Science.gov

Sample records for air noise pesticides

  1. Noise Emission from Laboratory Air Blowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Windham, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Product noise ratings for a number of laboratory air blowers are reported and several recommendations for reducing laboratory noise from air blowers are given. Relevant noise ratings and methods for measuring noise emission of appliances are discussed. (BB)

  2. Emission of pesticides into the air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den, Berg; Kubiak, R.; Benjey, W.G.; Majewski, M.S.; Yates, S.R.; Reeves, G.L.; Smelt, J.H.; Van Der Linden, A. M. A.

    1999-01-01

    During and after the application of a pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application, predominantly as spray particle drift, depends primarily on the application method (equipment and technique), the formulation and environmental conditions, whereas the emission after application depends primarily on the properties of the pesticide, soils, crops and environmental conditions. The fraction of the dosage that misses the target area may be high in some cases and more experimental data on this loss term are needed for various application types and weather conditions. Such data are necessary to test spray drift models, and for further model development and verification as well. Following application, the emission of soil fumigants and soil incorporated pesticides into the air can be measured and computed with reasonable accuracy, but further model development is needed to improve the reliability of the model predictions. For soil surface applied pesticides reliable measurement methods are available, but there is not yet a reliable model. Further model development is required which must be verified by field experiments. Few data are available on pesticide volatilization from plants and more field experiments are also needed to study the fate processes on the plants. Once this information is available, a model needs to be developed to predict the volatilization of pesticides from plants, which, again, should be verified with field measurements. For regional emission estimates, a link between data on the temporal and spatial pesticide use and a geographical information system for crops and soils with their characteristics is needed.

  3. PASSIVE/DIFFUSIVE SAMPLERS FOR PESTICIDES IN RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides applied indoors vaporize from treated surfaces (e.g., carpets and baseboards) resulting in elevated air concentrations that may persist for long periods after applications. Estimating long-term respiratory exposures to pesticide vapors in residential indoor environme...

  4. On noise indices for domestic air conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, S. K.; Wong, M. Y.

    2004-07-01

    A survey was carried out in the present study to determine the noise indices which are capable of describing the nuisance caused by exposure to air-conditioner noise inside residential apartments. This survey consisted of a questionnaire, which asked the respondents to rate their feelings of annoyance and loudness on the air-conditioner noise and to give their preference of a change in the noise levels. Physical noise measurements were also carried out. A total of 57 noise spectra and 399 respondents were involved in the survey. Results show that the Zwicker's loudness level and the percentile level of 90% exceedence are the two major indices for air-conditioner noise assessment. Tonality appears not to be a good indicator for such a purpose.

  5. Simultaneous determination of trace pesticides in urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, Kimiko; Kitamura, Eri; Yamashita, Toshiro; Kido, Azuma

    Thirty-nine kinds of pesticides in the air were monitored in Kitakyushu City. Air samples were collected by a high-volume air sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter and XAD-2 resin trap. After sampling about 700 m' of air, pesticides were extracted with dichloromethane from the quartz fiber filter and XAD-2 resin separately by ultrasonic method. The extracts were concentrated and fractionated by silica gel column chromatography. After adding internal standards, the sample solutions were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with a selected ion monitor (GC/MS-SIM) using a fused silica capillary column for the quantification of 39 kinds of pesticides. In order to evaluate the accuracy of this method, a recovery test was performed. Standard compounds were spiked into the XAD-2 resin trap at a concentration level of l μg by sucking 700 m 3 of sample air. The recovery efficiencies of almost all tested pesticides yielded more than 70% and their relative standard deviations were less than 20%. This method was applied to monitor pesticides in air collected in summer and spring seasons in Kitakyushu City. Of the 39 pesticides examined, 23 were detected in summer and 21 detected in spring. The concentration of Isofenphos, 10 ng m ·, was the highest in the summer sample and the concentration of propoxur, 11 ng m -3, in the spring sample.

  6. Indoor air: Spatial variations of chlorinated pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David J.; Hites, Ronald A.

    The concentrations of two classes of chlorinated pesticides were measured in various locations within four homes. The prevalent compounds were chlorinated derivatives of cyclopentadiene which had been used as termiticides. These compounds were found in basement areas at higher concentrations than in upstairs areas of the homes. Another class of chlorinated pesticide was represented by chlorpyrifos; its spatial profile was consistent with its application in upstairs areas.

  7. AIR DISTRIBUTION NOISE CONTROL IN CRITICAL AUDITORIUMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOOVER, R.M.

    THE ACHIEVEMENT OF EXTREMELY LOW AIR-CONDITIONING NOISE LEVELS REQUIRED FOR MODERN AUDITORIUMS ARE THE RESULT OF CAREFUL PLANNING AND THOROUGH DETAILING. PROBLEMS FACED AND TECHNIQUES USED IN ARRIVING AT LEVELS AS LOW AS NC-15 FOR A SINGLE SYSTEM SERVING A HALL ARE DESCRIBED. SIX CASE HISTORIES ARE EXAMINED AND THE FOLLOWING OBSERVATIONS ARE…

  8. Inventory of pesticide emissions into the air in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigiannis, D. A.; Kontoroupis, P.; Solomou, E. S.; Nikolaki, S.; Karabelas, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Creation of a reliable and comprehensive emission inventory of the pesticides used in Europe is a key step towards quantitatively assessing the link between actual pesticide exposure and adverse health effects. An inventory of pesticide emissions was generated at a 1 × 1 km grid, for the year 2000. The emission model comprises three components: estimates of active substance (AS) wind drift taking into account crop type, volatilization during pesticide application and volatilization from the crop canopy. Results show that atmospheric emission of pesticides varies significantly across Europe. Different pesticide families are emitted from different parts of Europe as a function of the main crop(s) cultivated, agro-climatic conditions and production intensity. The pesticide emission inventory methodology developed herein is a valuable tool for assessing air quality in rural and peri-urban Europe, furnishing the necessary input for atmospheric modelling at different scales. Its estimates have been tested using global sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis for uncertainty assessment and they have been validated against national and local surveys in four European countries; the results demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the inventory. The latter may therefore be readily used for exposure and health risk assessment studies targeting farmers, applicators, but also bystanders and the general population in Europe.

  9. EMISSION OF PESTICIDES INTO THE AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    During and after the application of pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application depends primarily on the applicat...

  10. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

  11. Presence of organophosphorus pesticide oxygen analogs in air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Fenske, Richard A.; Yost, Michael G.; Galvin, Kit; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

    2013-02-01

    A number of recent toxicity studies have highlighted the increased potency of oxygen analogs (oxons) of several organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. These findings were a major concern after environmental oxons were identified in environmental samples from air and surfaces following agricultural spray applications in California and Washington State. This paper reports on the validity of oxygen analog measurements in air samples for the OP pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Controlled environmental and laboratory experiments were used to examine artificial formation of chlorpyrifos-oxon using OSHA Versatile Sampling (OVS) tubes as recommended by NIOSH method 5600. Additionally, we compared expected chlorpyrifos-oxon attributable to artificial transformation to observed chlorpyrifos-oxon in field samples from a 2008 Washington State Department of Health air monitoring study using non-parametric statistical methods. The amount of artificially transformed oxon was then modeled to determine the amount of oxon present in the environment. Toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for chlorpyrifos-oxon were used to calculate chlorpyrifos-equivalent air concentrations. The results demonstrate that the NIOSH-recommended sampling matrix (OVS tubes with XAD-2 resin) was found to artificially transform up to 30% of chlorpyrifos to chlorpyrifos-oxon, with higher percentages at lower concentrations (<30 ng m-3) typical of ambient or residential levels. Overall, the 2008 study data had significantly greater oxon than expected by artificial transformation, but the exact amount of environmental oxon in air remains difficult to quantify with the current sampling method. Failure to conduct laboratory analysis for chlorpyrifos-oxon may result in underestimation of total pesticide concentration when using XAD-2 resin matrices for occupational or residential sampling. Alternative methods that can accurately measure both OP pesticides and their oxygen analogs should be used for air sampling, and a toxicity

  12. Pesticides in western Canadian mountain air and soil.

    PubMed

    Daly, Gillian L; Lei, Ying D; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G; Wania, Frank

    2007-09-01

    The distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCP; in past and current use) in the mountains of western Canada was determined by sampling air, soil, and lichen along three elevational transects in 2003-2004. Two transects west of the Continental Divide were located in Mount Revelstoke and Yoho National Park, while the Observation Peak transect in Banff National Park is east of the divide. XAD-based passive air samplers, yielding annually averaged air concentrations, were deployed, and soils were collected at all 22 sampling sites, whereas lichen were only sampled in Revelstoke. Back trajectory analysis showed limited air mass transport from the Prairies to the east, but a high frequency of air arriving from the southwest, which includes agricultural regions in British Columbia and Washington State. Endosulfan, dieldrin, and a-hexachlorocyclohexane were the most prevalent OCPs in air and soil; hexachlorobenzene was only abundant in air; chlorothalonil, dacthal, and pentachloronitrobenzene were also consistently present. OCP air concentrations were similar across the three transects, suggesting efficient atmospheric mixing on a local and regional scale. Soil concentrations and soil/air concentration ratios of many OCPs were significantly higher west of the Continental Divide. The soil and lichen concentrations of most OCPs increased with altitude in Revelstoke, and displayed maxima at intermediate elevations at Yoho and Observation Peak. These distribution patterns can be understood as being determined by the balance between atmospheric deposition to, and retention within, the soils. Higher deposition, due to more precipitation falling at lower temperatures, likely occurs west of the divide and at higher elevations. Higher retention, due to higher soil organic matter content, is believed to occur in soils below the tree line. Highest pesticide concentrations are thus found intemperate mountain soils that are rich in organic matter and receive large amounts of cold

  13. Modelling pesticide volatilization after soil application using the mechanistic model Volt'Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedos, Carole; Génermont, Sophie; Le Cadre, Edith; Garcia, Lucas; Barriuso, Enrique; Cellier, Pierre

    Volatilization of pesticides participates in atmospheric contamination and affects environmental ecosystems including human welfare. Modelling at relevant time and spatial scales is needed to better understand the complex processes involved in pesticide volatilization. Volt'Air-Pesticides has been developed following a two-step procedure to study pesticide volatilization at the field scale and at a quarter time step. Firstly, Volt'Air-NH 3 was adapted by extending the initial transfer of solutes to pesticides and by adding specific calculations for physico-chemical equilibriums as well as for the degradation of pesticides in soil. Secondly, the model was evaluated in terms of 3 pesticides applied on bare soil (atrazine, alachlor, and trifluralin) which display a wide range of volatilization rates. A sensitivity analysis confirmed the relevance of tuning to K h. Then, using Volt'Air-Pesticides, environmental conditions and emission fluxes of the pesticides were compared to fluxes measured under 2 environmental conditions. The model fairly well described water temporal dynamics, soil surface temperature, and energy budget. Overall, Volt'Air-Pesticides estimates of the order of magnitude of the volatilization flux of all three compounds were in good agreement with the field measurements. The model also satisfactorily simulated the decrease in the volatilization rate of the three pesticides during night-time as well as the decrease in the soil surface residue of trifluralin before and after incorporation. However, the timing of the maximum flux rate during the day was not correctly described, thought to be linked to an increased adsorption under dry soil conditions. Thanks to Volt'Air's capacity to deal with pedo-climatic conditions, several existing parameterizations describing adsorption as a function of soil water content could be tested. However, this point requires further investigation. Practically speaking, Volt'Air-Pesticides can be a useful tool to make

  14. Impact of Air Injection on Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Norum, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to review the program to determine impact of core fluidic chevrons on noise produced by dual stream jets (i.e., broadband shock noise - supersonic, and mixing noise - subsonic and supersonic). The presentation reviews the sources of jet noise. It shows designs of Generation II Fluidic Chevrons. The injection impacts shock structure and stream disturbances through enhanced mixing. This may impact constructive interference between acoustic sources. The high fan pressures may inhibit mixing produced by core injectors. A fan stream injection may be required for better noise reduction. In future the modification of Gen II nozzles to allow for some azimuthal control: will allow for higher mass flow rates and will allow for shallower injection angles A Flow field study is scheduled for spring, 2008 The conclusions are that injection can reduce well-defined shock noise and injection reduces mixing noise near peak jet noise angle

  15. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... and pets. Proper disposal of pesticides is also important - it can help protect the environment. Biologically-based pesticides are becoming more popular. They often are safer than traditional pesticides. Environmental Protection Agency

  16. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  17. Airport-related air pollution and noise.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Beverly S; Bronzaft, Arline L; Heikkinen, Maire; Goodman, Jerome; Nádas, Arthur

    2008-02-01

    To provide quantitative evidence of the impact on people of a neighboring metropolitan airport, La Guardia Airport (LGA) in New York City, (1) airborne particulate matter (PM) was measured to determine whether concentration differences could be detected between homes that are upwind and downwind of the airport; (2) 24-hr noise measurements were made in 12 homes near the airport; and (3) the impact of noise was assessed by a Community Wellness and Health Promotion Survey. Particulate matter concentrations were higher during active airport operating hours than during nonoperating hours, and the percent increase varied inversely with distance from the airport. Hourly differences between paired upwind and downwind sites were not remarkable. Residents living near the airport were exposed to noise levels as much as four times greater than those experienced by residents in a quiet, comparison home. Impulse noise events were detected from both aircraft and vehicular traffic. More than 55% of the people living within the flight path were bothered by aircraft noise, and 63% by highway noise; these were significantly higher percentages than for residents in the nonflight area. The change in PM concentrations with distance during operating compared with nonoperating hours; traffic-related impulse noise events; and the elevated annoyance with highway noise, as well as aircraft noise among residents in the flight path area, show airport-related motor vehicle traffic to be a major contributor to the negative impact of airports on people in the surrounding communities.

  18. New screening approach for risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara; Millet, Maurice

    2014-10-01

    We present a novel screening approach for inhalation risk assessment of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in ambient air, based on the measurements of pesticide levels in the inhalable fraction of the particulate matter (PM10). Total concentrations in ambient air (gas + particle phases) were estimated using a theoretical model of distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds between the gas and the particulate phase based on the octanol-air partition (Koa) of each pesticide. The proposed approach was used in a pilot study conducted in a rural station in Valencia (Spain) from April through to October 2010. Twenty out of 82 analysed pesticides were detected in average concentrations ranging from 1.63 to 117.01 pg m-3. For adults, children and infants the estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ) was <1 for all pesticides. Likewise, the cumulative exposure for detected organophosphorus, pyrethroids and carbamates pesticides, was estimated using as metrics the Hazard Index (HI), which was less than 1 for the three families of pesticides assessed. The cancer risk estimated for the detected pesticides classified as Likely or Possible carcinogens was less than 1.15E-7 for infants. In our opinion, the screening approach proposed could be used in the monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air.

  19. Organochlorine pesticides in air and soil and estimated air-soil exchange in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Liu, Di; Xu, Yue; Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2013-02-01

    This study provides the first systematic data on the distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soils and atmosphere of the Punjab province, Pakistan. Atmospheric concentrations of OCPs were estimated by using the polyurethane foam passive air sampling (PUF-PAS) technique. DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane) and chlordane were the dominant OCPs found in both soil and air samples. The average concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and chlordane were 350, 55 and 99 pg m(-3) in air and 40, 7.8 and 3.8 ng g(-1) in soils, respectively. Air-soil exchange of OCPs was estimated by calculating the fugacities in soil and air. Fugacity fraction (ff) values indicate that soils are acting as a secondary source to contaminate the atmosphere at certain sampling stations.

  20. AN INDOOR PESTICIDE AIR AND SURFACE CONCENTRATION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A thorough assessment of human exposure to environmental chemicals requires consideration of all processes in the sequence from source to dose. For assessment of exposure to pesticides following their use indoors, data and models are needed to estimate pesticide concentrations...

  1. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... herbicides for destroying weeds and other unwanted vegetation, insecticides for controlling a wide variety of insects, fungicides ... Is It Safe? Movie (English & Spanish Versions) Some Natural Pesticide Alternatives (English) (114KB) Some Natural Pesticide Alternatives ( ...

  2. Emission of pesticides to the air during sprayer application: A bibliographic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.; Sinfort, C.

    Air pollution due to pesticides is a persistent problem in modern agriculture, and little is known on the reversibility of its effects on the environment and health. Pesticides contaminate the atmosphere through various pathways. This paper discusses techniques for measuring and modelling pesticide emission, and the factors that affect drift processes during spray application. Chemical analyses allow the concentration of polluting agents in the air to be measured, and different methods have been developed for measuring diverse pesticide groups. Several air-sampling methods, which give different results depending on the amount of air collected, are reported. The use of various tracers, such as fluorescent dyes, is widely reported. Brilliant sulphoflavine is the best fluorescent dye due to its low degradation in sunlight. Various collector devices are used, the most common being 2 mm diameter polymer lines. Although the report indicates a good level of collection efficiency, a complete understanding of the adhesion phenomenon is necessary. The use of mathematical and computational models to determine pesticide transport simplifies test and field evaluation. However, a detailed characterization of the agricultural environment, with temporal and spatial variations, is still necessary. The most common models are limited to transport and deposition of pesticides in the liquid phase to areas adjacent to treated fields. Drifting spray is a complex problem in which equipment design and application parameters, spray physical properties and formulation, and meteorological conditions interact and influence pesticide loss.

  3. Impacts of noise barriers on near-road air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, R.; Thoma, E.; Khlystov, A.; Isakov, V.; Bowker, G.; Long, T.; Snow, R.

    Numerous health studies conducted worldwide suggest an increase in the occurrence of adverse health effects for populations living, working, or going to school near large roadways. A study was designed to assess traffic emission impacts on air quality near a heavily traveled highway. The portion of highway studied included a section of open field and a section with a noise barrier adjacent to the road. In addition, the section containing the noise barrier included a portion with vegetation in the vicinity of the barrier. Thus, this field study provided an opportunity to evaluate near-road air quality with no barriers, with a noise barrier only, and with a noise barrier and vegetation adjacent to the road. Pollutants measured under these scenarios included carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). Measurements showed the effects of a noise barrier on near-road air quality. The presence of this structure often led to pollutant concentration reductions behind the barrier during meteorological conditions with winds directionally from the road. CO and PM number concentrations generally decreased between 15 and 50% behind the barrier. However, conditions occurred when pollutant concentrations were greater behind the barrier than when no barrier was present. These results imply that the presence of a noise barrier can lead to higher pollutant concentrations on the road during certain wind conditions. In addition, the study results suggested that the presence of mature trees in addition to the barrier further lowered PM number concentrations.

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of pesticide air concentrations in Canadian agricultural regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan; Tuduri, Ludovic; Harner, Tom; Blanchard, Pierrette; Waite, Don; Poissant, Laurier; Murphy, Clair; Belzer, Wayne; Aulagnier, Fabien; Li, Yi-Fan; Sverko, Ed

    The Canadian Pesticide Air Sampling Campaign was initiated in 2003 to assess atmospheric levels of pesticides, especially currently used pesticides (CUPs) in agricultural regions across Canada. In the first campaign during the spring to summer of 2003, over 40 pesticides were detected. The spatial and temporal distribution of pesticides in the Canadian atmosphere was shown to reflect the pesticide usage in each region. Several herbicides including triallate, bromoxynil, MCPA, 2,4-D, dicamba, trifluralin and ethalfluralin were detected at highest levels at Bratt's Lake, SK in the prairie region. Strong relationships between air concentrations and dry depositions were observed at this site. Although no application occurred in the Canadian Prairies in 2003, high air concentrations of lindane ( γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) were still observed at Bratt's Lake and Hafford, SK. Two fungicides (chlorothalonil and metalaxyl) and two insecticides (endosulfan and carbofuran) were measured at highest levels at Kensington, PEI. Maximum concentrations of chlorpyrifos and metolachlor were found at St. Anicet, QC. The southern Ontario site, Egbert showed highest concentration of alachlor. Malathion was detected at the highest level at the west coast site, Abbotsford, BC. In case of legacy chlorinated insecticides, high concentrations of DDT, DDE and dieldrin were detected in British Columbia while α-HCH and HCB were found to be fairly uniform across the country. Chlordane was detected in Ontario, Québec and Prince Edward Island. This study demonstrates that the sources for the observed atmospheric occurrence of pesticides include local current pesticide application, volatilization of pesticide residues from soil and atmospheric transport. In many instances, these data represent the first measurements for certain pesticides in a given part of Canada.

  5. Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools for Noise Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard

    2001-01-01

    NASA has initiated a new five year program this year, the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program, a program which will investigate airframe and engine system noise reduction. QAT will also address community noise impact. As part of this community noise impact component, NASA will investigate air traffic management (ATM) challenges in reducing noise. In particular, controller advisory automation aids will be developed to aid the air traffic controller in addressing noise concerns as he/she manages traffic in busy terminal areas. NASA has developed controller automation tools to address capacity concerns and the QAT strategy for ATM Low Noise Operations is to build upon this tool set to create added advisories for noise mitigation. The tools developed for capacity will be briefly reviewed, followed by the QAT plans to address ATM noise concerns. A major NASA goal in global civil aviation is to triple the aviation system throughput in all-weather conditions while maintaining safety. A centerpiece of this activity is the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), an evolving suite of air traffic controller decision support tools (DSTs) to enhance capacity of arrivals and departures in both the enroute center and the TRACON. Two of these DSTs, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) and the passive Final approach Spacing Tool (pFAST), are in daily use at the Fort Worth Center and the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) TRACON, respectively, where capacity gains of 5-13% have been reported in recent NASA evaluations. Under the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Free Flight Phase One Program, TMA and pFAST are each being implemented at six to eight additional sites. In addition, other DSTs are being developed by NASA under the umbrella of CTAS. This means that new software will be built upon CTAS, and the paradigm of real-time simulation evaluation followed by field site development and evaluation will be the pathway for the new tools. Additional information is included in the

  6. Study of noise transmission from an air compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathak, Subhro; Puranik, Anand; Schut, Jeffrey; Wells, Lee; Rao, M. D.

    2005-09-01

    The paper discusses the reduction of noise from a Porter Cable 4-gal, 135-psi air compressor. The objectives were to identify the major sources of noise, implement possible noise control measures, and evaluate their effectiveness. Sound measurements were taken according to a procedure that was developed and based on the standards for power tools. Broadband analysis (1/12 octave band) was done to determine the main sources of noise. Ranking of noise sources was done accordingly. The major source of noise was determined to be the piston cylinder assembly and efforts were taken to reduce this main source of noise. The noise control treatments included manufacturing of new parts, use of gasket made of cork between the housing and the cylinder sleeve to isolate the vibrations, implementing a silencer at the exhaust side of the piston and finally, an enclosure encircling the piston/cylinder assembly. The sound-pressure level measurements of the prototype were compared to the baseline measurements to test the effectiveness of the treatments. The overall sound pressure level was reduced from 101.5 to 94.3 dB with the implementation of enclosure around the piston/cylinder assembly and the silencer at the exhaust side of the piston.

  7. Some considerations on noise monitoring for air handling equipments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujoreanu, C.; Benchea, M.

    2017-02-01

    The HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) beneficiaries are in particular annoyed by the noise generated from the radiant unit and the air circulating ducts, since they are located inside the rooms and buildings. The comparatively experimental results highlight the relations between the air flow, pressure, power-charging and the sound level. The measurements are carried out at different fan’s speeds, ranging the power-charge from 30-100% while the duct air flow is slowly adjusted from full open to full closed, between 0-500 Pa. Third-octave band analysis of random noise of the handling units is realized in an anechoic room, using the measurement procedures that agrees the requirements of the ISO 3744:2011 and ISO 5136:2010 standards. For an accurate design of the HVAC system, the designer needs to know not only the sound power of the radiant unit, but also from all of the air paths, since the sound travels along with the conditioned air. The experimental methodology used in the paper is of real interest for the HVAC manufacturers, in order to rate the sound level of their products and to improve the noise attenuation.

  8. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in air of southern Mexico (2002-2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alegria, Henry A.; Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Moreno, Victor Ceja; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002-2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ΣDDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m -3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/ cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ΣPCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.

  9. Pesticide detection in air samples from contrasted houses and in their inhabitants' hair.

    PubMed

    Raeppel, Caroline; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Millet, Maurice; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2016-02-15

    In order to identify associations between indoor air contamination and human exposure to pesticides, hair samples from 14 persons (9 adults and 5 children below 12 years) were collected simultaneously with the air of their 5 contrasted houses. Three houses were situated in Alsace (France), one in Lorraine (France) and one in Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Houses were located in urban (n=3), semi-urban (n=1) and rural areas (n=1). Twenty five (25) pesticides were detected at least once in indoor air samples and 20 pesticides were detected at least once in hair samples. The comparison between hair and air samples for the same sampling periods shows that pesticides detected in the two matrices were not necessarily associated. Exposure profiles varied from one home to another but also between inhabitants of the same home, suggesting that exposure can be different between inhabitants of the same home. This study demonstrated the usefulness and the complementarity of hair analysis, for the personalized biomonitoring of people exposure to pesticides, and air analysis, for the identification of airborne exposure and house contamination.

  10. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... control. Examples of different kinds of pesticides include insecticides, rodenticides, and herbicides, to name a few. Top ... can lead to severe toxicity requiring hospitalization. Organophosphate insecticides also work by increasing the amount of acetylcholine ...

  11. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; van Lenthe, Frank J; Visschedijk, Antoon J H; Zandveld, Peter Y J; Miedema, Henk M E; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-01-01

    Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between road traffic noise and air pollution and hospital admissions for ischemic heart disease (IHD: International Classification of Diseases (ICD9) 410-414) or cerebrovascular disease (cerebrovascular event [CVE]: ICD9 430-438). We linked baseline questionnaire data to 13 years of follow-up on hospital admissions and road traffic noise and air pollution exposure, for a large random sample (N = 18,213) of inhabitants of the Eindhoven region, Netherlands. Subjects with cardiovascular event during follow-up on average had higher road traffic noise day, evening, night level (L den) and air pollution exposure at the home. After adjustment for confounders (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, exercise, marital status, alcohol use, work situation, financial difficulties), increased exposure did not exert a significant increased risk of hospital admission for IHD or cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RRs) for a 5 (th) to 95 (th) percentile interval increase were 1.03 (0.88-1.20) for L den; 1.04 (0.90-1.21) for particulate matter (PM 10 ); 1.05 (0.91-1.20) for elemental carbon (EC); and 1.12 (096-1.32) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in the full model. While the risk estimate seemed highest for NO 2 , for a 5 (th) to 95 (th) percentile interval increase, expressed as RRs per 1 μg/m 3 increases, hazard ratios seemed highest for EC (RR 1.04 [0.92-1.18]). In the subgroup of study participants with a history of cardiovascular disease, RR estimates seemed highest for noise exposure (1.19 [0.87-1.64] for L den); in the subgroup of elderly RR seemed highest for air pollution exposure (RR 1.24 [0.93-1.66] for NO 2 ).

  12. The persistence of pesticides in atmospheric particulate phase: An emerging air quality issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, Joanna; Durand, Amandine; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Gligorovski, Sasho; Wortham, Henri; Quivet, Etienne

    2016-09-01

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to their physicochemical properties can be widely spread all over the globe; as such they represent a serious threat to both humans and wildlife. According to Stockholm convention out of 24 officially recognized POPs, 16 are pesticides. The atmospheric life times of pesticides, up to now were estimated based on their gas-phase reactivity. It has been only speculated that sorption to aerosol particles may increase significantly the half-lives of pesticides in the atmosphere. The results presented here challenge the current view of the half-lives of pesticides in the lower boundary layer of the atmosphere and their impact on air quality and human health. We demonstrate that semivolatile pesticides which are mostly adsorbed on atmospheric aerosol particles are very persistent with respect to the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) that is the self-cleaning agent of the atmosphere. The half-lives in particulate phase of difenoconazole, tetraconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, deltamethrin, cyprodinil, permethrin, and pendimethalin are in order of several days and even higher than one month, implying that these pesticides can be transported over long distances, reaching the remote regions all over the world; hence these pesticides shall be further evaluated prior to be confirmed as POPs.

  13. The persistence of pesticides in atmospheric particulate phase: An emerging air quality issue

    PubMed Central

    Socorro, Joanna; Durand, Amandine; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Gligorovski, Sasho; Wortham, Henri; Quivet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to their physicochemical properties can be widely spread all over the globe; as such they represent a serious threat to both humans and wildlife. According to Stockholm convention out of 24 officially recognized POPs, 16 are pesticides. The atmospheric life times of pesticides, up to now were estimated based on their gas-phase reactivity. It has been only speculated that sorption to aerosol particles may increase significantly the half‐lives of pesticides in the atmosphere. The results presented here challenge the current view of the half-lives of pesticides in the lower boundary layer of the atmosphere and their impact on air quality and human health. We demonstrate that semivolatile pesticides which are mostly adsorbed on atmospheric aerosol particles are very persistent with respect to the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) that is the self-cleaning agent of the atmosphere. The half-lives in particulate phase of difenoconazole, tetraconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, deltamethrin, cyprodinil, permethrin, and pendimethalin are in order of several days and even higher than one month, implying that these pesticides can be transported over long distances, reaching the remote regions all over the world; hence these pesticides shall be further evaluated prior to be confirmed as POPs. PMID:27628441

  14. Toxicological study of pesticides in air and precipitations of Paris by means of a bioluminescence method.

    PubMed

    Trajkovska, S; Mbaye, M; Gaye Seye, M D; Aaron, J J; Chevreuil, M; Blanchoud, H

    2009-06-01

    A detailed toxicological study on several pesticides, including chlorothalonil, cyprodynil, dichlobénil, pendimethaline, trifluraline, and alpha-endosulfan, present at trace levels in air and total atmospheric precipitations of Paris is presented. The pesticides contained in the atmospheric samples, collected during sampling campaigns in February-March 2007, are identified and quantified by a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC)-UV detection method. The toxicity measurements are performed by means of the Microtox bioluminescence method, based on the evaluation of the bioluminescence inhibition of the Vibrio fischeri marine bacteria at two exposure times to the pesticide solutions. The specific toxicity, corresponding to the particular toxicity of the compound under study and represented by the EC(50) parameter, is determined for these pesticides. Also, the global toxicity, which is the toxicity of all micro-pollutants present in the sample under study, is estimated for the extracts of air and atmospheric precipitation (rainwater) samples. The specific toxicities strongly vary with the nature of the pesticide, the EC(50) parameter values being comprised between 0.17 and 0.83 mg/mL and 0.15 and 0.66 mg/mL, respectively, for exposure times of 5 and 15 min. The importance of the atmospheric samples' global toxicity and the respective contribution of the toxic potency of the various pesticides contained in these samples are discussed.

  15. Operational noise data for the LACV-30 air cushion vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, P. D.

    1985-03-01

    Operational data for the LACV-30 air cushion vehicle were gathered and developed into sound exposure level vs distance curves. These data are available for the Army Environmental Hygiene Agency (AEHA) to use in developing noise zone maps for LACV-30 operations in support of the Army Installation Compatible Use Program (ICUZ). ICUZ defines Hand use compatible with various noise levels and establishes a policy for achieving such uses. Although the Army classifies the LACV-30 as an amphibious vehicle, an examination of its noise characteristics and operations showed it most closely resembles a helicopter. Thus, the methodology for gathering rotary wing aircraft data was used. Measurements of LACV-30's passby runs over water at various distances and speeds were similar in concept to flyover and flyby measurements for helicopters, and the land maneuver measurements corresponded most nearly to a helicopter's hover measurements.

  16. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  17. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  18. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  19. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  20. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  1. Far Noise Field of Air Jets and Jet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, Edmund E; Coles, Willard D

    1957-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study and compare the acoustic radiation of air jets and jet engines. A number of different nozzle-exit shapes were studied with air jets to determine the effect of exit shape on noise generation. Circular, square, rectangular, and elliptical convergent nozzles and convergent-divergent and plug nozzles were investigated. The spectral distributions of the sound power for the engine and the air jet were in good agreement for the case where the engine data were not greatly affected by reflection or jet interference effects. Such power spectra for a subsonic or slightly choked engine or air jet show that the peaks of the spectra occur at a Strouhal number of 0.3.

  2. Levels and seasonal variations of organochlorine pesticides in urban and rural background air of southern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Kareš, Radovan; Literák, Jaromír; Borůvková, Jana; Yeboah, Philip O; Carboo, Derick; Akoto, Osei; Darko, Godfred; Osae, Shiloh; Klánová, Jana

    2012-07-01

    Urban, suburban and rural background air samples were collected in southern Ghana in 2008 employing polyurethane foam disc passive air samplers (PAS). PAS were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), namely hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane including metabolites (o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, DDE and DDD), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrins (endrin, endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone), isodrin, heptachlors (heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide A and heptachlor epoxide B), chlordanes (α-, β-chlordane, oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor), endosulfans (α- and β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate), methoxychlor and mirex using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The levels of OCPs ranged for the individual pesticides from below limit of quantification to 750 pg m(-3) (for α-endosulfan), and current agricultural application seemed to be the main primary source of most abundant pesticides. Re-volatilization of previously used pesticides from contaminated soils could not be ruled out either as potential secondary source of contamination, especially in warm and dry seasons and periods of intensive agricultural activities. Higher atmospheric concentrations were observed in November and December during the dry season compared to lower concentrations observed in June, July and August when the country experiences heavy rains. The highest seasonal variation was observed for currently used pesticides as α-endosulfan. A p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratio suggested recent inputs of fresh technical DDT.

  3. Pesticide Volatilization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We consider the risks posed when pesticides volatilize during or after application. The movement of vapors through the air is not the same as pesticide movement by spray drift, erosion, or windblown soil particles.

  4. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  5. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors §...

  6. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  7. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  8. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  9. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors §...

  10. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  11. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  13. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  14. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors §...

  15. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  17. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors §...

  18. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors §...

  19. Meeting 2006, outdoor noise directive (OND) noise levels for a diesel engine driven air compressor: A case study in noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, David F.

    2005-09-01

    In January 2006, the noise limits for many products in the European Union will drop by 2-3 dBA, as directed by 2000/14/EC ``Noise Emission in the Environment by Equipment Used Outdoors,'' commonly called the ``Outdoor Noise Directive,'' or ``OND.'' Air compressors are among the products addressed by this directive. At Ingersoll-Rand, significant effort has been directed at meeting the challenge of reducing noise on a variety of diesel engine driven air compressor platforms, ranging from 15 to 350 kW diesel engine power ratings. This paper presents a case study of the noise reduction on a 750 cfm (21 m3/min) air compressor operating at 300 psig (21 bar), to meet the 2006 OND noise limit of 100 LwA.

  20. INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATIONS OF ORGANOCHLORINE, ORGANOPHOSPHATE AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDES IN THE US: FOUR STUDIES, SIX STATES AND TWENTY YEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides used to control indoor pests have transitioned across the chemicals classes of organochlorine, organophosphate, and pyrethroid compounds from the 1980's to the present. This work summarizes the pesticide concentrations measured from the indoor air of homes from four st...

  1. Organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from obsolete pesticide dumping ground in Hyderabad City, Pakistan: contamination levels and their potential for air-soil exchange.

    PubMed

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Liu, Junwen; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination levels in the surface soil and air samples together with air-soil exchange fluxes at an obsolete pesticide dumping ground and the associated areas from Hyderabad City, Pakistan. Among all the sampling sites, concentrations of OCPs in the soil and air samples were found highest in obsolete pesticide dumping ground, whereas dominant contaminants were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) (soil: 77-212,200 ng g(-1); air: 90,700 pg m(-3)) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) (soil: 43-4,090 ng g(-1); air: 97,400 pg m(-3)) followed by chlordane, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). OCPs diagnostic indicative ratios reflect historical use as well as fresh input in the study area. Moreover, the air and soil fugacity ratios (0.9-1.0) at the dumping ground reflecting a tendency towards net volatilization of OCPs, while at the other sampling sites, the fugacity ratios indicate in some cases deposition and in other cases volatilization. Elevated concentrations of DDTs and HCHs at pesticide dumping ground and its surroundings pose potential exposure risk to biological organisms, to the safety of agricultural products and to the human health. Our study thus emphasizes the need of spatio-temporal monitoring of OCPs at local and regional scale to assess and remediate the future adverse implications.

  2. Evaluating the PAS-SIM model using a passive air sampler calibration study for pesticides.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Andrés Ramírez; Hayward, Stephen J; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a model for simulating the uptake of various pesticides on passive air samplers (PAS). From 2006-2007 a series of PAS using XAD-resin were deployed at Egbert, a rural agricultural site in southern Ontario, Canada, to measure the uptake of pesticides for time periods ranging from two months to one year. A continuous increase in sequestered amounts was observed for most pesticides, except for trifluralin and pendimethalin, which could conceivably be subject to substantial degradation inside the sampler. Continuous low-volume active air samples taken during the same period, along with data on weather conditions, allowed for the simulation of the uptake of the pesticides using the model (PAS-SIM). The modelled accumulation of pesticides on the PAS over the deployment period was in good agreement with the experimental data in most cases (i.e., within a factor of two) providing insight into the uptake kinetics of this type of sampler in the field. Passive sampling rates (PSR, m(3) d(-1)) were determined from the empirical data generated for this study using three different methods and compared with the PSRs generated by the model. Overall, the PAS-SIM model, which is capable of accounting for the influence of temperature and wind variations on PSRs, provided reasonable results that range between the three empirical approaches employed and well-established literature values. Further evaluation and application of the PAS-SIM model to explore the potential spatial and temporal variability in PAS uptake kinetics is warranted, particularly for established monitoring sites where detailed meteorological data are more likely to be available.

  3. Occurrence of currently used pesticides in ambient air of Centre Region (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coscollà, Clara; Colin, Patrice; Yahyaoui, Abderrazak; Petrique, Olivier; Yusà, Vicent; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Pastor, Agustin

    2010-10-01

    Ambient air samples were collected, from 2006 to 2008 at three rural and two urban sites in Centre Region (France) and analyzed for 56 currently used pesticides (CUPs), of which 41 were detected. The four CUPs most frequently detected were the herbicides trifluralin, acetochlor and pendimethalin and the fungicide chlorothalonil, which were found with frequencies ranging between 52 and 78%, and with average concentrations of 1.93, 1.32, 1.84 and 12.15 ng m -3, respectively. Among the detected pesticides, concentrations of eight fungicides (spiroxamine, fenpropimorph, cyprodinil, tolyfluanid, epoxiconazole, vinchlozolin, fluazinam, fludioxinil), two insecticides (propargite, ethoprophos), and one herbicide (oxyfluorfen) are, to our knowledge, reported for the first time in the literature. The majority of the CUPs showed a seasonal trend, with most of the detections and the highest concentrations occurring during the spring and early summer. The most important pesticides detected were related to arable crops and fruit orchards, the main cultures in this region, highlighting the fact that the main sources come from local applications. Minor differences were found in the profiles of pesticides within rural areas and between rural and urban areas.

  4. Pesticides in Mississippi air and rain: a comparison between 1995 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Michael S; Coupe, Richard H; Foreman, William T; Capel, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    A variety of current-use pesticides were determined in weekly composite air and rain samples collected during the 1995 and 2007 growing seasons in the Mississippi Delta (MS, USA) agricultural region. Similar sampling and analytical methods allowed for direct comparison of results. Decreased overall pesticide use in 2007 relative to 1995 generally resulted in decreased detection frequencies in air and rain; observed concentration ranges were similar between years, however, even though the 1995 sampling site was 500 m from active fields whereas the 2007 sampling site was within 3 m of a field. Mean concentrations of detections were sometimes greater in 2007 than in 1995, but the median values were often lower. Seven compounds in 1995 and 5 in 2007 were detected in ≥50% of both air and rain samples. Atrazine, metolachlor, and propanil were detected in ≥50% of the air and rain samples in both years. Glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA), were detected in ≥75% of air and rain samples in 2007 but were not measured in 1995. The 1995 seasonal wet depositional flux was dominated by methyl parathion (88%) and was >4.5 times the 2007 flux. Total herbicide flux in 2007 was slightly greater than in 1995 and was dominated by glyphosate. Malathion, methyl parathion, and degradation products made up most of the 2007 nonherbicide flux.

  5. Pesticides in Mississippi air and rain: A comparison between 1995 and 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael S; Coupe, Richard H.; Foreman, William T.; Capel, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of current-use pesticides were determined in weekly composite air and rain samples collected during the 1995 and 2007 growing seasons in the Mississippi Delta (MS, USA) agricultural region. Similar sampling and analytical methods allowed for direct comparison of results. Decreased overall pesticide use in 2007 relative to 1995 generally resulted in decreased detection frequencies in air and rain; observed concentration ranges were similar between years, however, even though the 1995 sampling site was 500 m from active fields whereas the 2007 sampling site was within 3 m of a field. Mean concentrations of detections were sometimes greater in 2007 than in 1995, but the median values were often lower. Seven compounds in 1995 and 5 in 2007 were detected in ≥50% of both air and rain samples. Atrazine, metolachlor, and propanil were detected in ≥50% of the air and rain samples in both years. Glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA), were detected in ≥75% of air and rain samples in 2007 but were not measured in 1995. The 1995 seasonal wet depositional flux was dominated by methyl parathion (88%) and was >4.5 times the 2007 flux. Total herbicide flux in 2007 was slightly greater than in 1995 and was dominated by glyphosate. Malathion, methyl parathion, and degradation products made up most of the 2007 nonherbicide flux.

  6. Occurrence of pesticides in rain and air in urban and agricultural areas of Mississippi, April-September 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coupe, R.H.; Manning, M.A.; Foreman, W.T.; Goolsby, D.A.; Majewski, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    In April 1995, the US Geological Survey began a study to determine the occurrence and temporal distribution of 49 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in air and rain samples from an urban and an agricultural sampling site in Mississippi. The study was a joint effort between the National Water-Quality Assessment and the Toxic Substances Programs and was part of a larger study examining the occurrence and temporal distribution of pesticides in air and rain in the Mississippi River basin. Concurrent high-volume air and wet-only deposition samples were collected weekly. The air samplers consisted of a glass-fiber filter to collect particles and tandem polyurethane foam plugs to collect gas-phase pesticides. Every rain and air sample collected from the urban and agricultural sites had detectable levels of multiple pesticides. The magnitude of the total concentration was 5-10 times higher at the agricultural site as compared to the urban site. The pesticide with the highest concentration in rain at both sites was methyl parathion. The pesticide with the highest concentration in the air samples from the agricultural site was also methyl parathion, but from the urban site the highest concentration was diazinon followed closely by chlorpyrifos. More than two decades since p,p'-DDT was banned from use in the United States, p,p'-DDE, a metabolite of p,p'-DDT, was detected in every air sample collected from the agricultural site and in more than half of the air samples from the urban site. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. Noise impacts from professional dog grooming forced-air dryers.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Peter M; Johnson, Michael T; Byrne, David C; Clark, John G; Vandlik, Ashley; Kretschmer, Laura W; Sonstrom, Kristine E

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the sound output of four commonly used brands of forced-air dryers used by dog groomers in the United States. Many dog groomers have questions about the effect of this exposure on their hearing, as well as on the hearing of the dogs that are being groomed. Readings taken from each dryer at 1 meter (the likely distance of the dryer from the groomer and the dog) showed average levels ranging from 105.5 to 108.3 dB SPL or 94.8 to 108.0 dBA. Using the 90 dBA criterion required by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration, dog groomers/bathers are at risk if exposure to the lowest intensity dryer (94.8 dBA) exceeds 4 hours per day. If the more stringent 85 dBA criterion and 3 dB tradeoff is applied, less than one hour of exposure is permissible in an 8 hour day. Cautions are recommended for any persons exposed to noise from forced-air dryers.

  8. Influence of Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Soil Properties on the Soil-Air Partitioning of Semivolatile Pesticides: Laboratory Measurements and Predictive Models.

    PubMed

    Davie-Martin, Cleo L; Hageman, Kimberly J; Chin, Yu-Ping; Rougé, Valentin; Fujita, Yuki

    2015-09-01

    Soil-air partition coefficient (Ksoil-air) values are often employed to investigate the fate of organic contaminants in soils; however, these values have not been measured for many compounds of interest, including semivolatile current-use pesticides. Moreover, predictive equations for estimating Ksoil-air values for pesticides (other than the organochlorine pesticides) have not been robustly developed, due to a lack of measured data. In this work, a solid-phase fugacity meter was used to measure the Ksoil-air values of 22 semivolatile current- and historic-use pesticides and their degradation products. Ksoil-air values were determined for two soils (semiarid and volcanic) under a range of environmentally relevant temperature (10-30 °C) and relative humidity (30-100%) conditions, such that 943 Ksoil-air measurements were made. Measured values were used to derive a predictive equation for pesticide Ksoil-air values based on temperature, relative humidity, soil organic carbon content, and pesticide-specific octanol-air partition coefficients. Pesticide volatilization losses from soil, calculated with the newly derived Ksoil-air predictive equation and a previously described pesticide volatilization model, were compared to previous results and showed that the choice of Ksoil-air predictive equation mainly affected the more-volatile pesticides and that the way in which relative humidity was accounted for was the most critical difference.

  9. 20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Wong, Fiona; Gawor, Anya; Kylin, Henrik; Helm, Paul A; Stern, Gary A; Strachan, William M J; Burniston, Deborah A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air-water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water-air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air-surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals.

  10. Soil-air exchange model of persistent pesticides in the United States cotton belt.

    PubMed

    Harner, T; Bidleman, T F; Jantunen, L M; Mackay, D

    2001-07-01

    Measurements of organochlorine pesticides (lindane, cis-chlordane [CC], trans-chlordane [TC], trans-nonachlor [TN]), dieldrin, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE], and toxaphene) in Alabama, USA, air and soil were used to assess the soil-air equilibrium status and to identify compounds with significant contributions to observed air burdens. Of the compounds tested, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene showed a significant potential for outgasing, followed by dieldrin and trans-nonachlor, which showed moderate outgasing potentials. Lindane, cis-chlordane, and trans-chlordane were near soil-air equilibrium. A fugacity-based, multilayered soil-air exchange model was used to predict temporal trends of chemical in air and soil resulting from reemission of soil residues to a presumed clean atmosphere (maximum emission scenario). Results showed that p,p'-DDE and toxaphene accounted for up to 50% of the observed air burden and that approximately 200 to 600 kg of p,p'-DDE and 3,000 to 11,000 kg to toxaphene are released to the atmosphere each year by soils in Alabama (area = 1.23 x 10(11) m2). High annual net fluxes were also predicted for dieldrin and trans-nonachlor (300-1,100 kg and 150-500 kg, respectively), but these only account for up to approximately 20% of their observed air burdens.

  11. National Pesticide Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Plants Pest Control Identify Your Pest Learn About Your Pest Control Your Pest Integrated Pest Management Pesticide Products NPRO: Pesticide Product Search Pesticide Ingredients ...

  12. Nocturnal air, road, and rail traffic noise and daytime cognitive performance and annoyance.

    PubMed

    Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Quehl, Julia; Müller, Uwe; Basner, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Various studies indicate that at the same noise level and during the daytime, annoyance increases in the order of rail, road, and aircraft noise. The present study investigates if the same ranking can be found for annoyance to nocturnal exposure and next day cognitive performance. Annoyance ratings and performance change during combined noise exposure were also tested. In the laboratory 72 participants were exposed to air, road, or rail traffic noise and all combinations. The number of noise events and LAS,eq were kept constant. Each morning noise annoyance questionnaires and performance tasks were administered. Aircraft noise annoyance ranked first followed by railway and road noise. A possible explanation is the longer duration of aircraft noise events used in this study compared to road and railway noise events. In contrast to road and rail traffic, aircraft noise annoyance was higher after nights with combined exposure. Pooled noise exposure data showed small but significant impairments in reaction times (6 ms) compared to nights without noise. The noise sources did not have a differential impact on performance. Combined exposure to multiple traffic noise sources did not induce stronger impairments than a single noise source. This was reflected also in low workload ratings.

  13. AIR CONVECTION NOISE OF PENCIL-BEAM INTERFERMETER FOR LONG TRACE PROFILER.

    SciTech Connect

    YASHCHUK, V.V.; IRICK, S.C.; MACDOWELL, A.A.; MCKINNEY, W.R.; TAKACS, P.Z.

    2006-08-14

    In this work, we investigate the effect of air convection on laser-beam pointing noise essential for the long trace profiler (LTP). We describe this pointing error with noise power density (NPD) frequency distributions. It is shown that the NPD spectra due to air convection have a very characteristic form. In the range of frequencies from {approx}0.05 Hz to {approx}0.5 Hz, the spectra can be modeled with an inverse-power-law function. Depending on the intensity of air convection that is controlled with a resistive heater of 100 to 150 mW along a one-meter-long optical path, the power index lies between 2 and 3 at an overall rms noise of {approx}0.5 to 1 microradian. The efficiency of suppression of the convection noise by blowing air across the beam optical path is also discussed. Air-blowing leads to a white-noise-like spectrum. Air blowing was applied to the reference channel of an LTP allowing demonstration of the contribution of air convection noise to the LTP reference beam. The ability to change (with the blowing technique presented) the spectral characteristics of the beam pointing noise due to air convection allows one to investigate the contribution of the convection effect, and thus make corrections to the power spectral density spectra measured with the LTP.

  14. Air convection noise of pencil-beam interferometer for long trace profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.

    2006-08-01

    In this work, we investigate the effect of air convection on laser-beam pointing noise essential for the long trace profiler (LTP). We describe this pointing error with noise power density (NPD) frequency distributions. It is shown that the NPD spectra due to air convection have a very characteristic form. In the range of frequencies from ~0.05 Hz to ~0.5 Hz, the spectra can be modeled with an inverse-power-law function. Depending on the intensity of air convection that is controlled with a resistive heater of 100 to 150 mW along a one-meter-long optical path, the power index lies between 2 and 3 at an overall rms noise of ~0.5 to 1 microradian. The efficiency of suppression of the convection noise by blowing air across the beam optical path is also discussed. Air-blowing leads to a white-noise-like spectrum. Air blowing was applied to the reference channel of an LTP allowing demonstration of the contribution of air convection noise to the LTP reference beam. The ability to change (with the blowing technique presented) the spectral characteristics of the beam pointing noise due to air convection allows one to investigate the contribution of the convection effect, and thus make corrections to the power spectral density spectra measured with the LTP.

  15. Analysis of industrial contaminants in indoor air. Part 2. Emergent contaminants and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Regueiro, Jorge; Barro, Ruth; Dagnac, Thierry; Llompart, Maria

    2009-01-16

    This article reviews recent literature on the analysis of several contaminants related to the industrial development in indoor air in the framework of the REACH project. In this second part, the attention is focused on emergent contaminants and biocides. Among these chemicals, phthalates, polybrominated and phosphate flame retardants, fragrances, pesticides, as well as other emerging pollutants, are increasing their environmental and health concern and are extensively found in indoor air. Some of them are suspected to behave as priority organic pollutants (POPs) and/or endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC), and can be found both in air and associated to the suspended particulate matter (PM) and settled dust. Main literature considered for this review is from the last ten years, reporting analytical developments and applications regarding the considered contaminants in the indoor environment. Sample collection and pretreatment, analyte extraction or desorption, clean-up procedures, determination techniques, and performance results are summarized and discussed.

  16. Vapor-phase and particulate-associated pesticides and PCB concentrations in eastern North Dakota air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.; Louie, P.K.K.

    1996-05-01

    Vapor-phase and suspended particulate (<50 {mu}m) samples were collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) and quartz fiber filters in rural North Dakota to determine the air concentrations of pesticides in an area where agriculture is a primary source of semivolatile pollutants. Samples were collected at two sites from 1992 to 1994 that were at least 0.4 km from the nearest farmed fields and known application of pesticides, and analyzed for 22 different organochlorine, triazine, and acid herbicide pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were found above the detection limits (typically <1 pg/m{sup 3}). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were much lower (<50 pg/m{sup 3} in all cases) than many of the pesticides. These results demonstrate that pesticides are among the most prevalent chlorinated semivolatile pollutants present in rural North Dakota, that significant transport of pesticides occurs both in the vapor-phase and on suspended particulate matter, and that blown soil may be a significant mechanism for introducing pesticides into surface and ground waters. 32 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in a sealed chamber.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing; Han, Baolu; Xue, Nandong; Zhou, Lingli; Li, Fasheng

    2015-01-01

    So far little is known about air-soil exchange under any sealed circumstances (e.g., in plastic and glass sheds), which however has huge implications for the soil-air-plant pathways of persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). A newly designed passive air sampler was tested in a sealed chamber for measuring the vertical concentration profiles of gaseous phase OCPs (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs)). Air was sampled at 5, 15, and 30 cm above ground level every 10th day during a 60-day period by deploying polyurethane foam cylinders housed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-covered cartridges. Concentrations and compositions of OCPs along the vertical sections indicated a clear relationship with proximity to the mixture of HCHs and DDTs which escapes from the soils. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between air temperatures and concentrations of HCHs and DDTs. These results indicated revolatilization and re-deposition being at or close to dynamic pseudo-equilibrium with the overlying air. The sampler used for addressing air-soil exchange of persistent organic pollutants in any sealed conditions is discussed.

  18. Chlorinated pesticides and natural brominated anisoles in air at three northern Baltic stations.

    PubMed

    Bidleman, Terry F; Laudon, Hjalmar; Nygren, Olle; Svanberg, Staffan; Tysklind, Mats

    2017-03-20

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive samplers were deployed at one inland and two island locations in the Bothnian Bay region of the northern Baltic Sea. Uptake was linear over 81-147 d and a temperature range of -2.6 to 14.2 °C for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) having log KOA ≥9 at ambient temperatures. Partial saturation of the PUF disks occurred for the more volatile OCPs hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and for bromoanisoles (BAs), which are products of bromophenols released by natural and anthropogenic sources. Correction for nonlinear uptake of these was made using experimentally measured PUF-air partition coefficients. Passive-derived air concentrations of pesticides were uniform over the bay and agreed within a factor of 2 or better with levels determined by active (pumped) sampling at one of the island stations. Levels of OCPs were similar to those reported at background sites in the European and Canadian Arctic and at monitoring stations in the central Baltic and southern Scandinavia, indicating long-range transport. The insecticide chlorpyrifos was 10 times lower at bay stations than in the Canadian Arctic. Insight to sources and processes was gained by examining compound profiles. Fractions Falpha = α-HCH/(α-HCH + γ-HCH) and FTC = trans-chlordane/(trans-chlordane + cis-chlordane) at bay stations were higher than in the Norwegian and Finnish Arctic and similar to those at the southern monitoring stations. Volatilization of chlordanes from Baltic seawater may also modify FTC. Higher FTriBA = 2,4,6-TriBA/(2,4,6-TriBA + 2,4-DiBA) distinguished local volatilization from the Baltic Sea versus lower FTriBA found at the inland site and reported in air on the Norwegian coast, suggesting westerly transport from the Atlantic across Norway and Sweden.

  19. Pesticides in the atmosphere of the Mississippi River Valley, part II - Air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foreman, W.T.; Majewski, M.S.; Goolsby, D.A.; Wiebe, F.W.; Coupe, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Weekly composite air samples were collected from early April through to mid-September 1995 at three paired urban and agricultural sites along the Mississippi River region of the Midwestern United States. The paired sampling sites were located in Mississippi, Iowa, and Minnesota. A background site, removed from dense urban and agricultural areas, was located on the shore of Lake Superior in Michigan. Each sample was analyzed for 49 compounds; of these, 21 of 26 herbicides, 13 of 19 insecticides, and 4 of 4 related transformation products were detected during the study, with most pesticides detected in more than one sample. The maximum number of pesticides detected in an air sample was 18. Herbicides were the predominant type of pesticide detected at every site. Detection frequencies of most herbicides were similar at the urban and agricultural sites in Iowa and Minnesota. In Mississippi, herbicides generally were detected more frequently at the agricultural site. The insecticides chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and carbaryl, which are used in agricultural and non-agricultural settings, were detected more frequently in urban sites than agricultural sites in Mississippi and Iowa. Methyl parathion was detected in 70% of the samples from the Mississippi agricultural site and at the highest concentration (62 ng/m3 air) of any insecticide measured in the study. At the background site, dacthal (100%), atrazine (35%), cyanazine (22%), and the (primarily atrazine) triazine transformation products CIAT (35%) and CEAT (17%) were detected most frequently, suggesting their potential for long-range atmospheric transport. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Particle size distributions of currently used pesticides in ambient air of an agricultural Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coscollà, Clara; Muñoz, Amalia; Borrás, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Ródenas, Milagros; Yusà, Vicent

    2014-10-01

    This work presents first data on the particle size distribution of 16 pesticides currently used in Mediterranean agriculture in the atmosphere. Particulate matter air samples were collected using a cascade impactor distributed into four size fractions in a rural site of Valencia Region, during July to September in 2012 and from May to July in 2013. A total of 16 pesticides were detected, including six fungicides, seven insecticides and three herbicides. The total concentrations in the particulate phase (TSP: Total Suspended Particulate) ranged from 3.5 to 383.1 pg m-3. Most of the pesticides (such as carbendazim, tebuconazole, chlorpyrifos-ethyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl) were accumulated in the ultrafine-fine (<1 μm) and coarse (2.5-10 μm) particle size fractions. Others like omethoate, dimethoate and malathion were presented only in the ultrafine-fine size fraction (<1 μm). Finally, diuron, diphenylamine and terbuthylazine-desethyl-2-OH also show a bimodal distribution but mainly in the coarse size fractions.

  1. Community air monitoring for pesticides. Part 3: using health-based screening levels to evaluate results collected for a year.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Pamela; Segawa, Randy; Schreider, Jay; Federighi, Veda; Neal, Rosemary; Brattesani, Madeline

    2014-03-01

    The CA Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) and the CA Air Resources Board monitored 40 pesticides, including five degradation products, in Parlier, CA, to determine if its residents were exposed to any of these pesticides and, if so, in what amounts. They included 1,3-dichloropropene, acrolein, arsenic, azinphos-methyl, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos and its degradation product, chlorthalonil, copper, cypermethrin, diazinon and its degradation product, dichlorvos, dicofol, dimethoate and its degradation product, diuron, endosulfan and its degradation product, S-ethyl dipropylcarbamothioate (EPTC), formaldehyde, malathion and its degradation product, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), methyl bromide, metolachlor, molinate, norflurazon, oryzalin, oxyfluorfen, permethrin, phosmet, propanil, propargite, simazine, SSS-tributylphosphorotrithioate, sulfur, thiobencarb, trifluralin, and xylene. Monitoring was conducted 3 days per week for a year. Twenty-three pesticides and degradation products were detected. Acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos, copper, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, MITC, and sulfur were detected in more than half the samples. Since no regulatory ambient air standards exist for these pesticides, CDPR developed advisory, health-based non-cancer screening levels (SLs) to assess acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures. For carcinogenic pesticides, CDPR assessed risk using cancer potency values. Amongst non-carcinogenic agricultural use pesticides, only diazinon exceeded its SL. For carcinogens, 1,3-dichloropropene concentrations exceeded its cancer potency value. Based on these findings, CDPR has undertaken a more comprehensive evaluation of 1,3-dichloropropene, diazinon, and the closely related chlorpyrifos that was frequently detected. Four chemicals-acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, and formaldehyde-sometimes used as pesticides were detected, although no pesticidal use was reported in the area during this study. Their presence was most

  2. Air convection noise of pencil-beam interferometer for long traceprofiler

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.

    2006-07-12

    In this work, we investigate the effect of air convection onlaser-beam pointing noise essential for the long trace profiler (LTP). Wedescribe this pointing error with noise power density (NPD) frequencydistributions. It is shown that the NPD spectra due to air convectionhave a very characteristic form. In the range of frequencies from ~;0.05Hz to ~;0.5 Hz, the spectra can be modeled with an inverse-power-lawfunction. Depending on the intensity of air convection that is controlledwith a resistive heater of 100 to 150 mW along a one-meter-long opticalpath, the power index lies between 2 and 3 at an overall rms noise of~;0.5 to 1 microradian. The efficiency of suppression of the convectionnoise by blowing air across the beam optical path is also discussed.Air-blowing leads to a white-noise-like spectrum. Air blowing was appliedto the reference channel of an LTP allowing demonstration of thecontribution of air convection noise to the LTP reference beam. Theability to change (with the blowing technique presented) the spectralcharacteristics of the beam pointing noise due to air convection allowsone to investigate the contribution of the convection effect, and thusmake corrections to the power spectral density spectra measured with theLTP.

  3. Using measured octanol-air partition coefficients to explain environmental partitioning of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom

    2002-05-01

    Octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) were measured directly for 19 organochlorine (OC) pesticides over the temperature range of 5 to 35 degrees C. Values of log Koa at 25 degrees C ranged over three orders of magnitude, from 7.4 for hexachlorobenzene to 10.1 for 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane. Measured values were compared to values calculated as KowRT/H (where R is the ideal gas constant [8.314 J mol(-1) K(-1)], T is absolute temperature, and H is Henry's law constant) were, in general, larger. Discrepancies of up to three orders of magnitude were observed, highlighting the need for direct measurements of Koa. Plots of Koa versus inverse absolute temperature exhibited a log-linear correlation. Enthalpies of phase transition between octanol and air (deltaHoa) were determined from the temperature slopes and were in the range of 56 to 105 kJ mol(-1) K(-1). Activity coefficients in octanol (gamma(o)) were determined from Koa and reported supercooled liquid vapor pressures (pL(o)), and these were in the range of 0.3 to 12, indicating near-ideal solution behavior. Differences in Koa values for structural isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane were also explored. A Koa-based model was described for predicting the partitioning of OC pesticides to aerosols and used to calculate particulate fractions at 25 and -10 degrees C. The model also agreed well with experimental results for several OC pesticides that were equilibrated with urban aerosols in the laboratory. A log-log regression of the particle-gas partition coefficient versus Koa had a slope near unity, indicating that octanol is a good surrogate for the aerosol organic matter.

  4. Relationship of air sampling rates of semipermeable membrane devices with the properties of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuhua; Ding, Guanghui; Levy, Walkiria; Jakobi, Gert; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2011-06-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in Eastern-Barvaria at Haidel 1160 m a.s.l. were monitored with a low volume active air sampler and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD). The air sampling rates (Rair) of SPMD for OCP were calculated. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models of Rair of SPMD were developed for OCP with partial least square (PLS) regression. Quantum chemical descriptors computed by semi-empirical PM6 method were used as predictor variables. The cumulative variance of the dependent variable explained by the PLS components and determined by cross-validation (Q(2)cum), for the optimal models, is 0.637, indicating that the model has good predictive ability and robustness, and could be used to estimate Rair values of OCP. The main factors governing Rair of OCP are intermolecular interactions and the energy required for cave-forming in dissolution of OCP into triolein of SPMD.

  5. [Noise level measurements of the air noise during drilling and grinding on the fresh isolated temporal bone (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Paulsen, K; Vietor, K

    1975-10-01

    Aerial sound measurements with different drilling instruments were performed during dry running and preparations of the bone. Registered were the values of the small drilling instruments Sirona, Dentatus-Air, and Electro-Torque-Ritter. Also tested were the KaVo-Technique-machine, the Hall-machine, the Air-Orbit-turbine, and the Sirona-turbine. During dry running most of them already reached the allowed marginal value of noise nuisance for the ear of 85 dB (A) at a distance of 35 cm. Only the Air-Orbit-machine showed a slightly lower value of 80 dB (A). The level increases with the used handpieces. Normal handpieces 1:1 exert only a minimal influence, gear handpieces 2:1, however, markedly increase the level. The verticity is of no importance in the range of normal rotations between 10,000 r/min. and 80,000 r/min. Only rotations in the lower frequency range of 2,000 r/min. markedly decrease the noise level. During bone drilling, the kind and size of the drilling bit have an influence on the intensity of the noise level. Quadruple wing milling cutters create a very high noise level (at a distance of 15 cm still above 110 dB [A!]), big rose cutters (R 16) create noise levels of 95 dB (A) and above, and only diamond round bits create less noise (approximately 88 db [A]). Small drilling bits make such a faint noise, that it is overroared by the drilling instrument. The turbines create only slightly higher levels than during dry running. Larger drilling bits cannot be employed here on principle. Wing milling cutters can lead to persistent damages of the inner ear. The frequent use of dental drilling instruments for bone preparations can also lead to a hearing loss of the operator in the long run.

  6. Trend and climate signals in seasonal air concentration of organochlorine pesticides over the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin; Cao, Zuohao; Dove, Alice; Zhang, Lisheng

    2010-08-01

    Following worldwide bans or restrictions, the atmospheric level of many organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) over the Great Lakes exhibited a decreasing trend since the 1980s in various environmental compartments. Atmospheric conditions also influence variation and trend of OCPs. In the present study a nonparametric Mann-Kendall test with an additional process to remove the effect of temporal (serial) correlation was used to detect the temporal trend of OCPs in the atmosphere over the Great Lakes region and to examine the statistical significance of the trends. Using extended time series of measured air concentrations over the Great Lakes region from the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network, this study also revisits relationships between seasonal mean air concentration of OCPs and major climate variabilities in the Northern Hemisphere. To effectively extract climate signals from the temporal trend of air concentrations, we detrended air concentrations through removing their linear trend, which is driven largely by their respective half-lives in the atmosphere. The interannual variations of the extended time series show a good association with interannual climate variability, notably, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. This study demonstrates that the stronger climate signals can be extracted from the detrended time series of air concentrations of some legacy OCPs. The detrended concentration time series also help to interpret, in addition to the connection with interannual variation of the NAO, the links between atmospheric concentrations of OCPs and decadal or interdecadal climate change.

  7. [The problems of assessment of the high noise impact on the experts of the Air Force].

    PubMed

    Zinkin, V N; Sheshegov, P M

    2012-01-01

    Air Force specialists are exposed to high intensity noise levels exceeded the maximum permissible levels. Infrasound as a productive factor in accordance with the general technical requirements (OTT) Air Force-86 is not included in the list of standardized factors. The adverse acoustic environment makes the risk of occupational (sensorineural deafness) and professionally-related diseases of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. The system of physical fitness for military service in the Air Force and serving in the Air Force with high-intensity sources of noise, the system of treatment and preventive measures for adverse effects of noise and the procedure for examination of persons with diseases caused by the influence of noise are needed to be reviewed in accordance with the existing state legislative frameworks.

  8. Annoyance due to noise and air pollution to the residents of heavily frequented streets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanner, H. U.; Wehrli, B.; Nemecek, J.; Turrian, V.

    1980-01-01

    The residents of different streets with varying traffic density and building density were questioned about annoyance due to traffic noise and air pollution. Results show that annoyance felt is dependent not only on the measured noise levels and/or air pollution concentrations, but that there do exist interactions between the residential quarters and annoyance. These interactions should be considered when fixing the limits and standards.

  9. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2015-10-14

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs). Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution.

  10. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs). Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution. PMID:26473905

  11. Spatial variation in environmental noise and air pollution in New York City.

    PubMed

    Kheirbek, Iyad; Ito, Kazuhiko; Neitzel, Richard; Kim, Jung; Johnson, Sarah; Ross, Zev; Eisl, Holger; Matte, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to environmental noise from traffic is common in urban areas and has been linked to increased risks of adverse health effects including cardiovascular disease. Because traffic sources also produce air pollutants that increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity, associations between traffic exposures and health outcomes may involve confounding and/or synergisms between air pollution and noise. While prior studies have characterized intraurban spatial variation in air pollution in New York City (NYC), limited data exists on the levels and spatial variation in noise levels. We measured 1-week equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (Leq) at 56 sites during the fall of 2012 across NYC locations with varying traffic intensity and building density that are routinely monitored for combustion-related air pollutants. We evaluated correlations among several noise metrics used to characterize noise exposures, including Leq during different time periods (night, day, weekday, weekend), Ldn (day-night noise), and measures of intermittent noise defined as the ratio of peak levels to median and background levels. We also examined correlations between sound pressure levels and co-located simultaneous measures of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) as well as estimates of traffic and building density around the monitoring sites. Noise levels varied widely across the 56 monitoring sites; 1-week Leq varied by 21.6 dBA (range 59.1-80.7 dBA) with the highest levels observed during the weekday, daytime hours. Indices of average noise were well correlated with each other (r > 0.83), while indices of intermittent noise were not well correlated with average noise levels (r < 0.41). One-week Leq correlated well with NO, NO2, and EC levels (r = 0.61 to 0.68) and less so with PM2.5 levels (r = 0.45). We observed associations between 1-week noise levels and traffic intensity within 100 m of the monitoring sites (r = 0

  12. Air-Seawater Exchange of Organochlorine Pesticides along the Sediment Plume of a Large Contaminated River.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian; Guo, Zhigang; Li, Yuanyuan; Nizzetto, Luca; Ma, Chuanliang; Chen, Yingjun

    2015-05-05

    Gaseous exchange fluxes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) across the air-water interface of the coastal East China Sea were determined in order to assess whether the contaminated plume of the Yangtze River could be an important regional source of OCPs to the atmosphere. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most frequently detected OCPs in air and water. Air-water exchange was mainly characterized by net volatilization for all measured OCPs. The net gaseous exchange flux ranged 10-240 ng/(m2·day) for γ-HCH, 60-370 ng/(m2·day) for trans-CHL, 97-410 ng/(m2·day) for cis-CHL, and ∼0 (e.g., equilibrium) to 490 ng/(m2·day) for p,p'-DDE. We found that the plume of the large contaminated river can serve as a significant regional secondary atmospheric source of legacy contaminants released in the catchment. In particular, the sediment plume represented the relevant source of DDT compounds (especially p,p'-DDE) sustaining net degassing when clean air masses from the open ocean reached the plume area. In contrast, a mass balance showed that, for HCHs, contaminated river discharge (water and sediment) plumes were capable of sustaining volatilization throughout the year. These results demonstrate the inconsistencies in the fate of HCHs and DDTs in this large estuarine system with declining primary sources.

  13. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides in a northeastern state of India, Manipur.

    PubMed

    Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Qi, Shihua; Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-six polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers (PUF-PAS) were deployed over a year during January to December, 2009 at three locations, i.e., Imphal (urban site), Thoubal (rural site) and Waithou (alpine site) of Manipur, to assess the seasonal local atmospheric emission of selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The average concentration of HCHs monitored at mountain site during hot season (Mar, Apr, and May) and rainy seasons (Jun, Jul, Aug, and Sep) were 403 and 349 pg/m3, respectively. DDTs had a high concentration with 384 pg/m3 at rural site and 379 pg/m3 at urban site during hot seasons. Endosulfans and chlordane were found high in concentration during hot seasons (260 pg/m3) and low during retreating monsoon seasons (44 pg/m3) at rural site. Most of the OCPs concentrations were high during cultivation period. The OCP concentrations of rainy season were highly correlated (p < 0.01) with OCPs of hot seasons. Further, positive correlation (p < 0.05) was also obtained between cold seasons and retreating monsoon. Principal component analysis showed a significant correlation among the four seasons and distribution pattern of OCPs in air. Back trajectory analysis by using HYPSLIT model showed a long range air transport of OCPs to the present study area. Present OCP levels at Manipur is an outcome of both local emission and also movement of air mass by long range atmospheric transport.

  14. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wen Qi; McLean, Kathleen; Brauer, Michael; Chiarello, Sarah A; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies.

  15. Organochlorine pesticides in soils and air of southern Mexico: Chemical profiles and potential for soil emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A.; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Ceja-Moreno, Victor; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    The extent of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) contamination in southern Mexico was investigated in this study. Biweekly air samplings were carried out in two sites in the state of Chiapas (during 2002-2003), and one in each state of Veracruz and Tabasco (during 2003-2004). Corresponding to the air sampling locations, soil samples were also collected to gauge the soil-air exchange of OCs in the region. ∑DDTs in soils ranged from 0.057 to 360 ng g -1 whereas those in air ranged from 240 to 2400 pg m -3. DDT and metabolite DDE were expressed as fractional values, FDDTe = p, p'-DDT/( p, p'-DDT + p, p'-DDE) and FDDTo = p,p'-DDT/( p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDT). FDDTe in soils ranged from 0.30 to 0.69 while those in air ranged from 0.45 to 0.84. FDDTe in air at a farm in Chiapas (0.84) was closer to that of technical DDT (0.95) which is suggestive of fresh DDT input. Enantiomer fractions (EF) of o,p'-DDT in air were racemic at all locations (0.500-0.504). However, nonracemic o,p'-DDT was seen in the soils (EFs = 0.456-0.647). Fugacities of OCs in soil ( fs) and air ( fa) were calculated, and the fugacity fraction, ff = fs/( fs + fa) of DDTs ranged from 0.013 to 0.97 which indicated a mix of net deposition ( ff < 0.5) and volatilization ( ff > 0.5) from soil among the sites. It is suggested that DDTs in Mexico air are due to a combination of ongoing regional usage and re-emission of old DDT residues from soils. Total toxaphene in soils ranged from 0.066 to 69 ng g -1 while levels in air ranged from 6.2 to 230 pg m -3. Chromatographic profiles of toxaphenes in both air and soil showed depletion of Parlar congeners 39 and 42. Fugacity fractions of toxaphene were within the equilibrium range or above the upper equilibrium threshold boundary. These findings suggested that soil emission of old residues is the main source of toxaphenes to the atmosphere. Results from this study provide baseline data for establishing a long-term OC monitoring program in Mexico.

  16. Evaluation studies of noise and air pollution during festival seasons in India.

    PubMed

    Battalwar, D G; Meshram, S U; Yenkie, M K N; Puri, P J

    2012-07-01

    The present research work is based on assessment of noise levels and ambient air quality at selected locations during festival seasons in Nagpur city. The noise levels were exceeding the permissible limits almost at every location during the festival period. The huge emissions of smoke arising out bursting of firecrackers have significantly resulted into air pollution; particularly in terms of Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (Fine Dust). The immediate effect of increasing noise levels is impairing of hearing that may cause auditory fatigue and finally lead to deafness.

  17. Some insights into the relationship between urban air pollution and noise levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ho, Duy Xuan; Brown, Richard J C; Oh, J-M; Park, Chan Goo; Ryu, In Cheol

    2012-05-01

    The relationship between noise and air pollution was investigated in eight different districts across Seoul, Korea, between September and November 2010. The noise levels in each district were measured at both roadside and non-roadside locations. It was found that the maximum levels of noise were generally at frequencies of around 1000 Hz. The equivalent noise levels (L(eq)), over all districts, averaged 61.4 ± 7.36 dB which is slightly lower than the noise guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 70 dB for industrial, commercial, traffic, and outdoor areas. Comparison of L(eq) levels in each district consistently indicates that noise levels are higher at roadside sites than non-roadside sites. In addition the relative dominance of noise during daytime as compared to nighttime was also apparent. Moreover, the results of an analysis relating sound levels with air pollutant levels indicate strongly that the correlation between these two parameters is the strongest at roadside sites (relative to non-roadside sites) and during nighttime (relative to daytime). The results of our data analysis point to a positive, but complex, correlation between noise levels and air pollution.

  18. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias; Andersen, Zorana J; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association with risk for stroke. In a population-based cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrollment, we identified 1999 incident stroke cases in national registries, followed by validation through medical records. Mean follow-up time was 11.2 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10 µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10 dB road traffic noise at the residential address was associated with ischemic stroke with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.20) and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.24), respectively, in single exposure models. In two-exposure models road traffic noise (IRR: 1.15) and not NO2 (IRR: 1.02) was associated with ischemic stroke. The strongest association was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air pollution affected risk for fatal strokes. There were indications of combined effects.

  19. Pesticides in Air and Rainwater in the Midcontinental United States, 1995 - Methods and Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Coupe, Richard H.; Goolsby, Donald A.; Wiebe, Frank W.

    2008-01-01

    Weekly composite high-volume air and wet-only deposition samples were collected from April through September 1995 at paired urban and agricultural areas in Mississippi, Iowa, and Minnesota, and at a background site in Michigan?s Upper Peninsula. This report describes the methods used to collect, analyze, and quality assure the samples, and presents the results of all chemical analyses and quality control procedures. Each sample was analyzed for 49 compounds, including several pesticides not examined in previous atmospheric studies. Eighty-five percent of the herbicides, 70 percent of the insecticides, and 100 percent of the transformation products that were targeted for analysis were detected in one or more samples at each paired site.

  20. Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides in urban environment: air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Hu, Dan; Ou, Langbo; Wang, Xuejun

    2010-11-01

    Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in urban multiple environments, including air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff water, are explored in this study. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) dominated in both air and rain water, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) related substances showed a higher affinity to dust. Relatively high concentrations of DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in air, rain and dust imply that technical DDT in the environment has been degrading, and there may be unknown local or regional emission sources that contain DDTs in the study area. Source identification showed that DDTs in Beijing urban environments with a fresh signature may originate from the atmospheric transport from remote areas. The ratio of α-/γ-HCH in dust, rain, canopy throughfall and runoff were close to 1, indicating the possible use of lindane. OCPs in runoff were transported from various sources including rain, dust, and canopy throughfall. In runoff, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were mainly transported from dust, and HCHs were mainly from rain and canopy throughfall.

  1. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel; Trapp, Stefan; Klanova, Jana

    2009-02-01

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K(OW). A negative correlation between BCF and log K(OW) was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K(OA).

  2. Scientists Probe Pesticide Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes discussions of a symposium on pesticide environmental dynamics with emphases upon pesticide transport processes, environmental reactions, and partitioning in air, soil, water and living organisms. Indicates that the goal is to attain knowledge enough to predict pesticide behavior and describe pesticide distribution with models and…

  3. Noise reduction by the application of an air-bubble curtain in offshore pile driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Underwater noise pollution is a by-product of marine industrial operations. In particular, the noise generated when a foundation pile is driven into the soil with an impact hammer is considered to be harmful for the aquatic species. In an attempt to reduce the ecological footprint, several noise mitigation techniques have been investigated. Among the various solutions proposed, the air-bubble curtain is often applied due to its efficacy in noise reduction. In this paper, a model is proposed for the investigation of the sound reduction during marine piling when an air-bubble curtain is placed around the pile. The model consists of the pile, the surrounding water and soil media, and the air-bubble curtain which is positioned at a certain distance from the pile surface. The solution approach is semi-analytical and is based on the dynamic sub-structuring technique and the modal decomposition method. Two main results of the paper can be distinguished. First, a new model is proposed that can be used for predictions of the noise levels in a computationally efficient manner. Second, an analysis is presented of the principal mechanisms that are responsible for the noise reduction due to the application of the air-bubble curtain in marine piling. The understanding of these mechanisms turns to be crucial for the exploitation of the maximum efficiency of the system. It is shown that the principal mechanism of noise reduction depends strongly on the frequency content of the radiated sound and the characteristics of the bubbly medium. For piles of large diameter which radiate most of the acoustic energy at relatively low frequencies, the noise reduction is mainly attributed to the mismatch of the acoustic impedances between the seawater and the bubbly layer. On the contrary, for smaller piles and when the radiated acoustic energy is concentrated at frequencies close to, or higher than, the resonance frequency of the air bubbles, the sound absorption within the bubbly layer

  4. Current status of persistent organic pesticides residues in air, water, and soil, and their possible effect on neighboring countries: a comprehensive review of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Cheng, Zhineng; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2015-04-01

    Though the use of pesticides has offered significant economic benefits by enhancing the production and yield of food and fibers and the prevention of vector-borne diseases, evidence suggests that their use has adversely affected the health of human populations and the environment. Pesticides have been widely distributed and their traces can be detected in all areas of the environment (air, water and soil). Despite the ban of DDT and HCH in India, they are still in use, both in domestic and agricultural settings. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the production and consumption of persistent organic pesticides, their maximum residual limit (MRL) and the presence of persistent organic pesticides in multicomponent environmental samples (air, water and soil) from India. In order to highlight the global distribution of persistent organic pesticides and their impact on neighboring countries and regions, the role of persistent organic pesticides in Indian region is reviewed. Based on a review of research papers and modeling simulations, it can be concluded that India is one of the major contributors of global persistent organic pesticide distribution. This review also considers the health impacts of persistent organic pesticides, the regulatory measures for persistent organic pesticides, and the status of India's commitment towards the elimination of persistent organic pesticides.

  5. ENANTIOMERIC RATIOS AS SOURCE TRACERS OF OC PESTICIDES IN GREAT LAKES AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were used heavily in the cornbelt regions during the 60's and 70's. Volatilization of these pesticides from agricultural soils may be a significant source of contaminants to the atmosphere which may later be deposited in the Great Lakes. Pesticide...

  6. Selected current-use and historic-use pesticides in air and seawater of the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Guangcai; Tang, Jianhui; Xie, Zhiyong; Möller, Axel; Zhao, Zhen; Sturm, Renate; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Pan, Xiaohui; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Gan; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of pesticides in China has increased rapidly in recent years; however, occurrence and fate of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in China coastal waters are poorly understood. Globally banned pesticides, so-called historic-use pesticides (HUPs), are still commonly observed in the environment. In this work, air and surface seawater samples taken from the Bohai and Yellow Seas in May 2012 were analyzed for CUPs including trifluralin, quintozene, chlorothalonil, dicofol, chlorpyrifos, and dacthal, as well as HUPs (hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and endosulfan). CUP profile in both air and seawater samples generally reflected their consumption patterns in China. HUPs in the air and seawater samples were in comparable levels as those of CUPs with high concentrations. α-Endosulfan, dicofol, and chlorothalonil showed strong net deposition likely resulting from their intensive use in recent years, while CUPs with low consumption amount (quintozene and dacthal) were close to equilibrium at most samplings sites. Another CUP with high usage amout (i.e., chlorpyrifos) underwent volatilization possibly due to its longer half-life in seawater than that in air. α-HCH and γ-HCH were close to equilibrium in the Bohai Sea, but mainly underwent net deposition in the Yellow Sea. The net deposition of α-HCH could be attributed to polluted air pulses from the East China identified by air mass back trajectories. β-HCH showed net volatilization in the Bohai Sea, which was driven by its relative enrichment in seawater. HCB either slightly favored net volatilization or was close to equilibrium in the Bohai and Yellow Seas.

  7. Persistent organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air of the North Sea region and air-sea exchange.

    PubMed

    Mai, Carolin; Theobald, Norbert; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Lammel, Gerhard

    2016-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied to determine occurrence, levels and spatial distribution in the marine atmosphere and surface seawater during cruises in the German Bight and the wider North Sea in spring and summer 2009-2010. In general, the concentrations found in air are similar to, or below, the levels at coastal or near-coastal sites in Europe. Hexachlorobenzene and α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) were close to phase equilibrium, whereas net atmospheric deposition was observed for γ-HCH. The results suggest that declining trends of HCH in seawater have been continuing for γ-HCH but have somewhat levelled off for α-HCH. Dieldrin displayed a close to phase equilibrium in nearly all the sampling sites, except in the central southwestern part of the North Sea. Here atmospheric deposition dominates the air-sea exchange. This region, close to the English coast, showed remarkably increased surface seawater concentrations. This observation depended neither on riverine input nor on the elevated abundances of dieldrin in the air masses of central England. A net depositional flux of p,p'-DDE into the North Sea was indicated by both its abundance in the marine atmosphere and the changes in metabolite pattern observed in the surface water from the coast towards the open sea. The long-term trends show that the atmospheric concentrations of DDT and its metabolites are not declining. Riverine input is a major source of PCBs in the German Bight and the wider North Sea. Atmospheric deposition of the lower molecular weight PCBs (PCB28 and PCB52) was indicated as a major source for surface seawater pollution.

  8. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study)

    PubMed Central

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frederique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA) traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A) vs 30-45 dB(A)] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86)], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP) may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP. PMID:26356373

  9. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study).

    PubMed

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frederique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA) traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A) vs 30-45 dB(A)] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86)], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP) may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP.

  10. Pesticide pollution of soil, water and air in Delhi area, India.

    PubMed

    Pillai, M K

    1986-11-01

    In India organochlorine insecticides such as DDT and HCH constitute more than 70% of the pesticides used at present. Its continued use has given interest to monitor for the last few years the extent of organochlorine insecticide residues in soil, water, air and rain water in Delhi area. Out of the 50 samples each of soil and earthworms collected from different parts 48 samples showed that soil and earthworms contained 0-2.61 and 0-37.74 mg Kg-1 of total DDT residues respectively. The area near the vicinity of the DDT factory showed high levels of DDT residues. A two-year survey of the Yamuna river in Delhi showed that water contained an average of 0.24 ug L-1 and the bottom sediment had 0.24 mg Kg-1 of total DDT residues. The fishes collected from the Yamuna river showed very high bioaccumulation of DDT residues. The air and rainwater samples monitored from 3 different areas for two years indicated that DDT was more near the DDT factory area while HCH was more near a commercial complex. These results indicate that the overall organochlorine-residue levels in Delhi is not alarming. It probably indicates that DDT and HCH are more rapidly dissipated and degraded in a tropical country like India.

  11. Multiyear Measurements of Flame Retardants and Organochlorine Pesticides in Air in Canada's Western Sub-Arctic.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Hung, Hayley; Alexandrou, Nick; Roach, Pat; Nordin, Ken

    2015-07-21

    Fourteen polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 14 non-BDE flame retardants (FRs), and 25 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in air samples collected at Little Fox Lake (LFL) in Canada's Yukon Territory from August 2011 to December 2014. LFL is a long-term monitoring station operated under the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) and one of only a few stations that contribute to the assessment of air pollution levels and pathways to the sub-Arctic region. BDE-47 was the most abundant congener among the 14 PBDEs, followed by BDE-99. Non-BDE FRs pentabromotoluene (PBT) and dechlorane plus (DP) were detected in all the samples. Dechlorane 602, 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), and 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB) were also detected in >75% of all samples. PBDEs have shown a decreasing tendency as of 2013, which may reflect the phase-out of penta- and octa-BDE mixtures has led to significant decline in the atmosphere. The highest concentrations of OCPs were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), with a median concentration of 61 pg/m(3), followed by α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) and α-endosulfan. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) highlights Northern Canada, Pacific, and East Asia as potential sources in warm seasons; whereas in cold seasons, the chemicals mainly came from the Pacific Rim.

  12. Influence of traffic-related noise and air pollution on self-reported fatigue.

    PubMed

    Jazani, Reza Khani; Saremi, Mahnaz; Rezapour, Tara; Kavousi, Amir; Shirzad, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to environmental pollutions is related to health problems. It is, however, questionable whether this condition affects working performance in occupational settings. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive value of age as well as traffic related air and noise pollutions for fatigue. 246 traffic officers participated in this study. Air pollution data were obtained from the local Air Quality Control Company. A sound level meter was used for measuring ambient noise. Fatigue was evaluated by the MFI-20 questionnaire. The general and physical scales showed the highest, while the reduced activity scale showed the lowest level of fatigue. Age had an independent direct effect on reduced activity and physical fatigue. The average of daytime equivalent noise level was between 71.63 and 88.51 dB(A). In the case of high noise exposure, older officers feel more fatigue than younger ones. Exposure to PM10 and O3 resulted in general and physical fatigue. Complex Interactions between SO2, CO and NO2 were found. Exposure to noise and some components of air pollution, especially O3 and PM10, increases fatigue. The authorities should adopt and rigorously implement environmental protection policies in order to protect people.

  13. Atmospheric concentrations of current-use pesticides across south-central Ontario using monthly-resolved passive air samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouin, T.; Shoeib, M.; Harner, T.

    In this study passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed on a monthly basis at a number of sites along a south-north transect, extending 700 km north from Toronto, Ontario, characterizing an urban-agricultural-forested gradient, to investigate the spatial and temporal trends of current-use pesticides (CUPs), between spring 2003 and spring 2004. The most frequently detected CUPs were chlorpyrifos, dacthal, trifluralin, and α-endosulfan. Highest air concentrations of chlorpyrifos were observed in May, whereas α-endosulfan and dacthal peaked in July and August, reflecting differences in usage patterns. At the agricultural site, representing the source region of CUPs, chlorpyrifos air concentrations (pg m -3) varied from 2700 to 3.2 and α-endulsulfan from 1600 to 19. The most frequently detected legacy pesticides were the hexachlorocylcohexanes (α-HCH and γ-HCH). For the forested sites, located on the Precambrian Shield, a region with limited agricultural activity, seasonal differences were less pronounced and air concentrations were observed to be much lower. For instance, air concentrations (pg m -3) of chlorpyrifos and α-endosulfan ranged from 7.6 to 0.3 and 50 to 2.0, respectively. By combining PAS data with trajectory air shed maps it is demonstrated that potential source-receptor relationships can be assessed. Air shed maps produced in this study indicate a potential of increased deposition of CUPs to Lake Erie and Lake Ontario.

  14. Impacts of Noise Barriers on Near-Road Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous health studies show an increase in adverse health effects for populations near large roadways. A study was designed to assess traffic emission impacts on air quality near a heavily traveled highway. The portion of highway studied included a section of open field and a se...

  15. Contemporary-use pesticides in personal air samples during pregnancy and blood samples at delivery among urban minority mothers and newborns.

    PubMed Central

    Whyatt, Robin M; Barr, Dana B; Camann, David E; Kinney, Patrick L; Barr, John R; Andrews, Howard F; Hoepner, Lori A; Garfinkel, Robin; Hazi, Yair; Reyes, Andria; Ramirez, Judyth; Cosme, Yesenia; Perera, Frederica P

    2003-01-01

    We have measured 29 pesticides in plasma samples collected at birth between 1998 and 2001 from 230 mother and newborn pairs enrolled in the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health prospective cohort study. Our prior research has shown widespread pesticide use during pregnancy among this urban minority cohort from New York City. We also measured eight pesticides in 48-hr personal air samples collected from the mothers during pregnancy. The following seven pesticides were detected in 48-83% of plasma samples (range, 1-270 pg/g): the organophosphates chlorpyrifos and diazinon, the carbamates bendiocarb and 2-isopropoxyphenol (metabolite of propoxur), and the fungicides dicloran, phthalimide (metabolite of folpet and captan), and tetrahydrophthalimide (metabolite of captan and captafol). Maternal and cord plasma levels were similar and, except for phthalimide, were highly correlated (p < 0.001). Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and propoxur were detected in 100% of personal air samples (range, 0.7-6,010 ng/m(3)). Diazinon and propoxur levels were significantly higher in the personal air of women reporting use of an exterminator, can sprays, and/or pest bombs during pregnancy compared with women reporting no pesticide use or use of lower toxicity methods only. A significant correlation was seen between personal air level of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and propoxur and levels of these insecticides or their metabolites in plasma samples (maternal and/or cord, p < 0.05). The fungicide ortho-phenylphenol was also detected in 100% of air samples but was not measured in plasma. The remaining 22 pesticides were detected in 0-45% of air or plasma samples. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, propoxur, and bendiocarb levels in air and/or plasma decreased significantly between 1998 and 2001. Findings indicate that pesticide exposures are frequent but decreasing and that the pesticides are readily transferred to the developing fetus during pregnancy. PMID:12727605

  16. The effects of rice canopy on the air-soil exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides using paired passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Shaorui; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Ming, Lili; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong

    2015-05-01

    The rice canopy in paddy fields can influence the air-soil exchange of organic chemicals. We used paired passive air samplers to assess the exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in a paddy field, South China. Levels of OCPs and light PAHs were generally higher under the canopy than above it. We found that the rice canopy can physically obstruct the evaporation of most OCPs and light PAHs, and can also act as a barrier to the gaseous deposition of p,p'-DDT and heavy PAHs. Paddy fields can behave as a secondary source of OCPs and light PAHs. The homolog patterns of these two types of chemical varied slightly between the air below and above the rice canopy, implying contributions of different sources. Paired passive air samplers can be used effectively to assess the in situ air-soil exchange of PAHs and OCPs in subtropical paddy fields.

  17. Recent decline of DDTs among several organochlorine pesticides in background air in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Takazawa, Yoshikatsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Doi, Kenji; Saito, Mick; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in air-mass outflows from East Asia were recorded monthly from April 2009 to March 2014 at Cape Hedo in Japan. These organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were collected by a high volume air sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter, a polyurethane foam plug, and activated carbon fiber and analyzed by using a gas chromatograph-high resolution mass spectrometer. The overall (and geometric mean ± SD) concentration over the period was 4.9-43 pg m(-3) (15 ± 7.8 pg m(-3)) in HCHs (sum of α-/β-/γ-/δ-HCH), 1.5-83 pg m(-3) (8.8 ± 11 pg m(-3)) in CHLs (sum of cis-/trans-chlordane, cis-/trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane), and 0.71-16 pg m(-3) (2.5 ± 2.0 pg m(-3)) in DDTs (sum of o,p'-/p,p'-DDD, o,p'-/p,p'-DDE, and o,p'-/p,p'-DDT). Clear seasonal changes, i.e. higher in summer and lower in winter, were observed in HCHs and CHLs, suggesting the dominant effect of temperature-dependence, secondary sources in these OCPs. DDT concentration as well as the ratio of (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT) to total DDTs, on the other hand, showed clear a declining trend during the five year sampling period, suggesting the decrease of input of newly produced DDTs in the regional environment by reflecting recent activities in the East Asian region to eliminate production and use of DDTs under the Stockholm Convention.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Goreglyad, A. V.; Tkachenko, L. L.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the listing of the Stockholm Convention in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region at the base of the "Khankh" stationary, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2008-2013 in the absence of clear sources of these compounds are considered. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the concentration of PCB and OCP in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013 characterizing the influence of natural (annual temperature variations) and anthropogenic (atmospheric transportation from the territories of neighboring countries) are shown.

  19. Air Traffic Controllers’ Long-Term Speech-in-Noise Training Effects: A Control Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Zaballos, María T.P.; Plasencia, Daniel P.; González, María L.Z.; de Miguel, Angel R.; Macías, Ángel R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC) are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. Subjects and Methods: 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and −5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Results: Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [P<0.05 in ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests]. Group differences were largest in the most difficult condition, SNR=−5 dB. However, no correlation between experience and performance were found for any of the conditions tested. The reason might be that ceiling performance is achieved much faster than the minimum experience time recorded, 5 years, although intrinsic cognitive abilities cannot be disregarded. Discussion: ATC demonstrated enhanced ability to hear speech in challenging listening environments. This study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions, although good cognitive qualities are likely to be a basic requirement for this training to be effective. Conclusion: Our results show that ATC outperform the control group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions. PMID:27991470

  20. The Covariance between Air Pollution Annoyance and Noise Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim; Welch, David; McBride, David; Landon, Jason

    2016-08-06

    Air pollution originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects). While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with noise (after controlling for air pollution), noise exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of many measures capable of probing health. In this study, we examine pre-collected data from postal surveys probing HRQOL obtained from a variety of urban, suburban, and rural contexts across the North Island of New Zealand. Analyses focus on the covariance between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances, and their independent and combined effects on HRQOL. Results indicate that the highest ratings of air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances were for residents living close to the motorway, while the lowest were for rural residents. Most of the city samples indicated no significant difference between air pollution- and noise-annoyance ratings, and of all of the correlations between air pollution- and noise-annoyance, the highest were found in the city samples. These findings suggest that annoyance is driven by exposure to environmental factors and not personality characteristics. Analysis of HRQOL indicated that air pollution annoyance predicts greater variability in the physical HRQOL domain while noise annoyance predicts greater variability in the psychological, social and environmental domains. The lack of an interaction effect between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyance suggests that air pollution and noise impact on health independently. These results echo those obtained from objective measures of health and suggest that mitigation of traffic effects should address both air and noise pollution.

  1. The Covariance between Air Pollution Annoyance and Noise Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim; Welch, David; McBride, David; Landon, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects). While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with noise (after controlling for air pollution), noise exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of many measures capable of probing health. In this study, we examine pre-collected data from postal surveys probing HRQOL obtained from a variety of urban, suburban, and rural contexts across the North Island of New Zealand. Analyses focus on the covariance between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances, and their independent and combined effects on HRQOL. Results indicate that the highest ratings of air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances were for residents living close to the motorway, while the lowest were for rural residents. Most of the city samples indicated no significant difference between air pollution- and noise-annoyance ratings, and of all of the correlations between air pollution- and noise-annoyance, the highest were found in the city samples. These findings suggest that annoyance is driven by exposure to environmental factors and not personality characteristics. Analysis of HRQOL indicated that air pollution annoyance predicts greater variability in the physical HRQOL domain while noise annoyance predicts greater variability in the psychological, social and environmental domains. The lack of an interaction effect between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyance suggests that air pollution and noise impact on health independently. These results echo those obtained from objective measures of health and suggest that mitigation of traffic effects should address both air and noise pollution. PMID:27509512

  2. Sources of organochlorine pesticides in air in an urban Mediterranean environment: volatilisation from soil.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Gerhard; Klánová, Jana; Erić, Ljiljana; Ilić, Predrag; Kohoutek, Jiří; Kovacić, Igor

    2011-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) cycling was studied in the area of Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, over 3 days in summer with high temporal (4 h-means) and spatial (3 sites distanced 3-6 km) resolutions. Elevated levels of DDX compounds (i.e. o,p'- and p,p'-isomers of DDT, DDE and DDD, 44-74 pg m(-3) at the urban sites and 27 pg m(-3) as a background level), HCH (α-, β- and γ-isomers, 52-70 vs. 147 pg m(-3)), HCB (34-48 vs. <0.1 pg m(-3)) and pentachlorobenzene (6.8-9.9 vs. 6.0 pg m(-3)) were found. The variation of OCP levels at the two urban sites was not in phase, except for most DDX compounds. This was related to background levels, which for HCH were higher than in the urban area. Vertical profiles between samples collected from 1.1 and 2.3 m (part of the time 0.6 and 2.3 m) above a soil, which was only moderately contaminated by OCPs (0.12 ng g(-1) HCH, 0.11 ng g(-1) DDX, 0.44 ng g(-1) HCB) were analysed. Volatilisation from the ground caused negative vertical concentration gradients of HCH isomers (day and night), but not for HCB (except for 1 day-time sample) and DDX compounds (except p,p'-DDD, day-time, sporadically). The concentration in air and the vertical concentration gradient of the HCH isomers varied with air temperature (day-time maxima), while the variation of the HCB concentration was inversely related to air temperature and was determined by mixing (night-time maxima). α- and β-HCH were volatilised from soil throughout the three days, even during periods of cooling. Fugacity calculations, based on the absorption in soil organic matter as the process determining retention in soil, underestimated the volatilisation of β-HCH and p,p'-DDD. It is concluded that the representativeness of point measurements of OCPs in urban areas is limited by the spatial variability of soil contamination.

  3. Air backed mandrel type fiber optic hydrophone with low noise floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, R.; V, Sreehari C.; N, Praveen Kumar; Awasthi, R. L.; K, Vivek; B, Vishnu M.; Santhanakrishnan, T.; Moosad, K. P. B.; Mathew, Basil

    2014-10-01

    Low noise fiber optic hydrophone based on optical fiber coil wound on air-backed mandrel was developed. The sensor can be effectively used for underwater acoustic sensing. The design and characterization of the hydrophone is illustrated in this paper. A fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) was developed and coupled with a Distributed Feedback (DFB) fiber laser source and an optical phase demodulation system, with an active modulation in one of the arms. The sensor head design was optimized to achieve noise spectral density <10 μrad/√Hz, for yielding sufficient sensitivity to sense acoustic pressure close to Deep Sea Sate Zero (DSS0).

  4. Airport noise complaint patterns and interviews of frequent complainers at two major air carrier airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggers, Nicholas; Eiff, Gary

    2005-09-01

    The complex and highly sensitive topic of aircraft noise and population annoyance continues to be a major inhibitor to airport development plans. The projected growth of air travel necessitates expanded capacity at many existing airports and the development and construction of new airports in order to accommodate burgeoning traveler needs. Concerns by citizens near major airports about their economic, health, and social welfare continue to generate community and individual declarations of annoyance and concern which threaten timely solutions to airport expansion plans. A deeper understanding of the nature of these concerns is important to more effectively cope with airport expansion concerns among adjacent communities and surrounding neighbors. This study analyzed existing noise complaints registered at Denver International Airport (DEN) and Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport (FLL) in an attempt to gain greater understanding of noise complaint drivers and public annoyance. Interviews of frequent complainers were utilized in order to gain richer data concerning individual annoyance issues.

  5. Noise reduction evaluation of grids in a supersonic air stream with application to Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiner, J. M.; Manning, J. C.; Nystrom, P.; Pao, S. P.

    1977-01-01

    Near field acoustic measurements were obtained for a model supersonic air jet perturbed by a screen. Noise reduction potential in the vicinity of the space shuttle vehicle during ground launch when the rocket exhaust flow is perturbed by a grid was determined. Both 10 and 12 mesh screens were utilized for this experiment, and each exhibited a noise reduction only at very low frequencies in the near field forward arc. A power spectrum analysis revealed that a modest reduction of from 3 to 5 decibels exists below a Strouhal number S sub t = 0.11. Above S sub t = 0.11 screen harmonics increased the observed sound pressure level. The favorable noise reductions obtained with screens for S sub t 0.11 may be of substantial interest for the space shuttle at ground launch.

  6. Evaluation of air quality and noise impact assessments, Deaf Smith County

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    In this report, several issues are identified regarding the air quality and noise impact assessments presented in the final salt repository environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Energy for the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. Necessary revisions to the data and methods used to develop the EA impact assessment are described. Then, a comparative evaluation is presented in which estimated impacts based upon the revised data and methods are compared with the impacts published in the EA. The evaluation indicates that the conclusions of the EA air quality and noise impacts sections would be unchanged. Consequently, the guideline findings presented in Chapter 6 of the EA are also unchanged by the revised analysis. 13 tabs.

  7. Recent efforts to validate EOS observations: hyperspectral data noise characterization using PCA: application to AIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, David; Revercomb, Henry; Antonelli, Paolo; Vinson, Kenneth; Dutcher, Steven; Knuteson, Robert; Taylor, Joseph; Best, Fred; Moeller, Chris; Gunshor, Mathew

    2006-08-01

    Exploiting the redundancy in high spectral resolution observations, dependent set Principle Component Analysis (PCA) is a simple yet very powerful tool not only for noise filtering and lossy compression, but also for the characterization of sensor noise and other variable artifacts using Earth scene data. Our approach for dependent set PCA of AIRS Earth scene data is presented. Aspects of the analyses include 1) estimation of NEDT using PCA and comparisons to values derived from on-board blackbodies, 2) estimation of the scene dependence of NEDN, 3) estimation of the spectrally correlated component of NEDT and comparison to pre-launch analyses using blackbody views, 4) investigation of non- Gaussian noise behavior, and 5) inspection of individual PCs. The results of the PCA analyses are generally consistent with results obtained pre-launch and on-orbit using blackbody and/or space view data. Specific findings include: 1) PCA estimates of AIRS spectrally random and spectrally correlated NEDN compare well with estimates computed from on-board blackbody and space views, 2) the signal dependence of AIRS NEDN is accurately parameterized in terms of the scene radiance, 3) examination of the reconstruction error allows non-Gaussian phenomenon such as popping to be characterized, and 4) inspection of the PCs and individual PC filtered radiance spectra is a powerful technique for diagnosing low level artifacts in hyperspectral data.

  8. Ambient air pollution, traffic noise and adult asthma prevalence: a BioSHaRE approach.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yutong; Zijlema, Wilma L; Doiron, Dany; Blangiardo, Marta; Burton, Paul R; Fortier, Isabel; Gaye, Amadou; Gulliver, John; de Hoogh, Kees; Hveem, Kristian; Mbatchou, Stéphane; Morley, David W; Stolk, Ronald P; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L; Hodgson, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of both ambient air pollution and traffic noise on adult asthma prevalence, using harmonised data from three European cohort studies established in 2006-2013 (HUNT3, Lifelines and UK Biobank).Residential exposures to ambient air pollution (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) were estimated by a pan-European Land Use Regression model for 2007. Traffic noise for 2009 was modelled at home addresses by adapting a standardised noise assessment framework (CNOSSOS-EU). A cross-sectional analysis of 646 731 participants aged ≥20 years was undertaken using DataSHIELD to pool data for individual-level analysis via a "compute to the data" approach. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to assess the effects of each exposure on lifetime and current asthma prevalence.PM10 or NO2 higher by 10 µg·m(-3) was associated with 12.8% (95% CI 9.5-16.3%) and 1.9% (95% CI 1.1-2.8%) higher lifetime asthma prevalence, respectively, independent of confounders. Effects were larger in those aged ≥50 years, ever-smokers and less educated. Noise exposure was not significantly associated with asthma prevalence.This study suggests that long-term ambient PM10 exposure is associated with asthma prevalence in western European adults. Traffic noise is not associated with asthma prevalence, but its potential to impact on asthma exacerbations needs further investigation.

  9. The spatial relationship between traffic-generated air pollution and noise in 2 US cities.

    PubMed

    Allen, Ryan W; Davies, Hugh; Cohen, Martin A; Mallach, Gary; Kaufman, Joel D; Adar, Sara D

    2009-04-01

    Traffic-generated air pollution and noise have both been linked to cardiovascular morbidity. Since traffic is a shared source, there is potential for correlated exposures that may lead to confounding in epidemiologic studies. As part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air), 2-week NO and NO(2) concentrations were measured at up to 105 locations, selected primarily to characterize gradients near major roads, in each of 9 US communities. We measured 5-min A-weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (L(eq)) and ultrafine particle (UFP) counts at a subset of these NO/NO(2) monitoring locations in Chicago, IL (N=69 in December 2006; N=36 in April 2007) and Riverside County, CA (N=46 in April 2007). L(eq) and UFP were measured during non-"rush hour" periods (10:00-16:00) to maximize comparability between measurements. We evaluated roadway proximity exposure surrogates in relation to the measured levels, estimated noise-air pollution correlation coefficients, and evaluated the impact of regional-scale pollution gradients, wind direction, and roadway proximity on the correlations. Five-minute L(eq) measurements in December 2006 and April 2007 were highly correlated (r=0.84), and measurements made at different times of day were similar (coefficients of variation: 0.5-13%), indicating that 5-min measurements are representative of long-term L(eq). Binary and continuous roadway proximity metrics characterized L(eq) as well or better than NO or NO(2). We found strong regional-scale gradients in NO and NO(2), particularly in Chicago, but only weak regional-scale gradients in L(eq) and UFP. L(eq) was most consistently correlated with NO, but the correlations were moderate (0.20-0.60). After removing the influence of regional-scale gradients the correlations generally increased (L(eq)-NO: r=0.49-0.62), and correlations downwind of major roads (L(eq)-NO: r=0.53-0.74) were consistently higher than those upwind (0.35-0.65). There was not a

  10. Short-term temperature-dependent air-surface exchange and atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated naphthalenes and organochlorine pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.G.M.; Burnett, V.; Harner, T.; Jones, K.C.

    2000-02-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of five organochlorine (OC) pesticides, some of which have been banned for a number of years, and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were measured at a U.K. site over periods of 6 h for 7 days resulting in 28 samples. Mean concentrations of the pesticides were {alpha}-HCH 90 pg m{sup {minus}3}, {gamma}-HCH 500, {rho},{rho}{prime}-DDE 8, dieldrin 63, endrin 22, and HCB 39. PCN mean homologue concentrations were {sub 3}CNs 67 pg m{sup {minus}3}, {sub 4}CNs 78, {sub 5}CNs 5, {sub 6}CNs 0.6, {sub 7}CNs 0.6, and {Sigma}PCNs 152. TEQ concentrations for those PCNs ascribed TEF values ranged between 0.36 and 3.6 fg m{sup {minus}3} which corresponds to {approximately}3.0--30% of the TEQ concentrations of PCDD/Fs at the same site. All the compounds measured, except HCB, exhibited a strong temperature-dependent diurnal cycling. Results from Clausius-Clapeyron plots show that pesticide concentrations were controlled by temperature-driven air-surface recycling throughout the first 5 days when stable atmospheric conditions were dominant, while during the last 2 days advection became more influential as more unstable and cooler weather started to influence the site. PCN concentrations were controlled primarily by a mixture of recycling and advection throughout the first 5 days and then by advection in the final 2 days, suggesting that there are ongoing emissions from diffuse point sources of PCNs into the U.K. atmosphere. This study provides further evidence of the rapid air-surface exchange of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) and shows how different factors alone or in combination can produce rapid changes in the atmospheric concentrations of past and present SOCs.

  11. Improving environmental noise suppression for micronewton force sensing based on electrostatic by injecting air damping.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yelong; Song, Le; Hu, Gang; Zhao, Meirong; Tian, Yanling; Zhang, Zihui; Fang, Fengzhou

    2014-05-01

    A micro/nano force can be traced to the International System of Units by means of an electrostatic force balance weight system. However, the micro/nano force measurement system is susceptible to environmental disturbances. Various methods have been proposed to reduce the effect of environmental disturbances and obtain high resolution and fast response. In this paper, we introduce a combination of air damping and inherent damping from the internal molecular friction of spring suspension. This will optimize system stability and improve environmental noise suppression. Results from the air damping model show that the damping ratio increases from 0.0005 to 0.1, which improves the vibration resistance. We found that the system with air damping has the advantages of fast response and low scatter.

  12. Development of a passive air sampler to measure airborne organophosphorus pesticides and oxygen analogs in an agricultural community.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jenna L; Yost, Michael G; Fenske, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides are some of the most widely used insecticides in the US, and spray drift may result in human exposures. We investigate sampling methodologies using the polyurethane foam passive air sampling device to measure cumulative monthly airborne concentrations of OP pesticides chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, and oxygen analogs. Passive sampling rates (m(3)d(-1)) were determined using calculations using chemical properties, loss of depuration compounds, and calibration with side-by-side active air sampling in a dynamic laboratory exposure chamber and in the field. The effects of temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity on outdoor sampling rates were examined at 23 sites in Yakima Valley, Washington. Indoor sampling rates were significantly lower than outdoors. Outdoor rates significantly increased with average wind velocity, with high rates (>4m(3)d(-1)) observed above 8ms(-1). In exposure chamber studies, very little oxygen analog was observed on the PUF-PAS, yet substantial amounts chlorpyrifos-oxon and azinphos methyl oxon were measured in outdoor samples. PUF-PAS is a practical and useful alternative to AAS because it results in little artificial transformation to the oxygen analog during sampling, it provides cumulative exposure estimates, and the measured sampling rates were comparable to rates for other SVOCs. It is ideal for community based participatory research due to low subject burden and simple deployment in remote areas.

  13. Influence of solid noise barriers on near-road and on-road air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, Richard W.; Isakov, Vlad; Deshmukh, Parikshit; Venkatram, Akula; Yang, Bo; Zhang, K. Max

    2016-03-01

    Public health concerns regarding adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near high traffic roadways has increased substantially in recent years. Roadside features, including solid noise barriers, have been investigated as potential methods that can be implemented in a relatively short time period to reduce air pollution exposures from nearby traffic. A field study was conducted to determine the influence of noise barriers on both on-road and downwind pollutant concentrations near a large highway in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ultrafine particles, and black carbon were measured using a mobile platform and fixed sites along two limited-access stretches of highway that contained a section of noise barrier and a section with no noise barrier at-grade with the surrounding terrain. Results of the study showed that pollutant concentrations behind the roadside barriers were significantly lower relative to those measured in the absence of barriers. The reductions ranged from 50% within 50 m from the barrier to about 30% as far as 300 m from the barrier. Reductions in pollutant concentrations generally began within the first 50 m of the barrier edge; however, concentrations were highly variable due to vehicle activity behind the barrier and along nearby urban arterial roadways. The concentrations on the highway, upwind of the barrier, varied depending on wind direction. Overall, the on-road concentrations in front of the noise barrier were similar to those measured in the absence of the barrier, contradicting previous modeling results that suggested roadside barriers increase pollutant levels on the road. Thus, this study suggests that noise barriers do reduce potential pollutant exposures for populations downwind of the road, and do not likely increase exposures to traffic-related pollutants for vehicle passengers on the highway.

  14. Effect of long-term outdoor air pollution and noise on cognitive and psychological functions in adults.

    PubMed

    Tzivian, Lilian; Winkler, Angela; Dlugaj, Martha; Schikowski, Tamara; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Fuks, Kateryna; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that air pollution and ambient noise might impact neurocognitive function. Early studies mostly investigated the associations of air pollution and ambient noise exposure with cognitive development in children. More recently, several studies investigating associations with neurocognitive function, mood disorders, and neurodegenerative disease in adult populations were published, yielding inconsistent results. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on air pollution and noise effects on mental health in adults. We included studies in adult populations (≥18 years old) published in English language in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen articles related to long-term effects of air pollution and eight articles on long-term effects of ambient noise were extracted. Both exposures were separately shown to be associated with one or several measures of global cognitive function, verbal and nonverbal learning and memory, activities of daily living, depressive symptoms, elevated anxiety, and nuisance. No study considered both exposures simultaneously and few studies investigated progression of neurocognitive decline or psychological factors. The existing evidence generally supports associations of environmental factors with mental health, but does not suffice for an overall conclusion about the independent effect of air pollution and noise. There is a need for studies investigating simultaneously air pollution and noise exposures in association mental health, for longitudinal studies to corroborate findings from cross-sectional analyses, and for parallel toxicological and epidemiological studies to elucidate mechanisms and pathways of action.

  15. Proximity to Traffic, Ambient Air Pollution, and Community Noise in Relation to Incident Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Koehoorn, Mieke; Tamburic, Lillian; Davies, Hugh W.; Brauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with living near traffic; however, there is evidence suggesting that air pollution may not be responsible for this association. Noise, another traffic-generated exposure, has not been studied as a risk factor for RA. Objectives: We investigated proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community noise in relation to RA in the Vancouver and Victoria regions of British Columbia, Canada. Methods: Cases and controls were identified in a cohort of adults that was assembled using health insurance registration records. Incident RA cases from 1999 through 2002 were identified by diagnostic codes in combination with prescriptions and type of physician (e.g., rheumatologist). Controls were matched to RA cases by age and sex. Environmental exposures were assigned to each member of the study population by their residential postal code(s). We estimated relative risks using conditional logistic regression, with additional adjustment for median income at the postal code. Results: RA incidence was increased with proximity to traffic, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.68) for residence ≤ 50 m from a highway compared with residence > 150 m away. We found no association with traffic-related exposures such as PM2.5, nitrogen oxides, or noise. Ground-level ozone, which was highest in suburban areas, was associated with an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.36 per interquartile range increase). Conclusions: Our study confirms a previously observed association of RA risk with proximity to traffic and suggests that neither noise levels nor traffic-related air pollutants are responsible for this relationship. Additional investigation of neighborhood and individual correlates of residence near roadways may provide new insight into risk factors for RA. Citation: De Roos AJ, Koehoorn M, Tamburic L, Davies HW, Brauer M. 2014. Proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community

  16. Modeling the impact of solid noise barriers on near road air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatram, Akula; Isakov, Vlad; Deshmukh, Parikshit; Baldauf, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Studies based on field measurements, wind tunnel experiments, and controlled tracer gas releases indicate that solid, roadside noise barriers can lead to reductions in downwind near-road air pollutant concentrations. A tracer gas study showed that a solid barrier reduced pollutant concentrations as much as 80% next to the barrier relative to an open area under unstable meteorological conditions, which corresponds to typical daytime conditions when residents living or children going to school near roadways are most likely to be exposed to traffic emissions. The data from this tracer gas study and a wind tunnel simulation were used to develop a model to describe dispersion of traffic emissions near a highway in the presence of a solid noise barrier. The model is used to interpret real-world data collected during a field study conducted in a complex urban environment next to a large highway in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. We show that the analysis of the data with the model yields useful information on the emission factors and the mitigation impact of the barrier on near-road air quality. The estimated emission factors for the four species, ultrafine particles, CO, NO2, and black carbon, are consistent with data cited in the literature. The results suggest that the model accounted for reductions in pollutant concentrations from a 4.5 m high noise barrier, ranging from 40% next to the barrier to 10% at 300 m from the barrier.

  17. A PIV Study of Slotted Air Injection for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Results from acoustic and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are presented for single and dual-stream jets with fluidic injection on the core stream. The fluidic injection nozzles delivered air to the jet through slots on the interior of the nozzle at the nozzle trailing edge. The investigations include subsonic and supersonic jet conditions. Reductions in broadband shock noise and low frequency mixing noise were obtained with the introduction of fluidic injection on single stream jets. Fluidic injection was found to eliminate shock cells, increase jet mixing, and reduce turbulent kinetic energy levels near the end of the potential core. For dual-stream subsonic jets, the introduction of fluidic injection reduced low frequency noise in the peak jet noise direction and enhanced jet mixing. For dual-stream jets with supersonic fan streams and subsonic core streams, the introduction of fluidic injection in the core stream impacted the jet shock cell structure but had little effect on mixing between the core and fan streams.

  18. Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Fecht, Daniela; Hansell, Anna L; Morley, David; Dajnak, David; Vienneau, Danielle; Beevers, Sean; Toledano, Mireille B; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Gulliver, John

    2016-03-01

    Road traffic gives rise to noise and air pollution exposures, both of which are associated with adverse health effects especially for cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms may differ. Understanding the variability in correlations between these pollutants is essential to understand better their separate and joint effects on human health. We explored associations between modelled noise and air pollutants using different spatial units and area characteristics in London in 2003-2010. We modelled annual average exposures to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h, Lden, LAeq,16h, Lnight) for ~190,000 postcode centroids in London using the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) method. We used a dispersion model (KCLurban) to model nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, total and the traffic-only component of particulate matter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm. We analysed noise and air pollution correlations at the postcode level (~50 people), postcodes stratified by London Boroughs (~240,000 people), neighbourhoods (Lower layer Super Output Areas) (~1600 people), 1km grid squares, air pollution tertiles, 50m, 100m and 200m in distance from major roads and by deprivation tertiles. Across all London postcodes, we observed overall moderate correlations between modelled noise and air pollution that were stable over time (Spearman's rho range: |0.34-0.55|). Correlations, however, varied considerably depending on the spatial unit: largest ranges were seen in neighbourhoods and 1km grid squares (both Spearman's rho range: |0.01-0.87|) and was less for Boroughs (Spearman's rho range: |0.21-0.78|). There was little difference in correlations between exposure tertiles, distance from road or deprivation tertiles. Associations between noise and air pollution at the relevant geographical unit of analysis need to be carefully considered in any epidemiological analysis, in particular in complex urban areas. Low correlations near roads, however, suggest that independent effects of road noise and

  19. Investigation of organochlorine pesticides from the Indus Basin, Pakistan: sources, air-soil exchange fluxes and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Jawairia; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Ali, Usman; Rehman, Muhammad Yasir Abdur; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2014-11-01

    Present study aimed to evaluate the contamination status of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their associated potential for air-soil exchange and health risks from ecologically important sites of the Indus Basin, Pakistan. Among different OCPs investigated, ΣDDTs and ΣHCHs were more prevalent compounds in the agricultural soils and ambient air samples of the study area. The average concentrations for DDTs were found higher at downstream agricultural sites, particularly at Head Panjnad (Soil: 320 ng/g; Air: 743 pg/m(3)) and acting as an ultimate sink of ΣOCP burden in soils. Spatial distribution patterns inferred ubiquitous distribution of ΣDDTs in soils and air of the study area. Source diagnostic ratios demonstrated that studied OCPs either are illegally being used in agricultural practices or/and they are residues of past use in the environment. Fugacity fraction model revealed wide variations (ff=0.12-0.94) with 20% of OCPs above equilibrium range and net volatilization of α-endosulfan, β-HCH and o,p'-DDD. Assessment of cancer risks for OCPs indicated a higher cancer risk (CR>1×10(-6)) for the residents of the Indus Basin. According to the available soil quality guidelines, DDTs and HCHs were above the permissible limits and pose a threat to natural habitat and biodiversity of the Indus Basin.

  20. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Indus River catchment area, Pakistan: Status, soil-air exchange and black carbon mediated distribution.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Anam; Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in passive air and soil samples from the catchment area of the Indus River, Pakistan. ∑15OCPs ranged between 0.68 and 13.47 ng g(-1) in soil and 375.1-1975 pg m-(3) in air. HCHs and DDTs were more prevalent in soil and air compartments. Composition profile indicated that β-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the dominant of all metabolites among HCHs and DDTs respectively. Moreover, fBC and fTOC were assessed and evaluated their potential role in the distribution status of OCPs. The fTOC and fBC ranged between 0.77 and 2.43 and 0.04-0.30% respectively in soil. Regression analysis showed the strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of OCPs in the Indus River catchment area soil. Equilibrium status was observed for β-HCH, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, TC, HCB and Heptachlor with ff ranged between 0.3 and 0.59 while assessing the soil-air exchange of OCPs.

  1. Extraction and detection of pesticide residues from air filter inserts using supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zemanian, T.S.; Robins, W.H.; Lee, R.N.; Wright, B.W.

    1994-10-01

    Trace quantities of airborne herbicide residues were collected on adsorbent bed cartridges and were subsequently extracted from the adsorbent using supercritical carbon dioxide. An apparatus was constructed to facilitate the extraction and recovery of the desired analytes. The resulting extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. Results are presented for a series of analytes representative of common commercial pesticides or herbicides.

  2. Assessing levels and seasonal variations of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in the Tuscan atmosphere, Italy, using polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Estellano, Victor H; Pozo, Karla; Efstathiou, Christos; Pozo, Katerine; Corsolini, Simonetta; Focardi, Silvano

    2015-10-01

    Polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed over 4 sampling periods of 3-5-months (≥ 1 year) at ten urban and rural locations throughout the Tuscany Region. The purpose was to assess the occurrence and seasonal variations of ten current-use pesticides (CUPs). PUF disk extracts were analyzed using GC-MS. The organophosphates insecticides; chlorpyrifos (3-580 pg m(-3)) and chlorpyrifos-methyl (below detection limit - to 570 pg m(-3)) presented the highest levels in air, and showed seasonal fluctuation coinciding with the growing seasons. The relative proportion urban/(urban + rural) ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 showing no differences between urban and rural concentrations. Air back trajectories analysis showed air masses passing over agricultural fields and potentially enhancing the drift of pesticides into the urban sites. This study represents the first information regarding CUPs in the atmosphere of Tuscany region using PAS-PUF disk.

  3. Occurrence and seasonal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and legacy and current-use pesticides in air from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Carratalá, A; Moreno-González, R; León, V M

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence and seasonal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and legacy and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in air were characterized around the Mar Menor lagoon using both active and passive sampling devices. The seasonal distribution of these pollutants was determined at 6 points using passive samplers. Passive sampler sampling rates were estimated for all detected analytes using an active sampler, considering preferentially winter data, due to probable losses in active sampling during summer (high temperatures and solar irradiation). The presence of 28 compounds (14 CUPs, 11 PAHs and 3 organochlorinated pesticides) were detected in air by polyurethane passive sampling. The most commonly detected contaminants (>95% of samples) in air were chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and phenanthrene. The maximum concentrations corresponded to phenanthrene (6000 pg m(-3)) and chlorpyrifos (4900 pg m(-3)). The distribution of contaminants was spatially and seasonally heterogeneous. The highest concentrations of PAHs were found close to the airport, while the highest concentrations of pesticides were found in the influence area of agricultural fields (western stations). PAH and herbicide concentrations were higher in winter than in the other seasons, although some insecticides such as chlorpyrifos were more abundant in autumn. The presence of PAHs and legacy and current-use pesticides in air confirmed their transference potential to marine coastal areas such as the Mar Menor lagoon.

  4. Give Earth a Chance Series, Dirty Air, Trash Is Taking Over, Sounds and Silence, Pesticides Are Perilous, Tragedy in the Laundromat, Troublesome Tail Pipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    These six booklets in the "Give Earth a Chance Series" are titled, "Dirty Air,""Trash is Taking Over,""Sounds and Silence,""Pesticides are Perilous,""Tragedy in the Laundromat," and "Troublesome Tail Pipes." The booklets are suitable for elementary use, and are intended to…

  5. Airport noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of airport noise at several airports and air bases is detailed. Community reactions to the noise, steps taken to reduce jet engine noise, and the effect of airport use restrictions and curfews on air transportation are discussed. The adverse effect of changes in allowable operational noise on airport safety and altenative means for reducing noise pollution are considered. Community-airport relations and public relations are discussed.

  6. Association of long-term exposure to community noise and traffic-related air pollution with coronary heart disease mortality.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wen Qi; Davies, Hugh W; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In metropolitan areas, road traffic is a major contributor to ambient air pollution and the dominant source of community noise. The authors investigated the independent and joint influences of community noise and traffic-related air pollution on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in a population-based cohort study with a 5-year exposure period (January 1994-December 1998) and a 4-year follow-up period (January 1999-December 2002). Individuals who were 45-85 years of age and resided in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada, during the exposure period and did not have known CHD at baseline were included (n = 445,868). Individual exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollutants, including black carbon, particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric oxide, were estimated at each person's residence using a noise prediction model and land-use regression models, respectively. CHD deaths were identified from the provincial death registration database. After adjustment for potential confounders, including traffic-related air pollutants or noise, elevations in noise and black carbon equal to the interquartile ranges were associated with 6% (95% confidence interval: 1, 11) and 4% (95% confidence interval: 1, 8) increases, respectively, in CHD mortality. Subjects in the highest noise decile had a 22% (95% confidence interval: 4, 43) increase in CHD mortality compared with persons in the lowest decile. These findings suggest that there are independent effects of traffic-related noise and air pollution on CHD mortality.

  7. Using a passive air sampler to monitor air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in the pasture of the central Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tandong

    2017-02-15

    Air-soil exchange is a key process controlling the fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, the "sink effect" of soil for POPs in Tibetan pasture has not been clear. In NamCo, in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) where the land is covered by grass, a modified passive air sampler (PAS) (thickness: 2cm) was tested. Using the PAS, the atmospheric gaseous phase organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at 11 heights from close-to-surface (2cm) to 200cm above ground, in summer and in winter, were measured. Concentrations of OCPs in summer were higher than those in winter. Both in summer and winter, atmospheric concentrations of OCPs decreased with decreasing height from 200 to 2cm, indicating that OCPs were being deposited from air to soil. Air deposition of OCPs was possibly driven by wind speed. Furthermore, based on air OCPs at 0-3cm near the surface, the interface exchange of OCPs between air and soil was studied by the fugacity method. The results showed that pastural soil in the TP was a "sink" of OCPs even in summer. The mean deposition fluxes of α-HCH, γ-HCH and o,p'-DDT were 0.72, 0.24 and 0.54pg/h/m(2), respectively, and it was estimated that the level of these pollutants in the soil will double every 24, 66 and 206years, respectively. This study will contribute to the further understanding of global cycling of POPs in different land covers.

  8. Annoyance Caused by Noise and Air Pollution during Pregnancy: Associated Factors and Correlation with Outdoor NO2 and Benzene Estimations.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Llop, Sabrina; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Martínez, María Dolores; Foraster, Maria; Ballester, Ferran; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-06-18

    This study aimed to describe the degree of annoyance among pregnant women in a Spanish cohort and to examine associations with proximity to traffic, NO2 and benzene exposure. We included 2457 participants from the Spanish Childhood and Environment study. Individual exposures to outdoor NO2 and benzene were estimated, temporally adjusted for pregnancy. Interviews about sociodemographic variables, noise and air pollution were carried out. Levels of annoyance were assessed using a scale from 0 (none) to 10 (strong and unbearable); a level of 8 to 10 was considered high. The reported prevalence of high annoyance levels from air pollution was 11.2% and 15.0% from noise; the two variables were moderately correlated (0.606). Significant correlations between NO2 and annoyance from air pollution (0.154) and that from noise (0.181) were observed. Annoyance owing to noise and air pollution had a low prevalence in our Spanish population compared with other European populations. Both factors were associated with proximity to traffic. In multivariate models, annoyance from air pollution was related to NO2, building age, and country of birth; annoyance from noise was only related to the first two. The health burden of these exposures can be increased by stress caused by the perception of pollution sources.

  9. Annoyance Caused by Noise and Air Pollution during Pregnancy: Associated Factors and Correlation with Outdoor NO2 and Benzene Estimations

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Llop, Sabrina; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Martínez, María Dolores; Foraster, Maria; Ballester, Ferran; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the degree of annoyance among pregnant women in a Spanish cohort and to examine associations with proximity to traffic, NO2 and benzene exposure. We included 2457 participants from the Spanish Childhood and Environment study. Individual exposures to outdoor NO2 and benzene were estimated, temporally adjusted for pregnancy. Interviews about sociodemographic variables, noise and air pollution were carried out. Levels of annoyance were assessed using a scale from 0 (none) to 10 (strong and unbearable); a level of 8 to 10 was considered high. The reported prevalence of high annoyance levels from air pollution was 11.2% and 15.0% from noise; the two variables were moderately correlated (0.606). Significant correlations between NO2 and annoyance from air pollution (0.154) and that from noise (0.181) were observed. Annoyance owing to noise and air pollution had a low prevalence in our Spanish population compared with other European populations. Both factors were associated with proximity to traffic. In multivariate models, annoyance from air pollution was related to NO2, building age, and country of birth; annoyance from noise was only related to the first two. The health burden of these exposures can be increased by stress caused by the perception of pollution sources. PMID:26095869

  10. Using passive air samplers to assess urban-rural trends for persistent organic pollutants. 1. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Harner, Tom; Shoeib, Mahiba; Diamond, Miriam; Stern, Gary; Rosenberg, Bruno

    2004-09-01

    Passive air samplers were used to investigate urban-rural differences of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) over an integrated time period. Samplers consisting of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were housed in protective chambers and deployed at six sites for a 4 month duration in the summer of 2000. The sampling transect originated in downtown Toronto and extended approximately 75 km northward into a rural region. Results for the two types of samplers agreed well with one another. Higher blank levels were encountered for the SPMDs, especially for the OCPs, whereas blanks were very low for the PUF disks. Passive sampler-derived air concentrations were consistent with previous measurements of PCBs and OCPs in the region. The largest urban-rural gradient was observed for PCBs (approximately 5-10 times). Chlordanes also showed an urban-rural gradient, possibly reflecting past usage of chlordane on residential lawns and emissions from treated house foundations. Other OCPs exhibited a rural-urban gradient (dieldrin, endosulfan 1, and DDT isomers), which was attributed either to off-gassing from previously treated agricultural soils (dieldrin and DDTs) or to continued usage in agriculture (endosulfan 1). The results of this study demonstrated the feasibility of using such devices to determine air concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and to assess their spatial distribution for time-integrated samples. Data such as this is essential for: model validation and for process research and addressing international monitoring strategies on POPs.

  11. A study of the prediction of cruise noise and laminar flow control noise criteria for subsonic air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, G.; Mungur, P.

    1979-01-01

    General procedures for the prediction of component noise levels incident upon airframe surfaces during cruise are developed. Contributing noise sources are those associated with the propulsion system, the airframe and the laminar flow control (LFC) system. Transformation procedures from the best prediction base of each noise source to the transonic cruise condition are established. Two approaches to LFC/acoustic criteria are developed. The first is a semi-empirical extension of the X-21 LFC/acoustic criteria to include sensitivity to the spectrum and directionality of the sound field. In the second, the more fundamental problem of how sound excites boundary layer disturbances is analyzed by deriving and solving an inhomogeneous Orr-Sommerfeld equation in which the source terms are proportional to the production and dissipation of sound induced fluctuating vorticity. Numerical solutions are obtained and compared with corresponding measurements. Recommendations are made to improve and validate both the cruise noise prediction methods and the LFC/acoustic criteria.

  12. Reduction of air pollution levels downwind of a road with an upwind noise barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enayati Ahangar, Faraz; Heist, David; Perry, Steven; Venkatram, Akula

    2017-04-01

    We propose a dispersion model to estimate the impact of a solid noise barrier upwind of a highway on air pollution concentrations downwind of the road. The model, based on data from wind tunnel experiments conducted by Heist et al. (2009), assumes that the upwind barrier has two main effects: 1) it creates a recirculation zone behind the barrier that sweeps the emissions from the highway back towards the wall, and 2) it enhances vertical dispersion and initial mixing. By combining the upwind barrier model with the mixed wake model for a downwind barrier described in Schulte et al. (2014), we are able to model dispersion of emissions from a highway with noise barriers on both sides. The model provides a good description of measurements made in the wind tunnel. The presence of an upwind barrier causes reductions in concentrations relative to those measured downwind of a road with no barriers. The reduction can be as large as that caused by a downwind barrier if the recirculation zone covers the width of the highway. Barriers on both sides of the highway result in larger reductions downwind of the barriers than those caused by a single barrier either upwind or downwind. As expected, barrier effects are small beyond 10 barrier heights downwind of the highway. We also propose a tentative model to estimate on-road concentrations within the recirculation zone induced by the upwind barrier.

  13. The influence of temporally varying noise from seismic air guns on the detection of underwater sounds by seals.

    PubMed

    Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2017-02-01

    Standard audiometric data are often applied to predict how noise influences hearing. With regard to auditory masking, critical ratios-obtained using tonal signals and flat-spectrum maskers-can be combined with noise spectral density levels derived from 1/3-octave band levels to predict signal amplitudes required for detection. However, the efficacy of this conventional model of masking may vary based on features of the signal and noise in question. The ability of resource managers to quantify masking from intermittent seismic noise is relevant due to widespread geophysical exploration. To address this, spotted and ringed seals with previously measured critical ratios were trained to detect low-frequency tonal signals within seismic pulses recorded 1 and 30 km from an operational air gun array. The conventional model of masking accurately predicted the extent of masking only in certain cases. When noise amplitude varied significantly in time, the results suggested that detection was driven by higher signal-to-noise ratios within time windows shorter than the full signal duration. This study evaluates when it is appropriate to use average noise levels and critical ratios to predict auditory masking experienced by marine mammals, and suggests how masking models can be improved by incorporating time-based analyses of signals and noise.

  14. Residues of organophosphate pesticides used in vegetable cultivation in ambient air, surface water and soil in Bueng Niam Subdistrict, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Harnpicharnchai, Kallaya; Chaiear, Naesinee; Charerntanyarak, Lertchai

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural pesticide utilization is one of the important problems in rural and urban crop-cultivated areas, with the majority of pollutants dispersing via ambient air, water and other natural pathways. This study was therefore conducted in a specially selected village which is known to be a leading vegetable growing area in Khon Kaen Province. The aim of the study was to assess pesticide residues, and measure the seasonal fluctuations in organophosphate concentrations during 2010 in the environment of a risk area. Samples from selected sites were collected in two phases: Phase I was in summer (during March to May) and Phase II was in winter (during October to December). A total of 150 samples were analyzed using gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. The results showed that dicrotophos, chlorpyrifos, profenofos and ethion were found at the highest concentrations in soil and at the lowest concentrations in ambient air (p<0.001). The highest mean concentration of a pesticide in ambient air samples was 0.2580 +/- 0.2686 mg/m(3) for chlorpyrifos in summer and 0.1003 +/- 0.0449 mg/m(3) for chlorpyrifos in winter. In surface water samples, the highest mean concentration of a pesticide was 1.3757 +/- 0.5014 mg/l for dicrotophos in summer and 0.3629 +/- 0.4338 mg/l for ethion in winter. The highest mean concentration of a pesticide in soil samples was 42.2893 +/- 39.0711 mg/kg ethion in summer and 90.0000 +/- 24.1644 mg/kg of ethion in winter.

  15. NEW APPLICATION OF PASSIVE SAMPLING DEVICES FOR ASSESSMENT OF RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has long maintained an interest in potential applications of passive sampling devices (PSDs) for estimating the concentrations of various pollutants in air. Typically PSDs were designed for the workplace monitoring of vola...

  16. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Climate, Ambient Air Quality, and Noise (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate and air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui, and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of hydrogen sulfide. the scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  17. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Climate, ambient air quality, and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Reed, R.M.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate add air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of sulfide. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  18. The impacts of short-term exposure to noise and traffic-related air pollution on heart rate variability in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Deng, Furong; Wu, Shaowei; Lu, Henry; Hao, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with cardiovascular diseases, and alternation of heart rate variability (HRV), which reflects cardiac autonomic function, is one of the mechanisms. However, few studies considered the impacts of noise when exploring associations between air pollution and HRV. We explored whether noise modifies associations between short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and HRV in young healthy adults. In this randomized, crossover study, 40 young healthy adults stayed for 2 h in a traffic center and, on a separate occasion, in a park. Personal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants and noise were measured and ambulatory electrocardiogram was performed. Effects were estimated using mixed-effects regression models. Traffic-related air pollution and noise were both associated with HRV, and effects of air pollutants were amplified at high noise level (>65.6 A-weighted decibels (dB[A])) compared with low noise level (≤ 65.6 dB[A]). High frequency (HF) decreased by -4.61% (95% confidence interval, -6.75% to-2.42%) per 10 μg/m(3) increment in fine particle (PM2.5) at 5-min moving average, but effects became insignificant at low noise level (P>0.05). Similar effects modification was observed for black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO). We conclude that noise is an important factor influencing the effects of air pollution on HRV.

  19. 32 CFR 256.10 - Air installations compatible use zone noise descriptors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... noise contours and these noise contours shall be plotted on maps accompanying AICUZ studies. (c) Where... used, data shall be collected sufficient to permit computation of Ldn 75 noise contours and these noise contours shall be plotted on maps accompanying AICUZ studies. (d) Where previous studies have used CNR...

  20. Measurement and estimated health risks of semivolatile organic compounds (PCBs, PAHs, pesticides, and phthalates) in ambient air at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Blanton, M.L.; Lefkovitz, L.F.; Gilfoil, T.J.

    1997-09-01

    Air samples for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, phthalate plasticizers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected at three Hanford Site locations (300-Area South Gate, southeast of 200-East Area, and a background location near Rattlesnake Springs). Samples were collected using high-volume air samplers equipped with a glass fiber filter and polyurethane foam plug sampling train. Target compounds were extracted from the sampling trains and analyzed using capillary gas chromatography with either electron capture detection or mass selective detection. Twenty of the 28 PCB congeners analyzed were found above the detection limits, with 8 of the congeners accounting for over 80% of the average PCB concentrations. The average sum of all individual PCB congeners ranged from 500-740 pg/m{sup 3}, with little apparent difference between the sampling locations. Twenty of the 25 pesticides analyzed were found above the detection limits, with endosulfan I, endosulfan II, and methoxychlor having the highest average concentrations. With the exception of the endosulfans, all other average pesticide concentrations were below 100 pg/m{sup 3}. There was little apparent difference between the air concentrations of pesticides measured at each location. Sixteen of the 18 PAHs analyzed were found above the detection limit. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, fluorene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, and naphthalene were the only PAHs with average concentrations above 100 pg/m{sup 3}. Overall, the 300 Area had higher average PAH concentrations compared to the 200-East Area and the background location at Rattlesnake Springs; however, the air concentrations at the 300-Area also are influenced by sources on the Hanford Site and from nearby communities.

  1. PCDD, PCDF, dl-PCB and organochlorine pesticides monitoring in São Paulo City using passive air sampler as part of the Global Monitoring Plan.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, M Y; Silva, C R; Melo, J P; Niwa, N A; Plascak, D; Souza, C A M; Sato, M I Z

    2016-11-15

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as organochlorine pesticides and PCBs, are ordinarily monitored in the aquatic environment or in soil in the environmental quality monitoring programs in São Paulo, Brazil. One of the core matrices proposed in the POPs Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) from the Stockholm Convention list is the ambient air, which is not a usual matrix for POPs monitoring in the country. In this study POP levels were evaluated in the air samples from an urban site in São Paulo City over five years, starting in 2010 as a capacity building project for Latin America and the Caribbean region for POP monitoring in ambient air using passive samplers. Furthermore, after the end of the Project in 2012, the monitoring continued in the same sampling site as means to improving the analytical capacity building and contribute to the GMP data. The POPs monitored were 17 congeners of 2,3,7,8 chloro-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs, indicator PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and toxaphene. The results show a slight decrease in PCDD/F, dl-PCBs and indicator PCBs levels along the five years. The organochlorine pesticide endosulfan was present at its highest concentration at the beginning of the monitoring period, but it was below detection level in the last year of the monitoring. Some other organochlorine pesticides were detected close to or below quantitation limits. The compounds identified were dieldrin, chlordane, α-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene and DDTs. Toxaphene congeners were not detected. These results have confirmed the efficacy of passive sampling for POP monitoring and the capacity building for POP analysis and monitoring was established. However more needs to be done, including expansion of sampling sites, new POPs and studies on sampling rates to be considered in calculating the concentration of POPs in ambient air using a passive sampler.

  2. The Okinawa study: an estimation of noise-induced hearing loss on the basis of the records of aircraft noise exposure around Kadena Air Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, K.; Matsui, T.; Ito, A.; Miyakita, T.; Osada, Y.; Yamamoto, T.

    2004-10-01

    Aircraft noise measurements were recorded at the residential areas in the vicinity of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa in 1968 and 1972 at the time of the Vietnam war. The estimated equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level LAeq for 24 h was 85 dB.The time history of sound level during 24 h was estimated from the measurement conducted in 1968, and the sound level was converted into the spectrum level at the centre frequency of the critical band of temporary threshold shift (TTS) using the results of spectrum analysis of aircraft noise operated at the airfield. With the information of spectrum level and its time history, TTS was calculated as a function of time and level change. The permanent threshold shift was also calculated by means of Robinson's method and ISO's method. The results indicate the noise exposure around Kadena Air Base was hazardous to hearing and is likely to have caused hearing loss to people living in its vicinity.

  3. Noise Silencer in the Form of a Helmholtz Resonator at the Outlet of an Air Duct of Finite Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenov, D. V.; Bazhenova, L. A.; Rimskiĭ-Korsakov, A. V.

    2000-05-01

    A new type of noise silencer with the original design of the air duct-resonator system is proposed. The design is free of the disadvantages that are inherent in the conventional design with a resonator placed inside the air duct. A physical model of the silencer is developed, and its efficiency is calculated for different geometrical and physical parameters of the resonator and the air duct. A comparison between the calculated characteristics and the experimental data is performed, and their agreement is demonstrated.

  4. Evaluation of the effects of exposure to organic solvents and hazardous noise among US Air Force Reserve personnel.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Hayley; Hunting, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Hearing loss affects many workers including those in the military and may be caused by noise, medications, and chemicals. Exposures to some chemicals may lead to an increase in the incidence of hearing loss when combined with hazardous noise. This retrospective study evaluated the risk for hearing loss among Air Force Reserve personnel exposed to occupational noise with and without exposures to toluene, styrene, xylene, benzene, and JP-8 (jet fuel). Risk factors associated with hearing loss were determined using logistic and linear regression. Stratified analysis was used to evaluate potential interaction between solvent and noise exposure. The majority of the subjects were male (94.6%) and 35 years or older on the date of their first study audiogram (66%). Followed for an average of 3.2 years, 9.2% of the study subjects had hearing loss in at least one ear. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03 per year of age) and each year of follow-up time (OR = 1.23) were significantly associated with hearing loss. Low and moderate solvent exposures were not associated with hearing loss. Linear regression demonstrated that hearing loss was significantly associated with age at first study audiogram, length of follow-up time, and exposure to noise. Hearing decreased by 0.04 decibels for every decibel increase in noise level or by almost half a decibel (0.4 dB) for every 10 decibel increase in noise level.

  5. Overweight, air and noise pollution: Universal risk factors for pediatric pre-hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Poursafa, Parinaz; Keramatian, Kasra

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric pre-hypertension (pre-HTN) has a complex multifactorial etiology. Although most cases are secondary to other disorders, a substantial number of children and adolescents have primary or essential HTN and pre-HTN. The gene-gene and gene-environment interactions should be considered in this context. The strong relationship of pre-HTN with environmental factors such as air pollution, noise pollution and passive smoking and obesity suggest that its prevalence will be escalating. Exposure to ambient particulate matters may increase blood pressure (BP) within hours to days. The underlying biologic pathways include autonomic nervous system imbalance and arterial vascular dysfunction or vasoconstriction because of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Likewise, tobacco smoke exposure of pregnant mothers increases systolic BP of their offspring in early infancy. Parental smoking also independently affects systolic BP among healthy preschool children. Noise exposure, notably in night, is associated with catecholamine secretion, increased BP and a pre-HTN state even in pre-school age children. Excess weight is associated with dysfunction of the adipose tissue, consisting of enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and variations in secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. These changes would result in chronic vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic response, and ultimately to pre-HTN from childhood. Prevention and control of the modifiable risk factors of pre-HTN from prenatal period can have long-term health impact on primordial and primary prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases. This review presents a general view on the diagnosis, prevalence and etiology of pre-HTN along with practical measures for its prevention and control. PMID:22973395

  6. Air Force Procedure for Predicting Aircraft Noise Around Airbases: Noise Exposure Model (NOISEMAP). User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    converting older NOISEMAP decks to this new version is discussed. The limitations of IfISEMAP 6.0 are detailed. An example case is provided for a small...NMPLOT Integrated Structure . .. 9 2.3 Notes to Previous Users of NMAP.. .. . .. . .... 13 2.4 NOISEMAP Capabilities and Limitations .. ... .... 16 3.0...the NOISEMAP runstream in a limited fashion. The specific items are contained under the RUN menu option within the MCM and include the noise metric to

  7. Measuring combined exposure to environmental pressures in urban areas: an air quality and noise pollution assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Michailidou, A V; Moussiopoulos, Nu

    2012-02-01

    This study presents a methodological scheme developed to provide a combined air and noise pollution exposure assessment based on measurements from personal portable monitors. Provided that air and noise pollution are considered in a co-exposure approach, they represent a significant environmental hazard to public health. The methodology is demonstrated for the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. The results of an extensive field campaign are presented and the variations in personal exposure between modes of transport, routes, streets and transport microenvironments are evaluated. Air pollution and noise measurements were performed simultaneously along several commuting routes, during the morning and evening rush hours. Combined exposure to environmental pollutants is highlighted based on the Combined Exposure Factor (CEF) and Combined Dose and Exposure Factor (CDEF). The CDEF takes into account the potential relative uptake of each pollutant by considering the physical activities of each citizen. Rather than viewing environmental pollutants separately for planning and environmental sustainability considerations, the possibility of an easy-to-comprehend co-exposure approach based on these two indices is demonstrated. Furthermore, they provide for the first time a combined exposure assessment to these environmental pollutants for Thessaloniki and in this sense they could be of importance for local public authorities and decision makers. A considerable environmental burden for the citizens of Thessaloniki, especially for VOCs and noise pollution levels is observed. The material herein points out the importance of measuring public health stressors and the necessity of considering urban environmental pollution in a holistic way.

  8. 32 CFR 256.10 - Air installations compatible use zone noise descriptors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... would previously have been used, data shall be collected sufficient to permit computation of Ldn 65... used, data shall be collected sufficient to permit computation of Ldn 75 noise contours and these noise... NEF, for meters of policy, noise planning and decisionmaking, areas quieter than Ldn 65 shall...

  9. Vortex shedding noise control in idling circular saws using air ejection at the teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagimoto, K.; Mote, C. D.; Ichimiya, R.

    1994-04-01

    Aerodynamically induced noise from an idling circular saw can be very intense. The purpose of the present investigation is noise reduction through vortex shedding control in idling circular saws. Reduction of aerodynamic noise in idling circular saws may be possible by controlling the shed vortices and flow structures in the space between teeth, based on the earlier observations.

  10. Field calibration of polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers for PCBs and OC pesticides.

    PubMed

    Chaemfa, Chakra; Barber, Jonathan L; Gocht, Tilman; Harner, Tom; Holoubek, Ivan; Klanova, Jana; Jones, Kevin C

    2008-12-01

    Different passive air sampler (PAS) strategies have been developed for sampling in remote areas and for cost-effective simultaneous spatial mapping of POPs (persistent organic pollutants) over differing geographical scales. The polyurethane foam (PUF) disk-based PAS is probably the most widely used. In a PUF-based PAS, the PUF disk is generally mounted inside two stainless steel bowls to buffer the air flow to the disk and to shield it from precipitation and light. The field study described in this manuscript was conducted to: compare performance of 3 different designs of sampler; to further calibrate the sampler against the conventional active sampler; to derive more information on field-based uptake rates and equilibrium times of the samplers. Samplers were also deployed at different locations across the field site, and at different heights up a meteorological tower, to investigate the possible influence of sampler location. Samplers deployed <5m above ground, and not directly sheltered from the wind gave similar uptake rates. Small differences in dimensions between the 3 designs of passive sampler chamber had no discernable effect on accumulation rates, allowing comparison with previously published data.

  11. Biannual cycles of organochlorine pesticide enantiomers in arctic air suggest changing sources and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidleman, T. F.; Jantunen, L. M.; Hung, H.; Ma, J.; Stern, G. A.; Rosenberg, B.; Racine, J.

    2014-09-01

    Air samples collected during 1994-2000 at the Canadian arctic air monitoring station Alert (82°30' N, 62°20' W) were analyzed by enantiospecific gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC). Results were expressed as enantiomer fractions (EF = quantities of (+)/[(+) + (-)] enantiomers), where EFs = 0.5, <0.5 and >0.5 indicate racemic composition, and preferential depletion of (+) and (-) enantiomers, respectively. Long-term average EFs were close to racemic values for α-HCH (0.504 ± 0.004, n = 197) and CC (0.505 ± 0.004, n = 162), and deviated farther from racemic for TC (0.470 ± 0.013, n = 165). Digital filtration analysis revealed biannual cycles of lower α-HCH EFs in summer-fall and higher EFs in winter-spring. These cycles suggest volatilization of partially degraded α-HCH with EF < 0.5 from open water and advection to Alert during the warm season, and background transport of α-HCH with EF > 0.5 during the cold season. The contribution of sea-volatilized α-HCH was only 11% at Alert, vs. 32% at Resolute Bay (74.68° N, 94.90° W) in 1999. EFs of TC also followed biannual cycles of lower and higher values in the warm and cold seasons. These were in phase with low and high cycles of the TC/CC ratio (expressed as FTC = TC/(TC + CC)), which suggests greater contribution of microbially "weathered" TC in summer-fall vs. winter-spring. CC was closer to racemic than TC and displayed seasonal cycles only in 1997-1998. EF profiles are likely to change with rising contribution of secondary emission sources, weathering of residues in the environment, and loss of ice cover in the Arctic. Enantiomer-specific analysis could provide added forensic capability to air monitoring programs.

  12. Annual cycles of organochlorine pesticide enantiomers in Arctic air suggest changing sources and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidleman, T. F.; Jantunen, L. M.; Hung, H.; Ma, J.; Stern, G. A.; Rosenberg, B.; Racine, J.

    2015-02-01

    Air samples collected during 1994-2000 at the Canadian Arctic air monitoring station Alert (82°30' N, 62°20' W) were analysed by enantiospecific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC). Results were expressed as enantiomer fractions (EF = peak areas of (+)/[(+) + (-)] enantiomers), where EFs = 0.5, < 0.5 and > 0.5 indicate racemic composition, and preferential depletion of (+) and (-) enantiomers, respectively. Long-term average EFs were close to racemic values for α -HCH (0.504 ± 0.004, n = 197) and CC (0.505 ± 0.004, n = 162), and deviated farther from racemic for TC (0.470 ± 0.013, n = 165). Digital filtration analysis revealed annual cycles of lower α-HCH EFs in summer-fall and higher EFs in winter-spring. These cycles suggest volatilization of partially degraded α-HCH with EF < 0.5 from open water and advection to Alert during the warm season, and background transport of α-HCH with EF > 0.5 during the cold season. The contribution of sea-volatilized α-HCH was only 11% at Alert, vs. 32% at Resolute Bay (74.68° N, 94.90° W) in 1999. EFs of TC also followed annual cycles of lower and higher values in the warm and cold seasons. These were in phase with low and high cycles of the TC/CC ratio (expressed as FTC = TC/(TC+CC)), which suggests greater contribution of microbially "weathered" TC in summer-fall versus winter-spring. CC was closer to racemic than TC and displayed seasonal cycles only in 1997-1998. EF profiles are likely to change with rising contribution of secondary emission sources, weathering of residues in the environment, and loss of ice cover in the Arctic. Enantiomer-specific analysis could provide added forensic capability to air monitoring programs.

  13. Air emission into a water shear layer through porous media. Part 1: Scaling of bubble creation noise

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, E.C.; Marboe, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    In many industrial processes, including aeration systems and reduction of cavitation induced vibration and erosion in hydroturbine casings, it is advantageous to be able to create gas bubbles with specific size distributions, higher uniform or widely distributed in diameter, depending on the situation. The induced noise and vibration associated with such systems is of increasing concern due to hearing protection standards and structural fatigue of the casing and piping. A convenient way to generate a two-phase distribution within a water pipe is to span the pipe with a streamlined surface such as a two dimensional hydrofoil and emit air through a porous medium into the shear flow over the hydrofoil. Such a hydrofoil was built and mounted in the ARL Penn state 30.5 cm diameter water tunnel. Air was introduced into a plenum within the hydrofoil which provided air evenly to the entire surface of the centered stainless steel cover plates (20 and 100 micron porosities). Air bubbles formed at the surfaces of the cover plates through the breakdown of small jets of air issuing from the pores. The effects of the air jet size and momentum on the formation noise for a given set of conditions were evaluated by using the two different porosities of sintered metal and through the use of an array of 20, 1.2 mm diameter orifices. A variation in the shear layer was achieved by discharge through plates mounted on either the pressure or suction side of the foil. The noise due to bubble creation and transport through the highly turbulent foil wake was measured by a 2.5 cm diameter hydrophone mounted on the water tunnel window.

  14. Pesticide Registration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides resources for an individual or company wanting to register a pesticide active ingredient or pesticide product in the United States. Features: a manual (blue book), other guidance, and coordinated lists of requirements by pesticide type.

  15. Noise emitted from road, rail and air traffic and their effects on sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griefahn, Barbara; Marks, Anke; Robens, Sibylle

    2006-08-01

    This study compared the effects of road, rail, and aircraft noise and tested the applicability of the equivalent noise level for the evaluation of sleep disturbances. Sixteen women and 16 men (19-28 years) slept during 3 consecutive weeks in the laboratory. Eight persons slept in quiet throughout. Twenty-four persons were exposed to road, rail, or aircraft noise with weekly permuted changes. Each week consisted of a random sequence of a quiet night (32 dBA) and 3 nights with equivalent noise levels of 39, 44, and 50 dBA and maximum levels of 50-62, 56-68, and 62-74 dBA, respectively. The polysomnogram was recorded during all nights, sleep quality was assessed and performance tests were completed in the morning. Subjectively evaluated sleep quality decreased and reaction time increased gradually with noise levels, whereas most physiological variables revealed the same reactions to both the lower and considerably stronger reactions to the highest noise load. Aircraft noise, rail and road traffic noise caused similar after-effects but physiological sleep parameters were most severely affected by rail noise. The equivalent noise level seems to be a suitable predictor for subjectively evaluated sleep quality but not for physiological sleep disturbances.

  16. Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Noise at School, and Behavioral Problems in Barcelona Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Forns, Joan; Dadvand, Payam; Foraster, Maria; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Esnaola, Mikel; Cirach, Marta; Grellier, James; Basagaña, Xavier; Querol, Xavier; Guxens, Mònica; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The available evidence of the effects of air pollution and noise on behavioral development is limited, and it overlooks exposure at schools, where children spend a considerable amount of time. Objective: We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) and noise at school on behavioral development of schoolchildren. Methods: We evaluated children 7–11 years of age in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) during 2012–2013 within the BREATHE project. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured at schools in two separate 1-week campaigns. In one campaign we also measured noise levels inside classrooms. Parents filled out the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to assess child behavioral development, while teachers completed the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder criteria of the DSM-IV (ADHD-DSM-IV) list to assess specific ADHD symptomatology. Negative binomial mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between the exposures and behavioral development scores. Results: Interquartile range (IQR) increases in indoor and outdoor EC, BC, and NO2 concentrations were positively associated with SDQ total difficulties scores (suggesting more frequent behavioral problems) in adjusted multivariate models, whereas noise was significantly associated with ADHD-DSM-IV scores. Conclusion: In our study population of 7- to 11-year-old children residing in Barcelona, exposure to TRAPs at school was associated with increased behavioral problems in schoolchildren. Noise exposure at school was associated with more ADHD symptoms. Citation: Forns J, Dadvand P, Foraster M, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Rivas I, López-Vicente M, Suades-Gonzalez E, Garcia-Esteban R, Esnaola M, Cirach M, Grellier J, Basagaña X, Querol X, Guxens M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Sunyer J. 2016. Traffic-related air pollution, noise at school, and behavioral problems in Barcelona

  17. Impact of blast induced transitory vibration and air-overpressure/noise on human brain--an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Raina, A K; Baheti, M; Haldar, A; Ramulu, M; Chakraborty, A K; Sahu, P B; Bandopadhayay, C

    2004-04-01

    Human response to blast induced ground vibration and air-overpressure/noise is a major concern of current mining activity. This is because the fact that mines are fast transgressing the habitats and people are getting educated. Consequently the response of humans is changing and expectedly will increase in days to come with no viable and economic alternative to blasting--an essential component of mining. The response of humans can be purely physiological or psychological in nature or combination of both depending upon the situation and conditions of mining. Where physiological response is documented in terms of effects on ears and lungs there is a meager amount or no literature available regarding effects of blasting on the brain. Moreover, the studies on transitory phenomenon like the effects of blasting on humans are rare in comparison to the whole body vibration studies. This study was designed to address the issues as a precursor to a major initiative. The preliminary investigations conducted with the monitoring of EEG responses of humans to vibration and air-overpressure/noise due to blasting revealed that there is no major response of the brain to transitory vibrations and noise.

  18. Influence of Solid Noise Barriers on Near-Road and On-Road Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health concerns regarding adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near high traffic roadways has increased substantially in recent years. Roadside features, including solid noise barriers, have been investigated as potential methods to ...

  19. Effect of air and noise pollution on species diversity and population density of forest birds at Lalpahari, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Saha, Dulal C; Padhy, Pratap K

    2011-11-15

    The Rajmahal-type quality stones for building purposes are found abundantly in Birbhum district, West Bengal, India, where stone mining and crushing have become the main industrial activity. Although crusher dust is injurious to health, demand for crushed stone is ever-increasing as a result of rapid infrastructural growth in the country. Most of the crusher units at Rampurhat are situated along the roadways adjacent to forest under Tumboni Beat of Rampurhat Range of Birbhum Forest Division. Excessive load of air pollution in this area has led to degradation of this forest. The status of the ambient air and noise level was evaluated. The effect of air and noise pollution on abundance and variability of birds in this forest have been compared to an almost non-polluted forest of the same bio-geographic zone. Both species diversity and population density of birds were found to decrease in the polluted forest, especially in the areas adjacent to crushers. For comparing the pollution status of two different forest sites and for establishing whether the density of birds have any correlation between the sites, the Student's t-test and the chi-square test were applied respectively. Most of the results proved to be significant.

  20. Numerical simulation of tonal fan noise of computers and air conditioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, A. A.; Gavrilyuk, V. N.; Timushev, S. F.

    2016-07-01

    Current approaches to fan noise simulation are mainly based on the Lighthill equation and socalled aeroacoustic analogy, which are also based on the transformed Lighthill equation, such as the wellknown FW-H equation or the Kirchhoff theorem. A disadvantage of such methods leading to significant modeling errors is associated with incorrect solution of the decomposition problem, i.e., separation of acoustic and vortex (pseudosound) modes in the area of the oscillation source. In this paper, we propose a method for tonal noise simulation based on the mesh solution of the Helmholtz equation for the Fourier transform of pressure perturbation with boundary conditions in the form of the complex impedance. A noise source is placed on the surface surrounding each fan rotor. The acoustic fan power is determined by the acoustic-vortex method, which ensures more accurate decomposition and determination of the pressure pulsation amplitudes in the near field of the fan.

  1. Eye-Safe Lidar System for Pesticide Spray Drift Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R.

    2015-01-01

    Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m. PMID:25658395

  2. Eye-safe lidar system for pesticide spray drift measurement.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2015-02-04

    Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m.

  3. The variable immunological self: genetic variation and nongenetic noise in Aire-regulated transcription.

    PubMed

    Venanzi, Emily S; Melamed, Rachel; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2008-10-14

    The Aire transcription factor plays an important role in immunological self-tolerance by mediating the ectopic expression of peripheral self-antigens by thymic medullary epithelial cells (MECs), and the deletion of thymocytes that recognize them. In Aire-deficient humans or mice, central tolerance is incomplete and multiorgan autoimmune disease results. We examined the variability of Aire's effects on ectopic transcription among individual mice of three different inbred strains. Aire's function was, overall, quite similar in the three backgrounds, although generally stronger in C57BL/6 than in BALB/c or NOD mice, and a minority of Aire-regulated genes did show clear differences. Gene expression profiling of wild-type MECs from single mice, or from the two thymic lobes of the same mouse, revealed significantly greater variability in Aire-controlled ectopic gene expression than in Aire-independent transcripts. This "noisy" ectopic expression did not result from parental or early developmental imprinting, but from programming occurring after the formation of the thymic anlage, resulting from epigenetic effects or from the stochastic nature of Aire activity. Together, genetic and nongenetic variability in ectopic expression of peripheral antigens in the thymus make for differences in the portion of self determinants presented for tolerance induction. This variable self may be beneficial in preventing uniform holes in the T-cell repertoire in individuals of a species, but at the cost of variable susceptibility to autoimmunity.

  4. The influence of tree stands and a noise barrier on near-roadway air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prediction of air pollution exposure levels of people living near or commuting on roadways is still very problematic due to the highly localized nature of traffic intensity, fleet composition, and extremely complex air flow patterns in urban areas. Both modelling and field studie...

  5. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ ... of antimicrobial pesticides (Part 158W) Antimicrobials play an important role in public health and safety. While providing ...

  6. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to Lden 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM)2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). Lden remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  7. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L(den) 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM) 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). L(den) remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria.

  8. Pesticide Tolerances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulates pesticides used to protect crops and sets limits on the amount of pesticide remaining in or on foods in the U.S. The limits on pesticides on foods are called tolerances in the U.S. (maximum residue limits (MRLs) in many other countries).

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF A NOISE BARRIER AND VEGETATION ON AIR QUALITY NEAR A ROADWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A growing number of epidemiological studies conducted throughout the world have identified an increase in occurrence of adverse health effects for populations residing, working or attending school near major roadways. In addition, several air quality studies have identified incr...

  10. Impacts of Solid Noise Barriers and Roadside Vegetation on ?Near-Road Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health concerns for populations spending time near high traffic roadways has increased substantially in recent years. Air quality measurements indicate high pollutant concentrations near these large roads. However, roadside features have been shown to substantially affec...

  11. Air-sea Exchange of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, G. P.; Heil, A.; Kukucka, P.; Meixner, F. X.; Mulder, M. D.; Prybilova, P.; Prokes, R.; Rusina, T. S.; Song, G. Z.; Vrana, B.

    2015-12-01

    The marine atmospheric environment is a receptor for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are advected from sources on land, primary, such as biomass burning by-products (PAHs, dioxins), and secondary, such as volatilization from contaminated soils (PCBs, pesticides). Primary sources do not exist in the marine environment, except for PAHs (ship engines) but following previous atmospheric deposition, the sea surface may turn to a secondary source by reversal of diffusive air-sea mass exchange. No monitoring is in place. We studied the vertical fluxes of a wide range of primary and secondary emitted POPs based on measurements in air and surface seawater at a remote coastal site in the eastern Mediterranean (2012). To this end, silicon rubbers were used as passive water samplers, vertical concentration gradients were determined in air and fluxes were quantified based on Eddy covariance. Diffusive air-sea exchange fluxes of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and semivolatile PAHs were found close to phase equilibrium, except one PAH, retene, a wood burning tracer, was found seasonally net-volatilisational. Some PCBs, p,p'-DDE, penta- and hexachlorobenzene (PeCB, HCB) were mostly net-depositional, while PBDEs were net-volatilizational. Fluxes determined at a a remote coastal site ranged -33 - +2.4 µg m-2 d-1 for PAHs and -4.0 - +0.3 µg m-2 d-1for halogenated compounds (< 0 means net-deposition, > 0 means net-volatilization). It is concluded that nowadays in open seas more pollutants are undergoing reversal of the direction of air-sea exchange. Recgional fire activity records in combination with box model simulations suggest that deposition of retene during summer is followed by a reversal of air-sea exchange. The seawater surface as secondary source of pollution should be assessed based on flux measurements across seasons and over longer time periods.

  12. Parametric noise squeezing and parametric resonance of microcantilevers in air and liquid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Gyan; Raman, Arvind; Rhoads, Jeffrey; Reifenberger, Ronald G.

    2012-06-01

    In this work, parametric noise squeezing and parametric resonance are realized through the use of an electronic feedback circuit to excite a microcantilever with a signal proportional to the product of the microcantilever's displacement and a harmonic signal. The cantilever's displacement is monitored using an optical lever technique. By adjusting the gain of an amplifier in the feedback circuit, regimes of parametric noise squeezing/amplification and the principal and secondary parametric resonances of fundamental and higher order eigenmodes can be easily accessed. The exceptionally symmetric amplitude response of the microcantilever in the narrow frequency bandwidth is traced to a nonlinear parametric excitation term that arises due to the cubic nonlinearity in the output of the position-sensitive photodiode. The feedback circuit, working in both the regimes of parametric resonance and noise squeezing, allows an enhancement of the microcantilever's effective quality-factor (Q-factor) by two orders of magnitude under ambient conditions, extending the mass sensing capabilities of a conventional microcantilever into the sub-picogram regime. Likewise, experiments designed to parametrically oscillate a microcantilever in water using electronic feedback also show an increase in the microcantilever's effective Q-factor by two orders of magnitude, opening the field to high-sensitivity mass sensing in liquid environments.

  13. Parametric noise squeezing and parametric resonance of microcantilevers in air and liquid environments.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Gyan; Raman, Arvind; Rhoads, Jeffrey; Reifenberger, Ronald G

    2012-06-01

    In this work, parametric noise squeezing and parametric resonance are realized through the use of an electronic feedback circuit to excite a microcantilever with a signal proportional to the product of the microcantilever's displacement and a harmonic signal. The cantilever's displacement is monitored using an optical lever technique. By adjusting the gain of an amplifier in the feedback circuit, regimes of parametric noise squeezing/amplification and the principal and secondary parametric resonances of fundamental and higher order eigenmodes can be easily accessed. The exceptionally symmetric amplitude response of the microcantilever in the narrow frequency bandwidth is traced to a nonlinear parametric excitation term that arises due to the cubic nonlinearity in the output of the position-sensitive photodiode. The feedback circuit, working in both the regimes of parametric resonance and noise squeezing, allows an enhancement of the microcantilever's effective quality-factor (Q-factor) by two orders of magnitude under ambient conditions, extending the mass sensing capabilities of a conventional microcantilever into the sub-picogram regime. Likewise, experiments designed to parametrically oscillate a microcantilever in water using electronic feedback also show an increase in the microcantilever's effective Q-factor by two orders of magnitude, opening the field to high-sensitivity mass sensing in liquid environments.

  14. Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air pollution and noise across five countries.

    PubMed

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air pollution and noise health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of pollutants simultaneously. We asked respondents how much they would be willing to pay annually to avoid certain health risks from specific pollutants. Three sets of vignettes with different levels of information were provided prior to the WTP questions. These vignettes described qualitative general health risks, a quantitative single health risk related to a pollutant, and a quantitative scenario of combined health risks related to a pollutant. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic air pollution effects for the three vignettes were: €130 per person per year (pp/y) for general health risks, €80 pp/y for a half year shorter in life expectancy, and €330 pp/y to a 50% decrease in road-traffic air pollution. Their medians were €40 pp/y, €10 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic noise effects for the three vignettes were: €90 pp/y for general health risks, €100 pp/y for a 13% increase in severe annoyance, and €320 pp/y for a combined-risk scenario related to an increase of a noise level from 50 dB to 65 dB. Their medians were €20 pp/y, €20 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. Risk perceptions and attitudes as well as environmental and pollutant concerns significantly affected WTP estimates. The observed differences in crude WTP estimates between countries changed considerably when perception-related variables were included in the WTP regression models. For this reason, great care should be taken when performing benefit transfer from studies in one country to another.

  15. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on air quality and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, K.C.; Chang, Y.S.; Rabchuk, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration, which is responsible for marketing electricity produced at the hydroelectric power-generating facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation on the Upper Colorado River, has proposed changes in the levels of its commitment (sales) of long-term firm capacity and energy to its customers. This report describes (1) the existing conditions of air resources (climate and meteorology, ambient air quality, and acoustic environment) of the region potentially affected by the proposed action and (2) the methodology used and the results of analyses conducted to assess the potential impacts on air resources of the proposed action and the commitment-level alternatives. Analyses were performed for the potential impacts of both commitment-level alternatives and supply options, which include combinations of electric power purchases and different operational scenarios of the hydroelectric power-generating facilities.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated pesticides in background air in central Europe - investigating parameters affecting wet scavenging of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahpoury, P.; Lammel, G.; Holubová Šmejkalová, A.; Klánová, J.; Přibylová, P.; Váňa, M.

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides (CPs) were measured in air and precipitation at a background site in central Europe. ∑ PAH concentrations in air and rainwater ranged from 0.7 to 327.9 ng m-3 and below limit of quantification (< LOQ) to 2.1 × 103 ng L-1. The concentrations of PCBs and CPs in rainwater were < LOQ. ∑ PCB and ∑ CP concentrations in air ranged from < LOQ to 44.6 and < LOQ to 351.7 pg m-3, respectively. The potential relationships between PAH wet scavenging and particulate matter and rainwater properties were investigated. The concentrations of ionic species in particulate matter and rainwater were significantly correlated, highlighting the importance of particle scavenging process. Overall, higher scavenging efficiencies were found for relatively less volatile PAHs, underlining the effect of analyte gas-particle partitioning on scavenging process. The particulate matter removal by rain, and consequently PAH wet scavenging, was more effective when the concentrations of ionic species were high. In addition, the elemental and organic carbon contents of the particulate matter were found to influence the PAH scavenging.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated pesticides in background air in central Europe - investigating parameters affecting wet scavenging of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahpoury, P.; Lammel, G.; Holubová Šmejkalová, A.; Klánová, J.; Přibylová, P.; Váňa, M.

    2014-10-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides (CPs) were measured in air and precipitation at a background site in central Europe. Σ PAH concentrations in air and rainwater ranged from 0.7 to 327.9 ng m-3 and below analytical method detection limit (< MDL) to 2.1 × 103 ng L-1. The concentrations of PCBs and CPs in rainwater were < MDL. Σ PCB and Σ CP concentrations in air ranged from < MDL to 44.6 and < MDL to 351.7 pg m-3, respectively. The potential relationships between PAH wet scavenging and particulate matter and rainwater properties were investigated. The concentrations of ionic species in particulate matter and rainwater were significantly correlated, highlighting the importance of particle scavenging process. Overall, higher scavenging efficiencies were found for relatively less volatile PAHs, underlining the effect of analyte gas-particle partitioning on scavenging process. The PAH wet scavenging was more effective when the concentrations of ionic species were high. In addition, the elemental and organic carbon contents of the particulate matter were found to influence the PAH scavenging.

  18. [Analysing noise levels in dental environment. Air turbine sound response to various physical factors].

    PubMed

    Oka, S

    1989-10-01

    Dental Air Turbine sound depends on the mechanical performance such as rotation and it is impossible to neglect connections of the sound with fluid mechanics and acoustics. Turbine sound must be considered from the standpoint of the sound pressure level and frequency component. In this study, the sound samples was measured and analysed in octave band spectrum. Turbine sound has three resonance bands of the frequency with the range from 0 to 1,600 Hz and the resonance band increased as air pressure increased. The frequency of the second resonance band decreased as the cutting load and cutting point diameter increased. Damping of the second resonance band frequency shifted downward by polishing point.

  19. Some Measurements of Noise Transmission and Stress Response of a 0.020-Inch Duralumin Panel in the Presence of Air Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantarges, George T.

    1960-01-01

    Noise transmission measurements were made for a 0.020-inch panel with and without air flow on its surface. Tests were conducted with both an absorbent and reverberant chamber behind the panel. Panel stresses for some of these tests were also determined. Noise spectra obtained inside the absorbent chamber with flow attached and flow not attached to the panel appeared to contain several peaks corresponding in frequency to panel vibration modes. These peaks were notably absent when the chamber was reverberant. The noise reduction through the test panel measured with the aid of an absorbent chamber for the flow-not-attached case is in general agreement with values predicted by the theoretical weight law, which assumes negligible panel stiffness. Corresponding data for the flow-attached case do not follow the weight law but rather indicate less noise reduction at the high frequencies. The main stress responses of the panel without air flow occurred at its fundamental vibration mode. In the presence of air flow the main response occurs in a vibration mode having a node line perpendicular to the direction of air flow.

  20. Aircraft noise: accounting for changes in air traffic with time of day.

    PubMed

    Schäffer, Beat; Bütikofer, Rudolf; Plüss, Stefan; Thomann, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft noise contours are estimated using model calculations and, due to their impact on land use planning, they need to be highly accurate. During night time, not only the number and dominant types of aircraft may differ from daytime but also the flight paths flown may differ. To determine to which detail these variations in flight paths need to be considered, calculations were performed exemplarily for two airports using all available radar data over 1 year, taking into account their changes over the day. The results of this approach were compared with results of a simpler approach which does not consider such changes. While both calculations yielded similar results for the day and close to the airport, differences increased with distance as well as with the period of day (day

  1. Very low-noise large-area calorimeter based on bimetallic micromechanical transduction: toward sub-nanowatt resolution in air at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Kuniaki; Fukuda, Daiji; Zama, Tatsuya

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrated a very low-noise, large-area calorimeter based on a micromechanical heat-flow sensor. The input heat flow is transduced to the bimetallic deformation of the sensor, which is observed using a high-resolution fiber optic interferometer. The characteristics of 5-mm-square Si-Al bimetallic micromechanical sensors fabricated using silicon-on-insulator micromachining processes were investigated. We experimentally achieved a heat-detection noise of 12 nW, which is comparable to the best performance of thermopiles. The developed sensor is free of Johnson noise, which constrains the signal-to-noise ratio. In principle, this technique can provide a sub-nanowatt resolution even in air at room temperature.

  2. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air, grass and yak butter from Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xiaohua; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping

    2015-06-01

    Limited studies on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along terrestrial food chains were conducted. The food chain air-grass-yak (butter) in the pasture region of Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) was chosen for study. The air, grass and butter POPs in the TP were at the lower end of the concentrations generally found around the globe. HCB was the main pollutant in air and butter. Besides HCB, β-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the other major compounds in butter. Along the food chain, DDTs and high molecular weight PCB-138, 153 and 180 had higher Biological Concentration Factor values. The air-butter transfer factors of POPs were derived and demonstrated the practical advantage in predicting the atmospheric OCPs and PCBs to the TP. This study sheds light on the transfer and accumulation of POPs along the terrestrial food chain of the TP.

  3. Pesticide Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1976-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency chose the American Society of Testing and Materials to develop standardized guidelines for pesticide registration. Since the numbers and uses of pesticides is so wide, establishing ecological and public health guidelines may be difficult. Strong industry and government representation might also hamper the…

  4. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  5. Long-term air pollution and traffic noise exposures and cognitive function:A cross-sectional analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

    PubMed

    Tzivian, Lilian; Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna; Sugiri, Dorothee; Schikowski, Tamara; Jakobs, Hermann; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara; Weimar, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of adverse effects of air pollution (AP) and ambient noise on cognitive functions are apparently scarce, and findings seem to be inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of long-term exposure to AP and traffic noise with cognitive performance. At the second examination of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (2006-2008), cognitive performance was evaluated in 4086 participants. Long-term residential exposure to size-specific particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) with land use regression, to and traffic noise (weighted 24-h (LDEN) and nighttime (LNIGHT) means), was assessed according to the European Union (EU) Directive 2002/49/EC. Multiple regression models were calculated for the relationship of environmental exposures with a global cognitive score (GCS) and in five cognitive subtests, using single- and two-exposure models. In fully adjusted models, several AP metrics were negatively associated with four of five subtests and with GCS. For example, an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 was correlated with verbal fluency, labyrinth test, and immediate and delayed verbal recall. A 10 dB(A) elevation in LDEN and LNIGHT was associated with GCS. Similar but not significant associations were found for the cognitive subtests. In two-exposure models including noise and air pollution simultaneously, the associations did not change markedly for air pollution, but attenuated numerically for noise. Long-term exposures to AP and traffic noise are negatively correlated with subtests related to memory and executive functions. There appears to be little evidence for mutual confounding.

  6. The associations between traffic-related air pollution and noise with blood pressure in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuang; Fuertes, Elaine; Tiesler, Carla M T; Birk, Matthias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; von Berg, Andrea; Hoffmann, Barbara; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Although traffic emits both air pollution and noise, studies jointly examining the effects of both of these exposures on blood pressure (BP) in children are scarce. We investigated associations between land-use regression modeled long-term traffic-related air pollution and BP in 2368 children aged 10 years from Germany (1454 from Munich and 914 from Wesel). We also studied this association with adjustment of long-term noise exposure (defined as day-evening-night noise indicator "Lden" and night noise indicator "Lnight") in a subgroup of 605 children from Munich inner city. In the overall analysis including 2368 children, NO2, PM2.5 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5μm), PM10 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 10μm) and PM2.5 absorbance were not associated with BP. When restricting the analysis to the subgroup of children with noise information (N=605), a significant association between NO2 and diastolic BP was observed (-0.88 (95% confidence interval: -1.67, -0.08)). However, upon adjusting the models for noise exposure, only noise remained independently and significantly positively associated with diastolic BP. Diastolic BP increased by 0.50 (-0.03, 1.02), 0.59 (0.05, 1.13), 0.55 (0.03, 1.07), and 0.58 (0.05, 1.11)mmHg for every five decibel increase in Lden and by 0.59 (-0.05, 1.22), 0.69 (0.04, 1.33), 0.64 (0.02, 1.27), and 0.68 (0.05, 1.32)mmHg for every five decibel increase in Lnight, in different models of NO2, PM2.5 mass, PM10 mass and PM2.5 absorbance as the main exposure, respectively. In conclusion, air pollution was not consistently associated with BP with adjustment for noise, noise was independently and positively associated with BP in children.

  7. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  8. Does Traffic-related Air Pollution Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9–10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  9. Does traffic-related air pollution explain associations of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on children's health and cognition? A secondary analysis of the United Kingdom sample from the RANCH project.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2012-08-15

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001-2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9-10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed.

  10. Remedial investigation report, site 2-Pesticide Pit Burial Area, Stewart Air National Guard Base, Newburgh, New York. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Site 2-Pesticide Pit Burial Area was investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. A removal action was conducted in 1988, when pesticide containers and contaminated soil were excavated from the pit. The pit covered an area of approximately 1000 square feet and was approximately 12 feet deep. The report recommends no further action based on study results.

  11. Remedial investigation report, site 2-Pesticide Pit Burial Area, Stewart Air National Guard Base, Newburgh, New York. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Site 2-Pesticide Pit Burial Area was investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. A removal action was conducted in 1988, when pesticide containers and contaminated soil were excavated from the pit. The pit covered an area of approximately 1000 square feet and was approximately 12 feet deep. The report recommends no further action based on study results.

  12. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  13. Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Use Site Index will help a company (or other applicant) identify which data requirements are needed to register a pesticide product. It provides information on pesticide use sites and pesticide major use patterns.

  14. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements;...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements;...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements;...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements;...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements;...

  19. Environmental stressors and cardio-metabolic disease: part I-epidemiologic evidence supporting a role for noise and air pollution and effects of mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Münzel, Thomas; Sørensen, Mette; Gori, Tommaso; Schmidt, Frank P; Rao, Xiaoquan; Brook, Jeffrey; Chen, Lung Chi; Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-07-26

    Traffic noise and air pollution together represent the two most important environmental risk factors in urbanized societies. The first of this two-part review discusses the epidemiologic evidence in support of the existence of an association between these risk factors with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. While independent effects of these risk factors have now clearly been shown, recent studies also suggest that the two exposures may interact with each other and with traditional risk factors such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes. From a societal and policy perspective, the health effects of both air pollution and traffic noise are observed for exposures well below the thresholds currently accepted as being safe. Current gaps in knowledge, effects of intervention and their impact on cardiovascular disease, will be discussed in the last section of this review. Increased awareness of the societal burden posed by these novel risk factors and acknowledgement in traditional risk factor guidelines may intensify the efforts required for effective legislation to reduce air pollution and noise.

  20. Reduction of noise generated by air conditioning and ventilation plants and transmitted to inhabited areas. [application of silencers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harastaseanu, E.; Cristescu, G.; Mercea, F.

    1974-01-01

    The fans with which the conditioning and ventilation plants of weaving and spinning mills are equipped and the conditioning devices used in certain confection and knit wear departments of the textile industry generate loud noise. Solutions are presented for reducing the noise generated by the fans of ventilation and conditioning plants and transmitted to inhabited regions down to the admissible level, as well as the results obtained by experimental application of some noise reduction solutions in the conditioning plants of a spinning mill.

  1. a Survey on Health Effects due to Aircraft Noise on Residents Living around Kadena Air Base in the Ryukyus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Taira, K.; Ito, A.; Nakasone, T.

    1997-08-01

    Results are reported of a questionnaire survey relating to a scale for general health, the Todai Health Index, in a town, bordering on a large U.S. airbase in the Ryukyus. The level of aircraft noise exposure, in the town, expressed by WECPNL, ranges from 75 to 95 or more. The sample size was 1200, including a 200 person “control” group. Results of the analysis of the responses in terms of the noise exposure suggest that the exposed residents suffer psychosomatic effects, especially perceived psychological disorders, due to the noise exposure to military aircraft, and that such responses increase with the level of noise exposure.

  2. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  3. Soil concentrations and soil-air exchange of organochlorine pesticides along the Aba profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxia; Qi, Shihua; Yang, Dan; Hu, Ying; Li, Feng; Liu, Jia; Xing, Xinli

    2013-12-01

    Mianzhu—Aba profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau, was selected to study the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) along an altitudinal gradient. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and Aldrin, Dieldrin and Endrin (Drins) in surface soils were detected in winter (March) and summer (July). Soil concentrations (ng·g-1, dw) in winter and summer ranged as follws: DDTs, 0.37-179.16 and 0.32-42.57; HCHs, 0.14-10.76 and 0.55-32.71; Drins, N.D-3.99 and 0.02-6.93, respectively. Main soil OCPs were p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, β-HCH and Drins, among which Drins were rarely reported in current literature of the Tibetan Plateau. Higher OCP concentrations in the profile were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current lindane and nondicofol DDTs inputs, and also long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Soil OCP concentrations underwent obvious seasonal variation, with higher DDTs in winter and higher HCHs and Drins in summer. It may be caused by climatic conditions, summer monsoon type, and physico-chemical properties of such contaminants. Though "rest" phenomenon occurred in some sampling sites, HCHs and Drins showed an increasing trend with increasing altitude, while DDTs showed an evident decrease with increasing altitude. The altitudinal distributions of OCPs were all consistent with previous findings in other mountainous regions. A primary fugacity analysis on OCPs soil-air exchange indicated that the profile may be secondary sources for HCHs and Endrin. As with Aldrin, Dieldrin, and DDTs, the profile may be both secondary sources and sinks.

  4. Evaluation of wet air oxidation variables for removal of organophosphorus pesticide malathion using Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Isgoren, Melike; Gengec, Erhan; Veli, Sevil

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with finding optimum reaction conditions for wet air oxidation (WAO) of malathion aqueous solution, by Response Surface Methodology. Reaction conditions, which affect the removal efficiencies most during the non-catalytic WAO system, are: temperature (60-120 °C), applied pressure (20-40 bar), the pH value (3-7), and reaction time (0-120 min). Those were chosen as independent parameters of the model. The interactions between parameters were evaluated by Box-Behnken and the quadratic model fitted very well with the experimental data (29 runs). A higher value of R(2) and adjusted R(2) (>0.91) demonstrated that the model could explain the results successfully. As a result, optimum removal efficiency (97.8%) was obtained at pH 5, 20 bars of pressure, 116 °C, and 96 min. These results showed that Box-Behnken is a suitable design to optimize operating conditions and removal efficiency for non-catalytic WAO process. The EC20 value of raw wastewater was measured as 35.40% for malathion (20 mg/L). After the treatment, no toxicity was observed at the optimum reaction conditions. The results show that the WAO is an efficient treatment system for malathion degradation and has the ability of converting malathion to the non-toxic forms.

  5. Obsolete pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  6. The impact of an urban park on air pollution and noise levels in the Mediterranean city of Tel-Aviv, Israel.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pninit; Potchter, Oded; Schnell, Izhak

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the influence of urban parks on air quality and noise in the city of Tel-Aviv, Israel, by investigation of an urban park, an urban square and a street canyon. Simultaneous monitoring of several air pollutants and noise levels were conducted. The results showed that urban parks can reduce NOx, CO and PM10 and increase O3 concentrations and that park's mitigation effect is greater at higher NOx and PM10 levels. During extreme events, mean values of 413 ppb NOx and 80 μG/m3 PM10 were measured in the street while mean values of 89 ppb NOx and 24 μG/m3 PM10 were measured in the park. Whereas summer highest O3 values of 84 ppb were measured in the street, 94 ppb were measured in the park. The benefit of the urban park in reducing NOx and PM10 concentrations is more significant than the disadvantage of increased O3 levels. Furthermore, urban parks can reduce noise by ∼5 dB(A).

  7. Airborne pesticide residues along the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, M.S.; Foreman, W.T.; Goolsbys, D.A.; Nakagaki, N.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence, concentration, and geographical distribution of agricultural pesticides were determined in air over the Mississippi River from New Orleans, LA, to St. Paul, MN, during the first 10 days of June 1994. Air samples were collected from a research vessel by pulling air through polyurethane foam plugs at about 100 L/min for up to 24 h. Each sample was analyzed for 42 pesticides and 3 pesticide transformation products. Twenty- five compounds-15 herbicides, 7 insecticides, and 3 pesticide transformation products-were detected in one or more samples with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 80 ng/m3. Alachlor, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, fonofos, malathion, methyl parathion, metolachlor, metribuzin, pendimethalin, and trifluralin were detected in 80% or more of the samples. The highest concentrations for chlorpyrifos (1.6 ng/m3), diazinon (0.36 ng/m3), and malathion (4.6 ng/m3) all occurred near major metropolitan areas. These samples represent a 'snapshot in time', a spatial and temporal integration of which pesticides were present in the air during each sampling period. The occurrence and atmospheric concentrations of the observed pesticides were most closely related to their use on cropland within 40 km of the river.The occurrence, concentration, and geographical distribution of agricultural pesticides were determined in air over the Mississippi River from New Orleans, LA, to St. Paul, MN, during the first 10 days of June 1994. Air samples were collected from a research vessel by pulling air through polyurethane foam plugs at about 100 L/min for up to 24 h. Each sample was analyzed for 42 pesticides and 3 pesticide transformation products. Twenty-five compounds-15 herbicides, 7 insecticides, and 3 pesticide transformation products-were detected in one or more samples with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 80 ng/m3. Alachlor, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, fonofos, malathion, methyl parathion, metolachlor, metribuzin, pendimethalin, and trifluralin were detected in

  8. Effects of background noise on total noise annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of combined community noise sources on annoyance. The first experiment baseline relationships between annoyance and noise level for three community noise sources (jet aircraft flyovers, traffic and air conditioners) presented individually. Forty eight subjects evaluated the annoyance of each noise source presented at four different noise levels. Results indicated the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for the traffic noise was significantly different from that of aircraft and of air conditioner noise, which had equal slopes. The second experiment investigated annoyance response to combined noise sources, with aircraft noise defined as the major noise source and traffic and air conditioner noise as background noise sources. Effects on annoyance of noise level differences between aircraft and background noise for three total noise levels and for both background noise sources were determined. A total of 216 subjects were required to make either total or source specific annoyance judgements, or a combination of the two, for a wide range of combined noise conditions.

  9. Combined target and post-run target strategy for a comprehensive analysis of pesticides in ambient air using liquid chromatography-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Coscollà, Clara; León, Nuria; Pastor, Agustín; Yusà, Vicent

    2014-11-14

    A comprehensive strategy for the analysis of current airborne pesticides has been developed using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. The methodology includes both quantitative target analysis and post-run target screening analysis. The quantitative method was validated after a previous statistical optimisation of the main factors governing the ion source ionization and a study of the single-stage Orbitrap fragmentation through the HCD cell. The quantitative method presented recoveries ranging from 73 to 116%, with precision (RSD) lower than 20%, for the 35 substances in the scope of the target method. The full-scan accurate mass data were acquired with a resolving power of 50000 FWHM (scan speed, 2 Hz), and alternating two acquisition events, ESI+ without fragmentation and ESI+ with fragmentation. The method-LOQ was 6.5 pg m(-3) for most of the target pesticides. For post-target screening a customized theoretical database, that included pesticides, metabolites and other substances such as emerging flame retardants was built up. For identification, accurate exact mass with less than 5 ppm, and some diagnostic ions including isotopes and/or fragments were used. The strategy was applied to ten samples collected in a rural area of Valencia (Spain). Four pesticides, namely carbendazim, metalaxyl, myclobutanil and terbuthylazine, were detected in concentrations from 16 pg m(-3) to 174 pg m(-3). Some pesticides and metabolites (endothal, fenfuram, terbuthylazine-2-OH), in addition to two flame retardants were tentatively identified in the post-run target screening analysis.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of a quantum noise limited Čerenkov detector based on air-spaced light guiding taper for megavoltage x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Teymurazyan, A.; Rowlands, J. A.; Pang, G.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) have been widely used in radiation therapy and are still needed on linear accelerators (Linacs) equipped with kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV-CBCT) or MRI systems. Our aim is to develop a new high quantum efficiency (QE) Čerenkov Portal Imaging Device (CPID) that is quantum noise limited at dose levels corresponding to a single Linac pulse. Methods: Recently a new concept of CPID for MV x-ray imaging in radiation therapy was introduced. It relies on Čerenkov effect for x-ray detection. The proposed design consisted of a matrix of optical fibers aligned with the incident x-rays and coupled to an active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) for image readout. A weakness of such design is that too few Čerenkov light photons reach the AMFPI for each incident x-ray and an AMFPI with an avalanche gain is required in order to overcome the readout noise for portal imaging application. In this work the authors propose to replace the optical fibers in the CPID with light guides without a cladding layer that are suspended in air. The air between the light guides takes on the role of the cladding layer found in a regular optical fiber. Since air has a significantly lower refractive index (∼1 versus 1.38 in a typical cladding layer), a much superior light collection efficiency is achieved. Results: A Monte Carlo simulation of the new design has been conducted to investigate its feasibility. Detector quantities such as quantum efficiency (QE), spatial resolution (MTF), and frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) have been evaluated. The detector signal and the quantum noise have been compared to the readout noise. Conclusions: Our studies show that the modified new CPID has a QE and DQE more than an order of magnitude greater than that of current clinical systems and yet a spatial resolution similar to that of current low-QE flat-panel based EPIDs. Furthermore it was demonstrated that the new CPID does not require an

  11. Pesticide risk behaviors and factors influencing pesticide use among farmers in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Jallow, Mustapha F A; Awadh, Dawood G; Albaho, Mohammed S; Devi, Vimala Y; Thomas, Binson M

    2017-01-01

    The widespread overuse of pesticides in agriculture has generated increasing concerns about the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. Understanding farmers' perceptions of risk of pesticides and the determinants of pesticide overuse is important to modifying their behavior towards reducing pesticide use. A survey of 250 randomly selected smallholder vegetable farmers in Kuwait was conducted to quantify the extent of pesticide use, their pesticide risk perceptions and factors influencing their pesticide use behaviors. The majority of the farmers perceived pesticides pose some risk to the environment (65%) and human health (70.5%), while younger farmers were more likely to perceive this risk than older farmers. When asked to rate how risky pesticides were regarding several aspects of human health and the environment on a scale of 1(not risky) to 5 (extremely risky), concern was highest for the health of applicators (x̅=4.28) and lowest for air quality (x̅=2.32). The risk perceptions of the farmers did not have a positive influence on their pesticide use practices. A total of 76 pesticide active ingredients were found in use, and 9% of these belong to the WHO toxicity class II (moderately hazardous). On average, farmers applied 12.8kg of active ingredients per hectare per year, and 58% of the farmers were found to have overused pesticides, with an average overuse rate of 2.5kg. Pesticide application frequency ranged from two times a month up to once a week, depending on the crop. A binary probit model reveals that farmers' inadequate knowledge of pesticides, the influence of pesticide retailers and lack of access to non-synthetic methods of pest control are positively associated with pesticide overuse, while the propensity to overuse decreases with higher levels of education, training in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and the safe use and handling of pesticides, and access to extension support. Comprehensive intervention measures for

  12. Design and preliminary tests of a blade tip air mass injection system for vortex modification and possible noise reduction on a full-scale helicopter rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hosier, R. N.; Balcerak, J. C.; Johnson, H. K.

    1975-01-01

    Full-scale tests were conducted on the Langley helicopter rotor test facility as part of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a turbulent blade tip air mass injection system in alleviating the impulsive noise (blade slap) caused by blade-vortex interaction. Although blade-slap conditions could not be induced during these tests, qualitative results from flow visualization studies using smoke showed that the differential velocity between the jet velocity and the rotor tip speed was a primary parameter controlling the vortex modification.

  13. Introduction to Pesticide Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will explain and facilitate such incident reporting.

  14. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  15. Pesticides and Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Active Ingredients Other/Inert Ingredients Low-Risk Pesticides Organic Pesticide Ingredients Pesticide Incidents Human Exposure Pet Exposure ... toxic products , and those that are natural or organic , can cause health problems if someone is exposed ...

  16. Combat aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  17. Combat aircraft operations: Training requirements for the German Air Force tactical flying units and the noise problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jertz, W.

    1992-04-01

    The deterrence potential of an Air Force, and by that the capability to fulfill their mission in times of war, relies on threat oriented training in peacetime. Low level flying is a major tactical means to help aircrews reduce the anticipated threat imposed to them by enemy air defence systems to an acceptable degree. The demand for this capability applies also to air defence tasks against attacking fighter bombers. Military low level flying requires a high degree of proficiency, which can only be reached and maintained by constant training. A high performance level is then the key to air power. The possibilities for this kind of necessary training are restricted by superior demands concerning, amongst others, flying safety and environmental reasons. Too intensive restrictions might reduce the fighting capability of the wings to such an extent, that mission fulfillment could be seriously endangered.

  18. Core Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core noise area. Recent work1 on the turbine-transmission loss of combustor noise is briefly described, two2,3 new NRA efforts in the core-noise area are outlined, and an effort to develop CMC-based acoustic liners for broadband noise reduction suitable for turbofan-core application is delineated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries.

  19. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    MedlinePlus

    ... W X Y Z A-Z Index Health & Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety ... Low-Risk Pesticides Organic Pesticide Ingredients Pesticide Incidents Human Exposure Pet Exposure Environmental Incident Illegal Pesticide Activity Problem With Labels or ...

  20. Comparison of air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction technique and conventional dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction for determination of triazole pesticides in aqueous samples by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza Afshar; Aghdam, Abdollah Abdollahi

    2013-07-26

    Two micro-extraction methods, air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction (AALLME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), have been compared with each other by applying them for the analysis of five triazole pesticides (penconazole, hexaconazole, diniconazole, tebuconazole and triticonazole) in aqueous samples by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In the AALLME method, which excludes any disperser solvent, much less volume of organic solvent is used. In order to form fine and dispersed organic droplets in the aqueous phase, the mixture of aqueous sample solution and extraction solvent is repeatedly aspirated and dispensed with a syringe. In the DLLME method, an appropriate mixture of extraction solvent and disperser solvent is rapidly injected by a syringe into the aqueous sample. Effect of the pertinent experimental factors on DLLME (i.e. identity and volume of the extraction and disperser solvents and ionic strength) and on AALLME (identity and volume of the extraction solvent, number of agitations, and ionic strength) were investigated. Under optimal conditions, limits of detection for the five target pesticides obtained by AALLME-GC-FID and DLLME-GC-FID ranged from 0.20 to 1.1ngmL(-1) and 1.9 to 5.9ngmL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=5) were in the range of 1-4% and 3-5% with the enrichment factors of 449-504 and 79-143 for AALLME-GC-FID and DLLME-GC-FID, respectively. Both of the compared methods are simple, fast, efficient, inexpensive and can be applied to the analysis of the five pesticides in different aqueous samples in which penconazole and hexaconazole were found. For spiked samples, the recoveries were in the ranges of 92-105%, and 92-104% for AALLME and DLLME, respectively.

  1. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  2. Advanced computer technology - An aspect of the Terminal Configured Vehicle program. [air transportation capacity, productivity, all-weather reliability and noise reduction improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    NASA is conducting a Terminal Configured Vehicle program to provide improvements in the air transportation system such as increased system capacity and productivity, increased all-weather reliability, and reduced noise. A typical jet transport has been equipped with highly flexible digital display and automatic control equipment to study operational techniques for conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. The present airborne computer capability of this aircraft employs a multiple computer simple redundancy concept. The next step is to proceed from this concept to a reconfigurable computer system which can degrade gracefully in the event of a failure, adjust critical computations to remaining capacity, and reorder itself, in the case of transients, to the highest order of redundancy and reliability.

  3. Simulation-based conceptual design of an acoustic metamaterial with full band gap using an air-based 1-3 piezoelectric composite for ultrasonic noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Shahrokh; Eskandari-Ghadi, Morteza; Rahimian, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims at proposing a novel type of acoustic metamaterials with complete band gap composed of piezoelectric rods with square array as inclusions embedded in an air background (matrix). A modified plane wave expansion method accompanied with the principles of the Bloch-Floquet method with electromechanical coupling effect and also impedance spectra are used to get a band frequency and to investigate the passband for the selected cut of piezoelectric rods. We investigate both the electromechanical coupling coefficient and mechanical quality factor and their dependency to passband and bandwidth, which depends on both the density and the wave impedance of the matrix and the inclusions (rods). The ratio of the volume of inclusion to the matrix is used to define the fill factor or the so-called inclusion ratio, to introduce the bandwidth as a function of that. Furthermore, the fabrication method is presented in this paper. The results make a suitable foundation for design purposes and may develop an inherently passive ultrasonic noise control. In addition, the results provide the required guidance for a simulation-based design of elastic wave filters or wave guide that might be useful in high-precision mechanical systems operated in certain frequency ranges and switches made of piezoelectric materials; they also propose a novel type of elastic metamaterials, which is independent of the wave direction and has an equal sensitivity in all directions in which it reacts omnidirectionally and mitigates the occupational noise exposure.

  4. Spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides along the plain-mountain transect in central China: Regional source vs. long-range transport and air-soil exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chengkai; Xing, Xinli; Albanese, Stefano; Doherty, Angela; Huang, Huanfang; Lima, Annamaria; Qi, Shihua; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2015-12-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed to measure spatiality and seasonality of atmospheric OCPs in Jianghan Plain (JHP) and Western Hubei Mountain (WHM), to make a preliminary explorative study of the source-sink relationship of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their association with the monsoon. The concentrations of individual OCPs in the JHP were generally higher than those in the WHM. Significantly high levels of DDTs and Endosulfan were found in the spring and summer, HCB was found in autumn and winter, and HCHs displayed uniform distributions. Compared with the levels of 2005, a significant decrease of atmospheric HCHs, DDTs and HCB was observed, whereas an increase in Endosulfan was observed. The air-soil equilibrium status of OCPs suggested that Dajiuhu (DJH) soils are likely to be a sink for OCPs, and JHP soils are acting as the emitter, contaminating the atmosphere at certain monitoring stations. Backward air trajectory analysis demonstrated that the seasonal fluctuation of atmospheric DDTs, HCB and Endosulfan at the DJH site were closely associated with the variations of the East Asian monsoon.

  5. Noise generated by a flight weight, air flow control valve in a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft thrust vectoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility to experimentally evaluate the noise generated by a flight weight, 12 in. butterfly valve installed in a proposed vertical takeoff and landing thrust vectoring system. Fluctuating pressure measurements were made in the circular duct upstream and downstream of the valve. This data report presents the results of these tests. The maximum overall sound pressure level is generated in the duct downstream of the valve and reached a value of 180 dB at a valve pressure ratio of 2.8. At the higher valve pressure ratios the spectra downstream of the valve is broad banded with its maximum at 1000 Hz.

  6. Reduction of propeller noise by active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bschorr, O.; Kubanke, D.

    1992-04-01

    Active noise control, a method of cancelling noise by means of interference with a secondary anti-noise source, is now in full development. The first commercial application of this technique is in the case of active electronically controlled head sets. The next step will be the active noise cancellation in air ducts and in passenger cabins. The aim of this paper is to assess the possibilities of the anti-noise technique for reducing propeller noise. First, by a mathematical simulation the theoretical noise reduction on the ground was calculated and found to be promising for further investigations. In the case of the periodic engine and propeller noise, for example, with only a single anti-noise source, the noise foot prints of the lower propeller harmonics can be reduced by up to 10 dB. In laboratory tests the theoretical values will be confirmed experimentally. For cancellation of the periodic noise one can use synchronous anti-noise generators. Compared with the engine and propeller noise the reduction of jet noise by the anti-noise technique is much more difficult. Therefore a sensor and controlling unit are necessary because of the stochastic nature of jet noise. Since aircraft noise is a severe problem, all methods are to be considered.

  7. FUGACITY-BASED INDOOR RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE FATE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal and non-dietary pathways are possibly important for exposure to pesticides used in residences. Limited data have been collected on pesticide concentrations in residential air and surfaces following application. Models may be useful for interpreting these data and to make...

  8. VERIFYING THE PERFORMANCE OF PESTICIDE SPRAY DRIFT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Application of pesticide sprays usually results in formation of small spray droplets which can drift with air currents to nearby sensitive sites. A number of technologies offer the potential to reduce the amount of spray drift from pesticide applications. Acceptance and use of ...

  9. Using Model Ecosystems to Predict the Environmental Behavior of Pesticides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    Describes construction of a model ecosystem using a 10-gallon aquarium with a sand, water and air interface. Pesticides are placed on sorghum plants grown on the terrestrial portion. After 30 days, movement of the pesticide is traced using radioisotope techniques, from terrestrial to aquatic organisms. Details for calculating concentration factors…

  10. Sources of toxaphene and other organochlorine pesticides in North America as determined by air measurements and potential source contribution function analyses.

    PubMed

    Hoh, Eunha; Hites, Ronald A

    2004-08-01

    A previous study from our laboratory suggested that the Gulf of Mexico might be a potential source of toxaphene to the United States. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured gas-phase toxaphene concentrations at sampling sites ranging from northern Michigan to southern Louisiana; the samples were collected every 12 days during 2002-2003. We also measured other organochlorine pesticides in these samples. We identified major source regions of each pesticide group using the potential source contribution function model with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation defining the criterion levels. These results indicate that southern cotton farms are major sources of both toxaphene and p,p'-DDE to the northern United States. In fact, there is a very strong correlation of toxaphene and DDE atmospheric concentrations at all sites, further indicating a common source. On the other hand, the Gulf of Mexico is not a major source of toxaphene or DDE. DDE's source region is similar to that of toxaphene but somewhat broader, reflecting DDT's historically more diversified use. The level of endosulfan in the atmosphere at all of the sites was similar, and PSCF modeling indicated that its sources were all toward the east of the sampling sites.

  11. Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators.

    PubMed

    Damalas, Christos A; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G

    2011-05-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  12. Rotorcraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. J. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The establishment of a realistic plan for NASA and the U.S. helicopter industry to develop a design-for-noise methodology, including plans for the identification and development of promising noise reduction technology was discussed. Topics included: noise reduction techniques, scaling laws, empirical noise prediction, psychoacoustics, and methods of developing and validing noise prediction methods.

  13. National Pesticide Standard Repository

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Pesticide Standards Repository collects and maintains an inventory of analytical “standards” of registered pesticides in the United States, as well as some that are not currently registered for food and product testing and monitoring.

  14. Pesticide Registration Information System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and customers. PRISM supports Strategic Goal 4 by automating pesticide registration processes.

  15. The Pesticide Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Van Den Robert

    1979-01-01

    Contains a discussion of insects' ability to survive, of the development of pesticides and the introduction of DDT, of the problems of pesticide use and resistance to insecticides, and of the advantages of integrated pest control. (BB)

  16. Exploring Pesticide Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines environmental problems associated with the use of pesticides, and suggests thirty learning activities designed to give elementary school children a better understanding of the problem of pesticide pollution. (JR)

  17. Revoking Pesticide Tolerances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA revokes pesticide tolerances when all registrations of a pesticide have been canceled in the U.S. and the tolerances are not needed for imported foods or when there are no registered uses for certain crops.

  18. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  19. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  20. CATALOG OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. INSULATION, WALLCOVERINGS, RESI- LIENT FLOOR COVERINGS, CARPET, ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND CAULKS, AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses and presents data on constituents and emissions from products that have the potential to impact the indoor air environment. t is a tool to be used by researchers to help organize the study of materials as potential sources of indoor air emissions. ncluded are...

  1. Pesticides and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Gaylen

    1973-01-01

    Consideration of the dangers of pesticides to the world ecosystem as well as the economic necessity which an affluent society has created are the two sides of the pesticide problem discussed in this issue. An attempt is made to clarify the issue, to recognize the ways that pesticides exert their effects, and to relate what measures can be taken to…

  2. The Pesticide Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jerome B.

    1977-01-01

    A scheme for comparing the relative toxicities and environmental safety of agricultural pesticides is presented. It is based on the sum of four key factors: (1) oral toxicity to rats, (2) oral toxicity to fish, (3) longevity, and (4) bioaccumulation. Thirty-one pesticides are ranked by these factors. The ranking indicates that new pesticides are…

  3. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee: Pesticide Incidents Workgroup

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA formed this workgroup to assist in meeting its long-term goal of creating a publically-available framework that improves the reporting, quality and efficient use of pesticide incident data to ensure high-quality, science-based pesticide decisions.

  4. You Can Help Keep the Air Cleaner -- Every Day

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location You Can Help Keep the Air Cleaner -- Every Day! Air ... or try to delay using them when poor air quality is forecast. Pesticides Days when particle pollution is ...

  5. Effects of potential neurotoxic pesticides on hearing loss: a review.

    PubMed

    Gatto, M P; Fioretti, M; Fabrizi, G; Gherardi, M; Strafella, E; Santarelli, L

    2014-05-01

    Several pesticides are supposed to be neurotoxic for humans, consequently, they may also affect the auditory system. This review analyzes human and experimental animal studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides is associated with hearing loss. The literature on this topic is still sparse and methodological limitations of some papers evaluated are identified. As a whole, available data indicate a possible ototoxic action of pesticides, but alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out, also considering some confounders, such as the co-exposure to noise. Therefore, further studies are necessary in order to clarify the association between pesticides exposure and hearing loss. While awaiting more evidence, for precautionary action we recommend considering pesticides as possible ototoxic agents, in particular for vulnerable targets, such as pregnant women and children during early development.

  6. Micronuclei and pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Creus, Amadeu; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Marcos, Ricard

    2011-01-01

    Micronucleus (MN) is a biomarker widely used in biomonitoring studies carried out to determine the genetic risk associated to pesticide exposure. Many in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as epidemiological approaches, have demonstrated the ability of certain chemical pesticides to produce genetic effects including cancer and other chronic pathologies in humans; thus, biomonitoring studies have been carried out to characterise the genetic risk associated to pesticide exposure. It must be noted that 'pesticide exposure' is a broad term covering complex mixtures of chemicals and many variables that can reduce or potentiate their risk. In addition, there are large differences in pesticides used in the different parts of the world. Although pesticides constitute a wide group of environmental pollutants, the main focus on their risk has been addressed to people using pesticides in their working places, at the chemical industry or in the crop fields. Here, we present a brief review of biomonitoring studies carried out in people occupationally exposed to pesticides and that use MN in lymphocytes or buccal cells as a target to determine the induction of genotoxic damage. Thus, people working in the chemical industry producing pesticides, people spraying pesticides and people dedicated to floriculture or agricultural works in general are the subject of specific sections. MN is a valuable genotoxic end point when clear exposure conditions exist like in pesticide production workers; nevertheless, better study designs are needed to overcome the uncertainty in exposure, genetic susceptibility and statistical power in the studies of sprayers and floriculture or agricultural workers.

  7. Pesticides and children.

    PubMed

    Garry, Vincent F

    2004-07-15

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored.

  8. JPL noise control program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klascius, A. F.

    1975-01-01

    Exposures of personnel to noise pollution at the Jet Propulsion Laboratories, Pasadena, California, were investigated. As a result of the study several protective measures were taken: (1) employees exposed to noise hazards were required to wear ear-protection devices, (2) mufflers and air diversion devices were installed around the wind tunnels; and (3) all personnel that are required to wear ear protection are given annual audimeter tests.

  9. Pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Capel, Peter D.

    1999-01-01

    More than 20 years after the ban of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides, pesticides continue to be detected in air, rain, soil, surface water, bed sediment, and aquatic and terrestrial biota throughout the world. Recent research suggests that low levels of some of these pesticides may have the potential to affect the development, reproduction, and behavior of fish and wildlife, and possibly humans. Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors assesses the occurrence and behavior of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota-the two major compartments of the hydrologic system where organochlorine pesticides are most likely to accumulate. This book collects, for the first time, results from several hundred monitoring studies and field experiments, ranging in scope from individual sites to the entire nation. Comprehensive tables provide concise summaries of study locations, pesticides analyzed, and study outcomes. Comprehensive and extensively illustrated, Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors evaluates the sources, environmental fate, geographic distribution, and long-term trends of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota. The book focuses on organochlorine pesticides, but also assesses the potential for currently used pesticides to be found in bed sediment and aquatic biota. Topics covered in depth include the effect of land use on pesticide occurrence, mechanisms of pesticide uptake and accumulation by aquatic biota, and the environmental significance of observed levels of pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota.

  10. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Ali; Raherison, Chantal; Tessier, Jean-François; Baldi, Isabelle; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7-10 years) was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  11. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention as other types of pollution, such as air pollution, or water pollution. The air around us is ... Air Act Overview Home Progress Cleaning the Air Air Pollution Challenges Requirements and History Role of Science and ...

  12. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  13. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A F; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. Frequent occupational exposure to pesticides or home pesticide use was more strongly associated with both childhood leukemia and brain cancer than either professional exterminations or the use of garden pesticides. Occupational pesticide exposure was also associated with increased risk of Wilms' tumor, Ewing's sarcoma, and germ cell tumors. Residence on a farm, a proxy for pesticide exposure, was associated with increased risk of a number of childhood cancers. Although increased risk of some childhood cancers in association with pesticide exposure is suggested by multiple studies, methodological limitations common to many studies restrict conclusions; these include indirect exposure classification, small sample size, and potential biases in control selection. Opportunities for methodologic improvement in future studies of pesticides and childhood cancers are described. PMID:9349828

  14. [Laser Raman spectrum analysis of carbendazim pesticide].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-bin; Wu, Rui-mei; Liu, Mu-hua; Zhang, Lu-ling; Lin, Lei; Yan, Lin-yuan

    2014-06-01

    Raman signal of solid and liquid carbendazim pesticide was collected by laser Raman spectrometer. The acquired Raman spectrum signal of solid carbendazim was preprocessed by wavelet analysis method, and the optimal combination of wavelet denoising parameter was selected through mixed orthogonal test. The results showed that the best effect was got with signal to noise ratio (SNR) being 62.483 when db2 wavelet function was used, decomposition level was 2, the threshold option scheme was 'rigisure' and reset mode was 'sln'. According to the vibration mode of different functional groups, the de-noised Raman bands could be divided into 3 areas: 1 400-2 000, 700-1 400 and 200-700 cm(-1). And the de-noised Raman bands were assigned with and analyzed. The characteristic vibrational modes were gained in different ranges of wavenumbers. Strong Raman signals were observed in the Raman spectrum at 619, 725, 964, 1 022, 1 265, 1 274 and 1 478 cm(-1), respectively. These characteristic vibrational modes are characteristic Raman peaks of solid carbendazim pesticide. Find characteristic Raman peaks at 629, 727, 1 001, 1 219, 1 258 and 1 365 cm(-1) in Raman spectrum signal of liquid carbendazim. These characteristic peaks were basically tallies with the solid carbendazim. The results can provide basis for the rapid screening of pesticide residue in food and agricultural products based on Raman spectrum.

  15. 78 FR 9688 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold... for Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related Label Claims. This document extends the comment... guidance for antimicrobial pesticide products with mold-related claims. In response to comments...

  16. 75 FR 28012 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product... Agency is announcing the availability of and seeking public comment on a draft Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' PR Notices are...

  17. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold.... SUMMARY: The Agency is announcing the availability of and seeking public comment on a draft Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) titled ``Guidance on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related...

  18. Do perceived job insecurity and annoyance due to air and noise pollution predict incident self-rated poor health? A prospective analysis of independent and joint associations using a German national representative cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Natalie; Loerbroks, Adrian; Bolte, Gabriele; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Background Current economic and social change has contributed to increasing job insecurity and traffic-related pollution in residential areas. Both job insecurity and exposure to noise and air pollution are known determinants of population health and can concur in peoples' lives. This may hold true particularly for socially disadvantaged subpopulations. Nevertheless, the potential independent and joint links of those exposures to health have been rarely examined so far. We aimed to contribute to the scarce body of evidence. Methods Information on perceived job insecurity and exposures to noise and air pollution as expressed by annoyance as well as on self-rated health were gathered from 2 waves of the population-based German Socio-Economic Panel (2009 and 2011, N=6544). We performed multivariable Poisson regression to examine the independent and joint risk of poor health in 2011 by perceived job insecurity and annoyance due to noise and air pollution in 2009. Results After the 2-year follow-up in 2011, 571 (8.7%) participants rated their health as poor. The risk of reporting incident poor health was increased by roughly 40% in employees reporting high versus low perceived job insecurity and annoyance due to noise and air pollution, respectively. This risk increased when both exposures were present at higher levels (risk ratio=1.95 (1.49 to 2.55)). Conclusions Work-related and environmental exposures may accumulate and have a joint health impact. Elaboration on the link between occupational and residential exposures is warranted in the light of their concurrence and their implications for health inequities. PMID:28115332

  19. Pesticide Product Label System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on November 21, 2014. Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely handle and use registered pesticide products. An approved pesticide product label represents the full content of EPAs registration decision regarding that product. Pesticide labels contain detailed information on the use, storage, and handling of a product. This information will be found on EPA stamped-approved labels and, in some cases, in subsequent related correspondence, which is also included in PPLS. You may need to review several PDF files for a single product to determine the complete current terms of registration.

  20. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  1. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  2. Models for Pesticide Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA considers the toxicity of the pesticide as well as the amount of pesticide to which a person or the environments may be exposed in risk assessment. Scientists use mathematical models to predict pesticide concentrations in exposure assessment.

  3. Pesticides in the atmosphere; distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael S.; Capel, Paul D.

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive review of existing literature on the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the atmosphere of the United States and adjoining Canadian provinces showed that the atmosphere is an important part of the hydrologic cycle that acts to distribute and deposit pesticides in areas far removed from their application sites. A compilation of existing data shows that pesticides have been detected in the atmosphere throughout the nation. Most of the available information on pesticides in the atmosphere is from small-scale, short-term studies that seldom lasted more than one year. Only two national-scale, multi-year studies were done since the late 1960's that analyzed for a wide variety of pesticides in air that were in current use at the time. Another large-scale study was done during 1990-91, but was limited to the midwestern and northeastern United States and only analyzed for two classes of herbicides in wet deposition. Most of the pesticides analyzed for were detected in either air or rain, and represent about 25 percent of the total number of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides in current use. The geographical distribution of studies, and the type of sampling and analysis were highly variable with most of the historical study efforts concentrated in the Great Lakes area and California. Air and rain were the main atmospheric matrices sampled, but pesticides were also detected in fog and snow. Reported pesticide concentrations in air and rain were frequently positively correlated to their regional agricultural use. Deviations from this relation could usually be explained by non-agricultural use of pesticides, sampling and analytical difficulties, and environmental persistence. High concentrations of locally used pesticides were found to occur seasonally, usually in conjunction with spring planting of row crops and warm temperatures, but high concentrations also occurred during winter months in those areas where dormant orchards were sprayed. The

  4. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, a permanent, broadly representative advisory committee, meets with EPA on a regular basis to discuss pesticide regulatory, policy, and program implementation issues.

  5. Application of sorbent impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disk passive air samplers for investigating organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers at the global scale.

    PubMed

    Koblizkova, Martina; Genualdi, Susan; Lee, Sum Chi; Harner, Tom

    2012-01-03

    As part of continued efforts under the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network to develop passive air samplers applicable to a wide-range of compounds, sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disk samplers were codeployed and tested against conventional polyurethane foam (PUF) disk samplers. The SIP disk sampler has a higher sorptive capacity compared to the PUF disk sampler, due to its impregnation with ground XAD resin. The two sampler types were codeployed at 20 sites during the 2009, 3-month long spring sampling period of the GAPS Network. Air concentrations for chlordanes (trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, and trans-nonachlor) and endosulfans (endosulfan I, endosulfan II, and endosulfan sulfate) derived from PUF disk and SIP disk samplers showed near 1:1 agreement and confirmed previous results for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Discrepancies observed for α-HCH and γ-HCH in PUF disk versus SIP disk are attributed to lack of "comparability" of the PUF and SIP data sets, due to differences in effective air sampled by the two devices caused by saturation of these higher volatility compounds in the lower capacity PUF disk samplers. Analysis of PBDEs in PUF and SIP disks showed relatively good agreement but highlighted challenges associated with high blanks levels for PBDEs. The higher capacity SIP disk samplers allowed for the analysis of pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) and hexachlorobenzene (HCBz) and revealed a relatively uniform global distribution of these compounds. The results of this study further validate the SIP disk sampler as a complement to the PUF disk sampler, with capabilities for a broad range of POPs targeted under international POPs treaties such as the Stockholm Convention on POPs and its Global Monitoring Plan.

  6. A fugacity-based indoor residential pesticide fate model

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Deborah H.; Furtaw, Edward J.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2002-06-01

    Dermal and non-dietary pathways are potentially significant exposure pathways to pesticides used in residences. Exposure pathways include dermal contact with residues on surfaces, ingestion from hand- and object-to-mouth activities, and absorption of pesticides into food. A limited amount of data has been collected on pesticide concentrations in various residential compartments following an application. But models are needed to interpret this data and make predictions about other pesticides based on chemical properties. In this paper, we propose a mass-balance compartment model based on fugacity principles. We include air (both gas phase and aerosols), carpet, smooth flooring, and walls as model compartments. Pesticide concentrations on furniture and toys, and in food, are being added to the model as data becomes available. We determine the compartmental fugacity capacity and mass transfer-rate coefficient for wallboard as an example. We also present the framework and equations needed for a dynamic mass-balance model.

  7. Pesticide occurrence and distribution in fog collected near Monterey, California

    SciTech Connect

    Schomburg, C.J.; Glotfelty, D.E. ); Seiber, J.N. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyzed pesticides in air and fog in several fog events sampled near Monterey, CA, to determine whether the uptake of pesticides in advected oceanic fog was different from uptake in fog forming under stagnant inversion conditions in California's Central Valley in the winter. Data for several pesticides common to both ares showed that the pesticide content and distribution were remarkable similar in the two locations. The conversion of organophosphorus insecticides to their corresponding oxons, and aqueous-phase enrichment factors, were also very similar. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that enhanced pesticide concentration in fogwater is caused by strongly sorptive nonfilterable particles and colloids in the fog liquid that are derived from atmospheric particles.

  8. Controlling pesticide loss by natural porous micro/nano composites: straw ash-based biochar and biosilica.

    PubMed

    Cai, Dongqing; Wang, Longhai; Zhang, Guilong; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Zhengyan

    2013-09-25

    Pesticide sprayed onto plant leaves tends to discharge into the environment through rainwater washing, leaching, and volatilization, resulting in severe pollution to soil, water, and air. Here, to control pesticide loss, we developed a loss-control pesticide (LCP) by adding straw ash-based biochar and biosilica (BCS) to traditional pesticide. BCS possesses a porous micro/nano structure and thus can adsorb a large amount of pesticide molecules to form pesticide-BCS complexes that tend to be retained by the rough surface of plant leaves, displaying a high adhesion performance on the leaves; therefore, the pesticide loss decreases, sufficient pesticide for the plant is supplied, and the pollution risk of the pesticide can be substantially lowered.

  9. Community noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragdon, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Airport and community land use planning as they relate to airport noise reduction are discussed. Legislation, community relations, and the physiological effect of airport noise are considered. Noise at the Logan, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis/St. Paul airports is discussed.

  10. Children, Pesticides and Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Alison

    1998-01-01

    Young children receive higher doses of pesticides than any other age group. The younger a child is the more difficulty the body will have in coping with toxins in general. Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) do not adequately protect children. Evidence of harm from a pesticide often has to be overwhelmingly strong before anything is done about it.…

  11. The Pesticide Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1998-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) works to make communities aware of dangers posed by misused pesticides, which can be hazardous to the health of children and others. The EPA is involved in outreach to inform the public. People need information about safe and effective pest-control options. They should report suspected pesticide misuse to…

  12. Food and Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA sets limits on how much of a pesticide may be used on food during growing and processing, and how much can remain on the food you buy. Learn about regulation of pesticides on food and how you can limit exposure.

  13. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  14. Pesticides in the atmosphere: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael S.; Capel, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    Most people know about the presence and health effects of pesticide residues in the water they drink. However, they may not realize the impact of atmospheric transportation and deposition of pesticides on water quality. Scientific studies of pesticides in various atmospheric matrices (air, rain, snow, aerosols, and fog) provide some of the answers. Pesticides in the Atmosphere focuses on the review and interpretation of direct measurements of pesticides in the environment. An exhaustive compilation, the book examines hundreds of studies in detailed tabular listings, with accompanying maps that include such features as spatial and temporal domain studies, target analytes, detection limits, and compounds detected. Working with the foundation of forty years of scientific studies, the editors synthesize this research to characterize the common threads and main conclusions. They use this information to identify where we need to improve our understanding of pesticides in the atmosphere and their significance to water quality. Pesticides in the Atmosphere serves as a resource, text, and reference to a wide spectrum of scientists, water managers, and students. It includes extensive compilations of references, interpretive analyses and conclusions. For those not familiar with the atmospheric transportation and deposition of pesticides it provides a comprehensive introduction.

  15. Protective Clothing for Pesticide Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brief, largely pictorial guide to protective clothing for pesticide users addresses moderately to highly toxic pesticides. The guide discusses the potential hazards of pesticides and the kinds of clothing and equipment that should be worn for personal protection. It also explains how the type of pesticide formulation affects an individual's…

  16. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air samples by using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography dual electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Mokbel, Haifaa; Al Dine, Enaam Jamal; Elmoll, Ahmad; Liaud, Céline; Millet, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    An analytical method associating accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) in immersion mode combined with gas chromatography dual electrons capture detectors (SPME-GC-2ECD) has been developed and studied for the simultaneous determination of 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air samples (active and XAD-2 passive samplers). Samples were extracted with ASE with acetonitrile using the following conditions: temperature, 150 °C; pressure, 1500 psi; static, 15 min; cycles, 3; purge, 300 s; flush, 100 %. Extracts were reduced to 1 mL, and 500 μL of this extract, filled with deionised water, was subject to SPME extraction. Experimental results indicated that the proposed method attained the best extraction efficiency under the optimised conditions: extraction of PCB-OCP mixture using 100-μm PDMS fibre at 80 °C for 40 min with no addition of salt. The performance of the proposed ASE-SPME-GC-2ECD methodology with respect to linearity, limit of quantification and detection was evaluated by spiking of XAD-2 resin with target compounds. The regression coefficient (R (2)) of most compounds was found to be high of 0.99. limits of detection (LODs) are between 0.02 and 4.90 ng m(-3), and limits of quantification (LOQs) are between 0.05 and 9.12 ng m(-3) and between 0.2 and 49 ng/sampler and 0.52 and 91 ng/sampler, respectively, for XAD-2 passive samplers. Finally, a developed procedure was applied to determine selected PCBs and OCPs in the atmosphere.

  17. Pesticides and childhood cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, S H; Ward, M H

    1998-01-01

    Children are exposed to potentially carcinogenic pesticides from use in homes, schools, other buildings, lawns and gardens, through food and contaminated drinking water, from agricultural application drift, overspray, or off-gassing, and from carry-home exposure of parents occupationally exposed to pesticides. Parental exposure during the child's gestation or even preconception may also be important. Malignancies linked to pesticides in case reports or case-control studies include leukemia, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, soft-tissue sarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the brain, colorectum, and testes. Although these studies have been limited by nonspecific pesticide exposure information, small numbers of exposed subjects, and the potential for case-response bias, it is noteworthy that many of the reported increased risks are of greater magnitude than those observed in studies of pesticide-exposed adults, suggesting that children may be particularly sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of pesticides. Future research should include improved exposure assessment, evaluation of risk by age at exposure, and investigation of possible genetic-environment interactions. There is potential to prevent at least some childhood cancer by reducing or eliminating pesticide exposure. PMID:9646054

  18. 78 FR 3418 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web- Distributed Labeling for Pesticide... (PR Notice) titled ``Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide Products.'' PR Notices are issued by the... Internet. Web-distributed labeling would allow users to retrieve a streamlined version of the...

  19. Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, John S.; Wilby, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The generation and control of flight vehicle interior noise is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of transmission through airborne and structure-borne paths and the control of cabin noise by path modification. Techniques for identifying the relative contributions of the various source-path combinations are also discussed along with methods for the prediction of aircraft interior noise such as those based on the general modal theory and statistical energy analysis.

  20. Something in the Air: Air Pollution in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villaire, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the danger of unhealthy air in the school environment, describing common problems and how parents and schools can respond. The article focuses on the dangers of mold, pesticides, diesel exhaust, and radon. The three sidebars describe how to promote indoor air quality at school, note how to determine whether the school's air is making…

  1. Noise Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  2. Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...

  3. Computer Programs for Producing Single-Event Aircraft Noise Data for Specific Engine Power and Meteorological Conditions for Use with USAF (United States Air Force) Community Noise Model (NOISEMAP).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    34 " AFAMRL-TR-83-020 COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR PRODUCING SINGLE-EVENT AIRCRAFT NOISE DATA FOR SPECIFIC ENGINE POWER * AND... any purpose other than a i4" padon#1th Goveremagn thereby incurs no responsibility ** tevewauIwt may have formulated, furnishe, or ore data, is, not...to be- regarded by ’thew holder or Aany other prson or corporation, or Usae, or sell any patented invention that may in any Akv twt. Amxopace Medical

  4. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  5. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  6. Pesticide Emergency Exemptions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A state or federal agency can request an emergency exemptions when a serious pest problem jeopardizes production of agricultural goods or public health but no pesticides are currently registered for that situation. Learn how to request emergency exemption.

  7. What are Antimicrobial Pesticides?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Antimicrobial pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces.

  8. Why We Review Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA periodically reviews existing registered pesticides to ensure they can be used safely, without unreasonable risks to human health and the environment.

  9. LC-MS characterization of contemporary pesticides in PM10 of Valencia Region, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coscollà, Clara; Hart, Elizabeth; Pastor, Agustín; Yusà, Vicent

    2013-10-01

    Pesticides in the inhalable fraction of particulate matter (PM10) should be well tracked in order to contribute information to future exposure assessment in individuals of the general public. A total of 40 current-used pesticides and metabolites were searched for in ambient air samples collected from January through December 2010. The samples were taken from one remote, one urban and three rural sites in Valencia Region (Spain) and analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem (LC-MS/MS). In the PM10 fraction 17 pesticides and metabolites were detected overall, two of them currently banned (carbofuran and omethoate, although the latter is a metabolite of the permitted pesticide dimethoate). The detected pesticides appeared at frequencies ranging from 1 to 75%, with omethoate, terbuthylazine and its metabolites, and carbendazim presenting the highest frequencies. The concentrations detected ranged from few pg m-3 to thousands of pg m-3, with omethoate having the highest average concentration (141.15 pg m-3) in the 5 sites overall. Each station showed its own specific pesticide profile, which is linked to the different types of crops around each site. In the rural stations pesticide levels were greater in spring and early summer, which correlates with their application in agricultural practices. These findings suggest that more efforts are required to implement an extensive air monitoring network in Europe for pesticide control and to develop regulations or recommendations regarding safer pesticide levels in ambient air.

  10. Helicopter external noise requirements: FAA perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    Enactment of helicopter noise certification standards for the control of noise impact contributing to community annoyance is considered in terms of the development of helicopters as an environmentally compatible air transportation mode. Increased use of helicopters for commercial applications and public awareness of aircraft noise are cited as factors making development of helicopter noise standards necessary both for the protection of the environmental interest of the community and to ensure the orderly growth of the helicopter industry itself. Noise sources, technology trends in helicopter design, and design concepts to control helicopter noise are discussed along with the regulatory background and specific helicopter regulatory concepts.

  11. Pesticides in the atmosphere: a comparison of gas-particle partitioning and particle size distribution of legacy and current-use pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degrendele, C.; Okonski, K.; Melymuk, L.; Landlová, L.; Kukučka, P.; Audy, O.; Kohoutek, J.; Čupr, P.; Klánová, J.

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a comparison of seasonal variation, gas-particle partitioning and particle-phase size distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in air. Two years (2012/2013) of weekly air samples were collected at a background site in the Czech Republic using a high-volume air sampler. To study the particle-phase size distribution, air samples were also collected at an urban and rural site in the area of Brno, Czech Republic, using a cascade impactor separating atmospheric particulates according to six size fractions. The timing and frequencies of detection of CUPs related to their legal status, usage amounts and their environmental persistence, while OCPs were consistently detected throughout the year. Two different seasonal trends were noted: certain compounds had higher concentrations only during the growing season (April-September) and other compounds showed two peaks, first in the growing season and second in plowing season (October-November). In general, gas-particle partitioning of pesticides was governed by physicochemical properties, with higher vapor pressure leading to higher gas phase fractions, and associated seasonality in gas-particle partitioning was observed in nine pesticides. However, some anomalous partitioning was observed for fenpropimorph and chlorpyrifos suggesting the influence of current pesticide application on gas-particle distributions. Nine pesticides had highest particle phase concentrations on fine particles (< 0.95 μm) and four pesticides on coarser (> 1.5 μm) particles.

  12. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols Production... pollutants: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols...

  13. 76 FR 81901 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designations of Areas for Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Management Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 4, 61 Forsyth Street SW., Atlanta, Georgia..., Air Planning Branch, Air, Pesticides and Toxics Management Division, U.S. Environmental Protection... Development Section, Air Planning Branch, Air, Pesticides and Toxics Management Division, U.S....

  14. Antimicrobial Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Use Site Index provides guidance to assist applicants for antimicrobial pesticide registration by helping them identify the data requirements necessary to register a pesticide or support their product registrations.

  15. Pesticide Data Submitters List (PDSL)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Data Submitters List is a compilation of names and addresses of registrants who wish to be notified and offered compensation for use of their data. It was developed to assist pesticide applicants in fulfilling their obligation under FIFRA.

  16. Requirements for Monitoring Pesticide Handlers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To ensure safety, someone must monitor pesticide handlers in certain situations, including when the most toxic pesticides are used and when fumigants are used in greenhouses. Find out about these requirements.

  17. Toward Safer Use of Pesticides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moats, Sheila; Moats, William A.

    1970-01-01

    Gives information on costs and benefits of pesticides, and on specific injurious effects on humans and fish and wild life. Suggests restriction of use of certain pesticides and acceleration of research on biological control. (EB)

  18. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  19. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Pesticides The Basics Pesticides are substances ...

  20. [Providing studies quality for pesticides risk evaluation in their use according to proper laboratory practice rules].

    PubMed

    Rakitskiy, V N; Bereznyak, I V

    2016-01-01

    The article covers experience of proper laboratory practice in hygienic studies examining air and workers' skin for assessment of exposure levels of pesticides in natural conditions of agricultural production.

  1. Pesticides: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumstead, Cynthia, Ed.; And Others

    Developed to provide an introduction to the issues surrounding the use of chemical pesticides, this booklet encourages individuals and communities to become active in determining the safe use and regulation of pesticides. The major components of the guide include: (1) an explanation of the issue; (2) pesticides and their effect on human health;…

  2. Pesticide Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred

    This publication describes in nontechnical language the problem of pesticide use and how it affects water quality. It provides information on laws affecting pesticide use and the reasons for them, as well as giving directions for the proper use of pesticides. The booklet is divided into five chapters, each of which concludes with a list of study…

  3. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status.

  4. PURE: a web-based decision support system to evaluate pesticide environmental risk for sustainable pest management practices in California.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yu; Zhang, Minghua

    2012-08-01

    Farmers, policy makers, and other stakeholders seek tools to quantitatively assess pesticide risks for mitigating pesticide impacts on ecosystem and human health. This paper presents the Pesticide Use Risk Evaluation (PURE) decision support system (DSS) for evaluating site-specific pesticide risks to surface water, groundwater, soil, and air across pesticide active ingredient (AI), pesticide product, and field levels. The risk score is determined by the ratio of the predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) to the toxicity value for selected endpoint organism(s); except that the risk score for the air is calculated using the emission potential (EP), which is a pesticide product property for estimating potential volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by California Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA). The risk scores range from 0 to 100, where 0 represents negligible risk while 100 means the highest risk. The procedure for calculating PEC in surface water was evaluated against monitoring data for 41 pesticide AIs, with a statistically significant correlation coefficient of r=0.82 (p<0.001). In addition, two almond fields in the Central Valley, California were evaluated for pesticide risks as a case study, where the commonly acknowledged high-risk pesticides gained high risk scores. Simazine, one of the most frequently detected pesticides in groundwater, was scored as 74 (the moderate high risk class) to groundwater; and chlorpyrifos, one of the frequently detected pollutants in surface water, was scored as 100 (the high risk class) to surface water. In support of pesticide risk quantitative assessment and use of reduced-risk pesticide selection, the PURE-DSS can be useful to assist growers, pesticide control advisors, and environmental protection organizations in mitigating pesticide use impacts on the environment.

  5. Pesticide reregistration progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The report is produced by the Special Review and Reregistration Division (SRRD), Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), on progress towards pesticide reregistration as mandated under 1988 amendments to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. The report shows the status of reregistration through the first quarter of the 1993 fiscal year. SRRD is in the process of re-evaluating the format and information in the Progress Report, as a result of the October 1992 Customer Survey sent to the recipients of the report. Results of the survey will be incorporated in the April 1993 issue of the report.

  6. Underwater and Dive Station Work-Site Noise Surveys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-14

    3 The Effects of In- Water Tool Noise on Hearing...17 In- Water Noise Exposure for SCUBA Divers .......................................................................... 18 DISCUSSION...B-1 APPENDIX C: In- water /In-air Data Recording Sheet

  7. GC-MS characterization of contemporary pesticides in PM10 of Valencia Region, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Elizabeth; Coscollà, Clara; Pastor, Agustín; Yusà, Vicent

    2012-12-01

    Better knowledge of the occurrence of pesticides in the inhalable fraction of particulate matter (PM10) could be very useful for future exposure assessment in individuals of the general public. The present work studies the spatial and temporal distribution of the occurrence of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in PM10. Ambient air samples were collected from January through December 2010 at one remote, one urban and three rural sites in Valencia Region (Spain) and analyzed for 42 CUPs using a gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem (GC-MS/MS) approach. Overall, 24 pesticides were detected in the PM10 fraction, four of them currently banned pesticides. Among those detected, concentrations of two particle-bound pesticides (permethrin and pyrimethanil) were, to our knowledge, reported for the first time in air in the literature. The detected pesticides appeared at frequencies ranging from <1 to 47%, with chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin and diazinon presenting the highest frequencies. The concentrations detected ranged from a few to several hundred pg m-3, with ethoprophos showing the highest average concentration (149.2 pg m-3). Each station shows its own specific pesticide profile, which is linked to the different types of crops around each site. Seasonal patterns were observed in the rural stations of Alzira and Sant Jordi, correlating pesticide detection with their application in agricultural practices, mostly in spring and early summer. These findings suggest that more efforts are required to implement an extensive air monitoring network in Europe for pesticide control and to develop regulations or recommendations regarding pesticide levels in ambient air.

  8. Interim prediction method for jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A method is provided for predicting jet noise for a wide range of nozzle geometries and operating conditions of interest for aircraft engines. Jet noise theory, data and existing prediction methods was reviewed, and based on this information a interim method of jet noise prediction is proposed. Problem areas are idenified where further research is needed to improve the prediction method. This method predicts only the noise generated by the exhaust jets mixing with the surrounding air and does not include other noises emanating from the engine exhaust, such as combustion and machinery noise generated inside the engine (i.e., core noise). It does, however, include thrust reverser noise. Prediction relations are provided for conical nozzles, plug nozzles, coaxial nozzles and slot nozzles.

  9. An Assessment of Commuter Aircraft Noise Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.; Silvati, Laura; Sneddon, Matthew

    1996-01-01

    This report examines several approaches to understanding 'the commuter aircraft noise problem.' The commuter aircraft noise problem in the sense addressed in this report is the belief that some aspect(s) of community response to noise produced by commuter aircraft operations may not be fully assessed by conventional environmental noise metrics and methods. The report offers alternate perspectives and approaches for understanding this issue. The report also develops a set of diagnostic screening questions; describes commuter aircraft noise situations at several airports; and makes recommendations for increasing understanding of the practical consequences of greater heterogeneity in the air transport fleet serving larger airports.

  10. EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING PESTICIDES IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children can be exposed to pesticides by inhaling contaminated air, ingesting tainted food or non-dietary substances, or absorbing them through the skin from contaminated media. Earlier pilot-scale exposure studies suggest that dietary ingestion is an important pathway for chi...

  11. RESIDENTIAL INDOOR EXPOSURES OF CHILDREN TO PESTICIDES FOLLOWING LAWN APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods have been developed to estimate children's residential exposures to pesticide residues and applied in a small field study of indoor exposures resulting from the intrusion of lawn-applied herbicide into the home. Sampling methods included size-selective indoor air sampli...

  12. PESTICIDE MODELS FOR SIMULATING ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT OF SOIL FUMIGANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigants are a special group of pesticides that possess relatively high vapor pressure. Thus a large fraction is in the vapor phase after application in the substrate soil environment. Because of the high vapor pressure, they are also volatile organic compounds with strong potential for air p...

  13. Potential risks of pesticide degradates to aquatic life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boxall, Alistair; Sinclair, C.; Koplin, Dana W.

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in analytical methodology and greater access to analytical standards have led to the detection of degradates from a wide variety of pesticides and other compounds in surface water, ground water, precipitation, air, and sediment (Boxall and others, 2004). Many of these degradates are more persistent in the environment than their parent compounds, and many are more mobile, as well.

  14. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  15. Epigenetics and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Collotta, M; Bertazzi, P A; Bollati, V

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides, a wide class of environmental contaminants, may cause both acute and delayed health effects in exposed subjects. These effects can range from simple irritation of the skin and eyes to more severe effects such as affecting the nervous system, the reproductive system and cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying such effects are still under investigation. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in the DNA sequence. Several epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression, can be triggered by environmental factors. We review current evidences indicating that epigenetic modifications may mediate pesticide effects on human health. In vitro, animal, and human investigations have identified several classes of pesticides that modify epigenetic marks, including endocrine disruptors, persistent organic pollutants, arsenic, several herbicides and insecticides. Several investigations have examined the effects of environmental exposures and epigenetic markers, and identified toxicants that modify epigenetic states. These modifications are similar to the ones found in pathological tissue samples. In spite of the current limitations, available evidence supports the concept that epigenetics holds substantial potential for furthering our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of pesticides health effects, as well as for predicting health-related risks due to conditions of environmental exposure and individual susceptibility.

  16. Pesticide use in agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, R L; Tinney, J C; MacGregor, J T; Starler, N J

    1978-01-01

    During the last three decades, the use of modern organic synthetic pesticides has increased about 40-fold. Total U.S. production, for domestic and expert use, in 1976 was about 1.4 million pounds. Crops receiving the most intensive application of various pesticides were cotton for insecticides, corn for herbicides, and fruits and vegetables for fungicides. Examination of use trends of pesticides indicates that the volume in pounds of herbicides used on crops is increasing, whereas the quantities of insecticides and fungicides remain stable. New chemical classes of compounds such as the synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are being introduced, but are not yet significant in terms of their share of the market. The increased usage of pesticides, together with knowledge of some of their adverse effects, has alerted the public to the need for regulation. To assist in the regulatory decision-making process, emphasis is being placed on benefit-cost analyses. Additional and improved biological inputs and methodologies are needed to provide accurate analyses. PMID:104870

  17. A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

  18. JET Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Leib, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    Aerodynamic noise prediction has been an important and challenging research area since James Lighthill first introduced his Acoustic Analogy Approach over fifty years ago. This talk attempts to provide a unified framework for the subsequent theoretical developments in this field. It assumes that there is no single approach that is optimal in all situations and uses the framework as a basis for discussing the strengths weaknesses of the various approaches to this topic. But the emphasis here will be on the important problem of predicting the noise from high speed air jets. Specific results will presented for round jets in the 0.5 to 1.4 Mach number range and compared with experimental data taken on the Glenn SHAR rig. It is demonstrated that non-parallel mean flow effects play an important role in predicting the noise at the supersonic Mach numbers. The results explain the failure of previous attempts based on the parallel flow Lilley model (which has served as the foundation for most jet noise analyses during past two decades).

  19. Hearing Levels of Noise-Exposed U.S. Air Force Personnel Compared to Those in the Total U. S. Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    the U.S. Public Health Service and the U.S. Air K • J Force use TDH -39 earphones with MX-41/AR cushions. In Table 4, the distribution of hearing...Association, 1951. 6. Cox, J. R., Jr., and R. C. Bilger. Suggestion relative to the standardi- zation of loudness-balance data for the telephonics TDH

  20. PRN 93-4: Ban on Aerosol Products Containing CFCs and HCFCs under the Clean Air Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice alerts pesticide registrants to a rule under the Clean Air Act banning distribution and sale of aerosol and pressurized products, including pesticide products, that contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

  1. Active Control of Fan Noise in Ducts Using Magnetic Bearings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of magnetic bearings. An axial flow fan creates tonal noise related to its rotational rate. Additional noise exists due to harmonics of this frequency...magnetic bearings. An axial flow fan creates tonal noise related to its rotational rate. Additional noise exists due to harmonics of this frequency as well...systems typically have fans that will move air from the heating or cooling system to any desired space. Fan noise is characterized first by tonal

  2. Implementation of noise budgets for civil airports

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    An increasing number of airports are faced with the need for establishing a lid on the noise from aircraft operations and for developing programs for reducing airport noise on a year-to-year basis. As an example, the California Airport Noise Standard acts to impose such programs on a number of airports in California. Any airport faced with the need to establish a quantitative reduction of noise obviously wants to achieve this reduction with the least impact on numbers of operations and reduction in air transportation services to the community. A reduction in noise and an increase in operations usually can be achieved only by encouraging use of the quietest aircraft available and, further adding incentives for operating procedures that minimize noise. One approach in administering airport noise reduction is to adopt an airport noise budget. As used in this paper, the noise budget concept implies that quantitative limits on the noise environment and on the noise contributions by major airport users will be established. Having methods for enforcing compliance with the airport budget for those airport users that exceed their budget will be established. Thus, the noise budget provides airport management, and major airport users, with quantitative measures for defining noise goals, and actual progress in achieving such goals.

  3. Noise control of radiological monitoring equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Rubick, R.D.; Stevens, W.W.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-12-31

    Although vacuum pumps on continuous air monitors (CAMs) do not produce noise levels above regulatory limits, engineering controls were used to establish a safer work environment. Operations performed in areas where CAMs are located are highly specialized and require precision work when handling nuclear materials, heavy metals, and inert gases. Traditional methods for controlling noise such as enclosing or isolating the source and the use of personal protection equipment were evaluated. An innovative solution was found by retrofitting CAMs with air powered multistage ejectors pumps. By allowing the air to expand in several chambers to create a vacuum, one can eliminate the noise hazard altogether. In facilities with adequate pressurized air, use of these improved ejector pumps may be a cost-effective replacement for noisy vacuum pumps. A workplace designed or engineered with noise levels as low as possible or as close to background adds to increased concentration, attention to detail, and increased production.

  4. Airborne organophosphate pesticides drift in Mediterranean climate: The importance of secondary drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zivan, Ohad; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Dubowski, Yael

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide application is a short-term air-pollution episode with near and far field effects due to atmospheric drift. In order to better evaluate resulting air concentrations in nearby communities following pesticide application, measurements of airborne pesticides were conducted at ∼70 m from field edge. This was done following three different application events of the organophosphate pesticide Chlorpyrifos in a persimmon orchard. Complementary information on larger spatial scale was obtained using CALPUFF modeling in which application and meteorological data was used to better evaluate dispersion patterns. Measurements indicated high airborne concentrations during application hours (few μg m-3 for 8 h average), which dropped to tens of ng m-3 in the following days. Measured atmospheric concentrations show that secondary drift (i.e., post-application drift) involves significant loads of pesticides and hence should not be ignored in exposure considerations. Furthermore, CALPUFF modeling revealed the complex dispersion pattern when weak winds prevailed, and showed that during the 24 h after application air concentrations reached levels above the hourly Texas effect screening level (0.1 μg m-3). Interestingly, weak winds on the night after application resulted in a secondary peak in measured and modeled air concentrations. Long exposure time (when secondary drift is considered) and concentrations measured following such common air-assisted orchard application, suggest pesticide drift may have health repercussions that are currently unknown, and emphasize the need for further epidemiological studies.

  5. Noise Dosimetry Survey of Land Force Occupations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    experience and the possible risk to their hearing. Clearly, information regarding noise exposure and noise induced hearing loss ( NIHL ) are lacking in...number of veterans with service-related noise-induced hearing loss ( NIHL ) (3). This problem was the impetus for the US Air Force to publish the first...roughly 60,000 regular forces members), it can be concluded that NIHL is a serious concern that must be addressed as this is a preventable disability

  6. Variability in Pesticide Deposition and Source Contributions to Snowpack in Western US National Parks

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, Kimberly J.; Hafner, William D.; Campbell, Donald H.; Jaffe, Daniel A; Landers, Dixon H.; Simonic, Staci L. Massey

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-six seasonal snowpack samples were collected at remote alpine, sub-arctic, and arctic sites in eight Western US national parks during three consecutive years (2003–2005). Four current-use pesticides (CUPs) (dacthal (DCPA), chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)) and four historic-use pesticides (HUPs) (dieldrin, α-HCH, chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were commonly measured at all sites, during all years. The mean coefficient of variation for pesticide concentrations was 15% for site replicate samples, 41% for intra-park replicate samples, and 59% for inter-annual replicate samples. The relative pesticide concentration profiles were consistent from year to year but unique for individual parks, indicating a regional source effect. HUP concentrations were well-correlated with regional cropland intensity when the effect of temperature on snow-air partitioning was considered. The mass of individual CUPs used in regions located one-day upwind of the parks was calculated using air mass back trajectories and this was used to explain the distribution of CUPs among the parks. The percent of the snowpack pesticide concentration due to regional transport was high (>75%) for the majority of pesticides in all parks. These results suggest that the majority of pesticide contamination in US national parks is due to pesticide use in North America. PMID:20499934

  7. Variability in pesticide deposition and source contributions to snowpack in Western U.S. national parks.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Kimberly J; Hafner, William D; Campbell, Donald H; Jaffe, Daniel A; Landers, Dixon H; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2010-06-15

    Fifty-six seasonal snowpack samples were collected at remote alpine, subarctic, and arctic sites in eight Western U.S. national parks during three consecutive years (2003-2005). Four current-use pesticides (CUPs) (dacthal (DCPA), chlorpyrifos, endosulfans, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)) and four historic-use pesticides (HUPs) (dieldrin, alpha-HCH, chlordanes, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were commonly measured at all sites, during all years. The mean coefficient of variation for pesticide concentrations was 15% for site replicate samples, 41% for intrapark replicate samples, and 59% for interannual replicate samples. The relative pesticide concentration profiles were consistent from year to year but unique for individual parks, indicating a regional source effect. HUP concentrations were well-correlated with regional cropland intensity when the effect of temperature on snow-air partitioning was considered. The mass of individual CUPs used in regions located one-day upwind of the parks was calculated using air mass back trajectories, and this was used to explain the distribution of CUPs among the parks. The percent of the snowpack pesticide concentration due to regional transport was high (>75%) for the majority of pesticides in all parks. These results suggest that the majority of pesticide contamination in U.S. national parks is due to regional pesticide use in North America.

  8. Variability in pesticide deposition and source contributions to snowpack in western U.S. National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Kimberly J.; Hafner, William D.; Campbell, Donald H.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Landers, Dixon H.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-six seasonal snowpack samples were collected at remote alpine, subarctic, and arctic sites in eight Western U.S. national parks during three consecutive years (2003−2005). Four current-use pesticides (CUPs) (dacthal (DCPA), chlorpyrifos, endosulfans, and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)) and four historic-use pesticides (HUPs) (dieldrin, α-HCH, chlordanes, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were commonly measured at all sites, during all years. The mean coefficient of variation for pesticide concentrations was 15% for site replicate samples, 41% for intrapark replicate samples, and 59% for interannual replicate samples. The relative pesticide concentration profiles were consistent from year to year but unique for individual parks, indicating a regional source effect. HUP concentrations were well-correlated with regional cropland intensity when the effect of temperature on snow-air partitioning was considered. The mass of individual CUPs used in regions located one-day upwind of the parks was calculated using air mass back trajectories, and this was used to explain the distribution of CUPs among the parks. The percent of the snowpack pesticide concentration due to regional transport was high (>75%) for the majority of pesticides in all parks. These results suggest that the majority of pesticide contamination in U.S. national parks is due to regional pesticide use in North America.

  9. Improving Gabor noise.

    PubMed

    Lagae, Ares; Lefebvre, Sylvain; Dutré, Philip

    2011-08-01

    We have recently proposed a new procedural noise function, Gabor noise, which offers a combination of properties not found in the existing noise functions. In this paper, we present three significant improvements to Gabor noise: 1) an isotropic kernel for Gabor noise, which speeds up isotropic Gabor noise with a factor of roughly two, 2) an error analysis of Gabor noise, which relates the kernel truncation radius to the relative error of the noise, and 3) spatially varying Gabor noise, which enables spatial variation of all noise parameters. These improvements make Gabor noise an even more attractive alternative for the existing noise functions.

  10. Effectiveness of combined aircraft engine noise suppressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaletskiy, Yu. D.

    2012-07-01

    We consider the design features of fan noise suppressors in application to air intakes and the bypass duct of a turbofan engine. A combined liner is developed that has increased acoustic efficiency in comparison to conventional honeycomb liner. We demonstrate the important role of the area of the sound-absorbing liner between fan Rotor and Stator ensuring significant noise reduction.

  11. Community noise sources and noise control issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nihart, Gene L.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: community noise sources and noise control issues; noise components for turbine bypass turbojet engine (TBE) turbojet; engine cycle selection and noise; nozzle development schedule; NACA nozzle design; NACA nozzle test results; nearly fully mixed (NFM) nozzle design; noise versus aspiration rate; peak noise test results; nozzle test in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF); and Schlieren pictures of NACA nozzle.

  12. Revised Certification Standards for Pesticide Applicators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has finalized stronger standards for people who apply restricted use pesticides (RUPs). These revisions to the Certification of Pesticide Applicators rule will reduce the likelihood of harm from the misapplication of toxic pesticides.

  13. PESTICIDE SCREENING RESULTS FROM EIGHT DAYCARE CENTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To improve assessments of children's exposures to pesticides in support of the Food Quality Protection Act, priority research and data needs include: pesticide use patterns, pesticide residue distributions, and dermal exposure assessment approaches. To address these gaps, the ...

  14. 75 FR 32767 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection...

  15. 76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to...

  16. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the...

  17. Pesticide Devices: A Guide for Consumers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide for consumers explains key facts about pesticide devices and how they differ from registered pesticide products. Device producers or registrants should see our Pesticide Registration Manual, Chapter 13 for information.

  18. Tips for Reducing Pesticide Impacts on Wildlife

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Web page provides tips for pesticide users in residential and agricultural settings, as well as tips for certified pesticide applicators for ways to protect wildlife from potentially harmful effects of pesticides.

  19. Sample Pesticide Label for Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  20. Industrial jet noise: Coanda nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P.; Halliwell, N. A.

    1985-04-01

    Within the U.K. manufacturing industries noise from industrial jets ranks third as a major contributor to industrial deafness. Noise control is hindered because use is made of the air once it has exuded from the nozzle exit. Important tasks include swarf removal, paint spreading, cooling, etc. Nozzles which employ the Coanda effect appear to offer the possibility of significant noise reduction whilst maintaining high thrust efficiency when compared with the commonly used simple open pipe or ordinary convergent nozzle. In this paper the performance of Coanda-type nozzles is examined in detail and an index rating for nozzle performance is introduced. Results show that far field stagnation pressure distributions are Gaussian and similar in all cases with a dispersion coefficient σ = 0·64. Noise reduction and thrust efficiency are shown to be closely related to the design geometry of the central body of the nozzle. Performance is based on four fundamental characteristics, these being the noise level at 1 m from the exit and at a 90° station to the nozzle axis, and the thrust on a chosen profile, the noise reduction and the thrust efficiency. Physically, performance is attributed to flow near field effects where, although all nozzles are choked, shock cell associated noise is absent.

  1. The geochemistry of pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, Jack E.

    2007-01-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth’s ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet’s ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities—several hundred million pounds of active ingredient (a.i.) per year in the United States alone (Donaldson et al., 2002)—for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth’s history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate, and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called inert ingredients included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  2. The geochemistry of pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth's ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet's ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities—several hundred million pounds of active ingredient (a.i.) per year in the United States alone (Donaldson et al., 2002)—for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth's history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate, and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called inert ingredients included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  3. Monitoring pesticides in wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dustman, E.H.; Martin, W.E.; Heath, R.G.; Reichel, W.L.

    1971-01-01

    Early in the development of the wildlife monitoring program, certain criteria were recognized as being important in the selection of species of wild animals suitable for pesticide monitoring purposes. Ideally, the forms selected should be geographically well distributed, and they should be reasonably abundant and readily available for sampling. In addition, animals occurring near the top of food chains have the capacity to reflect residues in organisms occurring at lower levels in the same food chains. Based on these criteria, species chosen for monitoring include the starling (Sturnus vulgaris), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes), and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The black duck is substituted for the mallard in States where suitable numbers of mallards cannot be obtained. The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is held responsible for the execution of the wildlife portion of the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. The primary objective is to ascertain on a nationwide basis and independent of specific treatments the levels and trends of certain pesticidal chemicals and other pollutants in the bodies of selected forms of wildlife. The program was first described by Johnson et al. (4) in 1967. The purpose of this report is to update and redescribe the wildlife monitoring program and briefly review accomplishments.

  4. Interior noise prediction methodology: ATDAC theory and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Gopal P.; Gardner, Bryce K.

    1992-01-01

    The Acoustical Theory for Design of Aircraft Cabins (ATDAC) is a computer program developed to predict interior noise levels inside aircraft and to evaluate the effects of different aircraft configurations on the aircraft acoustical environment. The primary motivation for development of this program is the special interior noise problems associated with advanced turboprop (ATP) aircraft where there is a tonal, low frequency noise problem. Prediction of interior noise levels requires knowledge of the energy sources, the transmission paths, and the relationship between the energy variable and the sound pressure level. The energy sources include engine noise, both airborne and structure-borne; turbulent boundary layer noise; and interior noise sources such as air conditioner noise and auxiliary power unit noise. Since propeller and engine noise prediction programs are widely available, they are not included in ATDAC. Airborne engine noise from any prediction or measurement may be input to this program. This report describes the theory and equations implemented in the ATDAC program.

  5. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  6. Control of Environmental Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Paul

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the physical properties, sources, physiological effects, and legislation pertaining to noise, especially noise characteristics in the community. Indicates that noise reduction steps can be taken more intelligently after determination of the true noise sources and paths. (CC)

  7. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of transport and deposition of pesticides in an aircraft cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Mazumdar, Sagnik; George, Pradeep; Wei, Binnian; Jones, Byron; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2013-04-01

    Spraying of pesticides in aircraft cabins is required by some countries as part of a disinsection process to kill insects that pose a public health threat. However, public health concerns remain regarding exposures of cabin crew and passengers to pesticides in aircraft cabins. While large scale field measurements of pesticide residues and air concentrations in aircraft cabins scenarios are expensive and time consuming, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models provide an effective alternative for characterizing concentration distributions and exposures. This study involved CFD modeling of a twin-aisle 11 row cabin mockup with heated manikins, mimicking a part of a fully occupied Boeing 767 cabin. The model was applied to study the flow and deposition of pesticides under representative scenarios with different spraying patterns (sideways and overhead) and cabin air exchange rates (low and high). Corresponding spraying experiments were conducted in the cabin mockup, and pesticide deposition samples were collected at the manikin's lap and seat top for a limited set of five seats. The CFD model performed well for scenarios corresponding to high air exchange rates, captured the concentration profiles for middle seats under low air exchange rates, and underestimated the concentrations at window seats under low air exchange rates. Additionally, both the CFD and experimental measurements showed no major variation in deposition characteristics between sideways and overhead spraying. The CFD model can estimate concentration fields and deposition profiles at very high resolutions, which can be used for characterizing the overall variability in air concentrations and surface loadings. Additionally, these model results can also provide a realistic range of surface and air concentrations of pesticides in the cabin that can be used to estimate potential exposures of cabin crew and passengers to these pesticides.

  8. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of transport and deposition of pesticides in an aircraft cabin.

    PubMed

    Isukapalli, Sastry S; Mazumdar, Sagnik; George, Pradeep; Wei, Binnian; Jones, Byron; Weisel, Clifford P

    2013-04-01

    Spraying of pesticides in aircraft cabins is required by some countries as part of a disinsection process to kill insects that pose a public health threat. However, public health concerns remain regarding exposures of cabin crew and passengers to pesticides in aircraft cabins. While large scale field measurements of pesticide residues and air concentrations in aircraft cabins scenarios are expensive and time consuming, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models provide an effective alternative for characterizing concentration distributions and exposures. This study involved CFD modeling of a twin-aisle 11 row cabin mockup with heated manikins, mimicking a part of a fully occupied Boeing 767 cabin. The model was applied to study the flow and deposition of pesticides under representative scenarios with different spraying patterns (sideways and overhead) and cabin air exchange rates (low and high). Corresponding spraying experiments were conducted in the cabin mockup, and pesticide deposition samples were collected at the manikin's lap and seat top for a limited set of five seats. The CFD model performed well for scenarios corresponding to high air exchange rates, captured the concentration profiles for middle seats under low air exchange rates, and underestimated the concentrations at window seats under low air exchange rates. Additionally, both the CFD and experimental measurements showed no major variation in deposition characteristics between sideways and overhead spraying. The CFD model can estimate concentration fields and deposition profiles at very high resolutions, which can be used for characterizing the overall variability in air concentrations and surface loadings. Additionally, these model results can also provide a realistic range of surface and air concentrations of pesticides in the cabin that can be used to estimate potential exposures of cabin crew and passengers to these pesticides.

  9. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of transport and deposition of pesticides in an aircraft cabin

    PubMed Central

    Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Mazumdar, Sagnik; George, Pradeep; Wei, Binnian; Jones, Byron; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    Spraying of pesticides in aircraft cabins is required by some countries as part of a disinsection process to kill insects that pose a public health threat. However, public health concerns remain regarding exposures of cabin crew and passengers to pesticides in aircraft cabins. While large scale field measurements of pesticide residues and air concentrations in aircraft cabins scenarios are expensive and time consuming, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models provide an effective alternative for characterizing concentration distributions and exposures. This study involved CFD modeling of a twin-aisle 11 row cabin mockup with heated manikins, mimicking a part of a fully occupied Boeing 767 cabin. The model was applied to study the flow and deposition of pesticides under representative scenarios with different spraying patterns (sideways and overhead) and cabin air exchange rates (low and high). Corresponding spraying experiments were conducted in the cabin mockup, and pesticide deposition samples were collected at the manikin’s lap and seat top for a limited set of five seats. The CFD model performed well for scenarios corresponding to high air exchange rates, captured the concentration profiles for middle seats under low air exchange rates, and underestimated the concentrations at window seats under low air exchange rates. Additionally, both the CFD and experimental measurements showed no major variation in deposition characteristics between sideways and overhead spraying. The CFD model can estimate concentration fields and deposition profiles at very high resolutions, which can be used for characterizing the overall variability in air concentrations and surface loadings. Additionally, these model results can also provide a realistic range of surface and air concentrations of pesticides in the cabin that can be used to estimate potential exposures of cabin crew and passengers to these pesticides. PMID:25642134

  10. Measurement of the exposure of workers to pesticides*

    PubMed Central

    Durham, William F.; Wolfe, Homer R.

    1962-01-01

    There is not a single pesticide for which the interrelationships between occupational exposure by different routes, the fate of the compound in the human body, and its clinical effects are all adequately known. Results of the direct measurement of exposure to pesticides may be used in evaluating the relative hazard of different routes of exposure, different operational procedures, and different protective devices. Results of the indirect measurement of exposure may be of use for the same purpose; in addition, these indirect measures may be used in relating exposures under observed conditions to clinical effects. This paper describes and evaluates detailed procedures for the use of air samples, pads, and washes in the direct measurement of the dermal and respiratory exposure of workers to pesticides. Good methods are not available for measuring oral exposure. Any measure of the absorption, storage, physiological effect, or excretion of a compound constitutes an indirect indication of exposure to it. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:13888659

  11. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual. Core Manual, Northeastern Regional Pesticide Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, J. E.; And Others

    This manual provides basic information for all pesticide applicators. The first section deals with laws, regulations, toxicity and safety, and covers background information that every pesticide applicator should know. The second section describes the steps and decisions which applicators make in their daily routine on the job. These include…

  12. Acoustic noise during functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, M E; Melcher, J R; Kiang, N Y

    2000-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enables sites of brain activation to be localized in human subjects. For studies of the auditory system, acoustic noise generated during fMRI can interfere with assessments of this activation by introducing uncontrolled extraneous sounds. As a first step toward reducing the noise during fMRI, this paper describes the temporal and spectral characteristics of the noise present under typical fMRI study conditions for two imagers with different static magnetic field strengths. Peak noise levels were 123 and 138 dB re 20 microPa in a 1.5-tesla (T) and a 3-T imager, respectively. The noise spectrum (calculated over a 10-ms window coinciding with the highest-amplitude noise) showed a prominent maximum at 1 kHz for the 1.5-T imager (115 dB SPL) and at 1.4 kHz for the 3-T imager (131 dB SPL). The frequency content and timing of the most intense noise components indicated that the noise was primarily attributable to the readout gradients in the imaging pulse sequence. The noise persisted above background levels for 300-500 ms after gradient activity ceased, indicating that resonating structures in the imager or noise reverberating in the imager room were also factors. The gradient noise waveform was highly repeatable. In addition, the coolant pump for the imager's permanent magnet and the room air-handling system were sources of ongoing noise lower in both level and frequency than gradient coil noise. Knowledge of the sources and characteristics of the noise enabled the examination of general approaches to noise control that could be applied to reduce the unwanted noise during fMRI sessions.

  13. Noise pollution resources compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  14. Atmospheric transport of pesticides in the Sacramento, California, metropolitan area, 1996-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael S.; Baston, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Weekly composite, bulk air was sampled with respect to wind speed and direction from January 1996 through December 1997 in one urban and two agricultural locations in Sacramento County, California. The sampling sites were located along a north-south transect, the dominant directions of the prevailing winds. The samples were analyzed for a variety of current-use pesticides, including dormant orchard spray insecticides and rice herbicides. A variety of pesticides were detected throughout the year, predominantly chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and trifluralin. The data obtained during the winter and spring suggest that some pesticides used in agricultural areas become airborne and may be transported into the urban area. Confirmation of this drift is difficult, however, because these three predominant pesticides, as well as other detected pesticides, also are heavily used in the urban environment. The spring data clearly show that molinate and thiobencarb, two herbicides used only in rice production, do drift into the urban environment.

  15. Noise Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  16. Recent Progress in Aircraft Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane; Thomas, Russell

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the acoustics research at NASA under the Subsonic Fixed Wing project is given. The presentation describes the rationale behind the noise reduction goals of the project in the context of the next generation air transportation system, and the emphasis placed on achieving these goals through a combination of the in-house and collaborative efforts with industry, universities and other government agencies. The presentation also describes the in-house research plan which is focused on the development of advanced noise and flow diagnostic techniques, next generation noise prediction tools, and novel noise reduction techniques that are applicable across a wide range of aircraft.

  17. Obsolete pesticide storage sites and their POP release into the environment--an Armenian case study.

    PubMed

    Dvorská, A; Sír, M; Honzajková, Z; Komprda, J; Cupr, P; Petrlík, J; Anakhasyan, E; Simonyan, L; Kubal, M

    2012-07-01

    Organochlorinated pesticides were widely applied in Armenia until the 1980s, like in all former Soviet Union republics. Subsequently, the problem of areas contaminated by organochlorinated pesticides emerged. Environmental, waste and food samples at one pesticide burial site (Nubarashen) and three former pesticide storage sites (Jrarat, Echmiadzin and Masis) were taken and analysed on the content of organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls. Gradient sampling and diffusivity-based calculations provided information on the contamination release from the hot spots on a local scale. A risk analysis based on samples of locally produced food items characterised the impact of storage sites on the health of nearby residents. All four sites were found to be seriously contaminated. High pesticide levels and soil and air contamination gradients of several orders of magnitude were confirmed outside the fence of the Nubarashen burial site, confirming pesticide release. A storage in Jrarat, which was completely demolished in 1996 and contained numerous damaged bags with pure pesticides until 2011, was found to have polluted surrounding soils by wind dispersion of pesticide powders and air by significant evaporation of lindane and β-endosulfan during this period. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-contaminated eggs, sampled from hens roaming freely in the immediate surroundings of the Echmiadzin storage site, revealed a significant health risk for egg consumers above 1E-5. Although small in size and previously almost unknown to the public, storage sites like Echmiadzin, Masis and Jrarat were found to stock considerable amounts of obsolete pesticides and have a significant negative influence on the environment and human health. Multi-stakeholder cooperation proved to be successful in identifying such sites suspected to be significant sources of persistent organic pollutants.

  18. Introduction to Pesticides. MP-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Alvin F.

    This document is one in a series distributed by the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Wyoming-Laramie. It provides an introduction to pesticides and is concerned with pesticide development, labeling and safety associated with the use, storage and disposal of these substances and their containers. Safety aspects of handling and…

  19. Pesticide Degradation in Thermal Foggers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal foggers are used in many parts of the world for vector control. Since thermal foggers use heat to create and help propel adulticide clouds, there is reason to examine the stability of pesticides in both diesel and water-based formulations. This study examined the degradation of 5 pesticide...

  20. CHIRAL PESTICIDES: OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like amino acids, certain pesticides exist in "left-handed" and "right-handed" (chiral) forms. Commercially available chiral pesticides are produced as racemic mixtures in which the ratio of the two forms (or enantiomers) is 1:1. Enantiomers have the same ...

  1. THE SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF CHLORPYRIFOS IN THE U.S. EPA INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) TEST HOUSE FOLLOWING CRACK AND CREVICE TYPE APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides found in homes may result from indoor applications to control household pests or by translocation from outdoor sources. Pesticides disperse according to their physical properties and other factors such as human activity, air exchange, temperature and humidity. Insect...

  2. THE DISTRIBUTION OF CHLORPYRIFOS FOLLOWING A CRACK AND CREVICE TYPE APPLICAITON IN THE U.S. EPA INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) TEST HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides found in homes may result from indoor applications to control household pests or by translocation from outdoor sources. Pesticides disperse according to their physical properties and other factors such as human activity, residential air exchange, temperature and humi...

  3. Pesticides in the atmosphere: a comparison of gas-particle partitioning and particle size distribution of legacy and current-use pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degrendele, C.; Okonski, K.; Melymuk, L.; Landlová, L.; Kukučka, P.; Audy, O.; Kohoutek, J.; Čupr, P.; Klánová, J.

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a comparison of seasonal variation, gas-particle partitioning, and particle-phase size distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in air. Two years (2012/2013) of weekly air samples were collected at a background site in the Czech Republic using a high-volume air sampler. To study the particle-phase size distribution, air samples were also collected at an urban and rural site in the area of Brno, Czech Republic, using a cascade impactor separating atmospheric particulates according to six size fractions. Major differences were found in the atmospheric distribution of OCPs and CUPs. The atmospheric concentrations of CUPs were driven by agricultural activities while secondary sources such as volatilization from surfaces governed the atmospheric concentrations of OCPs. Moreover, clear differences were observed in gas-particle partitioning; CUP partitioning was influenced by adsorption onto mineral surfaces while OCPs were mainly partitioning to aerosols through absorption. A predictive method for estimating the gas-particle partitioning has been derived and is proposed for polar and non-polar pesticides. Finally, while OCPs and the majority of CUPs were largely found on fine particles, four CUPs (carbendazim, isoproturon, prochloraz, and terbuthylazine) had higher concentrations on coarse particles ( > 3.0 µm), which may be related to the pesticide application technique. This finding is particularly important and should be further investigated given that large particles result in lower risks from inhalation (regardless the toxicity of the pesticide) and lower potential for long-range atmospheric transport.

  4. Combustion generated noise in gas turbine combustors. [engine noise/noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.; Shivashankara, B. N.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the noise power and spectra emitted from a gas turbine combustor can exhausting to the atmosphere. Limited hot wire measurements were made of the cold flow turbulence level and spectra within the can. The fuels used were JP-4, acetone and methyl alcohol burning with air at atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show that for a fixed fuel the noise output is dominated by the airflow rate and not the fuel/air ratio. The spectra are dominated by the spectra of the cold flow turbulence spectra which were invariant with airflow rate in the experiments. The effect of fuel type on the noise power output was primarily through the heat of combustion and not the reactivity. A theory of combustion noise based upon the flame radiating to open surroundings is able to reasonably explain the observed results. A thermoacoustic efficiency for noise radiation as high as .00003 was observed in this program for JP-4 fuel. Scaling rules are presented for installed configurations.

  5. Understanding pesticides in California's Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, Kathryn; Orlando, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta) is the hub of California’s water system and also an important habitat for imperiled fish and wildlife. Aquatic organisms are exposed to mixtures of pesticides that flow through the maze of Delta water channels from sources including agricultural, landscape, and urban pest-control applications. While we do not know all of the effects pesticides have on the ecosystem, there is evidence that they cause some damage to organisms in the Delta. Decades of USGS research have provided a good understanding of when, where, and how pesticides enter the Delta. However, pesticide use is continually changing. New field studies and methods are needed so that scientists can analyze which pesticides are present in the Delta, and at what concentrations, enabling them to estimate exposure and ultimate effects on organisms. Continuing research will provide resource managers and stakeholders with crucial information to manage the Delta wisely.

  6. A multimedia fate and chemical transport modeling system for pesticides: I. Model development and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong; Scholtz, M. Trevor; Yang, Fuquan; Sloan, James J.

    2011-07-01

    We have combined the US EPA MM5/MCIP/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling system with a dynamic soil model, the pesticide emission model (PEM), to create a multimedia chemical transport model capable of describing the important physical and chemical processes involving pesticides in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on the surface of vegetation. These processes include: agricultural practices (e.g. soil tilling and pesticide application mode); advection and diffusion of pesticides, moisture, and heat in the soil; partitioning of pesticides between soil organic carbon and interstitial water and air; emissions from the soil to the atmosphere; gas-particle partitioning and transport in the atmosphere; and atmospheric chemistry and dry and wet deposition of pesticides to terrestrial and water surfaces. The modeling system was tested by simulating toxaphene in a domain that covers most of North America for the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000. The results show obvious transport of the pesticide from the heavily contaminated soils in the southern United States and Mexico to water bodies including the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes, leading to significant dry and wet deposition into these ecosystems. The spatial distributions of dry and wet depositions differ because of their different physical mechanisms; the former follows the distribution of air concentrations whereas the latter is more biased to the North East due to the effect of precipitation.

  7. Noise in small portable motocompressors. Experiments on limited-cost acoustic treatments to obtain progressive improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collober, J.; Corlay, B.

    1984-04-01

    Design modifications are proposed in order to help motocompressor manufacturers to reduce the noise level to 85 dBA. Work on 8kW groups shows that the noise sources are, in order of importance, the internal combustion motor exhaust, the air inlet, the cooling air circuit and the oil pan. The effects of an inlet air filter, an exhaust noise attenuator and a cover on the motocompressor are discussed. A noise reduction of 10dBA is obtained.

  8. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ...The Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``Pesticide Registration (PR) Notice 2012-1: Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling.'' This PR Notice was issued by the Agency on April 9, 2012. PR Notices are issued by the Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) to inform pesticide registrants and other interested persons about important......

  9. Pesticide-laden dust emission and drift from treated seeds during seed drilling: a review.

    PubMed

    Nuyttens, David; Devarrewaere, Wouter; Verboven, Pieter; Foqué, Dieter

    2013-05-01

    Dressing seeds with pesticides to control pests is a widespread practice with important advantages. Recent incidents of bee losses, however, have directed attention to the emission of abraded pesticide-coated seed particles to the environment during sowing. This phenomenon of drift of pesticide dust can lead to pesticide contamination of air, water and other natural resources in crop-growing areas. This review article presents the state of the art of the phenomenon of dust emission and drift from pesticide seed dressing during sowing and its consequences. Firstly, pesticide seed treatment is defined and its pros and cons are set out, with the focus on dust, dust emission and dust drift from pesticide-coated seed. The factors affecting emission of pesticide dust (e.g. seed treatment quality, seed drilling technology and environmental conditions) are considered, along with its possible effects. The measuring techniques and protocols and models currently in use for calculating the behaviour of dust are reviewed, together with their features and limitations. Finally, possible mitigation measures are discussed, such as improving the seed quality and the use of modified seed drilling technology, and an overview of regulations and stewardship activities is given.

  10. Assessment of pesticide pollution in suburban soil in south Shenyang, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rongguang; Lv, Jungang; Feng, Jimin

    2011-11-01

    In this study, 35 representative farmland soil samples from suburban areas in south Shenyang, the capital city in Liaoning province, China, were collected to evaluate the pollution of 114 pesticides. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Ultrasonic extraction was used for pesticides preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of tested pesticides in the area ranged in 0-51.32 ng/g and the average of concentrations was 6.86 ng/g. Six pesticides, including butachlor(with detect frequency 71.4%), p,p'-DDE (88.6%), p,p'-DDT (77.1%), o,p'-DDD (82.9%), hexachlorobenzene (88.6%) and δ-HCB (77.1%), were detected most frequently. It indicated that DDTs (N.D.-40.25 ng/g) and HCHs (N.D.-42.79 ng/g) were the predominant pesticide pollutants in soil because of their long term persistence. On the contrary, most of organophosphorus pesticides, pyrethroids and carbamates were not detected. Spatial variation of six pesticides with high detection frequency (>70%) in soil was illustrated. Pollution levels, characteristics and the possible sources were also discussed. The data were helpful to figure out the pollution of the pesticides and could be further used to evaluate the health risk associated with food safety.

  11. Assessment of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) pollution in suburban soil in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong; Wang, Zhaohong; Feng, Jimin; Zhao, Meng

    2010-08-01

    Soil contamination with organochlorine pesticides has aroused worldwide concerns considering their high toxicities and long-term persistence. In this study, 87 representative soil samples from suburban areas (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) of Tianjin, the third biggest city in China, were collected to evaluate the pollution of 20 organochlorine pesticides. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Ultrasonic extraction was used for organochlorine pesticides preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was revealed that p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDD, hexachlorobenzene, dicofol and beta-HCH were seven pesticides detected most frequently. DDTs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene were the predominant pesticide pollutants in soil. Spatial variation of these organochlorine pesticides in soil was illustrated; Pollution levels, characteristics and possible sources were also investigated. Most of other 13 kinds of pesticides were detected and the frequencies of detection were calculated to reveal the pollution status, which ranged from 0.0% (aldrin, dieldrin and endrin) to 34.5% (p,p'-DDT). These data were helpful to figure out the pollution of organochlorine pesticides and could be further used to evaluate the health risk associated with soil pollution.

  12. 75 FR 34448 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Brand Names; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice...) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' This document extends the comment period... Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' EPA is hereby extending the comment period, which was set to...

  13. [Pesticides in rural pathology].

    PubMed

    Pettinati, L; Perrelli, G

    1979-03-10

    Reference is made to the extensive use of pesticides in agriculture and the fact that many are highly toxic. The lack of information and legislative provisions makes agricultural workers particularly vulnerable to the several categories of poisons contained under the description "pesticides". The chlorinated and phosphoric organic compounds are of especial interest. The former include the derivatives of the phenoxycarboxylic acids, which can give rise to a product (tetrachlorobenzodioxine, or dioxine) that was responsible for the pollution at Seveso. The latter group contains the very commonly employed alkylthiophosphates (malathion, parathion, etc.). These are well-known inhibitors of acetylcholine esterase and thus responsible for harm to the nervous system. A comparable, but less intense effect on this esterase is possessed by the carbamates, which are increasingly being used in agriculture. It is hoped that, as in the past, suitable, oriented epidemiological surveys will be carried out in industry, designed to focus attention on the probable, but not yet documented chronic damage that many of these products cause to the human body.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides and endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Maureen A; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Hediger, Mary L; Vexler, Albert; Kostyniak, Paul J

    2010-11-01

    Limited study of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and endometriosis has been conducted. One hundred women aged 18-40 years who were undergoing laparoscopy provided 20 cm(3) of blood for toxicologic analysis and surgeons completed operative reports regarding the presence of endometriosis. Gas chromatography with electron capture was used to quantify (ng/g serum) six OCPs. Logistic regression was utilized to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for individual pesticides and groups based on chemical structure adjusting for current cigarette smoking and lipids. The highest tertile of aromatic fungicide was associated with a fivefold risk of endometriosis (aOR=5.3; 95% CI, 1.2-23.6) compared to the lowest tertile. Similar results were found for t-nonachlor and HCB. These are the first such findings in a laproscopic cohort that suggest an association between OCP exposure and endometriosis. More prospective studies are necessary to ensure temporal ordering and confirm these findings.

  15. Soil column leaching of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are

  16. Community Response to Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidell, Sandy

    The primary effects of community noise on residential populations are speech interference, sleep disturbance, and annoyance. This chapter focuses on transportation noise in general and on aircraft noise in particular because aircraft noise is one of the most prominent community noise sources, because airport/community controversies are often the most contentious and widespread, and because industrial and other specialized formsofcommunitynoise generally posemorelocalized problems.

  17. Heterogeneous oxidation of pesticides on aerosol condensed phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, Joanna; Durand, Amandine; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Ravier, Sylvain; Gligorovski, Sasho; Wortham, Henri; Quivet, Etienne

    2015-04-01

    Pesticides are widely used all over the world. It is known that they exhibit adverse health effects and environmental risks due to their physico-chemical properties and their extensive use which is growing every year. They are distributed in the atmosphere, an important vector of dissemination, over long distances away from the target area. The partitioning of pesticides between the gas and particulate phases influences their atmospheric fate. Most of the pesticides are semi-volatile compounds, emphasizing the importance of assessing their heterogeneous reactivity towards atmospheric oxidants. These reactions are important because they are involved in, among others, direct and indirect climate changes, adverse health effects from inhaled particles, effects on cloud chemistry and ozone production. In this work, the importance of atmospheric degradation of pesticides is evaluated on the surface of aerosol deliquescent particles. The photolysis processing and heterogeneous reactivity towards O3 and OH, was evaluated of eight commonly used pesticides (cyprodinil, deltamethrin, difenoconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, permethrin, tetraconazole) adsorbed on silica particles. Silicate particles are present in air-borne mineral dust in atmospheric aerosols, and heterogeneous reactions can be different in the presence of these mineral particles. Depending on their origin and conditioning, aerosol particles containing pesticides can have complex and highly porous microstructures, which are influenced by electric charge effects and interaction with water vapour. Therefore, the kinetic experiments and consecutive product studies were performed at atmospherically relevant relative humidity (RH) of 55 %. The identification of surface bound products was performed using GC-(QqQ)-MS/MS and LC-(Q-ToF)-MS/MS and the gas-phase products were on-line monitored by PTR-ToF-MS. Based on the detected and identified reaction products, it was observed that water plays a crucial

  18. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying...

  1. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying...

  2. Airborne concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides in Korean pesticide manufacturing/formulation workplaces.

    PubMed

    Han, Don-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide manufacturing/formulation workers rather than farmers or applicators or people living with them are primarily exposed to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). However, airborne concentrations in the workplace have rarely been determined. A total of 121 air samples (personal or area sampling) were collected at 4 factories where chlorpyrifos, EPN, parathion, and phorate, were manufactured/formulated from March through July, 2007-2008. Samples were collected by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method and were analyzed by GC-MS. The geometric mean (GM) level of airborne chlorpyrifos was 0.17 mg/m(3), 85% Korean Occupational Exposure Limit (KOEL) of 0.2 mg/m(3), and at 95% confidence, airborne concentrations exceeded the KOEL 58.8% of the time or less, indicating that this concentration level was unacceptable according to exposure assessment using a LogNorm2(®). However, compared with levels of TLV and/or PEL and/or WEL, the GM concentration levels of other OPs were remarkably low (range, 0.1-15.0%) and that these levels of concentrations to the other OPs were acceptable. The levels of airborne concentrations of OPs depended on isolation of the process; in other words, the levels depended on the extent to which the process was automated. The reason that the airborne concentration levels, except for those of chlorpyrifos, were very much lower than expected may be attributable to the fact that there was not exposed to 100% toxic active ingredients in pesticide formulation workplaces because of the use of supplemental agents or additives to produce complete pesticides. This study is limited since there were seldom or neither any data of previous studies to be compared with the study results nor dermal exposure data. The results were used to revise KOELs for OPs in 2010.

  3. Pesticide Reduction Campaign: Greener Pesticides for Cleaner Waterways

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Greener Pesticides for Cleaner Waterways project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  4. Pesticide use and application: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, P C; Singh, Nandita

    2009-06-15

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  5. Turbomachinery noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Sofrin, Thomas G.; Rice, Edward J.; Gliebe, Phillip R.

    1991-08-01

    Summarized here are key advances in experimental techniques and theoretical applications which point the way to a broad understanding and control of turbomachinery noise. On the experimental side, the development of effective inflow control techniques makes it possible to conduct, in ground based facilities, definitive experiments in internally controlled blade row interactions. Results can now be valid indicators of flight behavior and can provide a firm base for comparison with analytical results. Inflow control coupled with detailed diagnostic tools such as blade pressure measurements can be used to uncover the more subtle mechanisms such as rotor strut interaction, which can set tone levels for some engine configurations. Initial mappings of rotor wake-vortex flow fields have provided a data base for a first generation semiempirical flow disturbance model. Laser velocimetry offers a nonintrusive method for validating and improving the model. Digital data systems and signal processing algorithms are bringing mode measurement closer to a working tool that can be frequently applied to a real machine such as a turbofan engine. On the analytical side, models of most of the links in the chain from turbomachine blade source to far field observation point have been formulated. Three dimensional lifting surface theory for blade rows, including source noncompactness and cascade effects, blade row transmission models incorporating mode and frequency scattering, and modal radiation calculations, including hybrid numerical-analytical approaches, are tools which await further application.

  6. Turbomachinery noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Sofrin, Thomas G.; Rice, Edward J.; Gliebe, Phillip R.

    1991-01-01

    Summarized here are key advances in experimental techniques and theoretical applications which point the way to a broad understanding and control of turbomachinery noise. On the experimental side, the development of effective inflow control techniques makes it possible to conduct, in ground based facilities, definitive experiments in internally controlled blade row interactions. Results can now be valid indicators of flight behavior and can provide a firm base for comparison with analytical results. Inflow control coupled with detailed diagnostic tools such as blade pressure measurements can be used to uncover the more subtle mechanisms such as rotor strut interaction, which can set tone levels for some engine configurations. Initial mappings of rotor wake-vortex flow fields have provided a data base for a first generation semiempirical flow disturbance model. Laser velocimetry offers a nonintrusive method for validating and improving the model. Digital data systems and signal processing algorithms are bringing mode measurement closer to a working tool that can be frequently applied to a real machine such as a turbofan engine. On the analytical side, models of most of the links in the chain from turbomachine blade source to far field observation point have been formulated. Three dimensional lifting surface theory for blade rows, including source noncompactness and cascade effects, blade row transmission models incorporating mode and frequency scattering, and modal radiation calculations, including hybrid numerical-analytical approaches, are tools which await further application.

  7. Effects of occupational pesticide exposure on children applying pesticides.

    PubMed

    Abdel Rasoul, Gaafar M; Abou Salem, Mahmoud E; Mechael, Atef A; Hendy, Olfat M; Rohlman, Diane S; Ismail, Ahmed A

    2008-09-01

    Nearly 40% of the Egyptian workforce is employed in agriculture. The cotton industry relies on children and adolescents, who work seasonally, to apply pesticides to the cotton crops. Although previous research has examined adult pesticide exposures in this workforce in Egypt, no research has examined the health effects in adolescents. This study attempts to systematically replicate findings examining the impact of organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure in adults on Arabic speaking children working as applicators. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of pesticide exposure on children and adolescents spraying cotton fields. Male children currently applying pesticides between the ages of 9 and 15 (Younger, n=30) and 16 and 19 (Older, n=20) were recruited for the study. They completed a neurobehavioral test battery; personality inventory; work, health, and exposure questionnaires; and medical and neurological screening exams. Blood samples were collected to measure acetylcholinesterase. Children not working in agriculture, matched on age and education, served as controls. Both Younger and Older applicator groups, performed significantly worse than the controls on the majority of neurobehavioral tests controlling for age and years of education. The applicators reported significantly more neurological symptoms than the controls and had lower acetylcholinesterase activity. A dose-effect relationship demonstrated that increased years of exposure to organophosphate pesticides is associated with cognitive deficits. This is one of the several studies demonstrating that functional cognitive effects are positively correlated with increased years of exposure to OP pesticides, though primarily in adult populations, building confidence in the association. Since children around the world are exposed to OP pesticides, these studies suggest that the need to evaluate this potential problem is urgent.

  8. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Wesseling, Catharina . E-mail: cwesseli@una.ac.cr; Corriols, Marianela; Bravo, Viria

    2005-09-01

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings.

  9. Multiresidue determination of pesticides and pesticide metabolites in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mogadati, P.S.; Rosen, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    Methods for the multiresidue extraction, cleanup and GC/MS determination of 142 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in soil have been developed. The use of solid phase extraction cartridges makes it possible to clean up the soil sufficiently so that the equivalent of 40 mg. soil may be injected onto the GC capillary column without overloading or harming the column. Combining this clean-up method with chemical ionization ion trap detection allowed for very low limits of detection.

  10. Noise: how can the nuisance be controlled?

    PubMed

    Ollerhead, J B

    1973-09-01

    Aircraft noise is a major nuisance in residential communities around airports. If the air transport industries are to meet the ever increasing demand for air travel, determined efforts are required now to reduce the burden of noise upon these communities. Significant engine noise reductions have already been achieved in the latest generation of wide-bodied aircraft, and further reductions are being forecast by the engine manufacturers. Regardless of whether there are justifiable grounds for this optimism there are alternative steps to be taken. But the problem is basically an economic rather than a technological one - how much does noise reduction cost and how much can we afford to pay? The various costs of aircraft noise, both monetary and social, are discussed in relation to its effects upon people. Although an economic analysis of the problem is feasible, it is doubtful whether our understanding of the relationships between physical noise levels and human reaction is yet adequate for such purposes. Planning methods for estimating the extent of community noise nuisance are presented, and it is shown that consideration should be given to outlying regions exposed to relatively little aircraft noise.

  11. The Flight Track Noise Impact Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burn, Melissa; Carey, Jeffrey; Czech, Joseph; Wingrove, Earl R., III

    1997-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The Flight Track Noise Impact Model (FTNIM) has been developed as part of the ASAC. Its primary purpose is to enable users to examine the impact that quieter aircraft technologies and/or operations might have on air carrier operating efficiency at any one of 8 selected U.S. airports. The analyst selects an airport and case year for study, chooses a set of flight tracks for use in the case, and has the option of reducing the noise of the aircraft by 3, 6, or 10 decibels. Two sets of flight tracks are available for each airport: one that represents actual current conditions, including noise abatement tracks, which avoid flying over noise-sensitive areas; and a second set that offers more efficient routing. FTNIM computes the resultant noise impact and the time and distance saved for each operation on the more efficient, alternate tracks. Noise impact is characterized in three ways: the size of the noise contour footprint, the number of people living within the contours, and the number of homes located in the same contours. Distance and time savings are calculated by comparing the noise abatement flight path length to the more efficient alternate routing.

  12. Biodegradation of mixed pesticides by mixed pesticide enriched cultures.

    PubMed

    Krishna, K Rama; Philip, Ligy

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the degradation kinetics of mixed (lindane, methyl parathion and carbofuran) pesticides by mixed pesticide enriched cultures (MEC) under various environmental conditions. The bacterial strains isolated from the mixed microbial consortium were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 9236), Bacillus sp. (MTCC 9235) and Chryseobacterium joostei (MTCC 9237). Batch studies were conducted to estimate the biokinetic parameters like the maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)), Yield Coefficient (Y(T)), half saturation concentration (K(s)) and inhibition concentration (Ki) for individual and mixed pesticide enriched cultures. The cultures enriched in a particular pollutant always showed high growth rate and low inhibition in that particular pollutant compared to MEC. After seven weeks of incubation, mixed pesticide enriched cultures were able to degrade 72% lindane, 95% carbofuran and 100% of methyl parathion in facultative co-metabolic conditions. In aerobic systems, degradation efficiencies of lindane methyl parathion and carbofuran were increased by the addition of 2g L(- 1) of dextrose. Though many metabolic compounds of mixed pesticides were observed at different time intervals, none of the metabolites were persistent. Based on the observed metabolites, a degradation pathway was postulated for different pesticides under various environmental conditions.

  13. Primary and secondary pesticide drift profiles from a peach orchard.

    PubMed

    Zivan, Ohad; Bohbot-Raviv, Yardena; Dubowski, Yael

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric drift is considered a major loss path of pesticide from target areas, but there is still a large gap of knowledge regarding this complex phenomenon. Pesticide drift may occur during application (Primary drift) and after it (Secondary drift). The present study focuses on primary and secondary drift from ground applications in peach orchard (tree height of 3 m), under Mediterranean climate. Detailed and prolonged vertical drift profiles at close proximity to orchard are presented, together with detailed measurements of key meteorological parameters. The effect of volatility on drift was also studied by simultaneously applying two pesticides that differ in their volatility. Drifting airborne pesticides were detected both during and after applications at sampling distances of 7 and 20 m away from orchard edge. Concentrations ranged between hundreds ng m(-3) to a few μg m(-3) and showed clear decrease with time and with upwind conditions. Almost no decline in concentrations with height was observed up to thrice canopy height (i.e., 10 m). These homogeneous profiles indicate strong mixing near orchard and are in line with the unstable atmospheric conditions that prevailed during measurements. While air concentrations during pesticide application were higher than after it, overall pesticide load drifted from the orchard during primary and secondary drift are comparable. To the best of our knowledge this is the first work to show such large vertical dispersion and long duration of secondary drift following ground application in orchards. The obtained information indicates that secondary drift should not be neglected in exposure and environmental impact estimations.

  14. Accumulation of current-use pesticides in neotropical montane forests.

    PubMed

    Daly, Gillian L; Lei, Ying D; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G; Castillo, Luisa E; Wania, Frank

    2007-02-15

    In Central America, chemical-intensive tropical agriculture takes place in close proximity to highly valued and biologically diverse ecosystems, yet the potential for atmospheric transport of pesticides from plantations to national parks and other reserves is poorly characterized. The specific meteorological conditions of mountain ranges can lead to contaminant convergence at high altitudes, raising particular concern for montane forest ecosystems downwind from pesticide use areas. Here we show, based on a wide-ranging air and soil sampling campaign across Costa Rica, that soils in some neotropical montane forests indeed display much higher concentrations of currently used pesticides than soils elsewhere in the country. Specifically, elevated concentrations of the fungicide chlorothalonil, the herbicide dacthal, and the insecticide metabolite endosulfan sulfate on volcanoes Barva and Poas, lying directly downwind of the extensive banana plantations of the Caribbean lowland, indicate the occurrence of atmospheric transport and wet deposition of pesticides at high altitudes. Calculations with a contaminant fate model, designed for mountain regions and parametrized to the Costa Rican environment, show that chemicals with a log K(AW) between -3 and -5 have a greater potential for accumulation at high altitudes. This enrichment behavior is quantified by the Mountain Contamination Potential and is sensitive to contaminant degradability. The modeling work supports the hypothesis suggested by the field results that it is enhanced precipitation scavenging at high elevations (caused by lower temperatures and governed by K(AW)) that causes pesticides to accumulate in tropical montane areas. By providing for the first time evidence of significant transfer of currently used pesticides to Central American montane cloud forests, this study highlights the need to evaluate the risk that tropical agricultural practices place on the region's ecological reserves.

  15. Hair decontamination procedure prior to multi-class pesticide analysis.

    PubMed

    Duca, Radu-Corneliu; Hardy, Emilie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2014-06-01

    Although increasing interest is being observed in hair analysis for the biomonitoring of human exposure to pesticides, some limitations still have to be addressed for optimum use of this matrix in that specific context. One main possible issue concerns the need to differentiate chemicals biologically incorporated into hair from those externally deposited on hair surface from contaminated air or dust. The present study focuses on the development of a washing procedure for the decontamination of hair before analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes. For this purpose, three different procedures of artificial contamination (with silica, cellulose, and aqueous solution) were used to simulate pesticides deposition on hair surface. Several washing solvents (four organic: acetone, dichloromethane, methanol, acetonitrile; and four aqueous: water, phosphate buffer, shampoo, sodium dodecylsulfate) were evaluated for their capacity to remove artificially deposited pesticides from hair surface. The most effective washing solvents were sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol for aqueous and organic solvents, respectively. Moreover, after a first washing with sodium dodecylsulfate or methanol, the majority of externally deposited pesticides was removed and a steady-state was reached since significantly lower amounts were removed by additional second and third washings. Finally, the effectiveness of a decontamination procedure comprising washing with sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol was successively demonstrated. In parallel, it was determined that the final procedure did not affect the chemicals biologically incorporated, as hair strands naturally containing pesticides were used. Such a procedure appears to remove in one-shot the fraction of chemicals located on hair surface and does not require repeated washing steps.

  16. FET Noise Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    The predominant sources of nonlinearity in the FET, relevant to oscillator analysis, are the transconductance gm and the source-gate capacitance C sg...two general categories of noise mechanisms in an FET: intrinsic sources, i.e., noise associated with the FET operation itself, and extrinsic noise...very high drain voltages, also produces white noise. Noise produced by para- sitic resistance, one of the extrinsic noise sources, is also flat. These

  17. 77 FR 35652 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designations of Areas for Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... Richard Wong, Regulatory Development Section, Air Planning Branch, Air, Pesticides and Toxics Management...@epa.gov . Mr. Wong may be reached by phone at (404) 562-8726 or via electronic mail at...

  18. Active noise control: A tutorial for HVAC designers

    SciTech Connect

    Gelin, L.J.

    1997-08-01

    This article will identify the capabilities and limitations of ANC in its application to HVAC noise control. ANC can be used in ducted HVAC systems to cancel ductborne, low-frequency fan noise by injecting sound waves of equal amplitude and opposite phase into an air duct, as close as possible to the source of the unwanted noise. Destructive interference of the fan noise and injected noise results in sound cancellation. The noise problems that it solves are typically described as rumble, roar or throb, all of which are difficult to address using traditional noise control methods. This article will also contrast the use of active against passive noise control techniques. The main differences between the two noise control measures are acoustic performance, energy consumption, and design flexibility. The article will first present the fundamentals and basic physics of ANC. The application to real HVAC systems will follow.

  19. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PPIS includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status for all products registered in the U.S.

  20. Pesticides to Control Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    More than 300 pesticide products in seven chemical classes are registered with EPA, meaning EPA has evaluated their safety and effectiveness: pyrethins, pyrethroids, desiccants, biochemicals, pyrroles, neonicotinoids, and insect growth regulators.

  1. Evaluating Pesticides for Carcinogenic Potential

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA reviews pesticides for potential carcinogenicity. Learn about EPA's guidelines for evaluating a chemical's potential carcinogenicity and updates to EPA's guidelines to reflect increased understanding of ways chemicals may cause cancer.

  2. Pesticide formulations and application systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko; Spicer

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses pesticide formulations; spraying techniques and/or low and ultra low volume applications employing oil carriers, including subsurface drip irrigation and plant growth regulators; and granule technology.

  3. Data Requirements for Pesticide Registration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In evaluating a pesticide registration application, we assess a wide variety of potential human health and environmental effects associated with use of the product. Learn about these data requirements.

  4. Pesticides on fruits and vegetables

    MedlinePlus

    ... serve organic produce. Organic growers use approved organic pesticides. You may want to consider it for thin-skinned items such as peaches, grapes, strawberries, and nectarines. To remove harmful bacteria, you must wash both organic and ...

  5. Consumer Products Treated with Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many products (e.g., cutting boards, kitchen sponges, cat litter, toothbrushes and juvenile toys) are being treated with antimicrobial pesticides. Learn about requirements that apply to such products.

  6. Basic Information about Pesticide Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide products contain both active and inert ingredients. An “active ingredient” prevents, destroys, repels, or mitigates a pest. All other ingredients are called inert ingredients by federal law. They aid product performance and usability.

  7. 77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Group IV Polymers and Resins MACT standards, the typical control devices used to reduce organic HAP... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide...

  8. Noise and blast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. C.; Garinther, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Noise and blast environments are described, providing a definition of units and techniques of noise measurement and giving representative booster-launch and spacecraft noise data. The effects of noise on hearing sensitivity and performance are reviewed, and community response to noise exposure is discussed. Physiological, or nonauditory, effects of noise exposure are also treated, as are design criteria and methods for minimizing the noise effects of hearing sensitivity and communications. The low level sound detection and speech reception are included, along with subjective and behavioral responses to noise.

  9. Subsonic and transonic propeller noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewy, S.; Gounet, H.

    Models for the noise levels from propellers are discussed, with results compared to in-flight measurements. Methods originally applied to noise from light aircraft are modified and extended to high speed passenger aircraft. Noise emitted from propellers has three components: a monopolar emission due to the air displaced by a blade; a bipolar form from average and fluctuating forces exerted by the blades; and a quadripolar component produced by deformation of the streamlines around the blade profile and defined by the Lighthill tensor. The latter is not a factor in the subsonic regime and can be neglected. Attention is given to a formalism which accounts for the sound level along each band, the frequency harmonics at each blade passage, the number of blades, and the rotation rate. The measured directivities of the two components are described. It is found that the radiated noise levels can be reduced in slow aircraft by lowering the peripheral velocity while keeping the same power with more blades. Calculations including the quadripolar term are necessary for modeling noise levels in transonic propellers.

  10. Pesticidal residues in animal tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.; Menzie, C.M.; Adomaitis, V.A.; Reichel, W.L.

    1960-01-01

    Tests with penned starlings, rats, pheasants, and ducks indicated that each species differs in sensitivity to the various pesticides. Residues in tissues are proportional to the degree of exposure during area treatment and they are also found in animals shot six or more months after treatment. The presence of more than 20-30 ppm of DDT, 20 ppm of chlordan, and 6-20 ppm of heptachlor epoxide in quail tissues indicated that the birds had ingested lethal dosages of the pesticides.

  11. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues.

  12. Circular cylinders with soft porous cover for flow noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Thomas F.; Sarradj, Ennes

    2016-03-01

    The use of porous materials is one of several approaches to passively control or minimize the generation of flow noise. In order to investigate the possible reduction of noise from struts and other protruding parts (for example components of the landing gear or pantographs), acoustic measurements were taken in a small aeroacoustic wind tunnel on a set of circular cylinders with a soft porous cover. The aim of this study was to identify those materials that result in the best noise reduction, which refers to both tonal noise and broadband noise. The porous covers were characterized by their air flow resistivity, a parameter describing the permeability of an open-porous material. The results show that materials with low air flow resistivities lead to a noticeable flow noise reduction. Thereby, the main effect of the porous cylinder covers is that the spectral peak of the aeolian tone due to vortex shedding appears much narrower, but is not suppressed completely. Based on the measurement results, a basic model for the estimation of the total peak level of the aeolian tone was derived. In addition to the minimization of the vortex shedding noise, a reduction of broadband noise can be observed, especially at higher Reynolds numbers. The noise reduction increases with decreasing air flow resistivity of the porous covers, which means that materials that are highly permeable to air result in the best noise reduction.

  13. A Guide to Airborne, Impact, and Structure Borne Noise--Control in Multifamily Dwellings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berendt, Raymond D.; And Others

    The control of noise on buildings is discussed extensively in this document, incorporating a broad range of criteria appropriate for isolating air borne, impact, and structure-borne noise associated with residential construction. Subject areas include--(1) noise types, sources, and transmission, (2) general principles of noise control, (3)…

  14. REVIEW OF SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATING PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticide contamination results from manufacturing, improper storage, handling, or disposal of pesticides, and from agricultural processes. Since most pesticides are mixtures of different compounds, selecting a remedy for pesticide-contaminated soils can be a complicated process....

  15. Environmental Technology Verification Report: Pesticide spray drift reduction technologies--Evaluation of the verification protocol for low and high speed wind tunnel testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticide spray drift is defined as the movement of spray droplets through the air at the time of application or soon thereafter from the target site to any non- or off-target site, excluding pesticide movements by erosion, migration, volatility, or windblown soil particles after...

  16. The Negative Affect Hypothesis of Noise Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Daniel; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja; Heikkilä, Kauko; Dirks, Kim N.; Hautus, Michael J.; Welch, David; McBride, David

    2015-01-01

    Some studies indicate that noise sensitivity is explained by negative affect, a dispositional tendency to negatively evaluate situations and the self. Individuals high in such traits may report a greater sensitivity to other sensory stimuli, such as smell, bright light and pain. However, research investigating the relationship between noise sensitivity and sensitivity to stimuli associated with other sensory modalities has not always supported the notion of a common underlying trait, such as negative affect, driving them. Additionally, other explanations of noise sensitivity based on cognitive processes have existed in the clinical literature for over 50 years. Here, we report on secondary analyses of pre-existing laboratory (n = 74) and epidemiological (n = 1005) data focusing on the relationship between noise sensitivity to and annoyance with a variety of olfactory-related stimuli. In the first study a correlational design examined the relationships between noise sensitivity, noise annoyance, and perceptual ratings of 16 odors. The second study sought differences between mean noise and air pollution annoyance scores across noise sensitivity categories. Results from both analyses failed to support the notion that, by itself, negative affectivity explains sensitivity to noise. PMID:25993104

  17. An integrated model-based approach to the risk assessment of pesticide drift from vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivato, Alberto; Barausse, Alberto; Zecchinato, Francesco; Palmeri, Luca; Raga, Roberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-06-01

    The inhalation of pesticide in air is of particular concern for people living in close contact with intensive agricultural activities. This study aims to develop an integrated modelling methodology to assess whether pesticides pose a risk to the health of people living near vineyards, and apply this methodology in the world-renowned Prosecco DOCG (Italian label for protection of origin and geographical indication of wines) region. A sample field in Bigolino di Valdobbiadene (North-Eastern Italy) was selected to perform the pesticide fate modellization and the consequent inhalation risk assessment for people living in the area. The modellization accounts for the direct pesticide loss during the treatment of vineyards and for the volatilization from soil after the end of the treatment. A fugacity model was used to assess the volatilization flux from soil. The Gaussian puff air dispersion model CALPUFF was employed to assess the airborne concentration of the emitted pesticide over the simulation domain. The subsequent risk assessment integrates the HArmonised environmental Indicators for pesticide Risk (HAIR) and US-EPA guidelines. In this case study the modelled situation turned to be safe from the point of view of human health in the case of non-carcinogenic compounds, and additional improvements were suggested to further mitigate the effect of the most critical compound.

  18. Requirements for the protection against aircraft noise.

    PubMed

    Wende, H; Ortscheid, J

    2004-01-01

    In preparation of the revised edition of the Air Traffic Noise Act the Federal Environmental Agency formulated targets for aircraft noise control. They were prepared oriented to the Federal Immission Control Act. The assessment periods were chosen analogously to the regulations on other traffic noise sources (rail traffic, road traffic). The control targets cover the following affected areas * aural, extra-aural health * night's sleep * annoyance * communication * recreation Considerable nuisance can be avoided by limiting the exposure to aircraft noise(outside) to equivalent levels below 55 dB(A) by day and 45 dB(A) at night, and impairment of health can be avoided by limiting the exposure to aircraft noise (outside) to equivalent levels below 60 dB(A) by day and 50 dB(A) at night.

  19. Aircraft and airport noise control prospective outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, N.

    1982-01-01

    In a perspective look at aircraft and airport noise control over the past ten years or more - or more is added here because the Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 of 1969 is a more significant milestone for the air transportation system than is the Noise Control Act of 1972 - we see an appreciable reduction in the noise emitted by newly designed and newly produced airplanes, particularly those powered by the new high bypass engines, but only, at best, a moderate alleviation of airport noise. The change in airport noise exposure was the consequence of the introduction of some new, quieter airplanes into the airlines fleets and some operational modifications or restrictions at the airports.

  20. Input dynamics of pesticide transformation products into surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Susanne; Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane; Schwarzenbach, René P.; Fenner, Kathrin

    2010-05-01

    Some pesticide transformation products have been observed to occur in higher concentrations and more frequently than the parent active pesticide in surface water and groundwater. These products are often more mobile and sometimes more stable than the parent pesticide. If they also represent the major product into which the parent substance is transformed, these transformation products may dominate observed pesticide occurrences in surface water and groundwater. Their potential contribution to the overall risk to the aquatic environment caused by the use of the parent pesticide should therefore not be neglected in chemical risk and water quality assessments. The same is true for transformation products of other compound classes that might reach the soil environment, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals. However, the fate and input pathways of transformation products of soil-applied chemicals into surface water are not yet well understood, which largely prevents their appropriate inclusion into chemical risk and water quality assessments. Here, we studied whether prioritization methods based on available environmental fate data from pesticide registration dossiers in combination with basic fate models could help identify transformation products which can be found in relevant concentrations in surface and groundwater and which should therefore be included into monitoring programs. A three-box steady state model containing air, soil, and surface water compartments was used to predict relative inputs of pesticide transformation products into surface waters based on their physico-chemical and environmental fate properties. The model predictions were compared to monitoring data from a small Swiss river located in an intensely agricultural catchment (90 km2) which was flow-proportionally sampled from May to October 2008 and screened for 74 pesticides as well as 50 corresponding transformation products. Sampling mainly occurred during high discharge, but additional samples

  1. Predicting wetland contamination from atmospheric deposition measurements of pesticides in the Canadian Prairie Pothole region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messing, Paul G.; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Waite, Don T.; McQueen, D. A. Ross; Sproull, James F.; Humphries, David A.; Thompson, Laura L.

    2011-12-01

    Although it has been suggested that atmospheric deposition alone can result in detectable levels of pesticides in wetlands of the Pairie Pothole Region of Canada, this is the first field study to compare the masses of pesticides entering wetlands by atmospheric deposition with those concentrations of pesticides detected in the water-column of prairie wetlands. Weekly air and bulk deposition samples were collected from May 26th to Sept. 15th, 2008 at the Manitoba Zero Tillage Research Association (MZTRA) Farm, Brandon, Manitoba, with four on-site wetlands (approximate sizes 0.15-0.45 ha) monitored every second week. Twelve pesticides were detected in the air, with MCPA (one of the three pesticides applied on the farm in 2008 in addition to clopyralid and glyphosate), triallate, and γ-HCH being detected every week. Calculations were performed to predict wetland pesticide concentrations based on bulk deposits alone for those pesticides that had detectable concentrations in the bulk deposition samples (in order of the highest total seasonal deposition mass to the lowest): MCPA, glyphosate, 2,4-D, clopyralid, bromoxynil, atrazine, dicamba, metolachlor, and mecoprop. The estimated concentrations were closest to actual concentrations for MCPA (Pearson correlation coefficient's = 0.91 to 0.98; p-values < 0.001) and predictions were also reasonable for a range of other herbicides, but a source other than atmospheric deposition was clearly relevant to detections of clopyralid in the wetland water-column. Although the types and levels of pesticides detected in the wetlands of the current study suggest that regional pesticide applications can contribute to pesticide surface water contamination following atmospheric transport and deposition, the greater frequency and concentrations of clopyralid, MCPA, and glyphosate detections in wetlands confirm that on-farm pesticide applications have a greater impact on on-site water quality. Beneficial management practices that reduce

  2. Noise, Health, and Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beranek, Leo L.

    There is reasonable agreement that hearing impairment is related to noise exposure. This hearing loss due to noise is considered a serious health injury, but there is still difficulty in delineating the importance of noise related to people's general non-auditory well-being and health. Beside hearing loss, noise inhibits satisfactory speech…

  3. Evaluation of the interrelationship between pesticide and turbulent energy fluxes and the implications for remotely-sensed estimates of pesticide volatilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the primary pathway for loss from agricultural systems, the volatilization of pesticides, such as Metolachlor and Atrazine, can adversely impact the quality of air and water, crop productivity, and public health. Nonetheless, effective methods for modeling volatilization and estimating the pestic...

  4. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  5. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  7. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  8. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  9. Active Noise Control for Dishwasher noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nokhaeng; Park, Youngjin

    2016-09-01

    The dishwasher is a useful home appliance and continually used for automatically washing dishes. It's commonly placed in the kitchen with built-in style for practicality and better use of space. In this environment, people are easily exposed to dishwasher noise, so it is an important issue for the consumers, especially for the people living in open and narrow space. Recently, the sound power levels of the noise are about 40 - 50 dBA. It could be achieved by removal of noise sources and passive means of insulating acoustical path. For more reduction, such a quiet mode with the lower speed of cycle has been introduced, but this deteriorates the washing capacity. Under this background, we propose active noise control for dishwasher noise. It is observed that the noise is propagating mainly from the lower part of the front side. Control speakers are placed in the part for the collocation. Observation part of estimating sound field distribution and control part of generating the anti-noise are designed for active noise control. Simulation result shows proposed active noise control scheme could have a potential application for dishwasher noise reduction.

  10. Particle size distributions of currently used pesticides in a rural atmosphere of France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coscollà, Clara; Yahyaoui, Abderrazak; Colin, Patrice; Robin, Corine; Martinon, Laurent; Val, Stéphanie; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Yusà, Vicent

    2013-12-01

    This work presents first data on the particle size distributions of current-used pesticides in the atmosphere. Ambient air samples were collected using a cascade impactor distributed into four size fractions in a rural site of Centre Region (France). Most pesticides were accumulated in the fine (0.1-1 μm) particle size fraction such as cyprodinil, pendimethalin, fenpropidin, fenpropimorph and spiroxamine. Other pesticides such as acetochlor and metolachlor presented a bimodal distribution with maximum concentrations in the ultrafine (0.03-0.1 μm)-coarse (1-10 μm) and in the ultrafine-fine size ranges, respectively. No pesticides were detected in the size fraction >10 μm.

  11. Predicting children's short-term exposure to pesticides: results of a questionnaire screening approach.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L; Eberly, Lynn E; Clayton, C Andrew; Whitmore, Roy W; Pellizzari, Edo D; Lioy, Paul J; Quackenboss, James J

    2003-01-01

    The ability of questionnaires to predict children's exposure to pesticides was examined as part of the Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES). The MNCPES focused on a probability sample of 102 children between the ages of 3 and 13 years living in either urban (Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN) or nonurban (Rice and Goodhue Counties in Minnesota) households. Samples were collected in a variety of relevant media (air, food, beverages, tap water, house dust, soil, urine), and chemical analyses emphasized three organophosphate insecticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion) and a herbicide (atrazine). Results indicate that the residential pesticide-use questions and overall screening approach used in the MNCPES were ineffective for identifying and oversampling children/households with higher levels of individual target pesticides. PMID:12515690

  12. 76 FR 552 - Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure Joint... affected by this notice if you register pesticide products intended for residential uses under the Federal... formed to develop information on the actual use patterns of residential pesticides that can be used...

  13. En route noise annoyance laboratory test: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Until recently concerns about the impact of aircraft noise on people have centered around the takeoff and landing operations of aircraft in the vicinity of airport terminals. The development of the advanced turboprop (propfan) engine, modifications to air corridors, and the desire to maintain a natural environment in national parks and recreation areas have now focused attention on the impact at ground level of the en route noise produced by aircraft at cruise conditions and altitudes. Compared to terminal area noise, en route noise is characterized by relatively low noise levels, lack of high frequency spectral content, and long durations. Much research has been directed towards understanding and quantifying the annoyance caused by terminal area aircraft noise, but relatively little research has been conducted for en route noise. To address this need, a laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance of people on the ground to en route noise generated by aircraft at cruise conditions. The objectives of the experiment are to determine the annoyance prediction ability of noise measurement procedures and corrections when applied to en route noise; to determine differences in annoyance response to en route noise and takeoff/landing noise; and to determine differences in annoyance response to advanced turboprop en route noise and conventional jet en route noise.

  14. Slowing and Combating Pest Resistance to Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides can be used to control a variety of pests, such as insects, weeds, rodents, bacteria, fungi, etc. Over time many pesticides have gradually lost effectiveness because pests develop resistance. Learn what EPA is doing to address resistance issues.

  15. Guide for FOIA Requests for Pesticide Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Much scientific and regulatory information concerning pesticides is available to the public without submitting a FOIA request. Review pesticide information resources that may include the information you are seeking. Learn how to submit a FOIA request.

  16. 75 FR 23759 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Hill, Registration Division (7504P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency... deadline identified. II. Registration Applications EPA has received applications to register...

  17. Pesticide Registration: Clarification for Ion Generating Equipment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA issued a Federal Register Notice that clarifies the Agency's position on the distinction between devices and pesticides with regard to ion-generating equipment and explains why such equipment will now be regulated as a pesticide.

  18. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  19. Pesticide Monitoring Study. Evaluation of Silicic Acid Column Pesticide/Polychlorinated Biphenyl Separation Procedure: Recovery and Elution Patterns of 24 Pesticides and Pesticide Metabolites and Two Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    This report presents silicic acid column recovery and elution characteristics for 24 pesticides and pesticide metabolites and two polychlorinated ... biphenyls . The average percent recoveries for all except a few compounds studied were essentially quantitative. The average percent relative standard

  20. Test Guidelines for Pesticides and Toxic Substances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents that specify methods EPA recommends to generate data submitted to EPA to support the registration of a pesticide, setting of a tolerance or tolerance exemption for pesticide residues, or the decision making process for an industrial chemical.

  1. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings: 6th Edition manual gives healthcare providers a quick reference resource for the best toxicology and treatment information for patients with pesticide exposures.

  2. How We Engage Our Pesticide Stakeholders

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The success of EPA's pesticide program is directly connected to our efforts to engage all stakeholders. In addition to meetings on pesticide-specific actions, we sponsor advisory committees that include diverse, independent stakeholders.

  3. Chiral Pesticides: Identification, Description and Environmental Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless...

  4. Pesticide risks around the home (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

  5. 75 FR 14086 - Clopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Clopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave.,...

  6. Assessing Human Health Risk from Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.

  7. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  8. Use of stable tracer studies to evaluate pesticide photolysis at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Hebert, V R; Hoonhout, C; Miller, G C

    2000-05-01

    New methods were developed to determine photolysis rates of medium-weight pesticides in the gas phase using elevated air temperatures and solid-phase microextraction (SPME). A 57-L glass chamber was constructed that utilized collimated xenon arc irradiation that could heat chamber air to increase the amount of pesticide in the gas phase. Gas-phase photolysis rates were determined at various air temperatures by comparing the rate of loss of each of the tested pesticides to a photochemically stable tracer, hexachlorobenzene. Interval sampling of gas-phase constituents was performed using SPME immediately followed by GC-ECD or GC-MSD analysis. The two pesticides under examination were the dinitroaniline herbicide trifluralin and the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos. The gas-phase photolysis for trifluralin was found to be rapid with half-lives of 22-24 min corrected for sunlight. These results were comparable to photochemical lifetime estimates from other investigators under sunlight conditions. Elevating temperatures from 60 to 80 degrees C did not affect photolysis rates, and these rates could be extrapolated to environmental temperatures. From 60 to 80 degrees C, gas-phase chlorpyrifos photolysis lifetimes were observed to range from 1.4 to 2.2 h corrected for sunlight and will thus be important together with hydroxyl radical reactions for removing this substance from the atmosphere. At these elevated temperatures, pesticides and tracer compounds were found to be substantially in the gas phase, and possible effects on reaction rates from wall interactions were minimized.

  9. Comprehensive air quality and meteorological monitoring program. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This data report contains air monitoring results for: total suspended particulates, particulates matter less than 10 micrometers, metals (including arsenic mercury), volatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, semivolatile organic compounds, air compounds, air stripper semivolatile organic compounds, basin F waste pile, pond A, tank farm vents (VOCs).

  10. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  11. Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 103: cadmium pesticide compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issuance or reissuance of a registration standard, (2) Issuance of each special review document, (3) Registration of a significantly changed use pattern, (4) Registration of a new chemical, or (5) An immediate need for information to resolve controversial issues relating to a specific chemical or use pattern.

  12. Pesticide use practices in rural Armenia.

    PubMed

    Tadevosyan, Artashes; Tadevosyan, Natalya; Kelly, Kevin; Gibbs, Shawn G; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide use can have adverse effects on both human health and the environment. Inappropriate use of pesticides increases the health risk to those who work with or live around pesticides. Educational programs for agricultural workers on the proper use of pesticides and personal protective equipment coupled with pesticide regulations are important tools to reduce the associated health risks. The authors conducted a survey (N = 2336) on pesticide use practices in the Ararat Valley of Armenia in 2000-2006. This study was a cross-sectional design. A multistage sampling method was implemented in the selection of the study population. The authors developed a questionnaire containing 173 questions to evaluate demographic characteristics, health conditions, and details of pesticides use practices. The intensity of pesticide use was high; 82.8% of respondents used them. More than 150 brand names of pesticides were in use. Unregistered, obsolete, expired, and banned compounds were found in active use. Poor compliance with the basic rules of pesticide safety was found throughout the study population, with 21.3% using gloves and only 11% using respirators. The agricultural workers' knowledge of the toxic properties of these pesticides as well as basic hygienic norms was very low. In some instances, the number of agrichemical applications to crops, particularly cucumbers and melons, reached 40 applications during the growing season. Better protection and training of pesticide users in Armenia is needed.

  13. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide…

  14. 75 FR 24695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide....regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide...

  15. 75 FR 26673 - Clethodim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that the... reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue... infants and children to the pesticide chemical residue in establishing a tolerance and to ``ensure...

  16. Pesticide Residues in Food: Your Daily Dose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Lawrie

    1985-01-01

    Extensive use of pesticides during food production has created concerns for certain involuntary risks. Examines these concerns: government role in control and monitoring pesticide use, proposals for reform, and how consumer awareness might be an effective pressure for finding remedies. A table listing produce and pesticide residues is included.…

  17. Using Pesticides: Private Applicator Manual, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This manual is designed by the Texas Department of Agriculture as a training program for private pesticide applicators to certify them on a voluntary basis, and to apply restricted-use pesticides in compliance with federal law. An introduction with federal and state laws and regulations regarding pesticide use and private applicators is presented.…

  18. Pesticides in Schools: Reducing the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Attorney General, Albany.

    This report presents findings of state-wide use of pesticides in New York public schools along with a description of the survey, information about the potential dangers of these chemicals, and the steps schools and communities can take to minimize pesticide use. Findings show that 87 percent of New York's schools use pesticides that contain…

  19. Aviation noise effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

  20. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%.

  1. Modern pesticides and bobwhite populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; Schitoskey, Frank=; Schitoskey, Elizabeth C.; Talent, Larry G.

    1982-01-01

    Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) are frequently used as test animals for wildlife tests of pesticides. The organophosphate and carbamate pesticides that have replaced the organochlorines have many desirable properties, but they span a wide range of acute toxicities and some of them affe,ct survival, reproduction, food consumption, behavior, and nervous system enzymes in laboratory tests. Applying these laboratory findings to the field requires assumptions about the severity of exposure in the field. Direct field measurements show that birds may be exposed to significant amounts of these pesticides or even more toxic degradation products under some conditions. Adverse population effects may also result from depression of insect populations during the seasons when bobwhites rely on insects for food.

  2. Organochlorine pesticides in Argentinian butter.

    PubMed

    Lenardón, A; Maitre de Hevia, M I; Enrique de Carbone, S

    1994-04-29

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were analysed in 150 samples of butter collected from several places in the cities of Santa Fe and Rosario (Argentine Republic) over a period of 18 months. Pesticides analysed in butter were: HCH (alpha and gamma isomers), heptachlor and its epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, and DDT (p,p' DDE, o,p' DDT and p,p' DDT). Most samples contained residues of gamma-HCH (Lindane) and heptachlor (92% and 78%, respectively); alpha-HCH and aldrin were detected in 58% and 55% of samples; dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, DDT isomers were found in few cases (30%). Mean values of pesticides residues in butter fat were: sigma HCH 0.029 ppm; sigma heptachlor 0.064 ppm; sigma aldrin 0.11 ppm and sigma DDT 0.024 ppm. Residue levels exceeded the limits prescribed by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization in only very few cases.

  3. European scenarios for exposure of soil organisms to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Tiktak, Aaldrik; Boesten, Jos J T I; Egsmose, Mark; Gardi, Ciro; Klein, Michael; Vanderborght, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Standardised exposure scenarios play an important role in European pesticide authorisation procedures (a scenario is a combination of climate, weather and crop data to be used in exposure models). The European Food Safety Authority developed such scenarios for the assessment of exposure of soil organisms to pesticides. Scenarios were needed for both the concentration in total soil and for the concentration in the liquid phase. The goal of the exposure assessment is the 90th percentile of the exposure concentration in the area of agricultural use of a pesticide in each of three regulatory European zones (North, Centre and South). A statistical approach was adopted to find scenarios that are consistent with this exposure goal. Scenario development began with the simulation of the concentration distribution in the entire area of use by means of a simple analytical model. In the subsequent two steps, procedures were applied to account for parameter uncertainty and scenario uncertainty (i.e. the likelihood that a scenario that is derived for one pesticide is not conservative enough for another pesticide). In the final step, the six scenarios were selected by defining their average air temperature, soil organic-matter content and their soil textural class. Organic matter of the selected scenarios decreased in the order North-Centre-South. Because organic matter has a different effect on the concentration in total soil than it has on the concentration in the liquid phase, the concentration in total soil decreased in the order North-Centre-South whereas the concentration in the liquid phase decreased in the opposite order. The concentration differences between the three regulatory zones appeared to be no more than a factor of two. These differences were comparatively small in view of the considerable differences in climate and soil properties between the three zones.

  4. Identification and reduction of vibration and noise of a glass tempering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashhab, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    The vibration and noise of a glass tempering machine at a factory are studied. Experiments were conducted to identify the sources of vibration and noise. It was found that main sources for vibration and noise are two air barrels, the air pipes from the fans to the glass tempering machine and the fans location. Solutions were suggested to reduce vibration and noise from these three main sources. One of the solutions that were implemented is placing rubber dampers beneath the air barrels and pipes which almost cancelled the horizontal vibrations in the building structure and reduced the vertical vibrations to a low value most likely coming from noise. There are two types of noise, namely, radiation noise from the fans through the fans room walls and transmitted noise through the pipes caused by turbulence. A glass wool noise insulating layer was installed on the wall between the fans room and factory to reduce radiation noise through this wall. Part of the air pipe system in the factory is made of a light material which produced the highest levels of noise above 110 dBA. These air pipes were wrapped by glass wool rolls and the noise level near them was reduced to below 100 dBA which comes from other machine parts. In addition, noise levels were reduced between 2 and 15 dBA at different points in the factory.

  5. Huichol Migrant Laborers and Pesticides: Structural Violence and Cultural Confounders.

    PubMed

    Gamlin, Jennie

    2016-09-01

    Every year, around two thousand Huichol families migrate from their homelands in the highlands of northwestern Mexico to the coastal region of Nayarit State, where they are employed on small plantations to pick and thread tobacco leaves. During their four-month stay, they live, work, eat, and sleep in the open air next to the tobacco fields, exposing themselves to an unknown cocktail of pesticides all day, every day. In this article, I describe how these indigenous migrants are more at risk to pesticides because historical and contemporary structural factors ensure that they live and work in the way of harm. I discuss the economic, social, political, and racial inequalities that exist in their every-day environment and how these forms of structural violence are mitigated by their intersection with local cultural contexts and their specific indigenous lifeworld.

  6. Huichol Migrant Laborers and Pesticides: Structural Violence and Cultural Confounders

    PubMed Central

    Gamlin, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Every year, around two thousand Huichol families migrate from their homelands in the highlands of northwestern Mexico to the coastal region of Nayarit State, where they are employed on small plantations to pick and thread tobacco leaves. During their four‐month stay, they live, work, eat, and sleep in the open air next to the tobacco fields, exposing themselves to an unknown cocktail of pesticides all day, every day. In this article, I describe how these indigenous migrants are more at risk to pesticides because historical and contemporary structural factors ensure that they live and work in the way of harm. I discuss the economic, social, political, and racial inequalities that exist in their every‐day environment and how these forms of structural violence are mitigated by their intersection with local cultural contexts and their specific indigenous lifeworld. PMID:26818491

  7. Hearing Profile of Brazilian Forestry Workers' Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Adriana; Quintiliano, Juliana; Lobato, Diolen; Gonçalves, Claudia; Marques, Jair

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Researchers studying the hearing health of forestry workers have revealed the presence of a noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in this population and have concluded that the vibration of the equipment, the carbon monoxide released by motors, and pesticides might also contribute to NIHL. Objective To analyze the noise exposure in the Brazilian forestry industry workers and the effects on hearing. Methods The study sample comprised 109 employees of a company that specialized in reforestation. Their participants' mean age was 35.5 years (21 to 54 years), mean tenure at the company was 3.9 years (1 to 13 years), and mean total duration of noise exposure was 12.3 years (1 to 30 years). The existing documentation reporting on the jobs risk analysis was examined, noise level was measured, and pure tone audiometry was performed in all participants. Participants were divided into three groups according to their noise exposure levels in their current job. Results Of the participants who were exposed to noise levels less than 85 dBA (decibels with A-weighting filter), 23.8% had hearing loss, and 5.5% of the participants who were exposed to noise ranging from 85 to 89.9 dBA and 11% of the participants who were exposed to noise greater than 90 dBA had audiogram results suggestive of NIHL. Conclusion The implementation of a hearing loss prevention program tailored to forestry workers is needed. PMID:25992147

  8. H2O2/UV enhanced degradation of pesticides in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, E; Janczarek, M; Hupka, J; Grynkiewicz, M

    2004-01-01

    Photodegradation of organic pesticides in industrial wastewater was examined in a UV/H2O2/air system. An experimentally determined optimal amount of hydrogen peroxide (0.008% v/v) indicates that hydrogen peroxide concentration controlled the efficiency of photodegradation. Pre-treatment operations such as sedimentation, filtration and coagulation were used to obtain better efficiency of pesticide removal and to cut down on irradiation time. Finally, scale-up experiments in the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) reactor were carried out. After 5 min irradiation of 100 dm3 industrial wastewater almost all pesticides were destroyed. Thus the ASH reactor proved to be an effective contactor for carrying out photochemical reactions.

  9. Atmospheric deposition of current-use and historic-use pesticides in snow at National Parks in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, K.J.; Simonich, S.L.; Campbell, D.H.; Wilson, G.R.; Landers, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) National Park Service has initiated research on the atmospheric deposition and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds in its alpine, sub-Arctic, and Arctic ecosystems in the Western U.S. Results for the analysis of pesticides in seasonal snowpack samples collected in spring 2003 from seven national parks are presented herein. From a target analyte list of 47 pesticides and degradation products, the most frequently detected current-use pesticides were dacthal, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and ??- hexachlorocyclohexane, whereas the most frequently detected historic-use pesticides were dieldrin, ??-hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene. Correlation analysis with latitude, temperature, elevation, particulate matter, and two indicators of regional pesticide use reveal that regional current and historic agricultural practices are largely responsible for the distribution of pesticides in the national parks in this study. Pesticide deposition in the Alaskan parks is attributed to long-range transport because there are no significant regional pesticide sources. The percentage of total pesticide concentration due to regional transport (%RT) was calculated for the other parks. %RT was highest at parks with higher regional cropland intensity and for pesticides with lower vapor pressures and shorter half-lives in air. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  10. Atmospheric deposition of current-use and historic-use pesticides in snow at national parks in the western United States.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Kimberly J; Simonich, Staci L; Campbell, Donald H; Wilson, Glenn R; Landers, Dixon H

    2006-05-15

    The United States (U.S.) National Park Service has initiated research on the atmospheric deposition and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds in its alpine, sub-Arctic, and Arctic ecosystems in the Western U.S. Results for the analysis of pesticides in seasonal snowpack samples collected in spring 2003 from seven national parks are presented herein. From a target analyte list of 47 pesticides and degradation products, the most frequently detected current-use pesticides were dacthal, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, whereas the mostfrequently detected historic-use pesticides were dieldrin, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene. Correlation analysis with latitude, temperature, elevation, particulate matter, and two indicators of regional pesticide use reveal that regional current and historic agricultural practices are largely responsible for the distribution of pesticides in the national parks in this study. Pesticide deposition in the Alaskan parks is attributed to long-range transport because there are no significant regional pesticide sources. The percentage of total pesticide concentration due to regional transport (%RT) was calculated for the other parks. %RT was highest at parks with higher regional cropland intensity and for pesticides with lower vapor pressures and shorter half-lives in air.

  11. [Subjective sensitivity to noise].

    PubMed

    Belojević, G

    1991-01-01

    It is likely that individual variations in subjectively estimated noise sensitivity influence different social and psychophysiological reactions of people exposed to noise. Subjective noise sensitivity might be a relatively stable personal characteristic. A correlation have been found between high sensitiveness to noise and some medical symptoms (sleep disturbance, nervousness, depression), and worse work performance in noisy environments. An introvert person with neurotic symptoms is more frequently found in people highly sensitive to noise. Testing for subjective sensitivity to noise might be helpful in professional selection and orientation for noisy work-places as well as in housing advising.

  12. Fluidic Chevrons for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin; Henderson, Brenda; Whitmire, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Chevron mixing devices are used to reduce noise from commercial separate-flow turbofan engines. Mechanical chevron serrations at the nozzle trailing edge generate axial vorticity that enhances jet plume mixing and consequently reduces far-field noise. Fluidic chevrons generated with air injected near the nozzle trailing edge create a vorticity field similar to that of the mechanical chevrons and allow more flexibility in controlling acoustic and thrust performance than a passive mechanical design. In addition, the design of such a system has the future potential for actively controlling jet noise by pulsing or otherwise optimally distributing the injected air. Scale model jet noise experiments have been performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel to investigate the fluidic chevron concept. Acoustic data from different fluidic chevron designs are shown. Varying degrees of noise reduction are achieved depending on the injection pattern and injection flow conditions. CFD results were used to select design concepts that displayed axial vorticity growth similar to that associated with mechanical chevrons and qualitatively describe the air injection flow and the impact on acoustic performance.

  13. Pesticide use in Kentucky reservoir watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Butkus, S.R.

    1988-06-01

    This report summarizes information on the types, uses, and amounts of pesticides applied to Kentucky Reservoir and its immediate watershed. Estimates for the quantities and types of the various pesticides used are based primarily on the land uses in the watershed. A listing of commonly used pesticides is included describing their uses, mode of action, and potential toxicological effects. This report will inform the the public and the Kentucky Reservoir Water Resources Task Force of the general extent of pesticide usage and is not an assessment of pesticide impacts. 10 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Combat aircraft noise: The operator's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogg, R.

    1992-04-01

    Combat aircraft are not subject to the same noise reduction regulations as civil aircraft. Additionally, combat aircraft are operated closer to their performance limits and at high power settings for extended periods. There is general pressure to reduce noise of all kinds, but particularly noise from low flying aircraft. Although there is little that can be done to quiet in-service engines, operational palliatives, such as noise abatement procedures and restrictions on low flying, have been introduced. Moreover, there has been a concerted education and public relations campaign, and numerous airspace management changes have been introduced to reduce the impact of low flying on the population. These subjects were considered during a Pilot Study into aircraft noise under the auspices of the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society; the findings of the Study are discussed, giving both the international viewpoint and the UK perspective in particular. Some options for the reduction of low flying are also considered, but so long as military aircraft need to fly low to evade enemy air defences, low flying will remain a principal tactic of NATO air forces, and peacetime training will remain an essential military requirement. Thus, noise from low flying combat aircraft will remain a sensitive issue, and ways of reducing it will continue to be of importance for many years to come.

  15. Propagation of Environmental Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Solutions for environmental noise pollution lie in systematic study of many basic processes such as reflection, scattering, and spreading. Noise propagation processes should be identified in different situations and assessed for their relative importance. (PS)

  16. Pesticide bioconcentration modelling for fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa

    2007-01-01

    The model presented allows simulating the pesticide concentration evolution in fruit trees and estimating the pesticide bioconcentration factor in fruits. Pesticides are non-ionic organic compounds that are degraded in soils cropped with woody species, fruit trees and other perennials. The model allows estimating the pesticide uptake by plants through the water transpiration stream and also the time in which maximum pesticide concentration occur in the fruits. The equation proposed presents the relationships between bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the following variables: plant water transpiration volume (Q), pesticide transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), pesticide stem-water partition coefficient (K(Wood,W)), stem dry biomass (M) and pesticide dissipation rate in the soil-plant system (k(EGS)). The modeling started and was developed from a previous model "Fruit Tree Model" (FTM), reported by Trapp and collaborators in 2003, to which was added the hypothesis that the pesticide degradation in the soil follows a first order kinetic equation. The FTM model for pesticides (FTM-p) was applied to a hypothetic mango plant cropping (Mangifera indica) treated with paclobutrazol (growth regulator) added to the soil. The model fitness was evaluated through the sensitivity analysis of the pesticide BCF values in fruits with respect to the model entry data variability.

  17. Pesticide mass budget in a stormwater wetland.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Elodie; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are reactive landscape zones that provide ecosystem services, including the improvement of water quality. Field studies distinguishing pesticide degradation from retention to evaluate the sink and source functions of wetlands are scarce. This study evaluated based on a complete mass budget the partitioning, retention, and degradation of 12 pesticides in water, suspended solids, sediments, and organisms in a wetland receiving contaminated runoff. The mass budget showed the following: (i) dissolved pesticides accounted for 95% of the total load entering the wetland and the pesticide partitioning between the dissolved phase and the suspended solids varied according to the molecules, (ii) pesticides accumulated primarily in the <250 μm bed sediments during spring and late summer, and (iii) the hydrological regime or the incoming pesticide loads did not influence the pesticide dissipation, which varied according to the molecules and the wetland biogeochemical conditions. The vegetation enhanced the pesticide degradation during the vegetative phase and the pesticides were released during plant senescence. The dithiocarbamates were degraded under oxic conditions in spring, whereas glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) degradation occurred under reducing conditions during the summer. The complete pesticide mass budget indicates the versatility of the pesticide sink and source functions of wetland systems.

  18. Simulating pesticide transport in urbanized catchments: a new spatially-distributed dynamic pesticide runoff model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ting; Seuntjens, Piet; van Griensven, Ann; Bronders, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination in surface water. However, pesticide behaviours in urban areas, particularly on hard surfaces, are far less studied than those in agricultural areas. Pesticide application on hard surfaces (e.g. roadsides and walkways) is of particular concern due to the high imperviousness and therefore high pesticide runoff potential. Experimental studies have shown that pesticide behaviours on and interactions with hard surfaces are important factors controlling the pesticide runoff potential, and therefore the magnitude and timing of peak concentrations in surface water. We conceptualized pesticide behaviours on hard surfaces and incorporated the conceptualization into a new pesticide runoff model. The pesticide runoff model was implemented in a catchment hydrological model WetSpa-Python (Water and Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere, Python version). The conceptualization for pesticide processes on hard surfaces accounts for the differences in pesticide behaviour on different hard surfaces. Four parameters are used to describe the partitioning and wash-off of each pesticide on hard surfaces. We tested the conceptualization using experimental dataset for five pesticides on two types of hard surfaces, namely concrete and asphalt. The conceptualization gave good performance in accounting for the wash-off pattern for the modelled pesticides and surfaces, according to quantitative evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percent bias. The resulting pesticide runoff model WetSpa-PST (WetSpa for PeSTicides) can simulate pesticides and their metabolites at the catchment scale. Overall, it includes four groups of pesticide processes, namely pesticide application, pesticide interception by plant foliage, pesticide processes on land surfaces (including partitioning, degradation and wash-off on hard surface; partitioning, dissipation, infiltration and runoff in soil) and pesticide processes in

  19. Pesticide loading and rinsate recycling facility guide

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-20

    This guide has been prepared by staff of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) and the Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA) to complement the consultant`s Pesticide Rinsate Facility Report and generic engineering plans. This guide informs pesticide applicators of the regulatory aspects of the Pesticide Rinsate Facility Report. Guidance are recommended procedures contained in this Guide are not law or rules at this time, but may be in the future. To clarify what is recommendation and what is present law or rule, a table in Appendix 4 lists topics addressed in this guide and a distinction between what is recommended and what is required. Both the guide and the consultant`s report and plans are meant to provide pesticide applicators with the basis for developing pesticide loading, rinsate, and washwater management plan for your business locations. Staff of the MDA and the MCPA are concerned with the improper management of pesticides and pesticide related wastes.

  20. Defusing the Toxics Threat: Controlling Pesticides and Industrial Waste. Worldwatch Paper 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postel, Sandra

    The use of pesticides in agriculture and the discarding of industrial chemical waste into the air, soil, and water constitute two major pathways of human exposure to toxic substances. It is argued that these practices release hundreds of millions of tons of potentially hazardous substances into the environment each year. Speculation continues into…