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Sample records for air parcels arriving

  1. Air parcel trajectory dispersion near the tropical tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, John W.; Jensen, Eric J.; Pfister, Leonhard; Bui, Thaopaul V.

    2016-04-01

    Dispersion of backward air parcel trajectories that are initially tightly grouped near the tropical tropopause is examined using three ensemble approaches: "RANWIND," in which different ensemble members use identical resolved wind fluctuations but different realizations of stochastic, multifractal simulations of unresolved winds; "PERTLOC," in which members use identical resolved wind fields but initial locations are perturbed 2° in latitude and longitude; and a multimodel ensemble ("MULTIMODEL") that uses identical initial conditions but different resolved wind fields and/or trajectory formulations. Comparisons among the approaches distinguish, to some degree, physical dispersion from that due to data uncertainty and the impacts of unresolved wind fluctuations from those of resolved variability. Dispersion rates are robust properties of trajectories near the tropical tropopause. Horizontal dispersion rates are typically ~3°/d, which is large enough to spread parcels throughout the tropics within typical tropical tropopause layer transport times (30-60 days) and underscores the importance of averaging large collections of trajectories to obtain reliable parcel source and pathway distributions. Vertical dispersion rates away from convection are ~2-3 hPa/d. Dispersion is primarily carried out by the resolved flow, and the RANWIND approach provides a plausible representation of actual trajectory dispersion rates, while PERTLOC provides a reasonable and inexpensive alternative to RANWIND. In contrast, dispersion from the MULTIMODEL calculations is important because it reflects systematic differences in resolved wind fields from different reanalysis data sets.

  2. Chemical data assimilation on air parcels trajectories for Envisat validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirre, M.; Huret, N.; Taupin, F. G.; Moreau, G.; Renard, J.-B.

    2003-08-01

    Balloon chemical instruments have shown to be very useful for the validation of ENVISAT instruments GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY. Nevertheless, it is necessary for that to obtain a very good rendezvous between balloon and satellite instruments. Such rendezvous have often been obtained during the validation campaigns, but for each balloon flight these rendezvous are obtained with only one satellite instrument. Moreover some operational problem could lead to miss the expected rendezvous. The paper presents a first attempt to use the air parcel trajectory concept to use nevertheless such balloon measurements for validation purposes. This concept is applied to the validation of the MIPAS instrument in using the flights of the instruments SALOMON on September 19, 2002 and SPIRALE on October 2, 2002 above Aire sur l'Adour. Difficulties encountered in this work and preliminary conclusions concerning MIPAS validation are given.

  3. Homogeneous and heterogeneous chemistry along air parcel trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.; Mckenna, D. L.; Poole, L. R.; Solomon, S.

    1990-01-01

    The study of coupled heterogeneous and homogeneous chemistry due to polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) using Lagrangian parcel trajectories for interpretation of the Airborne Arctic Stratosphere Experiment (AASE) is discussed. This approach represents an attempt to quantitatively model the physical and chemical perturbation to stratospheric composition due to formation of PSC's using the fullest possible representation of the relevant processes. Further, the meteorological fields from the United Kingdom Meteorological office global model were used to deduce potential vorticity and inferred regions of PSC's as an input to flight planning during AASE.

  4. Air Parcel Residence Times within Tropical Forest Canopies and Implications for Reactive Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, T.; Chamecki, M.; Fuentes, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon rainforest is the world's largest natural emitter of reactive trace gases. Due to its dense vegetation (leaf area index > 4), turbulence fluctuations are highly attenuated deep inside the canopy. However, strong coherent eddies that penetrate the upper portion of the canopy can be very effective in transporting gases. Sweeps and ejections act in the order of seconds and transport air parcels into or out of the canopy. The effects of coherent structures on the air parcel residence times and associated chemical processing of reactive gases remain largely unquantified in tropical forests. We combine canopy resolving Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and field observations in the Brazilian Amazon to study residence times of air parcels in the rainforest as a function of canopy structure and height (h). Good agreement is obtained between simulated and observed turbulence statistics within and above the forest. Coherent structure properties obtained from quadrant analysis are also well reproduced. A Lagrangian particle tracking algorithm is used to quantify the distribution of residence times of air parcels "released" at different heights. Canopy residence times were determined from the particle trajectories. The resulting probability density function (PDF) strongly depended on the particle release height (z). For particles released in the upper canopy (at z/h=0.75) the most frequent residence times were in the order of 30s, with 50% of all particles ejected from the canopy after ~2 minutes. The mean residence time was close to 5 minutes, indicating a very skewed PDF. At z/h=0.25 the PDF was more evenly distributed with its median and mean in the order of ~10 minutes. Due to sweeps, both simulations had a non- negligible fraction of particles transported deep into the canopy, thus increasing greatly their residence times. As the reaction timescales of many biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are in the order of seconds to minutes, significant chemical

  5. Uncertainty and dispersion in air parcel trajectories near the tropical tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, John; Jensen, Eric; Pfister, Leonhard; Bui, Thoapaul

    2016-04-01

    The Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) is important as the gateway to the stratosphere for chemical constituents produced at the Earth's surface. As such, understanding the processes that transport air through the upper tropical troposphere is important for a number of current scientific issues such as the impact of stratospheric water vapor on the global radiative budget and the depletion of ozone by both anthropogenically- and naturally-produced halocarbons. Compared to the lower troposphere, transport in the TTL is relatively unaffected by turbulent motion. Consequently, Lagrangian particle models are thought to provide reasonable estimates of parcel pathways through the TTL. However, there are complications that make trajectory analyses difficult to interpret; uncertainty in the wind data used to drive these calculations and trajectory dispersion being among the most important. These issues are examined using ensembles of backward air parcel trajectories that are initially tightly grouped near the tropical tropopause using three approaches: A Monte Carlo ensemble, in which different members use identical resolved wind fluctuations but different realizations of stochastic, multi-fractal simulations of unresolved winds, perturbed initial location ensembles, in which members use identical resolved wind fields but initial locations are displaced 2° in latitude and longitude, and a multi-model ensemble that uses identical initial conditions but different resolved wind fields and/or trajectory formulations. Comparisons among the approaches distinguish, to some degree, physical dispersion from that due to data uncertainty and the impact of unresolved wind fluctuations from that of resolved variability.

  6. Design Principles and Algorithms for Air Traffic Arrival Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Itoh, Eri

    2014-01-01

    This report presents design principles and algorithms for building a real-time scheduler of arrival aircraft based on a first-come-first-served (FCFS) scheduling protocol. The algorithms provide the conceptual and computational foundation for the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) of the Center/terminal radar approach control facilities (TRACON) automation system, which comprises a set of decision support tools for managing arrival traffic at major airports in the United States. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high-altitude airspace far away from the airport and low-altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time. This report is a revision of an earlier paper first presented as part of an Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) lecture series in September 1995. The authors, during vigorous discussions over the details of this paper, felt it was important to the air-trafficmanagement (ATM) community to revise and extend the original 1995 paper, providing more detail and clarity and thereby allowing future researchers to understand this foundational work as the basis for the TMA's scheduling algorithms.

  7. Tracing Trajectories of Air Parcels Transported through Spatially Resolved Horizontal Neutral Wind Fields Observed in the Thermosphere above Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadly, M. S.; Conde, M.

    2014-12-01

    Transport by fluid flow is a very complex problem. Any type of velocity gradient introduces distortion of the original air masses which, over time, can become extraordinarily severe. In Earth's thermosphere, it is however widely presumed that viscosity hinders both horizontal and vertical wind shears, and hence rapidly attenuates any gradients that might occur over distances shorter than synoptic scales. As a result, particle trajectories predicted by current models are often relatively simple, so that transport effects only slowly disperse and mix air masses. This means that regions of perturbed chemical composition, formed for example by intense aurora, would be expected to remain intact for many hours or even days. However, our observations show that this simple picture does not hold in practice; wind fields in the thermosphere have much more local-scale structure than predicated by models, at least in the auroral zone. These local small scale structures complicate air parcel trajectories enormously, relative to typical expectations. In Alaska, three Scanning Doppler Imaging Fabry-Perot interferometers are currently in operation. A single SDI instrument can simultaneously observe the thermospheric wind's line-of-sight component in 115 (typically) independent look directions. From these data it is possible to reconstruct time-resolved two-dimensional maps of the horizontal vector wind field, and use these to infer forward and backward air parcel trajectories over time. Tracing parcel trajectories through a given geographic location maps where they will go from there (forward tracing in time) and where they come from previously (history of parcels or tracing back in time). Results show that transport of thermospheric neutral species in the presence of the local scale wind gradients that are actually observed is far more complicated than what current models typically predict.

  8. Cloud parcel modelling of CCN activation in megacity air based on observations from Beijing and Guangzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, H.; Reutter, P.; Trentmann, J.; Rose, D.; Gunthe, S.; Simmel, M.; Nowak, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhu, T.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    The other team members are P. Achtert (3), M. Hu (4), M. Shao (4), and Y.H. Zhang (4). The activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) determines the initial number of cloud droplets, and thus influences the evolution of the cloud and formation of precipitation. Characterizing the CCN activation process by parcel model studies with detailed cloud microphysics and dynamics provides useful information for parameterizing the activation process in meso-scale and global-scale models. During the CAREBEIJING 2006 campaign in Beijing and the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign in Guangzhou, fast condensational growth of particles was frequently observed and the CCN size distribution was sometimes dominated by the growing nucleation mode (Aitken Mode) rather than by the accumulation mode. In this study we investigated the implications of the experimental findings using a cloud parcel model with detailed spectral cloud microphysics and with the ΰ-Köhler model approach for efficient and realistic description of the effective hygroscopicity and CCN activity of aerosol particles. The number of droplets formed at the cloud base was examined for a wide range of updraft velocities and aerosol particle number concentrations. Moreover, the impact of aerosol hygroscopicity, size distribution and giant CCN were also evaluated. References: Reutter, P., Trentmann, J., Su, H., Simmel M., Rose, D., Wernli, H., Andreae, M. O., and Pöschl, U.: Activation of aerosol particles as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) under smoky and pyro-convective conditions, manuscript in preparation, 2009 Rose, D., Gunthe, S. S., Mikhailov, E., Frank, G. P., Dusek, U., Andreae, M. O., and Pöschl, U.: Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC): CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 1153-1179, 2008. Rose, D., Nowak, A., Achtert, P., Wiedensohler, A., Hu, M., Shao, M

  9. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey Parcels E2, F, and I, Military Housing Areas, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    thistle (Salsola sp.), a noxious weed, commonly occurs in 3.2 disturbed areas. There are no threatened, endangered or rare species located on...located on the parcel. Miscellaneous Structures – A wall exists on Parcel I. The wall is seven feet tall and marks the eastern boundary of the

  10. Environmental Baseline Survey Parcel E2, F, and I, Military Housing Areas Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    ephedra (Ephedra sp.). Russian thistle (Salsola sp.), a noxious weed, commonly occurs in 3.2 disturbed areas. There are no threatened, endangered...poles or transformers are located on the parcel. Miscellaneous Structures – A wall exists on Parcel I. The wall is seven feet tall and marks the

  11. Controller Strategies for Managing Air Traffic in High Altitude Arrival Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Nancy; Palmer, Everett; Prevot, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Substantial increases in the volume of air traffic in the National Airspace System (NAS) are forecast for the next decade, with the number of passengers travelling on U.S. airlines expected to increase by as much as 60%. This increased demand on system capacity will be accompanied by increases in traffic complexity as air traffic service providers routinely accommodate user preferred routing requests. Changes to the NAS to meet these new demands are currently underway, including development of new decision support tools to aid controllers in monitoring and managing air traffic, and increased air-to-air and air-to-ground information exchange. Changes in roles and responsibilities of pilots and controllers in flight path management will accompany these changes in traffic patterns and information technology, however the ultimate responsibility for maintaining aircraft separation will remain with the air traffic controller. A thorough understanding of the methods controllers use to manage air traffic will help ensure that changes to the NAS are implemented in a way that maintains the controller's ability to separate aircraft as the system evolves. This presentation describes the strategies controllers use today to manage arrival traffic in its descent from cruise altitude to the Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) boundary. Factors that increase the complexity of this task include the presence of overflight traffic, varying aircraft performance characteristics, winds aloft, ground speed variations with altitude, the need to merge arrival traffic into a single stream, and, when arrival traffic exceeds airport runway capacity, the added task of metering flow into the TRACON. Because of the limited information available to controllers to manage arrival traffic, their strategies are often driven by the need to reduce the task's complexity, which can result in de-optimized flight paths for individual aircraft (e.g., sub-optimal descent or speed profiles). Understanding

  12. Improving stable isotope-based reconstructions of Sierra Nevada paleotopography using insights from regional air parcel trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechler, A.; Galewsky, J.

    2012-12-01

    The geodynamic evolution of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of the western US remains subject to debate due to the lack of consensus on the Cenozoic paleoelevation history of the range. The majority of recent studies attempting to quantify the surface uplift history of the Sierra Nevada rely on stable isotope paleoaltimetry methods that often implicitly assume that atmospheric flow interactions with topography can be simply modeled as a Rayleigh distillation process in which air mass trajectories ascend and rainout heavy isotopologues of water (18O and D) across topographic barriers relatively unimpeded. Accordingly, stable isotope paleoaltimetry studies commonly target leeward side paleo-meteoric water proxies to constrain paleotopography of the windward barrier. We present a modern (1979 - 2010) air parcel trajectory analysis using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model that shows that the fundamental assumptions of stable isotope paleoaltimetry are often violated in the Sierra Nevada region. Trajectory analysis indicates that westerly air masses are frequently orographically blocked by and redirected around the higher elevations (> 2.5 km) of the Sierra Nevada. As a result, trajectories reaching the Sierran lee commonly travel around, rather than over, the highest range elevations. These blocking and redirection effects are particularly pronounced for leeward sites that are distal (> 150 km) from the Sierran crest but are also evident in trajectory patterns for both windward and proximal leeward locations in the northern Sierra Nevada. In addition, trajectory patterns indicate that much of the Sierran lee receives a non-negligible proportion of annual precipitation from summer storm systems sourced in the subtropical Pacific Ocean and Gulf of California that have little to no interaction with Sierran topography. This trajectory analysis highlights the complexity of orographic precipitation patterns and processes in the Sierra

  13. 14 CFR 93.25 - Initial assignment of Arrival Authorizations to U.S. and Canadian air carriers for domestic and U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial assignment of Arrival...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Congestion and Delay Reduction at... this rule, Arrival Authorizations for each scheduled arrival that it published for either domestic or...

  14. Efficient Computation of Separation-Compliant Speed Advisories for Air Traffic Arriving in Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V.; Davis, Damek; Isaacson, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    A class of problems in air traffic management asks for a scheduling algorithm that supplies the air traffic services authority not only with a schedule of arrivals and departures, but also with speed advisories. Since advisories must be finite, a scheduling algorithm must ultimately produce a finite data set, hence must either start with a purely discrete model or involve a discretization of a continuous one. The former choice, often preferred for intuitive clarity, naturally leads to mixed-integer programs, hindering proofs of correctness and computational cost bounds (crucial for real-time operations). In this paper, a hybrid control system is used to model air traffic scheduling, capturing both the discrete and continuous aspects. This framework is applied to a class of problems, called the Fully Routed Nominal Problem. We prove a number of geometric results on feasible schedules and use these results to formulate an algorithm that attempts to compute a collective speed advisory, effectively finite, and has computational cost polynomial in the number of aircraft. This work is a first step toward optimization and models refined with more realistic detail.

  15. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey Nellis Terrace Housing Area, Parcel E-1, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    12 3.17 RADON ............................................................................................................ 12 3.18 LEAD...subject property. 3.17 RADON See Section 3.17, pages 3-17 and 3-18 of the 2003 EBS for a description of radon with respect to Parcel E-1...which is a subpart of the Nellis Terrace Housing Area described therein. According to record searches, interviews, and a site reconnaissance, no radon

  16. Profile negotiation: An air/ground automation integration concept for managing arrival traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Green, Steven M.; Denbraven, Wim

    1993-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and NASA Langley Research Center conducted a joint simulation study to evaluate a profile negotiation process (PNP) between a time-based air traffic control ATC system and an airplane equipped with a four dimensional flight management system (4D FMS). Prototype procedures were developed to support the functional implementation of this process. The PNP was designed to provide an arrival trajectory solution that satisfies the separation requirements of ATC while remaining as close as possible to the airplane's preferred trajectory. The Transport Systems Research Vehicle cockpit simulator was linked in real-time to the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) for the experiment. Approximately 30 hours of simulation testing were conducted over a three week period. Active airline pilot crews and active Center controller teams participated as test subjects. Results from the experiment indicate the potential for successful incorporation of airplane preferred arrival trajectories in the CTAS automation environment. Controllers were able to consistently and effectively negotiate nominally conflict-free trajectories with pilots flying a 4D-FMS-equipped airplane. The negotiated trajectories were substantially closer to the airplane's preference than would have otherwise been possible without the PNP. Airplane fuel savings relative to baseline CTAS were achieved in the test scenarios. The datalink procedures and clearances developed for this experiment, while providing the necessary functionality, were found to be operationally unacceptable to the pilots. Additional pilot control and understanding of the proposed airplane-preferred trajectory and a simplified clearance procedure were cited as necessary for operational implementation of the concept. From the controllers' perspective, the main concerns were the ability of the 4D airplane to accurately track the negotiated trajectory and the workload required to support the PNP as implemented in this study.

  17. Stratospheric ozone loss in the 1996/1997 Arctic winter: Evaluation based on multiple trajectory analysis for double-sounded air parcels by ILAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terao, Yukio; Sasano, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Hideaki; Tanaka, H. L.; Yasunari, Tetsuzo

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative chemical ozone loss rates and amounts in the Arctic polar vortex for the spring of 1997 are analyzed based on ozone profile data obtained by the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) using an extension of the Match technique. In this study, we calculated additional multiple trajectories and set very strict criteria to overcome the weakness of the satellite sensor data (lower vertical resolution and larger sampling air mass volume) and to identify more accurately a double-sounded air mass. On the average inside the inner edge of the vortex boundary (north of about 70°N equivalent latitude), the local ozone loss rate was 50-80 ppbv/day at the maximum during late February between the levels of 450 and 500 K potential temperatures. The integrated ozone loss during February to March reached 2.0 ± 0.1 ppmv at 475-529 K levels, and the column ozone loss between 400 and 600 K during the 2 months was 96 ± 0.3 DU. Using a relative potential vorticity (rPV) scale, the vortex was divided into some rPV belts, and it was shown that the magnitude of the ozone loss increased gradually toward the vortex center from the edge. The maximum ozone loss rate of 6.0 ± 0.6 ppbv/sunlit hour near the vortex center was higher than near the vortex edge by a factor of 2-3. When we expanded the area of interest to include all the data obtained inside the vortex edge (north of about 65°N equivalent latitude), the local ozone loss rate was about 50 ppbv/day at the maximum. This value is slightly larger than that estimated by the Match analysis using ozonesondes for the same winter by ˜10 ppbv/day. Temperature histories of double-sounded air parcels indicated that the extreme ozone loss in the innermost part of the vortex was observed when the air parcel experienced temperatures below TNAT during the two soundings and had experienced temperatures near Tice in the 10 days prior to the first sounding. These facts suggest that the high ozone loss rate deep inside the vortex

  18. Arrival directions of large air showers, low-mu showers and old-age low-mu air showers observed at St. Chacaltaya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, T.; Hagiwara, K.; Yoshii, H.; Martinic, N.; Siles, L.; Miranda, P.; Kakimoto, F.; Obara, T.; Inoue, N.; Suga, K.

    1985-01-01

    Arrival directions of air showers with primary energies in the range 10 to the 16.5 power eV to 10 to the 18th power eV show the first harmonic in right ascension (RA) with amplitude of 2.7 + or - 1.0% and phase of 13-16h. However, the second harmonic in RA slightly seen for showers in the range 10 to the 18th power eV to 10 to the 19th power eV disappeared by accumulation of observed showers. The distribution of arrival directions of low-mu air showers with primary energies around 10 to the 15th power eV observed at Chacaltaya from 1962 to 1967 is referred to, relating to the above-mentioned first harmonic. Also presented in this paper are arrival directions of old-age low-mu air showers observed at Chacaltaya from 1962 to 1967, for recent interest in gamma-ray air showers.

  19. Time-dependent freezing rate parcel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vali, G.; Snider, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    The time-dependent freezing rate (TDFR) model here described represents the formation of ice particles by immersion freezing within an air parcel. The air parcel trajectory follows an adiabatic ascent and includes a period in time when the parcel remains stationary at the top of its ascent. The description of the ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the air parcel is taken from laboratory experiments with cloud and precipitation samples and is assumed to represent the INP content of the cloud droplets in the parcel. Time dependence is included to account for variations in updraft velocity and for the continued formation of ice particles under isothermal conditions. The magnitudes of these factors are assessed on the basis of laboratory measurements. Results show that both factors give rise to three-fold variations in ice concentration for a realistic range of the input parameters. Refinements of the parameters specifying time dependence and INP concentrations are needed to make the results more specific to different atmospheric aerosol types. The simple model framework described in this paper can be adapted to more elaborate cloud models. The results here presented can help guide decisions on whether to include a time-dependent ice nucleation scheme or a simpler singular description in models.

  20. Time-dependent freezing rate parcel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vali, G.; Snider, J. R.

    2014-11-01

    The Time-Dependent Freezing Rate (TDFR) model here described represents the formation of ice particles by immersion freezing within an air parcel. The air parcel trajectory follows an adiabatic ascent and includes a period at time with the parcel remaining stationary at the top of its ascent. The description of the ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the air parcel is taken from laboratory experiments with cloud and precipitation samples and is assumed to represent the INP content of the cloud droplets in the parcel. Time-dependence is included to account for variations in updraft velocity and for the continued formation of ice particles at isothermal conditions. The magnitudes of these factors are assessed on the basis of laboratory measurements. Results show that both factors give rise to factors of about 3 variations in ice concentration for a realistic range of the input parameters. Refinements of the parameters specifying time-dependence and INP concentrations are needed to make the results more specific to different atmospheric aerosol types. The simple model framework described in this paper can be adapted to more elaborate cloud models. The results here presented can help guide decisions on whether to include a time-dependent ice nucleation scheme or a simpler singular description in models.

  1. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  2. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  3. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  4. On the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray using the muon arrival times from extensive air showers: Application for Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Arsene, N.; Rebel, H.; Sima, O.

    2012-11-20

    In this paper we study the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray by observing the muon arrival times in ground detectors. We analyzed extensive air showers (EAS) induced by proton and iron nuclei with the same energy 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} eV simulated with CORSIKA, and analyzed the muon arrival times at ground measured by the infill array detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO). From the arrival times of the core and of the muons the atmospheric depth of muon generation locus is evaluated. The results suggest a potential mass discrimination on the basis of muon arrival times and of the reconstructed atmospheric depth of muon production. An analysis of a larger set of CORSIKA simulations carried out for primary energies above 10{sup 18} eV is in progress.

  5. Longitudinal development of muons in large air showers studies from the arrival time distributions measured at 900m above sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakimoto, F.; Tsuchimoto, I.; Enoki, T.; Suga, K.; Nishi, K.

    1985-01-01

    The arrival time distributions of muons with energies above 1.0GeV and 0.5GeV have been measured in the Akeno air-shower array to study the longitudinal development of muons in air showers with primary energies in the range 10 to the 17th power to 10 to the 18th power ev. The average rise times of muons with energies above 1.0GeV at large core distances are consistent with those expected from very high multiplicity models and, on the contrary, with those expected from the low multiplicity models at small core distances. This implies that the longitudinal development at atmospheric depth smaller than 500 cm square is very fast and that at larger atmospheric depths is rather slow.

  6. Unsupervised fetal cortical surface parcellation

    PubMed Central

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    At the core of many neuro-imaging studies, atlas-based brain parcellations are used for example to study normal brain evolution across the lifespan. These atlases rely on the assumption that the same anatomical features are present on all subjects to be studied and that these features are stable enough to allow meaningful comparisons between different brain surfaces and structures These methods, however, often fail when applied to fetal MRI data, due to the lack of consistent anatomical features present across gestation. This paper presents a novel surface-based fetal cortical parcellation framework which attempts to circumvent the lack of consistent anatomical features by proposing a brain parcellation scheme that is based solely on learned geometrical features. A mesh signature incorporating both extrinsic and intrinsic geometrical features is proposed and used in a clustering scheme to define a parcellation of the fetal brain. This parcellation is then learned using a Random Forest (RF) based learning approach and then further refined in an alpha-expansion graph-cut scheme. Based on the votes obtained by the RF inference procedure, a probability map is computed and used as a data term in the graph-cut procedure. The smoothness term is defined by learning a transition matrix based on the dihedral angles of the faces. Qualitative and quantitative results on a cohort of both healthy and high-risk fetuses are presented. Both visual and quantitative assessments show good results demonstrating a reliable method for fetal brain data and the possibility of obtaining a parcellation of the fetal cortical surfaces using only geometrical features. PMID:27413248

  7. Unsupervised fetal cortical surface parcellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    At the core of many neuro-imaging studies, atlas-based brain parcellations are used for example to study normal brain evolution across the lifespan. These atlases rely on the assumption that the same anatomical features are present on all subjects to be studied and that these features are stable enough to allow meaningful comparisons between different brain surfaces and structures These methods, however, often fail when applied to fetal MRI data, due to the lack of consistent anatomical features present across gestation. This paper presents a novel surface-based fetal cortical parcellation framework which attempts to circumvent the lack of consistent anatomical features by proposing a brain parcellation scheme that is based solely on learned geometrical features. A mesh signature incorporating both extrinsic and intrinsic geometrical features is proposed and used in a clustering scheme to define a parcellation of the fetal brain. This parcellation is then learned using a Random Forest (RF) based learning approach and then further refined in an alpha-expansion graph-cut scheme. Based on the votes obtained by the RF inference procedure, a probability map is computed and used as a data term in the graph-cut procedure. The smoothness term is defined by learning a transition matrix based on the dihedral angles of the faces. Qualitative and quantitative results on a cohort of both healthy and high-risk fetuses are presented. Both visual and quantitative assessments show good results demonstrating a reliable method for fetal brain data and the possibility of obtaining a parcellation of the fetal cortical surfaces using only geometrical features.

  8. Climatology of wintertime long-distance transport of surface-layer air masses arriving urban Beijing in 2001-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Xiang-De, XU

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the FLEXPART-WRF coupled modeling system is used to conduct 12-year Lagrangian modeling over Beijing, China, for the winters of 2001-2012. Based on large trajectory tracking ensembles, the long-range air transport properties, in terms of geographic source regions within the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL) and large-scale ventilation, and its association with air quality levels were quantified from a climatological perspective. The results show the following: (1) The air masses residing in the near-surface layer over Beijing potentially originate from broader atmospheric boundary-layer regions, which cover vast areas with the backward tracking time elapsed. However, atmospheric transport from northeastern China and, to a lesser extent, from the surrounding regions of Beijing is important. (2) The evolution of air quality over Beijing is negatively correlated with large-scale ventilation conditions, particularly at a synoptic timescale. Thus, the simple but robust backward-trajectory ventilation (BV) index defined in this study could facilitate operational forecasting of severe air pollution events. (3) By comparison, the relatively short-range transport occurring over transport timescales of less than 3 days from southern and southeastern Beijing and its surrounding areas plays a vital role in the formation of severe air pollution events during the wintertime. (4) Additionally, an interannual trend analysis suggests that the geographic sources and ventilation conditions also changed, at least over the last decade, corresponding to the strength variability of the winter East Asian monsoon.

  9. 78 FR 63521 - Product Change-Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Contract 5 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available...

  10. 77 FR 37078 - Product Change-Parcel Select and Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 119 (Wednesday, June 20, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 37078] [FR Doc No: 2012-14936] POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select and Parcel Return Service Negotiated... of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Contract 4...

  11. Parcellating connectivity in spatial maps

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Diane M.; Fei-Fei, Li

    2015-01-01

    A common goal in biological sciences is to model a complex web of connections using a small number of interacting units. We present a general approach for dividing up elements in a spatial map based on their connectivity properties, allowing for the discovery of local regions underlying large-scale connectivity matrices. Our method is specifically designed to respect spatial layout and identify locally-connected clusters, corresponding to plausible coherent units such as strings of adjacent DNA base pairs, subregions of the brain, animal communities, or geographic ecosystems. Instead of using approximate greedy clustering, our nonparametric Bayesian model infers a precise parcellation using collapsed Gibbs sampling. We utilize an infinite clustering prior that intrinsically incorporates spatial constraints, allowing the model to search directly in the space of spatially-coherent parcellations. After showing results on synthetic datasets, we apply our method to both functional and structural connectivity data from the human brain. We find that our parcellation is substantially more effective than previous approaches at summarizing the brain’s connectivity structure using a small number of clusters, produces better generalization to individual subject data, and reveals functional parcels related to known retinotopic maps in visual cortex. Additionally, we demonstrate the generality of our method by applying the same model to human migration data within the United States. This analysis reveals that migration behavior is generally influenced by state borders, but also identifies regional communities which cut across state lines. Our parcellation approach has a wide range of potential applications in understanding the spatial structure of complex biological networks. PMID:25737822

  12. The Origins of Air Parcels Uplifted in a Two Dimensional Gravity Wave in the Tropical Upper Troposphere During the NASA Stratosphere Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Pfister, Leonhard; Chan, K. Roland; Kritz, Mark; Kelly, Ken

    1989-01-01

    During January and February 1987, as part of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project, the NASA ER-2 made 11 flights from Darwin, Australia to investigate dehydration mechanisms in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause. After the monsoon onset in the second week of January, steady easterly flow of 15-25 ms (exp -1) was established in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over northern Australia and adjacent seas. Penetrating into this regime were elements of the monsoon convection such as overshooting convective turrets and extensive anvils including cyclone cloud shields. In cases of the latter, the resulting flow obstructions tended to produce mesoscale gravity waves. In several instances the ER- 2 meteorological and trace constituent measurements provide a detailed description of the structure of these gravity waves. Among these was STEP Flight 6, 22-23 January. It is of particular interest to STEP because of the close proximity of ice-laden and dehydrated air on the same isentropic surfaces. Convective events inject large amounts of ice into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere which may not be completely removed by local precipitation processes. In the present instance, a gravity wave for removed from the source region appears to induce relativity rapid upward motion in the ice-laden air and subsequent dessication. Potential mechanisms for such a localized removal process are under investigation.

  13. Variation in airborne 137Cs peak levels with altitude from high-altitude locations across Europe after the arrival of Fukushima-labeled air masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Olivier; Bieringer, Jacqueline; Dalheimer, Axel; Estier, Sybille; Evrard, Olivier; Penev, Ilia; Ringer, Wolfgang; Schlosser, Clemens; Steinkopff, Thomas; Tositti, Laura; de Vismes-Ott, Anne

    2015-04-01

    During the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident, a dozen of high-altitude aerosol sampling stations, located between 850 and 3,454 m above sea level (a.s.l.), provided airborne activity levels across Europe (Fig. 1). This represents at most 5% of the total number of aerosol sampling locations that delivered airborne activity levels (at least one result) in Europe, in connection with this nuclear accident. High altitude stations are typically equipped with a high volume sampler that collects aerosols on filters. The Fukushima-labeled air mass arrival and the peak of airborne cesium-137 (137Cs) activity levels were registered in Europe at different dates depending on the location, with differences up to a factor of six on a regional scale. Besides this statement related to lowland areas, we have compared the maximum airborne levels registered at high-altitude European locations (850 m < altitudes < 3450 m) with what was observed at the closest lowland location. The vertical distribution of 137Cs peak level was not uniform even after a long travel time/distance from Japan. This being true at least in the atmospheric boundary layer and in the lower free troposphere. Moreover the relation '137Csmax vs. altitude' shows a decreasing trend (Fig. 2). Results and discussion : Comparison of 137Cs and 7Be levels shows simultaneous increases at least when the 137Cs airborne level rose for the first time (Fig. 3). Zugspitze and Jungfraujoch stations attest of a time shift between 7Be and 137Cs peak that can be due to the particular dynamic of air movements at such high altitudes. After the 137Cs peak value, the plume concentration decreased whatever the 7Be level. Due to the cosmogenic origin of 7Be, its increase in the ground-level air is usually associated with downwind air movements, i.e. stratospheric air intrusions or at least air from high-tropospheric levels, into lower atmospheric layers. This means that Fukushima-labeled air masses registered at ground

  14. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  15. Correction: Washington and Geneva arrive in Buenos Aires: notes on the history of the habit of smoking and its medicalization.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702015000100017.]. Upon request of the author, the article "Washington and Geneva come to Buenos Aires: notes on the history of smoking and its medicalization" by Diego Armus, publicado em História, Ciências, Saúde - Manguinhos, v.22, n.1 , Jan.-Mar. 2015:on page 301, second paragraph, sixth line, where it says " It was only in 2012 when Argentina ratified the agreement and the National Congress approved a new national law" it should read "It was only in 2012, without having ratified the convention, when the National Congress approved a new national law. "

  16. Arrival Metering Precision Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  17. 77 FR 28409 - Product Change-Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM... Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select &...

  18. The Stochastic Parcel Model: A deterministic parameterization of stochastically entraining convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romps, David M.

    2016-03-01

    Convective entrainment is a process that is poorly represented in existing convective parameterizations. By many estimates, convective entrainment is the leading source of error in global climate models. As a potential remedy, an Eulerian implementation of the Stochastic Parcel Model (SPM) is presented here as a convective parameterization that treats entrainment in a physically realistic and computationally efficient way. Drawing on evidence that convecting clouds comprise air parcels subject to Poisson-process entrainment events, the SPM calculates the deterministic limit of an infinite number of such parcels. For computational efficiency, the SPM groups parcels at each height by their purity, which is a measure of their total entrainment up to that height. This reduces the calculation of convective fluxes to a sequence of matrix multiplications. The SPM is implemented in a single-column model and compared with a large-eddy simulation of deep convection.

  19. 76 FR 16460 - Parcel Select Price and Classification Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Parcel Select Price and Classification Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... changes affecting Parcel Select. The Postal Service seeks to implement new prices for Parcel Select for... implement new prices for Parcel Select for forwarding and return to sender. The fee would be the...

  20. 14 CFR 93.23 - Arrival Authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arrival Authorizations. 93.23 Section 93.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Congestion and Delay Reduction at Chicago...

  1. 36 CFR 910.59 - Development parcel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Development parcel. 910.59 Section 910.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA...

  2. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David O'C.; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Jensen, Eric; Sassen, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison (CPMC) is a project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (GCSS WG2). The primary goal of this project is to identify cirrus model sensitivities to the state of our knowledge of nucleation and microphysics. Furthermore, the common ground of the findings may provide guidelines for models with simpler cirrus microphysics modules. We focus on the nucleation regimes of the warm (parcel starting at -40 C and 340 hPa) and cold (-60 C and 170 hPa) cases studied in the GCSS WG2 Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project. Nucleation and ice crystal growth were forced through an externally imposed rate of lift and consequent adiabatic cooling. The background haze particles are assumed to be lognormally-distributed H2SO4 particles. Only the homogeneous nucleation mode is allowed to form ice crystals in the HN-ONLY runs; all nucleation modes are switched on in the ALL-MODE runs. Participants were asked to run the HN-lambda-fixed runs by setting lambda = 2 (lambda is further discussed in section 2) or tailoring the nucleation rate calculation in agreement with lambda = 2 (exp 1). The depth of parcel lift (800 m) was set to assure that parcels underwent complete transition through the nucleation regime to a stage of approximate equilibrium between ice mass growth and vapor supplied by the specified updrafts.

  3. Webb Telescope Backplane Arrives at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Video Gallery

    Webb Telescope's Backplane arrived at Joint Base Andrews on Monday, August 24, 2015 aboard a U.S. Air Force C-5 cargo plane. The Backplane, inside the Space Telescope Transporter for Air Road and S...

  4. Aerosol properties associated with air masses arriving into the North East Atlantic during the 2008 Mace Head EUCAARI intensive observing period: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Ceburnis, D.; Martucci, G.; Bialek, J.; Dupuy, R.; Jennings, S. G.; Berresheim, H.; Wenger, J. C.; Sodeau, J. R.; Healy, R. M.; Facchini, M. C.; Rinaldi, M.; Giulianelli, L.; Finessi, E.; Worsnop, D.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    As part of the EUCAARI Intensive Observing Period, a 4-week campaign to measure aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, atmospheric structure, and cloud microphysics was conducted from mid-May to mid-June 2008 at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station, located at the interface of Western Europe and the NE Atlantic and centered on the west Irish coastline. During the campaign, continental air masses comprising both young and aged continental plumes were encountered, along with polar, Arctic and tropical air masses. Polluted-continental aerosol concentrations were of the order of 3000 cm-3, while background marine air aerosol concentrations were between 400-600 cm-3. The highest marine air concentrations occurred in polar air masses in which a 15 nm nucleation mode, with concentration of 1100 cm-3, was observed and attributed to open ocean particle formation. Black carbon concentrations in polluted air were between 300-400 ng m-3, and in clean marine air were less than 50 ng m-3. Continental air submicron chemical composition (excluding refractory sea salt) was dominated by organic matter, closely followed by sulphate mass. Although the concentrations and size distribution spectral shape were almost identical for the young and aged continental cases, hygroscopic growth factors (GF) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to total condensation nuclei (CN) concentration ratios were significantly less in the younger pollution plume, indicating a more oxidized organic component to the aged continental plume. The difference in chemical composition and hygroscopic growth factor appear to result in a 40-50% impact on aerosol scattering coefficients and Aerosol Optical Depth, despite almost identical aerosol microphysical properties in both cases, with the higher values been recorded for the more aged case. For the CCN/CN ratio, the highest ratios were seen in the more age plume. In marine air, sulphate mass dominated the sub-micron component, followed by water

  5. Aerosol properties associated with air masses arriving into the North East Atlantic during the 2008 Mace Head EUCAARI intensive observing period: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Ceburnis, D.; Martucci, G.; Bialek, J.; Dupuy, R.; Jennings, S. G.; Berresheim, H.; Wenger, J.; Healy, R.; Facchini, M. C.; Rinaldi, M.; Giulianelli, L.; Finessi, E.; Worsnop, D.; Ehn, M.; Mikkilä, J.; Kulmala, M.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2010-09-01

    As part of the EUCAARI Intensive Observing Period, a 4-week campaign to measure aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, atmospheric structure, and cloud microphysics was conducted from mid-May to mid-June, 2008 at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station, located at the interface of Western Europe and the N. E. Atlantic and centered on the west Irish coastline. During the campaign, continental air masses comprising both young and aged continental plumes were encountered, along with polar, Arctic and tropical air masses. Polluted-continental aerosol concentrations were of the order of 3000 cm-3, while background marine air aerosol concentrations were between 400-600 cm-3. The highest marine air concentrations occurred in polar air masses in which a 15 nm nucleation mode, with concentration of 1100 cm-3, was observed and attributed to open ocean particle formation. Continental air submicron chemical composition (excluding refractory sea salt) was dominated by organic matter, closely followed by sulphate mass. Although the concentrations and size distribution spectral shape were almost identical for the young and aged continental cases, hygroscopic growth factors (GF) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to total condensation nuclei (CN) concentration ratios were significantly less in the younger pollution plume, indicating a more oxidized organic component to the aged continental plume. The difference in chemical composition and hygroscopic growth factor appear to result in a 40-50% impact on aerosol scattering coefficients and Aerosol Optical Depth, despite almost identical aerosol microphysical properties in both cases, with the higher values been recorded for the more aged case. For the CCN/CN ratio, the highest ratios were seen in the more age plume. In marine air, sulphate mass dominated the sub-micron component, followed by water soluble organic carbon, which, in turn, was dominated by methanesulphonic acid (MSA). Sulphate concentrations were

  6. A simple parcel method for prediction of cumulus onset and area-averaged cloud amount over heterogeneous land surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzel, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    A set of PBL data selected from the Wangara experiment is used to examine the relationship between cumulus amount and the calculated relative humidity of rising parcels. The Wilde et al. (1985) method is compared to two explicit parcel methods. It is shown that predictions using parcel methods, in which surface air is lifted to its equilibrium level while being diluted by a defined amount of mixed layer air, are superior for cloud amount, especially during periods of rapid cloud onset when the mean boundary layer top is swiftly rising through a near-neutral layer. Pending independent verification, it appears that an rms error in instantaneous cloud amount of + or - 10 percent may be achievable.

  7. Analysis of Seasonal Risk for Importation of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), via Air Passenger Traffic Arriving in Florida and California.

    PubMed

    Szyniszewska, A M; Leppla, N C; Huang, Z; Tatem, A J

    2016-09-04

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is one of the most economically damaging pests in the world and has repeatedly invaded two major agricultural states in the United States, Florida and California, each time requiring costly eradication. The Mediterranean fruit fly gains entry primarily in infested fruit carried by airline passengers and, since Florida and California each receive about 13 million international passengers annually, the risk of Mediterranean fruit fly entering the United States is potentially very high. The risk of passengers bringing the pest into Florida or California from Mediterranean fruit fly-infested countries was determined with two novel models, one estimated seasonal variation in airline passenger number and the other defined the seasonal and spatial variability in Mediterranean fruit fly abundance. These models elucidated relationships among the risk factors for Mediterranean fruit fly introduction, such as amount of passenger traffic, routes traveled, season of travel, abundance of Mediterranean fruit fly in countries where flights departed, and risk of the pest arriving at destination airports. The risk of Mediterranean fruit fly being introduced into Florida was greatest from Colombia, Brazil, Panama, Venezuela, Argentina, and Ecuador during January-August, whereas primarily the risk to California was from Brazil, Panama, Colombia, and Italy in May-August. About three times more Mediterranean fruit flies were intercepted in passenger baggage at airports in Florida than California, although the data were compromised by a lack of systematic sampling and other limitations. Nevertheless, this study achieved the goal of analyzing available data on seasonal passenger flow and Mediterranean fruit fly population levels to determine when surveillance should be intensified at key airports in Florida and California.

  8. Model input and output files for the simulation of time of arrival of landfill leachate at the water table, Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility, U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Frenzel, Peter F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains listings of model input and output files for the simulation of the time of arrival of landfill leachate at the water table from the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF), about 10 miles northeast of downtown El Paso, Texas. This simulation was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-developed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) and Multimedia Exposure Assessment (MULTIMED) computer models were used to simulate the production of leachate by a landfill and transport of landfill leachate to the water table. Model input data files used with and output files generated by the HELP and MULTIMED models are provided in ASCII format on a 3.5-inch 1.44-megabyte IBM-PC compatible floppy disk.

  9. Effects of Parceling on Model Selection: Parcel-Allocation Variability in Model Ranking.

    PubMed

    Sterba, Sonya K; Rights, Jason D

    2016-01-25

    Research interest often lies in comparing structural model specifications implying different relationships among latent factors. In this context parceling is commonly accepted, assuming the item-level measurement structure is well known and, conservatively, assuming items are unidimensional in the population. Under these assumptions, researchers compare competing structural models, each specified using the same parcel-level measurement model. However, little is known about consequences of parceling for model selection in this context-including whether and when model ranking could vary across alternative item-to-parcel allocations within-sample. This article first provides a theoretical framework that predicts the occurrence of parcel-allocation variability (PAV) in model selection index values and its consequences for PAV in ranking of competing structural models. These predictions are then investigated via simulation. We show that conditions known to manifest PAV in absolute fit of a single model may or may not manifest PAV in model ranking. Thus, one cannot assume that low PAV in absolute fit implies a lack of PAV in ranking, and vice versa. PAV in ranking is shown to occur under a variety of conditions, including large samples. To provide an empirically supported strategy for selecting a model when PAV in ranking exists, we draw on relationships between structural model rankings in parcel- versus item-solutions. This strategy employs the across-allocation modal ranking. We developed software tools for implementing this strategy in practice, and illustrate them with an example. Even if a researcher has substantive reason to prefer one particular allocation, investigating PAV in ranking within-sample still provides an informative sensitivity analysis.

  10. Automatic parcellation of longitudinal cortical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alassaf, Manal H.; Hahn, James K.

    2015-03-01

    We present a novel automatic method to parcellate the cortical surfaces of the neonatal brain longitudinal atlas at different stages of development. A labeled brain atlas of newborn at 41 weeks gestational age (GA) is used to propagate labels of anatomical regions of interest to an unlabeled spatio-temporal atlas, which provides a dynamic model of brain development at each week between 28-44 GA weeks. First, labels from the cortical volume of the labeled newborn brain are propagated to an age-matched cortical surface from the spatio-temporal atlas. Then, labels are propagated across the cortical surfaces of each week of the spatio-temporal atlas by registering successive cortical surfaces using a novel approach and an energy optimization function. This procedure incorporates local and global, spatial and temporal information when assigning the labels to each surface. The result is a complete parcellation of 17 neonatal brain surfaces of the spatio-temporal atlas with similar points per labels distributions across weeks.

  11. Shape-based multifeature brain parcellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel approach to parcellate - delineate the anatomical feature (folds, gyri, sulci) boundaries - the brain cortex. Our approach is based on extracting the 3D brain cortical surface mesh from magnetic resonance (MR) images, computing the shape measures (area, mean curvature, geodesic, and travel depths) for this mesh, and delineating the anatomical feature boundaries using these measures. We use angle-area preserving mapping of the cortical surface mesh to a simpler topology (disk or rectangle) to aid in the visualization and delineation of these boundaries. Contrary to commonly used generic 2D brain image atlas-based approaches, we use 3D surface mesh data extracted from a given brain MR imaging data and its specific shape measures for the parcellation. Our method does not require any non-linear registration of a given brain dataset to a generic atlas and hence, does away with the structure similarity assumption critical to the atlas-based approaches. We evaluate our approach using Mindboggle manually labeled brain datasets and achieve the following accuracies: 72.4% for gyri, 78.5% for major sulci, and 98.4% for folds. These results warrant further investigation of this approach as an alternative or as an initialization to the atlas-based approaches.

  12. President Obama and Family Arrive at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Video Gallery

    President Obama, accompanied by First Lady Michelle Obama and their two daughters, arrive aboard Air Force One at the Cape Canaveral AFS near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center at approximately 2 p.m. E...

  13. Analysis of observations and modeling of criteria pollutants and photochemical age indicators during MILAGRO at Tenango del Aire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Suarez, L. G.

    2009-04-01

    We report measurements and modeling results from the mobile air quality monitoring unit and other instruments in Tenango del Aire (TA). Tenango del Aire is a small town in the mountain pass between the Siera de Chichinautzin and the Popocatepel and Iztachiuatl Volcanos. The pass joins the Valley of Mexico and the Valley of Cuernavaca. TA was the most shouter and equipped site on that flank of MILAGRO. We compare model results and measurements of O3, NOx, NOy, CO, SO2, CH2O, mixing high and some VOC speciated analysis. Indicators of photochemical age as O3/CO, NOy/CO, are also reported. Mean hourly averages for all the campaign are reported. Specific episodes are also analyzed in depth. Evidence of a polluted regional background atmosphere is shown. The basic average surface transport patern was as follows, from 09:00 to 12:00 winds from the north arrive to TA bringing fresh polluted parcels from the highly populated sowtheast parts of the MCMA. Between 12:00 and 13:00 hours a shift of wind direction brings back those or parts of those parcels and parcels farer away. Most of the times, this conditions continues until next morning when for few hours air again drains south from the valley of Mexico. Ozone reaches a maximum value between 12:00 and 13:00, and these values stay still until after 18:00. Average value of this plateau is 80 ppb. During this plateau indicators as O3/CO and NOy/CO show that air parcels passing over TA are photochemicaly aged.

  14. 76 FR 11297 - New Regional Ground Service for Parcels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... New Regional Ground Service for Parcels AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... affecting Parcel Select. The changes involve a new offering identified as Regional Ground service. This... competitive product pursuant to 39 CFR 3015.2.\\1\\ The proposed changes establish a new ``Regional...

  15. 19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical plan, 1986. Barton and Martin, Engineers. 'Topographical Plan for Dobson Mills.' Prepared for Rouse Urban Housing, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1986. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Collaborative Arrival Planning: Data Sharing and User Preference Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelenka, Richard E.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Air traffic growth and air carrier economic pressures have motivated efforts to increase the flexibility of the air traffic management process and change the relationship between the air traffic control service provider and the system user. One of the most visible of these efforts is the U.S. government/industry "free flight" initiative, in which the service provider concentrates on safety and cross-airline fairness, and the user on their business objectives and operating preferences, including selecting their own path and speed in real-time. In the terminal arrival phase of flight, severe restrictions and rigid control are currently placed on system users, typically without regard for individual user operational preferences. Airborne delays applied to arriving aircraft into capacity constrained airports are imposed on a first-come, first-serve basis, and thus do not allow the system user to plan for or prioritize late arrivals, or to economically optimize their arrival sequence. A central tenant of the free-flight operating paradigm is collaboration between service providers and users in reaching air traffic management decisions. Such collaboration would be particularly beneficial to an airline's "hub" operation, where off-schedule arrival aircraft are a consistent problem, as they cause serious air-port ramp difficulties, rippling airline scheduling effects, and result in large economic inefficiencies. Greater collaboration can also lead to increased airport capacity and decrease the severity of over-capacity rush periods. In the NASA Collaborative Arrival Planning (CAP) project, both independent exchange of real-time data between the service provider and system user and collaborative decision support tools are addressed. Data exchange of real-time arrival scheduling, airspace management, and air carrier fleet data between the FAA service provider and an air carrier is being conducted and evaluated. Collaborative arrival decision support tools to allow intra

  17. TRACON Aircraft Arrival Planning and Optimization Through Spatial Constraint Satisfaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergh, Christopher P.; Krzeczowski, Kenneth J.; Davis, Thomas J.; Denery, Dallas G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A new aircraft arrival planning and optimization algorithm has been incorporated into the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST) in the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) developed at NASA-Ames Research Center. FAST simulations have been conducted over three years involving full-proficiency, level five air traffic controllers from around the United States. From these simulations an algorithm, called Spatial Constraint Satisfaction, has been designed, coded, undergone testing, and soon will begin field evaluation at the Dallas-Fort Worth and Denver International airport facilities. The purpose of this new design is an attempt to show that the generation of efficient and conflict free aircraft arrival plans at the runway does not guarantee an operationally acceptable arrival plan upstream from the runway -information encompassing the entire arrival airspace must be used in order to create an acceptable aircraft arrival plan. This new design includes functions available previously but additionally includes necessary representations of controller preferences and workload, operationally required amounts of extra separation, and integrates aircraft conflict resolution. As a result, the Spatial Constraint Satisfaction algorithm produces an optimized aircraft arrival plan that is more acceptable in terms of arrival procedures and air traffic controller workload. This paper discusses the current Air Traffic Control arrival planning procedures, previous work in this field, the design of the Spatial Constraint Satisfaction algorithm, and the results of recent evaluations of the algorithm.

  18. Time-of-arrival correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastopoulos, Charis; Savvidou, Ntina

    2017-03-01

    We propose that measurements of time-of-arrival correlations in multipartite systems can sharply distinguish between different approaches to the time-of-arrival problem. To show this, we construct a positive-operator-valued measure for two distinct time-of-arrival measurements in a bipartite system, and we prove that the resulting probabilities differ strongly from ones defined in terms of probability currents. We also prove that time-of-arrival correlations are entanglement witnesses, a result suggesting the use of temporal observables for quantum information processing tasks. Finally, we construct the probabilities for sequential time-of-arrival measurements on a single particle. We derive the state-reduction rule for time-of-arrival measurements; it differs significantly from the standard one, because time-of-arrival measurements are not defined at a single predetermined moment of time.

  19. Chemical characteristics of air from differing source regions during the Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics A (PEM-Tropics A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Board, Ashley S.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Heikes, Brian G.; Schultz, Martin G.; Blake, Donald R.; Dibb, Jack E.; Sandholm, Scott T.; Talbot, Robert W.

    1999-07-01

    Ten-day backward trajectories are used to determine the origins of air parcels arriving at airborne DC-8 chemical measurement sites during NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics A (PEM-T) that was conducted during August-October 1996. Those sites at which the air had a common geographical origin and transport history are grouped together, and statistical measures of chemical characteristics are computed. Temporal changes in potential temperature are used to determine whether trajectories experience a significant convective influence during the 10-day period. Those trajectories that do not experience a significant convective influence are divided into four geographical categories depending on their origins and paths. Air parcels originating over Africa and South America are characterized by enhanced mixing ratios of O3, CO, HNO3, and PAN. The backward trajectories travel at high altitudes (˜10-11 km), covering long distances due to strong upper-tropospheric westerly winds. The observed enhancement of combustion-related species is attributed to biomass burning from distant sources to the west, extending even to South America. The relatively large value of Be-7 probably is due either to less efficient removal of aerosols from upper tropospheric air or to small stratospheric contributions. Aged marine parcels are found to have relatively small concentrations of burning-related species. Although these trajectories arrive at a wide range of aircraft altitudes, they do not pass over a land mass during the preceding 10-day period. Air passing over Australia but no other land mass exhibits a combustion signature; however, photochemical product species such as O3 and PAN are less enhanced than in the long-range transport category. These trajectories travel shorter distances and are at lower altitudes (˜5-8 km) than those reaching Africa and/or South America. The combustion influence on these parcels is attributed to biomass burning emissions injected over Australia

  20. Knowledge-based scheduling of arrival aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krzeczowski, K.; Davis, T.; Erzberger, H.; Lev-Ram, I.; Bergh, C.

    1995-01-01

    A knowledge-based method for scheduling arrival aircraft in the terminal area has been implemented and tested in real-time simulation. The scheduling system automatically sequences, assigns landing times, and assigns runways to arrival aircraft by utilizing continuous updates of aircraft radar data and controller inputs. The scheduling algorithms is driven by a knowledge base which was obtained in over two thousand hours of controller-in-the-loop real-time simulation. The knowledge base contains a series of hierarchical 'rules' and decision logic that examines both performance criteria, such as delay reduction, as well as workload reduction criteria, such as conflict avoidance. The objective of the algorithms is to devise an efficient plan to land the aircraft in a manner acceptable to the air traffic controllers. This paper will describe the scheduling algorithms, give examples of their use, and present data regarding their potential benefits to the air traffic system.

  1. Concept of Operations for Interval Management Arrivals and Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicok, Daniel S.; Barmore, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of operations for interval management operations to be deployed in the US National Airspace System (NAS) by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) after 2020. The use of interval management operations is described that begin in en route airspace and continue to a termination point inside the arrival terminal area, in a terminal environment that includes other arrival management tools such as arrival metering, Ground-based Interval Management - Spacing (GIM-S), and Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSAS). The roles of Air Traffic Controllers and Flight Crews and the ground automation tools that are used by Air Traffic Controllers to enable the primary operation and variations are described.

  2. Parcellating cortical functional networks in individuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danhong; Buckner, Randy L; Fox, Michael D; Holt, Daphne J; Holmes, Avram J; Stoecklein, Sophia; Langs, Georg; Pan, Ruiqi; Qian, Tianyi; Li, Kuncheng; Baker, Justin T; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xiaomin; Hong, Bo; Liu, Hesheng

    2015-12-01

    The capacity to identify the unique functional architecture of an individual's brain is a crucial step toward personalized medicine and understanding the neural basis of variation in human cognition and behavior. Here we developed a cortical parcellation approach to accurately map functional organization at the individual level using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A population-based functional atlas and a map of inter-individual variability were employed to guide the iterative search for functional networks in individual subjects. Functional networks mapped by this approach were highly reproducible within subjects and effectively captured the variability across subjects, including individual differences in brain lateralization. The algorithm performed well across different subject populations and data types, including task fMRI data. The approach was then validated by invasive cortical stimulation mapping in surgical patients, suggesting potential for use in clinical applications.

  3. Parcellating Cortical Functional Networks in Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danhong; Buckner, Randy L.; Fox, Michael D.; Holt, Daphne J.; Holmes, Avram J.; Stoecklein, Sophia; Langs, Georg; Pan, Ruiqi; Qian, Tianyi; Li, Kuncheng; Baker, Justin T.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xiaomin; Hong, Bo; Liu, Hesheng

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to identify the unique functional architecture of an individual’s brain is a critical step towards personalized medicine and understanding the neural basis of variations in human cognition and behavior. Here, we developed a novel cortical parcellation approach to accurately map functional organization at the individual level using resting-state fMRI. A population-based functional atlas and a map of inter-individual variability were employed to guide the iterative search for functional networks in individual subjects. Functional networks mapped by this approach were highly reproducible within subjects and effectively captured the variability across subjects, including individual differences in brain lateralization. The algorithm performed well across different subject populations and data types including task fMRI data. The approach was then validated by invasive cortical stimulation mapping in surgical patients, suggesting great potential for use in clinical applications. PMID:26551545

  4. Variation in airborne (134)Cs, (137)Cs, particulate (131)I and (7)Be maximum activities at high-altitude European locations after the arrival of Fukushima-labeled air masses.

    PubMed

    Masson, Olivier; Bieringer, Jacqueline; Brattich, Erika; Dalheimer, Axel; Estier, Sybille; Penev, Ilia; Ringer, Wolfgang; Schlosser, Clemens; Steinkopff, Thomas; Steinmann, Philipp; Tositti, Laura; Van Beek, Pieter; Vismes-Ott, Anne de

    2016-10-01

    The Fukushima-labeled air mass arrival, and later the cesium-134 ((134)Cs), cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and particulate iodine-131 (hereafter noted (131)Ip) maximum levels were registered in Europe at different dates depending on the location. Most of those data were obtained at low-altitude sampling areas. Here, we compare the airborne levels registered at different high-altitude European locations (from 850 m to about 3500 m). The integrated (137)Cs activity concentration was not uniform with regard to the altitude even after a long travel time/distance from Japan. Moreover, the relation of integrated (137)Cs vs. altitude showed a linear decrease up to an altitude of about 3000 m. A similar trend was noticed for (131)Ip (particulate fraction) while it increased above 3000 m. Comparison with (7)Be activity concentration showed that, as far as the high altitude location is concerned, the (137)Cs and (134)Cs maximum concentrations corresponded to the (7)Be maximum, suggesting downdraft movements from high tropospheric or stratospheric layers to be responsible for (137,134)Cs increase and peak values. This was also confirmed by high potential vorticity and low relative humidity registered during the peak values.

  5. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Marin E; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2014-05-01

    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here, we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. [2009]: Psychiatry Res 172:147-154 in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field, and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC] and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions.

  6. An Exploratory Study of Runway Arrival Procedures: Time Based Arrival and Self-Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Vincent E.; Barmore, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    The ability of a flight crew to deliver their aircraft to its arrival runway on time is important to the overall efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Over the past several years, the NAS has been stressed almost to its limits resulting in problems such as airport congestion, flight delay, and flight cancellation to reach levels that have never been seen before in the NAS. It is predicted that this situation will worsen by the year 2025, due to an anticipated increase in air traffic operations to one-and-a-half to three times its current level. Improved arrival efficiency, in terms of both capacity and environmental impact, is an important part of improving NAS operations. One way to improve the arrival performance of an aircraft is to enable the flight crew to precisely deliver their aircraft to a specified point at either a specified time or specified interval relative to another aircraft. This gives the flight crew more control to make the necessary adjustments to their aircraft s performance with less tactical control from the controller; it may also decrease the controller s workload. Two approaches to precise time navigation have been proposed: Time-Based Arrivals (e.g., required times of arrival) and Self-Spacing. Time-Based Arrivals make use of an aircraft s Flight Management System (FMS) to deliver the aircraft to the runway threshold at a given time. Self-Spacing enables the flight crew to achieve an ATC assigned spacing goals at the runway threshold relative to another aircraft. The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), a multi-agency initiative established to plan and coordinate the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), has asked for data for both of these concepts to facilitate future research and development. This paper provides a first look at the delivery performance of these two concepts under various initial and environmental conditions in an air traffic simulation environment.

  7. Geohydrology of the unsaturated zone and simulated time of arrival of landfill leachate at the water table, municipal solid waste landfill facility, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, Peter F.; Abeyta, Cynthia G.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF) is located about 10 miles northeast of downtown El Paso, Texas. The landfill is built on the Hueco Bolson, a deposit that yields water to five public-supply wells within 1.1 miles of the landfill boundary on all sides. The bolson deposits consist of lenses and mixtures of sand, clay, silt, gravel, and caliche. The unsaturated zone at the landfill is about 300 feet thick. The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) and the Multimedia Exposure Assessment Model for Evaluating the Land Disposal of Wastes (MULTIMED) computer models were used to simulate the time of first arrival of landfill leachate at the water table. Site-specific data were collected for model input. At five sites on the landfill cover, hydraulic conductivity was measured by an in situ method; in addition, laboratory values were obtained for porosity, moisture content at field capacity, and moisture content at wilting point. Twenty-seven sediment samples were collected from two adjacent boreholes drilled near the southwest corner of the landfill. Of these, 23 samples were assumed to represent the unsaturated zone beneath the landfill. The core samples were analyzed in the laboratory for various characteristics required for the HELP and MULTIMED models: initial moisture content, dry bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention percentages at various suction values, total organic carbon, and pH. Parameters were calculated for the van Genuchten and Brooks-Corey equations that relate hydraulic conductivity to saturation. A reported recharge value of 0.008 inch per year was estimated on the basis of soil- water chloride concentration. The HELP model was implemented using input values that were based mostly on site-specific data or assumed in a conservative manner. Exceptions were the default values used for waste characteristics. Flow through the landfill was

  8. Variability in Parameter Estimates and Model Fit across Repeated Allocations of Items to Parcels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya K.; MacCallum, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Different random or purposive allocations of items to parcels within a single sample are thought not to alter structural parameter estimates as long as items are unidimensional and congeneric. If, additionally, numbers of items per parcel and parcels per factor are held fixed across allocations, different allocations of items to parcels within a…

  9. Emerson Parcel of Dutch Slough Tidal Marsh Restoration Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Emerson Parcel of Dutch Slough Tidal Marsh Restoration Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  10. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  11. 14 CFR 93.125 - Arrival or departure reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arrival or departure reservation. 93.125 Section 93.125 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic...

  12. Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2: Air Parcel Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    An overview of Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2 is given. Effects of Pinatubo aerosol on stratospheric ozone at mid-latitudes, in situ measurements of ClO and ClO/HCl ratio, balloon-borne measurements of ClO, NO, and O3 in a volcanic cloud, and new observations of the NO(y)/N2O correlation in the lower stratosphere are discussed. Among other topics addressed are the following: in situ tracer correlations of methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone as observed aboard the DC-8, in situ measurements of changes in stratospheric aerosol and the N2O-aerosol relationship inside and outside of the polar vortex, measurements of halogenated organic compounds near the tropical tropopause, and airborne brightness measurements of the polar winter troposphere.

  13. A GIS-based shape index for land parcels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demetriou, Demetris; Stillwell, John; See, Linda

    2013-08-01

    Shape analysis is of interest in many fields of spatial science and planning including land management in rural areas. In particular, evaluating the shape of existing land parcels is critical when implementing rural development schemes such as land consolidation. However, existing land parcel shape indices have major deficiencies: completely different shapes of parcels may have the same index value or similar parcel shapes may have different index scores. Thus, there is a clear requirement for a more accurate and reliable measurement method. This paper therefore presents a new parcel shape index (PSI) which integrates a geographical information system (GIS) with a multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) method. It involves the amalgamated outcome of six geometric measures represented by value functions involving a mathematical representation of judgements by experts that compare each geometric measure with that of an optimum parcel shape defined for land consolidation projects. The optimum shape has a PSI value of 1 while the worst shape has a value close to 0. The shape measures used in the model include length of sides, acute angles, reflex angles, boundary points, compactness and regularity. The paper uses data for two case study areas in Cyprus to demonstrate the superiority of the new PSI over three existing shape indices employed in other studies. The methodology utilized here can be implemented in other disciplines dealing with the assessment of objects that can be compared to an optimum.

  14. Concept of Operations for Interval Management Arrivals and Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicok, Daniel S.; Barmore, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of operations for interval management operations to be deployed in the US National Airspace System (NAS) by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Interval Management Program. The arrivals and approach operations are explored in detail including the primary operation and variations. The use of interval management operations is described that begin in en route airspace and continue to a termination point inside the arrival terminal area in the highly automated terminal environment that includes other arrival management tools such as arrival metering, Ground-based Interval Management - Spacing (GIM-S), and Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSAS). The roles of Air Traffic and Pilots and the ground automation tools that are used by Air Traffic Controllers to enable the operations are explored.

  15. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  16. STS-114: Discovery Crew Arrival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    George Diller of NASA Public Affairs narrates the STS-114 Crew arrival at Kennedy Space Center aboard a Gulf Stream aircraft. They were greeted by Center Director Jim Kennedy. Commander Eileen Collins introduced each of her crew members and gave a brief description of their roles in the mission. Mission Specialist 3, Andrew Thomas will be the lead crew member on the inspection on flight day 2; he is the intravehicular (IV) crew member that will help and guide Mission Specialists Souichi Noguchi and Stephen Robinson during their spacewalks. Pilot James Kelly will be operating the shuttle systems in flying the Shuttle; he will be flying the space station robotic arm during the second extravehicular activity and he will be assisting Mission Specialist Wendy Lawrence during the other two extravehicular activities; he will be assisting on the rendezvous on flight day three, and landing of the shuttle. Commander Collins also mentioned Pilot Kelly's recent promotion to Colonel by the United States Air Force. Mission Specialist 1, Souichi Noguchi from JAXA (The Japanese Space Agency) will be flying on the flight deck for ascent; he will be doing three spacewalks on day 5, 7, and 9; He will be the photo/TV lead for the different types of cameras on board to document the flight and to send back the information to the ground for both technical and public affairs reasons. Mission Specialist 5, Charles Camada will be doing the inspection on flight day 2 with Mission Specialist Thomas and Pilot Kelly; he will be transferring the logistics off the shuttle and onto the space station and from the space station back to the shuttle; He will help set up eleven lap tops on board. Mission Specialist 4, Wendy Lawrence will lead the transfer of logistics to the space station; she is the space station arm operator during extravehicular activities 1 and 3; she will be carrying the 6,000 pounds of external storage platform from the shuttle payload bay over to the space station; she is also

  17. DESCRIPTION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Key differences among many types of air quality models are the way atmospheric advection and turbulent diffusion processes are treated. Gaussian models use analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equations. Lagrangian models use a hypothetical air parcel concept effecti...

  18. Semi-automatic parcellation of the corpus striatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hakim, Ramsey; Nain, Delphine; Levitt, James; Shenton, Martha; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2007-03-01

    The striatum is the input component of the basal ganglia from the cerebral cortex. It includes the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens. Thus, the striatum is an important component in limbic frontal-subcortical circuitry and is believed to be relevant both for reward-guided behaviors and for the expression of psychosis. The dorsal striatum is composed of the caudate and putamen, both of which are further subdivided into pre- and post-commissural components. The ventral striatum (VS) is primarily composed of the nucleus accumbens. The striatum can be functionally divided into three broad regions: 1) a limbic; 2) a cognitive and 3) a sensor-motor region. The approximate corresponding anatomic subregions for these 3 functional regions are: 1) the VS; 2) the pre/post-commissural caudate and the pre-commissural putamen and 3) the post-commissural putamen. We believe assessing these subregions, separately, in disorders with limbic and cognitive impairment such as schizophrenia may yield more informative group differences in comparison with normal controls than prior parcellation strategies of the striatum such as assessing the caudate and putamen. The manual parcellation of the striatum into these subregions is currently defined using certain landmark points and geometric rules. Since identification of these areas is important to clinical research, a reliable and fast parcellation technique is required. Currently, only full manual parcellation using editing software is available; however, this technique is extremely time intensive. Previous work has shown successful application of heuristic rules into a semi-automatic platform1. We present here a semi-automatic algorithm which implements the rules currently used for manual parcellation of the striatum, but requires minimal user input and significantly reduces the time required for parcellation.

  19. Research Of Airborne Precision Spacing to Improve Airport Arrival Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Baxley, Brian T.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In September 2004, the European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) and the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation to mutually develop, modify, test, and evaluate systems, procedures, facilities, and devices to meet the need for safe and efficient air navigation and air traffic control in the future. In the United States and Europe, these efforts are defined within the architectures of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Program and Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) Program respectively. Both programs have identified Airborne Spacing as a critical component, with Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) as a key enabler. Increased interest in reducing airport community noise and the escalating cost of aviation fuel has led to the use of Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures to reduce noise, emissions, and fuel usage compared to current procedures. To provide these operational enhancements, arrival flight paths into terminal areas are planned around continuous vertical descents that are closer to an optimum trajectory than those in use today. The profiles are designed to be near-idle descents from cruise altitude to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) and are typically without any level segments. By staying higher and faster than conventional arrivals, CDAs also save flight time for the aircraft operator. The drawback is that the variation of optimized trajectories for different types and weights of aircraft requires the Air Traffic Controller to provide more airspace around an aircraft on a CDA than on a conventional arrival procedure. This additional space decreases the throughput rate of the destination airport. Airborne self-spacing concepts have been developed to increase the throughput at high-demand airports by managing the inter-arrival spacing to be more precise and consistent using on-board guidance. It has been proposed that the

  20. Center of parcel with picture tube wall along walkway. Leaning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Center of parcel with picture tube wall along walkway. Leaning Tower of Bottle Village at frame right; oblique view of Rumpus Room, remnants of Little Hut destroyed by Northridge earthquake at frame left. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  1. United Parcel Service Evaluates Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-02-01

    This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet Test and Evaluation team evaluated the 12-month, in-service performance of six Class 4 hybrid electric delivery vans - fueled by regular diesel - and six comparable conventional diesel vans operated by the United Parcel Service.

  2. View of structures at rear of parcel with 12' scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of structures at rear of parcel with 12' scale (in tenths). From right: edge of Round House, Pencil house, Shell House, edge of School House. Heart Shrine made from mortared car headlights at frame left. Camera facing east. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  3. 7 CFR 1955.140 - Sale in parcels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sale in parcels. 1955.140 Section 1955.140 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. 7 CFR 318.13-15 - Parcel post inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parcel post inspection. 318.13-15 Section 318.13-15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated...

  5. Center of parcel with mosaics. Mosaics consist of everyday throwaway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Center of parcel with mosaics. Mosaics consist of everyday throwaway objects of all kinds set in concrete mortar on ground. Leaning Tower of Bottle Village in front of Rumpus Room primary façade with 12' scale (in tenths). Camera facing north. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  6. A multi-modal parcellation of human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Matthew F; Coalson, Timothy S; Robinson, Emma C; Hacker, Carl D; Harwell, John; Yacoub, Essa; Ugurbil, Kamil; Andersson, Jesper; Beckmann, Christian F; Jenkinson, Mark; Smith, Stephen M; Van Essen, David C

    2016-08-11

    Understanding the amazingly complex human cerebral cortex requires a map (or parcellation) of its major subdivisions, known as cortical areas. Making an accurate areal map has been a century-old objective in neuroscience. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance images from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and an objective semi-automated neuroanatomical approach, we delineated 180 areas per hemisphere bounded by sharp changes in cortical architecture, function, connectivity, and/or topography in a precisely aligned group average of 210 healthy young adults. We characterized 97 new areas and 83 areas previously reported using post-mortem microscopy or other specialized study-specific approaches. To enable automated delineation and identification of these areas in new HCP subjects and in future studies, we trained a machine-learning classifier to recognize the multi-modal 'fingerprint' of each cortical area. This classifier detected the presence of 96.6% of the cortical areas in new subjects, replicated the group parcellation, and could correctly locate areas in individuals with atypical parcellations. The freely available parcellation and classifier will enable substantially improved neuroanatomical precision for studies of the structural and functional organization of human cerebral cortex and its variation across individuals and in development, aging, and disease.

  7. A multi-modal parcellation of human cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Matthew F; Harwell, John; Yacoub, Essa; Ugurbil, Kamil; Andersson, Jesper; Beckmann, Christian F; Jenkinson, Mark; Smith, Stephen M; Van Essen, David C

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the amazingly complex human cerebral cortex requires a map (or parcellation) of its major subdivisions, known as cortical areas. Making an accurate areal map has been a century-old objective in neuroscience. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance images from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and an objective semi-automated neuroanatomical approach, we delineated 180 areas per hemisphere bounded by sharp changes in cortical architecture, function, connectivity, and/or topography in a precisely aligned group average of 210 healthy young adults. We characterized 97 new areas and 83 areas previously reported using post-mortem microscopy or other specialized study-specific approaches. To enable automated delineation and identification of these areas in new HCP subjects and in future studies, we trained a machine-learning classifier to recognize the multi-modal ‘fingerprint’ of each cortical area. This classifier detected the presence of 96.6% of the cortical areas in new subjects, replicated the group parcellation, and could correctly locate areas in individuals with atypical parcellations. The freely available parcellation and classifier will enable substantially improved neuroanatomical precision for studies of the structural and functional organization of human cerebral cortex and its variation across individuals and in development, aging, and disease. PMID:27437579

  8. 7 CFR 318.13-15 - Parcel post inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-15 Parcel post inspection. Inspectors are authorized to... Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the U.S. Virgin...

  9. 7 CFR 318.13-15 - Parcel post inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-15 Parcel post inspection. Inspectors are authorized to... Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the U.S. Virgin...

  10. 7 CFR 318.13-15 - Parcel post inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-15 Parcel post inspection. Inspectors are authorized to... Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the U.S. Virgin...

  11. 7 CFR 318.13-15 - Parcel post inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-15 Parcel post inspection. Inspectors are authorized to... Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the U.S. Virgin...

  12. 77 FR 43561 - Proposed Eligibility Criteria for Bound Printed Matter Parcels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... criterion for eligibility of Bound Printed Matter (BPM) parcels by adding a physical density threshold for....gov , with a subject line of ``New Eligibility for BPM Parcels.'' Faxed comments are not accepted. FOR.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: BPM parcels is an economical ground-based product containing qualifying bound...

  13. 76 FR 17784 - Forwarding and Return Service for Parcel Select Mailpieces

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... 111 Forwarding and Return Service for Parcel Select Mailpieces AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... Parcel Select mailpieces and to eliminate the option to request discontinuance of forwarding. The Postal Service also implements a new price for Parcel Select forwards and returns; those pieces will now pay...

  14. 76 FR 14284 - Domestic Shipping Services Product Launch of Parcel Select Regional Ground

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... 111 Domestic Shipping Services Product Launch of Parcel Select Regional Ground AGENCY: Postal Service..., Parcel Select Regional Ground \\TM\\ service. DATES: Effective Date: April 17, 2011. FOR FURTHER... changes outlined by USPS on the introduction of Parcel Select Regional Ground service. This final...

  15. Use of Item Parceling in Structural Equation Modeling with Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcan, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Parceling is referred to as a procedure for computing sums or average scores across multiple items. Parcels instead of individual items are then used as indicators of latent factors in the structural equation modeling analysis (Bandalos 2002, 2008; Little et al., 2002; Yang, Nay, & Hoyle, 2010). Item parceling may be applied to alleviate some…

  16. Generation and Evaluation of a Cortical Area Parcellation from Resting-State Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Evan M.; Laumann, Timothy O.; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Huckins, Jeremy F.; Kelley, William M.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    The cortical surface is organized into a large number of cortical areas; however, these areas have not been comprehensively mapped in the human. Abrupt transitions in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns can noninvasively identify locations of putative borders between cortical areas (RSFC-boundary mapping; Cohen et al. 2008). Here we describe a technique for using RSFC-boundary maps to define parcels that represent putative cortical areas. These parcels had highly homogenous RSFC patterns, indicating that they contained one unique RSFC signal; furthermore, the parcels were much more homogenous than a null model matched for parcel size when tested in two separate datasets. Several alternative parcellation schemes were tested this way, and no other parcellation was as homogenous as or had as large a difference compared with its null model. The boundary map-derived parcellation contained parcels that overlapped with architectonic mapping of areas 17, 2, 3, and 4. These parcels had a network structure similar to the known network structure of the brain, and their connectivity patterns were reliable across individual subjects. These observations suggest that RSFC-boundary map-derived parcels provide information about the location and extent of human cortical areas. A parcellation generated using this method is available at http://www.nil.wustl.edu/labs/petersen/Resources.html. PMID:25316338

  17. Generation and Evaluation of a Cortical Area Parcellation from Resting-State Correlations.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Evan M; Laumann, Timothy O; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Huckins, Jeremy F; Kelley, William M; Petersen, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    The cortical surface is organized into a large number of cortical areas; however, these areas have not been comprehensively mapped in the human. Abrupt transitions in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns can noninvasively identify locations of putative borders between cortical areas (RSFC-boundary mapping; Cohen et al. 2008). Here we describe a technique for using RSFC-boundary maps to define parcels that represent putative cortical areas. These parcels had highly homogenous RSFC patterns, indicating that they contained one unique RSFC signal; furthermore, the parcels were much more homogenous than a null model matched for parcel size when tested in two separate datasets. Several alternative parcellation schemes were tested this way, and no other parcellation was as homogenous as or had as large a difference compared with its null model. The boundary map-derived parcellation contained parcels that overlapped with architectonic mapping of areas 17, 2, 3, and 4. These parcels had a network structure similar to the known network structure of the brain, and their connectivity patterns were reliable across individual subjects. These observations suggest that RSFC-boundary map-derived parcels provide information about the location and extent of human cortical areas. A parcellation generated using this method is available at http://www.nil.wustl.edu/labs/petersen/Resources.html.

  18. The covariance of air quality conditions in six cities in Southern Germany - The role of meteorology.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzed air quality in six cities in Southern Germany (Ulm, Augsburg, Konstanz, Freiburg, Stuttgart and Munich), in conjunction with the prevailing synoptic conditions. Air quality was estimated through the calculation of a daily Air Stress Index (ASI) constituted by five independent components, each one expressing the contribution of one of the five main pollutants (PM10, O3, SO2, NO2 and CO) to the total air stress. As it was deduced from ASI components, PM10 from combustion sources and photochemically produced tropospheric O3 are the most hazardous pollutants at the studied sites, throughout cold and warm periods respectively, yet PM10 contribute substantially to the overall air stress during both seasons. The influence of anticyclonic high pressure systems, leading to atmospheric stagnation, was associated with increased ASI values, mainly due to the entrapment of PM10. Moderate air stress was generally estimated in all cities however a cleaner atmosphere was detected principally in Freiburg when North Europe was dominated by low pressure systems. Daily events of notably escalated ASI values were further analyzed with backward air mass trajectories. Throughout cold period, ASI episodes were commonly related to eastern airflows carrying exogenous PM10 originated from eastern continental Europe. During warm period, ASI episodes were connected to the arrival of regionally circulated air parcels reflecting lack of dispersion and accumulation of pollutants in accordance with the synoptic analysis.

  19. Polychlorinated naphthalenes and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in arctic air

    SciTech Connect

    Harner, T.; Kylin, H.; Bidleman, T.F.; Barrie, L.A.; Halsall, C.; Strachan, W.M.J.; Fellin, P.

    1998-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are reported for the first time in arctic air. The data represent combined air samples from the Barents Sea, eastern Arctic Ocean, Norwegian Sea, and two land-based monitoring stations at Alert, Canada, and Dunai Island in eastern Siberia, Russia. Values for {Sigma}PCN were 6--49 for shipboard samples and 0.3--8 for land-based stations and were dominated by the 3-Cl and 4-Cl homologues, which accounted for 90--95% of the total mass. Average values for {Sigma}PCB for the shipboard samples were 126, 24, and 75 for the Barents Sea, eastern Arctic, and Norwegian Sea, respectively. Three-dimensional 5-day air parcel back-trajectories arriving at the ship at 850 and 925 hPa suggested that elevated PCB and PCN concentrations for shipboard samples originated in Europe. Concentrations (fg m{sup {minus}3}) of coplanar PCBs in arctic air were 3--40 (PCB 77) and 0.3--8 (PCB 126) -- about an order of magnitude lower than in urban air. Higher concentrations of PCB 77 and PCB 126, 347 and 5.0 (fg m{sup {minus}3}), respectively, were found in the Barents Sea for two samples with elevated {Sigma}PCBs.

  20. A tracking approach to parcellation of the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Chris; Johnston, Leigh; Inder, Terrie; Rees, Sandra; Mareels, Iven; Egan, Gary

    2005-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is composed of regions with distinct laminar structure. Functional neuroimaging results are often reported with respect to these regions, usually by means of a brain "atlas". Motivated by the need for more precise atlases, and the lack of model-based approaches in prior work in the field, this paper introduces a novel approach to parcellating the cortex into regions of distinct laminar structure, based on the theory of target tracking. The cortical layers are modelled by hidden Markov models and are tracked to determine the Bayesian evidence of layer hypotheses. This model-based parcellation method, evaluated here on a set of histological images of the cortex, is extensible to 3-D images.

  1. First Apollo 11 sample return containers arrive at Ellington AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The first Apollo 11 sample return container, containing lunar surface material, arrives at Ellington Air Force Base by air from the Pacific recovery area. Happily posing for photographs with the rock box are (left to right) George M. Low, Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC); U.S. Air Force Lt. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program Director, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA HQ.; George S. Trimble, MSC Deputy Director (almost obscured); Eugene G. Edmonds, MSC Photographic Technology Laboratory; RIchard S. Johnston (in back), Special Assistant to the MSC Director; Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator; and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director.

  2. Rating of acceptable load in manual sorting of postal parcels.

    PubMed

    Stålhammar, H R; Louhevaara, V; Troup, J D

    1996-10-01

    The psychophysical test, the rating of acceptable load (RAL) were used to assess acceptable weights for dynamic lifting in postal workers engaged in sorting parcels. The standard test (RALSt) and a work-simulating test (RALW) were administered to 103 volunteers: all experienced male sorters. In the RALSt, subjects selected the weight which would be acceptable for lifting in a box with handles from table to floor and back to the table once every 5 min for the working day. for the RALW, the box was without handles and the weight was chosen to be acceptable for transfer 4-6 times/min from a table to the parcel container and back to the table. Both tests were made during normal working hours at postal sorting centres. The overall means for RALSt and RALW were 16.4 kg and 9.4 kg respectively (p < 0.001): both being substantially higher than the average parcel weight of 4 kg. The RALSt and RALW tests proved to be repetitive and sensitive for differentiating the effects of load and task variable in actual manual material handling. Thus they appear to be applicable to the evaluation of manual materials handling problems.

  3. A Parcellation Scheme for Human Left Lateral Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Steven M.; Cohen, Alexander L.; Power, Jonathan D.; Wig, Gagan S.; Miezin, Francis M.; Wheeler, Mark E.; Velanova, Katerina; Donaldson, David I.; Phillips, Jeffrey S.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The parietal lobe has long been viewed as a collection of architectonic and functional subdivisions. Though much parietal research has focused on mechanisms of visuospatial attention and control-related processes, more recent functional neuroimaging studies of memory retrieval have reported greater activity in left lateral parietal cortex (LLPC) when items are correctly identified as previously studied (“old”) vs. unstudied (“new”). These studies have suggested functional divisions within LLPC that may provide distinct contributions towards recognition memory judgments. Here, we define regions within LLPC by developing a novel parcellation scheme that integrates data from resting state functional connectivity MRI (rsfcMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI). This combined approach results in a six-fold parcellation of LLPC based on the presence (or absence) of memory retrieval-related activity, dissociations in the profile of task-evoked timecourses, and membership in large-scale brain networks. This parcellation should serve as a roadmap for future investigations aimed at understanding LLPC function. PMID:20624599

  4. Intrinsic functional connectivity pattern-based brain parcellation using normalized cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hewei; Song, Dandan; Wu, Hong; Fan, Yong

    2012-02-01

    In imaging data based brain network analysis, a necessary precursor for constructing meaningful brain networks is to identify functionally homogeneous regions of interest (ROIs) for defining network nodes. For parcellating the brain based on resting state fMRI data, normalized cut is one widely used clustering algorithm which groups voxels according to the similarity of functional signals. Due to low signal to noise ratio (SNR) of resting state fMRI signals, spatial constraint is often applied to functional similarity measures to generate smooth parcellation. However, improper spatial constraint might alter the intrinsic functional connectivity pattern, thus yielding biased parcellation results. To achieve reliable and least biased parcellation of the brain, we propose an optimization method for the spatial constraint to functional similarity measures in normalized cut based brain parcellation. Particularly, we first identify the space of all possible spatial constraints that are able to generate smooth parcellation, then find the spatial constraint that leads to the brain parcellation least biased from the intrinsic function pattern based parcellation, measured by the minimal Ncut value calculated based on the functional similarity measure of original functional signals. The proposed method has been applied to the parcellation of medial superior frontal cortex for 20 subjects based on their resting state fMRI data. The experiment results indicate that our method can generate meaningful parcellation results, consistent with existing functional anatomy knowledge.

  5. First arrival time surface, estimation of statics

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, J.H.; Jacewitz, C.A.

    1983-09-05

    The problem of obtaining surface consistent statics using first arrival refractions has several phases. To begin with, the first arrivals must be picked in some reasonable, consistent fashion. Next, appropriate techniques must be used to solve for surface-consistent statics. Finally, the interpreter must be provided with an evaluation of the quality of the estimated statics. First arrival refractions are part of reflection seismic data. Early seismic reflection work used first arrival refractions for weathering static corrections. With the advent of the common midpoint (CMP) method, first arrivals lost their predominance in statics to correlation techniques within CMP gathers. However, the increasing use of a large number of receivers and a small group interval has made first arrival statics more reliable. In addition, recent work has helped to revitalize interest in the use of first arrival refractions for surface-consistent static corrections.

  6. A Fast-Time Simulation Tool for Analysis of Airport Arrival Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Meyn, Larry A.; Neuman, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The basic objective of arrival sequencing in air traffic control automation is to match traffic demand and airport capacity while minimizing delays. The performance of an automated arrival scheduling system, such as the Traffic Management Advisor developed by NASA for the FAA, can be studied by a fast-time simulation that does not involve running expensive and time-consuming real-time simulations. The fast-time simulation models runway configurations, the characteristics of arrival traffic, deviations from predicted arrival times, as well as the arrival sequencing and scheduling algorithm. This report reviews the development of the fast-time simulation method used originally by NASA in the design of the sequencing and scheduling algorithm for the Traffic Management Advisor. The utility of this method of simulation is demonstrated by examining the effect on delays of altering arrival schedules at a hub airport.

  7. A study of the arrival direction using Offline

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, Alejandra Parra; Bravo, Oscar Martinez; Ibargueen, Humberto Salazar; Aguilar, Ibrahim Torres

    2009-04-30

    The purpose of this work is to show the results of the analysis of a library of synthetic data corresponding to Very Inclined Showers (i.e. those with a zenith angle between 60 and 80 degrees and energies from 50 EeV to 80 EeV). Simulations were performed using the Aires software and then analyzed to narrow down the arrival angles that allow us an efficient shower reconstruction using the Offline software.

  8. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A crated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite arrives at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. It is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. Subject-specific functional parcellation via Prior Based Eigenanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Paramveer S.; Wolk, David A.; Das, Sandhitsu R.; Ungar, Lyle H.; Gee, James C.; Avants, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new framework for prior-constrained sparse decomposition of matrices derived from the neuroimaging data and apply this method to functional network analysis of a clinically relevant population. Matrix decomposition methods are powerful dimensionality reduction tools that have found widespread use in neuroimaging. However, the unconstrained nature of these totally data-driven techniques makes it difficult to interpret the results in a domain where network-specific hypotheses may exist. We propose a novel approach, Prior Based Eigenanatomy (p-Eigen), which seeks to identify a data-driven matrix decomposition but at the same time constrains the individual components by spatial anatomical priors (probabilistic ROIs). We formulate our novel solution in terms of prior-constrained ℓ1 penalized (sparse) principal component analysis. p-Eigen starts with a common functional parcellation for all the subjects and refines it with subject-specific information. This enables modeling of the inter-subject variability in the functional parcel boundaries and allows us to construct subject specific networks with reduced sensitivity to ROI placement. We show that while still maintaining correspondence across subjects, p-Eigen extracts biologically-relevant and patient-specific functional parcels that facilitate hypothesis-driven network analysis. We construct Default Mode Network (DMN) connectivity graphs using p-Eigen refined ROIs and use them in a classification paradigm. Our results show that the functional connectivity graphs derived from p-Eigen significantly aid classification of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) as well as the prediction of scores in a Delayed Recall memory task when compared to graph metrics derived from 1) standard registration-based seed ROI definitions, 2) totally data driven ROIs 3) a model based on standard demographics plus hippocampal volume as covariates and 4) Ward Clustering based data driven ROIs. In summary, p-Eigen incarnates a new

  9. Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original skinny mosaic path along edge of structures was altered (delineation can be seen in concrete) path was widened with a newer mosaic to make access to the site safer. Structures (from right) edge of Round House (with "Spring Garden"), Pencil house, Shell House, School House, wood lattice is attached to chain-link fence along north (rear) property line. These structures were all damaged by the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  10. Using natural beta emission for detecting concealed tobacco in parcels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Jeremy; Hussein, Esam M. A.

    2007-10-01

    It is suspected that postal systems are used for the illegal shipment of tobacco products to circumvent taxation and excise payments. This paper demonstrates that beta-particle emission from the potassium-40 contained in tobacco can be used to passively detect its presence in paperboard postal parcels. The same concept can be utilized for the detection of marijuana, whose leaves are also rich in 40K. The combination of high beta activity and a low weight is a good indicator of the presence of these two contraband materials.

  11. NASA Dual Precipitation Radar Arrives at Goddard

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) built by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core Observatory arrived on Friday, Marc...

  12. Cerebellar Functional Parcellation Using Sparse Dictionary Learning Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changqing; Kipping, Judy; Bao, Chenglong; Ji, Hui; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    The human cerebellum has recently been discovered to contribute to cognition and emotion beyond the planning and execution of movement, suggesting its functional heterogeneity. We aimed to identify the functional parcellation of the cerebellum using information from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). For this, we introduced a new data-driven decomposition-based functional parcellation algorithm, called Sparse Dictionary Learning Clustering (SDLC). SDLC integrates dictionary learning, sparse representation of rs-fMRI, and k-means clustering into one optimization problem. The dictionary is comprised of an over-complete set of time course signals, with which a sparse representation of rs-fMRI signals can be constructed. Cerebellar functional regions were then identified using k-means clustering based on the sparse representation of rs-fMRI signals. We solved SDLC using a multi-block hybrid proximal alternating method that guarantees strong convergence. We evaluated the reliability of SDLC and benchmarked its classification accuracy against other clustering techniques using simulated data. We then demonstrated that SDLC can identify biologically reasonable functional regions of the cerebellum as estimated by their cerebello-cortical functional connectivity. We further provided new insights into the cerebello-cortical functional organization in children. PMID:27199650

  13. Simulation Results for Airborne Precision Spacing along Continuous Descent Arrivals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a fast-time simulation experiment and a high-fidelity simulator validation with merging streams of aircraft flying Continuous Descent Arrivals through generic airspace to a runway at Dallas-Ft Worth. Aircraft made small speed adjustments based on an airborne-based spacing algorithm, so as to arrive at the threshold exactly at the assigned time interval behind their Traffic-To-Follow. The 40 aircraft were initialized at different altitudes and speeds on one of four different routes, and then merged at different points and altitudes while flying Continuous Descent Arrivals. This merging and spacing using flight deck equipment and procedures to augment or implement Air Traffic Management directives is called Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing, an important subset of a larger Airborne Precision Spacing functionality. This research indicates that Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing initiated while at cruise altitude and well prior to the Terminal Radar Approach Control entry can significantly contribute to the delivery of aircraft at a specified interval to the runway threshold with a high degree of accuracy and at a reduced pilot workload. Furthermore, previously documented work has shown that using a Continuous Descent Arrival instead of a traditional step-down descent can save fuel, reduce noise, and reduce emissions. Research into Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing is a cooperative effort between government and industry partners.

  14. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 5...

  15. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 3...

  16. 77 FR 28410 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 1 to...

  17. 77 FR 66193 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... the Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service To Add Parcel...

  18. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 4...

  19. 76 FR 2930 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... ] Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 1 to...

  1. 78 FR 56248 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... the Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel...

  2. 15 CFR 740.12 - Gift parcels and humanitarian donations (GFT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... destinations, no items controlled for chemical and biological weapons (CB), missile technology (MT), national... items intended for resale or reexport. (B) Eligible items. For all destinations, eligible items are food... in gift parcels. (iii) Frequency. (A) Except for gift parcels of food to Cuba, not more than one...

  3. 48 CFR 242.1404 - Shipments by parcel post or other classes of mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipments by parcel post or other classes of mail. 242.1404 Section 242.1404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... SERVICES Traffic and Transportation Management 242.1404 Shipments by parcel post or other classes of mail....

  4. 48 CFR 242.1404 - Shipments by parcel post or other classes of mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipments by parcel post or other classes of mail. 242.1404 Section 242.1404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... SERVICES Traffic and Transportation Management 242.1404 Shipments by parcel post or other classes of mail....

  5. 15 CFR 740.12 - Gift parcels and humanitarian donations (GFT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...). The gift parcel must be provided free of charge to the donee. However, payment by the donee of any... countries permit the entry, duty-free, of gift parcels that conform to regulations regarding contents and... justification. (iv) Value. The combined total domestic retail value of all commodities and software in a...

  6. 39 CFR 320.7 - Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels... advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals. (a) The operation of 39 U.S.C. 601(a) (1) through (6) and § 310.2(b) (1) through (6) of this chapter is suspended on all post routes for advertisements...

  7. Semi-supervised clustering for parcellating brain regions based on resting state fMRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hewei; Fan, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Many unsupervised clustering techniques have been adopted for parcellating brain regions of interest into functionally homogeneous subregions based on resting state fMRI data. However, the unsupervised clustering techniques are not able to take advantage of exiting knowledge of the functional neuroanatomy readily available from studies of cytoarchitectonic parcellation or meta-analysis of the literature. In this study, we propose a semi-supervised clustering method for parcellating amygdala into functionally homogeneous subregions based on resting state fMRI data. Particularly, the semi-supervised clustering is implemented under the framework of graph partitioning, and adopts prior information and spatial consistent constraints to obtain a spatially contiguous parcellation result. The graph partitioning problem is solved using an efficient algorithm similar to the well-known weighted kernel k-means algorithm. Our method has been validated for parcellating amygdala into 3 subregions based on resting state fMRI data of 28 subjects. The experiment results have demonstrated that the proposed method is more robust than unsupervised clustering and able to parcellate amygdala into centromedial, laterobasal, and superficial parts with improved functionally homogeneity compared with the cytoarchitectonic parcellation result. The validity of the parcellation results is also supported by distinctive functional and structural connectivity patterns of the subregions and high consistency between coactivation patterns derived from a meta-analysis and functional connectivity patterns of corresponding subregions.

  8. 76 FR 23749 - Intelligent Mail Package Barcode (IMpb) Implementation for Commercial Parcels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... tracking barcode on all commercial parcels, except Standard Mail parcels, claiming presort and destination entry pricing by January 2012; and to encourage use of unique tracking barcodes by providing free... Classification, U.S. Postal Service, 475 L'Enfant Plaza SW., Room 4446, Washington, DC 20260-5015. You...

  9. 76 FR 59504 - Intelligent Mail Package Barcode (IMpb) Implementation for Commercial Parcels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... unique tracking barcodes or IMpb. Mailers requiring an exception may direct their request to vice... Intelligent Mail unique tracking barcode on all commercial parcels, except Standard Mail parcels, claiming presort or destination entry pricing; to encourage use of IMpb unique tracking barcodes by providing...

  10. Tests of cortical parcellation based on white matter connectivity using diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yurui; Schilling, Kurt G; Stepniewska, Iwona; Plassard, Andrew J; Choe, Ann S; Li, Xia; Landman, Bennett A; Anderson, Adam W

    2017-02-22

    The cerebral cortex is conventionally divided into a number of domains based on cytoarchitectural features. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables noninvasive parcellation of the cortex based on white matter connectivity patterns. However, the correspondence between DTI-connectivity-based and cytoarchitectural parcellation has not been systematically established. In this study, we compared histological parcellation of New World monkey neocortex to DTI- connectivity-based classification and clustering in the same brains. First, we used supervised classification to parcellate parieto-frontal cortex based on DTI tractograms and the cytoarchitectural prior (obtained using Nissl staining). We performed both within and across sample classification, showing reasonable classification performance in both conditions. Second, we used unsupervised clustering to parcellate the cortex and compared the clusters to the cytoarchitectonic standard. We then explored the similarities and differences with several post-hoc analyses, highlighting underlying principles that drive the DTI-connectivity-based parcellation. The differences in parcellation between DTI-connectivity and Nissl histology probably represent both DTI's bias toward easily-tracked bundles and true differences between cytoarchitectural and connectivity defined domains. DTI tractograms appear to cluster more according to functional networks, rather than mapping directly onto cytoarchitectonic domains. Our results show that caution should be used when DTI-tractography classification, based on data from another brain, is used as a surrogate for cytoarchitectural parcellation.

  11. The Galileo arrival date selection process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwinski, Jan M.; Gershman, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The Galileo arrival date selection process has culminated in the selection of December 7,1995. This arrival date will provide excellent science opportunities at Jupiter as well as the first spacecraft reconnaissance ever of not one, but two asteroids during the cruise to Jupiter.

  12. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  13. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  14. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  15. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  16. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  17. Airborne Management of Traffic Conflicts in Descent With Arrival Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2005-01-01

    NASA is studying far-term air traffic management concepts that may increase operational efficiency through a redistribution of decisionmaking authority among airborne and ground-based elements of the air transportation system. One component of this research, En Route Free Maneuvering, allows trained pilots of equipped autonomous aircraft to assume responsibility for traffic separation. Ground-based air traffic controllers would continue to separate traffic unequipped for autonomous operations and would issue flow management constraints to all aircraft. To evaluate En Route Free Maneuvering operations, a human-in-the-loop experiment was jointly conducted by the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers. In this experiment, test subject pilots used desktop flight simulators to resolve conflicts in cruise and descent, and to adhere to air traffic flow constraints issued by test subject controllers. Simulators at NASA Langley were equipped with a prototype Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) flight deck toolset to assist pilots with conflict management and constraint compliance tasks. Results from the experiment are presented, focusing specifically on operations during the initial descent into the terminal area. Airborne conflict resolution performance in descent, conformance to traffic flow management constraints, and the effects of conflicting traffic on constraint conformance are all presented. Subjective data from subject pilots are also presented, showing perceived levels of workload, safety, and acceptability of autonomous arrival operations. Finally, potential AOP functionality enhancements are discussed along with suggestions to improve arrival procedures.

  18. Robust brain parcellation using sparse representation on resting-state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Caspers, Svenja; Fan, Lingzhong; Fan, Yong; Song, Ming; Liu, Cirong; Mo, Yin; Roski, Christian; Eickhoff, Simon; Amunts, Katrin; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-11-01

    Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been widely used to segregate the brain into individual modules based on the presence of distinct connectivity patterns. Many parcellation methods have been proposed for brain parcellation using rs-fMRI, but their results have been somewhat inconsistent, potentially due to various types of noise. In this study, we provide a robust parcellation method for rs-fMRI-based brain parcellation, which constructs a sparse similarity graph based on the sparse representation coefficients of each seed voxel and then uses spectral clustering to identify distinct modules. Both the local time-varying BOLD signals and whole-brain connectivity patterns may be used as features and yield similar parcellation results. The robustness of our method was tested on both simulated and real rs-fMRI datasets. In particular, on simulated rs-fMRI data, sparse representation achieved good performance across different noise levels, including high accuracy of parcellation and high robustness to noise. On real rs-fMRI data, stable parcellation of the medial frontal cortex (MFC) and parietal operculum (OP) were achieved on three different datasets, with high reproducibility within each dataset and high consistency across these results. Besides, the parcellation of MFC was little influenced by the degrees of spatial smoothing. Furthermore, the consistent parcellation of OP was also well corresponding to cytoarchitectonic subdivisions and known somatotopic organizations. Our results demonstrate a new promising approach to robust brain parcellation using resting-state fMRI by sparse representation.

  19. 14 CFR 93.26 - Reversion and withdrawal of Arrival Authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reversion and withdrawal of Arrival... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Congestion and Delay... automatically to the FAA 30 days after the Carrier has ceased all operations at O'Hare for any reason other...

  20. 14 CFR 93.28 - One-for-one trade of Arrival Authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One-for-one trade of Arrival Authorizations. 93.28 Section 93.28 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Congestion and...

  1. Externally mixed aerosol : simulation of ice nucleation in a parcel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anquetil-Deck, Candy; Hoose, Corinna; Conolly, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The effect of different aerosol (mineral dust, bacteria and soot) acting as immersion ice nuclei is investigated using ACPIM (AerosolCloud Precipitation Interaction Model) [1]. ACPIM is a powerful tool which can be used in two different ways. This box model can be, either, driven by experimental data (experiments carried out at the AIDA cloud chamber facility) or used as an air parcel in order to examine different ice nucleation parameterizations under specific conditions. This adiabatic air parcel model was employed for the simulation of a convective cloud. The study consists here in the investigation of how two externally mixed aerosols interact with one another. The initial study concentrates on mineral dust aerosol and biological aerosol without any background in order to fully understand the interaction between the different types of aerosol. Immersion freezing is described for the mineral dust aerosol by Niemand et al. 's parameterization [2], which was derived from laboratory studies in AIDA and is an extension of surface site density approach suggested by Connolly et al. [1]. Regarding bioaerosol, we introduce Hummel et al. 's parameterization [3] : f(in) = f(max)(1 - exp(- Ap *n(s)(T))) With an empirically fitted ice nucleation active site density n s based on AIDA measurements of Pseudomonas syringae bacteria [4]. This initial study is conducted for different proportion of each aerosol (the total number of aerosol being constant throughout all the simulation runs) at different vertical velocities. We then extented this study with different backgrounds (urban, marine, rural) in order to get a full picture. We found that there is not only a CCN competition but an IN competition as well. References : [1] Connolly, P. J., Möhler O., Field P. R., Saathoff H., Burgess, R., Choularton, T. and Gallagher, M., Atmos. Chem. Phys 9, 2805-2824 (2009). [2] Niemand, M., Möhler, O., Vogel B., Vogel, H., Hoose, C., Connolly, P., Klein, H., Bingemer, H., De

  2. The Impact of Using Item Parcels on ad hoc Goodness of Fit Indices in Confirmatory Factor Analysis: An Empirical Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Tomone; Nasser, Fadia

    The Arabic version of I. G. Sarason's (1984) Reactions to Tests scale was used to examine the impact of using item parcels on ad hoc goodness of fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis. Item parcels with different numbers of items and different numbers of parcels per factor were used. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 420 tenth graders…

  3. Arrival time in quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Xiong, Cai-Dong; He, Bing

    2008-09-01

    Via the proper-time eigenstates (event states) instead of the proper-mass eigenstates (particle states), free-motion time-of-arrival theory for massive spin-1/2 particles is developed at the level of quantum field theory. The approach is based on a position-momentum dual formalism. Within the framework of field quantization, the total time-of-arrival is the sum of the single event-of-arrival contributions, and contains zero-point quantum fluctuations because the clocks under consideration follow the laws of quantum mechanics.

  4. Connectivity-based structural and functional parcellation of the human cortex using diffusion imaging and tractography

    PubMed Central

    Cloutman, Lauren L.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    The parcellation of the cortex via its anatomical properties has been an important research endeavor for over a century. To date, however, a universally accepted parcellation scheme for the human brain still remains elusive. In the current review, we explore the use of in vivo diffusion imaging and white matter tractography as a non-invasive method for the structural and functional parcellation of the human cerebral cortex, discussing the strengths and limitations of the current approaches. Cortical parcellation via white matter connectivity is based on the premise that, as connectional anatomy determines functional organization, it should be possible to segregate functionally-distinct cortical regions by identifying similarities and differences in connectivity profiles. Recent studies have provided initial evidence in support of the efficacy of this connectional parcellation methodology. Such investigations have identified distinct cortical subregions which correlate strongly with functional regions identified via fMRI and meta-analyses. Furthermore, a strong parallel between the cortical regions defined via tractographic and more traditional cytoarchitectonic parcellation methods has been observed. However, the degree of correspondence and relative functional importance of cytoarchitectonic- versus connectivity-derived parcellations still remains unclear. Diffusion tractography remains one of the only methods capable of visualizing the structural networks of the brain in vivo. As such, it is of vital importance to continue to improve the accuracy of the methodology and to extend its potential applications in the study of cognition in neurological health and disease. PMID:22952459

  5. Parcellation of the primary cerebral cortices based on local connectivity profiles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaojun; Song, Ming; Fan, Lingzhong; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-01-01

    Connectivity-based parcellation using diffusion MRI has been extensively used to parcellate subcortical areas and the association cortex. Connectivity profiles are vital for connectivity-based parcellation. Two categories of connectivity profiles are generally utilized, including global connectivity profiles, in which the connectivity information is from the seed to the whole brain, and long connectivity profiles, in which the connectivity information is from the seed to other brain regions after excluding the seed. However, whether global or long connectivity profiles should be applied in parcellating the primary cortex utilizing connectivity-based parcellation is unclear. Many sources of evidence have indicated that the primary cerebral cortices are composed of structurally and functionally distinct subregions. Because the primary cerebral cortices are rich in local anatomic hierarchical connections and possess high degree of local functional connectivity profiles, we proposed that local connectivity profiles, that is the connectivity information within a seed region of interest, might be used for parcellating the primary cerebral cortices. In this study, the global, long, and local connectivity profiles were separately used to parcellate the bilateral M1, A1, S1, and V1. We found that results using the three profiles were all quite consistent with reported cytoarchitectonic evidence. More importantly, the results using local connectivity profiles showed less inter-subject variability than the results using the other two, a finding which suggests that local connectivity profiles are superior to global and long connectivity profiles for parcellating the primary cerebral cortices. This also implies that, depending on the characteristics of specific areas of the cerebral cortex, different connectivity profiles may need to be adopted to parcellate different areas. PMID:25964743

  6. New Expedition 32 Trio Arrives at Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 32 Flight Engineers Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide have arrived at the International Space Station after two days in orbit. The new trio docked its Soyuz TMA-05M spacecr...

  7. New Crew Members Arrive at Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 28 crew expanded to six members with the arrival of Flight Engineers Mike Fossum, Sergei Volkov and Satoshi Furukawa. The new trio docked to the International Space Station in the So...

  8. Analysis of sequencing and scheduling methods for arrival traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, Frank; Erzberger, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    The air traffic control subsystem that performs scheduling is discussed. The function of the scheduling algorithms is to plan automatically the most efficient landing order and to assign optimally spaced landing times to all arrivals. Several important scheduling algorithms are described and the statistical performance of the scheduling algorithms is examined. Scheduling brings order to an arrival sequence for aircraft. First-come-first-served scheduling (FCFS) establishes a fair order, based on estimated times of arrival, and determines proper separations. Because of the randomness of the traffic, gaps will remain in the scheduled sequence of aircraft. These gaps are filled, or partially filled, by time-advancing the leading aircraft after a gap while still preserving the FCFS order. Tightly scheduled groups of aircraft remain with a mix of heavy and large aircraft. Separation requirements differ for different types of aircraft trailing each other. Advantage is taken of this fact through mild reordering of the traffic, thus shortening the groups and reducing average delays. Actual delays for different samples with the same statistical parameters vary widely, especially for heavy traffic.

  9. NASA's ATM Technology Demonstration-1: Integrated Concept of Arrival Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Swenson, Harry N.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) demonstration will integrate three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to touchdown. It also enables aircraft to conduct Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and implantation into an operational environment. Goals of the ATD-1 demonstration include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

  10. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1: The Critical Components to Simulate Cirrus Initiation Explicitly.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; O'C. Starr, David; Demott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Sassen, Kenneth; Jensen, Eric; Kärcher, Bernd; Liu, Xiaohong

    2002-08-01

    laboratory studies, but each includes assumptions that can only be justified by further laboratory research. Consequently, it is not yet clear if the two approaches can be made consistent. Large haze particles may deviate considerably from equilibrium size in moderate to strong updrafts (0.2-1 m s1) at 60°C. The equilibrium assumption is commonly invoked in cirrus parcel models. The resulting difference in particle-size-dependent solution concentration of haze particles may significantly affect the ice particle formation rate during the initial nucleation interval. The uptake rate for water vapor excess by ice crystals is another key component regulating the total number of nucleated ice crystals. This rate, the product of particle number concentration and ice crystal diffusional growth rate, which is particularly sensitive to the deposition coefficient when ice particles are small, modulates the peak particle formation rate achieved in an air parcel and the duration of the active nucleation time period. The consequent differences in cloud microphysical properties, and thus cloud optical properties, between state-of-the-art models of ice crystal initiation are significant.Intermodel differences in the case of all-mode simulations are correspondingly greater than in the case of homogeneous nucleation acting alone. Definitive laboratory and atmospheric benchmark data are needed to improve the treatment of heterogeneous nucleation processes.

  11. Extraction of bioavailable contaminants from marine sediments: an approach to reducing toxicity using adsorbent parcels.

    PubMed

    Goodsir, Freya; Fisher, Tom T; Barry, Jon; Bolam, Thi; Nelson, Leah D; Rumney, Heather S; Brant, Jan L

    2013-07-15

    This paper demonstrates an approach to reducing acute toxicity in marine sediments using adsorbent parcels. Acute toxicity tests were carried using the marine amphipod Corophium volutator. Marine sediments were spiked with two know contaminants tributyltin and naphthalene and then treated with adsorbent parcels containing either amberlite XAD4 or activated carbon. Results showed that both types of adsorbent parcels were effective in reducing acute toxicity, not only within spiked sediments containing naphthalene and/or tributyltin, but also in an environmental field samples form an expected contaminated site. Adsorbent parcels such as these could provide a practical approach to remediate areas of contaminated sediment within marine environments. Furthermore adsorbents can be used as an identification tool for problematic contaminants using a toxicity identification evaluation approach.

  12. The dimensionality of defense-mechanism parcels in the Defense Style Questionnaire-40.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Ritchie, Timothy D

    2015-03-01

    The Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40; Andrews, Singh, & Bond, 1993) uses pairs of items to measure 20 individual defense mechanisms. In a statistical sense, these item pairs represent parcels and are subject to the standards of unidimensionality demanded of parcels in general. Using a 2-facet modeling approach (N = 672), the present study examined the dimensionality of the defense-mechanism parcels in the DSQ-40 and found that the majority of the parcels did not satisfy the criteria for unidimensionality. In addition, the original 3-factor model of defense styles was not tenable with the present data. Overall, the results suggest caution when attempting to assess individual defense mechanisms using the DSQ-40.

  13. 133. PARCEL HANDLING SPACE OF POST OFFICE BUILDING, LEVEL 72.5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. PARCEL HANDLING SPACE OF POST OFFICE BUILDING, LEVEL 72.5, NORTH OF TRUCKING PASSAGE MAIL TRANSPORT AREA, VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Terminal Tower Building, Cleveland Union Terminal, 50 Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. Guidance on EPA Concurrence in the Identification of Uncontaminated Parcels under CERCLA Section 120 (h)(4)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum addresses the approach EPA should use in determining whether to concur that a parcel has been properly identified by a military service as 'uncontaminated' and therefore transferrable pursuant to CERCLA Section 120 (h)(4).

  15. Hydropedological Assessments of Parcel-Level Infiltration in an Arid Urban Ecosystem

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil morphology and correspondent hydrologic data can contribute to qualifying and quantifying urban soil suitability and capacity to cycle stormwater runoff. We put particular emphasis on the possibility that residential parcels may manage their own stormwater on pervious yard a...

  16. Hydropedological Assessments of Parcel-Level Infiltration in an Arid Urban Ecosystem

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil morphology and correspondent hydrologic data can contribute to qualifying and quantifying urban soil suitability and capacity to cycle stormwater runoff. We put particular emphasis on the possibility that residential parcels may manage their own stormwater on pervious yard ...

  17. A Fast-Time Study of Aircraft Reordering in Arrival Sequencing and Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Greg; Neuman, Frank; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In order to ensure that the safe capacity of the terminal area is not exceeded, Air Traffic Management ATM often places restrictions on arriving flights transitioning from en route airspace to terminal airspace. This restriction of arrival traffic is commonly referred to as arrival flow management, and includes techniques such as metering, vectoring, fix-load balancing, and the imposition of miles-in-trail separations. These restrictions are enacted without regard for the relative priority which airlines may be placing on individual flights based on factors such as crew criticality, passenger connectivity, critical turn times, gate availability, on-time performance, fuel status, or runway preference. The development of new arrival flow management techniques which take into consideration priorities expressed by air carriers will likely reduce the economic impact of ATM restrictions on the airlines and lead to increased airline economic efficiency by allowing airlines to have greater control over their individual arrival banks of aircraft. NASA and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) have designed and developed a suite of software decision support tools (DSTs) collectively known as the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). One of these tools, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) is currently being used at the Fort Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center to perform arrival flow management of traffic into the Dallas/Fort Worth airport (DFW). The TMA is a time-based strategic planning tool that assists Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) and En Route Air Traffic Controllers in efficiently balancing arrival demand with airport capacity. The primary algorithm in the TMA is a real-time scheduler which generates efficient landing sequences and landing times for arrivals within about 200 no a. from touchdown. This scheduler will sequence aircraft so that they arrive in a first- come - first-served (FCFS) order. While FCFS sequencing establishes a fair order based

  18. Tractography-based Parcellation of the Human Middle Temporal Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinping; Wang, Jiaojian; Fan, Lingzhong; Li, Hai; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Qingmao; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-01-01

    The middle temporal gyrus (MTG) participates in a variety of functions, suggesting the existence of distinct functional subregions. In order to further delineate the functions of this brain area, we parcellated the MTG based on its distinct anatomical connectivity profiles and identified four distinct subregions, including the anterior (aMTG), middle (mMTG), posterior (pMTG), and sulcus (sMTG). Both the anatomical connectivity patterns and the resting-state functional connectivity patterns revealed distinct connectivity profiles for each subregion. The aMTG was primarily involved in the default mode network, sound recognition, and semantic retrieval. The mMTG was predominantly involved in the semantic memory and semantic control networks. The pMTG seems to be a part of the traditional sensory language area. The sMTG appears to be associated with decoding gaze direction and intelligible speech. Interestingly, the functional connectivity with Brodmann’s Area (BA) 40, BA 44, and BA 45 gradually increased from the anterior to the posterior MTG, a finding which indicated functional topographical organization as well as implying that language processing is functionally segregated in the MTG. These proposed subdivisions of the MTG and its functions contribute to understanding the complex functions of the MTG at the subregional level. PMID:26689815

  19. Calculation of Per Parcel Probability for Dud Bombs in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakkoli Sabour, S. M.; Agarius, J.; Sadidi, J.

    2014-10-01

    Unexploded aerial Bombs, also known as duds or unfused bombs, of the bombardments in the past wars remain explosive for decades after the war under the earth's surface threatening the civil activities especially if dredging works are involved. Interpretation of the aerial photos taken shortly after bombardments has been proven to be useful for finding the duds. Unfortunately, the reliability of this method is limited by some factors. The chance of finding a dud on an aerial photo depends strongly on the photography system, the size of the bomb and the landcover. On the other hand, exploded bombs are considerably better detectable on aerial photos and confidently represent the extent and density of a bombardment. Considering an empirical quota of unfused bombs, the expected number of duds can be calculated by the number of exploded bombs. This can help to have a better calculation of cost-risk ratio and to classify the areas for clearance. This article is about a method for calculation of a per parcel probability of dud bombs according to the distribution and density of exploded bombs. No similar work has been reported in this field by other authors.

  20. A Simple Parcel Method for Prediction of Cumulus Onset and Area-Averaged Cloud Amount over Heterogeneous Land Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, Peter J.

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this note is to compare several methods for predicting the onset and quantitative amount of cloud cover over heterogeneous land surfaces. Among the methods tested are that of Wilde et al. (1985) and a new, simple parcel approach. Model comparison is accomplished by running each model using a series of six initial conditions from the Wangara experiment. Case days were chosen because they had relatively quiet synoptic conditions, and exhibited the formation of cumulus clouds from an initially mostly clear sky during the period of solar heating. Each model contains two or three free parameters that were systematically varied until the optimum agreement was reached between observed and predicted cloud amount. The single best run for each method was chosen based on the RMSE and coefficient of determination. The best runs are compared and plotted against the observations for the six case days.Results of these limited tests do not necessarily suggest the absolute degree of accuracy to which low cloud cover may be predicted. This is left for a future study. Rather, the focus is on the relative skill and flexibility of the various models. It is shown that parcel methods, in which surface air is lifted to its equilibrium level while being diluted by a defined amount of mixed layer air, produce substantially superior prediction of cloud amount, particularly during periods of rapid cloud onset when the mean boundary layer top is swiftly rising through a new-neutral layer. Pending, verification from independent datasets, it appears that an rms error in instantaneous cloud amount of ±10% may be achievable.

  1. Decomposing the profile of PM in two low polluted German cities--mapping of air mass residence time, focusing on potential long range transport impacts.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to decompose the profile of particulates in Karlsruhe and Potsdam (Germany), focusing on the localization of PM potential transboundary sources. An air mass cluster analysis was implemented, followed by a study of air mass residence time on a grid of a 0.5° × 0.5° resolution. Particulate/gaseous daily air pollution and meteorological data were used to indicate PM local sources. Four Principal Component Analysis (PCA) components were produced: traffic, photochemical, industrial/domestic and particulate. PM2.5/PM10 ratio seasonal trends, indicated production of PMCOARSE (PM10-PM2.5) from secondary sources in Potsdam during warm period (WP). The residing areas of incoming slow moving air masses are potential transboundary PM sources. For Karlsruhe those areas were mainly around the city. An air mass residence time secondary peak was observed over Stuttgart. For Potsdam, areas with increased dwelling time of the arriving air parcels were detected particularly above E/SE Germany.

  2. Automated Conflict Resolution, Arrival Management and Weather Avoidance for ATM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, H.; Lauderdale, Todd A.; Chu, Yung-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a unified solution to three types of separation assurance problems that occur in en-route airspace: separation conflicts, arrival sequencing, and weather-cell avoidance. Algorithms for solving these problems play a key role in the design of future air traffic management systems such as NextGen. Because these problems can arise simultaneously in any combination, it is necessary to develop integrated algorithms for solving them. A unified and comprehensive solution to these problems provides the foundation for a future air traffic management system that requires a high level of automation in separation assurance. The paper describes the three algorithms developed for solving each problem and then shows how they are used sequentially to solve any combination of these problems. The first algorithm resolves loss-of-separation conflicts and is an evolution of an algorithm described in an earlier paper. The new version generates multiple resolutions for each conflict and then selects the one giving the least delay. Two new algorithms, one for sequencing and merging of arrival traffic, referred to as the Arrival Manager, and the other for weather-cell avoidance are the major focus of the paper. Because these three problems constitute a substantial fraction of the workload of en-route controllers, integrated algorithms to solve them is a basic requirement for automated separation assurance. The paper also reviews the Advanced Airspace Concept, a proposed design for a ground-based system that postulates redundant systems for separation assurance in order to achieve both high levels of safety and airspace capacity. It is proposed that automated separation assurance be introduced operationally in several steps, each step reducing controller workload further while increasing airspace capacity. A fast time simulation was used to determine performance statistics of the algorithm at up to 3 times current traffic levels.

  3. Feedlot Processing and Arrival Cattle Management.

    PubMed

    Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn

    2015-11-01

    Acclimating newly arrived cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly arrived cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period.

  4. [Getting qi and arrival of qi].

    PubMed

    Liu, Nong-Yu

    2014-08-01

    In order to clarify the inter-relationship between getting qi and arrival of qi, the relevant theory in the Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor is re-considered, and then the relationship of the two concepts by combining with some opinions from scholars is compared and analyzed. Getting qi is the signal of acupuncture at an acupoint; also it is a sign of arrival of qi at an acupoint; what's more, it is the premise for reinforcing or reducing manipulation. The sensation of arrival of qi comes from both doctors and patients, characterized with explicit symptoms including "tight and swift", "sunken, sticky and tight", "light, loose and slow", "warm at the acupoint" or "cold at the acupoint" as well as implicit symptom including "qi moving along the meridians"; also there is the condition of qi regulation that is characterized with "paced and harmony" stomach qi. The arrival of qi could be divided into "qi moving to the needles" and "qi traveling to the diseases". The "qi moving to the needles" has similar meaning to getting qi. The "qi traveling to the diseases" is reflected as "qi arrival with efficacy" and characterized as an immediate effect or a delayed effect. There are differences between the concepts of getting qi and arrival of qi. Getting qi focuses on the importance of the doctor during acupuncture processes (differentiate the nature of qi, guard qi, manipulate qi), which also suggests the clinical significance of implicit getting qi. "Arrival of qi" emphasizes "qi arrival with efficacy", and indicates that during treatment the differences of the exterior or interior and deficit or surplus should be distinguished. For external and shallow diseases involving myofascia-related diseases, miu needling and shallow needling can achieve an immediate treatment effect; for deep, internal and deficient diseases, reinforcing or reducing manipulation should be used to achieve stomach qi, which has delayed effects but can be used as an indicator. It is believed that pulse

  5. STATISTICAL DECOUPLING OF A LAGRANGIAN FLUID PARCEL IN NEWTONIAN COSMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex

    2016-03-20

    The Lagrangian dynamics of a single fluid element within a self-gravitational matter field is intrinsically non-local due to the presence of the tidal force. This complicates the theoretical investigation of the nonlinear evolution of various cosmic objects, e.g., dark matter halos, in the context of Lagrangian fluid dynamics, since fluid parcels with given initial density and shape may evolve differently depending on their environments. In this paper, we provide a statistical solution that could decouple this environmental dependence. After deriving the evolution equation for the probability distribution of the matter field, our method produces a set of closed ordinary differential equations whose solution is uniquely determined by the initial condition of the fluid element. Mathematically, it corresponds to the projected characteristic curve of the transport equation of the density-weighted probability density function (ρPDF). Consequently it is guaranteed that the one-point ρPDF would be preserved by evolving these local, yet nonlinear, curves with the same set of initial data as the real system. Physically, these trajectories describe the mean evolution averaged over all environments by substituting the tidal tensor with its conditional average. For Gaussian distributed dynamical variables, this mean tidal tensor is simply proportional to the velocity shear tensor, and the dynamical system would recover the prediction of the Zel’dovich approximation (ZA) with the further assumption of the linearized continuity equation. For a weakly non-Gaussian field, the averaged tidal tensor could be expanded perturbatively as a function of all relevant dynamical variables whose coefficients are determined by the statistics of the field.

  6. Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals (WTMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2008-01-01

    The preliminary Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals (WTMA) concept of operations is described in this paper. The WTMA concept provides further detail to work initiated by the Wake Vortex Avoidance System Concept Evaluation Team and is an evolution of the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departure concept. Anticipated benefits about reducing wake turbulence separation standards in crosswind conditions, and candidate WTMA system considerations are discussed.

  7. Census parcels cropping system classification from multitemporal remote imagery: a proposed universal methodology.

    PubMed

    García-Torres, Luis; Caballero-Novella, Juan J; Gómez-Candón, David; Peña, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A procedure named CROPCLASS was developed to semi-automate census parcel crop assessment in any agricultural area using multitemporal remote images. For each area, CROPCLASS consists of a) a definition of census parcels through vector files in all of the images; b) the extraction of spectral bands (SB) and key vegetation index (VI) average values for each parcel and image; c) the conformation of a matrix data (MD) of the extracted information; d) the classification of MD decision trees (DT) and Structured Query Language (SQL) crop predictive model definition also based on preliminary land-use ground-truth work in a reduced number of parcels; and e) the implementation of predictive models to classify unidentified parcels land uses. The software named CROPCLASS-2.0 was developed to semi-automatically perform the described procedure in an economically feasible manner. The CROPCLASS methodology was validated using seven GeoEye-1 satellite images that were taken over the LaVentilla area (Southern Spain) from April to October 2010 at 3- to 4-week intervals. The studied region was visited every 3 weeks, identifying 12 crops and others land uses in 311 parcels. The DT training models for each cropping system were assessed at a 95% to 100% overall accuracy (OA) for each crop within its corresponding cropping systems. The DT training models that were used to directly identify the individual crops were assessed with 80.7% OA, with a user accuracy of approximately 80% or higher for most crops. Generally, the DT model accuracy was similar using the seven images that were taken at approximately one-month intervals or a set of three images that were taken during early spring, summer and autumn, or set of two images that were taken at about 2 to 3 months interval. The classification of the unidentified parcels for the individual crops was achieved with an OA of 79.5%.

  8. Census Parcels Cropping System Classification from Multitemporal Remote Imagery: A Proposed Universal Methodology

    PubMed Central

    García-Torres, Luis; Caballero-Novella, Juan J.; Gómez-Candón, David; Peña, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A procedure named CROPCLASS was developed to semi-automate census parcel crop assessment in any agricultural area using multitemporal remote images. For each area, CROPCLASS consists of a) a definition of census parcels through vector files in all of the images; b) the extraction of spectral bands (SB) and key vegetation index (VI) average values for each parcel and image; c) the conformation of a matrix data (MD) of the extracted information; d) the classification of MD decision trees (DT) and Structured Query Language (SQL) crop predictive model definition also based on preliminary land-use ground-truth work in a reduced number of parcels; and e) the implementation of predictive models to classify unidentified parcels land uses. The software named CROPCLASS-2.0 was developed to semi-automatically perform the described procedure in an economically feasible manner. The CROPCLASS methodology was validated using seven GeoEye-1 satellite images that were taken over the LaVentilla area (Southern Spain) from April to October 2010 at 3- to 4-week intervals. The studied region was visited every 3 weeks, identifying 12 crops and others land uses in 311 parcels. The DT training models for each cropping system were assessed at a 95% to 100% overall accuracy (OA) for each crop within its corresponding cropping systems. The DT training models that were used to directly identify the individual crops were assessed with 80.7% OA, with a user accuracy of approximately 80% or higher for most crops. Generally, the DT model accuracy was similar using the seven images that were taken at approximately one-month intervals or a set of three images that were taken during early spring, summer and autumn, or set of two images that were taken at about 2 to 3 months interval. The classification of the unidentified parcels for the individual crops was achieved with an OA of 79.5%. PMID:25689830

  9. HELCATS Prediction of Planetary CME arrival times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boakes, Peter; Moestl, Christian; Davies, Jackie; Harrison, Richard; Byrne, Jason; Barnes, David; Isavnin, Alexey; Kilpua, Emilia; Rollett, Tanja

    2015-04-01

    We present the first results of CME arrival time prediction at different planetary locations and their comparison to the in situ data within the HELCATS project. The EU FP7 HELCATS (Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis & Techniques Service) is a European effort to consolidate the exploitation of the maturing field of heliospheric imaging. HELCATS aims to catalogue solar wind transients, observed by the NASA STEREO Heliospheric Imager (HI) instruments, and validate different methods for the determination of their kinematic properties. This validation includes comparison with arrivals at Earth, and elsewhere in the heliosphere, as well as onsets at the Sun (http://www.helcats-fp7.eu/). A preliminary catalogue of manually identified CMEs, with over 1000 separate events, has been created from observations made by the STEREO/HI instruments covering the years 2007-2013. Initial speeds and directions of each CME have been derived through fitting the time elongation profile to the state of the art Self-Similar Expansion Fitting (SSEF) geometric technique (Davies et al., 2012). The technique assumes that, in the plane corresponding to the position angle of interest, CMEs can be modelled as circles subtending a fixed angular width to Sun-center and propagating anti-sunward in a fixed direction at a constant speed (we use an angular width of 30 degrees in our initial results). The model has advantages over previous geometric models (e.g. harmonic mean or fixed phi) as it allows one to predict whether a CME will 'hit' a specific heliospheric location, as well as to what degree (e.g. direct assault or glancing blow). We use correction formulae (Möstl and Davies, 2013) to convert CME speeds, direction and launch time to speed and arrival time at any in situ location. From the preliminary CME dataset, we derive arrival times for over 400 Earth-directed CMEs, and for over 100 Mercury-, Venus-, Mars- and Saturn-directed CMEs predicted to impact each planet. We present statistics of

  10. 19 CFR 12.113 - Arrival of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.113 Arrival of shipment. (a) Notice of arrival presented. Upon the arrival of a shipment of pesticides or devices, the importer or his agent shall present... documents for the shipment of pesticides or devices with the Notice of Arrival and notify the...

  11. 19 CFR 12.113 - Arrival of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.113 Arrival of shipment. (a) Notice of arrival presented. Upon the arrival of a shipment of pesticides or devices, the importer or his agent shall present... documents for the shipment of pesticides or devices with the Notice of Arrival and notify the...

  12. 19 CFR 12.113 - Arrival of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.113 Arrival of shipment. (a) Notice of arrival presented. Upon the arrival of a shipment of pesticides or devices, the importer or his agent shall present... documents for the shipment of pesticides or devices with the Notice of Arrival and notify the...

  13. Chemical characteristics of air from different source regions during the second Pacific Exploratory Mission in the Tropics (PEM-Tropics B)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Joseph C.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Avery, Melody A.; Crawford, James H.; Blake, Donald R.; Heikes, Brian G.; Sachse, Glen W.; Sandholm, Scott T.; Singh, Hanwant; Talbot, Robert W.

    2001-12-01

    Ten-day backward trajectories are used to determine the origins of air parcels arriving at locations of airborne DC-8 chemical measurements during NASA's second Pacific Exploratory Mission in the Tropics B that was conducted during February-April 1999. Chemical data at sites where the trajectories had a common geographical origin and transport history are grouped together, and statistical measures of chemical characteristics are computed. Temporal changes in potential temperature are used to determine whether trajectories experienced a significant convective influence during the 10-day period. Trajectories describing the aged marine Southern Hemispheric category remain over the South Pacific Ocean during the 10-day period, and their corresponding chemical signature indicates very clean air. The category aged marine air in the Northern Hemisphere is found to be somewhat dirtier. Subdividing its trajectories based on the direction from which the air had traveled is found to be important in explaining the various chemical signatures. Similarly, long-range northern hemispheric trajectories passing over Asia are subdivided depending on whether they had followed a mostly zonal path, had originated near the Indian Ocean, or had originated near Central or South America and subsequently experienced a stratospheric influence. Results show that the chemical signatures of these subcategories are different from each other. The chemical signature of the southern hemispheric long-range transport category apparently exhibits the effects of pollution from Australia, southern Africa, and South America. Parcels originating over Central and northern South America are found to contain the strongest pollution signature of all categories, due to biomass burning and other sources. The convective category exhibits enhanced values of nitrogen species, probably due to emissions from lightning associated with the convection. Values of various species, including peroxides and acids, confirm

  14. On Connections Between Weather Types and the Arrival of Migratory Birds in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp, M.; Päädam, K.; Palm, V.; Leito, A.

    2010-09-01

    Migration is one of the most energy-consuming activities in the lives of birds. The timing must be such that flying would not be overly strenuous and that there would be favourable conditions for feeding and nesting available at arrival. The wide year-to-year variation in the arrival dates of migratory birds suggests that birds are able to both accelerate and delay their migration according to the weather conditions in the destination area. Often, the arrival date cannot be explained by the average daily temperature or any other single meteorological parameter. Relatively simple tools for exploring the links between climate and wildlife are weather types that combine most of the meteorological variables. The aim of the present work is to study the connections between the arrival of migratory birds in Estonia and the weather types. We examine the weather types that most frequently occurred on those days when birds arrived in Tartu (located in the Eastern part of Estonian mainland) and in Kuressaare (West-Estonian archipelago). For this purpose, the arrival dates of 42 species of migratory birds were analysed and compared to the weather types of 73 classifications generated by COST 733 action (COST 733 catalogue 1.2). Since the weather type classifications were generated using ERA40 air pressure datasets, the period available for analysis is 1958-2002. We selected weather types that occurred on the arrival dates of each migratory bird species. Also, the data on two days prior to the arrival were analysed. We assume that birds "took the decision" to fly to Estonia due to the weather conditions on those two days. Frequency of the selected weather types was analysed and compared to the long term frequency of these types during the spring season (MAM). We assume that birds "prefer" those weather types whose frequency on migration days exceeds their long-term frequency. Similarly, we studied the weather types that birds seem to avoid. The results show that despite the

  15. STS-76 crew after arrival at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-76 Mission Commander Kevin P. Chilton (left); Mission Specialists Linda M. Godwin and Shannon W. Lucid; Pilot Richard A. Searfoss and Mission Specialist Michael 'Rich' Clifford chat shortly after their arrival at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. Not shown is Payload Commander Ronald M. Sega. The astronauts' late-night arrival allows them to maintain the shift in their waking and sleeping hours, altered in preparation for their upcoming spaceflight. The Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to lift off on STS-76 around 3:35 a.m. EST, March 21, with one of the primary mission objectives being the third docking between the U.S. Shuttle and the Russian Space Station Mir.

  16. STS-85 Crew Arrival for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Mission STS-85 crew arrives at the Shuttle Landing Facility for their mission's Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. They are (from left): Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; Payload Commander N. Jan Davis; Mission Specialist Robert L. Curbeam; Commander Curtis L. Brown, Jr.; Pilot Kent V. Rominger; and Payload Specialist Bjarni V. Tryggvason. The liftoff for STS-85 is targeted for August 7, 1997.

  17. STS-76 crew after arrival at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-76 Mission Commander Kevin P. Chilton (second from left) chats with Mission Specialist Shannon W. Lucid (left); Pilot Richard A. Searfoss and Mission Specialist Michael 'Rich' Clifford shortly after their arrival at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. The Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to lift off on STS-76 around 3:35 a.m. EST, March 21, with one of the primary mission objectives being the third docking between the U.S. Shuttle and the Russian Space Station Mir.

  18. An Airbus arrives at KSC with third MPLM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An Airbus '''Beluga''' air cargo plane, The Super Transporter, arrives at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility from the factory of Alenia Aerospazio in Turin, Italy. Its cargo is the Italian Space Agency's Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Donatello, the third of three for the International Space Station. The module will be transported to the Space Station Processing Facility for processing. Among the activities for the payload test team are integrated electrical tests with other Station elements in the SSPF, leak tests, electrical and software compatibility tests with the Space Shuttle (using the Cargo Integrated Test equipment) and an Interface Verification Test once the module is installed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay at the launch pad. The most significant mechanical task to be performed on Donatello in the SSPF is the installation and outfitting of the racks for carrying the various experiments and cargo.

  19. Crew Procedures for Continuous Descent Arrivals Using Conventional Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Williams, David H.; Lewis, Elliot T,

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from a simulation study which investigated the use of Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures for conducting a descent through a busy terminal area, using conventional transport-category automation. This research was part of the Low Noise Flight Procedures (LNFP) element within the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Project, that addressed development of flight guidance, and supporting pilot and Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures for low noise operations. The procedures and chart were designed to be easy to understand, and to make it easy for the crew to make changes via the Flight Management Computer Control-Display Unit (FMC-CDU) to accommodate changes from ATC. The test runs were intended to represent situations typical of what exists in many of today's terminal areas, including interruptions to the descent in the form of clearances issued by ATC.

  20. The U.S. Laboratory module arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's 'Super Guppy' aircraft arrives in KSC air space escorted by two T-38 aircraft after leaving Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. The whale-like airplane carries the U.S. Laboratory module, considered the centerpiece of the International Space Station. The module will undergo final pre- launch preparations at KSC's Space Station Processing Facility. Scheduled for launch aboard the Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS- 98, the laboratory comprises three cylindrical sections with two end cones. Each end-cone contains a hatch opening for entering and exiting the lab. The lab will provide a shirtsleeve environment for research in such areas as life science, microgravity science, Earth science and space science. Designated Flight 5A, this mission is targeted for launch in early 2000.

  1. [Winter wheat area estimation with MODIS-NDVI time series based on parcel].

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Zhang, Jin-shui; Zhu, Wen-quan; Hu, Tan-gao; Hou, Dong

    2011-05-01

    Several attributes of MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) data, especially the short temporal intervals and the global coverage, provide an extremely efficient way to map cropland and monitor its seasonal change. However, the reliability of their measurement results is challenged because of the limited spatial resolution. The parcel data has clear geo-location and obvious boundary information of cropland. Also, the spectral differences and the complexity of mixed pixels are weak in parcels. All of these make that area estimation based on parcels presents more advantage than on pixels. In the present study, winter wheat area estimation based on MODIS-NDVI time series has been performed with the support of cultivated land parcel in Tongzhou, Beijing. In order to extract the regional winter wheat acreage, multiple regression methods were used to simulate the stable regression relationship between MODIS-NDVI time series data and TM samples in parcels. Through this way, the consistency of the extraction results from MODIS and TM can stably reach up to 96% when the amount of samples accounts for 15% of the whole area. The results shows that the use of parcel data can effectively improve the error in recognition results in MODIS-NDVI based multi-series data caused by the low spatial resolution. Therefore, with combination of moderate and low resolution data, the winter wheat area estimation became available in large-scale region which lacks completed medium resolution images or has images covered with clouds. Meanwhile, it carried out the preliminary experiments for other crop area estimation.

  2. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1; The Critical Components to Simulate Cirrus Initiation Explicitly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David OC; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Sassen, Kenneth; Jensen, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    clear if the two approaches can be made consistent. Large haze particles may deviate considerably from equilibrium size in moderate to strong updrafts (20-100 centimeters per second) at -60 C when the commonly invoked equilibrium assumption is lifted. The resulting difference in particle-size- dependent solution concentration of haze particles may significantly affect the ice particle formation rate during the initial nucleation interval. The uptake rate for water vapor excess by ice crystals is another key component regulating the total number of nucleated ice crystals. This rate, the product of particle number concentration and ice crystal diffusional growth rate, which is particularly sensitive to the deposition coefficient when ice particles are small, modulates the peak particle formation rate achieved in an air parcel and the duration of the active nucleation time period. The effects of heterogeneous nucleation are most pronounced in weak updraft situations. Vapor competition by the heterogeneously nucleated ice crystals may limit the achieved ice supersaturation and thus suppresses the contribution of homogeneous nucleation. Correspondingly, ice crystal number density is markedly reduced. Definitive laboratory and atmospheric benchmark data are needed for the heterogeneous nucleation process. Inter-model differences are correspondingly greater than in the case of the homogeneous nucleation process acting alone.

  3. GraSP: Geodesic Graph-based Segmentation With Shape Priors for the Functional Parcellation of the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Honnorat, N.; Eavani, H.; Satterthwaite, T. D.; Gur, R. E.; Gur, R. C.; Davatzikos, C.

    2014-01-01

    Resting-state functional MRI is a powerful technique for mapping the functional organization of the human brain. However, for many types of connectivity analysis, high-resolution voxelwise analyses are computationally infeasible and dimensionality reduction is typically used to limit the number of network nodes. Most commonly, network nodes are defined using standard anatomic atlases that do not align well with functional neuroanatomy or regions of interest covering a small portion of the cortex. Data-driven parcellation methods seek to overcome such limitations, but existing approaches are highly dependent on initialization procedures and produce spatially fragmented parcels or overly isotropic parcels that are unlikely to be biologically grounded. In this paper, we propose a novel graph-based parcellation method that relies on a discrete Markov Random Field framework. The spatial connectedness of the parcels is explicitly enforced by shape priors. The shape of the parcels is adapted to underlying data through the use of functional geodesic distances. Our method is initialization-free and rapidly segments the cortex in a single optimization. The performance of the method was assessed using a large developmental cohort of more than 850 subjects. Compared to two prevalent parcellation methods, our approach provides superior reproducibility for a similar data fit. Furthermore, compared to other methods, it avoids incoherent parcels. Finally, the method’s utility is demonstrated through its ability to detect strong brain developmental effects that are only weakly observed using other methods. PMID:25462796

  4. GraSP: geodesic Graph-based Segmentation with Shape Priors for the functional parcellation of the cortex.

    PubMed

    Honnorat, N; Eavani, H; Satterthwaite, T D; Gur, R E; Gur, R C; Davatzikos, C

    2015-02-01

    Resting-state functional MRI is a powerful technique for mapping the functional organization of the human brain. However, for many types of connectivity analysis, high-resolution voxelwise analyses are computationally infeasible and dimensionality reduction is typically used to limit the number of network nodes. Most commonly, network nodes are defined using standard anatomic atlases that do not align well with functional neuroanatomy or regions of interest covering a small portion of the cortex. Data-driven parcellation methods seek to overcome such limitations, but existing approaches are highly dependent on initialization procedures and produce spatially fragmented parcels or overly isotropic parcels that are unlikely to be biologically grounded. In this paper, we propose a novel graph-based parcellation method that relies on a discrete Markov Random Field framework. The spatial connectedness of the parcels is explicitly enforced by shape priors. The shape of the parcels is adapted to underlying data through the use of functional geodesic distances. Our method is initialization-free and rapidly segments the cortex in a single optimization. The performance of the method was assessed using a large developmental cohort of more than 850 subjects. Compared to two prevalent parcellation methods, our approach provides superior reproducibility for a similar data fit. Furthermore, compared to other methods, it avoids incoherent parcels. Finally, the method's utility is demonstrated through its ability to detect strong brain developmental effects that are only weakly observed using other methods.

  5. 25 CFR 166.303 - Can more than one parcel of Indian land be combined into one permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can more than one parcel of Indian land be combined into one permit? 166.303 Section 166.303 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.303 Can more than one parcel of...

  6. A note on using alpha and stratified alpha to estimate the reliability of a test composed of item parcels.

    PubMed

    Rae, Gordon

    2008-11-01

    Several authors have suggested that prior to conducting a confirmatory factor analysis it may be useful to group items into a smaller number of item 'parcels' or 'testlets'. The present paper mathematically shows that coefficient alpha based on these parcel scores will only exceed alpha based on the entire set of items if W, the ratio of the average covariance of items between parcels to the average covariance of items within parcels, is greater than unity. If W is less than unity, however, and errors of measurement are uncorrelated, then stratified alpha will be a better lower bound to the reliability of a measure than the other two coefficients. Stratified alpha are also equal to the true reliability of a test when items within parcels are essentially tau-equivalent if one assumes that errors of measurement are not correlated.

  7. Sharing a resource with randomly arriving foragers.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Pierre; Hamelin, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    We consider a problem of foraging where identical foragers, or predators, arrive as a stochastic Poisson process on the same patch of resource. We provide effective formulas for the expected resource intake of any of the agents, as a function of its rank, given their common functional response. We give a general theory, both in finite and infinite horizon, and show two examples of applications to harvesting a common under different assumptions about the resource dynamics and the functional response, and an example of application on a model that fits, among others, a problem of evolution of fungal plant parasites.

  8. A conflict analysis of 4D descent strategies in a metered, multiple-arrival route environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.; Harris, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    A conflict analysis was performed on multiple arrival traffic at a typical metered airport. The Flow Management Evaluation Model (FMEM) was used to simulate arrival operations using Denver Stapleton's arrival route structure. Sensitivities of conflict performance to three different 4-D descent strategies (clear-idle Mach/Constant AirSpeed (CAS), constant descent angle Mach/CAS and energy optimal) were examined for three traffic mixes represented by those found at Denver Stapleton, John F. Kennedy and typical en route metering (ERM) airports. The Monte Carlo technique was used to generate simulation entry point times. Analysis results indicate that the clean-idle descent strategy offers the best compromise in overall performance. Performance measures primarily include susceptibility to conflict and conflict severity. Fuel usage performance is extrapolated from previous descent strategy studies.

  9. 7 CFR 322.25 - Notice of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Organisms Through the United States § 322.25 Notice of arrival. At least 2 business days prior to the expected date of arrival of restricted organisms at a port in the continental United States for...

  10. 78 FR 65392 - Product Change-Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice... Return Service Contract 5 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at www.prc.gov ,...

  11. 76 FR 13000 - Transfer of Commercial First-Class Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Transfer of Commercial First-Class Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List AGENCY: Postal Service.\\TM\\ ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service hereby provides notice that it has filed a request with the Postal...

  12. Vineyard parcel identification from Worldview-2 images using object-based classification model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertel, Elif; Yay, Irmak

    2014-01-01

    Accurate identification of spatial distribution and characteristics of vineyard parcels is an important task for the effective management of vineyard areas, precision viticulture, and farmer registries. This study aimed to develop rule sets to be used in object-based classification of Worldview-2 satellite images to accurately delineate the boundaries of vineyards having different plantation styles. Multilevel segmentation was applied to Worldview-2 images to create different sizes of image objects representing different land cover categories with respect to scale parameter. Texture analysis and several new spectral indices were applied to objects at different segmentation levels to accurately classify land cover classes of forest, cultivated areas, harvested areas, impervious, bareland, and vineyards. A specific attention was given to vineyard class to identify vine areas at the parcel level considering their different plantation styles. The results illustrated that the combined usage of a newly developed decision tree and image segmentation during the object-based classification process could provide highly accurate results for the identification of vineyard parcels. Linearly planted vineyards could be classified with 100% producer's accuracy due to their regular textural characteristics, whereas regular gridwise and irregular gridwise (distributed) vineyard parcels could be classified with 94.87% producer's accuracy in this research.

  13. Land use planning and surface heat island formation: A parcel-based radiation flux approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Brian; Norman, John M.

    This article presents a study of residential parcel design and surface heat island formation in a major metropolitan region of the southeastern United States. Through the integration of high-resolution multispectral data (10 m) with property tax records for over 100,000 single-family residential parcels in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan region, the influence of the size and material composition of residential land use on an indicator of surface heat island formation is reported. In contrast to previous work on the urban heat island, this study derives a parcel-based indicator of surface warming to permit the impact of land use planning regulations governing the density and design of development on the excess surface flux of heat energy to be measured. The results of this study suggest that the contribution of individual land parcels to regional surface heat island formation could be reduced by approximately 40% through the adoption of specific land use planning policies, such as zoning and subdivision regulations, and with no modifications to the size or albedo of the residential structure.

  14. 75 FR 74755 - Product Change-Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Postal Service notice of filing of a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  15. Behavior and Sensitivity of Phase Arrival Times (PHASE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    travel -time perturbations, and, further, to study the behavior of phase arrival times and its predictability, depending on propagation and signal...Using this definition, expressions for the corresponding travel -time perturbations are derived and the sensitivity behavior of phase arrival times...corresponding travel -time sensitivity kernels for peak arrivals. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

  16. Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) Estimation Using Wavelet Based Denoising

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS TIME DIFFERENCE OF ARRIVAL (TDOA) ESTIMATION USING WAVELET BASED DENOISING by Unal Aktas...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TIME DIFFERENCE OF ARRIVAL (TDOA) ESTIMATION USING WAVELET BASED DENOISING 6. AUTHOR(S) Unal Aktas 7...difference of arrival (TDOA) method. The wavelet transform is used to increase the accuracy of TDOA estimation. Several denoising techniques based on

  17. Human Factors Considerations for Area Navigation Departure and Arrival Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    Area navigation (RNAV) procedures are being implemented in the United States and around the world as part of a transition to a performance-based navigation system. These procedures are providing significant benefits and have also caused some human factors issues to emerge. Under sponsorship from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken a project to document RNAV-related human factors issues and propose areas for further consideration. The component focusing on RNAV Departure and Arrival Procedures involved discussions with expert users, a literature review, and a focused review of the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database. Issues were found to include aspects of air traffic control and airline procedures, aircraft systems, and procedure design. Major findings suggest the need for specific instrument procedure design guidelines that consider the effects of human performance. Ongoing industry and government activities to address air-ground communication terminology, design improvements, and chart-database commonality are strongly encouraged. A review of factors contributing to RNAV in-service errors would likely lead to improved system design and operational performance.

  18. 76 FR 77856 - International Mail Price Change for Inbound Air Parcel Post

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... CONTACT: Stephen L. Sharfman, General Counsel, at (202) 789-6820 (case-related information) or Docket... Postal Service was eligible based on inflation increases and other factors.'' Notice at 2-3. In the... service bonus eligibility and submission of annual inflation information from the Consumer Price Index...

  19. ExoMars 2016 arrives at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Hakan; Vago, Jorge L.; ExoMars Team

    2016-10-01

    The Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and the Schiaparelli Entry, descent and landing Demonstrator Model (EDM) will arrive at Mars on 19 October 2016. The TGO and the EDM are part of the first step of the ExoMars Programme. They will be followed by a Rover and a long lived Surface Platform to be launched in 2020.The EDM is attached to the TGO for the full duration of the cruise to Mars and will be separated three days before arrival at Mars. After separation the TGO will perform a deflection manoeuvre and, on 19 October (during the EDM landing), enter into a highly elliptical near equatorial orbit. TGO will remain in this parking orbit until January 2017, when the orbital plane inclination will be changed to 74 degrees and aerobraking to the final 400 km near circular orbit will start. The final operational orbit is expected to be reached at the end of 2017.The TGO scientific payload consists of four instruments. These are: ACS and NOMAD, both infrared spectrometers for atmospheric measurements in solar occultation mode and in nadir mode, CASSIS, a multichannel camera with stereo imaging capability, and FREND, an epithermal neutron detector for search of subsurface hydrogen. The mass of the TGO is 3700 kg, including fuel. The EDM, with a mass of 600 kg, is mounted on top of the TGO as seen in its launch configuration. The main objective of the EDM is to demonstrate the capability of performing a safe entry, descent and landing on the surface, but it does carry a descent camera and a small battery powered meteorological package that may operate for a few days on the surface.The ExoMars programme is a joint activity by the European Space Agency(ESA) and ROSCOSMOS, Russia. ESA is providing the TGO spacecraft and Schiaparelli (EDM) and two of the TGO instruments and ROSCOSMOS is providing the launcher and the other two TGO instruments. After the arrival of the ExoMars 2020 mission at the surface of Mars, the TGO will handle the communication between the Earth and the Rover and

  20. What to Do until the Microprocesser Arrives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barzilla, Frank

    1983-01-01

    Advises administrators how to develop an energy master plan and how to reduce the usage of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems by means of a time clock, thermostat, and a scheduled preventive maintenance program. (MLF)

  1. P-1 truss arrival at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The P-1 truss, a component of the International Space Station, arrives inside the RLV hangar, located near the Shuttle Landing Facility at KSC. Approaching bad weather caused the detour as a precaution. The truss will eventually be transferred to the Operations and Checkout Building for processing. The P-1 truss, scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure on the Station that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14-by- 15 foot structure to the port side of the center truss, S0, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000-pound P-1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the Station's radiators away from the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.

  2. STS-99 Pilot Gorie arrives for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-99 Pilot Dominic Gorie arrives at KSC aboard a T-38 jet aircraft to prepare for launch of Endeavour Jan. 31 at 12:47 p.m. EST. Over the next few days, the crew will review mission procedures, conduct test flights in the Shuttle Training Aircraft and undergo routine preflight medical exams. STS-99 is the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which will chart a new course, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station- derived mast protruding from the payload bay to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety.

  3. STS-99 Commander Kregel arrives for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-99 Commander Kevin Kregel arrives at KSC aboard a T-38 jet aircraft to prepare for launch of Endeavour Jan. 31 at 12:47 p.m. EST. Over the next few days, the crew will review mission procedures, conduct test flights in the Shuttle Training Aircraft and undergo routine preflight medical exams. STS-99 is the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which will chart a new course, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station- derived mast protruding from the payload bay to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety.

  4. Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski notes the time on his watch upon his late arrival aboard a T-38 jet at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Parazynski's first plane experienced problems at the stop at Tyndall AFB and he had to wait for another jet and pilot to finish the flight to KSC. He joined other crewmembers Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), for final pre-launch preparations. STS-95 is expected to launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and land at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  5. The stratospheric arrival pair in infrasound propagation.

    PubMed

    Waxler, Roger; Evers, Läslo G; Assink, Jelle; Blom, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    The ideal case of a deep and well-formed stratospheric duct for long range infrasound propagation in the absence of tropospheric ducting is considered. A canonical form, that of a pair of arrivals, for ground returns of impulsive signals in a stratospheric duct is determined. The canonical form is derived from the geometrical acoustics approximation, and is validated and extended through full wave modeling. The full caustic structure of the field of ray paths is found and used to determine phase relations between the contributions to the wavetrain from different propagation paths. Finally, comparison with data collected from the 2005 fuel gas depot explosion in Buncefield, England is made. The correspondence between the theoretical results and the observations is shown to be quite good.

  6. An Initial Study of Airport Arrival Heinz Capacity Benefits Due to Improved Scheduling Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyn, Larry; Erzberger, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    The long-term growth rate in air-traffic demand leads to future air-traffic densities that are unmanageable by today's air-traffic control system. I n order to accommodate such growth, new technology and operational methods will be needed in the next generation air-traffic control system. One proposal for such a system is the Automated Airspace Concept (AAC). One of the precepts of AAC is to direct aircraft using trajectories that are sent via an air-ground data link. This greatly improves the accuracy in directing aircraft to specific waypoints at specific times. Studies of the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) have shown that increased scheduling accuracy enables increased arrival capacity at CTAS equipped airports.

  7. A Comparison of Center/TRACON Automation System and Airline Time of Arrival Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heere, Karen R.; Zelenka, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Benefits from information sharing between an air traffic service provider and a major air carrier are evaluated. Aircraft arrival time schedules generated by the NASA/FAA Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) were provided to the American Airlines System Operations Control Center in Fort Worth, Texas, during a field trial of a specialized CTAS display. A statistical analysis indicates that the CTAS schedules, based on aircraft trajectories predicted from real-time radar and weather data, are substantially more accurate than the traditional airline arrival time estimates, constructed from flight plans and en route crew updates. The improvement offered by CTAS is especially advantageous during periods of heavy traffic and substantial terminal area delay, allowing the airline to avoid large predictive errors with serious impact on the efficiency and profitability of flight operations.

  8. Pilot Performance on New ATM Operations: Maintaining In-Trail Separation and Arrival Sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Yankosky, L. J.; Johnson, Walter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) may enable new Air Traffic Management (ATM) operations. However, CDTI is not the only source of traffic information in the cockpit; ATM procedures may provide information, implicitly and explicitly, about other aircraft. An experiment investigated pilot ability to perform two new ATM operations - maintaining in-trail separation from another aircraft and sequencing into an arrival stream. In the experiment, pilots were provided different amounts of information from displays and procedures. The results are described.

  9. Angle of Arrival Detection Through Artificial Neural Network Analysis of Optical Fiber Intensity Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK ANALYSIS OF OPTICAL FIBER INTENSITY PATTERNS THESIS Scott Thomas Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/90D-62 DTIC...ELECTE ao • JAN08 1991 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. AFIT/GE/ENG/90D-62 ANGLE OF ARRIVAL DETECTION THROUGH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK ANALYSIS... ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK ANALYSIS OF OPTICAL FIBER INTENSITY PATTERNS L Introduction The optical sensors of United States Air Force reconnaissance

  10. Changes in the timing of departure and arrival of Irish migrant waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Alison; Geyer, Heather; Yu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    There have been many recent reports across Europe and North America of a change in the timing of arrival and departure of a range of migrant bird species to their breeding grounds. These studies have focused primarily on passerine birds and climate warming has been found to be one of the main drivers of earlier arrival and departure in spring. In Ireland, rising spring temperature has been shown to result in the earlier arrival of sub-Saharan passerine species and the early departure of the Whooper Swan. In order to investigate changes in spring arrival and departure dates of waterbirds to Ireland, we extracted latest dates as an indicator of the timing of departure of winter visitors (24 species) and earliest dates as an indicator of the timing of arrival of spring/summer migrants (2 species) from BirdWatch Ireland's East Coast Bird reports (1980-2003). Three of the winter visitors showed evidence of later departure and one of earlier departure whereas one of the spring/summer visitors showed evidence of earlier arrival. In order to determine any influence of local temperature on these trends, we analysed data from two synoptic weather stations within the study area and found that spring (average February, March and April) air temperature significantly (P < 0.05) increased at a rate of 0.03 °C per year, which was strongly correlated with changes in latest and earliest records. We also tested the sensitivity of bird departure/arrival to temperature and found that Northern Pintail would leave 10 days earlier in response to a 1 °C increase in spring temperature. In addition, we investigated the impact of a large-scale circulation pattern, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), on the timing of arrival and departure which correlated with both advances and delays in departure and arrival. We conclude that the impact of climate change on earliest and latest records of these birds is, as expected, species specific and that local temperature had less of an influence than

  11. Current Practices in Runway Configuration Management (RCM) and Arrival/Departure Runway Balancing (ADRB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Williams, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    Significant air traffic increases are anticipated for the future of the National Airspace System (NAS). To cope with future traffic increases, fundamental changes are required in many aspects of the air traffic management process including the planning and use of NAS resources. Two critical elements of this process are the selection of airport runway configurations, and the effective management of active runways. Two specific research areas in NASA's Airspace Systems Program (ASP) have been identified to address efficient runway management: Runway Configuration Management (RCM) and Arrival/Departure Runway Balancing (ADRB). This report documents efforts in assessing past as well as current work in these two areas.

  12. Predictive Capabilities of a Relaxation Model for Parcel-Based Granular Flow Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radl, Stefan; Sundaresan, Sankaran

    2011-11-01

    Parcel-based methods have a great potential to reduce the computational cost of particle simulations for dense flows. Here we investigate a relaxation model, similar to that of Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK), when applied to such a parcel-based simulation method. Specifically, we have chosen the simulation methodology initially proposed by Patankar and Joseph, and combined it with the relaxation model published by O'Rourke and Snider. We show that a relaxation model is key to correctly predicting macroscopic flow features, e.g., the scattering pattern of a granular jet impinging on a flat surface, studied experimentally by Cheng et al.. Simple shear flow simulations reveal that calculation of the locally-averaged velocity is a critical ingredient to correctly predict streaming and collisional stresses. SR acknowledges the support of the Austrian Science Foundation through the Erwin-Schroedinger fellowship J-3072.

  13. Confined quantum time of arrival for the vanishing potential

    SciTech Connect

    Galapon, Eric A.; Caballar, Roland F.; Bahague, Ricardo

    2005-12-15

    We give full account of our recent report in E. A. Galapon, R. Caballar, and R. Bahague, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180406 (2004), where it is shown that formulating the free quantum time of arrival problem in a segment of the real line suggests rephrasing the quantum time of arrival problem to finding a complete set of states that evolve to unitarily arrive at a given point at a definite time. For a spatially confined particle, here it is shown explicitly that the problem admits a solution in the form of an eigenvalue problem of a class of compact and self-adjoint time of arrival operators derived by a quantization of the classical time of arrival. The eigenfunctions of these operators are numerically demonstrated to unitarily arrive at the origin at their respective eigenvalues.

  14. Using geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels for classification of detailed urban land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.-S.; Qiu, X.; Usery, E.L.; Wang, L.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed urban land use data are important to government officials, researchers, and businesspeople for a variety of purposes. This article presents an approach to classifying detailed urban land use based on geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels. An area of 6 by 14 km in Austin, Texas, with land parcel boundaries delineated by the Travis Central Appraisal District of Travis County, Texas, is tested for the approach. We derive fifty parcel attributes from relevant geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing data and use them to discriminate among nine urban land uses: single family, multifamily, commercial, office, industrial, civic, open space, transportation, and undeveloped. Half of the 33,025 parcels in the study area are used as training data for land use classification and the other half are used as testing data for accuracy assessment. The best result with a decision tree classification algorithm has an overall accuracy of 96 percent and a kappa coefficient of 0.78, and two naive, baseline models based on the majority rule and the spatial autocorrelation rule have overall accuracy of 89 percent and 79 percent, respectively. The algorithm is relatively good at classifying single-family, multifamily, commercial, open space, and undeveloped land uses and relatively poor at classifying office, industrial, civic, and transportation land uses. The most important attributes for land use classification are the geometrical attributes, particularly those related to building areas. Next are the contextual attributes, particularly those relevant to the spatial relationship between buildings, then the textural attributes, particularly the semivariance texture statistic from 0.61-m resolution images.

  15. Interim Project Results: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the performance evaluation of United Parcel Service's second-generation hybrid-electric delivery vans. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 of these vans along with 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operating in Minneapolis, Minnesota. As a complement to the field study, the team recently completed fuel economy and emissions testing at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) laboratory.

  16. Spatio-temporal topological relationships between land parcels in cadastral database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, W.; Zhang, F.

    2014-04-01

    There are complex spatio-temporal relationships among cadastral entities. Cadastral spatio-temporal data model should not only describe the data structure of cadastral objects, but also express cadastral spatio-temporal relationships between cadastral objects. In the past, many experts and scholars have proposed a variety of cadastral spatio-temporal data models, but few of them concentrated on the representation of spatiotemporal relationships and few of them make systematic studies on spatiotemporal relationships between cadastral objects. The studies on spatio-temporal topological relationships are not abundant. In the paper, we initially review current approaches to the studies of spatio-temporal topological relationships, and argue that spatio-temporal topological relation is the combination of temporal topology on the time dimension and spatial topology on the spatial dimension. Subsequently, we discuss and develop an integrated representation of spatio-temporal topological relationships within a 3-dimensional temporal space. In the end, based on the semantics of spatiotemporal changes between land parcels, we conclude the possible spatio-temporal topological relations between land parcels, which provide the theoretical basis for creating, updating and maintaining of land parcels in the cadastral database.

  17. On the Origin of Polar Vortex Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, J. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The existence of the multi-year HALOE CH4 data set, together with some comparisons of forward with back trajectory calculations which we have carried out, has motivated us to reexamine the question of polar vortex descent. Three-dimensional diabatic trajectory calculations have been carried out for the seven month fall to spring period in both the northern hemisphere (NH) and southern hemisphere (SH) polar stratosphere for the years 1992-1999. These computations are compared to fixed descent computations where the parcels were fixed at their latitude-longitude locations and allowed to descend without circulating. The forward trajectory computed descent is always less than the fixed descent due to horizontal parcel motions and variations in heating rates with latitude and longitude. Although the forward calculations estimate the maximum amount of descent that can occur, they do not necessarily indicate the actual origin of springtime vortex air. This is because more equator-ward air can be entrained within the vortex during its formation. To examine the origin of the springtime vortex air, the trajectory model was run backward for seven months from spring to fall. The back trajectories show a complex distribution of parcels in which one population originates in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere and experiences considerable descent in the polar regions, while the remaining parcels originate at lower altitudes of the middle and lower stratosphere and are mixed into the polar regions during vortex formation without experiencing as much vertical transport. The amount of descent experienced by the first population shows little variability from year to year, while the computed descent and mixing of the remaining parcels show considerable interannual variability due to the varying polar meteorology. Because of this complex parcel distribution it is not meaningful to speak of a net amount of descent experienced over the entire winter period. Since the back trajectories

  18. Analysis of delay reducing and fuel saving sequencing and spacing algorithms for arrival traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, Frank; Erzberger, Heinz

    1991-01-01

    The air traffic control subsystem that performs sequencing and spacing is discussed. The function of the sequencing and spacing algorithms is to automatically plan the most efficient landing order and to assign optimally spaced landing times to all arrivals. Several algorithms are described and their statistical performance is examined. Sequencing brings order to an arrival sequence for aircraft. First-come-first-served sequencing (FCFS) establishes a fair order, based on estimated times of arrival, and determines proper separations. Because of the randomness of the arriving traffic, gaps will remain in the sequence of aircraft. Delays are reduced by time-advancing the leading aircraft of each group while still preserving the FCFS order. Tightly spaced groups of aircraft remain with a mix of heavy and large aircraft. Spacing requirements differ for different types of aircraft trailing each other. Traffic is reordered slightly to take advantage of this spacing criterion, thus shortening the groups and reducing average delays. For heavy traffic, delays for different traffic samples vary widely, even when the same set of statistical parameters is used to produce each sample. This report supersedes NASA TM-102795 on the same subject. It includes a new method of time-advance as well as an efficient method of sequencing and spacing for two dependent runways.

  19. Emerging leaders 1991. Six who have arrived.

    PubMed

    Weber, D O

    1991-01-01

    "I would quibble with the idea that Cheryl is an 'emerging leader,"' observes a colleague of one of this year's honorees. "I believe she has arrived." In truth, each of the six extraordinary people cited as 1991's Emerging Leaders have had a major impact on their organizations and, by example and design, on the nature and quality of healthcare in their communities. But then, the annual call for nominations demands nothing less. Sponsors Korn/Ferry International and The Healthcare Forum are "looking for...talented people with the proven ability to nurture the growth of the industry. They are dynamic, decisive young leaders who have already made a mark." Five men and one woman, all age 40 or younger, were selected as this year's Emerging Leaders in two separate categories. Three represent large healthcare organizations, three smaller urban or rural institutions--generally hospitals with fewer than 200 beds. Interestingly, nearly all were influenced to pursue careers in healthcare at an early age. Two had physician parents, two were sons of healthcare administrators, two worked in hospitals as teenagers. All, of course, have shown their mettle in difficult times and complex, uncomfortable situations. All have been pivotal in turning around failing--or at least beleaguered--organizations. Yet, while each has labored diligently to further the interests of his or her own organization and constituency, each has also sought to shape a more cooperative system. As honoree Larry Sanders observes, "Competition without conscience will deny our claim to a true community leadership role." Marveling at the accomplishments of honoree Kevin Fickenscher, an awed peer declared: "One of these days we'll all be working for him!"(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Monitoring presence and streaming patterns of Icelandic volcanic ash during its arrival to Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Stanič, S.; Bergant, K.; Bolte, T.; Coren, F.; He, T.-Y.; Hrabar, A.; Jerma, J.; Mladenovič, A.; Turšič, J.; Veberič, D.

    2011-04-01

    The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano starting on 14 April 2010 resulted in the spreading of volcanic ash over most parts of Europe. In Slovenia, the presence of volcanic ash was monitored using ground-based in-situ measurements, lidar-based remote sensing and airborne in-situ measurements. Volcanic origin of the detected aerosols was confirmed by subsequent spectral and chemical analysis of the collected samples. The initial arrival of volcanic ash to Slovenia was detected at ground level using in-situ measurements during the night of 17 April 2010, but was not observed via lidar-based remote sensing due to the presence of clouds at lower altitudes while the streaming height of ash-loaded air masses was above 5 km a.s.l. The second arrival of volcanic ash on 20 April 2010 was detected by both lidar-based remote sensing and airborne in-situ measurement, revealing two or more elevated atmospheric aerosol layers above Slovenia. Identification of samples from ground-based in-situ and airborne in-situ measurements based on energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that a fraction of particles was volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. We performed simulations of airflow trajectories to explain the arrival of the air masses containing volcanic ash to Slovenia.

  1. 7 CFR 322.7 - Notice of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.7 Notice of arrival. (a) At least 10 business days prior to the arrival in the United States of any shipment of...

  2. 7 CFR 322.7 - Notice of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.7 Notice of arrival. (a) At least 10 business days prior to the arrival in the United States of any shipment of...

  3. 7 CFR 322.7 - Notice of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.7 Notice of arrival. (a) At least 10 business days prior to the arrival in the United States of any shipment of...

  4. 7 CFR 322.7 - Notice of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.7 Notice of arrival. (a) At least 10 business days prior to the arrival in the United States of any shipment of...

  5. 7 CFR 322.7 - Notice of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.7 Notice of arrival. (a) At least 10 business days prior to the arrival in the United States of any shipment of...

  6. 9 CFR 98.7 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.7 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an embryo at a port of entry, the importer or the importer's agent shall notify APHIS of...

  7. 9 CFR 98.7 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.7 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an embryo at a port of entry, the importer or the importer's agent shall notify APHIS of...

  8. 9 CFR 98.7 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.7 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an embryo at a port of entry, the importer or the importer's agent shall notify APHIS of...

  9. 9 CFR 98.7 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.7 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an embryo at a port of entry, the importer or the importer's agent shall notify APHIS of...

  10. 9 CFR 98.7 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.7 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an embryo at a port of entry, the importer or the importer's agent shall notify APHIS of...

  11. Direction of Arrival Estimation Using a Reconfigurable Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-06

    civilian world. Keywords: Direction-of-arrival Estimation MUSIC algorithm Reconfigurable Array Experimental Created by Neevia Personal...14. SUBJECT TERMS: Direction-of-arrival ; Estimation ; MUSIC algorithm ; Reconfigurable ; Array ; Experimental 16. PRICE CODE 17...9 1.5 MuSiC Algorithm

  12. Concerns of Newly Arrived Immigrant Students: Implications for School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Franklyn C.; Butler, S. Kent

    2003-01-01

    This article highlights the issues that concern newly arrived immigrant students from the guidance and counseling perspective, how school systems have responded to these issues, and the implications for school counselors concerning what can be done to better serve newly arrived immigrant students. (Contains 16 references.) (GCP)

  13. 9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a..., rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h) The number, species, and purpose of importation of the...

  14. 9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a..., rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h) The number, species, and purpose of importation of the...

  15. 9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a..., rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h) The number, species, and purpose of importation of the...

  16. 9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a..., rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h) The number, species, and purpose of importation of the...

  17. 9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a..., rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h) The number, species, and purpose of importation of the...

  18. Evaluation of Post-Arrival Programs and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Inst. of Multicultural Affairs, Melbourne (Australia).

    This book assesses the effectiveness of recommendations implemented after the release of the Australian government's "Report of the Review of Post-Arrival Programs and Services for Migrants" in 1977. In general, the implementation of the Report's proposals has been of substantial benefit to migrants (both newly arrived and longer…

  19. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.61 Baggage arriving in baggage car... cars....

  20. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.61 Baggage arriving in baggage car... cars....

  1. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.61 Baggage arriving in baggage car... cars....

  2. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.61 Baggage arriving in baggage car... cars....

  3. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... car. An inward foreign manifest on Customs Form 7533 shall be used for all baggage arriving in baggage cars....

  4. 8 CFR 251.1 - Arrival manifests and lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Arrival manifests and lists. 251.1 Section 251.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ARRIVAL AND... or agent of the vessel shall indicate in writing immediately below the name of the last alien...

  5. 8 CFR 251.1 - Arrival manifests and lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Arrival manifests and lists. 251.1 Section 251.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ARRIVAL AND... or agent of the vessel shall indicate in writing immediately below the name of the last alien...

  6. 8 CFR 251.1 - Arrival manifests and lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Arrival manifests and lists. 251.1 Section 251.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ARRIVAL AND... or agent of the vessel shall indicate in writing immediately below the name of the last alien...

  7. Parcellation of the cingulate cortex at rest and during tasks: a meta-analytic clustering and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Torta, Diana M E; Costa, Tommaso; Duca, Sergio; Fox, Peter T; Cauda, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Anatomical, morphological, and histological data have consistently shown that the cingulate cortex can be divided into four main regions. However, less is known about parcellations of the cingulate cortex when involved in active tasks. Here, we aimed at comparing how the pattern of clusterization of the cingulate cortex changes across different levels of task complexity. We parcellated the cingulate cortex using the results of a meta-analytic study and of three experimental studies. The experimental studies, which included two active tasks and a resting state protocol, were used to control the results obtained with the meta-analytic parcellation. We explored the meta-analytic parcellation by applying a meta-analytic clustering (MaC) to papers retrieved from the BrainMap database. The MaC is a meta-analytic connectivity driven parcellation technique recently developed by our group which allowed us to parcellate the cingulate cortex on the basis of its pattern of co-activations during active tasks. The MaC results indicated that the cingulate cortex can be parcellated into three clusters. These clusters covered different percentages of the cingulate parenchyma and had a different density of foci, with the first cluster being more densely connected. The control experiments showed different clusterization results, suggesting that the co-activations of the cingulate cortex are highly dependent on the task that is tested. Our results highlight the importance of the cingulate cortex as a hub, which modifies its pattern of co-activations depending on the task requests and on the level of task complexity. The neurobiological meaning of these results is discussed.

  8. The Mars Climate Orbiter arrives at KSC to begin final preparations for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft arrives at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard an Air Force C-17 cargo plane early this morning following its flight from the Lockheed Martin Astronautics plant in Denver, Colo. When the spacecraft arrives at the red planet, it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. After that, the Mars Climate Orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year (1.8 Earth years). It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface. The scheduled launch date for the Mars Climate Orbiter is Dec. 10, 1998, on a Delta II 7425 rocket.

  9. Human-in-the-Loop Assessment of Alternative Clearances in Interval Management Arrival Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Wilson, Sara R.; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Johnson, William C.; Roper, Roy D.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Goess, Paul A.; Shay, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) was a human-in-the-loop simulation experiment conducted to explore the Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) Concept of Operations (ConOps), which combines advanced arrival scheduling, controller decision support tools, and aircraft avionics to enable multiple time deconflicted, efficient arrival streams into a high-density terminal airspace. Interval Management (IM) is designed to support the ATD-1 concept by having an "Ownship" (IM-capable) aircraft achieve or maintain a specific time or distance behind a "Target" (preceding) aircraft. The IM software uses IM clearance information and the Ownship data (route of flight, current location, and wind) entered by the flight crew, and the Target aircraft's Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast state data, to calculate the airspeed necessary for the IM-equipped aircraft to achieve or maintain the assigned spacing goal.

  10. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA and McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) personnel remove protective covers from the newly arrived NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft. It arrived at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1

  11. Delay time between onset of ischemic stroke and hospital arrival.

    PubMed

    Biller, J; Patrick, J T; Shepard, A; Adams, H P

    1993-01-01

    Some current experimental protocols for acute ischemic stroke require the initiation of treatment within hours of the onset of stroke symptoms. We prospectively evaluated 30 patients with acute ischemic stroke based on clinical and computed tomography findings. The time between the onset of stroke symptoms and arrival in the emergency room and subsequently on the stroke service was determined. Within 3, 6,12, and 24 h of the onset of stroke symptoms, 16 (53%), 19 (63%), 22 (73%), and 25 (83%) patients had arrived at the emergency room and 0 (0%), 4 (13%), 14 (47%), and 22 (73%) of them on the stroke service, respectively. From the onset of stroke symptoms, the mean arrival time to the emergency room was 24 h (range, 30 min to 144 h) and to the stroke service was 61 h (range, 4-150 h). The mean time between arrival in the emergency room and stroke service was 8.6 h (range, 0-47 h). Even though 53% and 63% of our patients arrived at the emergency room within 3 and 6 h of the onset of stroke symptoms, only 0% and 13% of them arrived on the stroke service within the same time period for the initiation of treatment, respectively. Thus, in order for more patients to qualify for current experimental protocols, they must arrive on the stroke service more quickly or treatment must be initiated in the emergency room.

  12. Physical work and strain involved in manual sorting of postal parcels.

    PubMed

    Louhevaara, V; Hakola, T; Ollila, H

    1990-09-01

    A field study was conducted to assess cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal stress and strain and work output during manual sorting of postal parcels, and to detect the effects of parcel sorting on the maximal muscle strength and endurance. The volunteer subjects comprised 32 healthy male sorters with mean (+/- s.d.) age of 34 +/- 7 years at five different sorting sites. Each subject was studied during one evening work shift. During the shift of 391 +/- 46 min the subjects manually sorted 1173 +/- 630 parcels and walked 4.7 +/- 2.3 km with and without the load. While sorting, heart rate was 101 +/- 18 beats min-1. In the heaviest tasks the oxygen consumption was 1.2 +/- 0.41 min-1, and no elevated blood lactate concentrations were found. Work postures in which the back was bent forward averaged 24% of the time for sorting. The overall cardiorespiratory rating and local ratings of perceived exertion for arms, back, and legs did not exceed the 'somewhat strong' level during the work shift. The maximal static strength both for the right and left hand-grip muscles was, on average, 3% lower (p less than 0.05) after the work shift than before the shift. No significant differences were found in the static or dynamic endurance times for the hand-grip muscles when the results obtained after the work shift were compared to the baseline values. At sorting centres the stress and strain on the cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal system was evaluated to remain within acceptable limits for healthy male sorters.

  13. 3-D Cytoarchitectonic parcellation of human orbitofrontal cortex. Correlation with postmortem MRI

    PubMed Central

    Uylings, Harry B.M.; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto J.; de Vos, Koos; Pool, Chris W.; Evers, Paul; Rajkowska, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is located on the basal surface of the frontal lobe and is distinguished by its unique anatomical and functional features. Clinical and postmortem studies suggest the involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex in psychiatric disorders. However, the exact parcellation of this cortical region is still a matter of debate. Therefore, the goal of this study is to provide a detailed description of the extent of borders of individual orbitofrontal cortical areas using cytoarchitectonic criteria in a large sample of human brains, which could be applied by independent neuroanatomists. To make this microscopic parcellation useful to neuroimaging studies, magnetic resonance images of postmortem brains in the coronal plane were collected prior to the preparation of coronal histological sections from the same brains. A complete series of coronal sections from 6 normal human brains and partial sections from the frontal cortex of 21 normal human brains were stained with general histological and immunohistochemical methods specific for different cell-types, These sections were examined microscopically by two independent neuroanatomists (HBMU and GR) to achieve reproducible delineations. After the borders were determined, the tissue sections were superimposed on corresponding MR images. Based on our cytoarchitectonical criteria, Brodmann's areas 47 and 11 were included in the human orbitofrontal cortex. Area 47 was further subdivided into three medial (located on the medial, anterior and posterior orbital gyri) and two lateral (located on the lateral orbital gyrus) subareas. In addition, we observed an anterior-posterior gradient in the cytoarchitecture of areas 11 and 47. The transverse orbital sulcus corresponds roughly to the transition between the subregions of the anterior and posterior OFC. Finally, the present delineation is contrasted with an overview of the different published nomenclatures for the OFC parcellation. PMID:20538437

  14. Green infrastructure retrofits on residential parcels: Ecohydrologic modeling for stormwater design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    To meet water quality goals stormwater utilities and not-for-profit watershed organizations in the U.S. are working with citizens to design and implement green infrastructure on residential land. Green infrastructure, as an alternative and complement to traditional (grey) stormwater infrastructure, has the potential to contribute to multiple ecosystem benefits including stormwater volume reduction, carbon sequestration, urban heat island mitigation, and to provide amenities to residents. However, in small (1-10-km2) medium-density urban watersheds with heterogeneous land cover it is unclear whether stormwater retrofits on residential parcels significantly contributes to reduce stormwater volume at the watershed scale. In this paper, we seek to improve understanding of how small-scale redistribution of water at the parcel scale as part of green infrastructure implementation affects urban water budgets and stormwater volume across spatial scales. As study sites we use two medium-density headwater watersheds in Baltimore, MD and Durham, NC. We develop ecohydrology modeling experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of redirecting residential rooftop runoff to un-altered pervious surfaces and to engineered rain gardens to reduce stormwater runoff. As baselines for these experiments, we performed field surveys of residential rooftop hydrologic connectivity to adjacent impervious surfaces, and found low rates of connectivity. Through simulations of pervasive adoption of downspout disconnection to un-altered pervious areas or to rain garden stormwater control measures (SCM) in these catchments, we find that most parcel-scale changes in stormwater fate are attenuated at larger spatial scales and that neither SCM alone is likely to provide significant changes in streamflow at the watershed scale.

  15. Automated individual-level parcellation of Broca's region based on functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Estrid; Liem, Franziskus; Klados, Manousos A; Bayrak, Şeyma; Petrides, Michael; Margulies, Daniel S

    2016-09-30

    Broca's region can be subdivided into its constituent areas 44 and 45 based on established differences in connectivity to superior temporal and inferior parietal regions. The current study builds on our previous work manually parcellating Broca's area on the individual-level by applying these anatomical criteria to functional connectivity data. Here we present an automated observer-independent and anatomy-informed parcellation pipeline with comparable precision to the manual labels at the individual-level. The method first extracts individualized connectivity templates of areas 44 and 45 by assigning to each surface vertex within the ventrolateral frontal cortex the partial correlation value of its functional connectivity to group-level templates of areas 44 and 45, accounting for other template connectivity patterns. To account for cross-subject variability in connectivity, the partial correlation procedure is then repeated using individual-level network templates, including individual-level connectivity from areas 44 and 45. Each node is finally labeled as area 44, 45, or neither, using a winner-take-all approach. The method also incorporates prior knowledge of anatomical location by weighting the results using spatial probability maps. The resulting area labels show a high degree of spatial overlap with the gold-standard manual labels, and group-average area maps are consistent with cytoarchitectonic probability maps of areas 44 and 45. To facilitate reproducibility and to demonstrate that the method can be applied to resting-state fMRI datasets with varying acquisition and preprocessing parameters, the labeling procedure is applied to two open-source datasets from the Human Connectome Project and the Nathan Kline Institute Rockland Sample. While the current study focuses on Broca's region, the method is adaptable to parcellate other cortical regions with distinct connectivity profiles.

  16. Scheduling and Separating Departures Crossing Arrival Flows in Shared Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalley, Eric; Parke, Bonny K.; Lee, Paul; Omar, Faisal; Lee, Hwasoo; Beinert, Nancy; Kraut, Joshua M.; Palmer, Everett

    2013-01-01

    Flight efficiency and reduction of flight delays are among the primary goals of NextGen. In this paper, we propose a concept of shared airspace where departures fly across arrival flows, provided gaps are available in these flows. We have explored solutions to separate departures temporally from arrival traffic and pre-arranged procedures to support controllers' decisions. We conducted a Human-in-the-Loop simulation and assessed the efficiency and safety of 96 departures from the San Jose airport (SJC) climbing across the arrival airspace of the Oakland and San Francisco arrival flows. In our simulation, the SJC tower had a tool to schedule departures to fly across predicted gaps in the arrival flow. When departures were mistimed and separation could not be ensured, a safe but less efficient route was provided to the departures to fly under the arrival flows. A coordination using a point-out procedure allowed the arrival controller to control the SJC departures right after takeoff. We manipulated the accuracy of departure time (accurate vs. inaccurate) as well as which sector took control of the departures after takeoff (departure vs. arrival sector) in a 2x2 full factorial plan. Results show that coordination time decreased and climb efficiency increased when the arrival sector controlled the aircraft right after takeoff. Also, climb efficiency increased when the departure times were more accurate. Coordination was shown to be a critical component of tactical operations in shared airspace. Although workload, coordination, and safety were judged by controllers as acceptable in the simulation, it appears that in the field, controllers would need improved tools and coordination procedures to support this procedure.

  17. Bidirectional iterative parcellation of diffusion weighted imaging data: separating cortical regions connected by the arcuate fasciculus and extreme capsule.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Dianne K; Van Petten, Cyma; Beeson, Pélagie M; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Plante, Elena

    2014-11-15

    This paper introduces a Bidirectional Iterative Parcellation (BIP) procedure designed to identify the location and size of connected cortical regions (parcellations) at both ends of a white matter tract in diffusion weighted images. The procedure applies the FSL option "probabilistic tracking with classification targets" in a bidirectional and iterative manner. To assess the utility of BIP, we applied the procedure to the problem of parcellating a limited set of well-established gray matter seed regions associated with the dorsal (arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus) and ventral (extreme capsule fiber system) white matter tracts in the language networks of 97 participants. These left hemisphere seed regions and the two white matter tracts, along with their right hemisphere homologues, provided an excellent test case for BIP because the resulting parcellations overlap and their connectivity via the arcuate fasciculi and extreme capsule fiber systems are well studied. The procedure yielded both confirmatory and novel findings. Specifically, BIP confirmed that each tract connects within the seed regions in unique, but expected ways. Novel findings included increasingly left-lateralized parcellations associated with the arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus as a function of age and education. These results demonstrate that BIP is an easily implemented technique that successfully confirmed cortical connectivity patterns predicted in the literature, and has the potential to provide new insights regarding the architecture of the brain.

  18. Groupwise whole-brain parcellation from resting-state fMRI data for network node identification

    PubMed Central

    Shen, X.; Tokoglu, F.; Papademetris, X.; Constable, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a groupwise graph-theory-based parcellation approach to define nodes for network analysis. The application of network-theory-based analysis to extend the utility of functional MRI has recently received increased attention. Such analyses require first and foremost a reasonable definition of a set of nodes as input to the network analysis. To date many applications have used existing atlases based on cytoarchitecture, task-based fMRI activations, or anatomic delineations. A potential pitfall in using such atlases is that the mean timecourse of a node may not represent any of the constituent timecourses if different functional areas are included within a single node. The proposed approach involves a groupwise optimization that ensures functional homogeneity within each subunit and that these definitions are consistent at the group level. Parcellation reproducibility of each subunit is computed across multiple groups of healthy volunteers and is demonstrated to be high. Issues related to the selection of appropriate number of nodes in the brain are considered. Within typical parameters of fMRI resolution, parcellation results are shown for a total of 100, 200, and 300 subunits. Such parcellations may ultimately serve as a functional atlas for fMRI and as such three atlases at the 100-, 200- and 300-parcellation levels derived from 79 healthy normal volunteers are made freely available online along with tools to interface this atlas with SPM, BioImageSuite and other analysis packages. PMID:23747961

  19. Joint Spectral Decomposition for the Parcellation of the Human Cerebral Cortex Using Resting-State fMRI.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Salim; Parisot, Sarah; Rueckert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Identification of functional connections within the human brain has gained a lot of attention due to its potential to reveal neural mechanisms. In a whole-brain connectivity analysis, a critical stage is the computation of a set of network nodes that can effectively represent cortical regions. To address this problem, we present a robust cerebral cortex parcellation method based on spectral graph theory and resting-state fMRI correlations that generates reliable parcellations at the single-subject level and across multiple subjects. Our method models the cortical surface in each hemisphere as a mesh graph represented in the spectral domain with its eigenvectors. We connect cortices of different subjects with each other based on the similarity of their connectivity profiles and construct a multi-layer graph, which effectively captures the fundamental properties of the whole group as well as preserves individual subject characteristics. Spectral decomposition of this joint graph is used to cluster each cortical vertex into a subregion in order to obtain whole-brain parcellations. Using rs-fMRI data collected from 40 healthy subjects, we show that our proposed algorithm computes highly reproducible parcellations across different groups of subjects and at varying levels of detail with an average Dice score of 0.78, achieving up to 9% better reproducibility compared to existing approaches. We also report that our group-wise parcellations are functionally more consistent, thus, can be reliably used to represent the population in network analyses.

  20. Groupwise whole-brain parcellation from resting-state fMRI data for network node identification.

    PubMed

    Shen, X; Tokoglu, F; Papademetris, X; Constable, R T

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, we present a groupwise graph-theory-based parcellation approach to define nodes for network analysis. The application of network-theory-based analysis to extend the utility of functional MRI has recently received increased attention. Such analyses require first and foremost a reasonable definition of a set of nodes as input to the network analysis. To date many applications have used existing atlases based on cytoarchitecture, task-based fMRI activations, or anatomic delineations. A potential pitfall in using such atlases is that the mean timecourse of a node may not represent any of the constituent timecourses if different functional areas are included within a single node. The proposed approach involves a groupwise optimization that ensures functional homogeneity within each subunit and that these definitions are consistent at the group level. Parcellation reproducibility of each subunit is computed across multiple groups of healthy volunteers and is demonstrated to be high. Issues related to the selection of appropriate number of nodes in the brain are considered. Within typical parameters of fMRI resolution, parcellation results are shown for a total of 100, 200, and 300 subunits. Such parcellations may ultimately serve as a functional atlas for fMRI and as such three atlases at the 100-, 200- and 300-parcellation levels derived from 79 healthy normal volunteers are made freely available online along with tools to interface this atlas with SPM, BioImage Suite and other analysis packages.

  1. Drought in Africa caused delayed arrival of European songbirds.

    PubMed

    Tøttrup, A P; Klaassen, R H G; Kristensen, M W; Strandberg, R; Vardanis, Y; Lindström, Å; Rahbek, C; Alerstam, T; Thorup, K

    2012-12-07

    Despite an overall advancement in breeding area arrival, one of the latest spring arrivals in northwest Europe since 1950 of several trans-Saharan songbird species occurred in 2011. Year-round tracking of red-backed shrikes and thrush nightingales revealed that the cause of the delay was a prolongation of stopover time during spring migration at the Horn of Africa, which was affected by extreme drought. Our results help to establish a direct link at the individual level between changes in local climate during migration and arrival and breeding condition in Europe thousands of kilometers further north.

  2. Queues with Dropping Functions and General Arrival Processes

    PubMed Central

    Chydzinski, Andrzej; Mrozowski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    In a queueing system with the dropping function the arriving customer can be denied service (dropped) with the probability that is a function of the queue length at the time of arrival of this customer. The potential applicability of such mechanism is very wide due to the fact that by choosing the shape of this function one can easily manipulate several performance characteristics of the queueing system. In this paper we carry out analysis of the queueing system with the dropping function and a very general model of arrival process—the model which includes batch arrivals and the interarrival time autocorrelation, and allows for fitting the actual shape of the interarrival time distribution and its moments. For such a system we obtain formulas for the distribution of the queue length and the overall customer loss ratio. The analytical results are accompanied with numerical examples computed for several dropping functions. PMID:26943171

  3. STS-85 Commander Curtis Brown arrives at SLF for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-85 Commander Curtis L. Brown, Jr., arrives at the Shuttle Landing Facility for his mission's Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. The liftoff of STS-85 is targeted for August 7, 1997.

  4. NASA's SOFIA Arrives in Christchurch, New Zealand, July 14, 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy airborne observatory arrived at Christchurch International Airport, New Zealand, July 14 at 12:14 p.m. (New Zealand Standard Time) to investi...

  5. STS-77 pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr. arrives at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 Pilot Curtis L. Brown Jr. arrives at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. The countdown clock has already begun ticking toward the May 19 liftoff of the Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-77, the fourth Shuttle flight of 1996.

  6. Adaptive arrival cost update for improving Moving Horizon Estimation performance.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, G; Murillo, M; Giovanini, L

    2017-03-01

    Moving horizon estimation is an efficient technique to estimate states and parameters of constrained dynamical systems. It relies on the solution of a finite horizon optimization problem to compute the estimates, providing a natural framework to handle bounds and constraints on estimates, noises and parameters. However, the approximation of the arrival cost and its updating mechanism are an active research topic. The arrival cost is very important because it provides a mean to incorporate information from previous measurements to the current estimates and it is difficult to estimate its true value. In this work, we exploit the features of adaptive estimation methods to update the parameters of the arrival cost. We show that, having a better approximation of the arrival cost, the size of the optimization problem can be significantly reduced guaranteeing the stability and convergence of the estimates. These properties are illustrated through simulation studies.

  7. Countdown to Exploration Flight Test 1: The Arrival

    NASA Video Gallery

    As NASA counts down to the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) of Orion in 2014, the spacecraft that will fly that mission has arrived at the launch site in Florida. Take a look inside the Operations...

  8. Wave separation: application for arrival time detection in ultrasonic signals.

    PubMed

    Avanesians, Patrick; Momayez, Moe

    2015-01-01

    A method to detect and accurately measure the arrival time of wave packets in ultrasonic signals using a nonlinear decomposition technique is presented. We specifically address the problem of extracting events that are not well separated in the time, space and frequency domains. Analysis of complex ultrasonic signals, even those composed of poorly separated echoes, provided exceptional estimates of the desired time of arrival, from the media under investigation.

  9. Bystanders, parcelling, and an absence of trust in the grooming interactions of wild male chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation remains a central issue in socio-biology with the fundamental problem of how individuals minimize the risks of being short-changed (‘cheated’) should their behavioural investment in another not be returned. Economic decisions that individuals make during interactions may depend upon the presence of potential partners nearby, which offers co operators a temptation to defect from the current partner. The parcelling model posits that donors subdivide services into parcels to force cooperation, and that this is contingent on opportunities for defection; that is, the presence of bystanders. Here we test this model and the effect of bystander presence using grooming interactions of wild chimpanzees. We found that with more bystanders, initiators gave less grooming at the beginning of the bout and were more likely to abandon a grooming bout, while bouts were less likely to be reciprocated. We also found that the groomer’s initial investment was not higher among frequent groomers or stronger reciprocators, suggesting that contrary to current assumptions, grooming decisions are not based on trust, or bonds, within dyads. Our work highlights the importance of considering immediate social context and the influence of bystanders for understanding the evolution of the behavioural strategies that produce cooperation. PMID:26856371

  10. Functional connectivity-based parcellation of amygdala using self-organized mapping: a data driven approach.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arabinda; Rogers, Baxter P; Chen, Li Min; Gore, John C

    2014-04-01

    The overall goal of this work is to demonstrate how resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals may be used to objectively parcellate functionally heterogeneous subregions of the human amygdala into structures characterized by similar patterns of functional connectivity. We hypothesize that similarity of functional connectivity of subregions with other parts of the brain can be a potential basis to segment and cluster voxels using data driven approaches. In this work, self-organizing map (SOM) was implemented to cluster the connectivity maps associated with each voxel of the human amygdala, thereby defining distinct subregions. The functional separation was optimized by evaluating the overall differences in functional connectivity between the subregions at group level. Analysis of 25 resting state fMRI data sets suggests that SOM can successfully identify functionally independent nuclei based on differences in their inter subregional functional connectivity, evaluated statistically at various confidence levels. Although amygdala contains several nuclei whose distinct roles are implicated in various functions, our objective approach discerns at least two functionally distinct volumes comparable to previous parcellation results obtained using probabilistic tractography and cytoarchitectonic analysis. Association of these nuclei with various known functions and a quantitative evaluation of their differences in overall functional connectivity with lateral orbital frontal cortex and temporal pole confirms the functional diversity of amygdala. The data driven approach adopted here may be used as a powerful indicator of structure-function relationships in the amygdala and other functionally heterogeneous structures as well.

  11. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paveglio, Travis B.; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability—human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others.

  12. Connectivity-based parcellation reveals distinct cortico-striatal connectivity fingerprints in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Balsters, Joshua H; Mantini, Dante; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2017-02-08

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been associated with abnormal synaptic development causing a breakdown in functional connectivity. However, when measured at the macro scale using resting state fMRI, these alterations are subtle and often difficult to detect due to the large heterogeneity of the pathology. Recently, we outlined a novel approach for generating robust biomarkers of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) using connectivity based parcellation of gross morphological structures to improve single-subject reproducibility and generate more robust connectivity fingerprints. Here we apply this novel approach to investigating the organization and connectivity strength of the cortico-striatal system in a large sample of ASD individuals and typically developed (TD) controls (N=130 per group). Our results showed differences in the parcellation of the striatum in ASD. Specifically, the putamen was found to be one single structure in ASD, whereas this was split into anterior and posterior segments in an age, IQ, and head movement matched TD group. An analysis of the connectivity fingerprints revealed that the group differences in clustering were driven by differential connectivity between striatum and the supplementary motor area, posterior cingulate cortex, and posterior insula. Our approach for analysing RS-fMRI in clinical populations has provided clear evidence that cortico-striatal circuits are organized differently in ASD. Based on previous task-based segmentations of the striatum, we believe that the anterior putamen cluster present in TD, but not in ASD, likely contributes to social and language processes.

  13. Estimating Controller Intervention Probabilities for Optimized Profile Descent Arrivals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyn, Larry A.; Erzberger, Heinz; Huynh, Phu V.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations of arrival traffic at Dallas/Fort-Worth and Denver airports were conducted to evaluate incorporating scheduling and separation constraints into advisories that define continuous descent approaches. The goal was to reduce the number of controller interventions required to ensure flights maintain minimum separation distances of 5 nmi horizontally and 1000 ft vertically. It was shown that simply incorporating arrival meter fix crossing-time constraints into the advisory generation could eliminate over half of the all predicted separation violations and more than 80% of the predicted violations between two arrival flights. Predicted separation violations between arrivals and non-arrivals were 32% of all predicted separation violations at Denver and 41% at Dallas/Fort-Worth. A probabilistic analysis of meter fix crossing-time errors is included which shows that some controller interventions will still be required even when the predicted crossing-times of the advisories are set to add a 1 or 2 nmi buffer above the minimum in-trail separation of 5 nmi. The 2 nmi buffer was shown to increase average flight delays by up to 30 sec when compared to the 1 nmi buffer, but it only resulted in a maximum decrease in average arrival throughput of one flight per hour.

  14. Investigating the Impact of Off-Nominal Events on High-Density "Green" Arrivals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callatine, Todd J.; Cabrall, Christopher; Kupfer, Michael; Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Palmer, Everett A.

    2012-01-01

    Trajectory-based controller tools developed to support a schedule-based terminal-area air traffic management (ATM) concept have been shown effective for enabling green arrivals along Area Navigation (RNAV) routes in moderately high-density traffic conditions. A recent human-in-the-loop simulation investigated the robustness of the concept and tools to off-nominal events events that lead to situations in which runway arrival schedules require adjustments and controllers can no longer use speed control alone to impose the necessary delays. Study participants included a terminal-area Traffic Management Supervisor responsible for adjusting the schedules. Sector-controller participants could issue alternate RNAV transition routes to absorb large delays. The study also included real-time winds/wind-forecast changes. The results indicate that arrival spacing accuracy, schedule conformance, and tool usage and usefulness are similar to that observed in simulations of nominal operations. However, the time and effort required to recover from an off-nominal event is highly context-sensitive, and impacted by the required schedule adjustments and control methods available for managing the evolving situation. The research suggests ways to bolster the off-nominal recovery process, and highlights challenges related to using human-in-the-loop simulation to investigate the safety and robustness of advanced ATM concepts.

  15. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... tubes for export other than by parcel post. The claimant, upon release of the tobacco products,...

  16. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... tubes for export other than by parcel post. The claimant, upon release of the tobacco products,...

  17. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... tubes for export other than by parcel post. The claimant, upon release of the tobacco products,...

  18. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... tubes for export other than by parcel post. The claimant, upon release of the tobacco products,...

  19. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... tubes for export other than by parcel post. The claimant, upon release of the tobacco products,...

  20. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Arrives at KSC for Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory, scheduled to launch aboard Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93, arrived at 2:45 p.m. EST today at the Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy airplane. The telescope was shipped from the TRW plant in Redondo Beach, CA, with departure from Los Angeles International Airport occurring earlier this morning. A second airplane also brought the necessary ground support equipment to KSC for the campaign of final prelaunch integration and testing. The ground support equipment is being off loaded today. The Chandra Observatory is to be taken off the airplane early Friday morning and transported to the Vertical Processing Facility located in the KSC Industrial Area. There, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components, be tested, fueled, and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. A major milestone is the test using the Cargo Integrated Test Equipment (CITE) to verify that Chandra and the Inertial Upper Stage will have the ability to receive and reply to commands once aboard the Space Shuttle. Also, an end-to-end test will verify the communications systems of the payload and its ability to communicate through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite system with Mission Control in Houston and the Chandra ground station located in Cambridge, MA. The Chandra/IUS combination will then be ready to go to the launch pad. Once in the payload changeout room at Pad 39-B, the protective cocoon will be removed from around the telescope and it will be installed into Space Shuttle Columbia. An Integrated Verification Test will be conducted to check all of the electrical connections and the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands from Columbia's flight deck. The end-to-end test will be repeated at the pad. Finally the IUS will go through a simulated countdown to verify its readiness for launch. Chandra will use the world

  1. Inferring the background traffic arrival process in the Internet.

    PubMed

    Hága, Péter; Csabai, István; Vattay, Gábor

    2009-12-01

    Phase transition has been found in many complex interactivity systems. Complex networks are not exception either but there are quite few real systems where we can directly understand the emergence of this nontrivial behavior from the microscopic view. In this paper, we present the emergence of the phase transition between the congested and uncongested phases of a network link. We demonstrate a method to infer the background traffic arrival process, which is one of the key state parameters of the Internet traffic. The traffic arrival process in the Internet has been investigated in several studies, since the recognition of its self-similar nature. The statistical properties of the traffic arrival process are very important since they are fundamental in modeling the dynamical behavior. Here, we demonstrate how the widely used packet train technique can be used to determine the main properties of the traffic arrival process. We show that the packet train dispersion is sensitive to the congestion on the network path. We introduce the packet train stretch as an order parameter to describe the phase transition between the congested and uncongested phases of the bottleneck link in the path. We find that the distribution of the background traffic arrival process can be determined from the average packet train dispersion at the critical point of the system.

  2. Identifying Key Issues and Potential Solutions for Integrated Arrival, Departure, Surface Operations by Surveying Stakeholder Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aponso, Bimal; Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon; Quon, Leighton; Lohr, Gary; O’Connor, Neil; Engelland, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) collaborates with the FAA and industry to provide concepts and technologies that enhance the transition to the next-generation air-traffic management system (NextGen). To facilitate this collaboration, ARMD has a series of Airspace Technology Demonstration (ATD) sub-projects that develop, demonstrate, and transitions NASA technologies and concepts for implementation in the National Airspace System (NAS). The second of these sub-projects, ATD-2, is focused on the potential benefits to NAS stakeholders of integrated arrival, departure, surface (IADS) operations. To determine the project objectives and assess the benefits of a potential solution, NASA surveyed NAS stakeholders to understand the existing issues in arrival, departure, and surface operations, and the perceived benefits of better integrating these operations. NASA surveyed a broad cross-section of stakeholders representing the airlines, airports, air-navigation service providers, and industry providers of NAS tools. The survey indicated that improving the predictability of flight times (schedules) could improve efficiency in arrival, departure, and surface operations. Stakeholders also mentioned the need for better strategic and tactical information on traffic constraints as well as better information sharing and a coupled collaborative planning process that allows stakeholders to coordinate IADS operations. To assess the impact of a potential solution, NASA sketched an initial departure scheduling concept and assessed its viability by surveying a select group of stakeholders for a second time. The objective of the departure scheduler was to enable flights to move continuously from gate to cruise with minimal interruption in a busy metroplex airspace environment using strategic and tactical scheduling enhanced by collaborative planning between airlines and service providers. The stakeholders agreed that this departure concept could improve schedule

  3. 43 CFR 2568.80 - Does the parcel have to be surveyed before I can receive title to it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... I can receive title to it? 2568.80 Section 2568.80 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... § 2568.80 Does the parcel have to be surveyed before I can receive title to it? Yes. The land in your application must be surveyed before BLM can convey it to you. BLM will survey your allotment at no charge...

  4. 43 CFR 2568.80 - Does the parcel have to be surveyed before I can receive title to it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... I can receive title to it? 2568.80 Section 2568.80 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... § 2568.80 Does the parcel have to be surveyed before I can receive title to it? Yes. The land in your application must be surveyed before BLM can convey it to you. BLM will survey your allotment at no charge...

  5. 77 FR 54607 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Dafter Parcel, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... radius of 11,609.16 feet and is subtended by a chord that bears S 14[deg]12'52'' W a distance of 1270.70.... A proclamation was issued according with Section 7 of the Act of June 18, 1934 (48 Stat. 986; 25 U.S... membership. Bay Mills Indian Community Reservation Township of Dafter, Chippewa County, Michigan A parcel...

  6. A Supervoxel-Based Method for Groupwise Whole Brain Parcellation with Resting-State fMRI Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Haixian

    2016-01-01

    Node definition is a very important issue in human brain network analysis and functional connectivity studies. Typically, the atlases generated from meta-analysis, random criteria, and structural criteria are utilized as nodes in related applications. However, these atlases are not originally designed for such purposes and may not be suitable. In this study, we combined normalized cut (Ncut) and a supervoxel method called simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) to parcellate whole brain resting-state fMRI data in order to generate appropriate brain atlases. Specifically, Ncut was employed to extract features from connectivity matrices, and then SLIC was applied on the extracted features to generate parcellations. To obtain group level parcellations, two approaches named mean SLIC and two-level SLIC were proposed. The cluster number varied in a wide range in order to generate parcellations with multiple granularities. The two SLIC approaches were compared with three state-of-the-art approaches under different evaluation metrics, which include spatial contiguity, functional homogeneity, and reproducibility. Both the group-to-group reproducibility and the group-to-subject reproducibility were evaluated in our study. The experimental results showed that the proposed approaches obtained relatively good overall clustering performances in different conditions that included different weighting functions, different sparsifying schemes, and several confounding factors. Therefore, the generated atlases are appropriate to be utilized as nodes for network analysis. The generated atlases and major source codes of this study have been made publicly available at http://www.nitrc.org/projects/slic/. PMID:28082885

  7. Three Approaches to Using Lengthy Ordinal Scales in Structural Equation Models: Parceling, Latent Scoring, and Shortening Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chongming; Nay, Sandra; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2010-01-01

    Lengthy scales or testlets pose certain challenges for structural equation modeling (SEM) if all the items are included as indicators of a latent construct. Three general approaches to modeling lengthy scales in SEM (parceling, latent scoring, and shortening) have been reviewed and evaluated. A hypothetical population model is simulated containing…

  8. The Impact of the Parcel-Level Land Architecture on Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, X.; Ouyang, Y.; Turner, B. L., II; Harlan, S.; Brazel, A.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and characteristics of the urban land system has received increasing attention in urban heat island research, especially for desert cities. The relationship between the land composition and LST has been widely studied. Such researches generally employ medium or coarser spatial resolution remotely sensed data and primarily focuses on the effects of one land cover type on the LST. In this study, we explore the effects of land system architecture - composition and configuration of different land-cover classes - on LST in the central Arizona-Phoenix metropolitan area at a fine-scale resolution, focused on the composition and configuration of single family residential parcels. A 1 m resolution land-cover map is used to calculate landscape metrics at the parcel level, and 6.8 m resolution data from the MODIS/ASTER are employed to retrieve LST. We introduce the socio-economic factors at neighborhood level as explanatory variables to help control for potential neighborhood effects. Multiple linear regression models examine the effects of landscape configuration on LST at the parcel scale, controlling for the effects of landscape composition and neighborhood characteristics. Results show that the configuration of parcels affects LST, revealing significant variable relationships between that architecture and LST at nighttime and daytime, and the role of the neighborhood effects on the outcomes.

  9. 77 FR 54607 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Sugar Parcel Lands, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 172 (Wednesday, September 5, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 54607-54608] [FR Doc No: 2012-21822] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Proclaiming Certain Lands, Sugar Parcel Lands, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation for the Bay Mills...

  10. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  11. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  12. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  13. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  14. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  15. Investigating Historic Parcel Changes to Understand Land Use Trends: A Methodology and Application for the San Pedro River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term land use and land cover change, and the associated impacts, pose critical challenges to sustaining healthy communities and ecosystems. In this study, a methodology was developed to use parcel data to evaluate land use trends in southeast Arizona’s San Pedro River Water...

  16. Leaf unfolding of Tibetan alpine meadows captures the arrival of monsoon rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruicheng; Luo, Tianxiang; Mölg, Thomas; Zhao, Jingxue; Li, Xiang; Cui, Xiaoyong; Du, Mingyuan; Tang, Yanhong

    2016-02-01

    The alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau is the highest and largest pasture in the world, and its formation and distribution are mainly controlled by Indian summer monsoon effects. However, little is known about how monsoon-related cues may trigger spring phenology of the vast alpine vegetation. Based on the 7-year observations with fenced and transplanted experiments across lower to upper limits of Kobresia meadows in the central plateau (4400–5200 m), we found that leaf unfolding dates of dominant sedge and grass species synchronized with monsoon onset, regardless of air temperature. We also found similar patterns in a 22-year data set from the northeast plateau. In the monsoon-related cues for leaf unfolding, the arrival of monsoon rainfall is crucial, while seasonal air temperatures are already continuously above 0 °C. In contrast, the early-emerging cushion species generally leafed out earlier in warmer years regardless of precipitation. Our data provide evidence that leaf unfolding of dominant species in the alpine meadows senses the arrival of monsoon-season rainfall. These findings also provide a basis for interpreting the spatially variable greening responses to warming detected in the world’s highest pasture, and suggest a phenological strategy for avoiding damages of pre-monsoon drought and frost to alpine plants.

  17. Leaf unfolding of Tibetan alpine meadows captures the arrival of monsoon rainfall.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruicheng; Luo, Tianxiang; Mölg, Thomas; Zhao, Jingxue; Li, Xiang; Cui, Xiaoyong; Du, Mingyuan; Tang, Yanhong

    2016-02-09

    The alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau is the highest and largest pasture in the world, and its formation and distribution are mainly controlled by Indian summer monsoon effects. However, little is known about how monsoon-related cues may trigger spring phenology of the vast alpine vegetation. Based on the 7-year observations with fenced and transplanted experiments across lower to upper limits of Kobresia meadows in the central plateau (4400-5200 m), we found that leaf unfolding dates of dominant sedge and grass species synchronized with monsoon onset, regardless of air temperature. We also found similar patterns in a 22-year data set from the northeast plateau. In the monsoon-related cues for leaf unfolding, the arrival of monsoon rainfall is crucial, while seasonal air temperatures are already continuously above 0 °C. In contrast, the early-emerging cushion species generally leafed out earlier in warmer years regardless of precipitation. Our data provide evidence that leaf unfolding of dominant species in the alpine meadows senses the arrival of monsoon-season rainfall. These findings also provide a basis for interpreting the spatially variable greening responses to warming detected in the world's highest pasture, and suggest a phenological strategy for avoiding damages of pre-monsoon drought and frost to alpine plants.

  18. Leaf unfolding of Tibetan alpine meadows captures the arrival of monsoon rainfall

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruicheng; Luo, Tianxiang; Mölg, Thomas; Zhao, Jingxue; Li, Xiang; Cui, Xiaoyong; Du, Mingyuan; Tang, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    The alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau is the highest and largest pasture in the world, and its formation and distribution are mainly controlled by Indian summer monsoon effects. However, little is known about how monsoon-related cues may trigger spring phenology of the vast alpine vegetation. Based on the 7-year observations with fenced and transplanted experiments across lower to upper limits of Kobresia meadows in the central plateau (4400–5200 m), we found that leaf unfolding dates of dominant sedge and grass species synchronized with monsoon onset, regardless of air temperature. We also found similar patterns in a 22-year data set from the northeast plateau. In the monsoon-related cues for leaf unfolding, the arrival of monsoon rainfall is crucial, while seasonal air temperatures are already continuously above 0 °C. In contrast, the early-emerging cushion species generally leafed out earlier in warmer years regardless of precipitation. Our data provide evidence that leaf unfolding of dominant species in the alpine meadows senses the arrival of monsoon-season rainfall. These findings also provide a basis for interpreting the spatially variable greening responses to warming detected in the world’s highest pasture, and suggest a phenological strategy for avoiding damages of pre-monsoon drought and frost to alpine plants. PMID:26856260

  19. FORMAL UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS OF A LAGRANGIAN PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION MODEL. (R824792)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study applied Monte Carlo analysis with Latin
    hypercube sampling to evaluate the effects of uncertainty
    in air parcel trajectory paths, emissions, rate constants,
    deposition affinities, mixing heights, and atmospheric stability
    on predictions from a vertically...

  20. Adapting parcellation schemes to study fetal brain connectivity in serial imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi; Wilm, Jakob; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Fogtmann, Mads; Kroenke, Christopher; Studholme, Colin

    2013-01-01

    A crucial step in studying brain connectivity is the definition of the Regions Of Interest (ROI's) which are considered as nodes of a network graph. These ROI's identified in structural imaging reflect consistent functional regions in the anatomies being compared. However in serial studies of the developing fetal brain such functional and associated structural markers are not consistently present over time. In this study we adapt two non-atlas based parcellation schemes to study the development of connectivity networks of a fetal monkey brain using Diffusion Weighted Imaging techniques. Results demonstrate that the fetal brain network exhibits small-world characteristics and a pattern of increased cluster coefficients and decreased global efficiency. These findings may provide a route to creating a new biomarker for healthy fetal brain development.

  1. Thalamus parcellation using multi-modal feature classification and thalamic nuclei priors

    PubMed Central

    Glaister, Jeffrey; Carass, Aaron; Stough, Joshua V.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation of the thalamus and thalamic nuclei is useful to quantify volumetric changes from neurodegenerative diseases. Most thalamus segmentation algorithms only use T1-weighted magnetic resonance images and current thalamic parcellation methods require manual interaction. Smaller nuclei, such as the lateral and medial geniculates, are challenging to locate due to their small size. We propose an automated segmentation algorithm using a set of features derived from diffusion tensor image (DTI) and thalamic nuclei location priors. After extracting features, a hierarchical random forest classifier is trained to locate the thalamus. A second random forest classifies thalamus voxels as belonging to one of six thalamic nuclei classes. The proposed algorithm was tested using a leave-one-out cross validation scheme and compared with state-of-the-art algorithms. The proposed algorithm has a higher Dice score compared to other methods for the whole thalamus and several nuclei. PMID:27582600

  2. Design Considerations for a New Terminal Area Arrival Scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, Jane; Mulfinger, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Design of a terminal area arrival scheduler depends on the interrelationship between throughput, delay and controller intervention. The main contribution of this paper is an analysis of the above interdependence for several stochastic behaviors of expected system performance distributions in the aircraft s time of arrival at the meter fix and runway. Results of this analysis serve to guide the scheduler design choices for key control variables. Two types of variables are analyzed, separation buffers and terminal delay margins. The choice for these decision variables was tested using sensitivity analysis. Analysis suggests that it is best to set the separation buffer at the meter fix to its minimum and adjust the runway buffer to attain the desired system performance. Delay margin was found to have the least effect. These results help characterize the variables most influential in the scheduling operations of terminal area arrivals.

  3. Regional structural differences across functionally parcellated Brodmann areas of human primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Panchuelo, Rosa-María; Besle, Julien; Mougin, Olivier; Gowland, Penny; Bowtell, Richard; Schluppeck, Denis; Francis, Susan

    2014-06-01

    Ultra-high-field (UHF) MRI is ideally suited for structural and functional imaging of the brain. High-resolution structural MRI can be used to map the anatomical boundaries between functional domains of the brain by identifying changes related to the pattern of myelination within cortical gray matter, opening up the possibility to study the relationship between functional domains and underlying structure in vivo. In a recent study, we demonstrated the correspondence between functional (based on retinotopic mapping) and structural (based on changes in T2(⁎)-weighted images linked to myelination) parcellations of the primary visual cortex (V1) in vivo at 7T (Sanchez-Panchuelo et al., 2012b). Here, we take advantage of the improved BOLD CNR and high spatial resolution achievable at 7T to study regional structural variations across the functionally defined areas within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in individual subjects. Using a traveling wave fMRI paradigm to map the internal somatotopic representation of the index, middle, and ring fingers in S1, we were able to identify multiple map reversals at the tip and base, corresponding to the boundaries between Brodmann areas 3a, 3b, 1 and 2. Based on high resolution structural MRI data acquired in the same subjects, we inspected these functionally-parcellated Brodmann areas for differences in cortical thickness and MR contrast measures (magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and signal intensity in phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) images) that are sensitive to myelination. Consistent area-related differences in cortical thickness and MTR/PSIR measurements were found across subjects. However these measures did not have sufficient sensitivity to allow definition of areal boundaries.

  4. Human orbital and anterior medial prefrontal cortex: Intrinsic connectivity parcellation and functional organization.

    PubMed

    Samara, Zoe; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Goulas, Alexandros; Uylings, Harry B M; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Stiers, Peter

    2017-03-02

    The orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) has been implicated in decision-making, reward and emotion processing, and psychopathology, such as depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Human and monkey anatomical studies indicate the presence of various cortical subdivisions and suggest that these are organized in two extended networks, a medial and an orbital one. Attempts have been made to replicate these neuroanatomical findings in vivo using MRI techniques for imaging connectivity. These revealed several consistencies, but also many inconsistencies between reported results. Here, we use fMRI resting-state functional connectivity (FC) and data-driven modularity optimization to parcellate the OMPFC to investigate replicability of in vivo parcellation more systematically. By collecting two resting-state data sets per participant, we were able to quantify the reliability of the observed modules and their boundaries. Results show that there was significantly more than chance overlap in modules and their boundaries at the level of individual data sets. Moreover, some of these consistent boundaries significantly co-localized across participants. Hierarchical clustering showed that the whole-brain FC profiles of the OMPFC subregions separate them in two networks, a medial and orbital one, which overlap with the organization proposed by Barbas and Pandya (J Comp Neurol 286:353-375, 1989) and Ongür and Price (Cereb Cortex 10:206-219, 2000). We conclude that in vivo resting-state FC can delineate reliable and neuroanatomically plausible subdivisions that agree with established cytoarchitectonic trends and connectivity patterns, while other subdivisions do not show the same consistency across data sets and studies.

  5. Volumetric Parcellation Methodology of the Human Hypothalamus in Neuroimaging: Normative Data and Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Nikos; Swaab, Dick F.; van der Kouwe, Andre; Abbs, Brandon; Boriel, Denise; Handa, Robert; Tobet, Stuart; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence regarding the importance of the hypothalamus for understanding sex differences in relation to neurological, psychiatric, endocrine and sleep disorders. Although different in histology, physiology, connections and function, multiple hypothalamic nuclei subserve non-voluntary functions and are nodal points for the purpose of maintaining homeostasis of the organism. Thus, given the critical importance of hypothalamic nuclei and their key multiple roles in regulating basic functions, it is important to develop the ability to conduct in vivo human studies of anatomic structure, volume, connectivity, and function of hypothalamic regions represented at the level of its nuclei. The goals of the present study were to develop a novel method of semi-automated volumetric parcellation for the human hypothalamus that could be used to investigate clinical conditions using MRI and to demonstrate its applicability. The proposed new method subdivides the hypothalamus into five parcels based on visible anatomic landmarks associated with specific nuclear groupings and was confirmed using two ex vivo hypothalami that were imaged in a 7 Tesla (7T) scanner and processed histologically. Imaging results were compared with histology from the same brain. Further, the method was applied to 44 healthy adults (26 men; 18 women, comparable on age, handedness, ethnicity, SES) to derive normative volumes and assess sex differences in hypothalamic regions using 1.5 Tesla MRI. Men compared to women had a significantly larger total hypothalamus, relative to cerebrum size, similar for both hemispheres, a difference that was primarily driven by the tuberal region, with the sex effect size being largest in the superior tuberal region and, to a lesser extent, inferior tuberal region. Given the critical role of hypothalamic nuclei in multiple chronic diseases and the importance of sex differences, we argue that the use of the novel methodology presented here will allow for

  6. Anchorage Arrival Scheduling Under Off-Nominal Weather Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Chan, William N.; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2012-01-01

    Weather can cause flight diversions, passenger delays, additional fuel consumption and schedule disruptions at any high volume airport. The impacts are particularly acute at the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Anchorage, Alaska due to its importance as a major international portal. To minimize the impacts due to weather, a multi-stage scheduling process is employed that is iteratively executed, as updated aircraft demand and/or airport capacity data become available. The strategic scheduling algorithm assigns speed adjustments for flights that originate outside of Anchorage Center to achieve the proper demand and capacity balance. Similarly, an internal departure-scheduling algorithm assigns ground holds for pre-departure flights that originate from within Anchorage Center. Tactical flight controls in the form of airborne holding are employed to reactively account for system uncertainties. Real-world scenarios that were derived from the January 16, 2012 Anchorage visibility observations and the January 12, 2012 Anchorage arrival schedule were used to test the initial implementation of the scheduling algorithm in fast-time simulation experiments. Although over 90% of the flights in the scenarios arrived at Anchorage without requiring any delay, pre-departure scheduling was the dominant form of control for Anchorage arrivals. Additionally, tactical scheduling was used extensively in conjunction with the pre-departure scheduling to reactively compensate for uncertainties in the arrival demand. For long-haul flights, the strategic scheduling algorithm performed best when the scheduling horizon was greater than 1,000 nmi. With these long scheduling horizons, it was possible to absorb between ten and 12 minutes of delay through speed control alone. Unfortunately, the use of tactical scheduling, which resulted in airborne holding, was found to increase as the strategic scheduling horizon increased because of the additional uncertainty in the arrival times

  7. Getting ready for the arrival of Sentinel data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschbacher, Josef; Milagro Perez, Maria Pilar

    2013-04-01

    The European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have developed the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), being renamed to Copernicus, programme as Europe's answer to the vital need for joined-up data about our climate, environment and security. Through a unique combination of satellite, atmospheric and Earth-based monitoring systems, the initiative will provide new insight into the state of the land, sea and air, providing policymakers, scientists, businesses and the public with accurate and timely information. GMES capabilities include monitoring and forecasting of climatic change, flood risks, soil and coastal erosion, crop and fish resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, iceberg distribution and snow cover, among others. To accomplish this, GMES has been divided into three main components: Space, In-situ and Services. The Space Component, led by ESA, comprises five types of new dedicated satellites called Sentinels. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring. While the Sentinel satellites are currently being developed by ESA specifically to meet the needs of GMES, the Contributing Missions, operated by national agencies or commercial entities, are already providing a wealth of data for GMES services, and will continue to deliver complementary data after the Sentinels are in orbit. An integrated Ground Segment ensures access to Sentinels and Contributing Missions data. Access to Sentinel data is governed by the Sentinel data policy, which is part of a wider GMES data and information access policy. The Sentinel data policy envisages free and open access, subject to restrictions only if security or other European interests need to be preserved. As regards the Contributing Missions, the data policy of the mission owners will be respected for the purpose of providing data to GMES service users. The first in the fleet of dedicated

  8. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft is steered to it's hangar at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following arrival on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a

  9. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA and McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) personnel wait to attach a hoist to the X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, which arrived at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high

  10. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in it's hangar at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following its arrival on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of

  11. X-38 Arrival at NASA Dryden on June 4, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA's first X-38 Advanced Technology Demonstrator for the proposed Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) arrives at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in June 1997. The vehicle arrived aboard a USAF C-17 transport aircraft from NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Captive-carry flights attached under the wing of Dryden's B-52 are scheduled to begin in July, with unpiloted free-flights from the B-52 scheduled to begin in the fall. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and

  12. STS-86 Mission Specialist Wolf arrives at SLF before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf, the next U.S. astronaut slated to live and work on the Russian Space Station Mir, is all smiles after his arrival at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility on Monday. Wolf is making his second spaceflight on STS-86, scheduled to be the seventh docking of the Shuttle with the Mir. After the docking, Wolf will transfer to the Mir for an approximate four-month stay. He replaces U.S. astronaut C. Michael Foale, who arrived at Mir in May and will return to Earth with the remainder of the STS-86 crew.

  13. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

  14. Functional Analysis for an Integrated Capability of Arrival/Departure/Surface Management with Tactical Runway Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Okuniek, Nikolai; Lohr, Gary W.; Schaper, Meilin; Christoffels, Lothar; Latorella, Kara A.

    2014-01-01

    The runway is a critical resource of any air transport system. It is used for arrivals, departures, and for taxiing aircraft and is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity for both surface and airspace operations. It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment as well as the timing and sequencing of the traffic is paramount to the efficient traffic flows. Both the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and NASA have developed concepts and tools to improve atomic aspects of coordinated arrival/departure/surface management operations and runway configuration management. In December 2012, NASA entered into a Collaborative Agreement with DLR. Four collaborative work areas were identified, one of which is called "Runway Management." As part of collaborative research in the "Runway Management" area, which is conducted with the DLR Institute of Flight Guidance, located in Braunschweig, the goal is to develop an integrated system comprised of the three DLR tools - arrival, departure, and surface management (collectively referred to as A/D/S-MAN) - and NASA's tactical runway configuration management (TRCM) tool. To achieve this goal, it is critical to prepare a concept of operations (ConOps) detailing how the NASA runway management and DLR arrival, departure, and surface management tools will function together to the benefit of each. To assist with the preparation of the ConOps, the integrated NASA and DLR tools are assessed through a functional analysis method described in this report. The report first provides the highlevel operational environments for air traffic management (ATM) in Germany and in the U.S., and the descriptions of the DLR's A/D/S-MAN and NASA's TRCM tools at the level of details necessary to compliment the purpose of the study. Functional analyses of each tool and a completed functional analysis of an integrated system design are presented next in the report. Future efforts to fully

  15. Delta XTE Spacecraft Arrives at CCAS Skid Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Footage shows the U.S Air Force Aircraft "Air Mobility Command" approaching, and landing at the Cape Canaveral Air Station Skid Strip (CCAS). The truck carrying the Delta XTE Spacecraft is also shown as it leaves the Air Mobility Command.

  16. 8 CFR 258.3 - Action upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF LONGSHORE WORK BY ALIEN CREWMEN § 258.3 Action upon arrival. (a) The master or agent of the vessel... the vessel will perform longshore work at any port before departing the United States; and (2) If nonimmigrant crewmen will perform longshore work, which exception in section 258 of the Act permits them to...

  17. Estimating Radar Velocity using Direction of Arrival Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter; Horndt, Volker; Bickel, Douglas Lloyd; Naething, Richard M.

    2014-09-01

    Direction of Arrival (DOA) measurements, as with a monopulse antenna, can be compared against Doppler measurements in a Synthetic Aperture Radar ( SAR ) image to determine an aircraft's forward velocity as well as its crab angle, to assist the aircraft's navigation as well as improving high - performance SAR image formation and spatial calibration.

  18. Gemini 12 crew arrives aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    A happy Gemini 12 prime crew arrives aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter.

  19. 7 CFR 319.37-11 - Arrival notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arrival notification. 319.37-11 Section 319.37-11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Nursery Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs,...

  20. 7 CFR 319.37-11 - Arrival notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Arrival notification. 319.37-11 Section 319.37-11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Nursery Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs,...

  1. Self-Regulation in Newly Arrived International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirella, Linda Grey; Miller, Laurie C.

    2011-01-01

    Many newly arrived international adoptees (IA) have difficulties with eating, sleeping, and self-soothing/self-stimulating (SS) behaviors. However, to date the prevalence of these problems and associated risk factors have not been clearly identified. Therefore, we proposed to evaluate 387 IA for the presence of these self-regulation and behavioral…

  2. "Reading between the Pictures": Immigrant Students' Interpretations of "The Arrival"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Roldan, Carmen M.; Newcomer, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors share findings from a study in which immigrant students responded to the wordless text "The Arrival" in small-group, bilingual literature discussions. The interpretive processes of two of the children with different ethnic backgrounds, levels of English proficiency, and styles of response are highlighted as exemplary…

  3. 33 CFR 156.215 - Pre-arrival notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION OIL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIAL TRANSFER OPERATIONS Special Requirements for Lightering of Oil and Hazardous Material Cargoes § 156.215 Pre-arrival notices. (a) The master, owner or agent of each vessel to be lightered must give at least 24 hours advance notice to the Captain of the Port nearest...

  4. 19 CFR 122.118 - Exportation from port of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... copy. (2) Exportation copy. The exportation copy shall be filed by the exporting airline when clearance... aircraft's clearance documents. The exportation and clearance copies shall show the exporting airline's... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exportation from port of arrival. 122.118...

  5. ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. EXCAVATION RUBBLE IN FOREGROUND. CONTRACTOR CRAFT SHOPS, CRANES, AND OTHER MATERIALS ON SITE. CAMERA FACES EAST, WITH LITTLE BUTTE AND MIDDLE BUTTE IN DISTANCE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 335. Unknown Photographer, 7/1/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. STS-87 Crew arrives at KSC for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In preparation for Space Shuttle Mission STS-87, the crew arrives at the Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility to participate in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) for their mission. The TCDT is a dress rehearsal for launch. STS- 87 will be the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and the Spartan-201 deployable satellite. Launch is targeted for Nov. 19.

  7. Does Pet Arrival Trigger Prosocial Behaviors in Individuals with Autism?

    PubMed Central

    Grandgeorge, Marine; Tordjman, Sylvie; Lazartigues, Alain; Lemonnier, Eric; Deleau, Michel; Hausberger, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Alteration of social interactions especially prosocial behaviors – an important aspect of development – is one of the characteristics of autistic disorders. Numerous strategies or therapies are used to improve communication skills or at least to reduce social impairments. Animal-assisted therapies are used widely but their relevant benefits have never been scientifically evaluated. In the present study, we evaluated the association between the presence or the arrival of pets in families with an individual with autism and the changes in his or her prosocial behaviors. Of 260 individuals with autism - on the basis of presence or absence of pets - two groups of 12 individuals and two groups of 8 individuals were assigned to: study 1 (pet arrival after age of 5 versus no pet) and study 2 (pet versus no pet), respectively. Evaluation of social impairment was assessed at two time periods using the 36-items ADI-R algorithm and a parental questionnaire about their child-pet relationships. The results showed that 2 of the 36 items changed positively between the age of 4 to 5 (t0) and time of assessment (t1) in the pet arrival group (study 1): “offering to share” and “offering comfort”. Interestingly, these two items reflect prosocial behaviors. There seemed to be no significant changes in any item for the three other groups. The interactions between individuals with autism and their pets were more – qualitatively and quantitatively - reported in the situation of pet arrival than pet presence since birth. These findings open further lines of research on the impact of pet’s presence or arrival in families with an individual with autism. Given the potential ability of individuals with autism to develop prosocial behaviors, related studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms involved in the development of such child-pet relationship. PMID:22870246

  8. Separation Assurance and Scheduling Coordination in the Arrival Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aweiss, Arwa S.; Cone, Andrew C.; Holladay, Joshua J.; Munoz, Epifanio; Lewis, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Separation assurance (SA) automation has been proposed as either a ground-based or airborne paradigm. The arrival environment is complex because aircraft are being sequenced and spaced to the arrival fix. This paper examines the effect of the allocation of the SA and scheduling functions on the performance of the system. Two coordination configurations between an SA and an arrival management system are tested using both ground and airborne implementations. All configurations have a conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) system and either an integrated or separated scheduler. Performance metrics are presented for the ground and airborne systems based on arrival traffic headed to Dallas/ Fort Worth International airport. The total delay, time-spacing conformance, and schedule conformance are used to measure efficiency. The goal of the analysis is to use the metrics to identify performance differences between the configurations that are based on different function allocations. A surveillance range limitation of 100 nmi and a time delay for sharing updated trajectory intent of 30 seconds were implemented for the airborne system. Overall, these results indicate that the surveillance range and the sharing of trajectories and aircraft schedules are important factors in determining the efficiency of an airborne arrival management system. These parameters are not relevant to the ground-based system as modeled for this study because it has instantaneous access to all aircraft trajectories and intent. Creating a schedule external to the CD&R and the scheduling conformance system was seen to reduce total delays for the airborne system, and had a minor effect on the ground-based system. The effect of an external scheduler on other metrics was mixed.

  9. Does pet arrival trigger prosocial behaviors in individuals with autism?

    PubMed

    Grandgeorge, Marine; Tordjman, Sylvie; Lazartigues, Alain; Lemonnier, Eric; Deleau, Michel; Hausberger, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Alteration of social interactions especially prosocial behaviors--an important aspect of development--is one of the characteristics of autistic disorders. Numerous strategies or therapies are used to improve communication skills or at least to reduce social impairments. Animal-assisted therapies are used widely but their relevant benefits have never been scientifically evaluated. In the present study, we evaluated the association between the presence or the arrival of pets in families with an individual with autism and the changes in his or her prosocial behaviors. Of 260 individuals with autism--on the basis of presence or absence of pets--two groups of 12 individuals and two groups of 8 individuals were assigned to: study 1 (pet arrival after age of 5 versus no pet) and study 2 (pet versus no pet), respectively. Evaluation of social impairment was assessed at two time periods using the 36-items ADI-R algorithm and a parental questionnaire about their child-pet relationships. The results showed that 2 of the 36 items changed positively between the age of 4 to 5 (t(0)) and time of assessment (t(1)) in the pet arrival group (study 1): "offering to share" and "offering comfort". Interestingly, these two items reflect prosocial behaviors. There seemed to be no significant changes in any item for the three other groups. The interactions between individuals with autism and their pets were more--qualitatively and quantitatively--reported in the situation of pet arrival than pet presence since birth. These findings open further lines of research on the impact of pet's presence or arrival in families with an individual with autism. Given the potential ability of individuals with autism to develop prosocial behaviors, related studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms involved in the development of such child-pet relationship.

  10. 8 CFR 251.5 - Paper arrival and departure manifests for crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Paper arrival and departure manifests for... REGULATIONS ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE MANIFESTS AND LISTS: SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS § 251.5 Paper arrival and... from the United States must submit arrival and departure manifests in a paper format in accordance...

  11. 8 CFR 251.5 - Paper arrival and departure manifests for crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Paper arrival and departure manifests for... REGULATIONS ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE MANIFESTS AND LISTS: SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS § 251.5 Paper arrival and... from the United States must submit arrival and departure manifests in a paper format in accordance...

  12. Monitoring presence and streaming patterns of Icelandic volcanic ash during its arrival to Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Stanič, S.; Bergant, K.; Bolte, T.; Coren, F.; He, T.-Y.; Hrabar, A.; Jerman, J.; Mladenovič, A.; Turšič, J.; Veberič, D.; Iršič Žibert, M.

    2011-08-01

    The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano starting on 14 April 2010 resulted in the spreading of volcanic ash over most parts of Europe. In Slovenia, the presence of volcanic ash was monitored using ground-based in-situ measurements, lidar-based remote sensing and airborne in-situ measurements. Volcanic origin of the detected aerosols was confirmed by subsequent spectral and chemical analysis of the collected samples. The initial arrival of volcanic ash to Slovenia was first detected through the analysis of precipitation, which occurred on 17 April 2010 at 01:00 UTC and confirmed by satellite-based remote sensing. At this time, the presence of low clouds and occasional precipitation prevented ash monitoring using lidar-based remote sensing. The second arrival of volcanic ash on 20 April 2010 was detected by both lidar-based remote sensing and airborne in-situ measurements, revealing two or more elevated atmospheric aerosol layers. The ash was not seen in satellite images due to lower concentrations. The identification of aerosol samples from ground-based and airborne in-situ measurements based on energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that a fraction of particles were volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. To explain the history of the air masses bringing volcanic ash to Slovenia, we analyzed airflow trajectories using ECMWF and HYSPLIT models.

  13. Evaluation of an Airborne Spacing Concept to Support Continuous Descent Arrival Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Baxley, Brian T.; Capron, William R.; Abbott, Terence S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a human-in-the-loop experiment of an airborne spacing concept designed to support Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) operations. The use of CDAs with traditional air traffic control (ATC) techniques may actually reduce an airport's arrival throughput since ATC must provide more airspace around aircraft on CDAs due to the variances in the aircraft trajectories. The intent of airborne self-spacing, where ATC delegates the speed control to the aircraft, is to maintain or even enhance an airport s landing rate during CDA operations by precisely achieving the desired time interval between aircraft at the runway threshold. This paper describes the operational concept along with the supporting airborne spacing tool and the results of a piloted evaluation of this concept, with the focus of the evaluation on pilot acceptability of the concept during off-nominal events. The results of this evaluation show a pilot acceptance of this airborne spacing concept with little negative performance impact over conventional CDAs.

  14. The Mars Climate Orbiter arrives at KSC to begin final preparations for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft is moved onto a flatbed for transport to the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2). It arrived at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard an Air Force C-17 cargo plane early this morning following its flight from the Lockheed Martin Astronautics plant in Denver, Colo. When it arrives at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. After that, the Mars Climate Orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year (1.8 Earth years). It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface. The scheduled launch date for the Mars Climate Orbiter is Dec. 10, 1998, on a Delta II 7425 rocket.

  15. The Mars Climate Orbiter arrives at KSC to begin final preparations for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft is moved into the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) in KSC's industrial area. It arrived at the Shuttle Landing Facility aboard an Air Force C-17 cargo plane early this morning following its flight from the Lockheed Martin Astronautics plant in Denver, Colo. When it arrives at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. After that, the Mars Climate Orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year (1.8 Earth years). It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface. The scheduled launch date for the Mars Climate Orbiter is Dec. 10, 1998, on a Delta II 7425 rocket.

  16. 14 CFR 93.125 - Arrival or departure reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports... may operate an aircraft to or from an airport designated as a high density traffic airport unless...

  17. 14 CFR 93.125 - Arrival or departure reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports... may operate an aircraft to or from an airport designated as a high density traffic airport unless...

  18. 14 CFR 93.125 - Arrival or departure reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports... may operate an aircraft to or from an airport designated as a high density traffic airport unless...

  19. 14 CFR 93.125 - Arrival or departure reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports... may operate an aircraft to or from an airport designated as a high density traffic airport unless...

  20. Overshooting thunderstorm cloud top dynamics as approximated by a linear Lagrangian parcel model with analytic exact solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from a linear Lagrangian entraining parcel model of an overshooting thunderstorm cloud top. The model, which is similar to that of Adler and Mack (1986), gives analytic exact solutions for vertical velocity and temperature by representing mixing with Rayleigh damping instead of nonlinearly. Model results are presented for various combinations of stratospheric lapse rate, drag intensity, and mixing strength. The results are compared to those of Adler and Mack.

  1. Queuing model of a traffic bottleneck with bimodal arrival rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woelki, Marko

    2016-06-01

    This paper revisits the problem of tuning the density in a traffic bottleneck by reduction of the arrival rate when the queue length exceeds a certain threshold, studied recently for variants of totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) and Burgers equation. In the present approach, a simple finite queuing system is considered and its contrasting “phase diagram” is derived. One can observe one jammed region, one low-density region and one region where the queue length is equilibrated around the threshold. Despite the simplicity of the model the physics is in accordance with the previous approach: The density is tuned at the threshold if the exit rate lies in between the two arrival rates.

  2. Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

  3. The arrival time distribution of EAS at Taro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, T.; Kuramochi, H.; Ono, S.; Sakuyama, H.; Suzuki, N.

    The arrival time distribution of EAS has been observed since 1995 at Taro cosmicray laboratory (200m above sea level). The EAS arrays consist of 1m2 and 0.25m2 scintillation detectors, 0.25m2 fast timing counters and ultra fast Cherenkov detectors (UFC). 169 0.25m2 scintillation detectors are arranged in alattice configuration with a unit distance of 1.5m. UFC is placed at 20m from the center of lattice array. The arrival time distribution has been analyzed with distance from EAS core (r=10-60m). One of the results shows that the radius of corvature increases as shower size (Ne), near to the EAS core.

  4. Arrival Time Distribution by the New Observation System at Taro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuyama, H.; Obara, Hitoshi; Kuramochi, Hiroshi; Ono, Shunichi; Origasa, Satoru; Mochida, Akinori; Sakuyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Noboru

    2003-07-01

    The arrival time distribution of EAS has been observed by using Ultra Fast Cherenkov detector (UFC) and oscilloscope at Taro observatory since 1995 (sea level 200m). The EAS array is arranged 169 sets of 0.25m2 scintillation detectors in the shape of a lattice at intervals of 1.5m and about 40 scintillation detectors which consists of 1m2 and 0.25m2 is arranged in the peripheral part. Then, it consists of 8 fast timing detectors. The UFC detector is installed in the palce of about 20m from the trigger center. The observation system of a UFC detector was changed from the autumn of 2000. The outline of a new observation system and EAS arrival time distribution are reported.

  5. STS-108 Mission Specialist Linda A. Godwin arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    STS-108 Mission Specialist Linda A. Godwin arrives at KSC KSC-01PD-1710 KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-108 Mission Specialist Linda A. Godwin pauses after her arrival at KSC. She and the rest of the crew will be preparing for launch Nov. 29 on Space Shuttle Endeavour. Liftoff is scheduled for 7:41 p.m. EST. Top priorities for the STS-108 (UF-1) mission of Endeavour are rotation of the International Space Station Expedition Three and Expedition Four crews, bringing water, equipment and supplies to the station in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, and completion of spacewalk and robotics tasks. Mission Specialists Daniel M. Tani and Godwin will take part in the spacewalk to install thermal blankets over two pieces of equipment at the bases of the Space Station's solar wings. Other crew members are Commander Dominic L. Gorie and Pilot Mark E. Kelly.

  6. Applying the ARRIVE Guidelines to an In Vivo Database

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Natasha A.; Meehan, Terry F.; Morgan, Hugh; Mason, Jeremy C.; Blake, Andrew; Kurbatova, Natalja; Smedley, Damian; Jacobsen, Julius; Mott, Richard F.; Iyer, Vivek; Matthews, Peter; Melvin, David G.; Wells, Sara; Flenniken, Ann M.; Masuya, Hiroshi; Wakana, Shigeharu; White, Jacqueline K.; Lloyd, K. C. Kent; Reynolds, Corey L.; Paylor, Richard; West, David B.; Svenson, Karen L.; Chesler, Elissa J.; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P.; Sorg, Tania; Herault, Yann; Parkinson, Helen; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Brown, Steve D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines were developed to address the lack of reproducibility in biomedical animal studies and improve the communication of research findings. While intended to guide the preparation of peer-reviewed manuscripts, the principles of transparent reporting are also fundamental for in vivo databases. Here, we describe the benefits and challenges of applying the guidelines for the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), whose goal is to produce and phenotype 20,000 knockout mouse strains in a reproducible manner across ten research centres. In addition to ensuring the transparency and reproducibility of the IMPC, the solutions to the challenges of applying the ARRIVE guidelines in the context of IMPC will provide a resource to help guide similar initiatives in the future. PMID:25992600

  7. Applying the ARRIVE Guidelines to an In Vivo Database.

    PubMed

    Karp, Natasha A; Meehan, Terry F; Morgan, Hugh; Mason, Jeremy C; Blake, Andrew; Kurbatova, Natalja; Smedley, Damian; Jacobsen, Julius; Mott, Richard F; Iyer, Vivek; Matthews, Peter; Melvin, David G; Wells, Sara; Flenniken, Ann M; Masuya, Hiroshi; Wakana, Shigeharu; White, Jacqueline K; Lloyd, K C Kent; Reynolds, Corey L; Paylor, Richard; West, David B; Svenson, Karen L; Chesler, Elissa J; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P; Sorg, Tania; Herault, Yann; Parkinson, Helen; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Brown, Steve D M

    2015-05-01

    The Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines were developed to address the lack of reproducibility in biomedical animal studies and improve the communication of research findings. While intended to guide the preparation of peer-reviewed manuscripts, the principles of transparent reporting are also fundamental for in vivo databases. Here, we describe the benefits and challenges of applying the guidelines for the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), whose goal is to produce and phenotype 20,000 knockout mouse strains in a reproducible manner across ten research centres. In addition to ensuring the transparency and reproducibility of the IMPC, the solutions to the challenges of applying the ARRIVE guidelines in the context of IMPC will provide a resource to help guide similar initiatives in the future.

  8. STS-108 Mission Specialist Daniel M. Tani arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    STS-108 Mission Specialist Daniel M. Tani arrives at KSC KSC-01PD-1707 KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-108 Mission Specialist Daniel M. Tani arrives at KSC in a T-38 jet trainer. He and the rest of the crew will be preparing for launch Nov. 29 on Space Shuttle Endeavour. Liftoff is scheduled for 7:41 p.m. EST. Top priorities for the STS-108 (UF-1) mission of Endeavour are rotation of the International Space Station Expedition Three and Expedition Four crews, bringing water, equipment and supplies to the station in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, and completion of spacewalk and robotics tasks. Mission Specialists Linda A. Godwin and Tani will take part in the spacewalk to install thermal blankets over two pieces of equipment at the bases of the Space Station's solar wings. Other crew members are Commander Dominic L. Gorie and Pilot Mark E. Kelly.

  9. Expedition 4 crew member Daniel W. Bursch arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 4 crew member Daniel W. Bursch arrives at KSC KSC-01PD-1705 KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Expedition 4 crew member Daniel W. Bursch arrives at KSC in a T-38 jet trainer. He and other crew members Commander Yuri Onufrienko and astronaut Carl E. Walz will be traveling on Space Shuttle Endeavour - mission STS-108 - to replace the Expedition 3 crew. Top priorities for the STS-108 (UF-1) mission of Endeavour are rotation of the International Space Station Expedition Three and Expedition Four crews, bringing water, equipment and supplies to the station in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, and completion of spacewalk and robotics tasks. The mission crew comprises Commander Dominic L. Gorie, Pilot Mark E. Kelly and Mission Specialists Linda A. Godwin and Daniel M. Tani. Liftoff is scheduled for 7:41 p.m. EST..

  10. Variance Design and Air Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrar, Terry A.; Brownstein, Alan B.

    1975-01-01

    Air pollution control authorities were forced to relax air quality standards during the winter of 1972 by granting variances. This paper examines the institutional characteristics of these variance policies from an economic incentive standpoint, sets up desirable structural criteria for institutional design and arrives at policy guidelines for…

  11. Search for tachyons associated with extensive air showers in the ground level cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masjed, H. F.; Ashton, F.

    1985-01-01

    Events detected in a shielded plastic scintillation counter occurring in the 26 microsec preceding the arrival of an extensive air shower at ground level with local electron density or = 20 m to the -2 power and the 240 microsec after its arrival have been studied. No significant excess of events (tachyons) arriving in the early time domain have been observed in a sample of 11,585 air shower triggers.

  12. Crewmen of the Gemini 7 spacecraft arrive aboard aircraft carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., (left), pilot, and Frank Borman, command pilot, are shown just after they arrived aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp. Greeting the astronauts are Donald Stullken (at Lovell's right), Recovery Operations Branch, Landing and Recovery Division; Dr. Howard Minners (standing beside Borman), Flight Medicine Branch, Cneter Medical Office, Manned Spacecraft Center, and Bennett James (standing behind Borman), a NASA Public Affairs Officer.

  13. Analysis of electric vehicle's trip cost without late arrival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Jun-Qiang; Zhao, Lin

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we use a car-following model to study each electric vehicle's trip cost and the corresponding total trip cost without late arrival. The numerical result show that the electricity cost has significant effects on each electric vehicle's trip cost and the corresponding total trip costs and that the effects are dependent on its time headway at the origin, but the electricity cost has no prominent effects on the minimum value of the system's total trip cost.

  14. Does the arrival index predict physiological stress reactivity in children.

    PubMed

    de Veld, Danielle M J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge about children's stress reactivity and its correlates is mostly based on one stress task, making it hard to assess the generalizability of the results. The development of an additional stress paradigm for children, that also limits stress exposure and test time, could greatly advance this field of research. Research in adults may provide a starting point for the development of such an additional stress paradigm, as changes in salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) over a 1-h pre-stress period in the laboratory correlated strongly with subsequent reactivity to stress task (Balodis et al., 2010, Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:1363-73). The present study examined whether such strong correlations could be replicated in 9- to 11-year-old children. Cortisol and sAA samples were collected from 158 children (83 girls) during a 2.5-h visit to the laboratory. This visit included a 1-h pre-stress period in which children performed some non-stressful tasks and relaxed before taking part in a psychosocial stress task (TSST-C). A higher cortisol arrival index was significantly and weakly correlated with a higher AUCg but unrelated to cortisol reactivity to the stressor. A higher sAA arrival index was significantly and moderately related to lower stress reactivity and to a lower AUCi. Children's personality and emotion regulation variables were unrelated to the cortisol and sAA arrival indices. The results of this study do not provide a basis for the development of an additional stress paradigm for children. Further replications in children and adults are needed to clarify the potential meaning of an arrival index.

  15. Iterative direction-of-arrival estimation with wideband chirp signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Genyuan; Xia, Xiang-Gen; Chen, Victor C.

    1999-11-01

    Amin et. al. recently developed a time-frequency MUSIC algorithm with narrow band models for the estimation of direction of arrival (DOA) when the source signals are chirps. In this research, we consider wideband models. The joint time-frequency analysis is first used to estimate the chirp rates of the source signals and then the DOA is estimated by the MUSIC algorithm with an iterative approach.

  16. STS-79 Commander William Readdy arrives at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 Commander William F. Readdy arrives at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility with five fellow astronauts, ready to participate in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT). The TCDT is a dress rehearsal for launch for the flight crew and launch team. Over the next several days, the astronauts will take part in training exercises at the launch pad that will culminate in a simulated launch countdown. The Space Shuttle Atlantis is being prepared for liftoff on STS-79 around September 12.

  17. The CTS 11.7 GHz angle of arrival experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, B. W.; Hodge, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to determine the statistical behavior of attenuation and angle of arrival on an Earth-space propagation path using the CTS 11.7 GHz beacon. Measurements performed from 1976 to 1978 form the data base for analysis. The statistics of the signal attenuation and phase variations due to atmospheric disturbances are presented. Rainfall rate distributions are also included to provide a link between the above effects on wave propagation and meteorological conditions.

  18. STS-82 Pilot Scott Horowitz arrives for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-82 Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz arrives at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility in a T-38 jet from Houston, TX. Horowitz and the other six crew members are at KSC to participate in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. The crew aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-82 will conduct the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. The 10-day flight is targeted for a Feb. 11 liftoff.

  19. STS-75 Pilot Scott Horowitz arrives at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 Pilot Scott J. Horowitz arrives at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. Altogether seven crew members are assigned to the second Shuttle flight of 1996, which will be highlighted by the re-flight of the Italian Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1R). Liftoff is slated to occur during a two-and-a-half window opening at 3:18 p.m. EST, Feb. 22.

  20. Node Detection Using High-Dimensional Fuzzy Parcellation Applied to the Insular Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vercelli, Ugo; Diano, Matteo; Costa, Tommaso; Nani, Andrea; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Vercelli, Alessandro; Cauda, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Several functional connectivity approaches require the definition of a set of regions of interest (ROIs) that act as network nodes. Different methods have been developed to define these nodes and to derive their functional and effective connections, most of which are rather complex. Here we aim to propose a relatively simple “one-step” border detection and ROI estimation procedure employing the fuzzy c-mean clustering algorithm. To test this procedure and to explore insular connectivity beyond the two/three-region model currently proposed in the literature, we parcellated the insular cortex of 20 healthy right-handed volunteers scanned in a resting state. By employing a high-dimensional functional connectivity-based clustering process, we confirmed the two patterns of connectivity previously described. This method revealed a complex pattern of functional connectivity where the two previously detected insular clusters are subdivided into several other networks, some of which are not commonly associated with the insular cortex, such as the default mode network and parts of the dorsal attentional network. Furthermore, the detection of nodes was reliable, as demonstrated by the confirmative analysis performed on a replication group of subjects. PMID:26881093

  1. A comparison of working postures of parcel sorters using three different working methods.

    PubMed

    Derksen, J C; Van Riel, M P; Van Wingerden, J P; Snijders, C J

    1994-02-01

    The postures of the trunk of eight parcel sorters were measured continuously under three different working conditions, during whole shifts. The working methods used were two different sorting tables and a hydraulic lifting platform on which the carts were to be placed. The question posed by the PTT-Post occupational health service was whether the latter method proved to be the better one with respect to the load on the musculoskeletal system. This study will help them to make a well-considered decision on which working method to choose for the new distribution centre in Rotterdam. The method used for measuring the working postures and movements of the trunk is the Portable Posture Registration Set (PPRS). This method was developed at the department of Biomedical Physics and Technology of the Erasmus University Rotterdam. While using the lifting platform, the subjects stood 8-11% more erect compared to the work at the sorting tables, thereby reducing the load on the lumbar spine. For this reason the lifting platform is preferred, although sagittal flexion of the back was somewhat more. It is stressed that the way in which sorters use the lifting platform is very important.

  2. Data model for the collaboration between land administration systems and agricultural land parcel identification systems.

    PubMed

    Inan, Halil Ibrahim; Sagris, Valentina; Devos, Wim; Milenov, Pavel; van Oosterom, Peter; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2010-12-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) has dramatically changed after 1992, and from then on the CAP focused on the management of direct income subsidies instead of production-based subsidies. For this focus, Member States (MS) are expected to establish Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS), including a Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) as the spatial part of IACS. Different MS have chosen different solutions for their LPIS. Currently, some MS based their IACS/LPIS on data from their Land Administration Systems (LAS), and many others use purpose built special systems for their IACS/LPIS. The issue with these different IACS/LPIS is that they do not have standardized structures; rather, each represents a unique design in each MS, both in the case of LAS based or special systems. In this study, we aim at designing a core data model for those IACS/LPIS based on LAS. For this purpose, we make use of the ongoing standardization initiatives for LAS (Land Administration Domain Model: LADM) and IACS/LPIS (LPIS Core Model: LCM). The data model we propose in this study implies the collaboration between LADM and LCM and includes some extensions. Some basic issues with the collaboration model are discussed within this study: registration of farmers, land use rights and farming limitations, geometry/topology, temporal data management etc. For further explanation of the model structure, sample instance level diagrams illustrating some typical situations are also included.

  3. Parcel-scale urban coastal flood prediction: Identifying critical data and forcing requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallien, T.; Sanders, B. F.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal flooding represents a significant socio-economic and humanitarian threat to urbanized lowlands throughout the world. In California, sea levels are projected to rise 1-1.4 meters in the next century. Numerous coastal communities are currently at risk of flooding during high tides or large wave events and a significant body of evidence suggests climate change will exacerbate flooding in these low lying, and often highly populated, areas. Flood prediction in urbanized embayments pose a number of challenges including water level characterization, appropriate representation of both weir-like (i.e. wall) overflow and wave runup/overtopping volumes and the need for highly accurate local data and site knowledge. In addition, a paucity of high quality validation data fundamentally obstructs predictive flood modeling efforts. Here, a Southern California coastal community which benefits from two unique flood event validation data sets is modeled in context of current and future sea level scenarios. The uncalibrated hydrodynamic model resolves critical urban infrastructure and includes essential dynamic processes such as tidal amplification, weir-like overflow and spatially distributed wave overtopping volumes. Results identify data and forcing requirements that are essential to accurate parcel-scale (individual home or street) flood prediction in defended urban terrain.

  4. Let's Not Waste Time: Using Temporal Information in Clustered Activity Estimation with Spatial Adjacency Restrictions (CAESAR) for Parcellating FMRI Data.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ronald J; Jylänki, Pasi; van Gerven, Marcel A J

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed a Bayesian approach for functional parcellation of whole-brain FMRI measurements which we call Clustered Activity Estimation with Spatial Adjacency Restrictions (CAESAR). We use distance-dependent Chinese restaurant processes (dd-CRPs) to define a flexible prior which partitions the voxel measurements into clusters whose number and shapes are unknown a priori. With dd-CRPs we can conveniently implement spatial constraints to ensure that our parcellations remain spatially contiguous and thereby physiologically meaningful. In the present work, we extend CAESAR by using Gaussian process (GP) priors to model the temporally smooth haemodynamic signals that give rise to the measured FMRI data. A challenge for GP inference in our setting is the cubic scaling with respect to the number of time points, which can become computationally prohibitive with FMRI measurements, potentially consisting of long time series. As a solution we describe an efficient implementation that is practically as fast as the corresponding time-independent non-GP model with typically-sized FMRI data sets. We also employ a population Monte-Carlo algorithm that can significantly speed up convergence compared to traditional single-chain methods. First we illustrate the benefits of CAESAR and the GP priors with simulated experiments. Next, we demonstrate our approach by parcellating resting state FMRI data measured from twenty participants as taken from the Human Connectome Project data repository. Results show that CAESAR affords highly robust and scalable whole-brain clustering of FMRI timecourses.

  5. Organization and Detailed Parcellation of Human Hippocampal Head and Body Regions Based on a Combined Analysis of Cyto- and Chemoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Ding, Song-Lin; Van Hoesen, Gary W

    2015-10-15

    The hippocampal formation (HF) is one of the hottest regions in neuroscience because it is critical to learning, memory, and cognition, while being vulnerable to many neurological and mental disorders. With increasing high-resolution imaging techniques, many scientists have started to use distinct landmarks along the anterior-posterior axis of HF to allow segmentation into individual subfields in order to identify specific functions in both normal and diseased conditions. These studies urgently call for more reliable and accurate segmentation of the HF subfields DG, CA3, CA2, CA1, prosubiculum, subiculum, presubiculum, and parasubiculum. Unfortunately, very limited data are available on detailed parcellation of the HF subfields, especially in the complex, curved hippocampal head region. In this study we revealed detailed organization and parcellation of all subfields of the hippocampal head and body regions on the base of a combined analysis of multiple cyto- and chemoarchitectural stains and dense sequential section sampling. We also correlated these subfields to macro-anatomical landmarks, which are visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Furthermore, we created three versions of the detailed anatomic atlas for the hippocampal head region to account for brains with four, three, or two hippocampal digitations. These results will provide a fundamental basis for understanding the organization, parcellation, and anterior-posterior difference of human HF, facilitating accurate segmentation and measurement of HF subfields in the human brain on MRI scans.

  6. Empirical estimation of the arrival time of ICME Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltout, Mosalam

    Empirical estimation of the arrival time of ICME Shocks Mosalam Shaltout1 ,M.Youssef 1and R.Mawad2 1 National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG) ,Helwan -Cairo-Egypt Email: mosalamshaltout@hotmail.com 2 Faculty of Science-Monifiia University-Physics Department-Shiben Al-Koum -Monifiia-Egypt We are got the Data of the SSC events from Preliminary Reports of the ISGI (Institut de Physique du Globe, France) .Also we are selected the same CME interval 1996-2005 from SOHO/LASCO/C2.We have estimated the arrival time of ICME shocks during solar cycle 23rd (1996-2005), we take the Sudden storm commencement SSC as a indicator of the arrival of CMEs at the Earth's Magnetosphere (ICME).Under our model ,we selected 203 ICME shock-SSC associated events, we got an imperial relation between CME velocity and their travel time, from which we obtained high correlation between them, R=0.75.

  7. Quantum arrival and dwell times via idealized clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Yearsley, J. M.; Downs, D. A.; Halliwell, J. J.; Hashagen, A. K.

    2011-08-15

    A number of approaches to the problem of defining arrival- and dwell-time probabilities in quantum theory makes use of idealized models of clocks. An interesting question is the extent to which the probabilities obtained in this way are related to standard semiclassical results. In this paper, we explore this question using a reasonably general clock model, solved using path-integral methods. We find that, in the weak-coupling regime, where the energy of the clock is much less than the energy of the particle it is measuring, the probability for the clock pointer can be expressed in terms of the probability current in the case of arrival times, and the dwell-time operator in the case of dwell times, the expected semiclassical results. In the regime of strong system-clock coupling, we find that the arrival-time probability is proportional to the kinetic-energy density, consistent with an earlier model involving a complex potential. We argue that, properly normalized, this may be the generically expected result in this regime. We show that these conclusions are largely independent of the form of the clock Hamiltonian.

  8. On the Accurate Prediction of CME Arrival At the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Hess, Phillip

    2016-07-01

    We will discuss relevant issues regarding the accurate prediction of CME arrival at the Earth, from both observational and theoretical points of view. In particular, we clarify the importance of separating the study of CME ejecta from the ejecta-driven shock in interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). For a number of CME-ICME events well observed by SOHO/LASCO, STEREO-A and STEREO-B, we carry out the 3-D measurements by superimposing geometries onto both the ejecta and sheath separately. These measurements are then used to constrain a Drag-Based Model, which is improved through a modification of including height dependence of the drag coefficient into the model. Combining all these factors allows us to create predictions for both fronts at 1 AU and compare with actual in-situ observations. We show an ability to predict the sheath arrival with an average error of under 4 hours, with an RMS error of about 1.5 hours. For the CME ejecta, the error is less than two hours with an RMS error within an hour. Through using the best observations of CMEs, we show the power of our method in accurately predicting CME arrival times. The limitation and implications of our accurate prediction method will be discussed.

  9. THE MINIMUM WIDTH OF THE ARRIVAL DIRECTION DISTRIBUTION OF ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS DETECTED WITH THE YAKUTSK ARRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. A.

    2015-05-10

    This paper presents the results of searches for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) detected with the Yakutsk Array during the 1974–2008 observational period as well as searches in available data from other giant extensive air shower arrays working at present. A method of analysis based on a comparison of the minimum width of distributions in equatorial coordinates is used. As a result, a hypothesis of isotropy in arrival directions is rejected at the 99.5% significance level. The observed decrease in the minimum width of the distribution can be explained by the presence of CR sources in energy intervals and sky regions according to recent indications inferred from data of the Yakutsk Array and Telescope Array experiments.

  10. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey, The Landings at Nellis Housing Area, Parcel H, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Cotton St. El Paso TX. 7990 I S:lmJll(• ID #:Chlordane Soil Sample Sample Matrix: Solid Amtlytc Organochlorine Pesticides ChlorJan..: (tcdl) Result...9920 Fax (210) 229-9921 www.satrstinglab.com l’a::•· 2 of J Organochlorine Pesticides- Quality Control R~.!portlng ’ \

  11. The third stage of Lunar Prospector's Athena arrives at LC 46 at CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The third stage of the Lockheed Martin Athena launch vehicle arrives at Launch Complex 46 at Cape Canaveral Air Station before it is mated to the second stage. The protective covering for safe transportation is removed before the third stage is lifted on the launch pad. Athena is scheduled to carry the Lunar Prospector spacecraft for an 18-month mission that will orbit the Earth's moon to collect data from the lunar surface. Scientific experiments to be conducted by the Prospector include locating water ice that may exist near the lunar poles, gathering data to understand the evolution of the lunar highland crust and the lunar magnetic field, finding radon outgassing events, and describing the lunar gravity field by means of Doppler tracking. The launch is now scheduled for early-January 1998.

  12. The U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team arrives to view the STS-93 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Members of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team are greeted by NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin as they disembark from a plane at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station. They arrived with First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93 scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five- day mission is the release of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe.

  13. Development of the Surface Management System Integrated with CTAS Arrival Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon C.; Jara, Dave

    2005-01-01

    The Surface Management System (SMS) developed by NASA Ames Research Center in coordination with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is a decision support tool to help tower traffic coordinators and Ground/Local controllers in managing and controlling airport surface traffic in order to increase capacity, efficiency, and flexibility. SMS provides common situation awareness to personnel at various air traffic control facilities such as airport traffic control towers (ATCT s), airline ramp towers, Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON), and Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). SMS also provides a traffic management tool to assist ATCT traffic management coordinators (TMCs) in making decisions such as airport configuration and runway load balancing. The Build 1 of the SMS tool was installed and successfully tested at Memphis International Airport (MEM) and received high acceptance scores from ATCT controllers and coordinators, as well as airline ramp controllers. NASA Ames Research Center continues to develop SMS under NASA s Strategic Airspace Usage (SAU) project in order to improve its prediction accuracy and robustness under various modeling uncertainties. This paper reports the recent development effort performed by the NASA Ames Research Center: 1) integration of Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) capability with SMS and 2) an alternative approach to obtain airline gate information through a publicly available website. The preliminary analysis results performed on the air/surface traffic data at the DFW airport have shown significant improvement in predicting airport arrival demand and IN time at the gate. This paper concludes with recommendations for future research and development.

  14. On the motion of air through the stratospheric polar vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Zurek, R. W.; O'Neill, A.; Swinbank, R.

    1994-01-01

    Trajectory calculations using horizontal winds from the U.K. Meteorological Office data assimilation system and vertical velocities from a radiation calculation are used to simulate the three-dimensional motion of air through the stratospheric polar vortex for Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH) winters since the launch of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Throughout the winter, air from the upper stratosphere moves poleward and descends into the middle stratosphere. In the SH lower to middle stratosphere, strongest descent occurs near the edge of the polar vortex, with that edge defined by mixing characteristics. The NH shows a similar pattern in late winter, but in early winter strongest descent is near the center of the vortex, except when wave activity is particularly strong. Strong barriers to latitudinal mixing exist above about 420 K throughout the winter. Below this, the polar night jet is weak in early winter, so air descending below that level mixes between polar and middle latitudes. In late winter, parcels descend less and the polar night jet moves downward, so there is less latitudinal mixing. The degree of mixing in the lower stratosphere thus depends strongly on the position and evolution of the polar night jet and on the amount of descent experienced by the air parcels; these characteristics show considerable interannual variability in both hemispheres. The computed trajectories provide a three-dimensional picture of air motion during the final warming. Large tongues of air are drawn off the vortex and stretched into increasingly long and narrow tongues extending into low latitudes. This vortex erosion process proceeds more rapidly in the NH than in he SH. In the lower stratosphere, the majority of air parcels remain confined within a lingering region of strong potential vorticity gradients into December in the SH and April in the NH, well after the vortex breaks up in the midstratosphere.

  15. On the Motion of Air through the Stratospheric Polar Vortex.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manney, G. L.; Zurek, R. W.; O'Neill, A.; Swinbank, R.

    1994-10-01

    Trajectory calculations using horizontal winds from the U.K. Meteorological Office data assimilation system and vertical velocities from a radiation calculation are used to simulate the three-dimensional motion of air through the stratospheric polar vortex for Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH) winters since the launch of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. Throughout the winter, air from the upper stratosphere moves poleward and descends into the middle stratosphere. In the SH lower to middle stratosphere, strongest descent occurs near the edge of the polar vortex, with that edge defined by mixing characteristics. The NH shows a similar pattern in late winter, but in early winter strongest descent is near the center of the vortex, except when wave activity is particularly strong. Strong barriers to latitudinal mixing exist above about 420 K throughout the winter. Below this, the polar night jet is weak in early winter, so air descending below that level mixes between polar and middle latitudes. In late winter, parcels descend less and the polar night jet moves downward, so there is less latitudinal mixing. The degree of mixing in the lower stratosphere thus depends strongly on the position and evolution of the polar night jet and on the amount of descent experienced by the air parcels; these characteristics show considerable interannual variability in both hemispheres.The computed trajectories provide a three-dimensional picture of air motion during the final warming. Large tongues of air are drawn off the vortex and stretched into increasingly long and narrow tongues extending into low latitudes. This vortex erosion process proceeds more rapidly in the NH than in the SH. In the lower stratosphere, the majority of air parcels remain confined within a lingering region of strong potential vorticity gradients into December in the SH and April in the NH, well after the vortex breaks up in the midstratosphere.

  16. On air motion trajectories in cold fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, Michael J.; Smith, Roger K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines air parcel trajectories in the two-dimensional model for a cold front by Reeder and Smith (1987). These are found to be in close agreement with trajectories deduced from analyses of summertime 'cool changes' in southeastern Australia, adding further support to the applicability of the numerical model to this kind of cold front. The favorable comparison points also to the dynamical consistency of the conceptual model for the cool change, which has evolved from the analysis of data from observational experiments.

  17. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Rauchenstein, Lynn T.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on measurements obtained from sensors (i.e., receivers) is an important research area that is attracting much interest. In this paper, we review several representative localization algorithms that use time of arrivals (TOAs) and time difference of arrivals (TDOAs) to achieve high signal source position estimation accuracy when a transmitter is in the line-of-sight of a receiver. Circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) position estimation approaches both use nonlinear equations that relate the known locations of receivers and unknown locations of transmitters. Estimation of the location of transmitters using the standard nonlinear equations may not be very accurate because of receiver location errors, receiver measurement errors, and computational efficiency challenges that result in high computational burdens. Least squares and maximum likelihood based algorithms have become the most popular computational approaches to transmitter location estimation. In this paper, we summarize the computational characteristics and position estimation accuracies of various positioning algorithms. By improving methods for estimating the time-of-arrival of transmissions at receivers and transmitter location estimation algorithms, transmitter location estimation may be applied across a range of applications and technologies such as radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia.

  18. Space chimp Enos returns to Patrick Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Enos the chimpanzee that orbited the earth twice in a Mercury spacecraft arrives back at Patrick Air Force Base. Enos landed some 220 nautical miles south of Bermuda and was picked up up by the U.S.S. Stormes.

  19. Parametric studies of contrail ice particle formation in jet regime using microphysical parcel modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, H.-W.; Miake-Lye, R. C.

    2010-04-01

    Condensation trails (contrails) formed from water vapor emissions behind aircraft engines are the most uncertain components of the aviation impacts on climate change. To gain improved knowledge of contrail and contrail-induced cirrus cloud formation, understanding of contrail ice particle formation immediately after aircraft engines is needed. Despite many efforts spent in modeling the microphysics of ice crystal formation in jet regime (with a plume age <5 s), systematic understanding of parametric effects of variables affecting contrail ice particle formation is still limited. In this work, we apply a microphysical parcel modeling approach to study contrail ice particle formation in near-field aircraft plumes up to 1000 m downstream of an aircraft engine in the soot-rich regime (soot number emission index >1×1015 (kg-fuel)-1) at cruise. The effects of dilution history, ion-mediated nucleation, ambient relative humidity, fuel sulfur contents, and initial soot emissions were investigated. Our simulation results suggest that ice particles are mainly formed by water condensation on emitted soot particles. The growth of ice coated soot particles is driven by water vapor emissions in the first 1000 m and by ambient relative humidity afterwards. The presence of chemi-ions does not significantly contribute to the formation of ice particles in the soot-rich regime, and the effect of fuel sulfur contents is small over the range typical of standard jet fuels. The initial properties of soot emissions play the most critical role, and our calculations suggest that higher number concentration and smaller size of contrail particle nuclei may be able to effectively suppress the formation of contrail ice particles. Further modeling and experimental studies are needed to verify if our findings can provide a possible approach for contrail mitigation.

  20. Project Overview: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    This fact sheet describes UPS second generation hybrid-electric delivery vehicles as compared to conventional delivery vehicles. Medium-duty commercial vehicles such as moving trucks, beverage-delivery trucks, and package-delivery vans consume almost 2,000 gal of fuel per year on average. United Parcel Service (UPS) operates hybrid-electric package-delivery vans to reduce the fuel use and emissions of its fleet. In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluation Team evaluated the first generation of UPS' hybrid delivery vans. These hybrid vans demonstrated 29%-37% higher fuel economy than comparable conventional diesel vans, which contributed to UPS' decision to add second-generation hybrid vans to its fleet. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team is now evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 second-generation hybrid vans and 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operated by UPS in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The evaluation also includes testing fuel economy and emissions at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory and comparing diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. In addition, a followup evaluation of UPS' first-generation hybrid vans will show how those vehicles performed over three years of operation. One goal of this project is to provide a consistent comparison of fuel economy and operating costs between the second-generation hybrid vans and comparable conventional vans. Additional goals include quantifying the effects of hybridization on DPF regeneration and helping UPS select delivery routes for its hybrid vans that maximize the benefits of hybrid technology. This document introduces the UPS second-generation hybrid evaluation project. Final results will be available in mid-2012.

  1. Deducing logical relationships between spatially registered cortical parcellations under conditions of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Bezgin, Gleb; Wanke, Egon; Krumnack, Antje; Kötter, Rolf

    2008-10-01

    We propose a new technique, called Spatial Objective Relational Transformation (SORT), as an automated approach for derivation of logical relationships between cortical areas in different brain maps registered in the same Euclidean space. Recently, there have been large amounts of voxel-based three-dimensional structural and functional imaging data that provide us with coordinate-based information about the location of differently defined areas in the brain, whereas coordinate-independent, parcellation-based mapping is still commonly used in the majority of animal tracing and mapping studies. Because of the impact of voxel-based imaging methods and the need to attribute their features to coordinate-independent brain entities, this mapping becomes increasingly important. Our motivation here is not to make vague statements where more precise spatial statements would be better, but to find criteria for the identity (or other logical relationships) between areas that were delineated by different methods, in different individuals, or mapped to three-dimensional space using different deformation algorithms. The relevance of this problem becomes immediately obvious as one superimposes and compares different datasets in multimodal databases (e.g. CARET, http://brainmap.wustl.edu/caret), where voxel-based data are registered to surface nodes exploited by the procedure presented here. We describe the SORT algorithm and its implementation in the Java 2 programming language (http://java.sun.com/, which we make available for download. We give an example of practical use of our approach, and validate the SORT approach against a database of the coordinate-independent statements and inferences that have been deduced using alternative techniques.

  2. The Effects of Predator Arrival Timing on Adaptive Radiation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, J.; Knope, M. L.; Fukami, T.

    2009-12-01

    Much of Earth’s biodiversity is thought to have arisen by adaptive radiation, the rapid diversification of a single ancestral species to fill a wide-variety of ecological niches. Both theory and empirical evidence have long supported competition for limited resources as a primary driver of adaptive radiation. While predation has also been postulated to be an important selective force during radiation, empirical evidence is surprisingly scant and its role remains controversial. However, two recent empirical studies suggest that predation can promote divergence during adaptive radiation. Using an experimental laboratory microcosm system, we examined how predator arrival timing affects the rate and extent of diversification during adaptive radiation. We varied the introduction timing of a protozoan predator (Tetrahymena thermophila) into populations of the bacteria Pseudomonas flourescens, which is known for its ability to undergo rapid adaptive radiation in aqueous microcosms. While our results show that predator arrival timing may have a significant impact on the rate, but not extent, of diversification, these results are tenuous and should be interpreted with caution, as the protozoan predators died early in the majority of our treatments, hampering our ability for comparison across treatments. Additionally, the abundance of newly derived bacterial genotypes was markedly lower in all treatments than observed in previous experiments utilizing this microbial experimental evolution system. To address these shortcomings, we will be repeating the experiment in the near future to further explore the impact of predator arrival timing on adaptive radiation. Smooth Morph and small-Wrinkly Spreader Pseudomonas flourescens diversification in the 96 hour treatment. Day 10, diluted to 1e-5.

  3. Prediction of shock arrival times from CME and flare data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Marlon; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Pulkkinen, Antti

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the Shock Arrival Model (SARM) for predicting shock arrival times for distances from 0.72 AU to 8.7 AU by using coronal mass ejections (CME) and flare data. SARM is an aerodynamic drag model described by a differential equation that has been calibrated with a data set of 120 shocks observed from 1997 to 2010 by minimizing the mean absolute error (MAE), normalized to 1 AU. SARM should be used with CME data (radial, earthward, or plane-of-sky speeds) and flare data (peak flux, duration, and location). In the case of 1 AU, the MAE and the median of absolute errors were 7.0 h and 5.0 h, respectively, using the available CME/flare data. The best results for 1 AU (an MAE of 5.8 h) were obtained using both CME data, either radial or cone model-estimated speeds, and flare data. For the prediction of shock arrivals at distances from 0.72 AU to 8.7 AU, the normalized MAE and the median were 7.1 h and 5.1 h, respectively, using the available CME/flare data. SARM was also calibrated to be used with CME data alone or flare data alone, obtaining normalized MAE errors of 8.9 h and 8.6 h, respectively, for all shock events. The model verification was carried out with an additional data set of 20 shocks observed from 2010 to 2012 with radial CME speeds to compare SARM with the empirical ESA model and the numerical MHD-based ENLIL model. The results show that the ENLIL's MAE was lower than the SARM's MAE, which was lower than the ESA's MAE. The SARM's best results were obtained when both flare and true CME speeds were used.

  4. Internet information arrival and volatility of SME PRICE INDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongjie; Feng, Lina; Jin, Xi; Shen, Dehua; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei

    2014-04-01

    This article employs the number of news appeared in Baidu News as a novel proxy for information arrival and investigates the validation of the Mixture of Distribution Hypothesis (MDH) using a sample of SME PRICE INDEX in China. The empirical results reveal a positive impact of internet information on the conditional volatility of stock returns. Compared with the prevailing proxies (trading volume and its adjustments), the volatility persistence is most decreased when this novel proxy is incorporated into the conditional variance equation of the GARCH model. Some tentative explanations are also given to expound the non-disappeared GARCH effects.

  5. STS-113 Pilot Lockhart arrives at KSC for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart arrives at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The STS-113 launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002. .

  6. STS-100 MS Phillips arrives at KSC before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - STS-100 Mission Specialist John L. Phillips arrives at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T- 38 jet aircraft to get ready for launch. The 11-day mission to the International Space Station will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator system and the UHF Antenna, and the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello. Liftoff on mission STS-100 is scheduled at 2:41 p.m. EDT April 19.

  7. Titan III Mars Observer Arrival and Uncrating at PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Live footage of the uncrating and the arrival of the Titan III Mars Observer to the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF) is presented. The Mars Observer's mission is to study the surface, atmosphere, interior and magnetic field of Mars from Martian orbit. At the PHSF, fueling of the spacecraft with its orbit insertion and attitude control propellants will occur. This will be followed by mating to the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS). This is the upper stage that will provide the final thrust to propel the spacecraft on its 11-month journey to Mars.

  8. Guidelines for reporting experiments involving animals: the ARRIVE guidelines.

    PubMed

    McGrath, J C; Drummond, G B; McLachlan, E M; Kilkenny, C; Wainwright, C L

    2010-08-01

    British Journal of Pharmacology (BJP) is pleased to publish a new set of guidelines for reporting research involving animals, simultaneously with several other journals; the 'ARRIVE' guidelines (Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments). This editorial summarizes the background to the guidelines, gives our view of their significance, considers aspects of specific relevance to pharmacology, re-states BJP's guidelines for authors on animal experiments and indicates our commitment to carrying on discussion of this important topic. We also invite feedback via the British Pharmacological Society website.

  9. GMTI Direction of Arrival Measurements from Multiple Phase Centers.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2015-03-01

    Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar attempts to detect and locate targets with unknown motion. Very slow-moving targets are difficult to locate in the presence of surrounding clutter. This necessitates multiple antenna phase centers (or equivalent) to offer independent Direction of Arrival (DOA) measurements. DOA accuracy and precision generally remains dependent on target Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Clutter-toNoise Ratio (CNR), scene topography, interfering signals, and a number of antenna parameters. This is true even for adaptive techniques like Space-Time-AdaptiveProcessing (STAP) algorithms.

  10. Time of arrival through interacting environments: Tunneling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Horikoshi, Atsushi; Nakamura, Etsuko

    2000-08-01

    We discuss the propagation of wave packets through interacting environments. Such environments generally modify the dispersion relation or shape of the wave function. To study such effects in detail, we define the distribution function PX(T), which describes the arrival time T of a packet at a detector located at point X. We calculate PX(T) for wave packets traveling through a tunneling barrier and find that our results actually explain recent experiments. We compare our results with Nelson's stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics and resolve a paradox previously apparent in Nelson's viewpoint about the tunneling time.

  11. Analysis of Deep Seafloor Arrivals Observed on NPAL04

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-03

    this pattern converted from a PEP path to a bottom-diffracted surface reflected (BDSR) path at an off-geodesic seamount . WHOI-2012-09 Page 3 of...propagation to a near-by out-of-plane seamount with conversion to a direct bottom diffracted path (Out-of-plane BD). 43 5) PE-predicted propagation to a...near-by out-of-plane seamount with conversion to a BDSR path (Out-of-plane BDSR). 43 E) Re-interpretation of the 2009 Arrival Pattern 57 F

  12. MC Henricks and PS Favier arrive at SLF for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-78 Mission Commander Terence T. 'Tom' Henricks (right) greets fellow crew member and Payload Specialist Jean-Jacques Favier after arriving at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility to participate in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. Favier is one of the two international payload specialists assigned to STS-78 and represents the French Space Agency (CNES). Over the next several days, Henricks, Favier, and their fellow crew members wil take part in emergency egress training at the launch pad and conclude their stay with a simulated countdown. The space Shuttle Columbia is being prepared for liftoff on Mission STS-78 on June 20.

  13. STS-100 Pilot Ashby arrives at KSC before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - STS-100 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby arrives at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet aircraft to get ready for launch. The 11-day mission to the International Space Station will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator system and the UHF Antenna, and the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello. Liftoff on mission STS-100 is scheduled at 2:41 p.m. EDT April 19.

  14. STS-78 Crew arrives at Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FL. -- Members of the STS-78 Space Shuttle crew greet press representatives and other visitors at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) after the crew's arrival Monday in preparation for the June 20 scheduled launch of Columbia. From left, are Mission Specialist Richard M. Linnehan, Mission Commander Terence T. Henricks, Payload Commander Susan J. Helms, Payload Specialist Jean-Jacques Favier of the French Space Agency and Mission Specialist Charles E. Brady Jr. The seven-member crew will conduct microgravity research experiments in the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) module in the payload bay.

  15. 78 FR 77696 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D, OMB Control No. 1615-0124; Correction ACTION... Consideration of Deferred Action for ] Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D in accordance with the...

  16. 77 FR 60334 - New Marking Standards for Parcels Containing Hazardous Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... class 4 materials in its air transportation networks. These mailpieces will also be required to bear the... being tendered for transport within USPS networks, either by surface or air, and all mailpieces... intended for transportation in USPS ground networks. Comment Period Note that the Postal Service...

  17. Measurement of aerosol particles, gases and flux radiation in the Pico de Orizaba National Park, and its relationship to air pollution transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, C.; Castro, T.; Muhlia, A.; Moya, M.; Martínez-Arroyo, A.; Báez, A.

    Continuous atmospheric measurements were carried out at the Pico de Orizaba National Park (PONP), Mexico, in order to evaluate the characteristics and sources of air quality. This action allowed one to identify specific threats for the effective protection of natural resources and biodiversity. Results show the presence of particles and polluted gases transported by winds from the urban zones nearby (cities of Mexico, Puebla and Tlaxcala), as well as their measurable influence on the optical properties of the park environment. Nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide show a daily pattern suggesting an influence of pollution generated by anthropogenic processes. Average concentration of SO 2 was higher than recorded at the southern part of Mexico City. Ozone concentrations ranging from 0.035 to 0.06 ppm suggest residual or background ozone character. Back trajectory analysis of air parcels arriving at the site confirm pollution caused by biomass burning and mass transport from urban zones. The SO 42-/TC ratio exhibited values (0.88±0.33) similar to urban areas. Ratios BC/TC and OC/BC for PONP are similar to those reported as influenced by burning emissions of fossil fuels. Typical rural aerosols were also found at the site, and sulfate and ammonium concentrations were correlated. The most predominating mode in surface particles size distribution was at 0.32 μm with no significant presence of coarse particles. Total carbon (OC+BC) content of fine particle mass (PM less than 1 μm) comprised, on average, 75%. Optical properties retrieved from photometric data show intermittent influence from urban pollution. Time periods with low absorbing particles, great visibility and abundance of small particles alternating with short times with bigger particles and high turbidity indicated by the optical depth.

  18. 19 CFR 123.6 - Train sheet for arriving railroad trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Train sheet for arriving railroad trains. 123.6 Section 123.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... arriving railroad trains. The conductor of a railroad train arriving from Canada or Mexico shall present...

  19. 19 CFR 123.6 - Train sheet for arriving railroad trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Train sheet for arriving railroad trains. 123.6 Section 123.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... arriving railroad trains. The conductor of a railroad train arriving from Canada or Mexico shall present...

  20. 19 CFR 123.6 - Train sheet for arriving railroad trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Train sheet for arriving railroad trains. 123.6 Section 123.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... arriving railroad trains. The conductor of a railroad train arriving from Canada or Mexico shall present...

  1. 19 CFR 123.6 - Train sheet for arriving railroad trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Train sheet for arriving railroad trains. 123.6 Section 123.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... for arriving railroad trains. The conductor of a railroad train arriving from Canada or Mexico...

  2. 19 CFR 123.6 - Train sheet for arriving railroad trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Train sheet for arriving railroad trains. 123.6 Section 123.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... arriving railroad trains. The conductor of a railroad train arriving from Canada or Mexico shall present...

  3. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required. 4.4... OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting...

  4. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required. 4.4... OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting...

  5. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required. 4.4... OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting...

  6. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required. 4.4... OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting...

  7. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required. 4.4... OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting...

  8. 78 FR 76636 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection...) Title of the Form/Collection: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals. (3) Agency form... be considered for deferred action for childhood arrivals: 1. Were under the age of 31 as of June...

  9. 77 FR 74488 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D, Revision of a Currently Approved Collection... the Form/Collection: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals. (3) Agency form number... for childhood arrivals: 1. Were under the age of 31 as of June 15, 2012; 2. Came to the United...

  10. 78 FR 13370 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection... of the Form/Collection: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals. (3) Agency form... children and meet the following guidelines to be considered for deferred action for childhood arrivals:...

  11. 76 FR 2254 - Notice of Arrival on the Outer Continental Shelf

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 146 RIN 1625-AB28 Notice of Arrival on the Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY... Continental Shelf (OCS) Activities to enhance maritime domain safety and security awareness on the OCS by... Arrival. NOA OCS Notice of Arrival on the Outer Continental Shelf. NPRM Notice of Proposed...

  12. Ultra-Wideband Angle-of-Arrival Tracking Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong H.; Phan, Chau T.; Gross, Julia; Ni, Jianjun; Dusl, John

    2010-01-01

    Systems that measure the angles of arrival of ultra-wideband (UWB) radio signals and perform triangulation by use of those angles in order to locate the sources of those signals are undergoing development. These systems were originally intended for use in tracking UWB-transmitter-equipped astronauts and mobile robots on the surfaces of remote planets during early stages of exploration, before satellite-based navigation systems become operational. On Earth, these systems could be adapted to such uses as tracking UWB-transmitter-equipped firefighters inside buildings or in outdoor wildfire areas obscured by smoke. The same characteristics that have made UWB radio advantageous for fine resolution ranging, covert communication, and ground-penetrating radar applications in military and law-enforcement settings also contribute to its attractiveness for the present tracking applications. In particular, the waveform shape and the short duration of UWB pulses make it possible to attain the high temporal resolution (of the order of picoseconds) needed to measure angles of arrival with sufficient precision, and the low power spectral density of UWB pulses enables UWB radio communication systems to operate in proximity to other radio communication systems with little or no perceptible mutual interference.

  13. Optimal Integration of Departure and Arrivals in Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon Jean

    2012-01-01

    Coordination of operations with spatially and temporally shared resources such as route segments, fixes, and runways improves the efficiency of terminal airspace management. Problems in this category include scheduling and routing, thus they are normally difficult to solve compared with pure scheduling problems. In order to reduce the computational time, a fast time algorithm formulation using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA) was introduced in this work and applied to a test case based on existing literature. The experiment showed that new method can solve the whole problem in fast time instead of solving sub-problems sequentially with a window technique. The results showed a 60% or 406 second delay reduction was achieved by sharing departure fixes (more details on the comparison with MILP results will be presented in the final paper). Furthermore, the NSGA algorithm was applied to a problem in LAX terminal airspace, where interactions between 28% of LAX arrivals and 10% of LAX departures are resolved by spatial segregation, which may introduce unnecessary delays. In this work, spatial segregation, temporal segregation, and hybrid segregation were formulated using the new algorithm. Results showed that spatial and temporal segregation approaches achieved similar delay. Hybrid segregation introduced much less delay than the other two approaches. For a total of 9 interacting departures and arrivals, delay reduction varied from 4 minutes to 6.4 minutes corresponding flight time uncertainty from 0 to 60 seconds. Considering the amount of flights that could be affected, total annual savings with hybrid segregation would be significant.

  14. Enhanced Direction of Arrival Estimation through Electromagnetic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordill, Brian

    Engineering is a high art that balances modeling the physical world and designing meaningful solutions based on those models. Array signal processing is no exception, and many innovative and creative solutions have come from the field of array processing. However, many of the innovative algorithms that permeate the field are based on a very simple signal model of an array. This simple, although powerful, model is at times a pale reflection of the complexities inherent in the physical world, and this model mismatch opens the door to the performance degradation of any solution for which the model underpins. This dissertation seeks to explore the impact of model mismatch upon common array processing algorithms. To that end, this dissertation brings together the disparate topics of electromagnetics and signal processing. Electromagnetics brings a singular focus on the physical interactions of electromagnetic waves and physical array structures, while signal processing brings modern computational power to solve difficult problems. We delve into model mismatch in two ways; first, by developing a blind array calibration routine that estimates model mismatch and incorporates that knowledge into the reiterative superresoluiton (RISR) direction of arrival estimation algorithm; second, by examining model mismatch between a transmitting and receiving array, and assessing the impact of this mismatch on prolific direction of arrival estimation algorithms. In both of these studies we show that engineers have traded algorithm performance for model simplicity, and that if we are willing to deal with the added complexity we can recapture that lost performance.

  15. Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near) elimination.

    PubMed

    Gustavsen, Ken; Hopkins, Adrian; Sauerbrey, Mauricio

    2011-10-25

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen advances in diagnosing, mapping and treating the disease. Once endemic to six countries in the Americas (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela), onchocerciasis is on track for interruption of transmission in the Americas by 2012, in line with Pan American Health Organization resolution CD48.R12. The success of this public health program is due to a robust public-private partnership involving national governments, local communities, donor organizations, intergovernmental bodies, academic institutions, non-profit organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. The lessons learned through the efforts in the Americas are in turn informing the program to control and eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa. However, continued support and investment are needed for program implementation and post-treatment surveillance to protect the gains to-date and ensure complete elimination is achieved and treatment can be safely stopped within all 13 regional foci.

  16. Simulations of Continuous Descent Operations with Arrival-management Automation and Mixed Flight-deck Interval Management Equipage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Kupfer, Michael; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Prevot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Air traffic management simulations conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center have addressed the integration of trajectory-based arrival-management automation, controller tools, and Flight-Deck Interval Management avionics to enable Continuous Descent Operations (CDOs) during periods of sustained high traffic demand. The simulations are devoted to maturing the integrated system for field demonstration, and refining the controller tools, clearance phraseology, and procedures specified in the associated concept of operations. The results indicate a variety of factors impact the concept's safety and viability from a controller's perspective, including en-route preconditioning of arrival flows, useable clearance phraseology, and the characteristics of airspace, routes, and traffic-management methods in use at a particular site. Clear understanding of automation behavior and required shifts in roles and responsibilities is important for controller acceptance and realizing potential benefits. This paper discusses the simulations, drawing parallels with results from related European efforts. The most recent study found en-route controllers can effectively precondition arrival flows, which significantly improved route conformance during CDOs. Controllers found the tools acceptable, in line with previous studies.

  17. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Organization) code (M) (The approved electronic data interchange system supports both 3- and 2-character ICAO... trip/flight number (M); (iii) The carrier/ICAO code (M) (The approved electronic data interchange... the required cargo information to CBP must be effected through a CBP-approved electronic...

  18. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Organization) code (M) (The approved electronic data interchange system supports both 3- and 2-character ICAO... trip/flight number (M); (iii) The carrier/ICAO code (M) (The approved electronic data interchange... the required cargo information to CBP must be effected through a CBP-approved electronic...

  19. First Apollo 11 Lunar Samples Arrive at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. This photograph was taken as the mission's first loaded sample return container arrived at Ellington Air Force Base by air from the Pacific recovery area. The rock box was immediately taken to the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston, Texas. Happily posing for the photograph with the rock container are (L-R) Richard S. Johnston (back), special assistant to the MSC Director; George M. Low, MSC Apollo Spacecraft Program manager; George S. Trimble (back), MSC Deputy Director; Lt. General Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program Director, Office of Manned Spaceflight at NASA headquarters; Eugene G. Edmonds, MSC Photographic Technology Laboratory; Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator; and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director.

  20. Phase I Archaeological Survey of Parcel ED-3 and Historic Assessement of the Happy Valley Worker Camp Roane County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    New South Associates

    2009-08-17

    Parcel ED-3 was the location of a portion of 'Happy Valley', a temporary worker housing area occupied from 1943 to 1947 during the construction of the K-25 Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The project was carried out under subcontract for the Department of Energy. The survey report will be used in the preparation of an Environmental Assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). New South Associates conducted a Phase I Archaeological Survey of Parcel ED-3 at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation in Roane County, Tennessee. The survey was conducted in two parts. The first survey was carried out in 2008 and covered an area measuring approximately 110 acres. The second survey took place in 2009 and focused on 72 acres west of the first survey area. The objective of the surveys was to identify any archaeological remains associated with Happy Valley and any additional sites on the property and to assess these sites for National Register eligibility. New South Associates also conducted a historic assessment to gather information on Happy Valley. This historic assessment was used in conjunction with the archaeological survey to evaluate the significance of the Happy Valley site. Archaeological remains of Happy Valley were located throughout the parcel, but no additional sites were located. The official state site number for Happy Valley is 40RE577. During the two surveys a total of 13 artifact concentrations, 14 isolated finds, and 75 structural features were located. Due to the Happy Valley's stron gassociation with the Manhattan Project, the site is recommended eligible for the National Register of Historic Places under Criterion A.

  1. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Rauchenstein, Lynn T.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on received measurements from sensors is an important research area that is attracting much research interest. In this paper, we present localization algorithms using time of arrivals (TOA) and time difference of arrivals (TDOA) to achieve high accuracy under line-of-sight conditions. The circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) location systems both use nonlinear equations that relate the locations of the sensors and tracked objects. These nonlinear equations can develop accuracy challenges because of the existence of measurement errors and efficiency challenges that lead to high computational burdens. Least squares-based and maximum likelihood-based algorithms have become the most popular categories of location estimators. We also summarize the advantages and disadvantages of various positioning algorithms. By improving measurement techniques and localization algorithms, localization applications can be extended into the signal-processing-related domains of radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia.

  2. Angle-of-Arrival Assisted GNSS Collaborative Positioning.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Yao, Zheng; Cui, Xiaowei; Lu, Mingquan

    2016-06-20

    For outdoor and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) challenged scenarios, collaborative positioning algorithms are proposed to fuse information from GNSS satellites and terrestrial wireless systems. This paper derives the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) and algorithms for the angle-of-arrival (AOA)-assisted GNSS collaborative positioning. Based on the CRLB model and collaborative positioning algorithms, theoretical analysis are performed to specify the effects of various factors on the accuracy of collaborative positioning, including the number of users, their distribution and AOA measurements accuracy. Besides, the influences of the relative location of the collaborative users are also discussed in order to choose appropriate neighboring users, which is in favor of reducing computational complexity. Simulations and actual experiment are carried out with several GNSS receivers in different scenarios, and the results are consistent with theoretical analysis.

  3. P-1 truss arrives at O&C Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The P-1 truss, a component of the International Space Station, arrives in the parking lot outside the Operations and Checkout Building where it will undergo processing. The P-1 truss, scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure on the Space Station that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14-by-15 foot structure to the port side of the center truss, S0, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000-pound P-1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the Station's radiators away from the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.

  4. STS-113 Mission Specialist Lopez-Alegris arrives for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria arrives at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The STS-113 launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  5. STS-92 crew arrives at KSC for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Still seated in the T-38 jet aircraft that arrived moments before at the Shuttle Landing Facility, STS-92 Mission Specialist William S. McArthur Jr. shows his happiness in being back at KSC for launch. He and other crew members Commander Brian Duffy, Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy and Mission Specialists Koichi Wakata of Japan, Leroy Chiao, Peter J.K. '''Jeff''' Wisoff and Michael E. Lopez-Alegria later talked to a waiting group of media at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The mission is the fifth flight for the construction of the International Space Station. The payload includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. During the 11-day mission, four extravehicular activities (EVAs), or space walks, are planned.

  6. STS-92 crew arrives at KSC for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Still seated in the T-38 jet aircraft that arrived moments before at the Shuttle Landing Facility, STS-92 Mission Specialist Peter J.K. '''Jeff''' Wisoff shows his happiness in being back at KSC for launch. He and other crew members Commander Brian Duffy, Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy and Mission Specialists Koichi Wakata of Japan, Leroy Chiao, Michael E. Lopez-Alegria and William S. McArthur Jr. later talked to a waiting group of media at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The mission is the fifth flight for the construction of the International Space Station. The payload includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. During the 11-day mission, four extravehicular activities (EVAs), or space walks, are planned.

  7. Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) Dependent Parallel Arrivals (DPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Colin L.

    2012-01-01

    The Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) team at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing a concept of operations to extend the current APS concept to support dependent approaches to parallel or converging runways along with the required pilot and controller procedures and pilot interfaces. A staggered operations capability for the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) tool was developed and designated as ASTAR10. ASTAR10 has reached a sufficient level of maturity to be validated and tested through a fast-time simulation. The purpose of the experiment was to identify and resolve any remaining issues in the ASTAR10 algorithm, as well as put the concept of operations through a practical test.

  8. Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Based on Joint Sparsity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junhua; Huang, Zhitao; Zhou, Yiyu

    2011-01-01

    We present a DOA estimation algorithm, called Joint-Sparse DOA to address the problem of Direction-of-Arrival (DOA) estimation using sensor arrays. Firstly, DOA estimation is cast as the joint-sparse recovery problem. Then, norm is approximated by an arctan function to represent joint sparsity and DOA estimation can be obtained by minimizing the approximate norm. Finally, the minimization problem is solved by a quasi-Newton method to estimate DOA. Simulation results show that our algorithm has some advantages over most existing methods: it needs a small number of snapshots to estimate DOA, while the number of sources need not be known a priori. Besides, it improves the resolution, and it can also handle the coherent sources well. PMID:22164122

  9. The far magnetotail response to an interplanetary shock arrival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grygorov, K.; Přech, L.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Goncharov, O.

    2014-11-01

    We present a study of the impact of the December 7, 2003 fast forward interplanetary (IP) shock on the distant tail of the Earth's magnetosphere. Using the data from the several spacecraft located in the solar wind/magnetosheath upstream to the Earth, we monitor a propagation of the IP shock from the L1 point to the magnetosphere. A behavior of the far magnetotail is inferred from the Wind observations at XGSM≈-230 RE. Shortly after the shock arrival, Wind crossed consequentially southern and northern lobes and observed a flux rope and the tailward fast plasma flow (≈780 km/s) within the plasmasheet. Moreover, a change of the solar wind VZ component across the shock creates a huge kink of the tail magnetosphere that propagates down the tail with the IP shock.

  10. Angle-of-Arrival Assisted GNSS Collaborative Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Yao, Zheng; Cui, Xiaowei; Lu, Mingquan

    2016-01-01

    For outdoor and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) challenged scenarios, collaborative positioning algorithms are proposed to fuse information from GNSS satellites and terrestrial wireless systems. This paper derives the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) and algorithms for the angle-of-arrival (AOA)-assisted GNSS collaborative positioning. Based on the CRLB model and collaborative positioning algorithms, theoretical analysis are performed to specify the effects of various factors on the accuracy of collaborative positioning, including the number of users, their distribution and AOA measurements accuracy. Besides, the influences of the relative location of the collaborative users are also discussed in order to choose appropriate neighboring users, which is in favor of reducing computational complexity. Simulations and actual experiment are carried out with several GNSS receivers in different scenarios, and the results are consistent with theoretical analysis. PMID:27331816

  11. Pedro Duque arrives at KSC for the STS-95 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), arrives at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet as part of final preparations for launch. The STS-95 mission, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC on Nov. 7. The other STS-95 crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA).

  12. Media gather for arrival of STS-95 crew at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Waiting for the arrival of the STS-95 crewmembers at the Shuttle Landing Facility are 137 media representatives, a small sampling of more than 3,000 expected to attend the launch on Oct. 29. Flying into KSC to make final preparations for their launch were Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC on Nov. 7.

  13. STS-112 crew arrives at KSC's SLF for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- After their arrival at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility, the STS-112 crew members stride happily to the side of the parking apron and a photo opportunity. From left are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Mission Specialist Piers Sellers, Pilot Pamela Melroy and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin, who is with the Russian Space Agency. Launch is scheduled for Oct. 2 between 2 and 6 p.m. STS-112, aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis, is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks.

  14. STS-112 crew after arrival at SLF for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-112 crew pauses for a photo after their arrival at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. Standing, left to right, are Mission Specialist Piers Sellers, Pilot Pamela Melroy, Commander Jeffrey Ashby, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Sandra Magnus and cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin. Sellers, Magnus and Yurchikhin are making their first Shuttle flights. STS-112, aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis, is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks. Launch is scheduled for Oct. 2 between 2 and 6 p.m.

  15. STS-99 Mission Specialist Thiele arrives for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-99 Mission Specialist Gerhard P.J. Thiele (Ph.D.), with the European Space Agency, arrives at KSC aboard a T-38 jet aircraft to prepare for launch of Endeavour Jan. 31 at 12:47 p.m. EST. Over the next few days, the crew will review mission procedures, conduct test flights in the Shuttle Training Aircraft and undergo routine preflight medical exams. STS-99 is the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which will chart a new course, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety.

  16. Anticipating arrival: is the tau margin a specious theory?

    PubMed

    Wann, J P

    1996-08-01

    A critical review is presented of previous studies that have examined the use of the tau margin (tau m) in the temporal judgment of arrival in natural contexts. This body of evidence is frequently cited as providing strong support for the use of Tau m for interceptive timing. Critical flaws are demonstrated in either the analysis or interpretation of many of these studies. It is suggested that temporal control in a number of these experiments could have been effected using a relative distance estimate (zeta ratio). Results are also presented and discussed that conflict with the tau m control hypothesis. It is concluded that although the tau m hypothesis provides an appealing account of interceptive timing, its broad acceptance is unwarranted on the evidence available.

  17. STS-103 Commander Brown arrives at KSC for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. smiles on his arrival at the Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet aircraft. He joins other crew members Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, for pre-launch preparations on mission STS-103 aboard Space Shuttle Discovery. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. The mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 11 at 12:13 a.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 20, at 9:21 p.m. EST.

  18. Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski arrives late at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The T-38 jet aircraft arrives at the Shuttle Landing Facility carrying STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski (second seat). The pilot is astronaut Kent Rominger. Parazynski's first plane experienced problems at the stop at Tyndall AFB and he had to wait for another jet and pilot to finish the flight to KSC. He joined other crewmembers Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), for final pre-launch preparations. STS-95 is expected to launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and land at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  19. STS-93 crew leaves SLF after arrival for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-93 crew leave the Shuttle Landing Facility after answering questions for the media and posing for photographers, whose shadows stretch across the SLF. From left are Mission Specialists Michel Tognini of France, who is with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Commander Eileen M. Collins (waving), Mission Specialist Catherine G. 'Cady' Coleman (Ph.D.), and Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby. The crew arrived at KSC for pre-launch activities. Collins is the first woman to serve as mission commander. The primary mission of STS-93 is the release of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  20. STS-93 Pilot Ashby arrives at SLF for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-93 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby lands at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) aboard a T-38 jet aircraft. He and other crew members Commander Eileen Collins and Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. 'Cady' Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), are arriving for pre-launch activities. STS-93 is Ashby's inaugural Shuttle flight. The primary mission of STS-93 is the release of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  1. STS-86 crew arrives at the SLF before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 Commander James D. Wetherbee, with microphone, addresses press representatives and other onlookers after the astronauts arrival Monday at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility. The other crew members, from left, are Mission Specialist David A. Wolf; Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield; Mission Specialist Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES; Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynksi; Mission Specialist Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency; and Mission Specialist Wendy B. Lawrence. STS-86 is slated to be the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. After the docking, Wolf is scheduled to transfer to the Mir 24 crew, replacing astronaut C. Michael Foale. Wolf is scheduled to remain on the Mir for about four months. Liftoff of STS-86 aboard Atlantis is targeted for Sept. 25.

  2. STS-88 Mission Commander Cabana arrives for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana smiles on his arrival at the Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet aircraft. He joins other crew members Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow, Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie, Mission Specialist Jerry L. Ross, Mission Specialist James H. Newman, and Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut, for pre-launch preparations for mission STS-88 aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scheduled time of launch is 3:56 a.m. EST on Dec. 3 from Launch Pad 39A. The mission is the first U.S. launch for the International Space Station. Endeavour carries the Unity connecting module which the crew will be mating with the Russian- built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC at 10:17 p.m. on Monday, Dec. 14.

  3. STS-88 Mission Specialist Krikalev arrives for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut, smiles on his arrival at the Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet aircraft. He joins other crew members Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow, Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie, Mission Specialist Jerry L. Ross, and Mission Specialist James H. Newman for pre-launch preparations for mission STS-88 aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scheduled time of launch is 3:56 a.m. EST on Dec. 3 from Launch Pad 39A. The mission is the first U.S. launch for the International Space Station. Endeavour carries the Unity connecting module which the crew will be mating with the Russian- built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC at 10:17 p.m. on Monday, Dec. 14.

  4. R6 FIFRA e-Notice of Arrival

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This database processes approximately 3,000 Notice of Arrival (NOA) reporting forms from importers and exporters of pesticide products. This is an electronic version of the EPA Form 3540-1. The external user fills out the NOA and submits it electronically. The form is then processed by the Pesticides section and either approved or disapproved. The system then generates an Adobe PDF version of the EPA Form 3540-1 with signature or disapproval and emailed to the external user. The e-filing system eliminates the need for the Region to invest in paper, copying, storage and mailing expenses, while at the same time allowing the regulated community to conduct its business with us in a more expeditious manner.

  5. Optimal Integration of Departures and Arrivals in Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon Jean

    2013-01-01

    Coordination of operations with spatially and temporally shared resources, such as route segments, fixes, and runways, improves the efficiency of terminal airspace management. Problems in this category are, in general, computationally difficult compared to conventional scheduling problems. This paper presents a fast time algorithm formulation using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA). It was first applied to a test problem introduced in existing literature. An experiment with a test problem showed that new methods can solve the 20 aircraft problem in fast time with a 65% or 440 second delay reduction using shared departure fixes. In order to test its application in a more realistic and complicated problem, the NSGA algorithm was applied to a problem in LAX terminal airspace, where interactions between 28% of LAX arrivals and 10% of LAX departures are resolved by spatial separation in current operations, which may introduce unnecessary delays. In this work, three types of separations - spatial, temporal, and hybrid separations - were formulated using the new algorithm. The hybrid separation combines both temporal and spatial separations. Results showed that although temporal separation achieved less delay than spatial separation with a small uncertainty buffer, spatial separation outperformed temporal separation when the uncertainty buffer was increased. Hybrid separation introduced much less delay than both spatial and temporal approaches. For a total of 15 interacting departures and arrivals, when compared to spatial separation, the delay reduction of hybrid separation varied between 11% or 3.1 minutes and 64% or 10.7 minutes corresponding to an uncertainty buffer from 0 to 60 seconds. Furthermore, as a comparison with the NSGA algorithm, a First-Come-First-Serve based heuristic method was implemented for the hybrid separation. Experiments showed that the results from the NSGA algorithm have 9% to 42% less delay than the heuristic method with varied

  6. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  7. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  8. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  9. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  10. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  11. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  12. Air pollution modifies floral scent trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFrederick, Quinn S.; Kathilankal, James C.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    Floral hydrocarbons provide essential signals to attract pollinators. As soon as they are emitted to the atmosphere, however, hydrocarbons are destroyed by chemical reactions involving pollutants such as ozone. It is therefore likely that increased air pollution interferes with pollinator attracting hydrocarbon signals. To test this hypothesis, a Lagrangian diffusion model was used to determine the position of air parcels away from hydrocarbon sources and to estimate the rate of chemical destruction of hydrocarbons as air parcels moved across the landscape. The hydrocarbon compounds linalool, β-myrcene, and β-ocimene were chosen because they are known to be common scents released from flowers. The suppressed ambient abundances of volatile organic compounds were determined in response to increased regional levels of ozone, hydroxyl, and nitrate radicals. The results indicate that the documented increases in air pollution concentrations, from pre-industrial to present times, can lead to reductions in volatile compound concentrations insects detect as they pollinate flowers. For highly reactive volatiles the maximum downwind distance from the source at which pollinators can detect the scents may have changed from kilometers during pre-industrial times to <200 m during the more polluted conditions of present times. The increased destruction of floral signals in polluted air masses may have important implications for both pollinators and signaling plants. When patches of flowers are further apart than the visual range of pollinators, such as in fragmented landscapes, the loss of scent signals may mean that pollinators spend more time searching for patches and less time foraging. This decrease in pollinator foraging efficiency will simultaneously decrease the pollinator's reproductive output and the amount of pollen flow in flowering plants.

  13. Heuristics for connectivity-based brain parcellation of SMA/pre-SMA through force-directed graph layout.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Alessandro; Cerliani, Leonardo; Nanetti, Luca; Roerdink, Jos B T M

    2011-02-01

    We propose the use of force-directed graph layout as an explorative tool for connectivity-based brain parcellation studies. The method can be used as a heuristic to find the number of clusters intrinsically present in the data (if any) and to investigate their organisation. It provides an intuitive representation of the structure of the data and facilitates interactive exploration of properties of single seed voxels as well as relations among (groups of) voxels. We validate the method on synthetic data sets and we investigate the changes in connectivity in the supplementary motor cortex, a brain region whose parcellation has been previously investigated via connectivity studies. This region is supposed to present two easily distinguishable connectivity patterns, putatively denoted by SMA (supplementary motor area) and pre-SMA. Our method provides insights with respect to the connectivity patterns of the premotor cortex. These present a substantial variation among subjects, and their subdivision into two well-separated clusters is not always straightforward.

  14. Time resolved study of light emitted by detonation arrival at the surface of high explosives in various environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bahl, K.L.; Von Holle, W.G.

    1988-03-24

    In search of a way to accurately measure time of arrival of detonation fronts, we have been using an electronic streak camera equipped with a light intensifier to record intensity-time histories of the light that is emitted when a detonation front emerges through the surface of high explosives in contact with various environments. Streak records at writing speeds up to 100 mm/..mu..s were obtained of detonations in air, argon, water and vacuum when the high explosive (HE) was either bare or covered with materials such as: aluminum silicofluoride (Al/sub 2/(SiF/sub 6/)/sub 3/), PETN powder, polymethyl methacrylate (PMM), glass, aluminum foils, transparent tape, black ink, potassium chloride crystals, sodium chloride crystals and lithium fluoride crystals. The result of this study is that we believe that we can measure the time of arrival of a detonation front at a bare HE surface in air to within a few nanoseconds. 12 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  16. A human brain atlas derived via n-cut parcellation of resting-state and task-based fMRI data.

    PubMed

    James, George Andrew; Hazaroglu, Onder; Bush, Keith A

    2016-02-01

    The growth of functional MRI has led to development of human brain atlases derived by parcellating resting-state connectivity patterns into functionally independent regions of interest (ROIs). All functional atlases to date have been derived from resting-state fMRI data. But given that functional connectivity between regions varies with task, we hypothesized that an atlas incorporating both resting-state and task-based fMRI data would produce an atlas with finer characterization of task-relevant regions than an atlas derived from resting-state alone. To test this hypothesis, we derived parcellation atlases from twenty-nine healthy adult participants enrolled in the Cognitive Connectome project, an initiative to improve functional MRI's translation into clinical decision-making by mapping normative variance in brain-behavior relationships. Participants underwent resting-state and task-based fMRI spanning nine cognitive domains: motor, visuospatial, attention, language, memory, affective processing, decision-making, working memory, and executive function. Spatially constrained n-cut parcellation derived brain atlases using (1) all participants' functional data (Task) or (2) a single resting-state scan (Rest). An atlas was also derived from random parcellation for comparison purposes (Random). Two methods were compared: (1) a parcellation applied to the group's mean edge weights (mean), and (2) a two-stage approach with parcellation of individual edge weights followed by parcellation of mean binarized edges (two-stage). The resulting Task and Rest atlases had significantly greater similarity with each other (mean Jaccard indices JI=0.72-0.85) than with the Random atlases (JI=0.59-0.63; all p<0.001 after Bonferroni correction). Task and Rest atlas similarity was greatest for the two-stage method (JI=0.85), which has been shown as more robust than the mean method; these atlases also better reproduced voxelwise seed maps of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during

  17. Estimating gas kick arrival to better manage surface flow

    SciTech Connect

    Merryman, J.

    1997-06-01

    There are many quality, expertly designed programs for teaching rig crews prevention and control of well kicks. Much time and money has been spent training rig crews for procedures and methods to avoid kicks, and what to do if you have one, even though all accepted practices were followed. One false/bad result from this training is that individuals have come away from this training believing that once a gas kick is circulated through the choke, all problems are simple and manageable, i.e., the danger has passed. What you do with gas once it is downstream of the choke has not been given enough emphasis in some training programs, including the one the author is involved in. This article, prepared from experiences on actual rig locations in Wyoming and Argentina, and developed for well control training in Parker Drilling Co.`s Training Center, Odessa, Texas, describes a method for estimating the time, in pump strokes and/or minutes, for a gas kick to reach surface. Reducing pump strokes (circulating flowrate) and knowing available time to gas kick arrival allows the crew to prepare surface handling equipment. Common misconceptions about gas handling and potential resulting problems are noted. An example calculation describes the calculation procedure.

  18. STS-95 crew greet media after arriving at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. (at microphone) greets the media at the Shuttle Landing Facility after the crew's arrival aboard T-38 jets (in the background) to make final preparations for their launch, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29. The other crew members are (left to right) Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Missing is Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, who was delayed in the flight from Texas. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC on Nov. 7.

  19. STS-95 crew greet media after arriving at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Seen from behind, STS-95 Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. (at microphone) greets the media at the Shuttle Landing Facility after the crew's arrival aboard T-38 jets to make final preparations for their launch, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29. The crew members are (left to right) Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Brown, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Missing is Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, who was delayed in the flight from Texas. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC on Nov. 7.

  20. STS-112 crew arrives at KSC's SLF for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-112 crew members share a few words after their arrival at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility to begin launch preparations. In the center are Commander Jeffrey Ashby (left) and Mission Specialist David Wolf (right). With their backs to the camera are Mission Specialists Piers Sellers (far left) and Sandra Magnus (far right). Not shown are Pilot Pamela Melroy and Mission Specialist Fyodor Yurchikhin, who is with the Russian Space Agency. STS-112, aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis, is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks. Launch is scheduled for Oct. 2 between 2 and 6 p.m.

  1. STS-99 Mission Specialist Mohri arrives for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-99 Mission Specialist Mamoru Mohri (Ph.D.), who is with the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan, waves on his arrival at KSC aboard a T-38 jet aircraft to prepare for launch of Endeavour Jan. 31 at 12:47 p.m. EST. Over the next few days, the crew will review mission procedures, conduct test flights in the Shuttle Training Aircraft and undergo routine preflight medical exams. STS-99 is the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which will chart a new course, using two antennae and a 200-foot- long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety.

  2. Estimated time of arrival and debiasing the time saving bias.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Gabriella; Patten, Christopher J D; Svenson, Ola; Eriksson, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The time saving bias predicts that the time saved when increasing speed from a high speed is overestimated, and underestimated when increasing speed from a slow speed. In a questionnaire, time saving judgements were investigated when information of estimated time to arrival was provided. In an active driving task, an alternative meter indicating the inverted speed was used to debias judgements. The simulated task was to first drive a distance at a given speed, and then drive the same distance again at the speed the driver judged was required to gain exactly 3 min in travel time compared with the first drive. A control group performed the same task with a speedometer and saved less than the targeted 3 min when increasing speed from a high speed, and more than 3 min when increasing from a low speed. Participants in the alternative meter condition were closer to the target. The two studies corroborate a time saving bias and show that biased intuitive judgements can be debiased by displaying the inverted speed. Practitioner Summary: Previous studies have shown a cognitive bias in judgements of the time saved by increasing speed. This simulator study aims to improve driver judgements by introducing a speedometer indicating the inverted speed in active driving. The results show that the bias can be reduced by presenting the inverted speed and this finding can be used when designing in-car information systems.

  3. Integrated Arrival and Departure Schedule Optimization Under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    In terminal airspace, integrating arrivals and departures with shared waypoints provides the potential of improving operational efficiency by allowing direct routes when possible. Incorporating stochastic evaluation as a post-analysis process of deterministic optimization, and imposing a safety buffer in deterministic optimization, are two ways to learn and alleviate the impact of uncertainty and to avoid unexpected outcomes. This work presents a third and direct way to take uncertainty into consideration during the optimization. The impact of uncertainty was incorporated into cost evaluations when searching for the optimal solutions. The controller intervention count was computed using a heuristic model and served as another stochastic cost besides total delay. Costs under uncertainty were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. The Pareto fronts that contain a set of solutions were identified and the trade-off between delays and controller intervention count was shown. Solutions that shared similar delays but had different intervention counts were investigated. The results showed that optimization under uncertainty could identify compromise solutions on Pareto fonts, which is better than deterministic optimization with extra safety buffers. It helps decision-makers reduce controller intervention while achieving low delays.

  4. Testing the Empirical Shock Arrival Model Using Quadrature Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Yashiro, S.

    2013-01-01

    The empirical shock arrival (ESA) model was developed based on quadrature data from Helios (in situ) and P-78 (remote sensing) to predict the Sun-Earth travel time of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The ESA model requires earthward CME speed as input, which is not directly measurable from coronagraphs along the Sun-Earth line. The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) were in quadrature during 20102012, so the speeds of Earth-directed CMEs were observed with minimal projection effects. We identified a set of 20 full halo CMEs in the field of view of SOHO that were also observed in quadrature by STEREO. We used the earthward speed from STEREO measurements as input to the ESA model and compared the resulting travel times with the observed ones from L1 monitors. We find that the model predicts the CME travel time within about 7.3 h, which is similar to the predictions by the ENLIL model. We also find that CME-CME and CME-coronal hole interaction can lead to large deviations from model predictions.

  5. Pleistocene megafaunal interaction networks became more vulnerable after human arrival.

    PubMed

    Pires, Mathias M; Koch, Paul L; Fariña, Richard A; de Aguiar, Marcus A M; dos Reis, Sérgio F; Guimarães, Paulo R

    2015-09-07

    The end of the Pleistocene was marked by the extinction of almost all large land mammals worldwide except in Africa. Although the debate on Pleistocene extinctions has focused on the roles of climate change and humans, the impact of perturbations depends on properties of ecological communities, such as species composition and the organization of ecological interactions. Here, we combined palaeoecological and ecological data, food-web models and community stability analysis to investigate if differences between Pleistocene and modern mammalian assemblages help us understand why the megafauna died out in the Americas while persisting in Africa. We show Pleistocene and modern assemblages share similar network topology, but differences in richness and body size distributions made Pleistocene communities significantly more vulnerable to the effects of human arrival. The structural changes promoted by humans in Pleistocene networks would have increased the likelihood of unstable dynamics, which may favour extinction cascades in communities facing extrinsic perturbations. Our findings suggest that the basic aspects of the organization of ecological communities may have played an important role in major extinction events in the past. Knowledge of community-level properties and their consequences to dynamics may be critical to understand past and future extinctions.

  6. Forecasting Wave Amplitudes after the Arrival of a Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyland, David; Huang, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The destructive Pacific Ocean tsunami generated off the east coast of Honshu, Japan, on 11 March 2011 prompted the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) to issue a tsunami warning and advisory for the coastal regions of Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California. Estimating the length of time the warning or advisory would remain in effect proved difficult. To address this problem, the WCATWC developed a technique to estimate the amplitude decay of a tsunami recorded at tide stations within the Warning Center's Area of Responsibly (AOR). At many sites along the West Coast of North America, the tsunami wave amplitudes will decay exponentially following the arrival of the maximum wave ( Mofjeld et al., Nat Hazards 22:71-89, 2000). To estimate the time it will take before wave amplitudes drop to safe levels, the real-time tide gauge data are filtered to remove the effects of tidal variations. The analytic envelope is computed and a 2 h sequence of amplitude values following the tsunami peak is used to obtain a least squares fit to an exponential function. This yields a decay curve which is then combined with an average West Coast decay function to provide an initial tsunami amplitude-duration forecast. This information may then be provided to emergency managers to assist with response planning.

  7. STS-100 Pilot Ashby arrives at KSC for TCDT activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - STS-100 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby arrives at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew Commander Kent V. Rominger and Mission Specialists Chris Hadfield, Scott E. Parazynski, John L. Phillips, Umberto Guidoni and Yuri Lonchakov -- are going to be taking part in emergency escape training at the pad, equipment familiarization and a simulated launch countdown. An international crew, Hadfield is with the Canadian Space Agency, Guidoni the European Space Agency and Lonchakov the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. The mission is carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and the Canadian robotic arm, SSRMS, to the International Space Station. Raffaello carries six system racks and two storage racks for the U.S. Lab. The SSRMS is crucial to the continued assembly of the orbiting complex and has a unique ability to switch ends as it works, '''inchworming''' along the Station'''s exterior. Launch of mission STS-100 is scheduled for April 19 at 2:41 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  8. Semi-coherent time of arrival estimation using regression.

    PubMed

    Apartsin, Alexander; Cooper, Leon N; Intrator, Nathan

    2012-08-01

    Time of arrival (ToA) estimation is essential for many types of remote sensing applications including radar, sonar, and underground exploration. The standard method for ToA estimation employs a matched filter for computing the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for ToA. The accuracy of the MLE decreases rapidly whenever the amount of noise in a received signal rises above a certain threshold. This well-known threshold effect is unavoidable in several important applications due to various limitations on the power and the spectrum of a narrowband source pulse. A measurement performed in the presence of the threshold effect employs a receiver which operates in the semi-coherent state. Therefore, the conventional methods assuming a coherent state receiver should be adapted to the semi-coherent case. In this paper, a biosonar-inspired method for the semi-coherent ToA estimation is described. The method abandons the exploration of an echo signal by a single matched filter in favor of the analysis by multiple phase-shifted unmatched filters. Each phase-shifted unmatched filter gives rise to a biased ToA estimator. The described method uses regression for combining these estimators into a single unbiased ToA estimator that outperform the MLE in the presence of the threshold effect.

  9. A COMPARISON OF COLLAPSING AND PRECISE ARRIVAL-TIME MAPPING OF MICROSEISMICITY

    SciTech Connect

    RUTLEDGE, JAMES T.; JONES, ROB H.

    2007-01-05

    In this paper they compare the improvements in microseismic location images obtained using precise arrival times with that obtained by the collapsing technique. They first collapse the initial locations for a hydraulic-fracture data set from the Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, they then use the precise-arrival-time locations as measure for the effectiveness of the collapsing. Finally, they examine the changes when applying collapsing to the precise-arrival-time locations.

  10. Testing for uniformity of ultra-high energy cosmic ray arrival directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) exhibit mainly an isotropic distribution with some small deviations in particular energy bins. In this paper, the Yakutsk array data are tested for circular uniformity of arrival directions in right ascension (RA) using two methods appropriate for the energy ranges below and above 1018 eV. No statistically significant deviation from uniformity is found in the arrival directions of cosmic rays (CRs) detected within the observation period 1974-2000.

  11. Effects of Target Arrival Rate on Mission Performance of Cooperatively Controlled UAVs with Comunication Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-17

    cooperatively controlled uninhabited aerial vehicles with task allocation per- formed by iterative network flow. Specifically, we quantify the effect of arrival...2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effects of Target Arrival Rate on Mission Performance of Cooperatively Controlled UAVs with Comunication Constraints 5a...missions. The maximum mission time is tf = 220 s for each arrival model. III. MODELS A. Task Allocation: Iterative Network Flow Task allocation is performed

  12. Decision Modeling Framework to Minimize Arrival Delays from Ground Delay Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohleji, Nandita

    Convective weather and other constraints create uncertainty in air transportation, leading to costly delays. A Ground Delay Program (GDP) is a strategy to mitigate these effects. Systematic decision support can increase GDP efficacy, reduce delays, and minimize direct operating costs. In this study, a decision analysis (DA) model is constructed by combining a decision tree and Bayesian belief network. Through a study of three New York region airports, the DA model demonstrates that larger GDP scopes that include more flights in the program, along with longer lead times that provide stakeholders greater notice of a pending program, trigger the fewest average arrival delays. These findings are demonstrated to result in a savings of up to $1,850 per flight. Furthermore, when convective weather is predicted, forecast weather confidences remain the same level or greater at least 70% of the time, supporting more strategic decision making. The DA model thus enables quantification of uncertainties and insights on causal relationships, providing support for future GDP decisions.

  13. Profile negotiation - A concept for integrating airborne and ground-based automation for managing arrival traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Den Braven, Wim; Williams, David H.

    1991-01-01

    The profile negotiation process (PNP) concept as applied to the management of arrival traffic within the extended terminal area is presented, focusing on functional issues from the ground-based perspective. The PNP is an interactive process between an aircraft and air traffic control (ATC) which combines airborne and ground-based automation capabilities to determine conflict-free trajectories that are as close to an aircraft's preference as possible. Preliminary results from a real-time simulation study show that the controller teams are able to consistently and effectively negotiate conflict-free vertical profiles with 4D-equipped aircraft. The ability of the airborne 4D flight management system to adapt to ATC specified 4D trajectory constraints is found to be a requirement for successful execution of the PNP. It is recommended that the conventional method of cost index iteration for obtaining the minimum fuel 4D trajectory be supplemented by a method which constrains the profile speeds to those desired by ATC.

  14. The Chandra X-ray Observatory arrives at Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Cradled in the cargo hold of a tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System, the Chandra X-ray Observatory waits to be moved inside the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF). Chandra arrived at the Shuttle Landing Facility on Thursday, Feb. 4, aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy aircraft. In the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  15. The Chandra X-ray Observatory arrives at Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Cradled in the cargo hold of a tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System, the Chandra X-ray Observatory reaches the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF). Chandra arrived at the Shuttle Landing Facility on Thursday, Feb. 4, aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy aircraft. In the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  16. The Chandra X-ray Observatory arrives at Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF), workers (left) drive, by remote control, the rear bogie away from the VPF. The bogie is part of the tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System that helped move the Chandra X-ray Observatory (right) from the Shuttle Landing Facility into the VPF. Chandra arrived at KSC on Thursday, Feb. 4, aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy aircraft. In the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  17. A particle filtering approach for spatial arrival time tracking in ocean acoustics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rashi; Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni

    2011-06-01

    The focus of this work is on arrival time and amplitude estimation from acoustic signals recorded at spatially separated hydrophones in the ocean. A particle filtering approach is developed that treats arrival times as "targets" and tracks their "location" across receivers, also modeling arrival time gradient. The method is evaluated via Monte Carlo simulations and is compared to a maximum likelihood estimator, which does not relate arrivals at neighboring receivers. The comparison demonstrates a significant advantage in using the particle filter. It is also shown that posterior probability density functions of times and amplitudes become readily available with particle filtering.

  18. Localization of a noisy broadband surface target using time differences of multipath arrivals.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, John; Siderius, Martin; McCargar, Reid; Allen, John S; Pusey, Grant

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies [Tiemann et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 2355-2365 (2006)] have reported the localization of marine mammals in 3-D from their clicks using multipath arrivals. Bathymetric variations were advantageously used to predict multipath arrival times with a raytracer. These arrivals are directly discernible from the time series for impulsive sources, such as whale clicks, but extension of the method to continuous broadband sources presents additional complications. By pulse compressing noise emitted from a small boat using two hydrophones, the hyperbolic direct-arrival ambiguity can be refined in both range and bearing. Acoustic-derived results are validated with target GPS measurements.

  19. Using Tax Parcels to Select a Location-Based Sample: An Illustration that Examines Residents' Awareness of Sex Offenders in Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Sarah W.; Freisthler, Bridget

    2008-01-01

    Social science research is increasingly considering place when examining social programs and policies with a spatial component. A specific research challenge involving spatial policies is how to select a sample of individuals based on their geographic locations. This article illustrates the use of geographic information systems, tax parcels, and…

  20. AIR DISTRIBUTION NOISE CONTROL IN CRITICAL AUDITORIUMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOOVER, R.M.

    THE ACHIEVEMENT OF EXTREMELY LOW AIR-CONDITIONING NOISE LEVELS REQUIRED FOR MODERN AUDITORIUMS ARE THE RESULT OF CAREFUL PLANNING AND THOROUGH DETAILING. PROBLEMS FACED AND TECHNIQUES USED IN ARRIVING AT LEVELS AS LOW AS NC-15 FOR A SINGLE SYSTEM SERVING A HALL ARE DESCRIBED. SIX CASE HISTORIES ARE EXAMINED AND THE FOLLOWING OBSERVATIONS ARE…

  1. Terminal area air traffic control simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    To study the impact of advanced aeronautical technologies on operations to and from terminal airports, a computer model of air traffic movements was developed. The advantages of fast-time simulation are discussed, and the arrival scheduling and flight simulation are described. A New York area study, user's guide, and programmer's guide are included.

  2. Environmental Baseline Survey Report for the Title Transfer of Land Parcel ED-4 at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    SAIC

    2008-05-01

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of a land parcel referred to as 'ED-4' (ED-4) at the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). DOE is proposing to transfer the title of this land to the Heritage Center, LLC. Parcel ED-4 is a land parcel that consists of two noncontiguous areas comprising a total of approximately 18 acres located east of the ETTP. The western tract of ED-4 encompasses approximately 8.5 acres in the northeastern quadrant of the intersection of Boulevard Road and Highway 58. The eastern tract encompasses an area of approximately 9.5 acres in the northwestern quadrant of the intersection of Blair Road and Highway 58 (the Oak Ridge Turnpike). Aerial photographs and site maps from throughout the history of the ETTP, going back to its initial development in the 1940s as the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), indicate that this area has been undeveloped woodland with the exception of three support facilities for workers constructing the ORGDP since federal acquisition in 1943. These three support facilities, which were located in the western tract of ED-4, included a recreation hall, the Town Hall Camp Operations Building, and the Property Warehouse. A railroad spur also formerly occupied a portion of Parcel ED-4. These former facilities only occupied approximately 5 percent of the total area of Parcel ED-4. This report provides supporting information for the transfer of this government-owned property at ETTP to a non-federal entity. This EBS is based upon the requirements of Sect. 120(h) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). In order to support a Clean Parcel Determination (CPD) in accordance with CERCLA Sect. 120(h)(4)(d), groundwater and sediment samples were collected within, and adjacent to, the Parcel ED-4 study area. The potential for DOE to make a CPD for ED-4 is further supported by a No

  3. Terrorist Watchlist Checks and Air Passenger Prescreening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-30

    U.S. port of entry or at airport security checkpoints prior U.S. air carrier flights. For these purposes, CBP administers the Automated Targeting...Passenger Screening at Airport Security Checkpoints ................................. 14 9/11 Commission Recommendations and CAPPS II...individuals at either international ports of entries upon arrival at a U.S. port of entry or at airport security checkpoints prior U.S. air carrier

  4. Stroke associated with pulmonary embolism after air travel.

    PubMed

    Lapostolle, F; Borron, S W; Surget, V; Sordelet, D; Lapandry, C; Adnet, F

    2003-06-24

    Prolonged air travel is associated with an increased incidence of thromboembolic events. The occurrence of stroke was studied in patients with pulmonary embolism after air travel in a review of all flights arriving at Charles de Gaulle Airport in Paris during an 8-year period. Thromboembolic stroke and patent foramen ovale were diagnosed in four patients with pulmonary embolus.

  5. The Evaluation of the Impact of New Technologies for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Trucks on Fuel Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth; Konan, Arnaud; Lammert, Michael; Prohaska, Robert

    2016-10-06

    In this paper, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory present the results of simulation studies to evaluate potential fuel savings as a result of improvements to vehicle rolling resistance, coefficient of drag, and vehicle weight as well as hybridization for four power trains for medium-duty parcel delivery vehicles. The vehicles will be modeled and simulated over 1,290 real-world driving trips to determine the fuel savings potential based on improvements to each technology and to identify best use cases for each platform. The results of impacts of new technologies on fuel saving will be presented, and the most favorable driving routes on which to adopt them will be explored.

  6. The Very Light Jet Arrives: Stakeholders and Their Perceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, Richard; Thomas, James L.; Cobb, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the initial results of a systematic study that addressed issues related to the direct and indirect market impact of very light jet (VLJ) aircraft. Although reports in the popular press offer wide-ranging estimates of the impact that these new jets will have on existing air travel, no systematic data exists that may be of use to all potential stakeholders. This introductory study serves to describe potential VLJ users and their perceptions of this new type of aircraft.

  7. Increased Water Diffusion in the Parcellated Cortical Regions from the Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sung-Han; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Ng, Shu-Hang; Cheng, Jur-Shan; Khegai, Oleksandr; Huang, Chin-Chang; Chen, Yao-Liang; Chen, Yi-Chun; Wang, Jiun-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The loss of cortical neuron environment integrity is the hallmark of neurodegeneration diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). To reveal the microenvironment changes in cerebral cortex, the current study aimed to examine the changes of mean diffusivity (MD) in parcellated brain among AD, aMCI patients and normal controls (NC). Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging data with the whole brain coverage were acquired from 28 AD (aged 69.4 ± 8.2 year old), 41 aMCI patients (aged 68.2 ± 6.4 year old) and 40 NC subjects (aged 65.7 ± 6.4 year old). Subsequently, the MD values were parcellated according to the standard automatic anatomic labeling (AAL) template. Only the 90 regions located in the cerebral cortex were used in the final analysis. The mean values of MD from each brain region were extracted and compared among the participant groups. The integrity of the white matter tracts and gray matter atrophy was analyzed using the track-based spatial statistics and voxel-based morphometry approaches, respectively. Results: Significant differences of MD were noticed both in aMCI and AD patients, in terms of the affected regions and the amount of increase. The hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and cingulum were the most significantly affected regions in AD patients. From all the 90 cerebral cortex regions, significant increase of MD in the AD patients was found in 40 regions, compared to only one (fusiform gyrus on the right) in aMCI patients. In the disease affected regions, the MD from aMCI patients is in state between NC and AD patients. Conclusions: Increased MD in the specific regions of the brain shows the feasibility of MD as an indicator of the early stage cortical degeneration in aMCI and AD patients.

  8. Increased Water Diffusion in the Parcellated Cortical Regions from the Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sung-Han; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Ng, Shu-Hang; Cheng, Jur-Shan; Khegai, Oleksandr; Huang, Chin-Chang; Chen, Yao-Liang; Chen, Yi-Chun; Wang, Jiun-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Background: The loss of cortical neuron environment integrity is the hallmark of neurodegeneration diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). To reveal the microenvironment changes in cerebral cortex, the current study aimed to examine the changes of mean diffusivity (MD) in parcellated brain among AD, aMCI patients and normal controls (NC). Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging data with the whole brain coverage were acquired from 28 AD (aged 69.4 ± 8.2 year old), 41 aMCI patients (aged 68.2 ± 6.4 year old) and 40 NC subjects (aged 65.7 ± 6.4 year old). Subsequently, the MD values were parcellated according to the standard automatic anatomic labeling (AAL) template. Only the 90 regions located in the cerebral cortex were used in the final analysis. The mean values of MD from each brain region were extracted and compared among the participant groups. The integrity of the white matter tracts and gray matter atrophy was analyzed using the track-based spatial statistics and voxel-based morphometry approaches, respectively. Results: Significant differences of MD were noticed both in aMCI and AD patients, in terms of the affected regions and the amount of increase. The hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and cingulum were the most significantly affected regions in AD patients. From all the 90 cerebral cortex regions, significant increase of MD in the AD patients was found in 40 regions, compared to only one (fusiform gyrus on the right) in aMCI patients. In the disease affected regions, the MD from aMCI patients is in state between NC and AD patients. Conclusions: Increased MD in the specific regions of the brain shows the feasibility of MD as an indicator of the early stage cortical degeneration in aMCI and AD patients. PMID:28123367

  9. Health status of newly arrived refugees in Toronto, Ont

    PubMed Central

    Redditt, Vanessa J.; Janakiram, Praseedha; Graziano, Daniela; Rashid, Meb

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of selected infectious diseases among newly arrived refugee patients and whether there is variation by key demographic factors. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Primary care clinic for refugee patients in Toronto, Ont. Participants A total of 1063 refugee patients rostered at the clinic from December 2011 to June 2014. Main outcome measures Demographic information (age, sex, and region of birth); prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Strongyloides, Schistosoma, intestinal parasites, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis infections; and varicella immune status. Results The median age of patients was 29 years and 56% were female. Refugees were born in 87 different countries. Approximately 33% of patients were from Africa, 28% were from Europe, 14% were from the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 14% were from Asia, and 8% were from the Americas (excluding 4% born in Canada or the United States). The overall rate of HIV infection was 2%. The prevalence of hepatitis B infection was 4%, with a higher rate among refugees from Asia (12%, P < .001). Hepatitis B immunity was 39%, with higher rates among Asian refugees (64%, P < .001) and children younger than 5 years (68%, P < .001). The rate of hepatitis C infection was less than 1%. Strongyloides infection was found in 3% of tested patients, with higher rates among refugees from Africa (6%, P = .003). Schistosoma infection was identified in 15% of patients from Africa. Intestinal parasites were identified in 16% of patients who submitted stool samples. Approximately 8% of patients were varicella nonimmune, with higher rates in patients from the Americas (21%, P < .001). Conclusion This study highlights the importance of screening for infectious diseases among refugee patients to provide timely preventive and curative care. Our data also point to possible policy and clinical implications, such as targeted screening approaches and improved access to vaccinations and

  10. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  11. 7 CFR 319.24-4 - Notice of arrival of corn by permittee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. 319.24-4... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-4 Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. Immediately...

  12. 7 CFR 319.24-4 - Notice of arrival of corn by permittee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. 319.24-4... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-4 Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. Immediately...

  13. 7 CFR 319.24-4 - Notice of arrival of corn by permittee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. 319.24-4... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-4 Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. Immediately...

  14. 7 CFR 319.24-4 - Notice of arrival of corn by permittee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. 319.24-4... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-4 Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. Immediately...

  15. 7 CFR 319.24-4 - Notice of arrival of corn by permittee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. 319.24-4... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-4 Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. Immediately...

  16. 19 CFR 12.112 - Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. 12...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.112 Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. (a) General. An importer desiring to import pesticides or devices into...

  17. 19 CFR 12.112 - Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. 12...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.112 Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. (a) General. An importer desiring to import pesticides or devices into...

  18. 19 CFR 12.112 - Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. 12...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.112 Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. (a) General. An importer desiring to import pesticides or devices into...

  19. 19 CFR 12.112 - Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. 12...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.112 Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. (a) General. An importer desiring to import pesticides or devices into...

  20. 19 CFR 12.112 - Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. 12...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.112 Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. (a) General. An importer desiring to import pesticides or devices into...