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Sample records for air outlet passage

  1. Airshuffler implementation at freezer air outlets for heat transfer enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćerezci, Gökhan; Darka, Murat; Şenman, Ozan

    2016-06-01

    A study which is composed of computational simulation and experimental validation has been conducted for implementation of small, vane type geometries at freezer air outlets, similar to microvortex generators used in aircraft wings, in order to improve the heat transfer efficiency inside the freezer compartment by decreasing airside thermal resistance and improving the air distribution. Both simulation and experimental validation were performed in a loaded condition which was prepared according to `Household refrigerating appliances - characteristics and test methods - IEC 62552 [1]. Solutions for the incompressible K-epsilon (k-ɛ) turbulence model obtained for Bosch KDN 49 refrigerator freezer both with and without airshufflers at air outlets, which are similar to vane type microvortex generators with different geometric dimensions. The airshuffler dimensions were chosen with design of experiment (DOE) principles for finding the optimum geometry. The best combinations were tested according to cooling rate inside freezer compartment. Results were evaluated for feasibility of implementing of vortex generating surfaces (airshufflers) for cooling appliances.

  2. Passage probabilities of juvenile Chinook salmon through the powerhouse and regulating outlet at Cougar Dam, Oregon, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hansen, Amy C.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hansel, Hal C.; Smith, Collin D.

    2012-01-01

    Cougar Dam near Springfield, Oregon, is one of several federally owned and operated flood-control projects within the Willamette Valley of western Oregon that were determined by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Marine Fisheries Service in 2008 to impact the long-term viability of several salmonid stocks. In response to this ruling, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is looking for means to reduce impacts to salmonids, including improving downstream passage of juvenile salmonids at Cougar Dam. This study of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) passage at Cougar Dam was conducted to inform decisions about potential improvements for downstream fish passage. The primary objective of the study was to estimate route-specific passage probabilities of yearling Chinook salmon at Cougar Dam. The study was conducted using fish from a nearby hatchery surgically implanted with radio transmitters and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and released near the entrance of a temperature control tower through which all water going through the dam must pass. Water passing through the temperature control tower may be routed through a penstock to a powerhouse with two Francis turbines, or to a spillway-like structure called the regulating outlet. Secondary objectives of the study were to estimate the probability that fish enter a bypass at a non-federal facility downstream, and to estimate dam-passage and in-river fish survival. Dam operating conditions during the study included an average forebay elevation of 1,580 feet (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929) and an average of 48.2 percent of the total dam discharge of 1,106 cubic feet per second passing through a regulating outlet opening of 1.25 feet. Dam passage probability was greatest at night (0.8741 standard error [SE] 0.0265) and primarily through the regulating outlet (0.8896 SE 0.0617 day; 0.9417 SE 0.0175 night). The joint probability of entering the bypass at Leaburg Dam

  3. Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine and Regulating Outlet at Cougar Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2009–2010

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2011-05-23

    Fish passage conditions through a Francis turbine and a regulating outlet (RO) at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions encountered during passage via specific routes. The RO investigation was performed in December 2009 and the turbine evaluation in January 2010, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision, strike, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Cougar Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 3.7-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine passage. Compared to mainstem Columbia River passage routes, none of the Cougar Dam passage routes as tested are safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

  4. Transpulmonary passage of venous air emboli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, B. D.; Hills, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-seven paralyzed anesthetized dogs were embolized with venous air to determine the effectiveness of the pulmonary vasculature for bubble filtration or trapping. Air doses ranged from 0.05 to 0.40 ml/kg min in 0.05-ml increments with ultrasonic Doppler monitors placed over arterial vessels to detect any microbubbles that crossed the lungs. Pulmonary vascular filtration of the venous air infusions was complete for the lower air doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.30 ml/kg min. When the air doses were increased to 0.35 ml/kg min, the filtration threshold was exceeded with arterial spillover of bubbles occurring in 50 percent of the animals and reaching 71 percent for 0.40 ml/kg min. Significant elevations were observed in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Systemic blood pressure and cardiac output decreased, whereas left ventricular end-diastolic pressure remained unchanged. The results indicate that the filtration of venous bubbles by the pulmonary vasculature was complete when the air infusion rates were kept below a threshold value of 0.30 ml/kg min.

  5. Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine, Spillway, and Regulating Outlet at Detroit Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-05-06

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways, a Francis turbine, and a regulating outlet (RO) at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes. The study was performed in July, October, and December 2009 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe strike, collision, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Detroit Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 5-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine and spillway passage. However, none of the passage routes tested is safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

  6. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed for use in wet locations, except that if located on the underside...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 73992, Dec. 9, 2013. (a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed for...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed for use in wet locations, except that if located on the underside...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed for use in wet locations, except that if located on the underside...

  10. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed for use in wet locations, except that if located on the underside...

  11. Northwest passage: Trade route for large air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle and powerplant (10,000-ton) nuclear-powered air-cushion vehicle (ACV) that could open the Northwest Passage and other Arctic passages to commercial traffic is identified. The report contains a description of the conceptual vehicle, including the powerplant and operations, an assessment of technical feasibility, estimates of capital and operating costs, and identification of eligible cargo and markets. A comparison of the nuclear ACV freighter with nuclear container ships shows that for containerized or roll-on/roll-off cargo the ACV would provide greatly reduced transit time between North Atlantic and North Pacific ports at a competitive cost.

  12. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam with Emphasis on the Prototype Surface Flow Outlet, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Monter, Tyrell J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.

    2009-12-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of Top Spill Weirs installed at two spillbays at John Day Dam and evaluate the effectiveness of these surface flow outlets at attracting juvenile salmon away from the powerhouse and reducing turbine passage. The Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was used to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids passing the dam and also for calculating performance metrics used to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the dam at passing juvenile salmonids.

  13. Air demand estimation in bottom outlets with the particle finite element method - Susqueda Dam case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Fernando; San-Mauro, Javier; Celigueta, Miguel Ángel; Oñate, Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    Dam bottom outlets play a vital role in dam operation and safety, as they allow controlling the water surface elevation below the spillway level. For partial openings, water flows under the gate lip at high velocity and drags the air downstream of the gate, which may cause damages due to cavitation and vibration. The convenience of installing air vents in dam bottom outlets is well known by practitioners. The design of this element depends basically on the maximum air flow through the air vent, which in turn is a function of the specific geometry and the boundary conditions. The intrinsic features of this phenomenon makes it hard to analyse either on site or in full scaled experimental facilities. As a consequence, empirical formulas are frequently employed, which offer a conservative estimate of the maximum air flow. In this work, the particle finite element method was used to model the air-water interaction in Susqueda Dam bottom outlet, with different gate openings. Specific enhancements of the formulation were developed to consider air-water interaction. The results were analysed as compared to the conventional design criteria and to information gathered on site during the gate operation tests. This analysis suggests that numerical modelling with the PFEM can be helpful for the design of this kind of hydraulic works.

  14. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Air Inlet and Outlet Openings on a Streamline Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, John V

    1951-01-01

    In connection with the general problem of providing air flow to an aircraft power plant located within a fuselage, an investigation was conducted in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel to determine the effect on external drag and pressure distribution of air inlet openings located at the nose of a streamline body. Air outlet openings located at the tail and at the 21-percent and 63-percent stations of the body were also investigated. Boundary layer transition measurements were made and correlated with the force and the pressure data. Individual openings were investigated with the aid of a blower and then practicable combinations of inlet and outlet openings were tested. Various modifications to the internal duct shape near the inlet opening and the aerodynamic effects of a simulated gun in the duct were also studied. The results of the tests suggested that outlet openings should be designed so that the static pressure of the internal flow at the outlet would be the same as the static pressure of the external flow in the vicinity of the opening.

  15. Optimum outlet temperature of solar collector for maximum work output for an Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Eldighidy, S.M. )

    1993-09-01

    The optimum solar collector outlet temperature for maximizing the work output for an Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration is investigated. A mathematical model for the energy balance on the solar collector along with the useful work output and the thermal efficiency of the Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration is developed. The optimum solar collector outlet temperature for maximum work output is determined. The effect of radiative and convective heat losses from the solar collector, on the optimum outlet temperature is presented. The results reveal that the highest solar collector outlet temperature and, therefore, greatest Otto cycle efficiency and work output can be attained with the lowest values of radiative and convective heat losses. Moreover, high cycle work output (as a fraction of absorbed solar energy) and high efficiency of an Otto heat engine with ideal regeneration, driven by a solar collector system, can be attained with low compression ratio.

  16. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages

    SciTech Connect

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

    1992-06-01

    An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

  17. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

    1992-06-01

    An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

  18. Inadvertent venous air embolism during cesarean section: collapsible intravenous fluid bags without self-sealing outlet have risks. Case report.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Esen, Asim; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Ozturk, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    The anesthesiologist must be aware of the causes, diagnosis and treatment of venous air embolism and adopt the practice patterns to prevent its occurrence. Although venous air embolism is a known complication of cesarean section, we describe an unusual inattention that causes iatrogenic near fatal venous air embolism during a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. One of the reasons for using self-collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of conventional glass or plastic bottles is to take precaution against air embolism. We also demonstrated the risk of air embolism for two kinds of plastic collapsible intravenous fluid bags: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polypropylene-based. Fluid bags without self-sealing outlets pose a risk for air embolism if the closed system is broken down, while the flexibility of the bag limits the amount of air entry. PVC-based bags, which have more flexibility, have significantly less risk of air entry when IV administration set is disconnected from the outlet. Using a pressure bag for rapid infusion can be dangerous without checking and emptying all air from the IV bag.

  19. Inadvertent venous air embolism during cesarean section: Collapsible intravenous fluid bags without self-sealing outlet have risks. Case report.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Esen, Asim; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Ozturk, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    The anesthesiologist must be aware of the causes, diagnosis and treatment of venous air embolism and adopt the practice patterns to prevent its occurrence. Although venous air embolism is a known complication of cesarean section, we describe an unusual inattention that causes iatrogenic near fatal venous air embolism during a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. One of the reasons for using self-collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of conventional glass or plastic bottles is to take precaution against air embolism. We also demonstrated the risk of air embolism for two kinds of plastic collapsible intravenous fluid bags: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polypropylene-based. Fluid bags without self-sealing outlets pose a risk for air embolism if the closed system is broken down, while the flexibility of the bag limits the amount of air entry. PVC-based bags, which have more flexibility, have significantly less risk of air entry when IV administration set is disconnected from the outlet. Using a pressure bag for rapid infusion can be dangerous without checking and emptying all air from the IV bag.

  20. Southern Ocean Carbon Sink Constraints from Radiocarbon in Drake Passage Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, C. M.; Lehman, S.; Miller, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Ocean is one of the earth's largest regional net carbon sinks due to strong westerly winds, which drive surface gas exchange, deep mixing and upwelling. The strength of the sink is set by complex interactions between the physical circulation, gas exchange and biological activity in surface waters. Recent work by others has predicted that global warming may weaken the sink by strengthening the regional winds, increasing upwelling and the flux of deep, naturally carbon-rich and radiocarbon-depleted water into the surface mixed layer. The resulting decrease in the air-sea pCO2 gradient is thought to overwhelm other compensating changes, causing a weakened net sink. Here we demonstrate the use of precise measurements of radiocarbon in Drake Passage air (14CO2) to detect short-term fluctuations in the Southern Ocean gross sea-to-air C flux, and by extension, possible changes in the net carbon sink and their underlying causes. Drake Passage boundary layer air has been sampled since 2006 at roughly fortnightly intervals as part of NOAA's Cooperative Air Sampling Network, resulting in a 5-year high-resolution 14CO2 time-series with accompanying same-flask CO2 concentration measurements. Atmospheric measurements at Drake Passage are representative of zonal average exchange fluxes due to strong mixing by the westerly winds. In preliminary results, anomalously low ∆14C values are correlated with positive states of the Southern Annular Mode, a hemispheric-scale indicator of stronger westerly winds in the high latitude Southern Ocean. Simulations from the TM5 atmospheric transport model with a detailed global radiocarbon budget are used to interpret the results. These results appear to support the hypothesized link between stronger westerly winds and a weaker Southern Ocean carbon sink.

  1. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  2. [Aerosol deposition in nasal passages of burrowing and ground rodents when breathing dust-laden air].

    PubMed

    Moshkin, M P; Petrovskiĭ, D V; Akulov, A E; Romashchenko, A V; Gerlinskaia, L A; Muchnaia, M I; Ganimedov, V L; Sadovskiĭ, A S; Savelov, A A; Koptiug, I V; Troitskiĭ, S Iu; Bukhtiiarov, V I; Kolchanov, N A; Sagdeev, R Z; Fomin, V M

    2014-01-01

    In subterranean rodents, which dig down the passages with frontal teeth, adaptation to the underground mode of life presumes forming of mechanisms that provide protection against inhaling dust particles of different size when digging. One of such mechanisms can be specific pattern of air flow organization in the nasal cavity. To test this assumption, comparative study of geometry and aerodynamics of nasal passages has been conducted with regard to typical representative of subterranean rodents, the mole vole, and a representative of ground rodents, the house mouse. Numerical modeling of air flows and deposition of micro- and nanoparticle aerosols indicates that sedimentation of model particles over the whole surface of nasal cavity is higher in mole vole than in house mouse. On the contrary, particles deposition on the surface of olfactory epithelium turns out to be substantially less in the burrowing rodent as compared to the ground one. Adaptive significance of the latter observation has been substantiated by experimental study on the uptake ofnanoparticles of hydrated manganese oxide MnO x (H2O)x and Mn ions from nasal cavity into brain. It has been shown with use of magnetic resonance tomography method that there is no difference between studied species with respect to intake of particles or ions by olfactory bulb when they are introduced intranasally. Meanwhile, when inhaling nanoparticle aerosol of MnCl2, deposition of Mn in mouse's olfactory bulbs surpasses markedly that in vole's bulbs. Thereby, the morphology of nasal passages as a factor determining the aerodynamics of upper respiratory tract ensures for burrowing rodents more efficient protection of both lungs and brain against inhaled aerosols than for ground ones. PMID:25771679

  3. Review and status of heat-transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, F. C.; Stepka, F. S.

    1984-01-01

    Selected literature on heat-transfer and pressure losses for airflow through passages for several cooling methods generally applicable to gas turbine blades is reviewed. Some useful correlating equations are highlighted. The status of turbine-blade internal air-cooling technology for both nonrotating and rotating blades is discussed and the areas where further research is needed are indicated. The cooling methods considered include convection cooling in passages, impingement cooling at the leading edge and at the midchord, and convection cooling in passages, augmented by pin fins and the use of roughened internal walls.

  4. Carburetor fuel feed system with bidirectional passage

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.S.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a carburetor having an air inlet, an outlet, throttling means for controlling the flow through a main air path, and a venturi for reading air velocity through the carburetor located between the throttling means and the air inlet. The improvement described here comprises a bidirectional passage between the venturi and an area downstream of the throttling means for allowing free movement of air either from the venturi to the area downstream of the throttling means or from the area downstream of the throttling means to the venturi. The direction of air movement is dependent on the pressure relationship between the venturi and the area downstream of the throttling means. A means is included for receiving metered fuel into the bidirectional passage and allowing metered fuel to blend with air moving through the bidirectional passage and meet with the main air path either at the area downstream of the throttling means or at the venturi. The means for receiving metered fuel comprises a tubular section extending into the bidirectional passage adjacent the venturi, and providing a confined area of high velocity where fuel meets with air when the flow is from the venturi to the area downstream of the throttling means.

  5. A method for measuring cooling air flow in base coolant passages of rotating turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Pollack, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    Method accurately determines actual coolant mass flow rate in cooling passages of rotating turbine blades. Total and static pressures are measured in blade base coolant passages. Mass flow rates are calculated from these measurements of pressure, measured temperature and known area.

  6. Generalized Charts for Determination of Pressure Drop of a High-speed Compressible Fluid in Heat-exchanger Passages I : Air Heated in Smooth Passages of Constant Area with Constant Wall Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valerino, Michael F

    1948-01-01

    In the present paper an analysis is made of the compressible-flow variations occurring in heat-exchanger passages. The results of the analysis describe the flow and heating characteristics for which specific flow passages can be treated as segments of generalized flow systems. The graphical representation of the flow variations in the generalized flow systems can then be utilized as working charts to determine directly the pressure changes occurring in any specific flow passage. On the basis of these results, working charts are constructed to handle the case of air heated at constant wall temperature under turbulent-flow conditions. A method is given of incorporating the effect on the heat-exchanger flow process of high temperature differential between passage wall and fluid as based on recent NACA experimental data. Good agreement is obtained between the experimental and the chart pressure-drop values for passage-wall average temperatures as high as 1752 degrees R (experimental limit) and for flow Mach numbers ranging from 0.32 to 1.00 (choke) at the passage exit.

  7. Analytical modeling of operating characteristics of premixing-prevaporizing fuel-air mixing passages. Volume 1: Analysis and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Chiappetta, L. M.; Edwards, D. E.; Mcvey, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A model for predicting the distribution of liquid fuel droplets and fuel vapor in premixing-prevaporizing fuel-air mixing passages of the direct injection type is reported. This model consists of three computer programs; a calculation of the two dimensional or axisymmetric air flow field neglecting the effects of fuel; a calculation of the three dimensional fuel droplet trajectories and evaporation rates in a known, moving air flow; a calculation of fuel vapor diffusing into a moving three dimensional air flow with source terms dependent on the droplet evaporation rates. The fuel droplets are treated as individual particle classes each satisfying Newton's law, a heat transfer, and a mass transfer equation. This fuel droplet model treats multicomponent fuels and incorporates the physics required for the treatment of elastic droplet collisions, droplet shattering, droplet coalescence and droplet wall interactions. The vapor diffusion calculation treats three dimensional, gas phase, turbulent diffusion processes. The analysis includes a model for the autoignition of the fuel air mixture based upon the rate of formation of an important intermediate chemical species during the preignition period.

  8. Heat transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled blades for heavy-duty gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Weigand, B; Semmler, K; von Wolfersdorf, J

    2001-05-01

    The present review paper, although far from being complete, aims to give an overview about the present state of the art in the field of heat transfer technology for internal cooling of gas turbine blades. After showing some typical modern cooled blades, the different methods to enhance heat transfer in the internal passages of air-cooled blades are discussed. The complicated flows occurring in bends are described in detail, because of their increasing importance for modern cooling designs. A short review about testing of cooling design elements is given, showing the interaction of the different cooling features as well. The special focus of the present review has been put on the cooling of blades for heavy-duty gas turbines, which show several differences compared to aero-engine blades. PMID:11460627

  9. Gas turbine outlet arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Horgan, J.J.

    1987-09-29

    An engine outlet section is described for an axial-flow gas turbine engine having a hot core gas flow and a surrounding annular bypass fan air flow, comprising: an annular flow separator, separating the core gas from the fan air upstream of the outlet section and terminating at a circular trailing edge; an annular mixer, secured to the trailing edge of the flow separator. The mixer includes alternately radially inwardly and outwardly extending flow lobes. The outwardly extending lobes have a small radial height relative to the radial height of the fan air flow annulus; an axial nozzle plug, disposed downstream of the annular mixer and having a diameter increasing with axial downstream displacement to a maximum diameter greater than or equal to the diameter of the trailing edge of the flow separator. The plug diameter decreases with further downstream axial displacement; and an outer annular engine fairing, confining the fan air upstream of the convoluted mixer and confining the mixing fan air and core gas flow downstream of the mixer. The outer engine fairing further terminates at a downstream edge at a point axially proximate the maximum diameter of the nozzle plug.

  10. Observational evidence of increased tropical rainfall due to air passage over forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Arnold, S. R.; Taylor, C.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetation affects precipitation patterns through altering moisture, energy and trace-gas fluxes between the surface and atmosphere. Climate model studies typically predict that large-scale deforestation results in reduced regional precipitation. Observational studies that have attempted to confirm these modelling predictions have yielded conflicting results likely due to the large temporal and spatial variability in precipitation masking land-cover induced changes. Here we explore the effect of tropical vegetation on precipitation using satellite remote sensed observations of precipitation from the tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and other satellites combined (TRMM3B42) and leaf area index (LAI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We combine these observations with a Lagrangian atmospheric transport model which we use to describe daily variability in tropical atmospheric transport patterns. We calculate cumulative exposure of air masses to tropical vegetation and explore relationships between this exposure and observed precipitation. We find that for large regions of the tropics air that has experienced a large cumulative exposure to vegetation in the preceding few days produces at least twice as much rain as air that has little exposure. To understand potential mechanisms behind this relationship we explore the atmospheric water budget along analysed back trajectories. We constrain the water budget using specific humidity from analysed meteorological fields combined with global land-surface model output of evapotranspiration (ET). We find that ET in air masses with large exposure to vegetation maintains atmospheric moisture sufficiently to explain observed relationships with precipitation. We combine these empirical relationships with a business-as-usual scenario of Amazonian deforestation to estimate impacts on future precipitation.

  11. Observations of increased tropical rainfall preceded by air passage over forests.

    PubMed

    Spracklen, D V; Arnold, S R; Taylor, C M

    2012-09-13

    Vegetation affects precipitation patterns by mediating moisture, energy and trace-gas fluxes between the surface and atmosphere. When forests are replaced by pasture or crops, evapotranspiration of moisture from soil and vegetation is often diminished, leading to reduced atmospheric humidity and potentially suppressing precipitation. Climate models predict that large-scale tropical deforestation causes reduced regional precipitation, although the magnitude of the effect is model and resolution dependent. In contrast, observational studies have linked deforestation to increased precipitation locally but have been unable to explore the impact of large-scale deforestation. Here we use satellite remote-sensing data of tropical precipitation and vegetation, combined with simulated atmospheric transport patterns, to assess the pan-tropical effect of forests on tropical rainfall. We find that for more than 60 per cent of the tropical land surface (latitudes 30 degrees south to 30 degrees north), air that has passed over extensive vegetation in the preceding few days produces at least twice as much rain as air that has passed over little vegetation. We demonstrate that this empirical correlation is consistent with evapotranspiration maintaining atmospheric moisture in air that passes over extensive vegetation. We combine these empirical relationships with current trends of Amazonian deforestation to estimate reductions of 12 and 21 per cent in wet-season and dry-season precipitation respectively across the Amazon basin by 2050, due to less-efficient moisture recycling. Our observation-based results complement similar estimates from climate models, in which the physical mechanisms and feedbacks at work could be explored in more detail.

  12. Experimental study of the operating characteristics of premixing-prevaporizing fuel/air mixing passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohy, D. A.; Meier, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    Fuel spray and air flow characteristics were determined using nonintrusive (optical) measurement techniques in a fuel preparation duct. A very detailed data set was obtained at high pressures (to 10 atm) and temperatures (to 750 K). The data will be used to calibrate an analytical model which will facilitate the design of a lean premixed prevaporized combustor. This combustor has potential for achieving low pollutant emissions and low levels of flame radiation and pattern factors conductive to improved durability and performance for a variety of fuels.

  13. Anatomical Details of the Rabbit Nasal Passages and Their Implications in Breathing, Air Conditioning, and Olfaction.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A; Kim, Jongwon; Zhang, Yu; Jacob, Richard E; Kabilan, Senthil; Corley, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    The rabbit is commonly used as a laboratory animal for inhalation toxicology tests and detail knowledge of the rabbit airway morphometry is needed for outcome analysis or theoretical modeling. The objective of this study is to quantify the morphometric dimension of the nasal airway of a New Zealand white rabbit and to relate the morphology and functions through analytical and computational methods. Images of high-resolution MRI scans of the rabbit were processed to measure the axial distribution of the cross-sectional areas, perimeter, and complexity level. The lateral recess, which has functions other than respiration or olfaction, was isolated from the nasal airway and its dimension was quantified separately. A low Reynolds number turbulence model was implemented to simulate the airflow, heat transfer, vapor transport, and wall shear stress. Results of this study provide detailed morphological information of the rabbit that can be used in the studies of olfaction, inhalation toxicology, drug delivery, and physiology-based pharmacokinetics modeling. For the first time, we reported a spiral nasal vestibule that splits into three paths leading to the dorsal meatus, maxilloturbinate, and ventral meatus, respectively. Both non-dimensional functional analysis and CFD simulations suggested that the airflow in the rabbit nose is laminar and the unsteady effect is only significantly during sniffing. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio, the maxilloturbinate is highly effective in warming and moistening the inhaled air to body conditions. The unique anatomical structure and respiratory airflow pattern may have important implications for designing new odorant detectors or electronic noses. Anat Rec, 299:853-868, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anatomical Details of the Rabbit Nasal Passages and Their Implications in Breathing, Air Conditioning, and Olfaction.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A; Kim, Jongwon; Zhang, Yu; Jacob, Richard E; Kabilan, Senthil; Corley, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    The rabbit is commonly used as a laboratory animal for inhalation toxicology tests and detail knowledge of the rabbit airway morphometry is needed for outcome analysis or theoretical modeling. The objective of this study is to quantify the morphometric dimension of the nasal airway of a New Zealand white rabbit and to relate the morphology and functions through analytical and computational methods. Images of high-resolution MRI scans of the rabbit were processed to measure the axial distribution of the cross-sectional areas, perimeter, and complexity level. The lateral recess, which has functions other than respiration or olfaction, was isolated from the nasal airway and its dimension was quantified separately. A low Reynolds number turbulence model was implemented to simulate the airflow, heat transfer, vapor transport, and wall shear stress. Results of this study provide detailed morphological information of the rabbit that can be used in the studies of olfaction, inhalation toxicology, drug delivery, and physiology-based pharmacokinetics modeling. For the first time, we reported a spiral nasal vestibule that splits into three paths leading to the dorsal meatus, maxilloturbinate, and ventral meatus, respectively. Both non-dimensional functional analysis and CFD simulations suggested that the airflow in the rabbit nose is laminar and the unsteady effect is only significantly during sniffing. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio, the maxilloturbinate is highly effective in warming and moistening the inhaled air to body conditions. The unique anatomical structure and respiratory airflow pattern may have important implications for designing new odorant detectors or electronic noses. Anat Rec, 299:853-868, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27145450

  15. High-speed analysis of complex indoor VOC mixtures by vacuum-outlet GC with air carrier gas and programmable retention.

    PubMed

    Grall, A J; Zellers, E T; Sacks, R D

    2001-01-01

    A pressure-tunable, series-coupled column ensemble was used with atmospheric pressure air as carrier gas for the vacuum-outlet GC analysis of 42 volatile and semivolatile organic compounds commonly encountered as indoor air pollutants. Separation strategies applicable to a field-portable instrument that will employ a dual-stage preconcentrator and a microsensor array as the detector were developed, where coelution of certain analytes can be tolerated. The capillary column ensemble consists of a 4.5-m segment of nonpolar dimethyl polysiloxane followed by a 7.5-m segment of polar trifluoropropylmethyl polysiloxane. Good long-term thermal stability of the column ensemble was observed for continuous operation in air at temperatures up to 210 degrees C. A computer-driven pressure controller at the column junction point is used to adjust vapor retention for specified sets of target compounds. The compounds were divided into two groups according to retention order, and high-speed analysis conditions were determined for the two groups individually as well as for the entire mixture. The earlier eluting group of 21 compounds was analyzed isothermally at 30 degrees C in about 160 s using a single, on-the-fly junction-point pressure change during the separation. The later eluting group of 21 compounds was analyzed in about 200 s with temperature programming and a constant (tuned) junction-point pressure. The entire mixture was analyzed in about 400 s using a two-step temperature program and a three-step pressure program, with minimal overlap in eluting peaks. Separations are adequate for analysis by a sensor array capable of discriminating among small groups of coeluting vapors on the basis of their response patterns.

  16. Double outlet right ventricle

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007328.htm Double outlet right ventricle To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heart disease that is ...

  17. Thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, John E; Lebus V, George F; Bible, Jesse E

    2015-04-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is a well-described disorder caused by thoracic outlet compression of the brachial plexus and/or the subclavian vessels. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome is the most common manifestation, presenting with pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, and vasomotor changes of the upper extremity. Vascular complications of thoracic outlet syndrome are uncommon and include thromboembolic phenomena and swelling. The clinical presentation is highly variable, and no reproducible study exists to confirm the diagnosis; instead, the diagnosis is based on a physician's judgment after a meticulous history and physical examination. Both nonsurgical and surgical treatment methods are available for thoracic outlet syndrome. Whereas nonsurgical management appears to be effective in some persons, surgical treatment has been shown to provide predictable long-term cure rates for carefully selected patients. In addition, physicians who do not regularly treat patients with thoracic outlet syndrome may not have an accurate view of this disorder, its treatment, or the possible success rate of treatment. PMID:25808686

  18. Thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, John E; Lebus V, George F; Bible, Jesse E

    2015-04-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is a well-described disorder caused by thoracic outlet compression of the brachial plexus and/or the subclavian vessels. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome is the most common manifestation, presenting with pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, and vasomotor changes of the upper extremity. Vascular complications of thoracic outlet syndrome are uncommon and include thromboembolic phenomena and swelling. The clinical presentation is highly variable, and no reproducible study exists to confirm the diagnosis; instead, the diagnosis is based on a physician's judgment after a meticulous history and physical examination. Both nonsurgical and surgical treatment methods are available for thoracic outlet syndrome. Whereas nonsurgical management appears to be effective in some persons, surgical treatment has been shown to provide predictable long-term cure rates for carefully selected patients. In addition, physicians who do not regularly treat patients with thoracic outlet syndrome may not have an accurate view of this disorder, its treatment, or the possible success rate of treatment.

  19. 16. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF OUTLET STRUCTURE AND OUTLET CHANNEL, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF OUTLET STRUCTURE AND OUTLET CHANNEL, FROM WEST END OF EMBANKMENT. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  20. 21. AERIAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE AND OUTLET CHANNEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE AND OUTLET CHANNEL, LOOKING UPSTREAM.... Volume XVII, No. 11, December 26, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  1. 50. OUTLET WORKS: OUTLET STRUCTURE PLAN AND SECTIONS. Sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. OUTLET WORKS: OUTLET STRUCTURE - PLAN AND SECTIONS. Sheet C-1, September, 1939. File no. SA 343/50. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  2. Air turbo-ramjet engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kepler, C.E.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a jet engine capable of being used to power an aircraft throughout a range of speeds from subsonic to high supersonic. It comprises means for bounding an internal passage centered on an axis and including, in succession as considered in the direction of axial flow of incoming air into and through the passage, a fixed-area air inlet section, a diverging passage section, a mixing section, a combustion section, and an outlet section; fan means situated in the air inlet section and including a rotor mounted in the bounding means for rotation about the axis and including a plurality of circumferentially spaced rotor blade members; means for selectively rotating the rotor about the axis with attendant impelling action of the rotor blade members on the air flowing therebetween; and means for selectively discharging air from a region of the passage situated between the air inlet section and the diverging passage section to the exterior of the bounding means, both at subsonic and supersonic speeds of the aircraft, when the amount of incoming air passing through the fixed-area inlet section exceeds that required in the combustion section.

  3. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) causes pain in the shoulder, arm, and neck. It happens when the nerves or blood vessels just below your ... vein is compressed, your hand might be sensitive to cold, or turn pale or bluish. Your arm ...

  4. Growth and differentiation of primary and passaged equine bronchial epithelial cells under conventional and air-liquid-interface culture conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Horses develop recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) that resembles human bronchial asthma. Differentiated primary equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBEC) in culture that closely mimic the airway cells in vivo would be useful to investigate the contribution of bronchial epithelium in inflammation of airway diseases. However, because isolation and characterization of EBEC cultures has been limited, we modified and optimized techniques of generating and culturing EBECs from healthy horses to mimic in vivo conditions. Results Large numbers of EBEC were obtained by trypsin digestion and successfully grown for up to 2 passages with or without serum. However, serum or ultroser G proved to be essential for EBEC differentiation on membrane inserts at ALI. A pseudo-stratified muco-ciliary epithelium with basal cells was observed at differentiation. Further, transepithelial resistance (TEER) was more consistent and higher in P1 cultures compared to P0 cultures while ciliation was delayed in P1 cultures. Conclusions This study provides an efficient method for obtaining a high-yield of EBECs and for generating highly differentiated cultures. These EBEC cultures can be used to study the formation of tight junction or to identify epithelial-derived inflammatory factors that contribute to lung diseases such as asthma. PMID:21649893

  5. Pilot Study of the Effects of Simulated Turbine Passage Pressure on Juvenile Chinook Salmon Acclimated with Access to Air at Absolute Pressures Greater than Atmospheric

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2005-04-28

    The impacts of pressure on juvenile salmon who pass through the turbines of hydroelectric dams while migrating downstream on the Columbia and Snake rivers has not been well understood, especially as these impacts relate to injury to the fish's swim bladder. The laboratory studies described here were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District at PNNL's fisheries research laboratories in 2004 to investigate the impacts of simulated turbine passage pressure on fish permitted to achieve neutral buoyancy at pressures corresponding to depths at which they are typically observed during downstream migration. Two sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon were tested, 80-100mm and 125-145mm total length. Test fish were acclimated for 22 to 24 hours in hyperbaric chambers at pressures simulating depths of 15, 30, or 60 ft, with access to a large air bubble. High rates of deflated swim bladders and mortality were observed. Our results while in conclusive show that juvenile salmon are capable of drawing additional air into their swimbladder to compensate for the excess mass of implanted telemetry devices. However they may pay a price in terms of increased susceptibility to injury, predation, and death for this additional air.

  6. [Thoracic outlet syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, José Maria

    2005-01-01

    The thoracic outlet syndrome is a polymorphic clinical entity, whose nature is essentially anatomic, caused by the chronic compression of the neurovascular structures that are originated in the chest or neck and course to the upper extremity. According to the most affected structure, they can be classified as neurologic, arterial or venous syndromes, that may cause discomfort, pain and disability, sometimes definite and irreparable. Thoracic outlet syndrome are often difficult to recognize in clinical practice and it is important to emphasize some peculiar symptoms or signs that each syndrome may present, through specific maneuvers or adequate complementary studies. The great majority of patients may improve with physical therapy or postural correction, and a minority is indicated for surgical therapy. The main features of the diverse thoracic outlet syndromes, their clinical presentation, diagnosis, conventional and surgical management, surgical access, complications and prognosis are described and discussed in this paper dedicated to a complete review of the entity. PMID:16234911

  7. Thoracic outlet syndrome: anatomy.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, Erdoğan

    2004-02-01

    The thoracic outlet region contains three important structures: the brachial plexus, the subclavian artery, and the subclavian vein. As they travel from the upper mediastinum to the upper extremity, these structures run through three important spaces: the interscalene triangle, the costoclavicular space, and the subpectoral space. Compression can occur in any of these three spaces because of structural anomalies or trauma.

  8. Natural outlet of flue gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adámek, Karel; Kolář, Jan; Peukert, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Many incidents of poisoning all the time became due to bad natural exhaust of burnt product from heating devices. The aim of this article is to simulate some reasons of it, therefore the content is focused on some influences, only - the vertical and horizontal shape of the outlet channel, the design of the chimney cap, situation of the surrounding walls, combined with the wind influence etc. It does not solve the possible bad maintaining of both chimney and device, bad supply of the combustion air etc. As main results of simulation there is presented an optimum cap shape of the chimney and an unsuitable influence of the unsteady starting of the flow just after the burner ignition.

  9. Air control system providing healthful enclosed environment

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.A.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes an environmentally controlled building. It comprises an outer wall defining an outer building perimeter and having at least one fenestration therethrough for passage of personnel; a roof supported by and cooperating with the outer wall to define a building exterior and interior; and an environmental control system for controlling the environment within the building interior, the environmental control system including a heating and air conditioning unit, having an air inlet, for controlling the temperature of air drawing into the air control system; a humidity control unit, having an inlet connected to the heating and air conditioning unit, for controlling the humidity of air within the air control system; an air blower for forcing air from the environmental control system into the building interior; and an air filtering system having an inlet connected to the humidity control unit and an outlet connected to the blower.

  10. 43. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEED VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEED VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING CONTROL PEDESTAL IN FOREGROUND AND NEEDLE VALVE AIR VENTS IN CENTER. VIEW TO WEST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  11. Calculation of gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber and in the air-gas channel of a gas-turbine unit by data of acceptance tests in accordance with ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, A. G.; Karpunin, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a high accuracy method enabling performance of the calculation of real values of the initial temperature of a gas turbine unit (GTU), i.e., the gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber, in a situation where manufacturers do not disclose this information. The features of the definition of the initial temperature of the GTU according to ISO standards were analyzed. It is noted that the true temperatures for high-temperature GTUs is significantly higher than values determined according to ISO standards. A computational procedure for the determination of gas temperatures in the air-gas channel of the gas turbine and cooling air consumptions over blade rims is proposed. As starting equations, the heat balance equation and the flow mixing equation for the combustion chamber are assumed. Results of acceptance GTU tests according to ISO standards and statistical dependencies of required cooling air consumptions on the gas temperature and the blade metal are also used for calculations. An example of the calculation is given for one of the units. Using a developed computer program, the temperatures in the air-gas channel of certain GTUs are calculated, taking into account their design features. These calculations are performed on the previously published procedure for the detailed calculation of the cooled gas turbine subject to additional losses arising because of the presence of the cooling system. The accuracy of calculations by the computer program is confirmed by conducting verification calculations for the GTU of the Mitsubishi Comp. and comparing results with published data of the company. Calculation data for temperatures were compared with the experimental data and the characteristics of the GTU, and the error of the proposed method is estimated.

  12. Core Outlet Temperature Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, A.; Hoffman, E.; Majumdar, S.

    2008-07-28

    It is a known fact that the power conversion plant efficiency increases with elevation of the heat addition temperature. The higher efficiency means better utilization of the available resources such that higher output in terms of electricity production can be achieved for the same size and power of the reactor core or, alternatively, a lower power core could be used to produce the same electrical output. Since any nuclear power plant, such as the Advanced Burner Reactor, is ultimately built to produce electricity, a higher electrical output is always desirable. However, the benefits of the higher efficiency and electricity production usually come at a price. Both the benefits and the disadvantages of higher reactor outlet temperatures are analyzed in this work.

  13. 16. VIEW OF HIGHLINE CANAL PIPELINE OUTLET, SHOWING THE OUTLET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF HIGHLINE CANAL PIPELINE OUTLET, SHOWING THE OUTLET, A GROUNDWATER PUMP (LEFT), AND THE SOUTH BRANCH OF THE CANAL (FOREGROUND), August 1989 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 6. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, WITH OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, WITH OUTLET CHANNEL IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Island Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.8 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  15. [Thoracic outlet syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a well-known disorder, but its definition has been disputed. TOS is differentiated into five distinct disorders: arterial vascular, venous vascular, traumatic neurovascular, true neurologic (TN-TOS), and nonspecific TOS. TN-TOS is caused by compression of the lower plexus (T1>C8 roots and/or lower trunk) by a fibrous band. The most frequent presenting symptoms are insidious-onset atrophy and weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles, predominantly in the thenar eminence and radial digital flexors. Numbness and sensory loss are usually present, mainly in the ulnar forearm, although severe pain or pain/paresthesia proximal to the elbow can occur; however, sensory symptoms or signs can be absent in some patients. Nerve conduction studies are pathognomonic and show the loss or severe attenuation of the sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Additionally, they show a severely depressed median compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and, subsequently, a depressed ulnar CMAP and SNAP. TN-TOS is a rare disorder, although its incidence may be higher than previously believed. Hirayama disease is an important differential diagnosis. Nonspecific TOS, which is mainly diagnosed by provocative maneuvers, corresponds to the classical concept of TOS. However, this concept is now challenged and the existence of nonspecific TOS is doubted. PMID:25475030

  16. 29. DETAIL OF OUTLET DUCTS FOR MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DETAIL OF OUTLET DUCTS FOR MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF SLC-3W MST STATION 70.5 (LOWEST PAYLOAD SERVICE STATION). NOTE RING ATTACHMENT FOR PERSONNEL SAFETY HARNESS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. Heat transfer in serpentine passages with turbulence promoters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Local heat transfer rates and overall pressure losses were determined for serpentine passages of square cross section. The flow entered an inlet leg, turned 180 deg and then passed through an outlet leg. Results were obtained for a passage with smooth walls for three different bend geometries and the effect of turbulence promoters was investigated. Turbulence promoters between 0.6 and 15% of the passage height were tested. Local heat transfer rates are determined from thermocouple measurements on a thin electrically heated Inconel foil and pressure drop is measured along the flow path.

  18. Modelling Greenland Outlet Glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderVeen, Cornelis; Abdalati, Waleed (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop simple yet realistic models of Greenland outlet glaciers to better understand ongoing changes and to identify possible causes for these changes. Several approaches can be taken to evaluate the interaction between climate forcing and ice dynamics, and the consequent ice-sheet response, which may involve changes in flow style. To evaluate the icesheet response to mass-balance forcing, Van der Veen (Journal of Geophysical Research, in press) makes the assumption that this response can be considered a perturbation on the reference state and may be evaluated separately from how this reference state evolves over time. Mass-balance forcing has an immediate effect on the ice sheet. Initially, the rate of thickness change as compared to the reference state equals the perturbation in snowfall or ablation. If the forcing persists, the ice sheet responds dynamically, adjusting the rate at which ice is evacuated from the interior to the margins, to achieve a new equilibrium. For large ice sheets, this dynamic adjustment may last for thousands of years, with the magnitude of change decreasing steadily over time as a new equilibrium is approached. This response can be described using kinematic wave theory. This theory, modified to pertain to Greenland drainage basins, was used to evaluate possible ice-sheet responses to perturbations in surface mass balance. The reference state is defined based on measurements along the central flowline of Petermann Glacier in north-west Greenland, and perturbations on this state considered. The advantage of this approach is that the particulars of the dynamical flow regime need not be explicitly known but are incorporated through the parameterization of the reference ice flux or longitudinal velocity profile. The results of the kinematic wave model indicate that significant rates of thickness change can occur immediately after the prescribed change in surface mass balance but adjustments in flow

  19. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Hughes, James S.; Bouchard, Kyle E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Schilt, Carl R.; Hanks, Michael E.; Kim, Jina; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J.; Nagy, William T.

    2006-12-04

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2005. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of two studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 16 and July 15, 2005, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, and (2) smolt approach and fate at B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C from the B1 forebay. Some of the large appendices are only presented on the compact disk (CD) that accompanies the final report. Examples include six large comma-separated-variable (.CSV) files of hourly fish passage, hourly variances, and Project operations for spring and summer from Appendix E, and large Audio Video Interleave (AVI) files with DIDSON-movie clips of the area upstream of B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C (Appendix H). Those video clips show smolts approaching the outlet, predators feeding on smolts, and vortices that sometimes entrained approaching smolts into turbines. The CD also includes Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Files (PDF) of the entire report and appendices.

  20. 42. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING OVERHEAD SERVICE CRANE AT CENTER. NOTE NEEDLE VALVE AIR VENTS AND GAUGES AT RIGHT, NEXT TO CONTROL PEDESTAL. VIEW TO EAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  1. Partially turbulated trailing edge cooling passages for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Thatcher, Jonathan Carl; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2001-01-01

    A plurality of passages are spaced one from the other along the length of a trailing edge of a nozzle vane in a gas turbine. The passages lie in communication with a cavity in the vane for flowing cooling air from the cavity through the passages through the tip of the trailing edge into the hot gas path. Each passage is partially turbulated and includes ribs in an aft portion thereof to provide enhanced cooling effects adjacent the tip of the trailing edge. The major portions of the passages are smooth bore. By this arrangement, reduced temperature gradients across the trailing edge metal are provided. Additionally, the inlets to each of the passages have a restriction whereby a reduced magnitude of compressor bleed discharge air is utilized for trailing edge cooling purposes.

  2. Engine investigation of an air-cooled turbine rotor blade incorporating impingement-cooled leading edge, chordwise passages, and a slotted trailing edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dengler, R. P.; Yeh, F. C.; Gauntner, J. W.; Fallon, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental temperatures are presented for an air-cooled turbine rotor blade tested in an engine. The data were obtained for turbine stator inlet temperatures from 2000 to 2500 F and for turbine-inlet gas pressures from 32 to 46 psia. Average and local blade heat-transfer data are correlated. Potential allowable increases in gas temperature are also discussed.

  3. 24 CFR 3280.806 - Receptacle outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., 15 and 20 ampere receptacle outlets, including receptacles in light fixtures, installed outdoors, in... bathrooms within 36 inches (914 mm) of the outside edge of each basin. The receptacle outlet must be...

  4. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  5. Passage Retrieval: A Probabilistic Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melucci, Massimo

    1998-01-01

    Presents a probabilistic technique to retrieve passages from texts having a large size or heterogeneous semantic content. Results of experiments comparing the probabilistic technique to one based on a text segmentation algorithm revealed that the passage size affects passage retrieval performance; text organization and query generality may have an…

  6. Multi-instrument gravity-wave measurements over Tierra del Fuego and the Drake Passage - Part 1: Potential energies and vertical wavelengths from AIRS, COSMIC, HIRDLS, MLS-Aura, SAAMER, SABER and radiosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C. J.; Hindley, N. P.; Moss, A. C.; Mitchell, N. J.

    2015-07-01

    Gravity waves in the terrestrial atmosphere are a vital geophysical process, acting to transport energy and momentum on a wide range of scales and to couple the various atmospheric layers. Despite the importance of these waves, the many studies to date have often exhibited very dissimilar results, and it remains unclear whether these differences are primarily instrumental or methodological. Here, we address this problem by comparing observations made by a diverse range of the most widely-used gravity wave resolving instruments in a common geographic region around the southern Andes and Drake Passage, an area known to exhibit strong wave activity. Specifically, we use data from three limb-sounding radiometers (MLS-Aura, HIRDLS and SABER), the COSMIC GPS-RO constellation, a ground-based meteor radar, the AIRS infrared nadir sounder and radiosondes to examine the gravity wave potential energy (GWPE) and vertical wavelengths (λz) of individual gravity wave packets from the lower troposphere to the edge of the lower thermosphere. Our results show important similarities and differences. Limb sounder measurements show high intercorrelation, typically > 0.80 between any instrument pair. Meteor-radar observations agree in form with the limb sounders, despite vast technical differences. AIRS and radiosonde observations tend to be uncorrelated or anticorrelated with the other datasets, suggesting very different behaviour of the wave field in the different spectral regimes accessed by each instrument. Except in spring, we see little dissipation of GWPE throughout the stratosphere and lower mesosphere. Observed GWPE for individual wave packets exhibits a log-normal distribution, with short-timescale intermittency dominating over a well-repeated monthly-median seasonal cycle. GWPE and λz exhibit strong correlations with the stratospheric winds, but not with local surface winds. Our results provide guidance for interpretation and intercomparison of such datasets in their full

  7. Assessing upstream fish passage connectivity with network analysis.

    PubMed

    McKay, S Kyle; Schramski, John R; Conyngham, Jock N; Fischenich, J Craig

    2013-09-01

    Hydrologic connectivity is critical to the structure, function, and dynamic process of river ecosystems. Dams, road crossings, and water diversions impact connectivity by altering flow regimes, behavioral cues, local geomorphology, and nutrient cycling. This longitudinal fragmentation of river ecosystems also increases genetic and reproductive isolation of aquatic biota such as migratory fishes. The cumulative effects on fish passage of many structures along a river are often substantial, even when individual barriers have negligible impact. Habitat connectivity can be improved through dam removal or other means of fish passage improvement (e.g., ladders, bypasses, culvert improvement). Environmental managers require techniques for comparing alternative fish passage restoration actions at alternative or multiple locations. Herein, we examined a graph-theoretic algorithm for assessing upstream habitat connectivity to investigate both basic and applied fish passage connectivity problems. First, we used hypothetical watershed configurations to assess general alterations to upstream fish passage connectivity with changes in watershed network topology (e.g., linear vs. highly dendritic) and the quantity, location, and passability of each barrier. Our hypothetical network modeling indicates that locations of dams with limited passage efficiency near the watershed outlet create a strong fragmentation signal but are not individually sufficient to disconnect the system. Furthermore, there exists a threshold in the number of dams beyond which connectivity declines precipitously, regardless of watershed topology and dam configuration. Watersheds with highly branched configurations are shown to be less susceptible to disconnection as measured by this metric. Second, we applied the model to prioritize barrier improvement in the mainstem of the Truckee River, Nevada, USA. The Truckee River application demonstrates the ability of the algorithm to address conditions common in fish

  8. Assessing upstream fish passage connectivity with network analysis.

    PubMed

    McKay, S Kyle; Schramski, John R; Conyngham, Jock N; Fischenich, J Craig

    2013-09-01

    Hydrologic connectivity is critical to the structure, function, and dynamic process of river ecosystems. Dams, road crossings, and water diversions impact connectivity by altering flow regimes, behavioral cues, local geomorphology, and nutrient cycling. This longitudinal fragmentation of river ecosystems also increases genetic and reproductive isolation of aquatic biota such as migratory fishes. The cumulative effects on fish passage of many structures along a river are often substantial, even when individual barriers have negligible impact. Habitat connectivity can be improved through dam removal or other means of fish passage improvement (e.g., ladders, bypasses, culvert improvement). Environmental managers require techniques for comparing alternative fish passage restoration actions at alternative or multiple locations. Herein, we examined a graph-theoretic algorithm for assessing upstream habitat connectivity to investigate both basic and applied fish passage connectivity problems. First, we used hypothetical watershed configurations to assess general alterations to upstream fish passage connectivity with changes in watershed network topology (e.g., linear vs. highly dendritic) and the quantity, location, and passability of each barrier. Our hypothetical network modeling indicates that locations of dams with limited passage efficiency near the watershed outlet create a strong fragmentation signal but are not individually sufficient to disconnect the system. Furthermore, there exists a threshold in the number of dams beyond which connectivity declines precipitously, regardless of watershed topology and dam configuration. Watersheds with highly branched configurations are shown to be less susceptible to disconnection as measured by this metric. Second, we applied the model to prioritize barrier improvement in the mainstem of the Truckee River, Nevada, USA. The Truckee River application demonstrates the ability of the algorithm to address conditions common in fish

  9. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    SciTech Connect

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  10. Alcohol outlets and clusters of violence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol related violence continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. In particular, there is substantial evidence of an association between alcohol outlets and assault. However, because the specific geographic relationships between alcohol outlets and the distribution of violence remains obscured, it is important to identify the spatial linkages that may exist, enhancing public health efforts to curb both violence and morbidity. Methods The present study utilizes police-recorded data on simple and aggravated assaults in Cincinnati, Ohio. Addresses of alcohol outlets for Cincinnati, including all bars, alcohol-serving restaurants, and off-premise liquor and convenience stores were obtained from the Ohio Division of Liquor Control and geocoded for analysis. A combination of proximity analysis, spatial cluster detection approaches and a geographic information system were used to identify clusters of alcohol outlets and the distribution of violence around them. Results A brief review of the empirical work relating to alcohol outlet density and violence is provided, noting that the majority of this literature is cross-sectional and ecological in nature, yielding a somewhat haphazard and aggregate view of how outlet type(s) and neighborhood characteristics like social organization and land use are related to assaultive violence. The results of the statistical analysis for Cincinnati suggest that while alcohol outlets are not problematic per se, assaultive violence has a propensity to cluster around agglomerations of alcohol outlets. This spatial relationship varies by distance and is also related to the characteristics of the alcohol outlet agglomeration. Specifically, spatially dense distributions of outlets appear to be more prone to clusters of assaultive violence when compared to agglomerations with a lower density of outlets. Conclusion With a more thorough understanding of the spatial relationships between alcohol outlets and the

  11. Complex Greenland outlet glacier flow captured.

    PubMed

    Aschwanden, Andy; Fahnestock, Mark A; Truffer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass at an accelerating rate due to increased surface melt and flow acceleration in outlet glaciers. Quantifying future dynamic contributions to sea level requires accurate portrayal of outlet glaciers in ice sheet simulations, but to date poor knowledge of subglacial topography and limited model resolution have prevented reproduction of complex spatial patterns of outlet flow. Here we combine a high-resolution ice-sheet model coupled to uniformly applied models of subglacial hydrology and basal sliding, and a new subglacial topography data set to simulate the flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Flow patterns of many outlet glaciers are well captured, illustrating fundamental commonalities in outlet glacier flow and highlighting the importance of efforts to map subglacial topography. Success in reproducing present day flow patterns shows the potential for prognostic modelling of ice sheets without the need for spatially varying parameters with uncertain time evolution. PMID:26830316

  12. Complex Greenland outlet glacier flow captured

    PubMed Central

    Aschwanden, Andy; Fahnestock, Mark A.; Truffer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass at an accelerating rate due to increased surface melt and flow acceleration in outlet glaciers. Quantifying future dynamic contributions to sea level requires accurate portrayal of outlet glaciers in ice sheet simulations, but to date poor knowledge of subglacial topography and limited model resolution have prevented reproduction of complex spatial patterns of outlet flow. Here we combine a high-resolution ice-sheet model coupled to uniformly applied models of subglacial hydrology and basal sliding, and a new subglacial topography data set to simulate the flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Flow patterns of many outlet glaciers are well captured, illustrating fundamental commonalities in outlet glacier flow and highlighting the importance of efforts to map subglacial topography. Success in reproducing present day flow patterns shows the potential for prognostic modelling of ice sheets without the need for spatially varying parameters with uncertain time evolution. PMID:26830316

  13. Exposure to Alcohol Outlets in Rural Towns

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower income populations are exposed to excess risks related to the presence of greater concentrations of alcohol outlets in their communities. Theory from economic geography suggests this is due to dynamic processes that shape urban retail markets (as outlets are attracted to areas of higher population density due to the increased demand but are excluded from higher income areas due to land and structure rents). This mechanism may explain increased exposure to alcohol outlets for lower income populations in rural areas. This study tests the hypothesis that the distribution of outlets between rural towns will reflect these market dynamics, such that outlets are concentrated in towns with (i) greater resident and temporary populations, (ii) lower income, and (iii) are adjacent to towns with higher income. Method Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models examined counts of bars, restaurants and off-premise outlets within 353 discrete towns of rural Victoria, Australia (mean population = 4,326.0, SD = 15,754.1). Independent variables were each town’s total resident population, net changes to population (due to commuter flow, visitors, and the flow of local residents to other towns (spatial interaction)), and income for the local and adjacent towns. Results Lower local income and increased income in adjacent towns were associated with more outlets of all types. Greater resident populations and greater net population due to commuters also predicted greater numbers of all outlets. Bars and restaurants were positively related to greater net population due to visitors, and negatively related to spatial interaction. Conclusions The economic geographic processes that lead to greater concentrations of alcohol outlets in lower income areas are common to all retail markets. Lower income populations are exposed to increased risk associated with the presence of additional outlets that service demand from non-residents. In rural areas these processes appear

  14. Improved wax mold technique forms complex passages in solid structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, R. F.; Page, A. D.; Phillips, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    Low-cost fabricating technique produces minute, complex air passages in fluidic devices. Air jet interactions in these function as electronic and electromechanical control systems. Wax cores are fabricated without distortion by two-wax process using nonsoluble pattern-wax and water-soluble wax. Significant steps in fabrication process are discussed.

  15. Multi-instrument gravity-wave measurements over Tierra del Fuego and the Drake Passage - Part 1: Potential energies and vertical wavelengths from AIRS, COSMIC, HIRDLS, MLS-Aura, SAAMER, SABER and radiosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Corwin J.; Hindley, Neil P.; Moss, Andrew C.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.

    2016-03-01

    Gravity waves in the terrestrial atmosphere are a vital geophysical process, acting to transport energy and momentum on a wide range of scales and to couple the various atmospheric layers. Despite the importance of these waves, the many studies to date have often exhibited very dissimilar results, and it remains unclear whether these differences are primarily instrumental or methodological. Here, we address this problem by comparing observations made by a diverse range of the most widely used gravity-wave-resolving instruments in a common geographic region around the southern Andes and Drake Passage, an area known to exhibit strong wave activity. Specifically, we use data from three limb-sounding radiometers (Microwave Limb Sounder, MLS-Aura; HIgh Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder, HIRDLS; Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry, SABER), the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS-RO constellation, a ground-based meteor radar, the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS) infrared nadir sounder and radiosondes to examine the gravity wave potential energy (GWPE) and vertical wavelengths (λz) of individual gravity-wave packets from the lower troposphere to the edge of the lower thermosphere ( ˜ 100 km). Our results show important similarities and differences. Limb sounder measurements show high intercorrelation, typically > 0.80 between any instrument pair. Meteor radar observations agree in form with the limb sounders, despite vast technical differences. AIRS and radiosonde observations tend to be uncorrelated or anticorrelated with the other data sets, suggesting very different behaviour of the wave field in the different spectral regimes accessed by each instrument. Evidence of wave dissipation is seen, and varies strongly with season. Observed GWPE for individual wave packets exhibits a log-normal distribution, with short-timescale intermittency dominating over a well-repeated monthly-median seasonal

  16. Socioeconomic Determinants of Exposure to Alcohol Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Method: Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Results: Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world. PMID:25978830

  17. Plug into a Great Outlet for Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Is there beauty in the wall socket that people plug their appliances into daily? Can one find beauty in the grate covering the heat vent in his classroom? The author posed these very questions to her third-grade students. She had the students take a good look at the outlet cover (or plate) on the wall. After thinking and discussing the outlets,…

  18. Membrane with supported internal passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Salinas, Carlos E. (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides an improved proton exchange membrane for use in electrochemical cells having internal passages parallel to the membrane surface comprising permanent tubes preferably placed at the ends of the fluid passages. The invention also provides an apparatus and process for making the membrane, membrane and electrode assemblies fabricated using the membrane, and the application of the membrane and electrode assemblies to a variety of devices, both electrochemical and otherwise. The passages in the membrane extend from one edge of the membrane to another and allow fluid flow through the membrane and give access directly to the membrane.

  19. Electrical-Discharge Machining Of Perpendicular Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1996-01-01

    Perpendicular telescoping electrode used to perform electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of internal passage through previously inaccessible depth of metal workpiece. More specifically, used to make internal passage perpendicular to passage entering from outer surface.

  20. Toxicology of the nasal passages

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this work include: Comparative Anatomy and Function of the Nasal Passages; Light Microscopic Examination of the Rat Nasal Passages: Preparation and Morphologic Features; Histopathology of Acute and Subacute Nasal Toxicity; Pathology of Chronic Nasal Toxic Responses Including Cancer; Responses of the Nasal Mucociliary Apparatus to Airborne Irritants; Effects of Chemical Exposure on Olfaction in Humans, Possible Consequences of Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Monooxygenases in Nasal Tissues.

  1. Granular Matter Transport in Vertical Pipes: The Influence of Pipe Outlet Conditions on Gravity-driven Granular Flow.

    PubMed

    Jaklič, Miha; Kočevar, Klemen; Srčič, Stanko; Dreu, Rok

    2016-01-01

    Gravity transport of granular materials in vertical pipes is one of the most fundamental steps in bulk powder handling and processing. Presented study investigates powder flow characteristics in vertical pipes with open and closed outlets and condition of free powder fall. Powder flow of pharmaceutical grade powders was observed in transparent, vertical pipe model. Description of flow structures was performed. Powder volume flow rate, acceleration, and dilatation were quantified and correlated with powder properties. The results show that in pipes with a closed outlet the escaping air slows down the powder flow, resulting in a much slower flow than in pipes with an open outlet. A dense granular flow was detected in an open outlet condition, whereas in a closed outlet condition two concurrent flow regimes were observed: a slow moving, dense powder bed, and a fast dilute powder flow. Differences in flow regimes may promote segregation, with important implications to industrial processes.

  2. Fuel-air control device

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, J.

    1981-12-15

    The invention concerns a device for controlling the vehicles fuel-air mixture by regulating the air in the ventilation passage leading to the engine air intake from the crankcase. In a vehicle provided with a PCV valve, the device is located in the ventilation passage leading from the crankcase to the engine air intake and the device is downstream of the PCV valve. The device admits outside air to the ventilation passage to lean the gas mixture when the engine creates a vacuum less than 8 psi in the ventilation passage.

  3. 6. STEEL DOORS AND PASSAGES IN SOUTH ROOM OF FAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. STEEL DOORS AND PASSAGES IN SOUTH ROOM OF FAN HOUSE THAT REGULATE FLOW OF AIR - Sublet Mine No. 6, Fan House, North structure, west side of Willow Creek Valley, east of County Road No. 306, 3 miles north of U.S. Highway 189, Kemmerer, Lincoln County, WY

  4. MTR, TRA603. SUBBASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. SUB-BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER (NORTH SIDE) AND AIR (SOUTH SIDE). RABBIT CANAL AND BULKHEADS. SUMPS AND DRAINS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-3-7, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100006, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 46 CFR 108.453 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 108.453 Section 108.453 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.453...

  6. 46 CFR 108.453 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 108.453 Section 108.453 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.453...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.806 - Receptacle outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Electrical Systems § 3280.806... shall be: (1) Of grounding type; (2) Installed according to Article 406.3 of the National Electrical... (30 inches) of a shower or bathtub space. (f) Receptacle outlets shall not be installed above...

  8. Forced air heater

    SciTech Connect

    Livezey, D.J.

    1980-09-23

    An air heating chamber is supported to project into a stove through an opening provided in the rear wall of the stove by a mounting plate mounted to the exterior of the stove rear wall. The mounting plate which forms the exterior end wall of the heating chamber, includes laterally spaced heating chamber inlet and outlet openings. A blower is detachably mounted to the exterior of the mounting plate in registration with the heating chamber inlet opening to deliver cool forced air into the heating chamber. After circulating therethrough, the air exits the heating chamber through the outlet opening and flows into a hot air manifold, which is also detachably mounted to the exterior of the mounting plate. The manifold includes an upwardly extending inlet chamber with a hot air inlet at its lower end aligned with the heating chamber outlet opening. A horizontal outlet chamber is attached to the top end of the inlet chamber to extend laterally along the back of the stove. Hot air outlets are provided at each end of the manifold outlet chamber to discharge the heated air horizontally over the top and towards the front of the stove.

  9. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison

    2015-03-13

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  10. 12. VIEW OF OUTLET LOCKS AND RARITAN RIVER, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF OUTLET LOCKS AND RARITAN RIVER, LOOKING NORTH FROM APPROXIMATE SITE OF FORMER LOCK TENDER'S HOUSE - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Outlet Locks, Between State Route 18 & Raritan River, New Brunswick, Middlesex County, NJ

  11. 30. CONSTRUCTION LAYOUT DETAILS OF OUTLET WORKS AND SPILLWAY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. CONSTRUCTION LAYOUT - DETAILS OF OUTLET WORKS AND SPILLWAY. Sheet C-10, September, 1938. File no. SA 343/1. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  12. 18. GENERAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE LOOKING DOWNSTREAM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. GENERAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE LOOKING DOWNSTREAM AT WEST ABUTMENT.... Volume XVI, No. 13, July 26, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  13. 41. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL TOWER ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL TOWER - ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS NO. 1. Sheet 35, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/74. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  14. 43. OUTLET WORKS: SERVICE BRIDGE PLAN AND ELEVATION. Sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. OUTLET WORKS: SERVICE BRIDGE - PLAN AND ELEVATION. Sheet 37, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/76. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  15. 26. UPSTREAM VIEW OF DISCHARGE END OF OUTLET STRUCTURE.... Volume ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. UPSTREAM VIEW OF DISCHARGE END OF OUTLET STRUCTURE.... Volume XVI, No. 17, September 29, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  16. 22. UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE OUTLET CONTROL STRUCTURE AND THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE OUTLET CONTROL STRUCTURE AND THE PIER FOR THE SERVICE BRIDGE.... Volume XVIII, No. 12, January 29, 1940. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  17. 17. OUTLET STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ALSO THE DRAINAGE CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. OUTLET STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ALSO THE DRAINAGE CHANNEL AND CONCRETE FLUME ALONG WEST EDGE OF EMBANKMENT. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  18. 42. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL TOWER ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL TOWER - ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS NO. 2. Sheet 36, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/79. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  19. 38. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL HOUSE PLAN AND ELEVATIONS. Sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL HOUSE - PLAN AND ELEVATIONS. Sheet 32, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/71. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  20. 23. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COMPLETED OUTLET CONTROL STRUCTURE.... Volume XIX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COMPLETED OUTLET CONTROL STRUCTURE.... Volume XIX, No. 8, April 12, 1940. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  1. 37. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL WORKS ELEVATIONS AND INDEX TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL WORKS - ELEVATIONS AND INDEX TO REFERENCE DRAWINGS. Sheet 31, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/70. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  2. 31. OUTLET WORKS: INTAKE PLAN AND SECTIONS. Sheet 21, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. OUTLET WORKS: INTAKE - PLAN AND SECTIONS. Sheet 21, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/60. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  3. 39. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL HOUSE STRUCTURAL DETAILS. Sheet 33, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL HOUSE - STRUCTURAL DETAILS. Sheet 33, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/72. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  4. 34. OUTLET WORKS: GATES ELEVATIONS AND SECTION. Sheet 43, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. OUTLET WORKS: GATES - ELEVATIONS AND SECTION. Sheet 43, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/89(?). - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  5. 45. OUTLET WORKS: SERVICE BRIDGE BEARING DETAILS. Sheet 39, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. OUTLET WORKS: SERVICE BRIDGE - BEARING DETAILS. Sheet 39, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/78. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  6. 44. OUTLET WORKS: SERVICE BRIDGE GIRDER DETAILS. Sheet 38, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. OUTLET WORKS: SERVICE BRIDGE - GIRDER DETAILS. Sheet 38, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/77. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  7. 49. OUTLET WORKS: THREE TON CRANE, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO 4. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. OUTLET WORKS: THREE TON CRANE, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO 4. Sheet H-4, December 12, 1939. File no. SA 342/60. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  8. 35. OUTLET WORKS: GATE HOIST ASSEMBLY. Sheet 44, August 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. OUTLET WORKS: GATE HOIST ASSEMBLY. Sheet 44, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/84(?). - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  9. System for feedback control of air-fuel ratio in internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yoneda, K.; Kunome, Y.

    1984-05-08

    A system for feedback control of the air-fuel ratio in a carburetor for an automotive internal combustion engine. The control system includes an auxiliary air bleed passage in the main air bleed of a fuel passage, an electromagnetic valve to periodically open and close the auxiliary air bleed passage, an exhaust sensor to detect a specific component of the exhaust gas as an indication of actual air-fuel ratio, and a control circuit to control the electromagnetic valve based on the output of the exhaust sensor. A vacuum passage connects the auxiliary air bleed passage at a section upstream of the electromagnetic valve to a venturi of the intake passage. A vacuum-responsive valve in the vacuum passage dilutes air admitted through the auxiliary air bleed passage with the venturi vacuum during higher speed operation of the engine to compensate for a tendency of the air through the auxiliary air bleed passage to be augmented.

  10. Coolant passage heat transfer with rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J.; Johnson, B. V.

    1986-10-01

    In current and advanced gas turbine engines, increased speeds, pressures and temperatures are used to reduce specific fuel consumption and increase thrust/weight ratios. Hence, the turbine airfoils are subjected to increased heat loads escalating the cooling requirements to satisfy life goals. The efficient use of cooling air requires that the details of local geometry and flow conditions be adequately modeled to predict local heat loads and the corresponding heat transfer coefficients. The objective of this program is to develop a heat transfer and pressure drop data base, computational fluid dynamic techniques and correlations for multi-pass rotating coolant passages with and without flow turbulators. The experimental effort is focused on the simulation of configurations and conditions expected in the blades of advanced aircraft high pressure turbines. With the use of this data base, the effects of Coriolis and buoyancy forces on the coolant side flow can be included in the design of turbine blades.

  11. 46 CFR 76.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.15-25 Section 76.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets...

  12. 46 CFR 76.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.15-25 Section 76.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets...

  13. 46 CFR 76.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.15-25 Section 76.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets...

  14. 46 CFR 76.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.15-25 Section 76.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets...

  15. 46 CFR 76.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.15-25 Section 76.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets...

  16. 46 CFR 95.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.17-20 Section 95.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall...

  17. 46 CFR 95.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.17-20 Section 95.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall...

  18. 46 CFR 95.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.17-20 Section 95.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall...

  19. 46 CFR 76.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.17-20 Section 76.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of...

  20. 46 CFR 95.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.17-20 Section 95.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall...

  1. 46 CFR 76.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.17-20 Section 76.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of...

  2. 46 CFR 76.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.17-20 Section 76.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of...

  3. 46 CFR 76.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.17-20 Section 76.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of...

  4. 46 CFR 76.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.17-20 Section 76.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of...

  5. 46 CFR 95.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.17-20 Section 95.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall...

  6. Alcohol outlet policies and practices concerning sales to underage people.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, M; Toomey, T L; Murray, D M; Forster, J L; Short, B J; Wagenaar, A C

    1996-04-01

    Little is known about the relationship between alcohol outlet policies and practices in the United States and the likelihood that outlets will sell alcoholic beverages to persons under the legal drinking age. This study assessed the prevalence of such outlet-level policies and practices, and analyzed the relationships between outlet variables and outlets' actual propensity to sell alcoholic beverages to youth. The sample consisted of all outlets licensed for off-premise and a 40% random sample of outlets licensed for on-premise sale of alcoholic beverages in 15 small to medium-sized communities in Minnesota and Wisconsin (USA). Data on outlet characteristics, policies and practices were collected by a telephone survey of the owner or manager of each outlet. In addition, alcohol purchase attempts were conducted at each outlet by youthful-appearing study confederates. Generally, policies and practices that may reduce the likelihood of sales to youth were reported by a minority of outlets. Purchase success was found to be associated with a number of outlet characteristics, policies and practices. The implications of these findings for policy and future research are discussed. PMID:8857384

  7. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  8. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  9. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  10. Alcohol Outlet Density and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nonmetropolitan College Town: Accounting for Neighborhood Characteristics and Alcohol Outlet Types.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Aleksandra J

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing evidence of an ecological association between alcohol outlet density and intimate partner violence. It is reasonable to assume, however, that not all types of alcohol outlets contribute equally to criminal behavior, and to date, most ecological studies have been of large urban cities. Using Bloomington, Indiana, block groups as units of analysis and controlling for several structural characteristics associated with violence rates, I estimated spatially lagged regression models to determine if the variation in alcohol outlet density, including total outlets and disaggregating by on- and off-premise outlets, is related to intimate partner violence density. Results suggested that total alcohol outlet density and off-premise alcohol outlet density were significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. On-premise alcohol outlet density was not significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. These results not only extend the geographic scope of this relationship beyond large metropolitan areas but also have important policy implications.

  11. Right atrial outlet atresia with straddling left atrioventricular valve. A form of double outlet atrium.

    PubMed Central

    Coto, E O; Calabro, R; Marsico, F; Lopez Arranz, J S

    1981-01-01

    We present three hearts showing right atrial outlet atresia with straddling left atrioventricular valve; clinical data of two of the patients are reported. For semantic and practical reasons we believe the terms tricuspid or mitral atresia should not be used in these cases, and atrial outlet atresia is preferable; for similar reasons we prefer to use stradding left or right atrioventricular valve. These anomalies represent an interesting form of double outlet atrium and diagnosis clinically may be possible if the existence of the anomaly is considered. Differentiation from common atrioventricular canal with atrial outlet atresia is important since total repair, which is possible for this last anomaly, does not seem feasible in cases like ours. Classifications of tricuspid atresia may have to be enlarged to include cases with double outlet from either ventricular chamber or anatomically corrected malposition. Characterisation of the right ventricular chamber is difficult; we believe that description of its morphology and the type and mode of its connections should be used. Images PMID:7470345

  12. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  13. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  14. Youth activity spaces and daily exposure to tobacco outlets.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Morrison, Christopher; Grube, Joel W; Gaidus, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    We explored whether exposure to tobacco outlets in youths' broader activity spaces differs from that obtained using traditional geographic measures of exposure to tobacco outlet within buffers around homes and schools. Youths completed an initial survey, daily text-prompted surveys, and carried GPS-enabled phones for one week. GPS locations were geocoded and activity spaces were constructed by joining sequential points. We calculated the number of tobacco outlets around these polylines and around homes and schools. Results suggest that activity spaces provide a more accurate measure of tobacco outlet exposures than traditional measures. Assessing tobacco outlet exposure within activity spaces may yield significant information to advance the field.

  15. Air turbo-ramjet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepler, Charles E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A jet engine designed to power a supersonic airplane throughout a range of speeds from subsonic to high supersonic includes a housing which bounds an internal passage having in succession a fixed-area inlet section, a diverging passage section, a mixing section, a combustion section, and an outlet section. A fan rotor rotates in the inlet section and includes a plurality of rotor blade members. The housing includes a main body and at least one flap which is movable between one end position in which it externally bounds a portion of the diverging passage section and another end position in which it externally delimits a diverging discharge passage connecting the diverging passage section with the exterior of the housing. The cross-sectional area of the outlet section is adjustable. The rotor is driven in rotation by a fuel/oxygen powered turbine the outlet of which communicates with the mixing section, but the driving action of the turbine is discontinued at actual supersonic velocities exceeding a predetermined supersonic velocity. The pitch of at least one element of each of the rotor blade members is adjustable.

  16. Hot Wax Sweeps Debris From Narrow Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steven K.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and effective technique for removal of debris and contaminants from narrow passages involves entrainment of undesired material in thermoplastic casting material. Semisolid wax slightly below melting temperature pushed along passage by pressurized nitrogen to remove debris. Devised to clean out fuel passages in main combustion chamber of Space Shuttle main engine. Also applied to narrow, intricate passages in internal-combustion-engine blocks, carburetors, injection molds, and other complicated parts.

  17. 76 FR 34692 - Inside Passage Electric Cooperative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Inside Passage Electric Cooperative Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, and supplemented on May 18, 2011, the Inside Passage Electric Cooperative filed an application.... Applicant Contact: Mr. Peter A. Bibb, Operations Manager, Inside Passage Electric Cooperative, P.O....

  18. Thoracic outlet syndrome following breast implant rupture.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Raakhi; Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus

    2015-03-01

    We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient. PMID:25878942

  19. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Following Breast Implant Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient. PMID:25878942

  20. Samoan Passage Abyssal Mixing Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickett, J. B.; Voet, G.; Alford, M. H.; Girton, J. B.; Carter, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    The majority of the bottom water entering the North Pacific, about 6 Sv of mostly Antarctic origin, flows northward through the Samoan Passage (SP), where previous hydrographic studies have inferred extremely strong watermass modification as it transits the complicated, narrow passage. Global-scale numerical models at best poorly resolve this critical aspect of the global ocean circulation and the processes that affect it. We are in the midst of conducting a major next-generation experiment, coupling hydrographic/lowered ADCP and microstructure profiler measurements with simultaneous high-resolution profiling moorings and detailed numerical simulations. Our goals are to: (1) quantify the flow and its pathways through the SP, and compare them to measurements made 20 years ago as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), 2) quantify, with direct measurements, the turbulence and mixing the flow undergoes and the processes that lead to it, and 3) use the resulting knowledge to determine the best strategy for future monitoring of the SP. Here we present initial results from the first two of the experiment's three cruises, which have provided a detailed view of the flow magnitude, pathways and turbulence as it transits the passage's sills. Bathymetry, stratification, rotation, and inertia all play important roles in selecting the pathways taken by the flow, with the lighter layers siphoning off through the shallower sills to the west and the densest water following the deeper main eastern channel. Flows in this main channel are initially O(0.1 m/s), accelerating to > 0.4 m/s at the northernmost of the two major sills, leading to strong shears and warming of the bottom water from 0.66 to 0.72 C through mixing within the stratified overflow and entrainment of overlying water. Direct microstructure measurements show large vertical diffusivities of 10^{-4}-10^{-3} m^2/s throughout the passage and up to 10^{-2} m^2/s past the northern sill, where the flow

  1. Vapor passage fuel blockage removal

    SciTech Connect

    Faeth, W.P.

    1993-08-31

    In a method of making a system for dispensing gasoline fuel into a vehicle fuel tank, said system is described comprising a dispenser pump, a nozzle, a fuel hose connecting said dispenser pump to said nozzle for dispensing said fuel from said pump to said tank, a vapor recovery hose surrounding said fuel hose for conducting fuel vapors from the fuel tank to a storage reservoir, said fuel hose and vapor recovery hose adapted to form at least one looped low portion during dispensing of fuel into a fuel tank whereat condensed fuel vapors tend to collect in said vapor recovery passage, and a venturi means having inlet means disposed in said vapor recovery passage so as to be at said one looped low portion during said dispensing of fuel, said venturi means being so arranged that said fuel being dispensed from said pump to said tank will flow through said venturi means and create a suction at said inlet means, the improvement comprising the step of forming said inlet means to comprise a plurality of separate inlets disposed in a spaced apart relation.

  2. Sluiceway Operations for Adult Steelhead Downstream Passage at The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Tackley, Sean C.

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss; fallbacks and kelts) downstream passage at The Dalles Dam in the Columbia River, USA, during the late fall, winter, and early spring months between 2008 and 2011. The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of operating the dam’s ice-and-trash sluiceway during non-spill months to provide a relatively safe, non-turbine, surface outlet for overwintering steelhead fallbacks and downstream migrating steelhead kelts. We applied the fixed-location hydroacoustic technique to estimate fish passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines of the dam. The spillway was closed during our sampling periods, which generally occurred in late fall, winter, and early spring. The sluiceway was highly used by adult steelhead (91–99% of total fish sampled passing the dam) during all sampling periods. Turbine passage was low when the sluiceway was not operated. This implies that lack of a sluiceway route did not result in increased turbine passage. However, when the sluiceway was open, adult steelhead used it to pass through the dam. The sluiceway may be operated during late fall, winter, and early spring to provide an optimal, non-turbine route for adult steelhead (fallbacks and kelts) downstream passage at The Dalles Dam.

  3. Air conditioning system and component therefore distributing air flow from opposite directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D.; Bauer, H. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The air conditioning system comprises a plurality of separate air conditioning units coupled to a common supply duct such that air may be introduced into the supply duct in two opposite flow directions. A plurality of outlets such as registers or auxiliary or branch ducts communicate with the supply duct and valve means are disposed in the supply duct at at least some of the outlets for automatically channelling a controllable amount of air from the supply duct to the associated outlet regardless of the direction of air flow within the supply duct. The valve means comprises an automatic air volume control apparatus for distribution within the air supply duct into which air may be introduced from two opposite directions. The apparatus incorporates a freely swinging movable vane in the supply duct to automatically channel into the associated outlet only the deflected air flow which has the higher relative pressure.

  4. Fast-flowing outlet glaciers on Svalbard ice caps

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdeswell, J.A. ); Collin, R.L. )

    1990-08-01

    Four well-defined outlet glaciers are present on the 2510 km{sup 2} cap of Vestfonna in Nordaustlandet, Svalbard. Airborne radio echo sounding and aerial-photograph and satellite-image analysis methods are used to analyze the morphology and dynamics of the ice cap and its component outlet glaciers. The heavily crevassed outlets form linear depressions in the ice-cap surface and flow an order of magnitude faster than the ridges of uncrevassed ice between them. Ice flow on the ridges is accounted for by internal deformation alone, whereas rates of outlet glacier flow require basal motion. One outlet has recently switched into and out of a faster mode of flow. Rapid terminal advance, a change from longitudinal compression to tension, and thinning in the upper basin indicate surge behavior. Observed outlet glacier discharge is significantly greater than current inputs of mass of the ice cap, indicating that present rates of flow cannot be sustained under the contemporary climate.

  5. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  6. Volume Transport and Variability at Windward Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. H.; Johns, W. E.; Johns, E. M.

    2007-05-01

    The Gulf Stream system is fed via Atlantic inflow through the passages of the Bahamas and the Caribbean. In contrast to the large amount of research focusing on the downstream components of this system (Florida Current, Gulf Stream, Gulf Stream extension), far fewer measurements of Atlantic inflow into the Caribbean Sea through the Caribbean passages have been made. Of all of the major Caribbean passages, the volume transport and variability through Windward Passage is probably the least well understood, even though it is recognized as an important inflow channel. Between October 2003 and February 2005, a moored current meter array was deployed across the shallowest part of Windward Passage, and four hydrographic and lowered-ADCP surveys were conducted in the region. Stations were located along sections at Windward Passage and passages upstream, including passages between Cuba and Great Inagua, and Haiti and Great Inagua, and selected passages through the southern Bahamas and Turks and Caicos. Sections were also occupied downstream of Windward Passage across the axis of the Cayman Basin. The transport entering Windward Passage is highly variable, including reversals to net outflow. Transports measured during the cruises ranged from -0.3 Sv (outflow) to 9.4 Sv (inflow), with an average inflow of 3.8 Sv. Corresponding transports derived from the current meter array range from approximately -5 to 15 Sv, with an average inflow of 3.6 Sv. On average there is net inflow in the surface and thermocline layers (above ~600 m), net outflow in the intermediate layer (~700-1200 m), and a deep inflow just above the bottom. Data gathered from lowered and hull-mounted instrumentation during these surveys have helped to resolve the vertical and horizontal structure of the flow through the passage and will be used in conjunction with the hydrographic data to quantify the volumes of the different water masses flowing through the passage and their regional pathways.

  7. 12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-50, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF DISCHARGE BASIN. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  8. 11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-1950, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF UPSTREAM WING WALLS. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  9. Antivortex Device for Multi-Outlet Liquid Reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, Gary David (Inventor); Addison, Stephen Michael (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A liquid reservoir with a sump includes at least two outlet ports in fluid communication with a fluid conduit. An anti-vortex device includes a first plate extending across the at least two outlet ports and a second plate coupled to the first plate and extending substantially perpendicular to the first plate. The anti-vortex device is configured to disrupt formation of a vortex formed by liquid passing from the reservoir through said outlet ports.

  10. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt

  11. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human... feed, or other product for non-human use, who has established, to the satisfaction of the...

  12. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human... feed, or other product for non-human use, who has established, to the satisfaction of the...

  13. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human... feed, or other product for non-human use, who has established, to the satisfaction of the...

  14. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 23.977 Section 23.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... five times the area of the outlet line. (c) The diameter of each strainer must be at least that of...

  15. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... component. (b) (c) The clear area of each fuel tank outlet strainer must be at least five times the area...

  16. 14 CFR 27.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 27.977 Section 27.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... component. (b) The clear area of each fuel tank outlet strainer must be at least five times the area of...

  17. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... component. (b) The clear area of each fuel tank outlet strainer must be at least five times the area of...

  18. 25. UPSTREAM VIEW OF LOWER END OF OUTLET STRUCTURE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. UPSTREAM VIEW OF LOWER END OF OUTLET STRUCTURE SHOWING FORMS IN PLACE FOR GRAVITY WALL SECTIONS.... Volume XVI, No. 16, August 16, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  19. 4. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN FROM THE NORTH BANK OF THE CHANNEL BETWEEN THE OLD WORKS AND TWIN LAKES DAM. VIEW LOOKING WEST. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  20. 2. VIEW OF UPSTREAM SIDE OF HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF UPSTREAM SIDE OF HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN FROM CENTER OF THE CHANNEL FROM TWIN LAKES. VIEW LOOKING EAST. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  1. 3. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN FROM THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE CHANNEL BETWEEN THE OLD WORKS AND TWIN LAKES DAM. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  2. 6. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OUTLET CHANNEL FLOWING INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OUTLET CHANNEL FLOWING INTO POND A WITH DIVERSION GATES LONG EAST (LEFT) SIDE OF OUTLET CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTH FROM DOWNSTREAM FACE OF THE DAM - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  3. 46 CFR 95.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.15-25 Section 95.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge...

  4. 46 CFR 193.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 193.15-25 Section 193.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-25 Discharge outlets....

  5. 46 CFR 193.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 193.15-25 Section 193.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge...

  6. 46 CFR 193.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 193.15-25 Section 193.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge...

  7. 46 CFR 95.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.15-25 Section 95.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge...

  8. 46 CFR 193.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 193.15-25 Section 193.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-25 Discharge outlets....

  9. 46 CFR 95.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.15-25 Section 95.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge...

  10. 46 CFR 108.459 - Number and location of outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.459 Number and location of outlets. (a) A foam extinguishing system in a space must have enough outlets to spread a layer of foam of uniform thickness over the deck or bilge areas of the space. (b) A foam extinguishing system in a...

  11. 46 CFR 108.459 - Number and location of outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.459 Number and location of outlets. (a) A foam extinguishing system in a space must have enough outlets to spread a layer of foam of uniform thickness over the deck or bilge areas of the space. (b) A foam extinguishing system in a...

  12. 46 CFR 108.459 - Number and location of outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.459 Number and location of outlets. (a) A foam extinguishing system in a space must have enough outlets to spread a layer of foam of uniform thickness over the deck or bilge areas of the space. (b) A foam extinguishing system in a...

  13. 46 CFR 108.459 - Number and location of outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.459 Number and location of outlets. (a) A foam extinguishing system in a space must have enough outlets to spread a layer of foam of uniform thickness over the deck or bilge areas of the space. (b) A foam extinguishing system in a...

  14. 46 CFR 108.459 - Number and location of outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.459 Number and location of outlets. (a) A foam extinguishing system in a space must have enough outlets to spread a layer of foam of uniform thickness over the deck or bilge areas of the space. (b) A foam extinguishing system in a...

  15. 46 CFR 111.79-1 - Receptacle outlets; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Receptacle outlets; general. 111.79-1 Section 111.79-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-1 Receptacle outlets; general. (a) There must be a...

  16. 46 CFR 111.79-1 - Receptacle outlets; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Receptacle outlets; general. 111.79-1 Section 111.79-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-1 Receptacle outlets; general. (a) There must be a...

  17. 46 CFR 111.79-1 - Receptacle outlets; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receptacle outlets; general. 111.79-1 Section 111.79-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-1 Receptacle outlets; general. (a) There must be a...

  18. 8. CLOSEUP OF THE GATES ON THE TOBY CREEK OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CLOSEUP OF THE GATES ON THE TOBY CREEK OUTLET AND THE OUTLET OF THE PUMP DISCHARGE CHANNEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  19. 46 CFR 111.79-1 - Receptacle outlets; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Receptacle outlets; general. 111.79-1 Section 111.79-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-1 Receptacle outlets; general. (a) There must be a...

  20. 46 CFR 111.79-1 - Receptacle outlets; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Receptacle outlets; general. 111.79-1 Section 111.79-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-1 Receptacle outlets; general. (a) There must be a...

  1. 7 CFR 929.57 - Outlets for restricted cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Outlets for restricted cranberries. 929.57 Section 929... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES....57 Outlets for restricted cranberries. (a) Except as provided in this section and in §...

  2. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  3. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  4. 7 CFR 929.57 - Outlets for restricted cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outlets for restricted cranberries. 929.57 Section 929... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES....57 Outlets for restricted cranberries. (a) Except as provided in this section and in §...

  5. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  6. 7 CFR 929.57 - Outlets for restricted cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Outlets for restricted cranberries. 929.57 Section 929... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES....57 Outlets for restricted cranberries. (a) Except as provided in this section and in §...

  7. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  8. 7 CFR 929.57 - Outlets for restricted cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Outlets for restricted cranberries. 929.57 Section 929... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES....57 Outlets for restricted cranberries. (a) Except as provided in this section and in §...

  9. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  10. 7 CFR 929.57 - Outlets for restricted cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Outlets for restricted cranberries. 929.57 Section 929... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES....57 Outlets for restricted cranberries. (a) Except as provided in this section and in §...

  11. 49 CFR 178.345-11 - Tank outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank outlets. 178.345-11 Section 178.345-11... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-11 Tank outlets. (a) General. As used in this section, “loading/unloading outlet” means any opening in the cargo tank wall used for loading...

  12. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be... reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  13. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be... reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  14. 14 CFR 27.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 27.977 Section 27.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a... reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  15. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be... reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  16. 14 CFR 27.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 27.977 Section 27.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a... reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  17. 14 CFR 27.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 27.977 Section 27.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a... reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  18. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be... reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  19. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be... reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  20. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be... reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  1. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be... reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  2. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be... reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  3. 14 CFR 27.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 27.977 Section 27.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a... reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  4. The Geography of Fast Food Outlets: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Lorna K.; Edwards, Kimberly L.; Cade, Janet; Clarke, Graham P.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity. PMID:20623025

  5. The geography of Fast Food outlets: a review.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Lorna K; Edwards, Kimberly L; Cade, Janet; Clarke, Graham P

    2010-05-01

    The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity. PMID:20623025

  6. The geography of Fast Food outlets: a review.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Lorna K; Edwards, Kimberly L; Cade, Janet; Clarke, Graham P

    2010-05-01

    The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity.

  7. Third ventriculostomy and fourth ventricle outlets obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Enrique; de Notaris, Matteo

    2013-02-01

    A dilated fourth ventricle due to outlet obstruction is a clinical-radiologic entity with symptoms similar to those of a posterior fossa space-occupying lesion. Indeed, blockage of the foramina of Luschka and Magendie and of the aqueduct results in a "trapped" fourth ventricle. Continued cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production within the fourth ventricle leads to cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle. We could not, until now, understand the phenomenon, mainly on exploring endoscopically the permeability of the whole aqueduct. In adults, we call this condition the functional trapped fourth ventricle because in none of our cases have we found physical obstruction of CSF flow. Third ventricle-fourth ventriculostomy is by far the most frequently used technique for cannulation of the aqueduct in a trapped fourth ventricle. In our reported cases, we have introduced a silicone tube stent from below after accessing the fourth ventricle through a small suboccipital craniectomy, ascending it on the aqueduct in order to reach the third ventricle. Management of this infrequently isolated fourth ventricle, but communicated with the rest of ventricular system, remains a challenge for neurosurgeons. Lack of knowledge of the pathophysiology makes it difficult to treat a problem that we do not understand.

  8. Risk Taking and Rites of Passage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Scott; Martin, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history, young people earned adult roles through observing, imitating, and interacting with adults around them. Rituals of initiation such as the Jewish bar mitzvah and bat mitzvah are very important rite of passage ceremonies. Many churches confer baptism, confirmation, or catechism as rites of passage to adulthood. Without such…

  9. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  10. Surface Flow Outlets to Protect Juvenile Salmonids Passing through Hydropower Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2006-10-27

    We reviewed results of research conducted by engineers and biologists over the past 50 years related to development of surface flow outlets (SFOs) for juvenile salmonids that migrate downstream past hydropower dams. An SFO is a non-turbine, water-efficient passage route with an overflow structure through which flow and fish pass over a dam. Our review covered 69 SFOs in Europe and North America. We identified five main types of SFOs ? low-flow bypass/sluices, high-flow sluices, forebay collectors, powerhouse retrofits, and surface spills. Most low-flow bypass/sluices are sited in Europe and on the east coast of North America, where mean annual project discharge and hydropower production for the dams we reviewed were 95 m3/s and 15 MW, respectively. The other four SFO types are found at dams on the west coast of North America with 2184 m3/s mean annual discharge and 788 MW mean output. A conceptual framework based on fish behavior and hydraulics for different regions of a hydropower project was developed to evaluate SFO performance. For all SFO types, fish collection efficiency averaged 54%, with an average effectiveness ratio of 17:1 (fish to inflow). Surface flow outlet technology can meet the goal of concurrent anadromous fish protection and hydropower generation.

  11. Coaxial fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOEpatents

    York, William D; Ziminsky, Willy S; Lacy, Benjamin P

    2013-05-21

    An air/fuel premixer comprising a peripheral wall defining a mixing chamber, a nozzle disposed at least partially within the peripheral wall comprising an outer annular wall spaced from the peripheral wall so as to define an outer air passage between the peripheral wall and the outer annular wall, an inner annular wall disposed at least partially within and spaced from the outer annular wall, so as to define an inner air passage, and at least one fuel gas annulus between the outer annular wall and the inner annular wall, the at least one fuel gas annulus defining at least one fuel gas passage, at least one air inlet for introducing air through the inner air passage and the outer air passage to the mixing chamber, and at least one fuel inlet for injecting fuel through the fuel gas passage to the mixing chamber to form an air/fuel mixture.

  12. Multi-decadal retreat of Novaya Zemlya outlet glaciers, in response to climatic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Rachel; Bell, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Arctic ice masses have rapidly lost ice from the mid-1990s, through a combination of negative surface mass balance and accelerated ice discharge from marine-terminating outlet glaciers. In the past decade, substantial mass deficits have been identified on Novaya Zemlya (NVZ), Russian High Arctic, and its outlet glaciers have retreated dramatically, likely due to declining sea ice concentrations. However, little is known about longer-term glacier behaviour on NVZ, and its potential impact on overall mass balance. Here we greatly extend the available record of retreat and assess multi-decadal glacier response to forcing between 1976 and 2014 using remotely sensed data. Following at least 25 years of gradual recession, retreat rates accelerated substantially from circa. 2000 and again from 2011 onwards. The rate and temporal pattern of retreat were strongly dependant on terminus type: marine-terminating outlets receded an order of magnitude faster than land- or lagoon-terminating glaciers and land-based termini showed limited change in retreat rate over time. Furthermore, retreat was markedly higher on the Barents Sea coast than the Kara Sea. Comparison with forcing data shows that accelerated retreat from 2011 onwards coincided with exceptionally low sea ice concentration and duration between 2011 and 2013. This suggests that sea ice is an important controlling factor, which agrees with shorter-term studies on NVZ. Although air temperature information is more limited on NVZ, data from both meteorological stations and reanalysis highlight 2011 and 2012 as two of the warmest years during the period 1950 to 2014. The limited response of land-terminating outlets suggests that air temperatures do not cause retreat directly, via melting or enhanced basal lubrication, but may have an indirect influence through melting of sea ice or hydro fracture.

  13. Comparison of textbook passages, nonfiction trade book passages and fiction trade book passages as instructional tools for learning science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    This study examined the impact of different types of text on student achievement in elementary school science. Gender was also examined to see if the type of text passage read had any differential effect on boys' and girls' achievement. This study was a pretest/posttest/retention test design. Eighty-four fourth grade students from a public charter elementary school in South Florida were randomly assigned a passage from a physical science textbook, a physical science nonfiction trade book, a physical science fiction trade book, a biological science textbook or a biological science nonfiction trade book. Results in the physical science content area revealed that students in the textbook passage group had higher posttest and retention test results than students in the nonfiction and fiction trade book passage groups. There was no difference on the posttest results of students in the biological science textbook and nonfiction trade book passage groups. Students in the biological science textbook passage group had higher retention results than students in the biological science nonfiction passage group. Gender results in the physical science content area revealed that boys had a higher retention score than girls in the fiction trade book passage group. There were no gender achievement differences as a result of the text passage read in the biological science content area. It was concluded that no definitive answer as to the efficacy of textbooks versus trade books was possible based upon results of the study. Recommendations for future research include examining the effects of different types of texts in conjunction with other authentic teaching methods.

  14. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2011 - February 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Haner, Philip V.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin D.; Evans, Scott D.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2013-01-01

    The movements and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder tags were studied at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, near Springfield, Oregon. The purpose of the study was to provide information to aid with decisions about potential alternatives for improving downstream passage conditions for juvenile salmonids in this flood-control reservoir. In 2011, a total of 411 hatchery fish and 26 wild fish were tagged and released during a 3-month period in the spring, and another 356 hatchery fish and 117 wild fish were released during a 3-month period in the fall. A series of 16 autonomous hydrophones throughout the reservoir and 12 hydrophones in a collective system near the dam outlet were used to determine general movements and dam passage of the fish over the life of the acoustic transmitter, which was expected to be about 3 months. Movements within the reservoir were directional, and it was common for fish to migrate repeatedly from the head of the reservoir downstream to the dam outlet and back to the head of the reservoir. Most fish were detected near the temperature control tower at least once. The median time from release near the head of the reservoir to detection within about 100 meters of the dam outlet at the temperature control tower was between 5.7 and 10.8 days, depending on season and fish origin. Dam passage events occurred over a wider range of dates in the spring and summer than in the fall and winter, but dam passage numbers were greatest during the fall and winter. A total of 10.5 percent (43 of 411) of the hatchery fish and 15.4 percent (4 of 26) of the wild fish released in the spring are assumed to have passed the dam, whereas a total of 25.3 percent (90 of 356) of the hatchery fish and 16.9 percent (30 of 117) of the wild fish released in the fall are assumed to have passed the dam. A small number of fish passed the dam after their transmitters had stopped working and were detected at

  15. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Detroit Dam, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ham, Kenneth D.

    2012-11-15

    increased somewhat in September 2011. When the spillway was operated simultaneously with the turbines, spillway efficiency (efficiency is estimated as spillway passage divided by total project passage) was 0.72 and effectiveness (fish:flow ratio—proportion fish passage at a route (e.g., spillway) divided by proportion water through that route out of the total project) was 2.69. That is, when the spillway was open, 72% of the fish passing the dam used the spillway and 28% passed into the turbine penstocks. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish at the spillway shows a distinct peak in passage between mid-morning and mid-afternoon and low passage at night. We estimated that 23,339 smolt-size fish (± 572 fish, 95% CI) passed via the Regulating Outlet (RO) when it was open from October 29 through November 12, 2011, January 2-6, and January 20 through February 3, 2012. During the October–November period, RO passage peaked at 1,086 fish on November 5, with a second peak on November 7 (1,075 fish). When the RO was operated simultaneously with the turbines, RO efficiency was 0.33 and effectiveness was 0.89. In multiple regression analyses, a relatively parsimonious model was selected that predicted the observed fish passage data well. The best model included forebay temperature at depth, forebay elevation, total discharge, hours of daylight, and the operation period. The vertical distribution of fish in the forebay near the face of the dam where the transducers sampled showed fish were generally distributed throughout the water column during all four operational periods. During the refill and full pool periods, vertical distribution was bi-modal with surface-layer and mid-water modes. Patterns for day and night distributions were variable. Fish were distributed above and below the thermocline when it was present (full pool and drawdown periods).

  16. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  17. 1. View east at west facade of culvert outlet headwall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View east at west facade of culvert outlet headwall, above which part of the canal bank has been removed. Foreground to background: streambed and coffer dam (mound in center) that was used in dewatering the culvert; intake pipes (extreme left and right) for dewatering pumps; deteriorated culvert outlet headwall with upper portion of wall fallen away; horizontal masonry cutoff wall extending above the culvert outlet partially up the canal bank (cutoff wall was exposed by removal of part of canal bank); towpath at top of canal bank. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Six Mile Run Culvert, .2 mile South of Blackwells Mills Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

  18. Average-passage flow model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark

    1989-01-01

    A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.

  19. Field validation of secondary data sources for enumerating retail tobacco outlets in a state without tobacco outlet licensing.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Heather; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Rose, Shyanika W; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-07-01

    Identifying tobacco retail outlets for U.S. FDA compliance checks or calculating tobacco outlet density is difficult in the 13 States without tobacco retail licensing or where licensing lists are unavailable for research. This study uses primary data collection to identify tobacco outlets in three counties in a non-licensing state and validate two commercial secondary data sources. We calculated sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) to examine the evidence of validity for two secondary data sources, and conducted a geospatial analysis to determine correct allocation to census tract. ReferenceUSA had almost perfect sensitivity (0.82) while Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) had substantial sensitivity (0.69) for identifying tobacco outlets; combined, sensitivity improved to 0.89. D&B identified fewer "false positives" with a PPV of 0.82 compared to 0.71 for ReferenceUSA. More than 90% of the outlets identified by ReferenceUSA were geocoded to the correct census tract. Combining two commercial data sources resulted in enumeration of nearly 90% of tobacco outlets in a three county area. Commercial databases appear to provide a reasonably accurate way to identify tobacco outlets for enforcement operations and density estimation.

  20. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-05-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE), to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE's Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We conducted a hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011. Findings from this 1 year of study should be applied carefully because annual variation can be expected due to variability in adult salmon escapement, egg-to-fry and fry-to-smolt survival rates, reservoir rearing and predation, dam operations, and weather. Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> {approx}90 mm and < 300 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. Passage peaks were also evident in early spring, early summer, and late fall. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish {+-} 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. Of this total, 84% passed during December-January. Run timing for small-size fish ({approx}65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. Relatively few fish passed into the Regulating Outlets (ROs) when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). Overall, when the ROs were open, RO efficiency (RO passage divided by total project passage) was 0.004. In linear regression analyses, daily fish passage (turbines and ROs combined) for smolt-size fish was significantly related to project

  1. 5. VIEW OF TUNNEL OUTLET AND CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF TUNNEL OUTLET AND CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Farmers Lake Tunnel, Ashley National Forest, 5.7 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  2. 7. WEST DAM STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. QUARRIES AT BOTTOM; OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WEST DAM STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. QUARRIES AT BOTTOM; OUTLET STRUCTURE UNDER CONSTRUCTION CUTTING INTO HILL AT TOP OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  3. 128. Credit JE. Outlet of tunnel on South Battle Creek ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. Credit JE. Outlet of tunnel on South Battle Creek Canal immediately above Junction with Cross Country Canal. (JE, v. 25 1910 p. 118). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  4. 20. OUTLET (FOREGROUND) AND WEIR (BACKGROUND) OF DEER FLAT CALDWELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. OUTLET (FOREGROUND) AND WEIR (BACKGROUND) OF DEER FLAT CALDWELL CANAL ON DOWNSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  5. 16. DETAIL OF OUTLET OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF OUTLET OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON DOWNSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT (NOTE TWO FILLED-IN PORTALS). VIEW TO EAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  6. 28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  7. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  8. 7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  9. 32. TWO TAILRACE OUTLETS FROM THE MIDDLESEX MILLS, LOCATED ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. TWO TAILRACE OUTLETS FROM THE MIDDLESEX MILLS, LOCATED ON EAST BANK OF THE CONCORD RIVER. MIDDLESEX MILLS HAVE BEEN DEMOLISHED: 1976 - Lowell Canal System, Merrimack & Concord Rivers, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  10. 64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. Roadway support work is visible at top. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. 4. View of dam front and sluiceway outlets Mississippi ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of dam front and sluiceway outlets - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  12. 46. VIEW OF ELECTRIC OUTLET BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VIEW OF ELECTRIC OUTLET BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTHWEST Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 17. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING FISH WATER RELEASE OUTLET AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING FISH WATER RELEASE OUTLET AS WELL AS SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS OF FLOAT HOUSE. - Pit 4 Diversion Dam, Pit River west of State Highway 89, Big Bend, Shasta County, CA

  14. Materials for outlet ducts in wet FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, H.S.; Koch, G.H.; Kistler, C.W.; Beavers, J.A.; Meadows, M.L.; Stewart, D.A.; Dene, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    It was found that the major materials problems are occurring with outlet ducts and stack linings. Outlet ducts and stacks are critical components in that failures may require complete boiler shutdown and loss of generating capacity for lengthy periods due to the lack of standby components or bypass capability. Accordingly, EPRI funded a study by Battelle on the performance of candidate materials in the outlet ducts of FGD systems at two utility plants. Because of the impact of materials failures on FGD system reliability, EPRI is currently funding a study by Battelle on the causes of these failures. This study involves site visits for field evaluations of the failures, laboratory analyses of samples collected in the field, and analysis of the data to establish the causes of the failures. Information on outlet ducts is presented in this paper.

  15. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF THE RADIAL GATE AT THE OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF THE RADIAL GATE AT THE OUTLET WORKS AT DAM 96, LOOKING WEST. THE GATE IS IN THE DOWN POSITION, ALLOWING PARTIAL DISCHARGE. - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 96, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  16. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, BURLINGTON NORTHERN TRACKS, AND U.S. HIGHWAY 2, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  17. 25. VIEW SHOWING SLIDE GATE OUTLET TRASH RACK STRUCTURE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW SHOWING SLIDE GATE OUTLET TRASH RACK STRUCTURE AT BASE OF ARCH 8. NOTE TWO SECTIONS OF NEEDLE VALVE TRASH RACKS IN PLACE BETWEEN ARCHES 8 AND 9. December 20, 1938 - Bartlett Dam, Verde River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. Special type culvert headwall, Culvert No. 124 Outlet, oblique view, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Special type culvert headwall, Culvert No. 124 Outlet, oblique view, view to southwest - Route No. 1-Overton-Lake Mead Road, Culverts and Headwalls, 6 miles south of Overton, Overton, Clark County, NV

  19. Special type culvert headwall, Culvert No. 109 Outlet, oblique view, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Special type culvert headwall, Culvert No. 109 Outlet, oblique view, view to southeast - Route No. 1-Overton-Lake Mead Road, Culverts and Headwalls, 6 miles south of Overton, Overton, Clark County, NV

  20. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF DAM SITE SHOWING OUTLET WORKS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF DAM SITE SHOWING OUTLET WORKS AND DIVERSION CHANNEL IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 9, March 5, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  1. 6. EASTERLY AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE RIGHT ABUTMENT AND OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EASTERLY AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE RIGHT ABUTMENT AND OUTLET CONTROL WORKS IN THE FOREGROUND.... Volume XX, No. 8, September 9, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  2. 6. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Twin Pots Dam, Ashley National Forest, 10.1 miles North of Mountain Home, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  3. 4. VIEW SHOWING OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Clements Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 6.5 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  4. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Drift Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  5. 5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (28' WIDE HARDESTY CAST IRON SLIDE HEADGATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Duck Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  6. 4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  7. 5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, (12' DIAMETER HARDESTY MODEL 112 CIRCULAR GATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Island Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  8. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY CAST IRON VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Weir Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  9. 4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Pot Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  10. 6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (18' HARDESTY GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Long Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  11. 7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (15' HARDESTY MODEL 115 GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Marjorie Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  12. 5. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Island Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.8 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  13. 7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM GUIDE (14' DIAMETER CIRCULAR CALCO CAST IRON SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Fire Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  14. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (HARDESTY CAST IRON RECTANGULAR SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Lost Lake Dam, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  15. 3. TWO TAILRACE OUTLETS FROM THE TREMONT MILLS ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. TWO TAILRACE OUTLETS FROM THE TREMONT MILLS ON THE EAST BANK OF THE LOWER LEVEL OF THE WESTERN CANAL JUST BELOW HICKEY HALL DAM (on the right): 1976 - Western Canal, Hickey Hall Dam, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  16. 8. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM OUTLET CULVERT AND WING RETAINING WALLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM OUTLET CULVERT AND WING RETAINING WALLS, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Twin Pots Dam, Ashley National Forest, 10.1 miles North of Mountain Home, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  17. 41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL PEDESTALS (MANUFACTURED BY AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE COMPANY) IN LEFT FOREGROUND AND RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  18. 3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING EAST. DISCHARGE OUTLET IS VISIBLE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING EAST. DISCHARGE OUTLET IS VISIBLE AT CENTER. WASTE WEIR BUILDING IS AT RIGHT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  19. Skeptical notes on a physics of passage.

    PubMed

    Huggett, Nick

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the mathematical representation of time in physics. In existing theories, time is represented by the real numbers, hence their formal properties represent properties of time: these are surveyed. The central question of the paper is whether the existing representation of time is adequate, or whether it can or should be supplemented: especially, do we need a physics incorporating some kind of "dynamical passage" of time? The paper argues that the existing mathematical framework is resistant to such changes, and might have to be rejected by anyone seeking a physics of passage. Then it rebuts two common arguments for incorporating passage into physics, especially the claim that it is an element of experience. Finally, the paper investigates whether, as has been claimed, causal set theory provides a physics of passage.

  20. Pyroclastic passage zones in glaciovolcanic sequences.

    PubMed

    Russell, James K; Edwards, Benjamin R; Porritt, Lucy A

    2013-01-01

    Volcanoes are increasingly recognized as agents and recorders of global climate variability, although deciphering the linkages between planetary climate and volcanism is still in its infancy. The growth and emergence of subaqueous volcanoes produce passage zones, which are stratigraphic surfaces marking major transitions in depositional environments. In glaciovolcanic settings, they record the elevations of syn-eruptive englacial lakes. Thus, they allow for forensic recovery of minimum ice thicknesses. Here we present the first description of a passage zone preserved entirely within pyroclastic deposits, marking the growth of a tephra cone above the englacial lake level. Our discovery requires extension of the passage-zone concept to accommodate explosive volcanism and guides future studies of hundreds of glaciovolcanic edifices on Earth and Mars. Our recognition of pyroclastic passage zones increases the potential for recovering transient paleolake levels, improving estimates of paleo-ice thicknesses and providing new constraints on paleoclimate models that consider the extents and timing of planetary glaciations.

  1. Active attenuation of propeller blade passage noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalas, J. M.; Tichy, J.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic measurements are presented to show that active cancellation can be used to achieve significant reduction of blade passage noise in a turboprop cabin. Simultaneous suppression of all blade passage frequencies was attained. The spatial volume over which cancellation occurred, however, is limited. Acoustic intensity maps are presented to show that the acoustic input to the fuselage was sufficiently non-localized so as to require more judicious selection of cancellation speaker location.

  2. Topics in Air Pollution Control (SI: 428).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampacek, Anne; Chaput, Linda

    This course provides information about air pollution control efforts since the passage of the Clean Air Act and places in perspective various issues that have arisen since passage of the act--significant deterioration, maintenance of standards, indirect source review, and transportation controls. Court decisions affecting these issues are cited…

  3. Linear kinematic air bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayall, S. D.

    1974-01-01

    Bearing provides continuous, smooth movement of the cat's-eye mirror, eliminating wear and deterioration of bearing surface and resulting oscillation effects in servo system. Design features self-aligning configuration; single-point, pivotal pad mounting, having air passage through it; and design of pads that allows for precise control of discharge path of air from pads.

  4. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  5. Improving data accuracy of commercial food outlet databases.

    PubMed

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Martinez, Diane; Yedidia, Michael J; Petlick, Nirvana

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. Assessing food environments often requires using commercially available data. Disparate methods used for classifying food outlets in these databases call for creating a classification approach using common definitions. A systematic strategy for reclassifying food stores and restaurants, as they appear in commercial databases, into categories that differentiate the availability of healthy options is described here. DESIGN AND SETTING. Commercially available data on food outlets including names, addresses, North American Industry Classification System codes, and associated characteristics was obtained for five New Jersey communities. ANALYSIS. A reclassification methodology was developed using criteria and definitions from the literature to categorize food outlets based on availability of healthy options. Information in the database was supplemented by systematic Internet and key word searches, and from phone calls to food outlets. RESULTS. The methodology resulted in 622 supermarket/grocery stores, 183 convenience stores, and 148 specialty stores in the original data to be reclassified into 58 supermarkets, 30 grocery stores, 692 convenience stores, and 115 specialty stores. Outlets from the original list of 1485 full-service restaurants and 506 limited-service restaurants were reclassified as 563 full-service restaurants and 1247 limited-service restaurants. Reclassification resulted in less than one-seventh the number of supermarkets and grocery stores, more than three times the number of convenience stores, and twice as many limited-service restaurants-a much less healthy profile than the one generated by using exclusively the commercial databases. CONCLUSION. An explicit and replicable strategy is proposed for reclassifying food outlets in commercial databases into categories that differentiate on the basis of healthy food availability. The intent is to contribute towards building a consensus among researchers on definitions used in public health

  6. Evaluation of Behavioral Guidance Structure on Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at Bonneville Dam in 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; Kim, Jin A.; Fu, Tao; Fischer, Eric S.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.

    2011-03-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an acoustic-telemetry study at Bonneville Dam in 2009 to evaluate the effects of a behavioral guidance structure (BGS) in the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse forebay on fish passage and survival through the second powerhouse (B2), the dam as a whole, and through the first powerhouse and spillway combined. The BGS was deployed to increase the survival of fish passing through B2 by increasing the percentage of outmigrating smolts entering the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC)—a surface flow outlet known to be a relatively benign route for downstream passage at this dam. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. Study results indicated that having turbine 11 in service is important for providing flow conditions that are comparable to those observed in pre-BGS years (2004 and 2005) and in 2008. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  7. Bipolar membranes with fluid distribution passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Archer, Shivaun (Inventor); Tennakoon, Charles L. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a bipolar membrane and methods for making and using the membrane. The bipolar membrane comprises a cation-selective region, an anion-selective region, an interfacial region between the anion-selective region and the cation-selective region, and means for delivering fluid directly into the interfacial region. The means for delivering fluid includes passages that may comprise a fluid-permeable material, a wicking material, an open passage disposed within the membrane or some combination thereof. The passages may be provided in many shapes, sizes and configurations, but preferably deliver fluid directly to the interfacial region so that the rate of electrodialysis is no longer limited by the diffusion of fluid through the cation- or anion-selective regions to the interfacial region.

  8. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  9. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales.

    PubMed

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Laidre, Kristin L; Quakenbush, Lori T; Citta, John J

    2012-04-23

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite tracking has demonstrated that bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska enter the ice-infested channels of the Canadian High Arctic during summer. In August 2010, two bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska entered the Northwest Passage from opposite directions and spent approximately 10 days in the same area, documenting overlap between the two populations. PMID:21937490

  10. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales.

    PubMed

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Laidre, Kristin L; Quakenbush, Lori T; Citta, John J

    2012-04-23

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite tracking has demonstrated that bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska enter the ice-infested channels of the Canadian High Arctic during summer. In August 2010, two bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska entered the Northwest Passage from opposite directions and spent approximately 10 days in the same area, documenting overlap between the two populations.

  11. White Sturgeon Passage at The Dalles Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at the USGS Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory, working with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, sought to better understand upstream and downstream passage of white sturgeon at dams. A study at The Dalles Dam provided the opportunity to compare two fish ladders; one that passes sturgeon upstream to one that does not, to determine if subtle differences in construction result in better passage of white sturgeon. Researchers conducted a study using a combination of acoustic and radio telemetry technologies to obtain information on juvenile and adult white sturgeon near The Dalles Dam, with the objectives of characterizing the distribution and movements of white sturgeon in the immediate vicinity of the dam and to determine timing and routes of upstream and downstream passage.

  12. Experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schraft, Daniel; Halfmann, Thomas; Genov, Genko T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2013-12-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage (CAP) for robust and efficient manipulation of two-level systems. The technique represents a altered version of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), driven by composite sequences of radiation pulses with appropriately chosen phases. We implement CAP with radio-frequency pulses to invert (i.e., to rephase) optically prepared spin coherences in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. We perform systematic investigations of the efficiency of CAP and compare the results with conventional π pulses and RAP. The data clearly demonstrate the superior features of CAP with regard to robustness and efficiency, even under conditions of weakly fulfilled adiabaticity. The experimental demonstration of composite sequences to support adiabatic passage is of significant relevance whenever a high efficiency or robustness of coherent excitation processes need to be maintained, e.g., as required in quantum information technology.

  13. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales

    PubMed Central

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Laidre, Kristin L.; Quakenbush, Lori T.; Citta, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite tracking has demonstrated that bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska enter the ice-infested channels of the Canadian High Arctic during summer. In August 2010, two bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska entered the Northwest Passage from opposite directions and spent approximately 10 days in the same area, documenting overlap between the two populations. PMID:21937490

  14. Effect of Air-Flow Distribution and Total-Pressure Loss on Performance of One-Sixth Segment of Turbojet Combuster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Francis U.; Mark, Herman

    1947-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted on a one-sixth segment of an annular turbojet combustor to determine the effects of modification in air-flow distribution and total-pressure loss on the performance of the segment. The performance features investigated during this series of determinations were the altitude operational limits and the temperature-rise efficiency. Altitude operational limits of the combustor segment, for the 19XB engine using the original combustor-basket design were approximately 38,000 feet at 17,000 rpm and 26,000 feet at 10,000 rpm. The altitude operational limits were approximately 50,000 feet at 17,000 rpm and 38,000 feet at 10,000 rpm for a combustor-basket design in which the air-passage area in the basket was redistributed so as to admit gradually no more than 20 percent of the air along the first half of the basket. In this case the total pressure loss through the combustor segment was not appreciably changed from the total-pressure loss for the original combustor basket design. Altitude operational limits of the combustor segment for the 19XB engine were above 52,000 feet at 17,000 rpm and were approximately 23,000 feet at 10,000 rpm for a combustor-basket design in which the distribution of the air-passage area in the basket was that of the original design but where the total-pressure loss was increased to 19 times the inlet reference kinetic pressure at an inlet-to-outlet density ratio of 2.4. The total-pressure loss for the original design was 14 times the inlet kinetic reference pressure at an inlet-to-outlet density ratio of 2.4.

  15. Extension in Mona Passage, Northeast Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2010-10-01

    As shown by the recent M w 7.0 Haiti earthquake, intra-arc deformation, which accompanies the subduction process, can present seismic and tsunami hazards to nearby islands. Spatially-limited diffuse tectonic deformation within the Northeast Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone likely led to the development of the submerged Mona Passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. GPS geodetic data and a moderate to high level of seismicity indicate that extension within the region is ongoing. Newly-collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles and previously-collected samples are used here to determine the tectonic evolution of the Mona Passage intra-arc region. The passage is floored almost completely by Oligocene-Pliocene carbonate platform strata, which have undergone submarine and subaerial erosion. Structurally, the passage is characterized by W- to NNW-trending normal faults that offset the entire thickness of the Oligo-Pliocene carbonate platform rocks. The orientation of these faults is compatible with the NE-oriented extension vector observed in GPS data. Fault geometry best fits an oblique extension model rather than previously proposed single-phase, poly-phase, bending-moment, or rotation extension models. The intersection of these generally NW-trending faults in Mona Passage with the N-S oriented faults of Mona Canyon may reflect differing responses of the brittle upper-crust, along an arc-forearc rheological boundary, to oblique subduction along the Puerto Rico trench. Several faults within the passage, if ruptured completely, are long enough to generate earthquakes with magnitudes on the order of M w 6.5-7.

  16. Extension in Mona Passage, Northeast Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaytor, J.D.; ten Brink, U.S.

    2010-01-01

    As shown by the recent Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake, intra-arc deformation, which accompanies the subduction process, can present seismic and tsunami hazards to nearby islands. Spatially-limited diffuse tectonic deformation within the Northeast Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone likely led to the development of the submerged Mona Passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. GPS geodetic data and a moderate to high level of seismicity indicate that extension within the region is ongoing. Newly-collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles and previously-collected samples are used here to determine the tectonic evolution of the Mona Passage intra-arc region. The passage is floored almost completely by Oligocene-Pliocene carbonate platform strata, which have undergone submarine and subaerial erosion. Structurally, the passage is characterized by W- to NNW-trending normal faults that offset the entire thickness of the Oligo-Pliocene carbonate platform rocks. The orientation of these faults is compatible with the NE-oriented extension vector observed in GPS data. Fault geometry best fits an oblique extension model rather than previously proposed single-phase, poly-phase, bending-moment, or rotation extension models. The intersection of these generally NW-trending faults in Mona Passage with the N-S oriented faults of Mona Canyon may reflect differing responses of the brittle upper-crust, along an arc-forearc rheological boundary, to oblique subduction along the Puerto Rico trench. Several faults within the passage, if ruptured completely, are long enough to generate earthquakes with magnitudes on the order of Mw 6.5-7. ?? 2010.

  17. The Contribution of Passage and Non-Passage Factors to Item Performance on the SAT Reading Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Stuart; Lautenschlager, Gary J.

    2001-01-01

    Conducted a regression analysis to assess the contributions of passage and no-passage factors to item variance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test reading comprehension task. Results show that no-passage factors play a larger role than do passage factors, accounting for as much as three-fourths of systematic variance in item difficulty and more than…

  18. Rapid changes in ice discharge from Greenland outlet glaciers.

    PubMed

    Howat, Ian M; Joughin, Ian; Scambos, Ted A

    2007-03-16

    Using satellite-derived surface elevation and velocity data, we found major short-term variations in recent ice discharge and mass loss at two of Greenland's largest outlet glaciers. Their combined rate of mass loss doubled in less than a year in 2004 and then decreased in 2006 to near the previous rates, likely as a result of fast re-equilibration of calving-front geometry after retreat. Total mass loss is a fraction of concurrent gravity-derived estimates, pointing to an alternative source of loss and the need for high-resolution observations of outlet dynamics and glacier geometry for sea-level rise predictions.

  19. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  20. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interior passage. 3280.108 Section 3280.108 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  1. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interior passage. 3280.108 Section 3280.108 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  2. CYANOBACTERIA PASSAGE DURING FILTER PERTURBATION EPISODES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight pilot-scale in-line filtration trials were performed to evaluate the passage of cyanobacterial cells through drinking water filters after sudden increases in hydraulic loading rates. Trials were performed at 30 C using two coagulant combinations (aluminum sulfate and cati...

  3. Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    Implementation of the Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project -- Phase 2 would significantly improve the production of anadromous fish in the Yakima River system. The project would provide offsite mitigation and help to compensate for lower Columbia River hydroelectric fishery losses. The Phase 2 screens would allow greater numbers of juvenile anadromous fish to survive. As a consequence, there would be higher returns of adult salmon and steelhead to the Yakima River. The proposed action would play an integral part in the overall Yakima River anadromous fish enhancement program (fish passage improvement, habitat enhancement, hatchery production increases, and harvest management). These would be environmental benefits associated with implementation of the Fish Passage and Protective Facilities Phase 2 Project. Based on the evaluation presented in this assessment, there would be no significant adverse environmental impacts if the proposed action was carried forward. No significant adverse environmental effects have been identified from construction and operation of the Yakima Phase 2 fish passage project. Proper design and implementation of the project will ensure no adverse effects will occur. Based on the information in this environmental analysis, BPA's and Reclamation's proposal to construct these facilities does not constitute a major Federal action that could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Charles Johnson's "Middle Passage" as Historiographic Metafiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaden, Barbara Z.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that what makes Charles Johnson's "Middle Passage" significant and eminently teachable is that it is an accessible example of "historiographic metafiction"--bestselling postmodern novels set in the past. Notes that students find the novel "easy" and enjoyable and that teaching the novel with some of its intertexts, such as H. Melville's…

  5. 49 CFR 179.103-5 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... integral auxiliary test valve, a minimum 1-inch NPT pipe plug shall be installed in the outlet nozzle above... and female flange attachment, but in no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the... attachment on a pad attached to the outside bottom of the tank. The mounting pad must have a...

  6. 49 CFR 179.103-5 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... integral auxiliary test valve, a minimum 1-inch NPT pipe plug shall be installed in the outlet nozzle above... and female flange attachment, but in no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the... attachment on a pad attached to the outside bottom of the tank. The mounting pad must have a...

  7. OUTLET STRUCTURE AT CROWLEY LAKE, CONTROLS GATE VALVES THAT FORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OUTLET STRUCTURE AT CROWLEY LAKE, CONTROLS GATE VALVES THAT FORM PENSTOCKS AND HEADRACES FOR GORGE POWER PLANTS. WATER AUTHORITY ATTEMPTS TO HAVE AS MUCH WATER AS POSSIBLE PASS THROUGH THE POWER HOUSES - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Crowley Lake Dam, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Outlet side of gate, showing the Radial Gate, hoist mechanism ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Outlet side of gate, showing the Radial Gate, hoist mechanism and concrete walkway across the canal. The concrete baffle separating the afterbay and the cipoletti weir is in the foreground - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Radial Gate Check with Drop, Wellton Canal 9.9, West of Avenue 34 East & north of County Ninth Street, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  9. 49 CFR 179.103-5 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must be equipped with an excess flow valve of approved design, except when a quick-closing internal... or in place of the venting, loading and unloading valves, measuring and sampling devices as prescribed in § 179.103-3, tanks may be equipped with approved bottom outlet valves. If applied,...

  10. 49 CFR 179.103-5 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must be equipped with an excess flow valve of approved design, except when a quick-closing internal.... (a) In addition to or in place of the venting, loading and unloading valves, measuring and sampling devices as prescribed in § 179.103-3, tanks may be equipped with approved bottom outlet valves. If...

  11. Working with Media Outlets To Communicate with the Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    Offers suggestions from a veteran public relations practitioner on how colleges can effectively use media resources to advertise academic programs, workforce training, and continuing education opportunities. Focuses on maximizing the benefits of using these five media outlets: newspapers, radio and TV, direct mail, the Internet, and cable…

  12. 1. DETAIL OF TUBE ICE MACHINE OUTLET AT SOUTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DETAIL OF TUBE ICE MACHINE OUTLET AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 162; ICE MANUFACTURED INSIDE THE BUILDING WAS AUGURED THROUGH THE WALL AND DROPPED INTO COMPARTMENTS IN REFIGERATED RAIL CARS - Rath Packing Company, Cooler Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  13. 6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET TUNNEL PORTAL (LEFT) AND POWERHOUSE AND ENTRANCE PORTAL TO DAM INTERIOR (RIGHT). NOTE RELEASE OF WATER FROM NEEDLE VALVE NUMBER 2 IN VALVEHOUSE ON DAM. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  14. 10. INTERIOR OF OUTLET TOWER LOOKING DOWN TO TIER #1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF OUTLET TOWER LOOKING DOWN TO TIER #1 OF SLIDE GATES. STRUCTURE HAS LEVELS ENABLING OPERATORS TO CHOOSE LEVEL WITH BEST QUALITY WATER. OVERHANGING DEVICE THAT LOOKS LIKE A LIGHT STANDARD IS ACTUALLY A METER FOR MEASURING WATER LEVELS. - Lake Mathews, East of Route 15, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  15. DETAIL OF WING WALL ON OUTLET SIDE OF CULVERT. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF WING WALL ON OUTLET SIDE OF CULVERT. NOTE THE INCLUSIONS IN THE CONCRETE. OBLIQUE VIEW TO THE SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. 21 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Structure 58.1X, Between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. Food prices, access to food outlets and child weight.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Bao, Yanjun

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the importance of food prices and restaurant and food store outlet availability for child body mass index (BMI). We use the 1998, 2000 and 2002 waves of the child-mother merged files from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth combined with fruit and vegetable and fast food price data obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and outlet density data on fast food and full-service restaurants and supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. Using a random effects estimation model, we found that a 10% increase in the price of fruits and vegetables was associated with a 0.7% increase in child BMI. Fast food prices were not found to be statistically significant in the full sample but were weakly negatively associated with BMI among adolescents with an estimated price elasticity of -0.12. The price estimates were robust to whether we controlled for outlet availability based on a per capita or per land area basis; however, the association between food outlets and child BMI differed depending on the definition. The associations of fruit and vegetable and fast food prices with BMI were significantly stronger both economically and statistically among low- versus high-socioeconomic status children. The estimated fruit and vegetable and fast food price elasticities were 0.14 and -0.26, respectively, among low-income children and 0.09 and -0.13, respectively, among children with less educated mothers. PMID:19231301

  17. 15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west from dam crest (Trash rack visible in reservoir pool behind and right of tower) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Como Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  18. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED...

  19. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED...

  20. Update on endoscopic management of gastric outlet obstruction in children

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Hsun-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) and surgical intervention are two most common and effective treatments for gastric outlet obstruction. Correction of gastric outlet obstruction without the need for surgery is an issue that has been tried to be resolved in these decades; this management has developed with EBD, advanced treatments like local steroid injection, electrocauterization, and stent have been added recently. The most common causes of pediatric gastric outlet obstruction are idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, peptic ulcer disease followed by the ingestion of caustic substances, stenosis secondary to surgical anastomosis; antral web, duplication cyst, ectopic pancreas, and other rare conditions. A complete clinical, radiological and endoscopic evaluation of the patient is required to make the diagnosis, with complimentary histopathologic studies. EBD are used in exceptional cases, some with advantages over surgical intervention depending on each patient in particular and on the characteristics and etiology of the gastric outlet obstruction. Local steroid injection and electrocauterization can augment the effect of EBD. The future of endoscopic treatment seems to be aimed at the use of endoscopic electrocauterization and balloon dilatations. PMID:27803770

  1. 49 CFR 179.220-18 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of cast, fabricated or forged metal. If welded to inner container, they must be of good weldable...-shaped breakage groove shall be cut (not cast) in the upper part of the outlet nozzle at a point... continuous center sills, the breakage groove or its equivalent may not be more than 15 inches below the...

  2. 49 CFR 179.100-14 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Tank Cars (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). (2) Bottom washout shall be of cast, forged or...-shaped breakage groove shall be cut (not cast) in the upper part of the outlet nozzle at a point... accidental breakage will occur at or below the “V” groove or its equivalent. On cars without...

  3. 49 CFR 179.100-14 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 171.7 of this subchapter). (2) Bottom washout shall be of cast, forged or fabricated metal and shall... groove shall be cut (not cast) in the upper part of the outlet nozzle at a point immediately below the... occur at or below the “V” groove or its equivalent. On cars without continuous center sills,...

  4. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.104 Section 929... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES... excess cranberries. (a) In accordance with § 929.61, excess cranberries may be disposed of only in...

  5. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.104 Section 929... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES... excess cranberries. (a) In accordance with § 929.61, excess cranberries may be disposed of only in...

  6. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.104 Section 929... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES... excess cranberries. (a) In accordance with § 929.61, excess cranberries may be disposed of only in...

  7. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.104 Section 929... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES... excess cranberries. (a) In accordance with § 929.61, excess cranberries may be disposed of only in...

  8. 5. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, WITH LOG ACCESS STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Bluebell Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.2 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  9. 6. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, WITH LOG ACCESS STRUCTURE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Bluebell Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.2 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  10. 6. VIEW SHOWING CREST OF DAM AND OUTLET GATE WHEEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING CREST OF DAM AND OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Milk Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 9.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  11. 3. OVERALL VIEW OF DEER LAKE AND UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERALL VIEW OF DEER LAKE AND UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Deer Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 5.8 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  12. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 23.977 Section 23.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.977 Fuel... strainer must— (1) For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2)...

  13. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 23.977 Section 23.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.977 Fuel... strainer must— (1) For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2)...

  14. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 23.977 Section 23.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.977 Fuel... strainer must— (1) For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2)...

  15. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 23.977 Section 23.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.977 Fuel... strainer must— (1) For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2)...

  16. 7 CFR 989.24a - Non-normal outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Non-normal outlets. 989.24a Section 989.24a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  17. 7 CFR 989.24a - Non-normal outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-normal outlets. 989.24a Section 989.24a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  18. 7 CFR 989.24a - Non-normal outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Non-normal outlets. 989.24a Section 989.24a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  19. Constraining Paleolake Activity on Mars from Outlet Valley Morphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudge, T. A.; Fassett, C.; Schwartz, C.

    2015-12-01

    Paleolake basins on Mars have long been studied in an attempt to further understand the hydrology and climate conditions of the ancient martian surface. While the formation of these lacustrine features is evident, the timescale over which they were active and the magnitude of related fluvial activity remains uncertain. The most convincing evidence of paleolake activity comes from hydrologically open basins, or open-basin lakes, that have an outlet valley breaching the basin confining topography, commonly a crater rim. This observation requires that the basin filled completely with standing water before overtopping and incising the outlet valley. The total amount of incision for a given outlet valley is ultimately controlled by a variety of factors, including the susceptibility of the crust to erosion, the topography and hydrology (e.g., gradient, base level) of the terrain exterior to the breach, the magnitude of flooding caused by the initial overtopping of the crater rim, the rate of outflow from the lake once it has reached an equilibrium level following catastrophic breaching, and the duration of time over which the basin contained a hydrologically open lake. Here we present morphometric analyses of the outlet valleys of 20 open-basin lakes on Mars to help further understand ancient martian paleolake activity. We measured the outlet valley depth of incision as compared to the estimated pre-breach topography, as well as the breach width using CTX stereo-derived digital elevation models. Results from basins with different morphometric parameters (e.g., area, mean depth, volume) are compared to one another to assess any systematic relationship(s) between outlet valley morphometry and paleolake basin morphometry. We also examine these lakes in the context of their broader hydrological setting, and consider how our results compare to terrestrial analogs for the process of crater rim breaching. In particular, we examine the process of catastrophic breaching of

  20. Effects of rotation on coolant passage heat transfer. Volume 1: Coolant passages with smooth walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J. H.; Johnson, B. V.; Higgins, A. W.; Steuber, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of rotating multipass passages, for configurations and dimensions typical of modern turbine blades. The immediate objective was the generation of a data base of heat transfer and pressure loss data required to develop heat transfer correlations and to assess computational fluid dynamic techniques for rotating coolant passages. Experiments were conducted in a smooth wall large scale heat transfer model.

  1. Smolt Responses to Hydrodynamic Conditions in Forebay Flow Nets of Surface Flow Outlets, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Hedgepeth, J. B.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Anderson, Michael G.; Deng, Zhiqun; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Sather, Nichole K.; Serkowski, John A.; Steinbeck, John R.

    2009-04-01

    This study provides information on juvenile salmonid behaviors at McNary and The Dalles dams that can be used by the USACE, fisheries resource managers, and others to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance fish passage. We researched smolt movements and ambient hydrodynamic conditions using a new approach combining simultaneous acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and acoustic imaging device (AID) measurements at surface flow outlets (SFO) at McNary and The Dalles dams on the Columbia River during spring and summer 2007. Because swimming effort vectors could be computed from the simultaneous fish and flow data, fish behavior could be categorized as passive, swimming against the flow (positively rheotactic), and swimming with the flow (negatively rheotactic). We present bivariate relationships to provide insight into fish responses to particular hydraulic variables that engineers might consider during SFO design. The data indicate potential for this empirical approach of simultaneous water/fish measurements to lead to SFO design guidelines in the future.

  2. Evaluation of Steelhead Kelt Passage into the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse Corner Collector Prior to the Juvenile Migration Seasons, 2007 and 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Mark A.; Kim, Jina; Nagy, William T.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents the results of a steelhead kelt passage study conducted by the PNNL for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at Bonneville Dam in early spring 2007 and 2008. At the Second Powerhouse, a surface flow outlet called the corner collector (B2CC) may be an effective non-turbine passage route for steelhead kelt moving downstream in early spring before the main juvenile emigration season. The goal of this project was to inform management decisions regarding B2CC operations by estimating the number of kelt using the B2CC for downstream passage at Bonneville Dam prior to the juvenile spring migration season. We performed a hydroacoustic study from March 2 to April 10, 2007 and from March 13 to April 15, 2008.

  3. The relationship between particle deposition in the anterior nasal passage and nasal passage characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, J; Bascom, R; Laube, B; Swift, D L

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of nasal passage characteristics on anterior particle deposition during cyclical breathing. Forty healthy, nonsmoking, adult subjects participated in this study. Nasal passage characteristics such as nostril length, width, angle, ellipticity, and minimum nasal cross-sectional area were measured. The subjects inhaled a polydisperse radioactively tagged aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter = 5.4 microns, geometric standard deviation [GSD] = 1.3) into the nose and exhaled through the mouth. The amount of radioactivity in the nose was measured immediately after inhalation and thereafter for 54 minutes. At 52.5 minutes, subjects wiped the accessible portion of the anterior nose to remove any remaining activity. The difference in activity at 52 and 54 minutes was used as a measure of activity removed during the nose wipe. Percentage of activity in the nasal passage at 52 minutes and percentage of activity removed with the nose wipe were considered surrogates for particles deposited in the anterior nasal passage. A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree of ellipticity of the nostrils was significantly related to particle deposition in the anterior nasal passage. These results suggest that ellipticity of the nostrils may be a determinant of the amount of particle deposition in the anterior nasal passage.

  4. Trapped Ion Quantum Computation by Adiabatic Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Xuni; Wu Chunfeng; Lai, C. H.; Oh, C. H.

    2008-11-07

    We propose a new universal quantum computation scheme for trapped ions in thermal motion via the technique of adiabatic passage, which incorporates the advantages of both the adiabatic passage and the model of trapped ions in thermal motion. Our scheme is immune from the decoherence due to spontaneous emission from excited states as the system in our scheme evolves along a dark state. In our scheme the vibrational degrees of freedom are not required to be cooled to their ground states because they are only virtually excited. It is shown that the fidelity of the resultant gate operation is still high even when the magnitude of the effective Rabi frequency moderately deviates from the desired value.

  5. Rapid, climate-driven changes in outlet glaciers on the Pacific coast of East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Miles, B W J; Stokes, C R; Vieli, A; Cox, N J

    2013-08-29

    Observations of ocean-terminating outlet glaciers in Greenland and West Antarctica indicate that their contribution to sea level is accelerating as a result of increased velocity, thinning and retreat. Thinning has also been reported along the margin of the much larger East Antarctic ice sheet, but whether glaciers are advancing or retreating there is largely unknown, and there has been no attempt to place such changes in the context of localized mass loss or climatic or oceanic forcing. Here we present multidecadal trends in the terminus position of 175 ocean-terminating outlet glaciers along 5,400 kilometres of the margin of the East Antarctic ice sheet, and reveal widespread and synchronous changes. Despite large fluctuations between glaciers--linked to their size--three epochal patterns emerged: 63 per cent of glaciers retreated from 1974 to 1990, 72 per cent advanced from 1990 to 2000, and 58 per cent advanced from 2000 to 2010. These trends were most pronounced along the warmer western South Pacific coast, whereas glaciers along the cooler Ross Sea coast experienced no significant changes. We find that glacier change along the Pacific coast is consistent with a rapid and coherent response to air temperature and sea-ice trends, linked through the dominant mode of atmospheric variability (the Southern Annular Mode). We conclude that parts of the world's largest ice sheet may be more vulnerable to external forcing than recognized previously.

  6. 37. INTERIOR VIEW, CENTRAL PASSAGE AND STAIRCASE LEADING TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. INTERIOR VIEW, CENTRAL PASSAGE AND STAIRCASE LEADING TO THE SECOND FLOOR; THE STAIR RISES AT THE EAST WALL OF THE PASSAGE - Arlington Place, 331 Cotton Avenue, Southwest, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Effect of Fin Passage Length on Optimization of Cylinder Head Cooling Fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.; Graham, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The heat transfer performance of baffled cooling fins on cylinder heads of small, air-cooled, general-aviation aircraft engines was analyzed to determine the potential for improving cooling fin design. Flow baffles were assumed to be installed tightly against the fin end edges, an ideal baffle configuration for guiding all flow between the fins. A rectangular flow passage is thereby formed between each set of two adjacent fins, the fin base surface, and the baffle. These passages extend around each side of the cylinder head, and the cooling air absorbs heat as it flows within them. For each flow passage length, the analysis was concerned with optimizing fin spacing and thickness to achieve the best heat transfer for each fin width. Previous literature has been concerned mainly with maximizing the local fin conductance and has not considered the heating of the gas in the flow direction, which leads to higher wall temperatures at the fin passage exits. If the fins are close together, there is a large surface area, but the airflow is restricted.

  8. Measuring Gains in Reading Ability with Passage Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Zumeta, Rebecca; Dupree, Opio; Kent Johnson

    2005-01-01

    This study examined several aspects of Passage Reading Fluency (PRF) including performance variability across passages alternative designs for measuring PRF gain, and effects on PRF level from retesting with the same passages. Participants were 33 students from grades 2 to 10 attending a school for students with learning disabilities. PRF was…

  9. Safe Passage: Making It through Adolescence in a Risky Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryfoos, Joy G.

    The primary job of parents is to ensure safe passage for their children from infancy through adolescence to adulthood. Research has indicated many things schools can do to turn the privilege of safe passage into a right. Three research-based programs that work to achieve safe passage are described. The first is Caring Connection, a "one-stop-shop"…

  10. 75 FR 61479 - Western Passage OCGenTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Western Passage OCGen\\TM\\ Power Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit... permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Western Passage OCGen\\TM\\ Power Project, located in Western Passage, in the vicinity of the City...

  11. Response of Juvenile Pacific Lamprey to Turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.

    2009-09-14

    To help determine the Pacific lamprey’s ability to survive turbine passage, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted laboratory tests designed to simulate a fish’s passage through the turbine environment. Juvenile Pacific lamprey were subjected to two of three aspects of passage: pressure drop and shear stress. The third aspect, blade strike, was not tested.

  12. Interior view, ground floor passage crossing the main corridor at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, ground floor passage crossing the main corridor at its center, looking east through the doorway linking the two perpendicular axes. The door at the end of the passage opens onto a passage running under the entrance portico bearing ground floor exterior doors at each end. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Double-outlet right ventricle: Pathology and angiocardiography.

    PubMed

    Freedom, Robert M.; Yoo, Shi-Joon

    2000-01-01

    Double-outlet right ventricle is but one form of abnormal ventriculoarterial connection. The definition that more than half of each great artery originates above the morphologically right ventricle is arbitrary. As pointed out by Lecompte, those features that should be defined in hearts with the ventriculoarterial connection of double-outlet right ventricle (and indeed other forms of abnormal ventriculoarterial connection) include the nature of the infundibular septum, ventriculoinfundibular fold, trabeculoseptomargin-alis, attachments of infundibular septum to anterior or posterior limb of trabeculoseptomargin-alis, the size and position of the ventricular septal defect, the spatial relation of great artery(s) to the ventricular septal defect, the spatial relationship between the great, and the distance between the tricuspid and pulmonary valves and the semilunar valves. Copyright 2000 by W.B. Saunders Company

  14. Basal resistance for three of the largest Greenland outlet glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapero, Daniel R.; Joughin, Ian R.; Poinar, Kristin; Morlighem, Mathieu; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Resistance at the ice-bed interface provides a strong control on the response of ice streams and outlet glaciers to external forcing, yet it is not observable by remote sensing. We used inverse methods constrained by satellite observations to infer the basal resistance to flow underneath three of the Greenland Ice Sheet's largest outlet glaciers. In regions of fast ice flow and high (>250 kPa) driving stresses, ice is often assumed to flow over a strong bed. We found, however, that the beds of these three glaciers provide almost no resistance under the fast-flowing trunk. Instead, resistance to flow is provided by the lateral margins and stronger beds underlying slower-moving ice upstream. Additionally, we found isolated patches of high basal resistivity within the predominantly weak beds. Because these small-scale (<1 ice thickness) features may be artifacts of overfitting our solution to measurement errors, we tested their robustness to different degrees of regularization.

  15. Turbofan gas turbine engine with variable fan outlet guide vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Peter John (Inventor); Zenon, Ruby Lasandra (Inventor); LaChapelle, Donald George (Inventor); Mielke, Mark Joseph (Inventor); Grant, Carl (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A turbofan gas turbine engine includes a forward fan section with a row of fan rotor blades, a core engine, and a fan bypass duct downstream of the forward fan section and radially outwardly of the core engine. The forward fan section has only a single stage of variable fan guide vanes which are variable fan outlet guide vanes downstream of the forward fan rotor blades. An exemplary embodiment of the engine includes an afterburner downstream of the fan bypass duct between the core engine and an exhaust nozzle. The variable fan outlet guide vanes are operable to pivot from a nominal OGV position at take-off to an open OGV position at a high flight Mach Number which may be in a range of between about 2.5-4+. Struts extend radially across a radially inwardly curved portion of a flowpath of the engine between the forward fan section and the core engine.

  16. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; AlGhamdi, Salem; Al-Kasim, Fawaz; Habib, Zakaria; Ourfali, Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. PMID:24707411

  17. Giant Hepatic Hemangioma Presenting as Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Cemalettin; Akbulut, Sami; Kutluturk, Koray; Kahraman, Aysegul; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2013-01-01

    Hemangioma, a most frequently encountered primary benign tumor of the liver, is generally determined incidentally during the course of radiologic tests for other reasons. Most lesions are less than 3 cm and a significant proportion of patients are asymptomatic, although the size and location of the lesion in some patients may be associated with the onset of symptoms. Pressure on the stomach and duodenum of giant hemagiomas developing in the left lobe of the liver, in particular, may result in the development of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and feeling bloated, which are characteristic of a gastric outlet obstruction. A 42-year-old man presented with findings of gastric outlet obstruction and weight loss as a result of a giant hepatic hemangioma. PMID:23438272

  18. Giant hepatic hemangioma presenting as gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cemalettin; Akbulut, Sami; Kutluturk, Koray; Kahraman, Aysegul; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2013-01-01

    Hemangioma, a most frequently encountered primary benign tumor of the liver, is generally determined incidentally during the course of radiologic tests for other reasons. Most lesions are less than 3 cm and a significant proportion of patients are asymptomatic, although the size and location of the lesion in some patients may be associated with the onset of symptoms. Pressure on the stomach and duodenum of giant hemagiomas developing in the left lobe of the liver, in particular, may result in the development of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and feeling bloated, which are characteristic of a gastric outlet obstruction. A 42-year-old man presented with findings of gastric outlet obstruction and weight loss as a result of a giant hepatic hemangioma. PMID:23438272

  19. 23. OUTLET PIPE EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE FOR THE HEAD GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. OUTLET PIPE EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE FOR THE HEAD GATE SHOWN IN CO-43-A-22. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 21. OUTLET PIPE AND CONCRETE CHANNEL FOR THE HEAD GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. OUTLET PIPE AND CONCRETE CHANNEL FOR THE HEAD GATE PICTURED IN CO-43-A-20. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 40. OUTLET WORKS: VIBRATION ABSORBER FOR STANDBY UNIT, Sheet H7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. OUTLET WORKS: VIBRATION ABSORBER FOR STANDBY UNIT, Sheet H-7, September, 1940. File no. SA 342/79. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  2. 48. OUTLET WORKS: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO. 3. Sheet H3, October, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. OUTLET WORKS: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO. 3. Sheet H-3, October, 1939. File no. SA 342/59. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  3. 46. OUTLET WORKS: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO. 1. Sheet H1, date ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. OUTLET WORKS: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO. 1. Sheet H-1, date stamped May, 1939. File no. SA 342/9. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  4. 47. OUTLET WORKS: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO. 2. Sheet H2, date ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. OUTLET WORKS: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO. 2. Sheet H-2, date stamped May, 1939. File no. SA 342/10. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  5. 29. OUTLET WORKS: GENERAL PLAN AND SECTIONS. Sheet A1, date ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. OUTLET WORKS: GENERAL PLAN AND SECTIONS. Sheet A-1, date stamped January, 1939. File no. SA 949/80. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  6. Metal halogen battery system with multiple outlet nozzle for hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K.

    1983-06-21

    A metal halogen battery system, including at least one cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode contacted by aqueous electrolyte containing the material of said metal and halogen, store means whereby halogen hydrate is formed and stored as part of an aqueous material, means for circulating electrolyte through the cell and to the store means, and conduit means for transmitting halogen gas formed in the cell to a hydrate former whereby the hydrate is formed in association with the store means, said store means being constructed in the form of a container which includes a filter means, said filter means being inoperative to separate the hydrate formed from the electrolyte, said system having, a hydrate former pump means associated with the store means and being operative to intermix halogen gas with aqueous electrolyte to form halogen hydrate, said hydrate former means including, multiple outlet nozzle means connected with the outlet side of said pump means and being operative to minimize plugging, said nozzle means being comprised of at least one divider means which is generally perpendicular to the rotational axes of gears within the pump means, said divider means acting to divide the flow from the pump means into multiple outlet flow paths.

  7. Determination of gasifier outlet and quench zone blockage

    SciTech Connect

    Clomburg, L.A. Jr.; Crenwelge, O.E. Jr.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a process for monitoring the open cross sectional area of the outlet, or a section of a quench zone or conduit proximate to and communicating with the outlet, to detect changes therein, of a gasifier operated under elevated temperature and pressure for partially oxidizing coal, while quenching synthesis gas and molten flyash particles from the gasifier and while carrying out a process for the partial oxidation of coal in the gasifier. It comprises: providing at least one first pressure transducer in the gasifier; providing at least one second pressure transducer at a locus in the quench zone proximate the outlet of the gasifier; concomitantly receiving sound pressure generated in the gasifier in both the at least one first pressure transducer and the at least one second pressure transducer, and transmitting from each of the transducers a time domain electrical signal proportionate to the amplitude of the sound pressure received by each of the respective transducers; converting the time domain signals respectively to mathematically complex signals in the frequency domain proportional to their pressure magnitudes; comparing the frequency domain signal from the at least one transducer in the quench zone to the frequency domain signal from the at least one transducer in the gasifier at a pre-selected frequency, and deriving a frequency response function from the comparison; and comparing the magnitude of the frequency response function with a predetermined value.

  8. Alcohol Outlets and Substance Use among High Schoolers

    PubMed Central

    Milam, Adam J.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have considered the potential role of the built environment in increasing adolescent substance use. The current study explored the relationship between alcohol outlets, a potential malleable component of the neighborhood environment, and adolescent behavioral outcomes. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between alcohol outlet density, perceived alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana availability (ATOD), perception of substance use as a problem at the school, and self-reported ATOD use. Data come from Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools (MDS3) Initiative, a statewide project focused on measuring and improving school climate. The sample includes 25,308 adolescents from 58 high schools (9th–12th grade) across 12 counties. Multi-level path models indicated a positive relationship between the count of alcohol outlets and perceived availability of ATOD among girls but not boys. Perceived availability was associated with increased ATOD use at both the individual- and school-level, as well as other students’ ATOD use. Findings provide support for the potential role of the built environment in adolescent risk for substance use, particularly among girls. PMID:27574339

  9. Social Disadvantage and Exposure to Lower Priced Alcohol in Off-Premise Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher; Ponicki, William R; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Greater concentrations of off-premise alcohol outlets are found in areas of social disadvantage, exposing disadvantaged populations to excess risk for problems such as assault, child abuse and intimate partner violence. This study examines whether the outlets to which they are exposed also sell cheaper alcohol, potentially further contributing to income-related health disparities. Design and Methods We conducted unobtrusive observations in 295 off-premise outlets in Melbourne, Australia, randomly selected using a spatial sample frame. In semi-logged linear regression models we related the minimum purchase price for a 750ml bottle of wine to a national index of socio-economic advantage for the Census areas in which the outlets were located. Other independent variables characterised outlet features (e.g., volume, chain management) and conditions of the local alcohol market (adjacent outlet characteristics, neighbourhood characteristics). Results A one decile increase in socio-economic advantage was related to a 1.3% increase in logged price. Larger outlets, chains, outlets adjacent to chains, outlets in greater proximity to the nearest neighbouring outlet, those located in areas with more students also had cheaper alcohol. Discussion and Conclusions Not only are disadvantaged populations exposed to more outlets, the outlets to which they are exposed sell cheaper alcohol. This finding appears to be consistent with the spatial dynamics of typical retail markets. PMID:25808717

  10. 12 CFR 7.1014 - Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. 7... ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1014 Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. A national bank may designate bonded agents to sell the bank's money orders at nonbanking outlets. The...

  11. 12 CFR 7.1014 - Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. 7... ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1014 Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. A national bank may designate bonded agents to sell the bank's money orders at nonbanking outlets. The...

  12. 12 CFR 7.1014 - Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. 7... ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1014 Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. A national bank may designate bonded agents to sell the bank's money orders at nonbanking outlets. The...

  13. 12 CFR 7.1014 - Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. 7... ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1014 Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. A national bank may designate bonded agents to sell the bank's money orders at nonbanking outlets. The...

  14. 12 CFR 7.1014 - Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. 7... ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1014 Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. A national bank may designate bonded agents to sell the bank's money orders at nonbanking outlets. The...

  15. A Geospatial Statistical Analysis of the Density of Lottery Outlets within Ethnically Concentrated Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lyna; Nower, Lia; Mayers, Raymond Sanchez; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the density of lottery outlets within ethnically concentrated neighborhoods in Middlesex County, New Jersey, using geospatial statistical analyses. No prior studies have empirically examined the relationship between lottery outlet density and population demographics. Results indicate that lottery outlets were not randomly…

  16. Evaluation of intrusion sensors and video assessment in areas of restricted passage

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, C.E.; Ringler, C.E.

    1996-04-01

    This report discusses an evaluation of intrusion sensors and video assessment in areas of restricted passage. The discussion focuses on applications of sensors and video assessment in suspended ceilings and air ducts. It also includes current and proposed requirements for intrusion detection and assessment. Detection and nuisance alarm characteristics of selected sensors as well as assessment capabilities of low-cost board cameras were included in the evaluation.

  17. Improving hydroturbine pressures to enhance salmon passage survival and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbo, Bradly A.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Renholods, Jon F.; Brown, Richard S.; Colotelo, Alison H. A.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2013-12-12

    This paper provides an overview of turbine pressure data collection and barotrauma studies relative to fish passage through large Kaplan turbines and how this information may be applied to safer fish passage through turbines. The specific objectives are to 1) discuss turbine pressures defined by Sensor Fish releases; 2) discuss what has been learned about pressure effects on fish and the factors influencing barotrauma associated with simulated turbine passage; 3) elucidate data gaps associated with fish behavior and passage that influence barotrauma during turbine passage; 4) discuss how the results of these studies have led to turbine design criteria for safer fish passage; and 5) relate this information to salmon recovery efforts and safer fish passage for Atlantic and Pacific salmonids.

  18. Inverse design of a turbine cascade passage and DNS of a stationary and rotating serpentine passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskowski, Gregory Michael

    2005-12-01

    Experimental investigations of the flow physics past a single stationary transonic turbine blade in a cascade are complicated by the periodic nature of the problem. Typically up to seven blades in a cascade are required to guarantee periodicity about the center blade that, in turn, requires large compressors at transonic speeds. One possibility to circumvent the constraint of so many blades, and allow the necessary optical access, is to place a single blade in a passage consisting of two plexiglass walls that are designed to obtain certain representative periodic flowfield characteristics. Using an optimization procedure based on the method of steepest descent and the RANS equations, the walls were designed to ensure that the Surface Isentropic Mach Number (SIMN) distribution on the blade matched the SIMN of the same blade in an infinite cascade. The experimental setup imposed an additional constraint requiring the flow remained attached along both passage walls. A robust and autonomous design method using a weighted composite cost function was developed and successfully applied. Excellent agreement was achieved between CFD of the infinite cascade SIMN, CFD of the designed double passage SIMN, and the experimentally measured SIMN. Serpentine passages are found in a number of engineering applications including turbine blade cooling passages. The serpentine passage is an ideal candidate for conducting a thorough DNS study due to its geometric simplicity but complex flow physics. The serpentine passage geometry investigated has dimensions 12pidelta x 2delta x 3pidelta and radius of curvature delta/r c = 0.5 in the curved section. Simulations of a test matrix consisting of two different Reynolds numbers, Retau = 180 and Retau = 250, subjected to two different orthogonal rotation numbers, Ro tau = 0 and Rotau = 5 was conducted. Whereas the stationary case results in a symmetric flowfield for the two U-bends constituting the passage, the effect of rotation coupled with

  19. Spontaneous emission in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A.; Vitanov, N. V.; Bergmann, K.

    2005-11-15

    This work explores the effect of spontaneous emission on the population transfer efficiency in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). The approach uses adiabatic elimination of weakly coupled density matrix elements in the Liouville equation, from which a very accurate analytic approximation is derived. The loss of population transfer efficiency is found to decrease exponentially with the factor {omega}{sub 0}{sup 2}/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the spontaneous emission rate and {omega}{sub 0} is the peak Rabi frequency. The transfer efficiency increases with the pulse delay and reaches a steady value. For large pulse delay and large spontaneous emission rate STIRAP degenerates into optical pumping.

  20. Turbine engine component with cooling passages

    DOEpatents

    Arrell, Douglas J.; James, Allister W.

    2012-01-17

    A component for use in a turbine engine including a first member and a second member associated with the first member. The second member includes a plurality of connecting elements extending therefrom. The connecting elements include securing portions at ends thereof that are received in corresponding cavities formed in the first member to attach the second member to the first member. The connecting elements are constructed to space apart a first surface of the second member from a first surface of the first member such that at least one cooling passage is formed between adjacent connecting elements and the first surface of the second member and the first surface of the first member.

  1. Transplacental passage of insulin complexed to antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, W A; Yalow, R S

    1981-01-01

    The passage of plasma proteins across the placental barrier in humans is known to be highly selective. Thus, free maternal insulin has been reported not to cross the normal maternofetal barrier, although insulin-binding antibodies have been detected in newborn infants whose diabetic mothers received insulin therapy. In this report we demonstrate, with the use of a human antiserum that permits distinction between human and animal insulins, that insulin in the cord blood of each of two neonates of insulin-treated diabetic mothers was, in part, animal insulin. The higher the antibody titer of the mother the greater was the total insulin in the cord plasma and the greater was the fraction that was animal insulin. In case 1 cord plasma insulin was 0.7 unit/liter, of which 10% was animal insulin; in case 2 cord plasma insulin was 3.5 units/liter, of which 25% was animal insulin. The demonstration that antigen restricted from transplacental passage can be transferred while complexed to antibody raises the question whether such fetal exposure would induce partial or total immunologic unresponsiveness subsequently if the fetus were rechallenged with the same antigen. PMID:7027265

  2. Ice Thickness in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, C.; Howell, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recently the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first-ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. Results show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. There are few other data to compare with to evaluate if the ice of the Northwest Passage has transitioned as other parts of the Arctic have. Although likely thinner than some 20 or more years ago, ice conditions must still be considered severe, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelao may well be considered the last ice refuge of the Arctic. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice break-up and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  3. Understanding cell passage through constricted microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartas-Ayala, Marco A.; Karnik, Rohit

    2012-11-01

    Recently, several microfluidic platforms have been proposed to characterize cells based on their behaviour during cell passage through constricted channels. Variables like transit time have been analyzed in disease states like sickle cell anemia, malaria and sepsis. Nevertheless, it is hard to make direct comparisons between different platforms and cell types. We present experimental results of the relationship between solid deformable particle properties, i.e. stiffness and relative particle size, and flow properties, i.e. particle's velocity. We measured the hydrodynamic variables during the flow of HL-60 cells, a white myeloid cell type, in narrow microfluidic square channels using a microfluidic differential manometer. We measured the flow force required to move cells of different sizes through microchannels and quantified friction forces opposing cell passage. We determined the non-dimensional parameters that influence the flow of cells and we used them to obtain a non dimensional expression that can be used to predict the forces needed to drive cells through microchannels. We found that the friction force needed to flow HL-60 through a microfluidic channel is the sum of two parts. The first part is a static friction force that is proportional to the force needed to keep the force compressed. The second part is a factor that is proportional to the cell velocity, hence a dynamic term, and slightly sensitive to the compressive force. We thank CONACYT (Mexican Science and Technology Council) for supporting this project, grant 205899.

  4. Alcohol Outlets and Binge Drinking in Urban Neighborhoods: The Implications of Nonlinearity for Intervention and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Hubbard, Alan; Galea, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Alcohol outlet density has long been associated with alcohol-related harms, and policymakers have endorsed alcohol outlet restriction to reduce these harms. However, potential nonlinearity in the relation between outlet density and alcohol consumption has not been rigorously examined. Methods. We used data from the New York Social Environment Study (n = 4000) to examine the shape of the relation between neighborhood alcohol outlet density and binge drinking by using a generalized additive model with locally weighted scatterplot smoothing, and applied an imputation-based marginal modeling approach. Results. We found a nonlinear relation between alcohol outlet density and binge drinking; the association was stronger at densities of more than 80 outlets per square mile. Binge drinking prevalence was estimated to be 13% at 130 outlets, 8% at 80 outlets, and 8% at 20 outlets per square mile. Conclusions. This nonlinearity suggests that reductions in alcohol outlet density where density is highest and the association is strongest may have the largest public health impact per unit reduction. Future research should assess the impact of policies and interventions that aim to reduce alcohol outlet density, and consider nonlinearity in effects. PMID:23409908

  5. Comparing Rasch Calibration of Passage Reading Difficulty with Spache or Dale-Chall Passage Readability Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidder, Steven J.

    The utility and precision of scaling 200 relatively short reading passages were analyzed using a Rasch-based measurement technique as compared to readability estimates using the Spache or Dale-Chall formulas. In addition, a regression model was specified for predicting the grade level of a text a student could literally comprehend based on…

  6. 19. OUTLET OF PIPE WITH A CONCRETE CHANNEL SERVING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. OUTLET OF PIPE WITH A CONCRETE CHANNEL SERVING THE HEAD GATE SHOWN IN CO-43-A-18. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. Thoracic outlet syndrome: a neurological and vascular disorder.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Zachary; Sorenson, Edward; Tubbs, R Shane; Arya, Rahul; Meloy, Patrick; Shah, Rajnil; Shirk, Samuel; Loukas, Marios

    2014-07-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a condition arising from compression of the subclavian vessels and/or brachial plexus as the structures travel from the thoracic outlet to the axilla. Despite the significant pathology associated with TOS, there remains some general disagreement among experts on the specific anatomy, etiology, and pathophysiology of the condition, presumably because of the wide variation in symptoms that manifest in presenting patients, and because of lack of a definitive gold standard for diagnosis. Symptoms associated with TOS have traditionally been divided into vascular and neurogenic categories, a distinction based on the underlying structure(s) implicated. Of the two, neurogenic TOS (nTOS) is more common, and typically presents as compression of the brachial plexus; primarily, but not exclusively, involving its lower trunk. Vascular TOS (vTOS) usually involves compression of the vessel, most commonly the subclavian artery or vein, or is secondary to thrombus formation in the venous vasculature. Any anatomical anomaly in the thoracic outlet has the potential to predispose a patient to TOS. Common anomalies include variations in the insertion of the anterior scalene muscle (ASM) or scalenus minimus muscle, the presence of a cervical rib or of fibrous and muscular bands, variations in insertion of pectoralis minor, and the presence of neurovascular structures, which follow an atypical course. A common diagnostic technique for vTOS is duplex imaging, which has generally replaced more invasive angiographic techniques. In cases of suspected nTOS, electrophysiological nerve studies and ASM blocks provide guidance when screening for patients likely to benefit from surgical decompression of TOS. Surgeons generally agree that the transaxillary approach allows the greatest field of view for first rib excision to relieve compressed vessels. Alternatively, a supraclavicular approach is favored for scalenotomies when the ASM impinges on surrounding

  8. Thoracic outlet syndrome: another cause for unilateral palmar hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Oya; Ozçakar, Levent

    2007-08-01

    One of the most important therapeutic goal in hyperhidrosis treatment is to seek for the underlying cause and to tailor the treatment accordingly. A detailed history and prompt physical examination are needed to clarify the etiological factor. In this study, we report a 34-year-old woman with a diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome presenting with complaints of pain, numbness, and fatigue in her left arm and ipsilateral palmar hyperhidrosis. Thus, we want to highlight a specific potential cause of secondary hyperhidrosis, which can otherwise be easily overlooked, and furthermore, which has a completely different treatment strategy. PMID:16941200

  9. Remnant cystic duct adenocarcinoma presenting as gastric outlet obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Samuel Tsoon Wuan; Cheng, Yue; Cheung, Frances; Tang, Chung Ngai

    2016-01-01

    Only a few case reports of remnant cystic duct carcinoma exist. The presented case of remnant cystic duct carcinoma with invasion to pylorus and bulbus of duodenum leading to gastric outlet obstruction was the first of its kind. We reviewed all cases of remnant cystic duct carcinoma that we found in the literature and summarized its definition, presentation, extent of invasion and clinical outcome after operation. The diagnosis can be difficult due to the rarity of disease, locally advanced nature of disease and distorted postoperative anatomy. A high index of suspicion can increase the likelihood of a preoperative diagnosis. PMID:27154747

  10. Efficient SS steam trap has common inlet/outlet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    This article is an evalution of an energy efficient inverted bucket steam trap which received an Honors award in the steam traps category in the 1982 Chemical Processing Vaaler competition because it features a common centerline top inlet/bottom outlet connection which permits closer installation to discharge several traps into a manifold return, and eliminates any repiping on vertical lines to replace other types of traps that may be wasting energy. The common centerline connector with either a screwed or socket weld end fitting is made of carbon steel and welded to the corrosion-resistant Type 304L stainless steel body.

  11. Compliance Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Spring 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, John R.

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts at The Dalles Dam during spring 2010. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp), dam passage survival should be greater than or equal to 0.96 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal 0.015. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay boat-restricted zone (BRZ) to the tailrace BRZ at The Dalles Dam, as well as the forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency (SPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. A virtual/paired-release design was used to estimate dam passage survival at The Dalles Dam. The approach included releases of acoustic-tagged smolts above John Day Dam that contributed to the formation of a virtual release at the face of The Dalles Dam. A survival estimate from this release was adjusted by a paired release below The Dalles Dam. A total of 4,298 yearling Chinook salmon and 4,309 steelhead smolts were tagged and released in the investigation. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tag model number ATS-156dB, weighing 0.438 g in air, was used in this investigation. The dam passage survival results are summarized as follows: Yearling Chinook Salmon 0.9641 (SE = 0.0096) and Steelhead 0.9535 (SE = 0.0097).

  12. Effect of Air Cooling of Turbine Disk on Power and Efficiency of Turbine from Turbo Engineering Corporation TT13-18 Turbosupercharger.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkey, William E.

    1949-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of turbine-disk cooling with air on the efficiency and the power output of the radial-flow turbine from the Turbo Engineering Corporation TT13-18 turbosupercharger. The turbine was operated at a constant range of ratios of turbine-inlet total pressure to turbine-outlet static pressure of 1,5 and 2.0, turbine-inlet total pressure of 30 inches mercury absolute, turbine-inlet total temperature of 12000 to 20000 R, and rotor speeds of 6000 to 22,000 rpm, Over the normal operating range of the turbine, varying the corrected cooling-air weight flow from approximately 0,30 to 0.75 pound per second produced no measurable effect on the corrected turbine shaft horsepower or the turbine shaft adiabatic efficiency. Varying the turbine-inlet total temperature from 12000 to 20000 R caused no measurable change in the corrected cooling-air weight flow. Calculations indicated that the cooling-air pumping power in the disk passages was small and was within the limits of the accuracy of the power measurements. For high turbine power output, the power loss to the compressor for compressing the cooling air was approximately 3 percent of the total turbine shaft horsepower.

  13. Heat transfer in serpentine flow passages with rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, S.; Takamura, J.; Yamawaki, S.; Yang, Wen-Jei

    1992-06-01

    Results are reported of an experimental study tracing heat transfer performance in a rotating serpentine flow passage of a square cross section. The test section is preceded by a hydrodynamic calming region. The test model is a blow-up (by seven times) of actual winding flow passages in rotor blades. It is concluded that the flow in the 180-deg bends exhibits strong 3D structure. The heat transfer coefficient in the bend is substantially higher than in the straight flow passages. The average heat transfer characteristics over the entire flow passage is greatly affected by flow at the 180-deg bends. Due to secondary flow induced by the Coriolis force, the heat transfer coefficient in the radially outward flow passages diminish on the leading surface, but increase on the trailing surface, with an increase in rotational speed. The trend is reversed in the radially inward flow passages.

  14. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  15. A Longitudinal Analysis of Cigarette Prices in Military Retail Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Christopher Keith; Hyder, Melissa L.; Poston, Walker S. C.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Williams, Larry N.; Lando, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a longitudinal assessment of tobacco pricing in military retail outlets, including trends within each service branch. Methods. We determined the price of a single pack of Marlboro Red cigarettes at military retail stores located in the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii and at their nearest Walmarts in spring 2011 and 2013 (n = 128 for pairs available at both assessments). Results. The average difference between cigarettes sold in military retail outlets and Walmarts decreased from 24.5% in 2011 to 12.5% in 2013. The decrease was partially attributable to significant price decreases at Walmarts. The largest increases in cigarette prices occurred on naval installations. Potential savings at stores on several installations remained substantial in 2013; the largest approached $6 per pack. Stores on 17 military installations decreased cigarette prices during the study period. Conclusions. Tobacco can be purchased in military retail stores at substantial savings over civilian stores. If tobacco pricing is to cease to be an incentive for use among personnel, a revised military tobacco pricing policy is needed. PMID:24524503

  16. Technologies for Upgrading Light Water Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel S. Wendt; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy could potentially be utilized in hybrid energy systems to produce synthetic fuels and feedstocks from indigenous carbon sources such as coal and biomass. First generation nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) technology will most likely be based on conventional light water reactors (LWRs). However, these LWRs provide thermal energy at temperatures of approximately 300°C, while the desired temperatures for many chemical processes are much higher. In order to realize the benefits of nuclear hybrid energy systems with the current LWR reactor fleets, selection and development of a complimentary temperature upgrading technology is necessary. This paper provides an initial assessment of technologies that may be well suited toward LWR outlet temperature upgrading for powering elevated temperature industrial and chemical processes during periods of off-peak power demand. Chemical heat transformers (CHTs) are a technology with the potential to meet LWR temperature upgrading requirements for NHESs. CHTs utilize chemical heat of reaction to change the temperature at which selected heat sources supply or consume thermal energy. CHTs could directly utilize LWR heat output without intermediate mechanical or electrical power conversion operations and the associated thermodynamic losses. CHT thermal characteristics are determined by selection of the chemical working pair and operating conditions. This paper discusses the chemical working pairs applicable to LWR outlet temperature upgrading and the CHT operating conditions required for providing process heat in NHES applications.

  17. First-passage phenomena in hierarchical networks.

    PubMed

    Tavani, Flavia; Agliari, Elena

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we study Markov processes and related first-passage problems on a class of weighted, modular graphs which generalize the Dyson hierarchical model. In these networks, the coupling strength between two nodes depends on their distance and is modulated by a parameter σ. We find that, in the thermodynamic limit, ergodicity is lost and the "distant" nodes cannot be reached. Moreover, for finite-sized systems, there exists a threshold value for σ such that, when σ is relatively large, the inhomogeneity of the coupling pattern prevails and "distant" nodes are hardly reached. The same analysis is carried on also for generic hierarchical graphs, where interactions are meant to involve p-plets (p>2) of nodes, finding that ergodicity is still broken in the thermodynamic limit, but no threshold value for σ is evidenced, ultimately due to a slow growth of the network diameter with the size. PMID:26986314

  18. First-passage phenomena in hierarchical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, Flavia; Agliari, Elena

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we study Markov processes and related first-passage problems on a class of weighted, modular graphs which generalize the Dyson hierarchical model. In these networks, the coupling strength between two nodes depends on their distance and is modulated by a parameter σ . We find that, in the thermodynamic limit, ergodicity is lost and the "distant" nodes cannot be reached. Moreover, for finite-sized systems, there exists a threshold value for σ such that, when σ is relatively large, the inhomogeneity of the coupling pattern prevails and "distant" nodes are hardly reached. The same analysis is carried on also for generic hierarchical graphs, where interactions are meant to involve p -plets (p >2 ) of nodes, finding that ergodicity is still broken in the thermodynamic limit, but no threshold value for σ is evidenced, ultimately due to a slow growth of the network diameter with the size.

  19. Ice thickness in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Christian; Howell, Stephen E. L.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage (NWP) has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. These show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. Results indicate that even in today's climate, ice conditions must still be considered severe. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice breakup and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  20. The Eskimos of the Northwest Passage

    PubMed Central

    Davies, L. E. C.; Hanson, S.

    1965-01-01

    In 1959 and 1960, during the annual survey conducted by the Federal Northern Health Services in the area of the Northwest Passage, the diet and living conditions of some 1500 Eskimos who live in this area were studied and blood and urine samples were obtained from 40-50% of this population. Hemoglobin, blood cell morphology, serum protein-bound iodine, serum proteins, serum lipids and serum total cholesterol estimations, urinalyses, and agglutination studies for brucellosis were carried out. Hemoglobin levels were in the normal range; however, increased contact with civilization appeared to be associated with lower hemoglobin levels. Eleven per cent of the Eskimos showed eosinophilia. Serum proteins were normal. Serum lipids and serum cholesterol levels were higher in Eskimo children living in a government residential school than in a comparable group living on the Barren Lands. Serum protein-bound iodine levels were in the upper euthyroid range. Diabetes mellitus occurs among Eskimos. Sporadic cases of brucellosis also occur. PMID:14246293

  1. Tectonic reconstructions for paleobathymetry in Drake Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagles, Graeme; Jokat, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    A minimum-complexity tectonic reconstruction, based on published and new basin opening models, depicts how the Scotia Sea grew by Cenozoic plate divergence, dismembering a Jurassic sheared margin of Gondwana. Part of the Jurassic-early Cretaceous ocean that accreted to this margin forms the core of the Central Scotia Plate, the arc plate above a trench at the eastern end of the Scotia Sea, which migrated east away from the Antarctic and South American plates. A sequence of extensional basins opened on the western edge of the Central Scotia Plate at 50-30 Ma, decoupled from the South American Plate to the northwest by slow motion on a long transform fault. Succeeding the basins, seafloor spreading started around 30 Ma on the West Scotia Ridge, which propagated northwards in the 23-17 Ma period and ceased to operate at 6 Ma. The circuits of plate motions inside and outside the Scotia Arc are joined via rotations that describe Antarctic-Central Scotia plate motion in Powell Basin until 20 Ma, and along the South Scotia Ridge thereafter. The modelled relative motion at the northern edge of the Scotia Sea is thus constrained only by the plate circuit, but nonetheless resembles that known coarsely from the geological record of Tierra del Fuego. A paleobathymetric interpretation of nine time slices in the model shows Drake Passage developing as an intermediate-depth oceanographic gateway at 50-30 Ma, with deep flow possible afterwards. Initially, this deep flow would have been made tortuous by numerous intermediate and shallow barriers. A frontal pattern resembling that in the modern Scotia Sea would have awaited the clearance of significant barriers by continuing seafloor spreading in the Scotia Sea at ~ 18.5 Ma, at Shag Rocks Passage, and after 10 Ma southeast of South Georgia.

  2. Binary fish passage models for uniform and nonuniform flows

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S

    2011-01-01

    Binary fish passage models are considered by many fisheries managers to be the best 21 available practice for culvert inventory assessments and for fishway and barrier design. 22 Misunderstandings between different binary passage modeling approaches often arise, 23 however, due to differences in terminology, application and presentation. In this paper 24 one-dimensional binary fish passage models are reviewed and refined to clarify their 25 origins and applications. For uniform flow, a simple exhaustion-threshold (ET) model 26 equation is derived that predicts the flow speed threshold in a fishway or velocity barrier 27 that causes exhaustion at a given maximum distance of ascent. Flow speeds at or above 28 the threshold predict failure to pass (exclusion). Flow speeds below the threshold predict 29 passage. The binary ET model is therefore intuitive and easily applied to predict passage 30 or exclusion. It is also shown to be consistent with the distance-maximizing model. The 31 ET model s limitation to uniform flow is addressed by deriving a passage model that 32 accounts for nonuniform flow conditions more commonly found in the field, including 33 backwater profiles and drawdown curves. Comparison of these models with 34 experimental observations of volitional passage for Gambusia affinis in uniform and 35 nonuniform flows indicates reasonable prediction of binary outcomes (passage or 36 exclusion) if the flow speed is not near the threshold flow velocity. More research is 37 needed on fish behavior, passage strategies under nonuniform flow regimes and 38 stochastic methods that account for individual differences in swimming performance at or 39 near the threshold flow speed. Future experiments should track and measure ground 40 speeds of ascending fish to test nonuniform flow passage strategies and to improve model 41 predictions. Stochastic models, such as Monte-Carlo techniques, that account for 42 different passage performance among individuals and allow

  3. The Sensor Fish: Measuring Fish Passage in Severe Hydraulic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J. ); Duncan, Joanne P. ); Gilbride, Theresa L. )

    2003-05-28

    This article describes PNNL's efforts to develop the Sensor Fish, a waterproof sensor package that travels thru the turbines of spillways of hydroelectric dam to collect pressure and acceleration data on the conditions experienced by live salmon smolts during dam passage. Sensor Fish development is sponsored by the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine Survival Program. The article also gave two recent examples of Sensor Fish use: turbine passage at a McNary Kaplan turbine and spill passage in topspill at Rock Island Dam.

  4. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam Turbines, Early Spring 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.

    2012-02-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam turbines during early spring 2011. The study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) to investigate whether adult steelhead are passing through turbines during early spring before annual sluiceway operations typically begin. The sluiceway surface flow outlet is the optimal non-turbine route for adult steelhead, although operating the sluiceway reduces hydropower production. This is a follow-up study to similar studies of adult steelhead passage at the sluiceway and turbines we conducted in the fall/winter 2008, early spring 2009, fall/winter 2009, and early spring 2010. The goal of the 2011 study was to characterize adult steelhead passage rates at the turbines while the sluiceway was closed so fisheries managers would have additional information to use in decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. Sluiceway operations were not scheduled to begin until April 10, 2011. However, based on a management decision in late February, sluiceway operations commenced on March 1, 2011. Therefore, this study provided estimates of fish passage rates through the turbines, and not the sluiceway, while the sluiceway was open. The study period was March 1 through April 10, 2011 (41 days total). The study objective was to estimate the number and distribution of adult steelhead and kelt-sized targets passing into turbine units. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics with transducers deployed at all 22 main turbine units at The Dalles Dam. Adult steelhead passage through the turbines occurred on 9 days during the study (March 9, 12, 30, and 31 and April 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9). We estimated a total of 215 {+-} 98 (95% confidence interval) adult steelhead targets passed through the

  5. Velocity structure and transport in the Windward Islands Passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, W. Douglas; Johns, William E.

    1997-03-01

    During 1991-1994, repeated measurements of current structure and water mass properties were made in the major southern passages to the Caribbean Sea between Trinidad and Dominica. A total of 10 cruises were performed in different seasons, consisting primarily of serial station occupations in the Grenada, St Vincent, St Lucia, and Dominica Passages. This data set is by far the most comprehensive available in these passages and better determines the mean flow and range of variability than do previous studies. The flow structure in these passages is characterized by a strong and relatively stable inflow above the thermocline (approximately the upper 100 m), and a more highly variable flow regime within and below the thermocline. Typical near-surface inflow velocities in Grenada and St Vincent passages were 40-60 cm s -1, with maximum observed currents of 90 cm s -1. Frequently, counterflows were observed below this surface layer flowing out of the Caribbean, trapped to the southern side of the passages. This subsurface counterflow appeared to be strongest and most prevalent in Grenada Passage, where outflow speeds as large as 30 cm s -1 were observed. As a result, the ensemble mean sections for the three southern passages exhibit a deep inflow concentrated in the northern and central parts of the passages, and weak outflow on the southern sides. The ensemble of measurements from this program indicate a mean transport of 9.5±3 × 10 6 m 3 s -1 through the southern passages, with a range of variability from 3 to 17 × 10 6 m 3 s -1. No clear annual cycle is apparent in the passage transports. Mean transports calculated for the individual passages were 4.7, 3.4, 0.9, and 0.5 × 10 6 m 3 s -1, respectively, for Grenada, St Vincent, St Lucia, and Dominica Passages, decreasing monotonically northward and indicating that Grenada and St Vincent Passages largely dominate the inflow to the southern Caribbean. Consideration of this data set, historical data, Sverdrup theory and

  6. Secondary air injection system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  7. Effect of wall edge suction on the performance of a short annular dump diffuser with exit passage flow resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of wall edge suction on the performance of a short annular dump diffuser having a perforated plate flow resistance device in the exit passage was evaluated. Testing was conducted with air at near ambient pressure and temperature at inlet Mach numbers of 0.18 and 0.27 with suction rates up to 13.5 percent. Results show that pressure recovery downstream of the perforated plate was improved significantly by suction. Optimum performance was obtained with the flow resistance plate located at one inlet passage height downstream of the dump plane.

  8. Modeling ice front Dynamics of Greenland outlet glaciers using ISSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morlighem, M.; Bondzio, J. H.; Seroussi, H. L.; Rignot, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    The recent increase in the rate of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet is primarily due to the acceleration and thinning of outlet glaciers along the coast. This acceleration is a dynamic response to the retreat of calving fronts, which leads to a loss in resistive stresses. These processes need to be included in ice sheet models in order to be able to accurately reproduce current trends in mass loss, and in the long term reduce the uncertainty in the contribution of ice sheets to sea level rise. Today, the vast majority of ice sheet models that include moving boundaries are one dimensional flow line and vertical flow band models, that are not adapted to the complex geometries of Greenland outlet glaciers, as they do not accurately capture changes in lateral stresses. Here, we use the level set method to track moving boundaries within a 2D plane view model of the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), and investigate the sensitivity of Store Glacier, in western Greenland, to the amount of melting occurring at its calving front. We explore different calving laws and obtain the best results with a new simple calving law adapted from von Mises yield criterion. We show that the ocean circulation near the front and the amount of runoff are able to trigger ice front advance and retreat depending on the amount of melting that they produce at the calving face, but the bed topography controls the stable positions of the ice front. The modeled calving front of Store Glacier, for which we have quality bed topography and sea floor bathymetry data, is particularly stable because of the presence of a large sill at the glacier terminus. If the ice front detaches from this stabilizing sill due to larger amounts of melting at the front or due to large calving events, the glacier front starts to retreat as the bed deepens inland, until it finds another stabilizing feature in the bed topography. The new bed topography maps based on mass conservation make it possible to model more

  9. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2012 - February 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hatton, Tyson; Kofoot, Eric E.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin

    2014-01-01

    The movements and dam passage of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were studied at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, near Springfield, Oregon, during 2012 and 2013. Cougar Dam is a high-head flood-control reservoir with a temperature control tower as its outlet enabling selective withdrawals of water at various depths to control the temperature of water passed downstream. This report describes the second year of a 2-year study with the goal of providing information to inform decisions about future downstream passage alternatives. Inferences were based on the behavior of yearling-size juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters. The fish were released near the head of the reservoir during the spring (March, April, and May) and fall (September, October, and November) of 2012. Most tagged fish were of hatchery origin (468 spring, 449 fall) because of the low number of wild fish captured from within the reservoir (0 spring, 65 fall). Detections at hydrophones placed in several lines across the reservoir and within a collective system used to estimate three-dimensional positions near the temperature control tower were used to determine fish behavior and factors affecting dam passage rates. Most tagged fish made repeated non-random migrations from one end of the reservoir to the other and took a median of 3.7–11.7 days to travel about 7 kilometers from the release site to within about 100 meters of the temperature control tower, depending on season and origin. Reservoir passage efficiency (percentage of tagged fish detected at the head of the forebay) was 97.8 percent for hatchery fish and 74.2 percent for wild fish. Tagged fish commonly were within about 100 meters of the temperature control tower, and often spent considerable time near the entrance to the tower; however, the dam passage efficiency (percentage of dam passage of fish detected at the head of the forebay) was low for fish released during the spring (11.1 percent) and

  10. Soot particles at an elevated site in eastern China during the passage of a strong cyclone.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hongya; Shao, Longyi; Zhang, Daizhou

    2012-07-15

    Atmospheric particles larger than 0.2 μm were collected at the top of Mt. Tai (36.25°N, 117.10°E, 1534 m a.s.l.) in eastern China in May 2008 during the passage of a strong cyclone. The particles were analyzed with electron microscopes and characterized by morphology, equivalent diameter and elemental composition. Soot particles with coating (coated soot particles) and those without apparent coating (naked soot particles) were predominant in the diameter range smaller than 0.6 μm in all samples. The number-size distribution of the relative abundance of naked soot particles in the prefrontal air was similar to that in the postfrontal air and their size modes were around 0.2-0.3 μm. However, the distribution of inclusions of coated soot particles showed a mode in the range of 0.1-0.3 μm. The coating degree of coated soot particles, which was defined by the ratio of the diameter of inclusion to the diameter of particle body, showed a mode around 0.5 with the range of 0.3-0.6. These results indicate that the status of soot particles in the prefrontal and postfrontal air was similar although air pollution levels were dramatically different. In addition, the relative abundance of accumulation mode particles increased with the decrease of soot particles after the front passage.

  11. Is local alcohol outlet density related to alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities?

    PubMed

    Richardson, E A; Hill, S E; Mitchell, R; Pearce, J; Shortt, N K

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol consumption may be influenced by the local alcohol retailing environment. This study is the first to examine neighbourhood alcohol outlet availability (on- and off-sales outlets) and alcohol-related health outcomes in Scotland. Alcohol-related hospitalisations and deaths were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with higher outlet densities, and off-sales outlets were more important than on-sales outlets. The relationships held for most age groups, including those under the legal minimum drinking age, although were not significant for the youngest legal drinkers (18-25 years). Alcohol-related deaths and hospitalisations were higher in more income-deprived neighbourhoods, and the gradient in deaths (but not hospitalisations) was marginally larger in neighbourhoods with higher off-sales outlet densities. Efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm should consider the potentially important role of the alcohol retail environment. PMID:25840352

  12. Is local alcohol outlet density related to alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities?

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, E.A.; Hill, S.E.; Mitchell, R.; Pearce, J.; Shortt, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption may be influenced by the local alcohol retailing environment. This study is the first to examine neighbourhood alcohol outlet availability (on- and off-sales outlets) and alcohol-related health outcomes in Scotland. Alcohol-related hospitalisations and deaths were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with higher outlet densities, and off-sales outlets were more important than on-sales outlets. The relationships held for most age groups, including those under the legal minimum drinking age, although were not significant for the youngest legal drinkers (18–25 years). Alcohol-related deaths and hospitalisations were higher in more income-deprived neighbourhoods, and the gradient in deaths (but not hospitalisations) was marginally larger in neighbourhoods with higher off-sales outlet densities. Efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm should consider the potentially important role of the alcohol retail environment. PMID:25840352

  13. Surgical palliation of gastric outlet obstruction in advanced malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Potz, Brittany A; Miner, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a common problem associated with advanced malignancies of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Palliative treatment of patients’ symptoms who present with GOO is an important aspect of their care. Surgical palliation of malignancy is defined as a procedure performed with the intention of relieving symptoms caused by an advanced malignancy or improving quality of life. Palliative treatment for GOO includes operative (open and laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy) and non-operative (endoscopic stenting) options. The performance status and medical condition of the patient, the extent of the cancer, the patients prognosis, the availability of a curative procedure, the natural history of symptoms of the disease (primary and secondary), the durability of the procedure, and the quality of life and life expectancy of the patient should always be considered when choosing treatment for any patient with advanced malignancy. Gastrojejunostomy appears to be associated with better long term symptom relief while stenting appears to be associated with lower immediate procedure related morbidity.

  14. Double outlet from chambers of left ventricular morphology.

    PubMed Central

    Coto, E O; Jimenez, M Q; Castaneda, A R; Rufilanchas, J J; Deverall, P B

    1979-01-01

    This series of 5 cases with double outlet of morphologically left ventricular chamber includes 4 found during a review of 1700 heart specimens (incidence 0.23%) and 1 found at operation and successfully corrected. Abnormal atrioventricular connection precluding total correction was present in the 4 anatomical cases. Clinical diagnosis may be difficult and it is suggested that axial cineangiography may make anatomical diagnosis easier. Absence of the infundibular septum and aortic laevoposition are frequent. As some cases can be surgically corrected, accurate information is required on the size of the right ventricle, the morphology and function of the atrioventricular valves, the presence, size, and position of the ventricular septal defect, and the degree and type of outflow tract obstruction. Images PMID:475930

  15. Gastrointestinal neurofibromatosis: an unusual cause of gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Jennifer R; Haber, Marian M; Garcia, Fernando U

    2005-02-01

    Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF-1), also known as von Recklinghausen disease, is a common autosomal dominant condition occurring in approximately 1/3000 births. NF-1 is known to be associated with gastrointestinal neoplasms in 2-25 per cent of patients. We report the first case of gastric outlet obstruction with perforation caused by neurofibroma in a patient with NF-1. The literature is reviewed, examining 61 previously reported cases of noncarcinoid gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms in patients with NF-1 for symptoms, location, and types of neoplasms. Neoplasms were located most often in the small intestine (72%). Neurofibromas, found in 52 per cent of patients, were the most frequently diagnosed benign neoplasms followed by leiomyomas (13%), ganglioneurofibromas (9.8%), and gastrointestinal stomal tumor (GIST) (6.5%). Adenocarcinoma was present in 23 per cent of patients. Patients with NF-1 and GI symptoms are at risk for gastrointestinal neoplasms from which symptomatic patients are likely to experience significant morbidity.

  16. Investigating Long-term Behavior of Outlet Glaciers in Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csatho, Beata; vanderVeen, Kees; Schenk, Toni

    2005-01-01

    Repeat surveys by airborne laser altimetry in the 1990s have revealed significant thinning of outlet glaciers draining the interior of the Greenland Ice Sheet, with thinning rates up to several meters per year. To fully appreciate the significance of these recent glacier changes, the magnitude of retreat and surface lowering must be placed within the broader context of the retreat since the Last Glacial Maximum and, more significantly, of the retreat following the temporary glacier advance during the Little Ice Age (LIA). The LIA maximum stand is marked by trimlines, sharp boundaries between recently deglacifated unvegetated rocks, and vegetated surfaces at higher elevations. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of remote sensing data to map these trimlines and other glacial geomorphologic features.

  17. Thoracic outlet syndrome secondary to a mid-clavicle malunion.

    PubMed

    Beliaev, Andrei M; Fougere, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old man presented with a painful 'clunking' sensation in the right mid-clavicle, and pain and dysaesthesia along the medial aspect of his right arm and hand. Three months earlier, he had been involved in a vehicle accident and sustained a right clavicle fracture. He had a large step off of the right clavicle with a medialisation of the right shoulder. At 90° abduction in external rotation of both shoulders he developed pain, paraesthesia and disappearance of the right radial artery pulsation. CT of the right shoulder in the neutral position demonstrated the clavicle-to-first rib distance of 5.5 mm, MRI showed the clavicular bone callus had a mass effect with effacement of anterior fat adjacent to the brachial plexus cords. He was diagnosed with thoracic outlet syndrome and underwent a corrective right clavicle osteotomy with the use of an AcuMed superior clavicle plate. PMID:26045517

  18. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E; Rose, Shyanika W

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  19. Double outlet right ventricle. Study of 27 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, A H; Acerete, F; Quero, M; Castro, M C

    1976-01-01

    Out of 1610 children's hearts with congenital malformations there were 27 specimens showing double outlet right ventricle. Cases with dextrocardia, situs inversus, or l-venticular loop were excluded. Anatomical examination was performed with particular reference to the infundibular region, the great vessels, and the ventricular septum. The commonest associated malformations were ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis. Aortic stenosis was the predominant finding in those cases dying in the neonatal period. An aortic conus was associated with pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, and d-transposition, a pulmonary conus with ventricular septal defect and a double conus with stenosis of either great vessel. The anterior vessel always had a muscular conus and the posterior vessel was commonly stenotic. Images PMID:1008954

  20. North Atlantic warming and the retreat of Greenland's outlet glaciers.

    PubMed

    Straneo, Fiammetta; Heimbach, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet quadrupled over the past two decades, contributing a quarter of the observed global sea-level rise. Increased submarine melting is thought to have triggered the retreat of Greenland's outlet glaciers, which is partly responsible for the ice loss. However, the chain of events and physical processes remain elusive. Recent evidence suggests that an anomalous inflow of subtropical waters driven by atmospheric changes, multidecadal natural ocean variability and a long-term increase in the North Atlantic's upper ocean heat content since the 1950s all contributed to a warming of the subpolar North Atlantic. This led, in conjunction with increased runoff, to enhanced submarine glacier melting. Future climate projections raise the potential for continued increases in warming and ice-mass loss, with implications for sea level and climate.

  1. Bladder outlet obstruction treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Terrence R.

    1991-07-01

    Fifty-nine males with bladder outlet obstruction were treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration of the prostate. Utilizing a 26.5 French urethral sheath, surgery was accomplished with a 10 French, 0-700 micron vibration level ultrasonic tip with an excursion rate of 39 kHz. Complete removal of the adenoma was accomplished, followed by transurethral electrocautery biopsies of both lateral lobes to compare pathologic specimens. One-year follow-up revealed satisfactory voiding patterns in 57 of 59 men (96%). Two men developed bladder neck contractures. Pathologic comparisons showed 100% correlation between aspirated and TUR specimens (56 BPH, 3 adeno-carcinoma). Forty-sevel men were active sexually preoperatively (6 with inflatable penile prostheses). Post ultrasonic aspiration, 46 men had erectile function similar to preoperative levels with one patient suffering erectile dysfunction. Forty men (85%) had antegrade ejaculation while 7 (15%) experienced retrograde or retarded ejaculation. No patients were incontinent.

  2. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E; Rose, Shyanika W

    2016-03-10

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living.

  3. A severe case of vascular thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bucek, R A; Schnürer, G; Ahmadi, A; Maca, T H; Meissl, G; Minar, E

    2000-11-24

    We report a 21-year-old patient who presented at the outpatient department of angiology with incipient necroses in the fingertips of the right hand. Colour-coded duplex sonography and angiography demonstrated occlusion of the right brachial, ulnar and radial arteries, obviously resulting from an embolism from the subclavian artery narrowed by a cervical rib. After partly successful local thrombolysis this accessory rib was resected. We review angiologic signs and neurological symptoms of the thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) and analyse the current literature regarding diagnostic procedures and treatment. This complicated and severe case of TOS in a young patient ending with paresis of the right arm and partial finger amputation emphasises the importance of early diagnosis of this condition. PMID:11142135

  4. Surface Layer Turbulence During a Frontal Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, M; Lundquist, J K

    2004-06-15

    calculations using these techniques are employed using data from both the sonic and hotwire anemometers, when possible. Unfortunately, direct calculations of {var_epsilon} were not possible during a part of the frontal passage because the high wind speeds concurrent with the frontal passage demand very high frequency resolution, beyond that possible with the hotwire anemometer, for direct {var_epsilon} calculations. The calculations resulting from these three techniques are presented for the cold front as a time series. Quantitative comparisons of the direct and indirect calculation techniques are also given. More detail, as well as a discussion of energy spectra, can be found in Piper & Lundquist(2004).

  5. Generation of atomic NOON states via shortcuts to adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chong; Su, Shi-Lei; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou

    2016-10-01

    Based on Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants and quantum Zeno dynamics, we propose an effective scheme for generating atomic NOON states via shortcuts to adiabatic passage. The photon losses are efficiently suppressed by engineering shortcuts to adiabatic passage in the scheme. The numerical simulation shows that the atomic NOON states can be generated with high fidelity.

  6. Tick passage results in enhanced attenuation of babesia bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serial blood passage of virulent Babesia bovis in splenectomized cattle results in attenuated derivatives that do not cause neurologic disease. Tick transmissibility can be lost with attenuation, and has been reported to result in a reversion to virulence following tick passage. This study provides ...

  7. Bilingual Listeners' Perception of Temporally Manipulated English Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Farooq, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The current study measured, objectively and subjectively, how changes in speech rate affect recognition of English passages in bilingual listeners. Method: Ten native monolingual, 20 English-dominant bilingual, and 20 non-English-dominant bilingual listeners repeated target words in English passages at five speech rates (unprocessed, two…

  8. Gender Differences in Implicit and Explicit Memory for Affective Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Vardy, Susan Bernstein.; Frohlich, Jonathan; Wyatt, Gwinne; Dimitri, Diana; Constante, Shimon; Guterman, Elan

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-two participants were administered 4 verbal tasks, an Implicit Affective Task, an Implicit Neutral Task, an Explicit Affective Task, and an Explicit Neutral Task. For the Implicit Tasks, participants were timed while reading passages aloud as quickly as possible, but not so quickly that they did not understand. A target verbal passage was…

  9. Optimal Number of Gaps in C-Test Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of the optimal number of gaps in C-Test passages. An English C-Test battery containing four passages each having 40 blanks was given to 104 undergraduate students of English. The data were entered into SPSS spreadsheet. Out of the complete data with 160 blanks seven additional datasets were constructed. In the first…

  10. Middle Passage in the Triangular Slave Trade: The West Indies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawh, Ruth; Scales, Alice M.

    2006-01-01

    Our narrative focuses on the middle passage of the slave trade in the West Indies. Herein we describe why more men, women, and children were imported in the West Indies than other islands. Specifically, our aim was to address how slaves in the middle passage of the triangular slave trade were treated, how they sustained themselves, and how they…

  11. Changing Sea Ice Conditions in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivy, A. C.; Howell, S.; Agnew, T.; Derksen, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Northwest Passage lies in the middle of Canadian Arctic Archipelago providing a potential deepwater route that links the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Discovered by Sir Robert M’Clure in the 1850s, ever-present multi-year ice (MYI) has always prevented its practical navigation. 2007 marked extreme low MYI conditions in the Arctic and temporarily cleared the Northwest Passage. However, is one single clearing event within the Northwest Passage over the past 40 years indicative of future clearings? This analysis addressed two inter-related questions: i) why has the Northwest Passage contained historically heavy amounts of MYI? and ii) will decreases in MYI within the Northwest Passage continue into the future? Results indicate that for nearly 4 decades, the southern regions of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago have continuously operated as a drain-trap for MYI and this mechanism is responsible for maintaining the heavy MYI conditions within the Northwest Passage. The oldest and thickest MYI in the world resides along the northern flank of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago therefore, as the transition to a sea ice-free Arctic continues, MYI from this region will continue to migrate southward to the channels of the Northwest Passage. Results also find that 2007 was indeed an anomalously light sea ice year in the Northwest Passage but record low ice conditions have since been observed as of mid-August 2010.

  12. Effects of Outlets on Cracking Risk and Integral Stability of Super-High Arch Dams

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, case study on outlet cracking is first conducted for the Goupitan and Xiaowan arch dams. A nonlinear FEM method is then implemented to study effects of the outlets on integral stability of the Xiluodu arch dam under two loading conditions, i.e., normal loading and overloading conditions. On the basis of the case study and the numerical modelling, the outlet cracking mechanism, risk, and corresponding reinforcement measures are discussed. Furthermore, the numerical simulation reveals that (1) under the normal loading conditions, the optimal distribution of the outlets will contribute to the tensile stress release in the local zone of the dam stream surface and decrease the outlet cracking risk during the operation period. (2) Under the overloading conditions, the cracks initiate around the outlets, then propagate along the horizontal direction, and finally coalesce with those in adjacent outlets, where the yield zone of the dam has a shape of butterfly. Throughout this study, a dam outlet cracking risk control and reinforcement principle is proposed to optimize the outlet design, select the appropriate concrete material, strengthen the temperature control during construction period, design reasonable impounding scheme, and repair the cracks according to their classification. PMID:25152907

  13. Community organization moderates the effect of alcohol outlet density on violence.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Grubesic, Tony H

    2012-12-01

    There is growing evidence from multiple disciplines that alcohol outlet density is associated with community levels of assault. Based on the theoretical and empirical literatures on social organization and crime, we tested the hypothesis that the association between alcohol outlet density and neighbourhood violence rates is moderated by social organization. Using geocoded police data on assaults, geocoded data on the location of alcohol outlets, and controlling for several structural factors thought to be associated with violence rates, we tested this hypothesis employing negative binomial regression with our sample of 298 block groups in Cincinnati. Our results revealed direct effects of alcohol outlet density and social organization on assault density, and these effects held for different outlet types (i.e., off-premise, bars, restaurants) and levels of harm (i.e., simple and aggravated assaults). More importantly, we found that the strength of the outlet-assault association was significantly weaker in more socially organized communities. Subsequent analyses by level of organization revealed no effects of alcohol outlet density on aggravated assaults in organized block groups, but significant effects in disorganized block groups. We found no association between social (dis)organization and outlet density. These results clarify the community-level relationship between alcohol outlets and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  14. The Effect of Tobacco Outlet Density and Proximity on Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Cromley, Ellen K.; Li, Yisheng; Cao, Yumei; Dela Mater, Richard; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the influence of tobacco outlet density and residential proximity to tobacco outlets on continuous smoking abstinence 6 months after a quit attempt. Methods. We used continuation ratio logit models to examine the relationships of tobacco outlet density and tobacco outlet proximity with biochemically verified continuous abstinence across weeks 1, 2, 4, and 26 after quitting among 414 adult smokers from Houston, Texas (33% non-Latino White, 34% non-Latino Black, and 33% Latino). Analyses controlled for age, race/ethnicity, partner status, education, gender, employment status, prequit smoking rate, and the number of years smoked. Results. Residential proximity to tobacco outlets, but not tobacco outlet density, provided unique information in the prediction of long-term, continuous abstinence from smoking during a specific quit attempt. Participants residing less than 250 meters (P = .01) or less than 500 meters (P = .04) from the closest tobacco outlet were less likely to be abstinent than were those living 250 meters or farther or 500 meters or farther, respectively, from outlets. Conclusions. Because residential proximity to tobacco outlets influences smoking cessation, zoning restrictions to limit tobacco sales in residential areas may complement existing efforts to reduce tobacco use. PMID:21164089

  15. Bigeodesics in First-Passage Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damron, Michael; Hanson, Jack

    2016-09-01

    In first-passage percolation, we place i.i.d. continuous weights at the edges of Z^2 and consider the weighted graph metric. A distance-minimizing path between points x and y is called a geodesic, and a bigeodesic is a doubly-infinite path whose segments are geodesics. It is a famous conjecture that almost surely, there are no bigeodesics. In the 1990s, Licea-Newman showed that, under a curvature assumption on the "asymptotic shape," all infinite geodesics have an asymptotic direction, and there is a full measure set {D subset [0,2π)} such that for any {θ in D} , there are no bigeodesics with one end directed in direction {θ} . In this paper, we show that there are no bigeodesics with one end directed in any deterministic direction, assuming the shape boundary is differentiable. This rules out existence of ground state pairs for the related disordered ferromagnet whose interface has a deterministic direction. Furthermore, it resolves the Benjamini-Kalai-Schramm "midpoint problem" (Benjamini et al. in Ann Probab 31, p. 1976, 2003). under the extra assumption that the limit shape boundary is differentiable.

  16. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages.

    PubMed

    Mittal, B; Deutsch, M; Iwatsuki, S

    1985-04-01

    We analyzed the records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From our data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. We have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed.

  17. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, B.; Deutsch, M.; Iwatsuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) were analyzed to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From the data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. The authors have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed.

  18. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages.

    PubMed

    Mittal, B; Deutsch, M; Iwatsuki, S

    1985-04-01

    We analyzed the records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From our data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. We have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed. PMID:3980281

  19. Transplacental passage of antimicrobial paraben preservatives.

    PubMed

    Towers, Craig V; Terry, Paul D; Lewis, David; Howard, Bobby; Chambers, Wesley; Armistead, Casey; Weitz, Beth; Porter, Stephanie; Borman, Christopher J; Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Parabens are widely used preservatives suspected of being endocrine disruptors, with implications for human growth and development. The most common paraben found in consumer products is methylparaben. To date, no study has examined whether these substances cross the human placenta. A total of 100 study subjects (50 mother-child pairs) were enrolled at two medical institutions, serving primarily African-American and Caucasian women, respectively. A maternal blood sample was drawn on admission and a paired cord blood sample was obtained at delivery. Of the 50 mothers, 47 (94%) showed methylparaben in their blood (mean level 20.41 ng/l), and 47 in cords bloods (mean level 36.54 ng/l). There were 45 mother-child pairs where methylparaben was found in both samples. Of these, the fetal level was higher than the maternal level in 23 (51%). For butylparaben, only 4 mothers (8%) showed detectable levels (mean 40.54 ng/l), whereas 8 cord blood samples (16%) were positive (mean 32.5 ng/l). African-American mothers and infants showed higher prevalence of detectable levels (P=0.017). Methylparaben and butylparaben demonstrate transplacental passage. Additional studies are needed to examine potential differences in exposure by geography and demographics, what products are used by pregnant women that contain these preservatives, as well as any potential long-term effects in the growth and development of exposed children.

  20. Modeling of First-Passage Processes in Financial Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Hino, Hikaru; Sazuka, Naoya; Scalas, Enrico

    2010-03-01

    In this talk, we attempt to make a microscopic modeling the first-passage process (or the first-exit process) of the BUND future by minority game with market history. We find that the first-passage process of the minority game with appropriate history length generates the same properties as the BTP future (the middle and long term Italian Government bonds with fixed interest rates), namely, both first-passage time distributions have a crossover at some specific time scale as is the case for the Mittag-Leffler function. We also provide a macroscopic (or a phenomenological) modeling of the first-passage process of the BTP future and show analytically that the first-passage time distribution of a simplest mixture of the normal compound Poisson processes does not have such a crossover.

  1. Flame holding tolerant fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOEpatents

    York, William David; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2012-11-20

    A fuel nozzle with active cooling is provided. It includes an outer peripheral wall, a nozzle center body concentrically disposed within the outer wall in a fuel and air pre-mixture. The fuel and air pre-mixture includes an air inlet, a fuel inlet and a premixing passage defined between the outer wall in the center body. A gas fuel flow passage is provided. A first cooling passage is included within the center body in a second cooling passage is defined between the center body and the outer wall.

  2. Outfall Site and Type Selection for a New Surface Flow Outlet to Pass Juvenile Salmonids at Bonneville Dam’s Second Powerhouse, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Giorgi, Albert E.; Kuhn, Karen; Lee, Randall T.; Plump, John H.; Stensby, David A.; Sweeney, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    A site near the downstream tip of Cascades Island with a mid-level chute outfall type was selected for the high flow (> 28.3 m3/s) outfall of the new surface flow outlet for juvenile salmonids at Bonneville Dam’s Second Powerhouse (B2). The new passage route and outfall are a result of modifications to the original ice and trash sluice chute to increase discharge capacity and improve passage conditions, including a new outfall type and site. Technical guidelines on high flow outfall location and design were established concurrently with the outfall development process. Critical design parameters for the new B2 outfall included discharge of 150 m3/s, jet entry velocities approaching 15.2 m/s, and a tailwater elevation range of 6.1 m. For outfall siting, the selection process began with identification of nine initial alternatives. Screening, evaluation, and selection stages narrowed the list to two outfall sites – “Range D” 122 m directly downstream from the existing sluice chute outfall and “Range F” 760 m downstream near the end of Cascades Island. For outfall type, the selection process was initiated with conceptualization of 13 alternatives. Following successive screening, evaluation, consolidation, and selection stages, two outfall types became finalists – “Adjustable Cantilever” and “Mid-Level Cantilever.” The four combinations of outfall site/type were evaluated in 1:30 and 1:100 scale physical hydraulic models and a Mid-Level Cantilever at the tip of Cascades Island in Range F was selected. During further engineering after our study, the cantilever was replaced with a monolith structure to reduce construction costs, resulting in a mid-level chute outfall that was installed in 2004. Post-construction evaluations indicated survival rates around 100% through the B2CC were the highest of all passage routes at Bonneville Dam. The B2CC surface flow outlet with its high flow outfall provided a major improvement to juvenile salmonid passage at

  3. Model study of St. Stephen powerhouse fish passage facilities, Cooper River rediversion project, South Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, J.E.; Murphy, T.E.

    1998-09-01

    This report documents a model study of the St. Stephen Power Plant, located in Berkely County, South Carolina. A previous model study revealed that the fish lift at the powerhouse could be improved by providing auxiliary attraction flows to the fish entrances. An auxiliary attraction flow (AAF) system was proposed that uses a siphon to obtain the auxiliary attraction water from the reservoir. The model investigations reported herein address the flow conditions at the discharge end of the siphon; the hydraulic aspects of the siphon are not addressed. Three different models were used to evaluate flow conditions at the discharge end of the AAF system. A 1:25-scale model of the St. Stephen powerhouse was used to improve the fish entrance conditions and to evaluate the outlet conditions for the initial AAF system. As the investigations progressed, the design of the siphon discharge system was modified to include downstream fish migration and debris passage.

  4. Out-of-home food outlets and area deprivation: case study in Glasgow, UK

    PubMed Central

    Macintyre, Sally; McKay, Laura; Cummins, Steven; Burns, Cate

    2005-01-01

    Background There is a popular belief that out-of-home eating outlets, which typically serve energy dense food, may be more commonly found in more deprived areas and that this may contribute to higher rates of obesity and related diseases in such areas. Methods We obtained a list of all 1301 out-of-home eating outlets in Glasgow, UK, in 2003 and mapped these at unit postcode level. We categorised them into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2004 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and computed mean density of types of outlet (restaurants, fast food restaurants, cafes and takeaways), and all types combined, per 1000 population. We also estimated odds ratios for the presence of any outlets in small areas within the quintiles. Results The density of outlets, and the likelihood of having any outlets, was highest in the second most affluent quintile (Q2) and lowest in the second most deprived quintile (Q4). Mean outlets per 1,000 were 4.02 in Q2, 1.20 in Q4 and 2.03 in Q5. With Q2 as the reference, Odds Ratios for having any outlets were 0.52 (CI 0.32–0.84) in Q1, 0.50 (CI 0.31 – 0.80) in Q4 and 0.61 (CI 0.38 – 0.98) in Q5. Outlets were located in the City Centre, West End, and along arterial roads. Conclusion In Glasgow those living in poorer areas are not more likely to be exposed to out-of-home eating outlets in their neighbourhoods. Health improvement policies need to be based on empirical evidence about the location of fast food outlets in specific national and local contexts, rather than on popular 'factoids'. PMID:16248898

  5. The passage of fast electrons through matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorini, Adam P.

    This work regards the passage of fast electrons through matter, and in particular how electrons scatter and lose energy within a solid. The basic quantum theory of these scattering processes was first considered in the early- to mid-20th century by Bohr, Bethe, Fermi, and others. This work extends our understanding of how a relativistic electron scatters off, and loses energy to, a complex many-body system. The main idea of this work is that it is now possible to calculate, from first-principles, the inelastic losses of relativistic electrons in condensed matter. We present ab initio calculations based on a real-space Green's function approach, implemented in the FEFF8 computer program[1]. Our work focuses on three topics: Relativistic stopping power and associated loss parameters, electron energy loss spectroscopy in high energy transmission electron microscopes, and the inelastic electron scattering mixed dynamic form factor. We calculate, for the first time, ab initio stopping powers and inelastic mean free paths in real materials. The stopping powers are calculated over a broad energy range, from ten eV to above ten MeV. We also present the first ab initio calculations of the "mean excitation energy". We develop a relativistic theory of inelastic electron scattering, based on ab initio calculations of dielectric response, and the generalized Lorenz gauge. Using our relativistic dielectric theory, we calculate the EELS magic angle ratio for boron nitride and for graphite. In these anisotropic materials we find large relativistic corrections to the magic angle for high energy electron microscopes. We also predict and calculate large deviations in the EELS magic angle from the relativistic vacuum predictions in the low energy-loss regime. Finally, we present calculations of mixed dynamic form factor.

  6. Planets in Transit V Passages of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, T. P.

    2003-05-01

    Eclipses of the Sun have long influenced culture, history, and science. The analogous but much more subtle phenomena of a transit of the Sun by Mercury was first predicted by Johannes Kepler. Soon, predictions of transits of Venus inspired bold expeditions to better understand the scale of our solar system. These passages of discovery sometimes succeeded scientifically but always captured the public imagination and played an unexpected role in history. The possibility of detecting planets outside the solar system by the transit method was first outlined by Otto Struve in 1952. Early inquiries usually assumed that extrasolar planetary systems would have a distribution of planetary radii and orbital sizes like the solar system. The detection of transits from the ground in such systems would be daunting. The recent, unexpected discovery of a class of extrasolar planets (by the radial velocity technique) with orbital periods less than a week and masses near to the planet Jupiter has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, and deep enough that ground-based transit searches can be successful. In November 1999, a planet orbiting the star HD 209458 was found to transit, and many measurements of the transit have since been made that challenge formation and evolution theories. Numerous ground based searches for transits are now underway. Several planned high precision space-based missions designed to detect transits of earth-sized planets, also have the potential to detect transits of hundreds of "hot Jupiters". These efforts and the upcoming transit of the Sun by Venus on June 8, 2004 present an opportunity for transits to once again capture the public imagination and perhaps play a role in history.

  7. Fish Passage Center 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Michele

    2008-11-25

    and McNary dams), whereas prior to 2005 spill was terminated at these projects after the spring period. In addition, the 2007 operations agreement provided regardless of flow conditions. For the first time spill for fish passage was provided in the low flow conditions that prevailed in the Snake River throughout the spring and summer migration periods. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) monitoring continued throughout the spill period. A higher incidence of rank 1, GBT signs were observed in late arriving steelhead smolts arriving after the 95% passage date had occurred. During this time dissolved gas levels were generally below the 110% water quality standard in the forebay where fish were sampled. This occurrence was due to prolonged exposure and extended travel times due to low migration flows. The 2007 migration conditions differed from any year in the historic record. The migration conditions combined low river flows in the Snake River with spill throughout the spring and summer season. The juvenile migration characteristics observed in 2007 were unique compared to past years in that high levels of 24 hour spill for fish passage were provided in low flow conditions, and with a delayed start to the smolt transportation program a smaller proportion of the total run being transported. This resulted in relatively high spring juvenile survival despite the lower flows. The seasonal spring average flow in the Snake River was 61 Kcfs much lower than the spring time average of 120 Kcfs that occurred in 2006. However juvenile steelhead survival through the Lower Granite to McNary reach in 2007 was nearly 70% which was similar to the juvenile steelhead survival seen in 2006 under higher migration flows. The low flows in the May-July period of 2007 were similar to the 2001 low flow year, yet survival for fall chinook juveniles in this period in 2007 was much higher. In 2001 the reach survival estimate for juvenile fall Chinook from Lower Granite to McNary Dam ranged from 0

  8. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R. ); Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, J; Escher, Charles; Skalski, John R.

    2003-08-15

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2002. The ERDC contracted with MEVATEC Corporation to provide staff ranging from scientists to technicians to help conduct the study. This study supports the Portland-District goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. In this report, we present results of two studies of juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam that we carried out in the 2002 downstream passage season April 20 through July 15, 2002. The first study of Project-wide FPE provides hourly estimates of fish passage and associated variances for all operating turbine units, spill bays, and the two sluiceway entrances at Powerhouse 1 (B1), as well as estimates of a variety of fish-passage efficiency and effectiveness measures. This was the third consecutive year of full-project hydroacoustic sampling and passage estimation. The second study was more narrowly focused on B2 turbines and had two components: (1) to sample the FGE at two modified turbine intakes and compare them with efficiencies of other B2 units that were sampled in the first study, and (2) to evaluate proportions of fish passing up into gatewell slots versus through screen gaps at a few B2 turbine intakes.

  9. Pathways of warm water to the Northeast Greenland outlet glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, Janin; Timmermann, Ralph; Kanzow, Torsten; Arndt, Jan Erik; Mayer, Christoph; Schauer, Ursula

    2015-04-01

    The ocean plays an important role in modulating the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet by delivering heat to the marine-terminating outlet glaciers surrounding the Greenland coast. The warming and accumulation of Atlantic Water in the subpolar North Atlantic has been suggested to be a potential driver of the glaciers' retreat over the last decades. The shelf regions thus play a critical role for the transport of Atlantic Water towards the glaciers, but also for the transfer of freshwater towards the deep ocean. A key region for the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream. This large ice stream drains the second-largest basin of the Greenland Ice Sheet and feeds three outlet glaciers. The largest one is Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden (79°N-Glacier) featuring an 80 km long floating ice tongue. Both the ocean circulation on the continental shelf off Northeast Greenland and the circulation in the cavity below the ice tongue are weakly constrained so far. In order to study the relevant processes of glacier-ocean interaction we combine observations and model work. Here we focus on historic and recent hydrographic observations and on the complex bathymetry in the Northeast Greenland shelf region, which is thought to steer the flux of warm Atlantic water onto the continental shelf and into the sub-ice cavity beneath the 79°N-Glacier. We present a new global topography data set, RTopo-2, which includes the most recent surveys on the Northeast Greenland continental shelf and provides a detailed bathymetry for all around Greenland. In addition, RTopo-2 contains ice and bedrock surface topographies for Greenland and Antarctica. Based on the updated ocean bathymetry and a variety of hydrographic observations we show the water mass distribution on the continental shelf off Northeast Greenland. These maps enable us to discuss possible supply pathways of warm modified Atlantic waters on the continental shelf and thus potential ways of heat

  10. Efficacy of Single-Suture Incision Closures in Tagged Juvenile Chinook Salmon Exposed to Simulated Turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, James W.; Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Eppard, M. B.

    2011-09-01

    Reductions in the size of acoustic transmitters implanted in migrating juvenile salmonids have resulted in the use of a shorter incision-one that may warrant only a single suture for closure. However, it is not known whether a single suture will sufficiently hold the incision closed when fish are decompressed and when outward pressure is placed on the surgical site during turbine passage through hydroelectric dams. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of single-suture incision closures on five response variables in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were subjected to simulated turbine passage. An acoustic transmitter (0.43 g in air) and a passive integrated transponder tag (0.10 g in air) were implanted in each fish; the 6-mm incisions were closed with either one suture or two sutures. After exposure to simulated turbine passage, none of the fish exhibited expulsion of transmitters. In addition, the percentage of fish with suture tearing, incision tearing, or mortal injury did not differ between treatments. Expulsion of viscera through the incision was higher among fish that received one suture (12%) than among fish that received two sutures (1%). The higher incidence of visceral expulsion through single-suture incisions warrants concern. Consequently, for cases in which tagged juvenile salmonidsmay be exposed to turbine passage, we do not recommend the use of one suture to close 6-mm incisions associated with acoustic transmitter implantation.

  11. 46 CFR 34.20-20 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.20-20 Section 34.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Deck Foam System, Details § 34.20-20 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an approved type. (b)...

  12. 46 CFR 34.17-20 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.17-20 Section 34.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fixed Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.17-20 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  13. Review of recent developments and applications in low-pressure (vacuum outlet) gas chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concept of low pressure (LP) vacuum outlet gas chromatography (GC) was introduced more than 50 years ago, but it was not until the 2000s that its theoretical applicability to fast analysis of GC-amenable chemicals was realized. In practice, LPGC is implemented by placing the outlet of a short, ...

  14. 46 CFR 34.20-20 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.20-20 Section 34.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Deck Foam System, Details § 34.20-20 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an approved type. (b)...

  15. 46 CFR 34.20-20 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.20-20 Section 34.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Deck Foam System, Details § 34.20-20 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an approved type. (b)...

  16. 46 CFR 34.20-20 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.20-20 Section 34.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Deck Foam System, Details § 34.20-20 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an approved type. (b)...

  17. 46 CFR 34.20-20 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.20-20 Section 34.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Deck Foam System, Details § 34.20-20 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an approved type. (b)...

  18. Co-Construction, Infrastructure, and Purpose: Influences on Implementation of Hub-Outlet School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhoff, Sarah Winchell

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of three interrelated chapters that explore unique dimensions of hub-outlet school reform. This type of school reform, in which a central hub organization designs a model for instructional improvement meant to be implemented with fidelity across unique outlet school sites, has gained credibility in the crowded…

  19. 46 CFR 34.15-25 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.15-25 Section 34.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-25 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  20. 46 CFR 34.15-25 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.15-25 Section 34.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-25 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  1. 46 CFR 34.15-25 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.15-25 Section 34.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-25 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  2. 46 CFR 34.15-25 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.15-25 Section 34.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-25 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  3. 46 CFR 34.15-25 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.15-25 Section 34.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-25 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  4. 46 CFR 34.17-20 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.17-20 Section 34.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fixed Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.17-20 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  5. 46 CFR 34.17-20 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.17-20 Section 34.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fixed Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.17-20 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  6. 46 CFR 34.17-20 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.17-20 Section 34.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fixed Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.17-20 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  7. 46 CFR 34.17-20 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.17-20 Section 34.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fixed Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.17-20 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  8. 7 CFR 987.56 - Outlets for utility and cull dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outlets for utility and cull dates. 987.56 Section 987... Than Free Dates § 987.56 Outlets for utility and cull dates. Subject to the provisions of § 987.47, utility dates and cull dates may be disposed of without inspection, but only in feed, non-table...

  9. Survey of Publication Outlets in Early Childhood Education: Descriptive Data, Review Processes, and Advice to Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amodei, Michelle L.; Jalongo, Mary Renck; Myers, Jacqueline; Onchwari, Jacqueline; Gargiulo, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Publishing outlets in the field of early childhood vary widely in terms of emphasis on theory, practice, and research as they relate to the care and education of the very young; these outlets also have different readerships (i.e., primarily for teachers, the teachers of their teachers, or the fellow scholars/researchers). Included in the mixture…

  10. Passage: From One Place to the next

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Kieran

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, the author describes how he came to realize, as his older friends head out for their first year of college, that they have a great air of adventure about them because they have laid down the old and are stretching out to grab on to the new. His older friends are stepping out and he is stepping into his new shoes, as a senior in high…

  11. Airflow in the Human Nasal Passage and Sinuses of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Haribalan; Jain, Ravi; Douglas, Richard G.; Tawhai, Merryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic surgery is performed on patients with chronic inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses to improve sinus ventilation. Little is known about how sinus surgery affects sinonasal airflow. In this study nasal passage geometry was reconstructed from computed tomographic imaging from healthy normal, pre-operative, and post-operative subjects. Transient air flow through the nasal passage during calm breathing was simulated. Subject-specific differences in ventilation of the nasal passage were observed. Velocity magnitude at ostium was different between left and right airway. In FESS, airflow in post-surgical subjects, airflow at the maxillary sinus ostium was upto ten times higher during inspiration. In a Lothrop procedure, airflow at the frontal sinus ostium can be upto four times higher during inspiration. In both post-operative subjects, airflow at ostium was not quasi-steady. The subject-specific effect (of surgery) on sinonasal interaction evaluated through airflow simulations may have important consequences for pre- and post-surgical assessment and surgical planning, and design for improvement of the delivery efficiency of nasal therapeutics. PMID:27249219

  12. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  13. Surgical palliation of gastric outlet obstruction in advanced malignancy.

    PubMed

    Potz, Brittany A; Miner, Thomas J

    2016-08-27

    Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a common problem associated with advanced malignancies of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Palliative treatment of patients' symptoms who present with GOO is an important aspect of their care. Surgical palliation of malignancy is defined as a procedure performed with the intention of relieving symptoms caused by an advanced malignancy or improving quality of life. Palliative treatment for GOO includes operative (open and laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy) and non-operative (endoscopic stenting) options. The performance status and medical condition of the patient, the extent of the cancer, the patients prognosis, the availability of a curative procedure, the natural history of symptoms of the disease (primary and secondary), the durability of the procedure, and the quality of life and life expectancy of the patient should always be considered when choosing treatment for any patient with advanced malignancy. Gastrojejunostomy appears to be associated with better long term symptom relief while stenting appears to be associated with lower immediate procedure related morbidity. PMID:27648158

  14. [Neurological Signs and Symptoms of True Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Higashihara, Mana; Konoeda, Fumie; Sonoo, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a well-known disorder, but many aspects of its pathology, including its definition, has been disputed. True neurogenic TOS (TN-TOS) is a rare but well-defined clinical condition. TN-TOS results from the compression of the C8/T1 roots (dominant for the T1 root) or the proximal lower trunk of the brachial plexus by a fibrous band. The band extends from the first rib to either the tip of an elongated C7 transverse process or a rudimentary cervical rib. The most common presenting symptoms of TN-TOS are insidious-onset atrophy and weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles, predominantly in the thenar eminence and radial digit flexors. Nerve conduction studies demonstrate pathognomonic findings: severely attenuated compound muscle action potential of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, and usually, loss of the sensory nerve action potential of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Numbness and sensory loss are typically observed, mainly in the medial forearm, although they are usually mild, and may be absent in some patients. Severe pain or paresthesia proximal to the elbow is not observed. The classical concept of TOS underlie nonspecific neurogenic TOS. It has been primarily diagnosed using provocative maneuvers. However, there is controversy regarding its pathological conceptualization and existence, as objective evidence of the disease is still lacking. PMID:27156505

  15. Surgical palliation of gastric outlet obstruction in advanced malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Potz, Brittany A; Miner, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a common problem associated with advanced malignancies of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Palliative treatment of patients’ symptoms who present with GOO is an important aspect of their care. Surgical palliation of malignancy is defined as a procedure performed with the intention of relieving symptoms caused by an advanced malignancy or improving quality of life. Palliative treatment for GOO includes operative (open and laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy) and non-operative (endoscopic stenting) options. The performance status and medical condition of the patient, the extent of the cancer, the patients prognosis, the availability of a curative procedure, the natural history of symptoms of the disease (primary and secondary), the durability of the procedure, and the quality of life and life expectancy of the patient should always be considered when choosing treatment for any patient with advanced malignancy. Gastrojejunostomy appears to be associated with better long term symptom relief while stenting appears to be associated with lower immediate procedure related morbidity. PMID:27648158

  16. Removal of cyanobacterial toxins by sediment passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruetzmacher, G.; Boettcher, G.; Chorus, I.; Bartel, H.

    2003-04-01

    Cyanbacterial toxins ("Cyanotoxins") comprise a wide range of toxic substances produced by cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae"). Cyanobacteria occur in surface water word wide and can be found in high concentrations during so-called algal blooms when conditions are favourable (e.g. high nutrient levels, high temperatures). Some cyanobacteria produce hepato- or neurotoxins, of which the hepatotoxic microcystins are the most common in Germany. The WHO guideline value for drinking water was set at 1 μg/L. However, maximum concentrations in surface water can reach 25 mg/L, so that a secure method for toxin elimination has to be found when this water is used as source water for drinking water production. In order to assess if cyanotoxins can be removed by sediment passage the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) conducted laboratory- and field scale experiments as well as observations on bank filtration field sites. Laboratory experiments (batch- and column experiments for adsorption and degradation parameters) were conducted in order to vary a multitude of experimental conditions. These experiments were followed by field scale experiments on the UBA's experimental field in Berlin. This plant offers the unique possibility to conduct experiments on the behaviour of various agents - such as harmful substances - during infiltration and bank filtration under well-defined conditions on a field scale, and without releasing these substances to the environment. Finally the development of microcystin concentrations was observed between infiltrating surface water and a drinking water well along a transsecte of observation wells. The results obtained show that infiltration and bank filtration normally seem to be secure treatment methods for source water contaminated by microcystins. However, elimination was shown to be difficult under the following circumstances: - dying cyanobacterial population due to insufficient light and / or nutrients, low temperatures or application of

  17. Alcohol beverage control, privatization and the geographic distribution of alcohol outlets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With Pennsylvania currently considering a move away from an Alcohol Beverage Control state to a privatized alcohol distribution system, this study uses a spatial analytical approach to examine potential impacts of privatization on the number and spatial distribution of alcohol outlets in the city of Philadelphia over a long time horizon. Methods A suite of geospatial data were acquired for Philadelphia, including 1,964 alcohol outlet locations, 569,928 land parcels, and school, church, hospital, park and playground locations. These data were used as inputs for exploratory spatial analysis to estimate the expected number of outlets that would eventually operate in Philadelphia. Constraints included proximity restrictions (based on current ordinances regulating outlet distribution) of at least 200 feet between alcohol outlets and at least 300 feet between outlets and schools, churches, hospitals, parks and playgrounds. Results Findings suggest that current state policies on alcohol outlet distributions in Philadelphia are loosely enforced, with many areas exhibiting extremely high spatial densities of outlets that violate existing proximity restrictions. The spatial model indicates that an additional 1,115 outlets could open in Philadelphia if privatization was to occur and current proximity ordinances were maintained. Conclusions The study reveals that spatial analytical approaches can function as an excellent tool for contingency-based “what-if” analysis, providing an objective snapshot of potential policy outcomes prior to implementation. In this case, the likely outcome is a tremendous increase in alcohol outlets in Philadelphia, with concomitant negative health, crime and quality of life outcomes that accompany such an increase. PMID:23170899

  18. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts at John Day Dam during the spring and summer outmigrations in 2012. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp), dam passage survival should be greater than or equal to 0.96 for spring migrants and greater than or equal to 0.93 for summer migrants, estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal to 0.015. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 3 km downstream of the dam, as well as the forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and fish passage efficiency (FPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords (Fish Accords). A virtual/paired-release design was used to estimate dam passage survival at John Day Dam. The approach included releases of smolts, tagged with acoustic micro-transmitters, above John Day Dam that contributed to the formation of a virtual release at the face of John Day Dam. A survival estimate from this release was adjusted by a paired release below John Day Dam. A total of 3376 yearling Chinook salmon, 5726 subyearling Chinook salmon, and 3239 steelhead smolts were used in the virtual releases. Sample sizes for the below-dam paired releases (R2 and R3, respectively) were 997 and 995 for yearling Chinook salmon smolts, 986 and 983 for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts, and 1000 and 1000 for steelhead smolts. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tags were manufactured by Advanced Telemetry Systems. Model SS300 tags, weighing 0.304 g in air, were surgically implanted in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon, and Model SS130 tag, weighing 0.438 g in air, were surgically implanted in juvenile steelhead for this investigation. The intent of the spring study was to estimate dam passage survival during both 30% and 40% spill conditions. The two

  19. Dealing with uncertainty when assessing fish passage through culvert road crossings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Gregory B.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, Byron J.; Straight, Carrie A.; Hagler, Megan M.; Peterson, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the passage of aquatic organisms through culvert road crossings has become increasingly common in efforts to restore stream habitat. Several federal and state agencies and local stakeholders have adopted assessment approaches based on literature-derived criteria for culvert impassability. However, criteria differ and are typically specific to larger-bodied fishes. In an analysis to prioritize culverts for remediation to benefit imperiled, small-bodied fishes in the Upper Coosa River system in the southeastern United States, we assessed the sensitivity of prioritization to the use of differing but plausible criteria for culvert impassability. Using measurements at 256 road crossings, we assessed culvert impassability using four alternative criteria sets represented in Bayesian belief networks. Two criteria sets scored culverts as either passable or impassable based on alternative thresholds of culvert characteristics (outlet elevation, baseflow water velocity). Two additional criteria sets incorporated uncertainty concerning ability of small-bodied fishes to pass through culverts and estimated a probability of culvert impassability. To prioritize culverts for remediation, we combined estimated culvert impassability with culvert position in the stream network relative to other barriers to compute prospective gain in connected stream habitat for the target fish species. Although four culverts ranked highly for remediation regardless of which criteria were used to assess impassability, other culverts differed widely in priority depending on criteria. Our results emphasize the value of explicitly incorporating uncertainty into criteria underlying remediation decisions. Comparing outcomes among alternative, plausible criteria may also help to identify research most needed to narrow management uncertainty.

  20. Dealing With Uncertainty When Assessing Fish Passage Through Culvert Road Crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gregory B.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, Byron J.; Straight, Carrie A.; Hagler, Megan M.; Peterson, James T.

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the passage of aquatic organisms through culvert road crossings has become increasingly common in efforts to restore stream habitat. Several federal and state agencies and local stakeholders have adopted assessment approaches based on literature-derived criteria for culvert impassability. However, criteria differ and are typically specific to larger-bodied fishes. In an analysis to prioritize culverts for remediation to benefit imperiled, small-bodied fishes in the Upper Coosa River system in the southeastern United States, we assessed the sensitivity of prioritization to the use of differing but plausible criteria for culvert impassability. Using measurements at 256 road crossings, we assessed culvert impassability using four alternative criteria sets represented in Bayesian belief networks. Two criteria sets scored culverts as either passable or impassable based on alternative thresholds of culvert characteristics (outlet elevation, baseflow water velocity). Two additional criteria sets incorporated uncertainty concerning ability of small-bodied fishes to pass through culverts and estimated a probability of culvert impassability. To prioritize culverts for remediation, we combined estimated culvert impassability with culvert position in the stream network relative to other barriers to compute prospective gain in connected stream habitat for the target fish species. Although four culverts ranked highly for remediation regardless of which criteria were used to assess impassability, other culverts differed widely in priority depending on criteria. Our results emphasize the value of explicitly incorporating uncertainty into criteria underlying remediation decisions. Comparing outcomes among alternative, plausible criteria may also help to identify research most needed to narrow management uncertainty.

  1. Solid sorbent air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galen, T. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.

  2. Last-passage Monte Carlo algorithm for mutual capacitance.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chi-Ok; Given, James A

    2006-08-01

    We develop and test the last-passage diffusion algorithm, a charge-based Monte Carlo algorithm, for the mutual capacitance of a system of conductors. The first-passage algorithm is highly efficient because it is charge based and incorporates importance sampling; it averages over the properties of Brownian paths that initiate outside the conductor and terminate on its surface. However, this algorithm does not seem to generalize to mutual capacitance problems. The last-passage algorithm, in a sense, is the time reversal of the first-passage algorithm; it involves averages over particles that initiate on an absorbing surface, leave that surface, and diffuse away to infinity. To validate this algorithm, we calculate the mutual capacitance matrix of the circular-disk parallel-plate capacitor and compare with the known numerical results. Good agreement is obtained.

  3. Detail view of keystone sculpted head in the arched passage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of keystone sculpted head in the arched passage to the lobby vestibule - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH PASSAGE BETWEEN THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH PASSAGE BETWEEN THE SOUTH END OF POWERHOUSE #1 AND NAVIGATION LOCK #1. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  5. Cell block four exercise yard with original passage to cell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block four exercise yard with original passage to cell re-exposed, looking from the baseball field, facing west, with scale - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 4. INTERIOR VIEW NORTHWEST, ALLEYWAY PASSAGE BETWEEN 216 AND 218 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW NORTHWEST, ALLEYWAY PASSAGE BETWEEN 216 AND 218 KING STREET SHOWING MASONRY ARCHED CONSTRUCTION SUPPORTING UPPER STORIES - King Street, 200 Block, 216 King Street (Commercial Building), Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  7. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight opening, view to northwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  9. View of the garden wall and passage with wrought iron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the garden wall and passage with wrought iron gate to the northwest of the house (duplicate of HABS No. SC-115-14) - William Washington House, 8 South Battery Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  10. 11. Second floor, northwest chamber, south wall. Former passage to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Second floor, northwest chamber, south wall. Former passage to southwest chamber (door blocked off on far side) on left; closet on right. - Conner Homestead, House, Epping Road (State Route 101), Exeter, Rockingham County, NH

  11. 54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE CONSTRUCTION TO LEFT (SOUTHWEST); ENTRANCE TO A MAGAZINE TO THE RIGHT. VIEW IS NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. - Fort Monroe, Fortress, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  12. Hydropower R&D: Recent advances in turbine passage technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F.; Rinehart, Ben N.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the recent and planned R&D activities across the U.S. related to survival of fish entrained in hydroelectric turbines. In this report, we have considered studies that are intended to develop new information that can be used to mitigate turbine-passage mortality. This review focuses on the effects on fish of physical or operational modifications to turbines, comparisons to survival in other downstream passage routes (e.g., bypass systems and spillways), and applications of new modeling, experimental, and technological approaches to develop a greater understanding of the stresses associated with turbine passage. In addition, the emphasis is on biological studies, as opposed to the engineering studies (e.g., turbine index testing) that are often carried out in support of fish passage mitigation efforts.

  13. Hydropower R&D: Recent Advances in Turbine Passage Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Bennie Nelson; Cada, G. F.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the recent and planned R&D activities across the U.S. related to survival of fish entrained in hydroelectric turbines. In this report, we have considered studies that are intended to develop new information that can be used to mitigate turbine-passage mortality. This review focuses on the effects on fish of physical or operational modifications to turbines, comparisons to survival in other downstream passage routes (e.g., bypass systems and spillways), and applications of new modeling, experimental, and technological approaches to develop a greater understanding of the stresses associated with turbine passage. In addition, the emphasis is on biological studies, as opposed to the engineering studies (e.g., turbine index testing) that re often carried out in support of fish passage mitigation efforts.

  14. BLDG 101, CENTRAL ENTRY/ PASSAGE SHOWING LEAD FLOOR, STEEL WALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 101, CENTRAL ENTRY/ PASSAGE SHOWING LEAD FLOOR, STEEL WALLS AND ASBESTOS CEILING - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Operational Storage Building, Fifteenth Street near Kolekole Road intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Kinetic energy equations for the average-passage equation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Richard W.; Adamczyk, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Important kinetic energy equations derived from the average-passage equation sets are documented, with a view to their interrelationships. These kinetic equations may be used for closing the average-passage equations. The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation used is formed by subtracting the mean kinetic energy equation from the averaged total instantaneous kinetic energy equation. The aperiodic kinetic energy equation, averaged steady kinetic energy equation, averaged unsteady kinetic energy equation, and periodic kinetic energy equation, are also treated.

  16. [Wine and women: an overlooked passage in the Hippocratic corpus].

    PubMed

    Villard, L

    1997-01-01

    A passage taken from the Hippocratic Corpus states that at the beginning of pregnancy women say that they do not like the taste of wine. This passage should be added to evidence about wine drinking by women in Classical Greece. It shows that, contrary to previous opinion, women drank wine when they were in good health and corresponds with the notion that it was often prescribed by physicians in order to cure illness.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - AIR PURATOR CORPORATION HUYGLAS 1405M FILTER SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  18. Flow in Rotating Serpentine Coolant Passages With Skewed Trip Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, David G.N.; Steuber, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Laser velocimetry was utilized to map the velocity field in serpentine turbine blade cooling passages with skewed trip strips. The measurements were obtained at Reynolds and Rotation numbers of 25,000 and 0.24 to assess the influence of trips, passage curvature and Coriolis force on the flow field. The interaction of the secondary flows induced by skewed trips with the passage rotation produces a swirling vortex and a corner recirculation zone. With trips skewed at +45 deg, the secondary flows remain unaltered as the cross-flow proceeds from the passage to the turn. However, the flow characteristics at these locations differ when trips are skewed at -45 deg. Changes in the flow structure are expected to augment heat transfer, in agreement with the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. The present results show that trips are skewed at -45 deg in the outward flow passage and trips are skewed at +45 deg in the inward flow passage maximize heat transfer. Details of the present measurements were related to the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. to relate fluid flow and heat transfer measurements.

  19. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage through Bonneville Dam in 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, Jina; Johnson, Peter N.; Hanks, Michael E.; Patterson, Deborah S.; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J

    2005-12-22

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2004. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of four studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 15 and July 15, 2004, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, (2) B2 fish guidance efficiency and gap loss, (3) smolt approach and fate at the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC), and (4) B2 vertical barrier screen head differential.

  20. Unintended consequences and trade-offs of fish passage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    8. McLaughlin, Robert L.; Smyth, Eric R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Jones, Michael L.; Koops, Marten A.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Vélez-Espino, Luis-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We synthesized evidence for unintended consequences and trade-offs associated with the passage of fishes. Provisioning of fish passageways at dams and dam removals are being carried out increasingly as resource managers seek ways to reduce fragmentation of migratory fish populations and restore biodiversity and nature-like ecosystem services in tributaries altered by dams. The benefits of provisioning upstream passage are highlighted widely. Possible unwanted consequences and trade-offs of upstream passage are coming to light, but remain poorly examined and underappreciated. Unintended consequences arise when passage of native and desirable introduced fishes is delayed, undone (fallback), results in patterns of movement and habitat use that reduce Darwinian fitness (e.g. ecological traps), or is highly selective taxonomically and numerically. Trade-offs arise when passage decisions intended to benefit native species interfere with management decisions intended to control the unwanted spread of non-native fishes and aquatic invertebrates, or genes, diseases and contaminants carried by hatchery and wild fishes. These consequences and trade-offs will vary in importance from system to system and can result in large economic and environmental costs. For some river systems, decisions about how to manage fish passage involve substantial risks and could benefit from use of a formal, structured process that allows transparent, objective and, where possible, quantitative evaluation of these risks. Such a process can also facilitate the design of an adaptive framework that provides valuable insights into future decisions.

  1. Proteomic profile of an acute partial bladder outlet obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Alsaikhan, Bader; Fahlman, Richard; Ding, Jie; Tredget, Edward; Metcalfe, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Partial bladder outlet obstruction (pBOO) is a ubiquitous problem in urology. From posterior urethral valves to prostatic hypertrophy, pBOO results in significant morbidity and mortality. However, the pathophysiology is not completely understood. Proteomics uses mass spectrometry to accurately quantify change in tissue protein concentration. Therefore, we have applied proteomic analysis to a rodent model to assess for protein changes after a surgically induced pBOO. We hypothesize that proteomic analysis after an acute obstruction will determine the most prevalent initial protein response and, potentially, novel molecular pathways. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats underwent a surgically induced pBOO (n = 3 per group) for 3, 7, or 14 days. Bladders were assessed for weight and urodynamic parameters. Proteomics used liquid-chromatography based mass spectrometry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on tissue samples to confirm increased mRNA transcription. Results: Bladder weight and capacity increased over the experimental period, but no changes were seen in bladder pressure. Statistically significant increases in protein quantities were seen in 3 proteins related to endoplasmic reticulum stress: GRP-78 (3.66-fold), RhoA (1.90-fold), and RhoA-GDP (1.95-fold), and 2 cytoskeleton molecules: actin (1.7-fold) and tubulin a/b (3.01-fold). Decorin and lumican, members of the small leucine rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family, were also elevated (0.35- and 0.34-fold, respectively). Real-time PCR data confirmed protein elevation. Conclusion: Our experiment confirms that molecular changes occur very soon after the initiation of pBOO, and implicates several molecular pathways. We believe these insights may provide insight into novel prevention and treatment strategies targeted at the pathophysiology of pBOO. PMID:25844096

  2. Flow in serpentine coolant passages with trip strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, D. G.-N.

    1995-01-01

    Under the subject contract, an effort is being conducted at Scientific Research Associates, Inc. (SRA) to obtain flow field measurements in the coolant passage of a rotating turbine blade with ribbed walls, both in the stationary and rotating frames. The data obtained will be used for validation of computational tools and assessment of turbine blade cooling strategies. The configuration of the turbine blade passage model is given, and the measuring plane locations are given. The model has a four-pass passage with three 180 turns. This geometry was chosen to allow analyses of the velocity measurements corresponding to the heat transfer results obtained by Wagner. Two passes of the passage have a rectangular cross-section of 1.0 in x 0.5 in. Another two passes have a square cross-section of 0.5 in x 0.5 in. Trips with a streamwise pitch to trip height (P/e) = 5 and trip height to coolant passage width (e/Z) = 0.1, were machined along the leading and trailing walls. These dimensions are typical of those used in turbine blade coolant passages. The trips on these walls are staggered by the half-pitch. The trips are skewed at +/- 45 deg, and this allows the effect of trip orientation to be examined. Experiments will be conducted with flow entering the model through the 1.0 in x 0.5 in rectangular passage (Configuration C) and the 0.5 in x 0. 5 in square passage (Configuration D) to examine the effect of passage aspect ratio. Velocity measurements were obtained with a Reynolds number (Re) of 25,000, based on the hydraulic diameter of and bulk mean velocity in the half inch square passage. The coordinate system used in presenting the results for configurations C and D, respectively, is shown. The first, second and third passes of the passage will be referred to as the first, second and third passages, respectively, in later discussion. Streamwise distance (x) from the entrance is normalized by the hydraulic diameter (D). Vertical (y) and tangential (z) distances are

  3. Neighborhood Characteristics Associated with the Availability of Alcohol Outlets in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ngamini Ngui, André; Apparicio, Philippe; Philibert, Mathieu; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to examine the spatial accessibility to alcohol outlets in Quebec and to assess the association between neighborhood level characteristics and availability of alcohol outlets. Methods. The Tobit Model was used to assess the association between neighborhood level characteristics and the availability of alcohol outlets within 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 metres, respectively. Results. Alcohol outlets were found to be most available in the two largest metropolitan areas of the province of Quebec (Montréal and Québec City). Within 1000 metres, alcohol outlets are more available in neighbourhoods with the following characteristics: highest concentration of men, least materially deprived highest concentration of persons aged 20 years or more, and location either in a metropolitan area or in a small town. Finally, the number of bars with video lottery terminals increases with the level of social and material deprivation. Conclusion. In Québec, there is no rule governing the location of alcohol outlets. Thus, there is an abundant literature indicating that the regulation of alcohol outlet density could be an effective means of controlling risk attributable to alcohol consumption. PMID:25810946

  4. Tobacco advertising and sales practices in licensed retail outlets after the Food and Drug Administration regulations.

    PubMed

    Frick, Ryan G; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-10-01

    To assess retailer compliance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations on tobacco sales and advertising practices, including point-of-sale advertisements, in two distinct Columbus, Ohio neighborhood groups by income. Data were gathered from a random sample of 129 licensed tobacco retailers, which included data on both exterior and interior advertisements as well as sales practices. Descriptive analyses compared retail outlets by high and low income neighborhood locations. Compliance with FDA regulations was high in the random sample of urban tobacco retail outlets. None of the retail outlets sold loose cigarettes or offered free items with purchase. Less than 10% of the outlets surveyed offered self-service access to cigarettes or smokeless tobacco products. From all surveyed retail outlets 95% had cigarette, 57% had smokeless, and 57% had cigar advertisements at the point-of-sale. There were no significant differences in compliance by income, but the mean number of advertisements on the building and self-service access to cigars was significantly different by neighborhood income. There was a high degree of compliance with the new FDA regulation on tobacco marketing and sales practices in urban retail tobacco outlets in Columbus, Ohio. Tobacco advertising and marketing remain highly prevalent in retail outlets, with some significant differences between high and low income neighborhoods.

  5. Density and proximity of tobacco outlets to homes and schools: relations with youth cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Mair, Christina; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B; Jackson, Phoenix; Watson, Derrik

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the associations of youth cigarette smoking with tobacco outlet densities and proximity of tobacco outlets to youth homes and schools across different buffers in 45 midsized California communities. The sample comprised 832 youths who were surveyed about their smoking behaviors. Inclusion criteria included both home and school addresses within city boundaries. Observations in the 45 cities were conducted to document addresses of tobacco outlets. City- and buffer-level demographics were obtained and negative binomial regression analyses with cluster robust standard errors were conducted. All models were adjusted for youth gender, age, and race. Greater densities of tobacco outlets within both a 0.75 and 1-mile buffer of youth homes were associated with higher smoking frequency. Neither tobacco outlet densities around schools nor distance to the nearest tobacco outlet from home or school were associated with youths past-30-day smoking frequency. Lower population density and percent of African Americans in areas around homes and lower percent of unemployed in areas around schools were associated with greater smoking frequency. Results of this study suggest that restricting outlet density within at least 1-mile surrounding residential areas will help to reduce youth smoking. PMID:24254336

  6. The role of tobacco outlet density in a smoking cessation intervention for urban youth.

    PubMed

    Mennis, Jeremy; Mason, Michael; Way, Thomas; Zaharakis, Nikola

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the role of tobacco outlet density in a randomized controlled trial of a text messaging-based smoking cessation intervention conducted among a sample of 187 primarily African American youth in a midsize U.S. city. A moderated mediation model was used to test whether the indirect effect of residential tobacco outlet density on future smoking was mediated by the intention to smoke, and whether this indirect effect differed between adolescents who received the intervention and those who did not. Results indicated that tobacco outlet density is associated with intention to smoke, which predicts future smoking, and that the indirect effect of tobacco outlet density on future smoking is moderated by the intervention. Tobacco outlet density and the intervention can be viewed as competing forces on future smoking behavior, where higher tobacco outlet density acts to mitigate the sensitivity of an adolescent to the intervention's intended effect. Smoking cessation interventions applied to youth should consider tobacco outlet density as a contextual condition that can influence treatment outcomes. PMID:26798960

  7. Passage and survival probabilities of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Dam, Oregon, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Smith, Collin D.; Sprando, Jamie M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes studies of juvenile-salmon dam passage and apparent survival at Cougar Dam, Oregon, during two operating conditions in 2012. Cougar Dam is a 158-meter tall rock-fill dam used primarily for flood control, and passes water through a temperature control tower to either a powerhouse penstock or to a regulating outlet (RO). The temperature control tower has moveable weir gates to enable water of different elevations and temperatures to be drawn through the dam to control water temperatures downstream. A series of studies of downstream dam passage of juvenile salmonids were begun after the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration determined that Cougar Dam was impacting the viability of anadromous fish stocks. The primary objectives of the studies described in this report were to estimate the route-specific fish passage probabilities at the dam and to estimate the survival probabilities of fish passing through the RO. The first set of dam operating conditions, studied in November, consisted of (1) a mean reservoir elevation of 1,589 feet, (2) water entering the temperature control tower through the weir gates, (3) most water routed through the turbines during the day and through the RO during the night, and (4) mean RO gate openings of 1.2 feet during the day and 3.2 feet during the night. The second set of dam operating conditions, studied in December, consisted of (1) a mean reservoir elevation of 1,507 ft, (2) water entering the temperature control tower through the RO bypass, (3) all water passing through the RO, and (4) mean RO gate openings of 7.3 feet during the day and 7.5 feet during the night. The studies were based on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) surgically implanted with radio transmitters and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Inferences about general dam passage percentage and timing of volitional migrants were based on surface-acclimated fish released in the reservoir. Dam passage and apparent

  8. Proceedings of a workshop on American Eel passage technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent concerns regarding a decline in recruitment of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) have prompted efforts to restore this species to historic habitats by providing passage for both upstream migrant juveniles and downstream migrant adults at riverine barriers, including low-head and hydroelectric dams (Castonguay et al. 1994, Haro et al. 2000). These efforts include development of management plans and stock assessment reviews in both the US and Canada (COSEWIC 2006, Canadian Eel Working Group 2009, DFO 2010, MacGregor et al. 2010, ASMFC 2000, ASMFC 2006, ASMFC 2008, Williams and Threader 2007), which target improvement of upstream and downstream passage for eels, as well as identification and prioritization of research needs for development of new and more effective passage technologies for American eels. Traditional upstream fish passage structures, such as fishways and fish lifts, are often ineffective passing juvenile eels, and specialized passage structures for this species are needed. Although designs for such passage structures are available and diverse (Knights and White 1998, Porcher 2002, FAO/DVWK 2002, Solomon and Beach 2004a,b, Environment Agency UK 2011), many biologists, managers, and engineers are unfamiliar with eel pass design and operation, or unaware of the technical options available for upstream eel passage, Better coordination is needed to account for eel passage requirements during restoration efforts for other diadromous fish species. Also, appropriately siting eel passes at hydropower projects is critical, and siting can be difficult and complex due to physical restrictions in access to points of natural concentrations of eels, dynamic hydraulics of tailrace areas, and presence of significant competing flows from turbine outfalls or spill. As a result, some constructed eel passes are sited poorly and may pass only a fraction of the number of eels attempting to pass the barrier. When sited and constructed appropriately, however, eel passes

  9. The Moderating Role of Gender in the Relationship Between Tobacco Outlet Exposure and Tobacco Use Among African American Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Qiana; Milam, Adam J; Bowie, Janice V; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Furr-Holden, Debra

    2016-04-01

    Tobacco outlet exposure is a correlate of tobacco use with potential differences by gender that warrant attention. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating role of gender in the relationship between tobacco outlet exposure and past month tobacco use among African American young adults 21 to 24 years old. This cross-sectional study (n = 283) used geospatial methods to determine the number of tobacco outlets within walking distance (i.e., a quarter mile) of participants' homes and distance to the nearest outlet. Logistic regression models were used to test interactions between gender and tobacco outlet exposure (i.e., density and proximity). Tobacco outlets were classified based on whether or not they were licensed to sell tobacco only (TO outlets) or tobacco and alcohol (TA outlets). Neither density nor proximity was associated with past month tobacco use in the pooled models. However, gender modified the relationship between TO outlet density and tobacco use, and this relationship was significant only among women (OR = 1.02; p < 0.01; adjusted OR = 1.01; p < 0.05). This study underscores the importance of reducing tobacco outlet density in residential neighborhoods, especially TO outlets, as well as highlights potential gender differences in the relationship between tobacco outlet density and tobacco use. PMID:26680642

  10. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  11. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam 2008-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2009-09-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam (TDA) sluiceway and turbines during fall/winter 2008 and early spring 2009, respectively. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). Operating the sluiceway reduces the potential for hydropower production. However, this surface flow outlet may be the optimal non-turbine route for fallbacks in late fall after the sluiceway is typically closed for juvenile fish passage and for overwintering summer steelhead and kelt passage in the early spring before the start of the voluntary spill season. The goal of this study was to characterize adult steelhead spatial and temporal distributions and passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines, and their movements in front of the sluiceway at TDA to inform fisheries managers’ and engineers’ decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. The study periods were from November 1 to December 15, 2008 (45 days) and from March 1 to April 9, 2009 (40 days). The study objectives were to 1) estimate the number and distribution of overwintering summer steelhead fallbacks and kelt-sized acoustic targets passing into the sluiceway and turbines at TDA during the two study periods, respectively, and 2) assess the behavior of these fish in front of sluice entrances. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics and fish behavior data using acoustic imaging. For the overwintering summer steelhead, fallback occurred throughout the 45-day study period. We estimated that a total of 1790 ± 250 (95% confidence interval) summer steelhead targets passed through the powerhouse intakes and operating sluices during November 1 to December 15, 2008. Ninety five percent of these fish passed through the sluiceway. Therefore, without the sluiceway as

  12. Passage and survival probabilities of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Dam, Oregon, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Smith, Collin D.; Sprando, Jamie M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes studies of juvenile-salmon dam passage and apparent survival at Cougar Dam, Oregon, during two operating conditions in 2012. Cougar Dam is a 158-meter tall rock-fill dam used primarily for flood control, and passes water through a temperature control tower to either a powerhouse penstock or to a regulating outlet (RO). The temperature control tower has moveable weir gates to enable water of different elevations and temperatures to be drawn through the dam to control water temperatures downstream. A series of studies of downstream dam passage of juvenile salmonids were begun after the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration determined that Cougar Dam was impacting the viability of anadromous fish stocks. The primary objectives of the studies described in this report were to estimate the route-specific fish passage probabilities at the dam and to estimate the survival probabilities of fish passing through the RO. The first set of dam operating conditions, studied in November, consisted of (1) a mean reservoir elevation of 1,589 feet, (2) water entering the temperature control tower through the weir gates, (3) most water routed through the turbines during the day and through the RO during the night, and (4) mean RO gate openings of 1.2 feet during the day and 3.2 feet during the night. The second set of dam operating conditions, studied in December, consisted of (1) a mean reservoir elevation of 1,507 ft, (2) water entering the temperature control tower through the RO bypass, (3) all water passing through the RO, and (4) mean RO gate openings of 7.3 feet during the day and 7.5 feet during the night. The studies were based on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) surgically implanted with radio transmitters and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Inferences about general dam passage percentage and timing of volitional migrants were based on surface-acclimated fish released in the reservoir. Dam passage and apparent

  13. 7 CFR 987.43 - Outlets and specifications for marketable dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE....12 to reflect new major outlets and regulatory requirements needed because of changes in marketing... processing, Export dates, and Product dates....

  14. Chylothorax after surgical treatment of right-sided thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Luiz Felipe Lopes; Moreschi, Alexandre Heitor; de Macedo, Guilherme Baroni; Moschetti, Laura; Machado, Eduardo Lopes; Saueressig, Maurício Guidi

    2009-04-01

    Chylothorax as a complication of the surgical treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome is a quite rare event. We report a case of right-sided chylothorax and present a brief review on the treatment of postoperative chylothorax.

  15. Chylothorax after surgical treatment of right-sided thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Luiz Felipe Lopes; Moreschi, Alexandre Heitor; de Macedo, Guilherme Baroni; Moschetti, Laura; Machado, Eduardo Lopes; Saueressig, Maurício Guidi

    2009-04-01

    Chylothorax as a complication of the surgical treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome is a quite rare event. We report a case of right-sided chylothorax and present a brief review on the treatment of postoperative chylothorax. PMID:19466278

  16. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead at Detroit Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2012-February 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Kofoot, Eric E.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin D.

    2014-01-01

    The in-reservoir movements and dam passage of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were studied at Detroit Reservoir and Dam, near Detroit, Oregon, during 2012 and 2013. The goal of the study was to provide data to inform decisions about future downstream passage alternatives and factors affecting downstream passage rates with the existing dam configuration. In 2012, 468 juvenile Chinook salmon and 200 juvenile steelhead were tagged and released during a 3-month period in the spring, and another 514 juvenile Chinook salmon were tagged and released during a 3-month period in the fall. The fish were surgically implanted with a small acoustic transmitter with an expected life of about 3 months and a passive integrated transponder tag with an indefinite life, and were released into the two main tributaries several kilometers upstream of the reservoir. Juvenile Chinook salmon migrated from the release sites to the reservoir in a greater proportion than juvenile steelhead, but once in the reservoir, juvenile steelhead migrated to the forebay faster and had a higher dam passage rate than juvenile Chinook salmon. The routes available for passing water and fish varied throughout the year, with low reservoir elevations in winter and high reservoir elevations in summer in accordance with the flood-control purpose of the dam. Most dam passage was through the spillway during the spring and summer, when the reservoir elevation was high and the spillway and powerhouse were the most common routes in operation, and via the powerhouse during the fall and winter period, when the reservoir elevation was low and the regulating outlet and powerhouse were the most common routes in operation. Few tagged fish passed when the powerhouse was the only route in operation. Dam passage rates during the spring and summer were greatest at night, increased with dam discharge, and were greater when water was passed freely over the

  17. Alcohol outlets, neighborhood characteristics, and intimate partner violence: ecological analysis of a California city.

    PubMed

    Cunradi, Carol B; Mair, Christina; Ponicki, William; Remer, Lillian

    2011-04-01

    Neighborhood indicators of social disadvantage, such as poverty and unemployment, are associated with intimate partner violence (IPV). Despite the well-established link between heavy drinking and IPV, few studies have analyzed the contribution of alcohol outlet density to the occurrence of IPV. Greater numbers of alcohol outlets in a community may be a sign of loosened normative constraints against violence, promote problem drinking among at-risk couples, and provide environments where groups of persons at risk for IPV may form and mutually reinforce IPV-related attitudes, norms, and problem behaviors. This study used ecological data to determine if alcohol outlet density (number of bars, restaurants serving alcohol, and off-premise outlets per unit area) is related to rates of IPV-related police calls and IPV-related crime reports in Sacramento, California. Separate analyses for IPV calls and crime reports were conducted using Bayesian space-time models adjusted for area characteristics (poverty rate, unemployment rate, racial/ethnic composition). The results showed that each additional off-premise alcohol outlet is associated with an approximate 4% increase in IPV-related police calls and an approximate 3% increase in IPV-related crime reports. Bars and restaurants were not associated with either outcome. The findings suggest that alcohol outlet density, especially off-premise outlets, appear to be related to IPV events. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which neighborhood factors, such as alcohol outlet density, affect IPV behaviors. Understanding these mechanisms is of public health importance for developing environmental IPV prevention strategies, such as changes in zoning, community action, education, and enforcement activities.

  18. Indicator providing continuous indication of the presence of a specific pollutant in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Bartera, R. E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A continuous HCl in-air indicator was developed which consists of a tube-like element with an inlet end through which a continuous stream of air containing HCl enters. The air flows downstream from the inlet end and exits the element's outlet end. Positioned between the element's inlet and outlet ends are first and second spaced apart photoelectric units, which are preferably positioned adjacent the inlet and outlet ends, respectively. Ammonia gas is injected into the air, flowing through the element, at a position between the two photoelectric units. The ammonia gas reacts with the HCl in the air to form ammonium chloride particles. The difference between the outputs of the two photoelectric units is an indication of the amount of HCl in the air stream.

  19. The Geography of Violence, Alcohol Outlets, and Drug Arrests in Boston

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaowen; A. Braga, Anthony; Goldstick, Jason; Newton, Manya; Rura, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between alcohol outlets, drug markets (approximated by arrests for possession and trafficking), and violence in Boston, Massachusetts, in 2006. We analyzed geographic and environmental versus individual factors related to violence and identified areas high in violent crime. Methods. We used data from the Boston Police Department, US Census, and Massachusetts State Alcohol Beverage Control Commission. Spatial modeling was employed at the block group level, and violent crime, alcohol outlets, and drug markets were mapped. Results. Relative to other block groups, block groups in the highest decile of violent crime (n = 55) were found to be poorer (e.g., lower incomes, higher percentages of vacant homes), and they had greater numbers of alcohol outlets and higher drug arrest rates. Alcohol outlets and drug possession and trafficking arrests were predictive of violent crime. Also, spatial effects resulting from neighboring block groups were related to violent crime. Both alcohol outlet density and type were associated with violent crime in a differentiated and complex way. Conclusions. With drug possession and trafficking arrests as a proxy for drug markets, spatial relationships between alcohol outlets and violence were found in addition to typical sociodemographic predictors. PMID:23409885

  20. The ecology of domestic violence: the role of alcohol outlet density.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Studies have consistently found positive associations between the density of alcohol outlets and levels of violence in areas. Few studies have examined whether this relationship holds for domestic violence. This study assesses whether alcohol outlet density is related to domestic violence and whether this relationship is due to alcohol availability or to co-occurring economic disadvantage and social disorganisation. Cross-sectional data on family incidents, liquor outlets and socio-demographic characteristics were obtained for 217 postcodes in Melbourne, Australia. These data were used to construct models assessing the association between alcohol outlet density and domestic violence, both with and without controlling for socio-demographic factors. Models were tested for spatial autocorrelation, and spatial- error models were developed to control for its influence. Outlet density was significantly associated with rates of domestic violence, even controlling for socio-demographic factors. The density of hotels (pubs) was positively associated with domestic violence rates and the density of restaurants and bars was negatively associated with domestic violence. Socio-economic disadvantage was also associated with domestic violence rates. The density of packaged liquor outlets was not associated with rates of domestic violence. The results present a mixed picture, and further study is required to develop a clearer understanding of the links between alcohol availability and domestic violence.