelity simulations withactual GPS measurements.

  20. Integrated INS/GPS Navigation from a Popular Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omerbashich, Mensur

    2002-01-01

    Inertial navigation, blended with other navigation aids, Global Positioning System (GPS) in particular, has gained significance due to enhanced navigation and inertial reference performance and dissimilarity for fault tolerance and anti-jamming. Relatively new concepts based upon using Differential GPS (DGPS) blended with Inertial (and visual) Navigation Sensors (INS) offer the possibility of low cost, autonomous aircraft landing. The FAA has decided to implement the system in a sophisticated form as a new standard navigation tool during this decade. There have been a number of new inertial sensor concepts in the recent past that emphasize increased accuracy of INS/GPS versus INS and reliability of navigation, as well as lower size and weight, and higher power, fault tolerance, and long life. The principles of GPS are not discussed; rather the attention is directed towards general concepts and comparative advantages. A short introduction to the problems faced in kinematics is presented. The intention is to relate the basic principles of kinematics to probably the most used navigation method in the future-INS/GPS. An example of the airborne INS is presented, with emphasis on how it works. The discussion of the error types and sources in navigation, and of the role of filters in optimal estimation of the errors then follows. The main question this paper is trying to answer is 'What are the benefits of the integration of INS and GPS and how is this, navigation concept of the future achieved in reality?' The main goal is to communicate the idea about what stands behind a modern navigation method.

  1. 4D Dynamic Required Navigation Performance Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkelsztein, Daniel M.; Sturdy, James L.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Hochwarth, Joachim K.

    2011-01-01

    New advanced four dimensional trajectory (4DT) procedures under consideration for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) require an aircraft to precisely navigate relative to a moving reference such as another aircraft. Examples are Self-Separation for enroute operations and Interval Management for in-trail and merging operations. The current construct of Required Navigation Performance (RNP), defined for fixed-reference-frame navigation, is not sufficiently specified to be applicable to defining performance levels of such air-to-air procedures. An extension of RNP to air-to-air navigation would enable these advanced procedures to be implemented with a specified level of performance. The objective of this research effort was to propose new 4D Dynamic RNP constructs that account for the dynamic spatial and temporal nature of Interval Management and Self-Separation, develop mathematical models of the Dynamic RNP constructs, "Required Self-Separation Performance" and "Required Interval Management Performance," and to analyze the performance characteristics of these air-to-air procedures using the newly developed models. This final report summarizes the activities led by Raytheon, in collaboration with GE Aviation and SAIC, and presents the results from this research effort to expand the RNP concept to a dynamic 4D frame of reference.

  2. Development of standards for aeronautical satellite navigation system [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iatsouk, Victor

    2004-06-01

    One of the work objectives of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) is the development of the standards and procedures necessary to support transition to the CNS/ATM systems, which include Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). The Global Navigation Satellite System Panel (GNSSP) was established by the ICAO Air Navigation Commission in 1993 with the basic objective to develop ICAO standards and recommended practices (SARPs) and guidance material as required to support aeronautical GNSS applications world-wide. The first package of GNSS SARPs was adopted and published by ICAO in 2001, and further work is under way to introduce new satellite constellations and system elements in an evolutionary fashion.

  3. Pathlength scaling in graphs with incomplete navigational information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Holme, Petter

    2011-10-01

    The graph-navigability problem concerns how one can find as short paths as possible between a pair of vertices, given an incomplete picture of a graph. We study the navigability of graphs where the vertices are tagged by a number (between 1 and the total number of vertices) in a way to aid navigation. This information is too little to ensure errorfree navigation but enough, as we will show, for the agents to do significantly better than a random walk. In our setup, given a graph, we first assign information to the vertices that agents can utilize for their navigation. To evaluate the navigation, we calculate the average distance traveled over random pairs of source and target and different graph realizations. We show that this type of embedding can be made quite efficiently; the more information is embedded, the more efficient it gets. We also investigate the embedded navigational information in a standard graph layout algorithm and find that although this information does not make algorithms as efficient as the above-mentioned schemes, it is significantly helpful.

  4. Goal Setting: The Roles Institutional Researchers Play, and Their Use of Data Bases and Technological Aids. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorana, S. V.; Kuhns, Eileen

    The roles of institutional researchers in the overall goal setting and monitoring process were studied in 1982. In addition, the use of databases and new technology (e.g., computer models and planning aids, information retrieval systems, and national databases) as support mechanisms for assessment of institutional performance, and the methods used…

  5. Orbit Determination Using GPS Navigation Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, V. M.; Kuga, H. K.; Chiaradia, A. P.; Prado, A. F.

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite navigation system that allows the users to determine position, velocity and the time with high precision. Its main purposes are aid to radionavigation in three dimensions with high precision positioning, navigation in real time, global coverage and quick acquisition of data sent by the GPS satellites. The purpose of this work is to compute in real time a state vector composed of position, velocity, GPS receiver clock bias and drift of the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite by filtering the raw navigation solutions obtained by the on-board receiver. In this work the Kalman filter is used to estimate the state vector based on the incoming observations from the receiver. Such a computational algorithm processes measurements to produce minimum variance estimates of the system using knowledge of the dynamics and of the measurements, statistics of the measurement errors, and information about initial conditions. The Kalman filter is used due to its robustness in real time applications, without unnecessary storage of observations, as they can be processed while being collected. The filter dynamic model includes perturbation due to geopotential and the bias and drift are modeled as random walk processes. The observations include the raw navigation solution composed of position and bias. The velocity components of the navigation solution are not used due to its low accuracy. Several simulations are done comprising three days of observations of TOPEX/POSEINDON receiver, which are processed by the proposed algorithm. A comparison is done between the estimated state vector and the precise orbit ephemeris (POE) produced by JPL/NASA. Other characteristics are also analyzed, including effects of truncated dynamic model, step-size of integration, SA effect, to show the impact on the procedure in terms of accuracy and computational burden.

  6. Land navigation Demonstration Vehicle with a color map display for tactical use

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, E.J.; Creel, E.E.; Fellerhoff, J.R.; Martinez, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    A Land navigation Demonstration Vehicle (LDV) has been assembled which fully automates the navigation task and provides the operator with a color map display derived from Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED). The system relieves the operator of the burdens associated with the tactical use of paper maps by providing accurate 3-dimensional position information using a strapdown inertial navigation platform aided by the Sandia Inertial Terrain Aided Navigation algorithm (SITAN). The map display and navigation instruments consist of a multi-processor SANDia Aerospace Computer (SANDAC) and a commercial Image Processing System (IPS). These interactive devices allow real-time map annotation and corrections of vehicle position errors. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. 33 CFR 334.746 - U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.746 Section 334.746 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.746 U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. (a)...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. (a)...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. (a)...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. (a)...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. (a)...

  13. Aerocapture navigation at Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haw, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed Neptune orbiter Aerocapture mission will use solar electric propulsion to send an orbiter to Neptune. Navigation feasibility of direct-entry aerocapture for orbit insertion at Neptune is shown. The navigation strategy baselines optical imaging and (delta)VLBI measurement in order to satisfy the flight system's atmosphere entry flight path angle, which is targeted to enter Neptune with an entry flight path angle of -11.6 . Error bars on the entry flight path angle of plus/minus0.55 (3(sigma)) are proposed. This requirement can be satisfied with a data cutoff 3.2 days prior to arrival. There is some margin in the arrival template to tighten (i.e. reduce) the entry corridor either by scheduling a data cutoff closer to Neptune or alternatively, reducing uncertainties by increasing the fidelity of the optical navigation camera.

  14. Recent Events in Guidance, Navigation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.; Bullman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes recent events in Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) in space, weapons and missiles, and aircraft. The section on space includes recent developments with the following NASA spacecraft and space vehicles: Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, Deep Space 1, Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Earth Observer-1, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the International Space Station, X-38, and X-40A. The section on weapons and missiles includes recent developments with the following missiles: Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile, Storm Shadow/Scalp EG precision standoff missile, Hellfire missile, AIM-120C Advanced medium-range air-to-air missile, Derby missile, Arrow 2, and the Standard Missile SM-3. The section on aircraft includes recent developments with the following aircraft: Joint Strike Fighter, X-31, V-22, Couger/SUDer Puma Mk. 2, Predator B 001, and the Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle.

  15. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... hair cells (outer and inner rows). When the vibrations move through this fluid, the tiny outer hair ... ear to the brain. Hearing aids intensify sound vibrations that the damaged outer hair cells have trouble ...

  16. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  17. Mariner 9 navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

  18. Cassini tour navigation strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Duane; Alwar, Vijay; Bordi, John; Goodson, Troy; Hahn, Yungsun; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jones, Jeremy; Owen, William; Pojman, Joan; Roundhill, Ian; Santos, Shawna; Strange, Nathan; Wagner, Sean; Wong, Mau

    2003-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 as a joint NASA/ESA mission to explore Saturn. After a 7 year cruise the spacecraft will enter orbit around Saturn on 1 July 2004 for a 4 year investigation of the Saturnian system. The Cassini Navigation Team is responsible for designing the reference trajectory and conducting operations to realize this design. This paper describes the strategy for achieving project requirements, the characteristics of the Cassini navigation challenge, and the underlying assumptions.

  19. Navigational Planning in Orienteering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakoshi, Shin

    Navigation is a human activity with the aim being to arrive at a predetermined destination. In order to find the way to the destination, the use of current input from the actual environment while travelling is needed as well as stored and organized knowledge of the local geography. Although the knowledge requirement has been studied extensively in the form of cognitive maps or other spatial representation, few studies deal with how the knowledge is used together with the input from the actual environment while navigating.

  20. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 2: Baseline system navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Rains, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    Studies related to the baseline navigation system for the orbiter are presented. The baseline navigation system studies include a covariance analysis of the Inertial Measurement Unit calibration and alignment procedures, postflight IMU error recovery for the approach and landing phases, on-orbit calibration of IMU instrument biases, and a covariance analysis of entry and prelaunch navigation system performance.