Science.gov

Sample records for air parcels originating

  1. The Origin of Stratospheric Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Dessler, A. E.; Wang, T.

    2012-12-01

    The domain-filling, forward trajectory calculation model developed by Schoeberl and Dessler [2011] is used to investigate the origin of air that enters the stratosphere, and the origin of the driest and wettest air parcels. We compare results from NASA's MERRA, NCEP's CFSR, and ECMWF's ERAi reanalyses in a non-convection simulation. The stratospheric air parcel origin is related to but distinct from the location of final dehydration zones. Final dehydration zones control stratospheric water vapor, but stratospheric air origin tells about the origin of non-water soluble constituents such as HCN or CO. The models broadly agree that stratospheric air parcel origins follow the ITCZ in winter with maxima over the tropical west Pacific and South America. The origins are more broadly dispersed in summer. Somewhat surprisingly, the seasonal cycle for the origins is small with most of the air parcels entering the stratosphere from 360K originate in non-DJF months. The origin of the wettest and driest parcels shows that the driest parcels (1-3 ppmv) originate in the tropical West Pacific while the wettest (6-10 ppmv) parcels originate in the East Pacific/ Central America.

  2. Air parcel random walk and droplet spectra broadening in clouds.

    PubMed

    Turitsyn, K S

    2003-06-01

    We study the effect of turbulent flow on the droplet growth in a cloud during the condensation phase. Using the air parcel model, we describe analytically how the size distribution of droplets evolves at the different stages of parcel movement. We show that turbulent random walk superimposed on an accelerated ascent of the parcel makes the relative width of droplet distribution to grow initially as t(1/2) and then decay as t(-3/2).

  3. Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original skinny mosaic path along edge of structures was altered (delineation can be seen in concrete) path was widened with a newer mosaic to make access to the site safer. Structures (from right) edge of Round House (with "Spring Garden"), Pencil house, Shell House, School House, wood lattice is attached to chain-link fence along north (rear) property line. These structures were all damaged by the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  4. Evolution of chemically processed air parcels in the lower stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Schoeberl, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft, ground-based, and satellite measurements indicate large concentrations of ClO in the lower stratosphere in and near the polar vortex. The amount of local ozone depletion caused by these large ClO concentrations will depend on the relative rates of ozone loss and ClO recovery. ClO recovery occurs when NO(x), from HNO3 photolysis, reacts with ClO to form ClONO2. We show that air parcels with large amounts of ClO will experience a subsequent ozone depletion that depends on the solar zenith angle. When the solar zenith angle is large in the middle of winter, the recovery of the ClO concentration in the parcel is slow relative to ozone depletion. In the spring, when the solar zenith angle is smaller, the ClO recovery is much faster. After ClO recovery, the chlorine chemistry has not returned to normal. The ClO has been converted to ClONO2. ClO production from further encounters with PSCs will be limited by the heterogeneous reaction of ClONO2 with water. Large ozone depletions, of the type seen in the Antarctic, occur only if there is significant irreversible denitrification in the air parcel.

  5. Air parcel trajectory dispersion near the tropical tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, John W.; Jensen, Eric J.; Pfister, Leonhard; Bui, Thaopaul V.

    2016-04-01

    Dispersion of backward air parcel trajectories that are initially tightly grouped near the tropical tropopause is examined using three ensemble approaches: "RANWIND," in which different ensemble members use identical resolved wind fluctuations but different realizations of stochastic, multifractal simulations of unresolved winds; "PERTLOC," in which members use identical resolved wind fields but initial locations are perturbed 2° in latitude and longitude; and a multimodel ensemble ("MULTIMODEL") that uses identical initial conditions but different resolved wind fields and/or trajectory formulations. Comparisons among the approaches distinguish, to some degree, physical dispersion from that due to data uncertainty and the impacts of unresolved wind fluctuations from those of resolved variability. Dispersion rates are robust properties of trajectories near the tropical tropopause. Horizontal dispersion rates are typically ~3°/d, which is large enough to spread parcels throughout the tropics within typical tropical tropopause layer transport times (30-60 days) and underscores the importance of averaging large collections of trajectories to obtain reliable parcel source and pathway distributions. Vertical dispersion rates away from convection are ~2-3 hPa/d. Dispersion is primarily carried out by the resolved flow, and the RANWIND approach provides a plausible representation of actual trajectory dispersion rates, while PERTLOC provides a reasonable and inexpensive alternative to RANWIND. In contrast, dispersion from the MULTIMODEL calculations is important because it reflects systematic differences in resolved wind fields from different reanalysis data sets.

  6. The Origins of Air Parcels Uplifted in a Two Dimensional Gravity Wave in the Tropical Upper Troposphere During the NASA Stratosphere Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Pfister, Leonhard; Chan, K. Roland; Kritz, Mark; Kelly, Ken

    1989-01-01

    During January and February 1987, as part of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project, the NASA ER-2 made 11 flights from Darwin, Australia to investigate dehydration mechanisms in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause. After the monsoon onset in the second week of January, steady easterly flow of 15-25 ms (exp -1) was established in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over northern Australia and adjacent seas. Penetrating into this regime were elements of the monsoon convection such as overshooting convective turrets and extensive anvils including cyclone cloud shields. In cases of the latter, the resulting flow obstructions tended to produce mesoscale gravity waves. In several instances the ER- 2 meteorological and trace constituent measurements provide a detailed description of the structure of these gravity waves. Among these was STEP Flight 6, 22-23 January. It is of particular interest to STEP because of the close proximity of ice-laden and dehydrated air on the same isentropic surfaces. Convective events inject large amounts of ice into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere which may not be completely removed by local precipitation processes. In the present instance, a gravity wave for removed from the source region appears to induce relativity rapid upward motion in the ice-laden air and subsequent dessication. Potential mechanisms for such a localized removal process are under investigation.

  7. On the Origin of Polar Vortex Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, J. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The existence of the multi-year HALOE CH4 data set, together with some comparisons of forward with back trajectory calculations which we have carried out, has motivated us to reexamine the question of polar vortex descent. Three-dimensional diabatic trajectory calculations have been carried out for the seven month fall to spring period in both the northern hemisphere (NH) and southern hemisphere (SH) polar stratosphere for the years 1992-1999. These computations are compared to fixed descent computations where the parcels were fixed at their latitude-longitude locations and allowed to descend without circulating. The forward trajectory computed descent is always less than the fixed descent due to horizontal parcel motions and variations in heating rates with latitude and longitude. Although the forward calculations estimate the maximum amount of descent that can occur, they do not necessarily indicate the actual origin of springtime vortex air. This is because more equator-ward air can be entrained within the vortex during its formation. To examine the origin of the springtime vortex air, the trajectory model was run backward for seven months from spring to fall. The back trajectories show a complex distribution of parcels in which one population originates in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere and experiences considerable descent in the polar regions, while the remaining parcels originate at lower altitudes of the middle and lower stratosphere and are mixed into the polar regions during vortex formation without experiencing as much vertical transport. The amount of descent experienced by the first population shows little variability from year to year, while the computed descent and mixing of the remaining parcels show considerable interannual variability due to the varying polar meteorology. Because of this complex parcel distribution it is not meaningful to speak of a net amount of descent experienced over the entire winter period. Since the back trajectories

  8. In situ observations of dehydrated air parcels advected horizontally in the Tropical Tropopause Layer of the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasebe, F.; Fujiwara, M.; Nishi, N.; Shiotani, M.; Vömel, H.; Oltmans, S.; Takashima, H.; Saraspriya, S.; Komala, N.; Inai, Y.

    2007-02-01

    Water vapor observations by chilled-mirror hygrometers were conducted at Bandung, Indonesia (6.90° S, 107.60° E) and Tarawa, Kiribati (1.35° N, 172.91° E) in December 2003 to examine the efficiency of dehydration during horizontal advection in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Trajectory analyses based on bundles of isentropic trajectories suggest that the modification of air parcels' identity due to irreversible mixing by the branching-out and merging-in of nearby trajectories is found to be an important factor, in addition to the routes air parcels follow, for interpreting the water vapor concentrations observed by chilled-mirror frostpoint hygrometers in the TTL. Clear correspondence between the observed water vapor concentration and the estimated temperature history of air parcels is found showing that drier air parcels were exposed to lower temperatures than were more humid ones during advection. Although the number of observations is quite limited, the water content in the observed air parcels on many occasions was more than that expected from the minimum saturation mixing ratio during horizontal advection prior to sonde observations.

  9. Uncertainty and dispersion in air parcel trajectories near the tropical tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, John; Jensen, Eric; Pfister, Leonhard; Bui, Thoapaul

    2016-04-01

    The Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) is important as the gateway to the stratosphere for chemical constituents produced at the Earth's surface. As such, understanding the processes that transport air through the upper tropical troposphere is important for a number of current scientific issues such as the impact of stratospheric water vapor on the global radiative budget and the depletion of ozone by both anthropogenically- and naturally-produced halocarbons. Compared to the lower troposphere, transport in the TTL is relatively unaffected by turbulent motion. Consequently, Lagrangian particle models are thought to provide reasonable estimates of parcel pathways through the TTL. However, there are complications that make trajectory analyses difficult to interpret; uncertainty in the wind data used to drive these calculations and trajectory dispersion being among the most important. These issues are examined using ensembles of backward air parcel trajectories that are initially tightly grouped near the tropical tropopause using three approaches: A Monte Carlo ensemble, in which different members use identical resolved wind fluctuations but different realizations of stochastic, multi-fractal simulations of unresolved winds, perturbed initial location ensembles, in which members use identical resolved wind fields but initial locations are displaced 2° in latitude and longitude, and a multi-model ensemble that uses identical initial conditions but different resolved wind fields and/or trajectory formulations. Comparisons among the approaches distinguish, to some degree, physical dispersion from that due to data uncertainty and the impact of unresolved wind fluctuations from that of resolved variability.

  10. 76 FR 77856 - International Mail Price Change for Inbound Air Parcel Post

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... service bonus eligibility and submission of annual inflation information from the Consumer Price Index for... may qualify for percentage ``bonuses'' to their base rate based upon their provision of certain value... International Bureau publishes an annual notice establishing the postal administration's parcel rates for...

  11. The Use of Compensated Aerological No-Lift Balloons to Determine Relatively Long-Term Dry-Air Parcel Trajectories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terliuc, Benjamin; Asculai, Ephraim; Doron, Eli

    1983-10-01

    A method to compensate the loss of buoyancy due to gas leakage from aerological no-lift balloons is presented. The method is implemented by means of a double vessel device that supplies a constant liquid outflow at constant temperature. It is shown that the average buoyancy loss rate dependence on temperature is almost perfectly matched by the outflow rate dependence on temperature when soya-bean oil is used. The device is simple, inexpensive and can be easily manufactured using standard laboratory equipment.A simple and safe method to carry no-lift systems to prefixed levels is also presented. It is based on a single 30 g pilot balloon provided with a gas leakage nozzle, inflated with H2 to a calibrated initial free-lift. The balloon is totally emptied at the required level, and remains suspended from the no-lift system.The whole system can be easily prepared under field conditions to be used in long travel-time studies of dry-air parcel trajectories in the atmosphere.An example of the use of the improved method over complex terrain is presented. A no-lift system provided with a 1680 MHz radiosonde transmitter, was tracked by two RD-65 radio-theodolites, to investigate the effects of the topographic structure of the Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) area on the Mediterranean sea breeze summer regime. The system was tracked for at least one hour, following a trajectory with severe vertical variations. This increases our confidence in the ability to track much longer trajectories, if required.

  12. New particle-dependent parameterizations of heterogeneous freezing processes: sensitivity studies of convective clouds with an air parcel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, K.; Mitra, S. K.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the outcome of laboratory results, new particle-dependent parameterizations of heterogeneous freezing were derived and used to improve and extend a two-dimensional spectral microphysics scheme. They include (1) a particle-type-dependent parameterization of immersion freezing using the numbers of active sites per mass, (2) a particle-type and size-resolved parameterization of contact freezing, and (3) a particle-type-dependent description of deposition freezing. The modified microphysical scheme was embedded in an adiabatic air parcel model with entrainment. Sensitivity studies were performed to simulate convective situations and to investigate the impact of ice nuclei concentrations and types on ice formation. As a central diagnostic parameter, the ice water fraction (IWF) was selected, which is the relation of the ice water content to the total amount of water in the condensed form. The following parameters were varied: initial aerosol particle number size distributions, types of ice nucleating particles, final temperature, and the fractions of potential ice nucleating particles. Single and coupled freezing processes were investigated. The results show that immersion freezing seems to be the most efficient process. Contact freezing is constrained by the collision kernel between supercooled drops and potential ice nucleating particles. The importance of deposition freezing lies in secondary ice formation; i.e., small ice particles produced by deposition nucleation trigger the freezing of supercooled drops by collisions. Thus, a broader ice particle spectrum is generated than that by immersion and contact freezing. During coupled immersion-contact and contact-deposition freezing no competition was observed, and both processes contribute to cloud ice formation but do not impede each other. As already suggested in the literature, mineral dust particles seem to be the most important ice nucleating particles. Biological particles are probably not involved in

  13. Improving stable isotope-based reconstructions of Sierra Nevada paleotopography using insights from regional air parcel trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechler, A.; Galewsky, J.

    2012-12-01

    The geodynamic evolution of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of the western US remains subject to debate due to the lack of consensus on the Cenozoic paleoelevation history of the range. The majority of recent studies attempting to quantify the surface uplift history of the Sierra Nevada rely on stable isotope paleoaltimetry methods that often implicitly assume that atmospheric flow interactions with topography can be simply modeled as a Rayleigh distillation process in which air mass trajectories ascend and rainout heavy isotopologues of water (18O and D) across topographic barriers relatively unimpeded. Accordingly, stable isotope paleoaltimetry studies commonly target leeward side paleo-meteoric water proxies to constrain paleotopography of the windward barrier. We present a modern (1979 - 2010) air parcel trajectory analysis using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model that shows that the fundamental assumptions of stable isotope paleoaltimetry are often violated in the Sierra Nevada region. Trajectory analysis indicates that westerly air masses are frequently orographically blocked by and redirected around the higher elevations (> 2.5 km) of the Sierra Nevada. As a result, trajectories reaching the Sierran lee commonly travel around, rather than over, the highest range elevations. These blocking and redirection effects are particularly pronounced for leeward sites that are distal (> 150 km) from the Sierran crest but are also evident in trajectory patterns for both windward and proximal leeward locations in the northern Sierra Nevada. In addition, trajectory patterns indicate that much of the Sierran lee receives a non-negligible proportion of annual precipitation from summer storm systems sourced in the subtropical Pacific Ocean and Gulf of California that have little to no interaction with Sierran topography. This trajectory analysis highlights the complexity of orographic precipitation patterns and processes in the Sierra

  14. 5. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL DRAWINGS, ELECTRIC AIR AND HEATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL DRAWINGS, ELECTRIC AIR AND HEATING UNIT, PLAN AND ELEVATION - Wyoming Air National Guard Base, Electric, Air & Heating Plant, Cheyenne Airport, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  15. 14. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF ORIGINAL DEMAG AIR COMPRESSOR UNIT FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF ORIGINAL DEMAG AIR COMPRESSOR UNIT FOR THE LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY HIGH PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Air and the origin of the experimental plant physiology.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that oxygen and carbon dioxide are two chemicals which enter the plant metabolism as nutrients. The bases of this nowadays obvious statement were placed in the 18th century by means of the works of ingenious naturalists such as Robert Boyle, Stephen Hales, Joseph Priestley, Jam Ingenhousz, Lazzaro Spallanzani and Theodore De Saussure. Till the end of the 17th century, the atmospheric air was considered as an ineffable spirit, the function of which was of physical nature. Boyle was the first naturalist to admit the possibility that respiration were an exchange of vapours occurring in the blood. Stephen Hales realised that air could be fixed by plants under the influence of solar light. Priestley showed that plants could regenerate the bad air making it breathable. Ingenhousz demonstrated that the green parts of plants performed the complete purification of air only under the influence of the light. Spallanzani discovered that plants respire and guessed that the good air (oxygen) originated from the fixed air (carbon dioxide). Finally, Theodore De Saussure showed that plants were able to adsorb carbon dioxide and to release oxygen in a proportional air. All these discoveries benefited of the results coming from investigations of scholars of the so-called "pneumatic chemistry" (Boyle himself, George Ernst Stahl, Joseph Black, Priestley himself, and many more others. But among all the eminent scientists above mentioned stands out the genius of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, who revolutionised the chemistry of the 18th century ferrying it towards the modern chemistry. PMID:16440283

  17. Air and the origin of the experimental plant physiology.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that oxygen and carbon dioxide are two chemicals which enter the plant metabolism as nutrients. The bases of this nowadays obvious statement were placed in the 18th century by means of the works of ingenious naturalists such as Robert Boyle, Stephen Hales, Joseph Priestley, Jam Ingenhousz, Lazzaro Spallanzani and Theodore De Saussure. Till the end of the 17th century, the atmospheric air was considered as an ineffable spirit, the function of which was of physical nature. Boyle was the first naturalist to admit the possibility that respiration were an exchange of vapours occurring in the blood. Stephen Hales realised that air could be fixed by plants under the influence of solar light. Priestley showed that plants could regenerate the bad air making it breathable. Ingenhousz demonstrated that the green parts of plants performed the complete purification of air only under the influence of the light. Spallanzani discovered that plants respire and guessed that the good air (oxygen) originated from the fixed air (carbon dioxide). Finally, Theodore De Saussure showed that plants were able to adsorb carbon dioxide and to release oxygen in a proportional air. All these discoveries benefited of the results coming from investigations of scholars of the so-called "pneumatic chemistry" (Boyle himself, George Ernst Stahl, Joseph Black, Priestley himself, and many more others. But among all the eminent scientists above mentioned stands out the genius of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, who revolutionised the chemistry of the 18th century ferrying it towards the modern chemistry.

  18. Intrinsic functional connectivity pattern-based brain parcellation using normalized cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hewei; Song, Dandan; Wu, Hong; Fan, Yong

    2012-02-01

    In imaging data based brain network analysis, a necessary precursor for constructing meaningful brain networks is to identify functionally homogeneous regions of interest (ROIs) for defining network nodes. For parcellating the brain based on resting state fMRI data, normalized cut is one widely used clustering algorithm which groups voxels according to the similarity of functional signals. Due to low signal to noise ratio (SNR) of resting state fMRI signals, spatial constraint is often applied to functional similarity measures to generate smooth parcellation. However, improper spatial constraint might alter the intrinsic functional connectivity pattern, thus yielding biased parcellation results. To achieve reliable and least biased parcellation of the brain, we propose an optimization method for the spatial constraint to functional similarity measures in normalized cut based brain parcellation. Particularly, we first identify the space of all possible spatial constraints that are able to generate smooth parcellation, then find the spatial constraint that leads to the brain parcellation least biased from the intrinsic function pattern based parcellation, measured by the minimal Ncut value calculated based on the functional similarity measure of original functional signals. The proposed method has been applied to the parcellation of medial superior frontal cortex for 20 subjects based on their resting state fMRI data. The experiment results indicate that our method can generate meaningful parcellation results, consistent with existing functional anatomy knowledge.

  19. Unsupervised fetal cortical surface parcellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    At the core of many neuro-imaging studies, atlas-based brain parcellations are used for example to study normal brain evolution across the lifespan. These atlases rely on the assumption that the same anatomical features are present on all subjects to be studied and that these features are stable enough to allow meaningful comparisons between different brain surfaces and structures These methods, however, often fail when applied to fetal MRI data, due to the lack of consistent anatomical features present across gestation. This paper presents a novel surface-based fetal cortical parcellation framework which attempts to circumvent the lack of consistent anatomical features by proposing a brain parcellation scheme that is based solely on learned geometrical features. A mesh signature incorporating both extrinsic and intrinsic geometrical features is proposed and used in a clustering scheme to define a parcellation of the fetal brain. This parcellation is then learned using a Random Forest (RF) based learning approach and then further refined in an alpha-expansion graph-cut scheme. Based on the votes obtained by the RF inference procedure, a probability map is computed and used as a data term in the graph-cut procedure. The smoothness term is defined by learning a transition matrix based on the dihedral angles of the faces. Qualitative and quantitative results on a cohort of both healthy and high-risk fetuses are presented. Both visual and quantitative assessments show good results demonstrating a reliable method for fetal brain data and the possibility of obtaining a parcellation of the fetal cortical surfaces using only geometrical features.

  20. 78 FR 63521 - Product Change-Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Contract 5 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available...

  1. Parcellating connectivity in spatial maps.

    PubMed

    Baldassano, Christopher; Beck, Diane M; Fei-Fei, Li

    2015-01-01

    A common goal in biological sciences is to model a complex web of connections using a small number of interacting units. We present a general approach for dividing up elements in a spatial map based on their connectivity properties, allowing for the discovery of local regions underlying large-scale connectivity matrices. Our method is specifically designed to respect spatial layout and identify locally-connected clusters, corresponding to plausible coherent units such as strings of adjacent DNA base pairs, subregions of the brain, animal communities, or geographic ecosystems. Instead of using approximate greedy clustering, our nonparametric Bayesian model infers a precise parcellation using collapsed Gibbs sampling. We utilize an infinite clustering prior that intrinsically incorporates spatial constraints, allowing the model to search directly in the space of spatially-coherent parcellations. After showing results on synthetic datasets, we apply our method to both functional and structural connectivity data from the human brain. We find that our parcellation is substantially more effective than previous approaches at summarizing the brain's connectivity structure using a small number of clusters, produces better generalization to individual subject data, and reveals functional parcels related to known retinotopic maps in visual cortex. Additionally, we demonstrate the generality of our method by applying the same model to human migration data within the United States. This analysis reveals that migration behavior is generally influenced by state borders, but also identifies regional communities which cut across state lines. Our parcellation approach has a wide range of potential applications in understanding the spatial structure of complex biological networks.

  2. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  3. Air Mass Origin in the Arctic and its Response to Future Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orbe, Clara; Newman, Paul A.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Holzer, Mark; Oman, Luke; Polvani, Lorenzo M.; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    We present the first climatology of air mass origin in the Arctic in terms of rigorously defined air mass fractions that partition air according to where it last contacted the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Results from a present-day climate integration of the GEOSCCM general circulation model reveal that the Arctic lower troposphere below 700 mb is dominated year round by air whose last PBL contact occurred poleward of 60degN, (Arctic air, or air of Arctic origin). By comparison, approx. 63% of the Arctic troposphere above 700 mb originates in the NH midlatitude PBL, (midlatitude air). Although seasonal changes in the total fraction of midlatitude air are small, there are dramatic changes in where that air last contacted the PBL, especially above 700 mb. Specifically, during winter air in the Arctic originates preferentially over the oceans, approx. 26% in the East Pacific, and approx. 20% in the Atlantic PBL. By comparison, during summer air in the Arctic last contacted the midlatitude PBL primarily over land, overwhelmingly so in Asia (approx. 40 %) and, to a lesser extent, in North America (approx. 24%). Seasonal changes in air-mass origin are interpreted in terms of seasonal variations in the large-scale ventilation of the midlatitude boundary layer and lower troposphere, namely changes in the midlatitude tropospheric jet and associated transient eddies during winter and large scale convective motions over midlatitudes during summer.

  4. 77 FR 28409 - Product Change-Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM... Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select &...

  5. 77 FR 37078 - Product Change-Parcel Select and Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select and Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select &...

  6. 76 FR 16460 - Parcel Select Price and Classification Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Parcel Select Price and Classification Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... changes affecting Parcel Select. The Postal Service seeks to implement new prices for Parcel Select for... implement new prices for Parcel Select for forwarding and return to sender. The fee would be the...

  7. Proposed sale of Parcel A2 of the Oak Ridge Reservation to the City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Parcel A encompasses two tracts of land owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The disposal of land was recommended by a General Services Administration 1981 land utilization survey. On June 21, 1988, 21.3 ha (52.7 acres) of land, Parcel A1, were transferred to the City of Oak Ridge. Parcel Al has since been transferred to the private sector for residential development. The City of Oak Ridge has requested acquisition of Parcel A2 for residential and industrial development. The purpose of the proposed action is to transfer Parcel A2 to the City of Oak Ridge for residential and industrial development. The need for the proposed action is for DOE to respond to the General Services Administration directive to dispose of Parcel A2 and to respond to the request by the City of Oak Ridge for its acquisition and development. The proposed sale of Parcel A2 would have no environmental impacts; however, the subsequent development by the City would affect the existing environment. It is the potential effects of the City's development of Parcel A2 that are addressed by this environmental assessment (EA). Areas of concern include land use, air quality, hydrology and water quality, wetlands and floodplains, ecological resources, and socioeconomic resources.

  8. Proposed sale of Parcel A2 of the Oak Ridge Reservation to the City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental asssessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Parcel A encompasses two tracts of land owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The disposal of land was recommended by a General Services Administration 1981 land utilization survey. On June 21, 1988, 21.3 ha (52.7 acres) of land, Parcel A1, were transferred to the City of Oak Ridge. Parcel Al has since been transferred to the private sector for residential development. The City of Oak Ridge has requested acquisition of Parcel A2 for residential and industrial development. The purpose of the proposed action is to transfer Parcel A2 to the City of Oak Ridge for residential and industrial development. The need for the proposed action is for DOE to respond to the General Services Administration directive to dispose of Parcel A2 and to respond to the request by the City of Oak Ridge for its acquisition and development. The proposed sale of Parcel A2 would have no environmental impacts; however, the subsequent development by the City would affect the existing environment. It is the potential effects of the City`s development of Parcel A2 that are addressed by this environmental assessment (EA). Areas of concern include land use, air quality, hydrology and water quality, wetlands and floodplains, ecological resources, and socioeconomic resources.

  9. On the Origin of the Air between Multiple Tropopauses at Midlatitudes

    PubMed Central

    Añel, Juan Antonio; de la Torre, Laura; Gimeno, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Multiple tropopauses are structures that regularly recur in the midlatitudes. Recent studies have relied on the notion of the excursion of tropical air from the upper troposphere into higher latitudes, thereby overlaying the tropopause of the midlatitudes. We herein analyse the origin and characteristics of the air at the Boulder radiosonde station, between the first and second tropopauses combining an analysis of radiosonde data with a Lagrangian approach based on the FlexPart model and ERA-40 analysis data. Our results show that the air between both tropopauses has its origin in midlatitudes. PMID:22685385

  10. GCSS Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David OC.; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Jensen, Eric; Sassen, Kenneth; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    assumptions that can only be justified by further laboratory data. Consequently, it is not yet clear if the two approaches can be made consistent. Large haze particles may deviate considerably from equilibrium size in moderate to strong updrafts (20-100 cm/s) at -60 C when the commonly invoked equilibrium assumption is lifted. The resulting difference in particle-size-dependent solution concentration of haze particles may significantly affect the ice nucleation rate during the initial nucleation interval. The uptake rate for water vapor excess by ice crystals is another key component regulating the total number of nucleated ice crystals. This rate, the product of ice number concentration and ice crystal diffusional growth rate, which is sensitive to the deposition coefficient when ice particles are small, partially controls the peak nucleation rate achieved in an air parcel and the duration of the active nucleation time period. The effects of heterogeneous nucleation are most pronounced in weak updraft situations. Vapor competition by the nucleated (heterogeneous) ice crystals limits the achieved ice supersaturation and thus suppresses the contribution of homogeneous nucleation. Correspondingly, ice crystal number density is markedly reduced. Definitive laboratory and atmospheric benchmark data are needed for the heterogeneous nucleation process. Inter-model differences are correspondingly greater than in the case of the homogeneous nucleation process acting alone.

  11. Optimal combination of multiple cortical surface parcellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xintao; Guo, Lei; Li, Gang; Li, Kaiming; Liu, Tianming

    2010-03-01

    A variety of methodologies have been developed for the parcellation of human cortical surface into sulcal or gyral regions due to its importance in structural and functional mapping of the human brain. However, characterizing the performance of surface parcellation methods and the estimation of ground truth of segmentation are still open problems. In this paper, we present an algorithm for simultaneous truth and performance estimation of various approaches for human cortical surface parcellation. The probabilistic true segmentation is estimated as a weighted combination of the segmentations resulted from multiple methods. Afterward, an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is used to optimize the weighting depending on the estimated performance level of each method. Furthermore, a spatial homogeneity constraint modeled by the Hidden Markov Random Field (HMRF) theory is incorporated to refine the estimated true segmentation into a spatially homogenous decision. The proposed method has been evaluated using both synthetic and real data. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the method proposed in this paper. Also, it has been used to generate reference sulci regions to perform a comparison study of three methods for cortical surface parcellation.

  12. Mathematical Model of Evolution of Brain Parcellation.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Daniel D; Wei, Yi; Koulakov, Alexei A

    2016-01-01

    We study the distribution of brain and cortical area sizes [parcellation units (PUs)] obtained for three species: mouse, macaque, and human. We find that the distribution of PU sizes is close to lognormal. We propose the mathematical model of evolution of brain parcellation based on iterative fragmentation and specialization. In this model, each existing PU has a probability to be split that depends on PU size only. This model suggests that the same evolutionary process may have led to brain parcellation in these three species. Within our model, region-to-region (macro) connectivity is given by the outer product form. We show that most experimental data on non-zero macaque cortex macroscopic-level connections can be explained by the outer product power-law form suggested by our model (62% for area V1). We propose a multiplicative Hebbian learning rule for the macroconnectome that could yield the correct scaling of connection strengths between areas. We thus propose an evolutionary model that may have contributed to both brain parcellation and mesoscopic level connectivity in mammals. PMID:27378859

  13. Mathematical Model of Evolution of Brain Parcellation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, Daniel D.; Wei, Yi; Koulakov, Alexei A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the distribution of brain and cortical area sizes [parcellation units (PUs)] obtained for three species: mouse, macaque, and human. We find that the distribution of PU sizes is close to lognormal. We propose the mathematical model of evolution of brain parcellation based on iterative fragmentation and specialization. In this model, each existing PU has a probability to be split that depends on PU size only. This model suggests that the same evolutionary process may have led to brain parcellation in these three species. Within our model, region-to-region (macro) connectivity is given by the outer product form. We show that most experimental data on non-zero macaque cortex macroscopic-level connections can be explained by the outer product power-law form suggested by our model (62% for area V1). We propose a multiplicative Hebbian learning rule for the macroconnectome that could yield the correct scaling of connection strengths between areas. We thus propose an evolutionary model that may have contributed to both brain parcellation and mesoscopic level connectivity in mammals. PMID:27378859

  14. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David O'C.; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Jensen, Eric; Sassen, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison (CPMC) is a project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (GCSS WG2). The primary goal of this project is to identify cirrus model sensitivities to the state of our knowledge of nucleation and microphysics. Furthermore, the common ground of the findings may provide guidelines for models with simpler cirrus microphysics modules. We focus on the nucleation regimes of the warm (parcel starting at -40 C and 340 hPa) and cold (-60 C and 170 hPa) cases studied in the GCSS WG2 Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project. Nucleation and ice crystal growth were forced through an externally imposed rate of lift and consequent adiabatic cooling. The background haze particles are assumed to be lognormally-distributed H2SO4 particles. Only the homogeneous nucleation mode is allowed to form ice crystals in the HN-ONLY runs; all nucleation modes are switched on in the ALL-MODE runs. Participants were asked to run the HN-lambda-fixed runs by setting lambda = 2 (lambda is further discussed in section 2) or tailoring the nucleation rate calculation in agreement with lambda = 2 (exp 1). The depth of parcel lift (800 m) was set to assure that parcels underwent complete transition through the nucleation regime to a stage of approximate equilibrium between ice mass growth and vapor supplied by the specified updrafts.

  15. 7 CFR 318.13-15 - Parcel post inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parcel post inspection. 318.13-15 Section 318.13-15... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-15 Parcel post inspection. Inspectors are authorized to inspect, with the cooperation of the U.S. Postal Service, parcel post packages placed in the mails...

  16. Air Mass Origin in the Arctic and its Response to Future Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orbe, C.; Newman, P. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Holzer, M. B.; Oman, L.; Polvani, L. M.; Li, F.

    2014-12-01

    Long-range transport from Northern Hemisphere (NH) midlatitudes plays a key role in setting the distributions of trace species and aerosols in the Arctic. While comprehensive models project a strengthening and poleward shift in the midlatitude tropospheric jets in response to future warming, relatively little attention has been paid to assessing the large-scale transport response in the Arctic. A natural way to quantify transport and its future changes is in terms of rigorously defined air masses that partition air according to where it last contacted the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Here we present climatologies of Arctic air mass origin for NH winter and summer, computed from two integrations of the Goddard Earth Observing System chemistry-climate model (GEOSCCM) subject to present-day and future climate forcings. The modeled transport response to A1B greenhouse-gas induced warming reveals that in the future ~10% more air in the Arctic will originate over NH midlatitudes, with a slighter weaker albeit significant increase in winter compared to summer. Our results indicate that transport changes alone may lead to "cleaner" Arctic winters, as air will be 5-10% more likely to have last contacted the PBL over the East Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans and less likely to have originated over Europe and North America. Conversely, in future summers the air mass fractions originating over Asia and North America increase by ~10%, indicating that Arctic pollutant levels may be enhanced owing solely to changes in transport. In particular, our results suggest that more stringent emissions caps may be needed to combat enhanced transport into the Arctic from Asia, where increases in black carbon emissions have already posed concerns. Future changes in air mass fractions are interpreted in terms of large-scale circulation responses that are consistent with CMIP5 multi-model mean projections - namely, upward and poleward shifted meridional transient eddies in future winters and

  17. On the origin and destination of atmospheric moisture and air mass over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Xu, Xiang-De; Yang, Shuai; Zhang, Wei

    2012-12-01

    The Tibet Plateau (TP) is a key region that imposes profound impacts on the atmospheric water cycle and energy budget of Asia, even the global climate. In this work, we develop a climatology of origin (destination) of air mass and moisture transported to (from) the TP using a Lagrangian moisture diagnosis combined with the forward and backward atmospheric tracking schemes. The climatology is derived from 6-h particle positions based on 5-year (2005-2009) seasonal summer trajectory dataset from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART using NCEP/GFS data as input, where the regional model atmosphere was globally filled with particles. The results show that (1) the dominant origin of the moisture supplied to the TP is a narrow tropical-subtropical band in the extended Arabian Sea covering a long distance from the Indian subcontinent to the Southern Hemisphere. Two additional moisture sources are located in the northwestern part of TP and the Bay of Bengal and play a secondary role. This result indicates that the moisture transporting to the TP more depends on the Indian summer monsoon controlled by large-scale circulation. (2) The moisture departing from the TP can be transported rapidly to East Asia, including East China, Korea, Japan, and even East Pacific. The qualitative similarity between the regions of diagnosed moisture loss and the pattern of the observed precipitation highlights the robustness of the role of the TP on precipitation over East Asia. (3) In contrast to the moisture origin confined in the low level, the origin and fate of whole column air mass over the TP is largely controlled by a strong high-level Asian anticyclone. The results show that the TP is a crossroad of air mass where air enters mainly from the northwest and northeast and continues in two separate streams: one goes southwestwards over the Indian Ocean and the other southeastwards through western North Pacific. Both of them partly enter the trade wind zone, which manifests the

  18. Origin of reverse-graded bedding in air-fall pumice, Coso Range, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.; Bacon, C.R.; Roquemore, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The origin of reverse grading in air-fall pyroclastic deposits has been ascribed to: (1) changing conditions at an erupting vent; (2) deposition in water; or (3) rolling of large clasts over smaller clasts on the surface of a steep slope. Structural features in a deposit of air-fall pumice lapilli in the Coso Range, California, indicate that reverse grading there formed by a fourth mechanism during flow of pumice. Reverse-graded beds in this deposit occur where pumice lapilli fell on slopes at or near the angle of repose and formed as parts of the blanket of accumulating pumice became unstable and flowed downslope. The process of size sorting during such flow is probably analogous to that which sorts sand grains in a reverse fashion during avalanching on the slip faces of sand dunes, attributed by Bagnold (1954a) to a grain-dispersive pressure acting on particles subjected to a shear stress. In view of the several ways in which air-fall pyroclastic debris may become reverse graded, caution is advised in interpretation of the origin of this structure both in modern and in ancient deposits. ?? 1979.

  19. A simple parcel method for prediction of cumulus onset and area-averaged cloud amount over heterogeneous land surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzel, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    A set of PBL data selected from the Wangara experiment is used to examine the relationship between cumulus amount and the calculated relative humidity of rising parcels. The Wilde et al. (1985) method is compared to two explicit parcel methods. It is shown that predictions using parcel methods, in which surface air is lifted to its equilibrium level while being diluted by a defined amount of mixed layer air, are superior for cloud amount, especially during periods of rapid cloud onset when the mean boundary layer top is swiftly rising through a near-neutral layer. Pending independent verification, it appears that an rms error in instantaneous cloud amount of + or - 10 percent may be achievable.

  20. Characterizing the origin of extreme air pollution events over the Iberian Peninsula by clustering air quality-climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baró, Rocío; Egea, Jose A.; Lorente-Plazas, Raquel; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    A wide number of studies show that the Iberian Peninsula (IP) exceeds some of the thresholds of air quality established in the legislation. Chemistry transport models (CTMs) play a key role in forecasting the threshold exceedances for human health and ecosystems, and to understand the causes of these extreme air pollution events. Despite improvements due to European legislations, particulate matter and ground-level ozone remain important pollutants affecting human health. However, the short-term forecasts available today (generally less than 48 hours) may hamper the decision-making and the design of abatement strategies to comply with air quality standards in the Iberian Peninsula. In this sense, a characterization of the types extreme air pollution events could help to characterize and understand future exceedances. Moreover, the variation of several circulation types projected under future climate scenarios may increase of the frequency of extreme events related to air pollution over southwestern Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. In this context, a definition of extreme air pollution events based on a regionalization process has been carried out, applied to a model climatology of air pollution over the Iberian Peninsula. Data from the regional modeling system MM5-CHIMERE-EMEP (driven by ERA40 reanalysis) for the period 1970-2000 is used in this study. The studied pollutants are PM10 and ozone. The domain of study covers the Iberian Peninsula with a horizontal resolution of 25 km and a vertical resolution of 23 layers in the troposphere. The thresholds set for defining the extreme events are characterized from the objective and limit values defined in the Directive 2008/50/EC for ozone (120 µg m-3, 8-hour) and PM10 (50 µg m-3, daily mean). In order to identify locations with similar patterns in terms of the studied pollutants, a principal component analysis was carried out. This analysis helped us to group areas which usually present the same level of each

  1. Gyral parcellation of cortical surfaces via coupled flow field tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Guo, Lei; Li, Kaiming; Nie, Jingxin; Liu, Tianming

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method for parcellation of the cortical surface of human brain into gyral based regions via coupled flow field tracking. The proposed method consists of two major steps. First, the cortical surface is automatically parcellated into sulcal based regions using several procedures: estimating principal curvatures and principal directions; applying the hidden Markov random field and the Expectation-Maximization (HMRF-EM) framework for sulcal region segmentation based on the maximum principal curvature; diffusing the maximum principal direction field in order to propagate reliable and informative principal directions at gyral crests and sulcal bottoms to other flat cortical regions with noisy principal directions by minimization of an energy function; tracking the flow field towards sulcal bottoms to parcellate the cortical surfaces into sulcal basins. The sulcal parcellation provides a very good initialization for the following steps of gyral parcellation on cortical surfaces. Second, based on the sulcal parcellation results, the cortical surface is further parcellated into gyral based regions using the following procedures: extracting gyral crest segments; dilating gyral crest segments; inverting the principal direction flow field and tracking the flow field towards gyral crests in order to partition the cortical surface into a collection of gyral patches; merging gyral patches to obtain gyral parcellation of the cortical surface. The proposed algorithm pipeline is applied to nine randomly selected cortical surfaces of normal brains and promising results are obtained. The accuracy of the semi-automatic gyral parcellation is comparable to that labeled manually by experts.

  2. Shape-based multifeature brain parcellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel approach to parcellate - delineate the anatomical feature (folds, gyri, sulci) boundaries - the brain cortex. Our approach is based on extracting the 3D brain cortical surface mesh from magnetic resonance (MR) images, computing the shape measures (area, mean curvature, geodesic, and travel depths) for this mesh, and delineating the anatomical feature boundaries using these measures. We use angle-area preserving mapping of the cortical surface mesh to a simpler topology (disk or rectangle) to aid in the visualization and delineation of these boundaries. Contrary to commonly used generic 2D brain image atlas-based approaches, we use 3D surface mesh data extracted from a given brain MR imaging data and its specific shape measures for the parcellation. Our method does not require any non-linear registration of a given brain dataset to a generic atlas and hence, does away with the structure similarity assumption critical to the atlas-based approaches. We evaluate our approach using Mindboggle manually labeled brain datasets and achieve the following accuracies: 72.4% for gyri, 78.5% for major sulci, and 98.4% for folds. These results warrant further investigation of this approach as an alternative or as an initialization to the atlas-based approaches.

  3. Automatic parcellation of longitudinal cortical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alassaf, Manal H.; Hahn, James K.

    2015-03-01

    We present a novel automatic method to parcellate the cortical surfaces of the neonatal brain longitudinal atlas at different stages of development. A labeled brain atlas of newborn at 41 weeks gestational age (GA) is used to propagate labels of anatomical regions of interest to an unlabeled spatio-temporal atlas, which provides a dynamic model of brain development at each week between 28-44 GA weeks. First, labels from the cortical volume of the labeled newborn brain are propagated to an age-matched cortical surface from the spatio-temporal atlas. Then, labels are propagated across the cortical surfaces of each week of the spatio-temporal atlas by registering successive cortical surfaces using a novel approach and an energy optimization function. This procedure incorporates local and global, spatial and temporal information when assigning the labels to each surface. The result is a complete parcellation of 17 neonatal brain surfaces of the spatio-temporal atlas with similar points per labels distributions across weeks.

  4. Manual MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Marin E; Crocetti, Deana; Clauss, Jacqueline A; Kraut, Michael A; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Kaufmann, Walter E

    2009-05-15

    The ability to examine associations between neuropsychiatric conditions and functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry, but methods for identifying frontal sub-regions in MR (magnetic resonance) images are not well established. Prior published techniques have principally defined gyral regions that do not necessarily correspond to known functional divisions. We present a method in which sulcal-gyral landmarks are used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex (SMC), frontal eye field and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial OFC). Feasibility was tested by applying the protocol to brain MR data from 15 boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 15 typically developing controls, 8-12 years old. Intra- and inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated using parcellation volumes from a subset of that group. Inter-rater results for the 22 hemisphere specific sub-regions ranged from 0.724 to 0.997, with all but seven values above 0.9. Boys with ADHD showed significantly smaller left hemisphere SMC and DLPFC volumes after normalization for total cerebral volume. These findings support the method as a reliable and valid technique for parcellating the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions.

  5. Manual MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Marin E.; Crocetti, Deana; Clauss, Jacqueline A.; Kraut, Michael A.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Kaufmann, Walter E.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to examine associations between neuropsychiatric conditions and functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry, but methods for identifying frontal sub-regions in MR (magnetic resonance) images are not well established. Prior published techniques have principally defined gyral regions that do not necessarily correspond to known functional divisions. We present a method in which sulcal-gyral landmarks are used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex (SMC), frontal eye field and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial OFC). Feasibility was tested by applying the protocol to brain MR data from 15 boys with ADHD and 15 typically developing controls, 8–12 years old. Intra- and inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated using parcellation volumes from a subset of that group. Inter-rater results for the 22 hemisphere specific sub-regions ranged from 0.724 to 0.997, with all but six values above 0.9. Boys with ADHD showed significantly smaller left hemisphere SMC and DLPFC volumes after normalization for total cerebral volume. These findings support the method as a reliable and valid technique for parcellating the frontal lobe into functionally relevant subregions. PMID:19324532

  6. 75 FR 52378 - Transfer of Commercial Standard Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Commission to transfer commercial Standard Mail Parcels from the Mail Classification Schedule's Market... to transfer commercial Standard Mail Parcels from the Mail Classification Schedule's Market Dominant... Commercial Standard Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List AGENCY: Postal Service. TM ACTION:...

  7. 7 CFR 1955.140 - Sale in parcels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sale in parcels. 1955.140 Section 1955.140...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.140 Sale... Programs property, may be offered for sale as a whole or subdivided into parcels as determined by the...

  8. 19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical plan, 1986. Barton and Martin, Engineers. 'Topographical Plan for Dobson Mills.' Prepared for Rouse Urban Housing, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1986. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 12. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, West Parcel, site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, West Parcel, site plan-upper right, and surrounding environs, 1884. Hopkins, Griffith Morgan. City Atlas of Philadelphia by Wards, 7 vols., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: G. M. Hopkins and Co., 1884, Plate 9. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 48 CFR 242.1404-1 - Parcel post eligible shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parcel post eligible shipments. 242.1404-1 Section 242.1404-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Traffic and Transportation Management 242.1404-1 Parcel post eligible shipments. (b)(1) See DoD...

  11. 48 CFR 242.1404-1 - Parcel post eligible shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Parcel post eligible shipments. 242.1404-1 Section 242.1404-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Traffic and Transportation Management 242.1404-1 Parcel post eligible shipments. (b)(1) See DoD...

  12. Composition of air masses in Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) according to their origins

    SciTech Connect

    Patier, R.F.; Diez Hernandez, P.; Diaz Ramiro, E.; Ballesteros, J.S.; Santos-Alves, S.G. dos

    1994-12-31

    The Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental has among their duties the background atmospheric pollution monitoring in Spain. To do so, the laboratory has set up 6 field stations in the Iberian Peninsula. In these stations, both gaseous and particulate pollutants are currently analyzed. However, there is a lack of data about the atmospheric pollution in the Canary, where they are a very strong influence of natural emissions from sea and the Saharan desert, mixed with anthropogenic ones. Therefore, during the ASTEX/MAGE project the CNSA established a station in Fuerteventura island, characterized by the nonexistence of man-made emissions, to measure some atmospheric pollutants, in order to foresee their origins. In this study, the authors analyzed some pollutants that are used to obtain a clue about the sources of air masses such as gaseous ozone and metallic compounds (vanadium, iron and manganese) in the atmospheric aerosol fractionated by size.

  13. Parcellating Cortical Functional Networks in Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danhong; Buckner, Randy L.; Fox, Michael D.; Holt, Daphne J.; Holmes, Avram J.; Stoecklein, Sophia; Langs, Georg; Pan, Ruiqi; Qian, Tianyi; Li, Kuncheng; Baker, Justin T.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xiaomin; Hong, Bo; Liu, Hesheng

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to identify the unique functional architecture of an individual’s brain is a critical step towards personalized medicine and understanding the neural basis of variations in human cognition and behavior. Here, we developed a novel cortical parcellation approach to accurately map functional organization at the individual level using resting-state fMRI. A population-based functional atlas and a map of inter-individual variability were employed to guide the iterative search for functional networks in individual subjects. Functional networks mapped by this approach were highly reproducible within subjects and effectively captured the variability across subjects, including individual differences in brain lateralization. The algorithm performed well across different subject populations and data types including task fMRI data. The approach was then validated by invasive cortical stimulation mapping in surgical patients, suggesting great potential for use in clinical applications. PMID:26551545

  14. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Ranta, Marin E.; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L.; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. (2009) in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions. PMID:23897577

  15. Seasonality of new particle formation in Vienna, Austria - Influence of air mass origin and aerosol chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonaschütz, Anna; Demattio, Anselm; Wagner, Robert; Burkart, Julia; Zíková, Naděžda; Vodička, Petr; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Steiner, Gerhard; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2015-10-01

    The impact of air mass origin and season on aerosol chemical composition and new particle formation and growth events (NPF events) in Vienna, Austria, is investigated using impactor samples from short-term campaigns and two long-term number size distribution datasets. The results suggest that air mass origin is most important for bulk PM concentrations, chemical composition of the coarse fraction (>1.5 μm) and the mass size distribution, and less important for chemical composition of the fine fraction (<1.5 μm). Continental air masses (crustal elements) were distinguished from air masses of marine origin (traces of sea salt). NPF events were most frequent in summer (22% of measurement days), and least frequent in winter (3% of measurement days). They were associated with above-average solar radiation and ozone concentrations, but were largely independent of PM2.5. Air mass origin was a secondary influence on NPF, largely through its association with meteorological conditions. Neither a strong dependence on the PM2.5 loading of the air masses, nor indications of a source area for NPF precursors outside the city were found.

  16. Measurements of CO in an aircraft experiment and their correlation with biomass burning and air mass origin in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boian, C.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

    Carbon monoxide (CO) measurements are obtained in an aircraft experiment during 1-7 September 2000, conducted over Central Brazil in a special region of anticyclonic circulation. This is a typical transport regime during the dry season (July-September), when intense biomass burning occurs, and which gives origin to the transport of burning poluents from the source to distant regions. This aircraft experiment included in situ measurements of CO concentrations in three different scenarios: (1) areas of fresh biomass burning air masses, or source areas; (2) areas of aged biomass burning air masses; and (3) areas of clean air or pristine air masses. The largest CO concentrations were of the order of 450 ppbv in the source region near Conceicao do Araguaia (PA), and the smallest value near 100 ppbv, was found in pristine air masses, for example, near the northeast coastline (clean air, or background region). The observed concentrations were compared to the number of fire pixels seen by the AVHRR satellite instrument. Backward isentropic trajectories were used to determine the origin of the air masses at each sampling point. From the association of the observed CO mixing ratios, fire pixels and air mass trajectories, the previous scenarios may be subdivided as follows: (1a) source regions of biomass burning with large CO concentrations; (1b) regions with few local fire pixels and absence of contributions by transport. Areas with these characteristics include the northeast region of Brazil; (1c) regions close to the source region and strongly affected by transport (region of Para and Amazonas); (2) regions that have a consistent convergence of air masses, that have traveled over biomass burning areas during a few days (western part of the Cerrado region); (3a) Pristine air masses with origin from the ocean; (3b) regions with convergent transport that has passed over areas of no biomass burning, such as frontal weather systems in the southern regions.

  17. Origins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of resources dealing with the theme of origins of life, the universe, and traditions. Includes Web sites, videos, books, audio materials, and magazines with appropriate grade levels and/or subject disciplines indicated; professional resources; and learning activities. (LRW)

  18. The Mycobiota of Air Inside and Outside the Meju Fermentation Room and the Origin of Meju Fungi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-09-01

    The fungi on Meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. In order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional Meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional Meju fermentation rooms was examined. From 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 Meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the dominant species, followed by Cladosporium tenuissimum, Eurotium sp., Phoma sp., Sistotrema brinkmannii, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Penicillium glabrum. In inside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asp. nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cla. cladosporioides, Eurotium sp., Penicillium sp., Cla. tenuissimum, Asp. niger, Eur. herbariorum, Asp. sydowii, and Eur. repens were collected with high frequency. The concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium were significantly higher in inside air than outside air. From this result and those of previous reports, the origin of fungi present on Meju was inferred. Of the dominant fungal species present on Meju, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis are thought to be originated from outside air, because these species are not or are rarely isolated from rice straw and soybean; however, they were detected outside air of fermentation room and are species commonly found in indoor environments. However, Asp. oryzae, Pen. polonicum, Eur. repens, Pen. solitum, and Eur. chevalieri, which are frequently found on Meju, are common in rice straw and could be transferred from rice straw to Meju. The fungi grow and produce abundant spores during Meju fermentation, and after the spores accumulate in the air of fermentation room, they could influence mycobiota of Meju fermentation in the following

  19. Trends and sources vs air mass origins in a major city in South-western Europe: Implications for air quality management.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Camacho, R; de la Rosa, J D; Sánchez de la Campa, A M

    2016-05-15

    This study presents a 17-years air quality database comprised of different parameters corresponding to the largest city in the south of Spain (Seville) where atmospheric pollution is frequently attributed to traffic emissions and is directly affected by Saharan dust outbreaks. We identify the PM10 contributions from both natural and anthropogenic sources in this area associated to different air mass origins. Hourly, daily and seasonal variation of PM10 and gaseous pollutant concentrations (CO, NO2 and SO2), all of them showing negative trends during the study period, point to the traffic as one of the main sources of air pollution in Seville. Mineral dust, secondary inorganic compounds (SIC) and trace elements showed higher concentrations under North African (NAF) air mass origins than under Atlantic. We observe a decreasing trend in all chemical components of PM10 under both types of air masses, NAF and Atlantic. Principal component analysis using more frequent air masses in the area allows the identification of five PM10 sources: crustal, regional, marine, traffic and industrial. Natural sources play a more relevant role during NAF events (20.6 μg · m(-3)) than in Atlantic episodes (13.8 μg · m(-3)). The contribution of the anthropogenic sources under NAF doubles the one under Atlantic conditions (33.6 μg · m(-3) and 15.8 μg · m(-3), respectively). During Saharan dust outbreaks the frequent accumulation of local anthropogenic pollutants in the lower atmosphere results in poor air quality and an increased risk of mortality. The results are relevant when analysing the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the exposed population in large cities. The increase in potentially toxic elements during Saharan dust outbreaks should also be taken into account when discounting the number of exceedances attributable to non-anthropogenic or natural origins.

  20. Trends and sources vs air mass origins in a major city in South-western Europe: Implications for air quality management.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Camacho, R; de la Rosa, J D; Sánchez de la Campa, A M

    2016-05-15

    This study presents a 17-years air quality database comprised of different parameters corresponding to the largest city in the south of Spain (Seville) where atmospheric pollution is frequently attributed to traffic emissions and is directly affected by Saharan dust outbreaks. We identify the PM10 contributions from both natural and anthropogenic sources in this area associated to different air mass origins. Hourly, daily and seasonal variation of PM10 and gaseous pollutant concentrations (CO, NO2 and SO2), all of them showing negative trends during the study period, point to the traffic as one of the main sources of air pollution in Seville. Mineral dust, secondary inorganic compounds (SIC) and trace elements showed higher concentrations under North African (NAF) air mass origins than under Atlantic. We observe a decreasing trend in all chemical components of PM10 under both types of air masses, NAF and Atlantic. Principal component analysis using more frequent air masses in the area allows the identification of five PM10 sources: crustal, regional, marine, traffic and industrial. Natural sources play a more relevant role during NAF events (20.6 μg · m(-3)) than in Atlantic episodes (13.8 μg · m(-3)). The contribution of the anthropogenic sources under NAF doubles the one under Atlantic conditions (33.6 μg · m(-3) and 15.8 μg · m(-3), respectively). During Saharan dust outbreaks the frequent accumulation of local anthropogenic pollutants in the lower atmosphere results in poor air quality and an increased risk of mortality. The results are relevant when analysing the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the exposed population in large cities. The increase in potentially toxic elements during Saharan dust outbreaks should also be taken into account when discounting the number of exceedances attributable to non-anthropogenic or natural origins. PMID:26930305

  1. The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, D.; DeMott, P.; Cotten, R.; Jensen, E.; Sassen, K.

    2000-01-01

    nucleation interval. The uptake rate for water vapor excess by ice crystals is another key component regulating the total number of nucleated ice crystals. This rate, the product of ice number concentration and ice crystal diffusional growth rate, partially controls the peak nucleation rate achieved in an air parcel and the duration of the active nucleation time period.

  2. Origins.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, S

    1985-10-01

    The farthest of the galaxies that can be seen through the large ground-based telescopes of modern astronomy, such as those on La Palma in the Canary Islands, are so far away that they appear as they did close to the time of the origin of the universe, perhaps some 10 billion years ago. Much has been learned, and much has still to be learned, about the young universe from optical and radio telescopes, but these instruments cannot be used to look directly at the universe in its first few hundred thousand years. Instead, they are used to search the relatively recent past for relics of much earlier times. Together with experiments planned for the next generation of elementary particle accelerators, astronomical observations should continue to extend what is known about the universe backward in time to the Big Bang and may eventually help to reveal the origins of the physical laws that govern the universe.

  3. Variability in Parameter Estimates and Model Fit across Repeated Allocations of Items to Parcels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya K.; MacCallum, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Different random or purposive allocations of items to parcels within a single sample are thought not to alter structural parameter estimates as long as items are unidimensional and congeneric. If, additionally, numbers of items per parcel and parcels per factor are held fixed across allocations, different allocations of items to parcels within a…

  4. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  5. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  6. A GIS-based shape index for land parcels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demetriou, Demetris; Stillwell, John; See, Linda

    2013-08-01

    Shape analysis is of interest in many fields of spatial science and planning including land management in rural areas. In particular, evaluating the shape of existing land parcels is critical when implementing rural development schemes such as land consolidation. However, existing land parcel shape indices have major deficiencies: completely different shapes of parcels may have the same index value or similar parcel shapes may have different index scores. Thus, there is a clear requirement for a more accurate and reliable measurement method. This paper therefore presents a new parcel shape index (PSI) which integrates a geographical information system (GIS) with a multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) method. It involves the amalgamated outcome of six geometric measures represented by value functions involving a mathematical representation of judgements by experts that compare each geometric measure with that of an optimum parcel shape defined for land consolidation projects. The optimum shape has a PSI value of 1 while the worst shape has a value close to 0. The shape measures used in the model include length of sides, acute angles, reflex angles, boundary points, compactness and regularity. The paper uses data for two case study areas in Cyprus to demonstrate the superiority of the new PSI over three existing shape indices employed in other studies. The methodology utilized here can be implemented in other disciplines dealing with the assessment of objects that can be compared to an optimum.

  7. Air Mass Origin as a Diagnostic of Seasonally-Varying Transport into the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orbe, C.; Waugh, D. W.; Holzer, M. B.; Newman, P. A.; Polvani, L. M.; Oman, L.; Li, F.

    2013-12-01

    While the signatures of the seasonal cycle on basic state variables such as temperature, winds and on chemical composition have been explored in depth, its signature on air mass composition has received relatively little attention. To this end, we present the first analysis of the seasonally varying transport from the northern hemisphere (NH) midlatitudes into the Arctic using rigorously defined air masses. The fractional contribution from each air mass partitions Arctic air according to where it was last in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) at midlatitudes over the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, North America, Europe, and Asia. Air mass fractions are computed using the coupled climate-chemistry model GEOSCCM subject to fixed present-day climate forcings. We find that during DJF 48% of the air in the free troposphere poleward of 60N was last at midlatitudes primarily at the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, at 20% and 10% respectively. During JJA, however, the largest contributions to Arctic air come from Asian and North American source regions, revealing that transport from the industrialized midlatitude regions dominates during boreal summer. Preliminary calculations of future air masses for a model integration subject to A1B greenhouse gases also reveal the model's climate change response in arctic air mass composition. In concert with weakened tropospheric eddy kinetic energy and a weakened Hadley cell, we find that changes in annual mean arctic air mass fractions are of the order 10%, with increased contributions from air that was last in contact with the PBL over North America and over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Air-mass fractions, and their changes, thus help to isolate the role of transport to changes in composition, which are not only driven by changes in chemistry and emissions but also crucially by changes in atmospheric flow.

  8. Earthquake Hazard Class Mapping by Parcel in Las Vegas Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancha, A.; Pullammanappallil, S.; Louie, J. N.; Hellmer, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    Clark County, Nevada completed the very first effort in the United States to map earthquake hazard class systematically through an entire urban area. The map is used in development and disaster response planning, in addition to its direct use for building code implementation and enforcement. The County contracted with the Nevada System of Higher Education to classify about 500 square miles including urban Las Vegas Valley, and exurban areas considered for future development. The Parcel Map includes over 10,000 surface-wave array measurements accomplished over three years using Optim's SeisOpt° ReMi measurement and processing techniques adapted for large scale data. These array measurements classify individual parcels on the NEHRP hazard scale. Parallel "blind" tests were conducted at 93 randomly selected sites. The rms difference between the Vs30 values yielded by the blind data and analyses and the Parcel Map analyses is 4.92%. Only six of the blind-test sites showed a difference with a magnitude greater than 10%. We describe a "C+" Class for sites with Class B average velocities but soft surface soil. The measured Parcel Map shows a clearly definable C+ to C boundary on the west side of the Valley. The C to D boundary is much more complex. Using the parcel map in computing shaking in the Valley for scenario earthquakes is crucial for obtaining realistic predictions of ground motions.

  9. Modeling indoor air pollution of outdoor origin in homes of SAPALDIA subjects in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland.

  10. Modeling indoor air pollution of outdoor origin in homes of SAPALDIA subjects in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland. PMID:26070024

  11. Origin of atmospheric aerosols at the Pierre Auger Observatory using studies of air mass trajectories in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bardenet, R.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Foerster, N.; Fox, B. D.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Preda, T.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Straub, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Thao, N. T.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Curci, G.

    2014-11-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is making significant contributions towards understanding the nature and origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. One of its main challenges is the monitoring of the atmosphere, both in terms of its state variables and its optical properties. The aim of this work is to analyse aerosol optical depth τa(z) values measured from 2004 to 2012 at the observatory, which is located in a remote and relatively unstudied area of Pampa Amarilla, Argentina. The aerosol optical depth is in average quite low - annual mean τa(3.5 km) ∼ 0.04 - and shows a seasonal trend with a winter minimum - τa(3.5 km) ∼ 0.03 -, and a summer maximum - τa(3.5 km) ∼ 0.06 -, and an unexpected increase from August to September - τa(3.5 km) ∼ 0.055. We computed backward trajectories for the years 2005 to 2012 to interpret the air mass origin. Winter nights with low aerosol concentrations show air masses originating from the Pacific Ocean. Average concentrations are affected by continental sources (wind-blown dust and urban pollution), whilst the peak observed in September and October could be linked to biomass burning in the northern part of Argentina or air pollution coming from surrounding urban areas.

  12. Semi-automatic parcellation of the corpus striatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hakim, Ramsey; Nain, Delphine; Levitt, James; Shenton, Martha; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2007-03-01

    The striatum is the input component of the basal ganglia from the cerebral cortex. It includes the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens. Thus, the striatum is an important component in limbic frontal-subcortical circuitry and is believed to be relevant both for reward-guided behaviors and for the expression of psychosis. The dorsal striatum is composed of the caudate and putamen, both of which are further subdivided into pre- and post-commissural components. The ventral striatum (VS) is primarily composed of the nucleus accumbens. The striatum can be functionally divided into three broad regions: 1) a limbic; 2) a cognitive and 3) a sensor-motor region. The approximate corresponding anatomic subregions for these 3 functional regions are: 1) the VS; 2) the pre/post-commissural caudate and the pre-commissural putamen and 3) the post-commissural putamen. We believe assessing these subregions, separately, in disorders with limbic and cognitive impairment such as schizophrenia may yield more informative group differences in comparison with normal controls than prior parcellation strategies of the striatum such as assessing the caudate and putamen. The manual parcellation of the striatum into these subregions is currently defined using certain landmark points and geometric rules. Since identification of these areas is important to clinical research, a reliable and fast parcellation technique is required. Currently, only full manual parcellation using editing software is available; however, this technique is extremely time intensive. Previous work has shown successful application of heuristic rules into a semi-automatic platform1. We present here a semi-automatic algorithm which implements the rules currently used for manual parcellation of the striatum, but requires minimal user input and significantly reduces the time required for parcellation.

  13. DESCRIPTION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Key differences among many types of air quality models are the way atmospheric advection and turbulent diffusion processes are treated. Gaussian models use analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equations. Lagrangian models use a hypothetical air parcel concept effecti...

  14. Origin, occurrence, and source emission rate of acrolein in residential indoor air.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Vincent Y; Bennett, Deborah H; Cahill, Thomas M

    2007-10-15

    Acrolein, a volatile, unsaturated aldehyde, is a known respiratory toxicant and one of the 188 most hazardous air pollutants identified by the U.S. EPA. A newly developed analytical method was used to determine residential indoor air concentrations of acrolein and other volatile aldehydes in nine homes located in three California counties (Los Angeles, Placer, Yolo). Average indoor air concentrations of acrolein were an order of magnitude higher than outdoor concentrations at the same time. All homes showed similar diurnal patterns in indoor air concentrations, with acrolein levels in evening samples up to 2.5 times higherthan morning samples. These increases were strongly correlated with temperature and cooking events, and homes with frequent, regular cooking activity had the highest baseline (morning) acrolein levels. High acrolein concentrations were also found in newly built, uninhabited homes and in emissions from lumber commonly used in home construction, suggesting indoor contributions from off-gassing and/or secondary formation. The results provide strong evidence that human exposure to acrolein is dominated by indoor air with little contribution from ambient outdoor air. PMID:17993132

  15. Determining indoor air quality and identifying the origin of odour episodes in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Eva; Roca, Xavier; Perales, Jose Francisco; Guardino, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and determining air quality of indoor air has been developed. The air samples are collected using pump samplers by the inhabitants when they perceive odorous and/or discomfort episodes. Glass multi-sorbent tubes are connected to the pump samplers for the retention of VOC. The analysis is performed by automatic thermal desorption (ATD) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This methodology can be applied in cases of sick building syndrome (SBS) evaluation, in which building occupants experience a series of varied symptoms that appear to be linked to time spent in the building. Chemical pollutants concentrations (e.g., VOC) have been described to contribute to SBS. To exemplify the methodology, a qualitative determination and an evaluation of existing VOC were performed in a dwelling where the occupants experienced the SBS symptoms. Higher total VOC (TVOC) levels were detected during episodes in indoor air (1.33 +/- 1.53 mg/m3) compared to outdoor air (0.71 +/- 0.46 mg/m3). The concentrations of individual VOCs, such as ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, 1-butanol, acetic acid, acetonitrile and 1-methoxy-2-propanol, were also higher than the expected for a standard dwelling. The external source of VOC was found to be an undeclared activity of storage and manipulation of solvents located at the bottom of a contiguous building.

  16. 76 FR 11297 - New Regional Ground Service for Parcels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ...: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service notice of rate and classification changes affecting Parcel Select. The changes involve a new offering identified as Regional Ground service. This notice informs the public of the filing, addresses preliminary procedural matters, and invites...

  17. United Parcel Service Evaluates Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-02-01

    This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet Test and Evaluation team evaluated the 12-month, in-service performance of six Class 4 hybrid electric delivery vans - fueled by regular diesel - and six comparable conventional diesel vans operated by the United Parcel Service.

  18. View of structures at rear of parcel with 12' scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of structures at rear of parcel with 12' scale (in tenths). From right: edge of Round House, Pencil house, Shell House, edge of School House. Heart Shrine made from mortared car headlights at frame left. Camera facing east. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  19. 7 CFR 318.13-15 - Parcel post inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parcel post inspection. 318.13-15 Section 318.13-15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated...

  20. 7 CFR 318.13-15 - Parcel post inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parcel post inspection. 318.13-15 Section 318.13-15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated...

  1. Center of parcel with picture tube wall along walkway. Leaning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Center of parcel with picture tube wall along walkway. Leaning Tower of Bottle Village at frame right; oblique view of Rumpus Room, remnants of Little Hut destroyed by Northridge earthquake at frame left. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  2. 7 CFR 318.13-15 - Parcel post inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parcel post inspection. 318.13-15 Section 318.13-15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... subpart, to examine any such products that are found for insect infestation, and to notify the...

  3. A multi-modal parcellation of human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Matthew F; Coalson, Timothy S; Robinson, Emma C; Hacker, Carl D; Harwell, John; Yacoub, Essa; Ugurbil, Kamil; Andersson, Jesper; Beckmann, Christian F; Jenkinson, Mark; Smith, Stephen M; Van Essen, David C

    2016-08-11

    Understanding the amazingly complex human cerebral cortex requires a map (or parcellation) of its major subdivisions, known as cortical areas. Making an accurate areal map has been a century-old objective in neuroscience. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance images from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and an objective semi-automated neuroanatomical approach, we delineated 180 areas per hemisphere bounded by sharp changes in cortical architecture, function, connectivity, and/or topography in a precisely aligned group average of 210 healthy young adults. We characterized 97 new areas and 83 areas previously reported using post-mortem microscopy or other specialized study-specific approaches. To enable automated delineation and identification of these areas in new HCP subjects and in future studies, we trained a machine-learning classifier to recognize the multi-modal 'fingerprint' of each cortical area. This classifier detected the presence of 96.6% of the cortical areas in new subjects, replicated the group parcellation, and could correctly locate areas in individuals with atypical parcellations. The freely available parcellation and classifier will enable substantially improved neuroanatomical precision for studies of the structural and functional organization of human cerebral cortex and its variation across individuals and in development, aging, and disease. PMID:27437579

  4. Use of Item Parceling in Structural Equation Modeling with Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcan, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Parceling is referred to as a procedure for computing sums or average scores across multiple items. Parcels instead of individual items are then used as indicators of latent factors in the structural equation modeling analysis (Bandalos 2002, 2008; Little et al., 2002; Yang, Nay, & Hoyle, 2010). Item parceling may be applied to alleviate some…

  5. 76 FR 17784 - Forwarding and Return Service for Parcel Select Mailpieces

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... 111 Forwarding and Return Service for Parcel Select Mailpieces AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... Parcel Select mailpieces and to eliminate the option to request discontinuance of forwarding. The Postal Service also implements a new price for Parcel Select forwards and returns; those pieces will now pay...

  6. 15 CFR 740.12 - Gift parcels and humanitarian donations (GFT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...—(i) Item limitations—(A) Prohibited items. (1) For Cuba no items listed on the Commerce Control List... in gift parcels. (iii) Frequency. (A) Except for gift parcels of food to Cuba, not more than one gift... frequency limit on gift parcels of food to Cuba. (C) Parties seeking authorization to exceed the...

  7. A Long-Lived Tracer Perspective on the Origin of Air in the Tropical Tropopause Layer during ATTREX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintsa, E. J.; Moore, F.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Nance, J. D.; Elkins, J. W.; Gao, R.; Rollins, D. W.; Thornberry, T. D.; Watts, L.; Fahey, D. W.; Daube, B. C.; Pittman, J. V.; Wofsy, S. C.; Atlas, E. L.; Navarro, M. A.; Dessler, A. E.; Mahoney, M.

    2013-12-01

    The origin of air in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and the subsequent transport pathways of these air masses play a critical role in the delivery of trace gases, including ozone depleting substances and water vapor, to the stratosphere. The Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) is designed to study this transport and processing in the TTL over the Pacific Ocean, including how dehydration occurs in this region and how trace gases involved in ozone depletion and climate reach the tropical lower stratosphere. For this mission, the NASA Global Hawk aircraft is carrying a suite of in situ and remote sensing instruments for trace gases, aerosols, radiation, and meteorology. Two deployments have occurred from NASA/Dryden Flight Research Center, with flights to the eastern and central tropical Pacific. Two more deployments, targeting the western equatorial Pacific, are planned for 2014 from Guam and one other location. Over 100 vertical profiles from about 14 to 18 km have now been obtained from the tropics to midlatitudes, as well as long sections at nearly constant altitude. Results are shown here from the UAS Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (UCATS) instrument and other sensors. UCATS was configured to measure the long-lived tracers N2O, SF6, H2, and CH4, as well as water vapor, CO, and ozone. Results thus far have shown a mix of midlatitude and tropical air in the tropical and subtropical lower stratosphere, particularly for flights in November 2011. Recent results from February 2013 indicate much more homogeneous air masses in the TTL during this period. This homogeneity may be related to fact that these flights occurred in the middle of (northern) winter rather than fall, or to the 'sudden stratospheric warming' in January 2013, with sinking motion in the Arctic polar region and a corresponding rising motion and cooling in the tropics. Data will be presented in the context of trajectory model calculations of the origin and fate of the air

  8. Advection fog formation and aerosols produced by combustion-originated air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.; Vaughan, O. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The way in which pollutants produced by the photochemical reaction of NO(X) and SO(X) affect the quality of the human environment through such phenomena as the formation of advection fog is considered. These pollutants provide the major source of condensation nuclei for the formation of fog in highways, airports and seaports. Results based on the monodisperse, multicomponent aerosol model show that: (1) condensation nuclei can grow and form a dense fog without the air having attained supersaturation; (2) the mass concentration range for NO(X) is one-third that of SO(X); and (3) the greater the mass concentration, the particle concentration, and the radius of condensation nuclei, the denser the fog that is formed.

  9. MarsAtlas: A cortical parcellation atlas for functional mapping.

    PubMed

    Auzias, Guillaume; Coulon, Olivier; Brovelli, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    An open question in neuroimaging is how to develop anatomical brain atlases for the analysis of functional data. Here, we present a cortical parcellation model based on macroanatomical information and test its validity on visuomotor-related cortical functional networks. The parcellation model is based on a recently developed cortical parameterization method (Auzias et al., [2013]: IEEE Trans Med Imaging 32:873-887), called HIP-HOP. This method exploits a set of primary and secondary sulci to create an orthogonal coordinate system on the cortical surface. A natural parcellation scheme arises from the axes of the HIP-HOP model running along the fundus of selected sulci. The resulting parcellation scheme, called MarsAtlas, complies with dorsoventral/rostrocaudal direction fields and allows inter-subject matching. To test it for functional mapping, we analyzed a MEG dataset collected from human participants performing an arbitrary visuomotor mapping task. Single-trial high-gamma activity, HGA (60-120 Hz), was estimated using spectral analysis and beamforming techniques at cortical areas arising from a Talairach atlas (i.e., Brodmann areas) and MarsAtlas. Using both atlases, we confirmed that visuomotor associations involve an increase in HGA over the sensorimotor and fronto-parietal network, in addition to medial prefrontal areas. However, MarsAtlas provided: (1) crucial functional information along both the dorsolateral and rostrocaudal direction; (2) an increase in statistical significance. To conclude, our results suggest that the MarsAtlas is a valid anatomical atlas for functional mapping, and represents a potential anatomical framework for integration of functional data arising from multiple techniques such as MEG, intracranial EEG and fMRI. PMID:26813563

  10. Functional connectivity based parcellation of the human medial temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Fang; Ritchey, Maureen; Libby, Laura A; Ranganath, Charan

    2016-10-01

    Regional differences in large-scale connectivity have been proposed to underlie functional specialization along the anterior-posterior axis of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus (HC) and the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG). However, it is unknown whether functional connectivity (FC) can be used reliably to parcellate the human MTL. The current study aimed to differentiate subregions of the HC and the PHG based on patterns of whole-brain intrinsic FC. FC maps were calculated for each slice along the longitudinal axis of the PHG and the HC. A hierarchical clustering algorithm was then applied to these data in order to group slices according to the similarity of their connectivity patterns. Surprisingly, three discrete clusters were identified in the PHG. Two clusters corresponded to the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and the perirhinal cortex (PRC), and these regions showed preferential connectivity with previously described posterior-medial and anterior-temporal networks, respectively. The third cluster corresponded to an anterior PRC region previously described as area 36d, and this region exhibited preferential connectivity with auditory cortical areas and with a network involved in visceral processing. The three PHG clusters showed different profiles of activation during a memory-encoding task, demonstrating that the FC-based parcellation identified functionally dissociable sub-regions of the PHG. In the hippocampus, no sub-regions were identified via the parcellation procedure. These results indicate that connectivity-based methods can be used to parcellate functional regions within the MTL, and they suggest that studies of memory and high-level cognition need to differentiate between PHC, posterior PRC, and anterior PRC.

  11. The Brain Atlas Concordance Problem: Quantitative Comparison of Anatomical Parcellations

    PubMed Central

    Bohland, Jason W.; Bokil, Hemant; Allen, Cara B.; Mitra, Partha P.

    2009-01-01

    Many neuroscientific reports reference discrete macro-anatomical regions of the brain which were delineated according to a brain atlas or parcellation protocol. Currently, however, no widely accepted standards exist for partitioning the cortex and subcortical structures, or for assigning labels to the resulting regions, and many procedures are being actively used. Previous attempts to reconcile neuroanatomical nomenclatures have been largely qualitative, focusing on the development of thesauri or simple semantic mappings between terms. Here we take a fundamentally different approach, discounting the names of regions and instead comparing their definitions as spatial entities in an effort to provide more precise quantitative mappings between anatomical entities as defined by different atlases. We develop an analytical framework for studying this brain atlas concordance problem, and apply these methods in a comparison of eight diverse labeling methods used by the neuroimaging community. These analyses result in conditional probabilities that enable mapping between regions across atlases, which also form the input to graph-based methods for extracting higher-order relationships between sets of regions and to procedures for assessing the global similarity between different parcellations of the same brain. At a global scale, the overall results demonstrate a considerable lack of concordance between available parcellation schemes, falling within chance levels for some atlas pairs. At a finer level, this study reveals spatial relationships between sets of defined regions that are not obviously apparent; these are of high potential interest to researchers faced with the challenge of comparing results that were based on these different anatomical models, particularly when coordinate-based data are not available. The complexity of the spatial overlap patterns revealed points to problems for attempts to reconcile anatomical parcellations and nomenclatures using strictly

  12. Extreme air-sea surface turbulent fluxes in mid latitudes - estimation, origins and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulev, Sergey; Natalia, Tilinina

    2014-05-01

    Extreme turbulent heat fluxes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific mid latitudes were estimated from the modern era and first generation reanalyses (NCEP-DOE, ERA-Interim, MERRA NCEP-CFSR, JRA-25) for the period from 1979 onwards. We used direct surface turbulent flux output as well as reanalysis state variables from which fluxes have been computed using COARE-3 bulk algorithm. For estimation of extreme flux values we analyzed surface flux probability density distribution which was approximated by Modified Fisher-Tippett distribution. In all reanalyses extreme turbulent heat fluxes amount to 1500-2000 W/m2 (for the 99th percentile) and can exceed 2000 W/m2 for higher percentiles in the western boundary current extension (WBCE) regions. Different reanalyses show significantly different shape of MFT distribution, implying considerable differences in the estimates of extreme fluxes. The highest extreme turbulent latent heat fluxes are diagnosed in NCEP-DOE, ERA-Interim and NCEP-CFSR reanalyses with the smallest being in MERRA. These differences may not necessarily reflect the differences in mean values. Analysis shows that differences in statistical properties of the state variables are the major source of differences in the shape of PDF of fluxes and in the estimates of extreme fluxes while the contribution of computational schemes used in different reanalyses is minor. The strongest differences in the characteristics of probability distributions of surface fluxes and extreme surface flux values between different reanalyses are found in the WBCE extension regions and high latitudes. In the next instance we analyzed the mechanisms responsible for forming surface turbulent fluxes and their potential role in changes of midlatitudinal heat balance. Midlatitudinal cyclones were considered as the major mechanism responsible for extreme turbulent fluxes which are typically occur during the cold air outbreaks in the rear parts of cyclones when atmospheric conditions

  13. First investigation of an original device dedicated to the determination of gaseous mercury in interstitial air in snow.

    PubMed

    Dommergue, Aurélien; Ferrari, Christophe P; Boutron, Claude F

    2003-01-01

    The GAMAS (gaseous mercury in interstitial air in snow) instrument developed in our laboratory is a new device devoted to sampling and determination of gaseous mercury concentration in interstitial air in snow. Sampling probes inserted in the snowpack, coupled with a Gardis mercury vapour analyser, provide reliable and original data of vertical profiles of both snow temperature and gaseous mercury concentration at several depths in a snow mantle. This instrument has been tested successfully in Station Nord in Greenland in February-March 2002. A description of this instrument, of the sampling area and its setting up is presented with precise details. Illustrations of the first investigations are given showing a rapid decrease of gaseous mercury concentration simultaneously with depth. A concentration of 0.10 ng/m(3) is reached at 120 cm depth. It may be the result of fast oxidation processes occurring within the snowpack. Gaseous mercury behaviour in the snowpack is a central parameter to elucidate the fate of deposited mercury after mercury depletion events in polar regions. With our new device, we have now the opportunity to determine this key parameter.

  14. Approaching Expert Results Using a Hierarchical Cerebellum Parcellation Protocol for Multiple Inexpert Human Raters

    PubMed Central

    Bogovic, John A.; Jedynak, Bruno; Rigg, Rachel; Du, Annie; Landman, Bennett A.; Prince, Jerry L.; Ying, Sarah H.

    2012-01-01

    Volumetric measurements obtained from image parcellation have been instrumental in uncovering structure-function relationships. However, anatomical study of the cerebellum is a challenging task. Because of its complex structure, expert human raters have been necessary for reliable and accurate segmentation and parcellation. Such delineations are time-consuming and prohibitively expensive for large studies. Therefore, we present a three-part cerebellar parcellation system that utilizes multiple inexpert human raters that can efficiently and expediently produce results nearly on par with those of experts. This system includes a hierarchical delineation protocol, a rapid verification and evaluation process, and statistical fusion of the inexpert rater parcellations. The quality of the raters’ and fused parcellations was established by examining their Dice similarity coefficient, region of interest (ROI) volumes, and the intraclass correlation coefficient of region volume. The intra-rater ICC was found to be 0.93 at the finest level of parcellation. PMID:22975160

  15. Co-activation based parcellation of the human frontal pole.

    PubMed

    Ray, K L; Zald, D H; Bludau, S; Riedel, M C; Bzdok, D; Yanes, J; Falcone, K E; Amunts, K; Fox, P T; Eickhoff, S B; Laird, A R

    2015-12-01

    Historically, the human frontal pole (FP) has been considered as a single architectonic area. Brodmann's area 10 is located in the frontal lobe with known contributions in the execution of various higher order cognitive processes. However, recent cytoarchitectural studies of the FP in humans have shown that this portion of cortex contains two distinct cytoarchitectonic regions. Since architectonic differences are accompanied by differential connectivity and functions, the frontal pole qualifies as a candidate region for exploratory parcellation into functionally discrete sub-regions. We investigated whether this functional heterogeneity is reflected in distinct segregations within cytoarchitectonically defined FP-areas using meta-analytic co-activation based parcellation (CBP). The CBP method examined the co-activation patterns of all voxels within the FP as reported in functional neuroimaging studies archived in the BrainMap database. Voxels within the FP were subsequently clustered into sub-regions based on the similarity of their respective meta-analytically derived co-activation maps. Performing this CBP analysis on the FP via k-means clustering produced a distinct 3-cluster parcellation for each hemisphere corresponding to previously identified cytoarchitectural differences. Post-hoc functional characterization of clusters via BrainMap metadata revealed that lateral regions of the FP mapped to memory and emotion domains, while the dorso- and ventromedial clusters were associated broadly with emotion and social cognition processes. Furthermore, the dorsomedial regions contain an emphasis on theory of mind and affective related paradigms whereas ventromedial regions couple with reward tasks. Results from this study support previous segregations of the FP and provide meta-analytic contributions to the ongoing discussion of elucidating functional architecture within human FP. PMID:26254112

  16. Subject-specific functional parcellation via Prior Based Eigenanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Paramveer S.; Wolk, David A.; Das, Sandhitsu R.; Ungar, Lyle H.; Gee, James C.; Avants, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new framework for prior-constrained sparse decomposition of matrices derived from the neuroimaging data and apply this method to functional network analysis of a clinically relevant population. Matrix decomposition methods are powerful dimensionality reduction tools that have found widespread use in neuroimaging. However, the unconstrained nature of these totally data-driven techniques makes it difficult to interpret the results in a domain where network-specific hypotheses may exist. We propose a novel approach, Prior Based Eigenanatomy (p-Eigen), which seeks to identify a data-driven matrix decomposition but at the same time constrains the individual components by spatial anatomical priors (probabilistic ROIs). We formulate our novel solution in terms of prior-constrained ℓ1 penalized (sparse) principal component analysis. p-Eigen starts with a common functional parcellation for all the subjects and refines it with subject-specific information. This enables modeling of the inter-subject variability in the functional parcel boundaries and allows us to construct subject specific networks with reduced sensitivity to ROI placement. We show that while still maintaining correspondence across subjects, p-Eigen extracts biologically-relevant and patient-specific functional parcels that facilitate hypothesis-driven network analysis. We construct Default Mode Network (DMN) connectivity graphs using p-Eigen refined ROIs and use them in a classification paradigm. Our results show that the functional connectivity graphs derived from p-Eigen significantly aid classification of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) as well as the prediction of scores in a Delayed Recall memory task when compared to graph metrics derived from 1) standard registration-based seed ROI definitions, 2) totally data driven ROIs 3) a model based on standard demographics plus hippocampal volume as covariates and 4) Ward Clustering based data driven ROIs. In summary, p-Eigen incarnates a new

  17. Using natural beta emission for detecting concealed tobacco in parcels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Jeremy; Hussein, Esam M. A.

    2007-10-01

    It is suspected that postal systems are used for the illegal shipment of tobacco products to circumvent taxation and excise payments. This paper demonstrates that beta-particle emission from the potassium-40 contained in tobacco can be used to passively detect its presence in paperboard postal parcels. The same concept can be utilized for the detection of marijuana, whose leaves are also rich in 40K. The combination of high beta activity and a low weight is a good indicator of the presence of these two contraband materials.

  18. Cerebellar Functional Parcellation Using Sparse Dictionary Learning Clustering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changqing; Kipping, Judy; Bao, Chenglong; Ji, Hui; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    The human cerebellum has recently been discovered to contribute to cognition and emotion beyond the planning and execution of movement, suggesting its functional heterogeneity. We aimed to identify the functional parcellation of the cerebellum using information from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). For this, we introduced a new data-driven decomposition-based functional parcellation algorithm, called Sparse Dictionary Learning Clustering (SDLC). SDLC integrates dictionary learning, sparse representation of rs-fMRI, and k-means clustering into one optimization problem. The dictionary is comprised of an over-complete set of time course signals, with which a sparse representation of rs-fMRI signals can be constructed. Cerebellar functional regions were then identified using k-means clustering based on the sparse representation of rs-fMRI signals. We solved SDLC using a multi-block hybrid proximal alternating method that guarantees strong convergence. We evaluated the reliability of SDLC and benchmarked its classification accuracy against other clustering techniques using simulated data. We then demonstrated that SDLC can identify biologically reasonable functional regions of the cerebellum as estimated by their cerebello-cortical functional connectivity. We further provided new insights into the cerebello-cortical functional organization in children.

  19. Cerebellar Functional Parcellation Using Sparse Dictionary Learning Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changqing; Kipping, Judy; Bao, Chenglong; Ji, Hui; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    The human cerebellum has recently been discovered to contribute to cognition and emotion beyond the planning and execution of movement, suggesting its functional heterogeneity. We aimed to identify the functional parcellation of the cerebellum using information from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). For this, we introduced a new data-driven decomposition-based functional parcellation algorithm, called Sparse Dictionary Learning Clustering (SDLC). SDLC integrates dictionary learning, sparse representation of rs-fMRI, and k-means clustering into one optimization problem. The dictionary is comprised of an over-complete set of time course signals, with which a sparse representation of rs-fMRI signals can be constructed. Cerebellar functional regions were then identified using k-means clustering based on the sparse representation of rs-fMRI signals. We solved SDLC using a multi-block hybrid proximal alternating method that guarantees strong convergence. We evaluated the reliability of SDLC and benchmarked its classification accuracy against other clustering techniques using simulated data. We then demonstrated that SDLC can identify biologically reasonable functional regions of the cerebellum as estimated by their cerebello-cortical functional connectivity. We further provided new insights into the cerebello-cortical functional organization in children. PMID:27199650

  20. 39 CFR 320.7 - Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels... advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals. (a) The operation of 39 U.S.C. 601(a) (1) through (6) and § 310.2(b) (1) through (6) of this chapter is suspended on all post routes for advertisements...

  1. 78 FR 56248 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... the Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel...

  2. 77 FR 66193 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... the Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service To Add Parcel...

  3. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 4...

  4. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 5...

  5. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 3...

  6. 77 FR 28410 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 1 to...

  7. 76 FR 2930 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... ] Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 1 to...

  8. 77 FR 43561 - Proposed Eligibility Criteria for Bound Printed Matter Parcels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... 111 Proposed Eligibility Criteria for Bound Printed Matter Parcels AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... criterion for eligibility of Bound Printed Matter (BPM) parcels by adding a physical density threshold for... matter, weighing no more than 15 pounds and requiring postage payment by permit imprint. BPM is...

  9. Semi-supervised clustering for parcellating brain regions based on resting state fMRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hewei; Fan, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Many unsupervised clustering techniques have been adopted for parcellating brain regions of interest into functionally homogeneous subregions based on resting state fMRI data. However, the unsupervised clustering techniques are not able to take advantage of exiting knowledge of the functional neuroanatomy readily available from studies of cytoarchitectonic parcellation or meta-analysis of the literature. In this study, we propose a semi-supervised clustering method for parcellating amygdala into functionally homogeneous subregions based on resting state fMRI data. Particularly, the semi-supervised clustering is implemented under the framework of graph partitioning, and adopts prior information and spatial consistent constraints to obtain a spatially contiguous parcellation result. The graph partitioning problem is solved using an efficient algorithm similar to the well-known weighted kernel k-means algorithm. Our method has been validated for parcellating amygdala into 3 subregions based on resting state fMRI data of 28 subjects. The experiment results have demonstrated that the proposed method is more robust than unsupervised clustering and able to parcellate amygdala into centromedial, laterobasal, and superficial parts with improved functionally homogeneity compared with the cytoarchitectonic parcellation result. The validity of the parcellation results is also supported by distinctive functional and structural connectivity patterns of the subregions and high consistency between coactivation patterns derived from a meta-analysis and functional connectivity patterns of corresponding subregions.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY REPORT FOR WEST BLACK OAK RIDGE, EAST BLACK OAK RIDGE, MCKINNEY RIDGE, WEST PINE RIDGE, AND PARCEL 21D IN THE VICINITY OF THE EAST TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGY PARK, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect

    David A. King

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. The goal is to obtain all media no-further-investigation (NFI) determinations for the subject parcels considering existing soils. To augment the existing soils-only NFI determinations, samples of groundwater, surface water, soil, and sediment were collected to support all media NFI decisions. The only updates presented here are those that were made after the original issuance of the NFI documents. In the subject parcel where the soils NFI determination was not completed for approval (Parcel 21d), the full process has been performed to address the soils as well. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only NFI

  11. Stable isotope composition of waters in the Great Basin, United States 1. Air-mass trajectories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Harris, J.M.; Smith, G.I.; Johnson, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Isentropic trajectories, calculated using the NOAA/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory's isentropic transport model, were used to determine air-parcel origins and the influence of air mass trajectories on the isotopic composition of precipitation events that occurred between October 1991 and September 1993 at Cedar City, Utah, and Winnemucca, Nevada. Examination of trajectories that trace the position of air parcels backward in time for 10 days indicated five distinct regions of water vapor origin: (1) Gulf of Alaska and North Pacific, (2) central Pacific, (3) tropical Pacific, (4) Gulf of Mexico, and (5) continental land mass. Deuterium (??D) and oxygen-18 (??18O) analyses were made of precipitation representing 99% of all Cedar City events. Similar analyses were made on precipitation representing 66% of the precipitation falling at Winnemucca during the same period. The average isotopic composition of precipitation derived from each water vapor source was determined. More than half of the precipitation that fell at both sites during the study period originated in the tropical Pacific and traveled northeast to the Great Basin; only a small proportion traversed the Sierra Nevada. The isotopic composition of precipitation is determined by air-mass origin and its track to the collection station, mechanism of droplet formation, reequilibration within clouds, and evaporation during its passage from cloud to ground. The Rayleigh distillation model can explain the changes in isotopic composition of precipitation as an air mass is cooled pseudo-adiabatically during uplift. However, the complicated processes that take place in the rapidly convecting environment of cumulonimbus and other clouds that are common in the Great Basin, especially in summer, require modification of this model because raindrops that form in the lower portion of those clouds undergo isotopic change as they are elevated to upper levels of the clouds from where they eventually drop to the

  12. Robust brain parcellation using sparse representation on resting-state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Caspers, Svenja; Fan, Lingzhong; Fan, Yong; Song, Ming; Liu, Cirong; Mo, Yin; Roski, Christian; Eickhoff, Simon; Amunts, Katrin; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-11-01

    Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been widely used to segregate the brain into individual modules based on the presence of distinct connectivity patterns. Many parcellation methods have been proposed for brain parcellation using rs-fMRI, but their results have been somewhat inconsistent, potentially due to various types of noise. In this study, we provide a robust parcellation method for rs-fMRI-based brain parcellation, which constructs a sparse similarity graph based on the sparse representation coefficients of each seed voxel and then uses spectral clustering to identify distinct modules. Both the local time-varying BOLD signals and whole-brain connectivity patterns may be used as features and yield similar parcellation results. The robustness of our method was tested on both simulated and real rs-fMRI datasets. In particular, on simulated rs-fMRI data, sparse representation achieved good performance across different noise levels, including high accuracy of parcellation and high robustness to noise. On real rs-fMRI data, stable parcellation of the medial frontal cortex (MFC) and parietal operculum (OP) were achieved on three different datasets, with high reproducibility within each dataset and high consistency across these results. Besides, the parcellation of MFC was little influenced by the degrees of spatial smoothing. Furthermore, the consistent parcellation of OP was also well corresponding to cytoarchitectonic subdivisions and known somatotopic organizations. Our results demonstrate a new promising approach to robust brain parcellation using resting-state fMRI by sparse representation.

  13. SMI-32 parcellates the visual cortical areas of the marmoset.

    PubMed

    Baldauf, Zsolt B

    The distribution pattern of SMI-32-immunoreactivity (SMI-32-ir) of neuronal elements was examined in the visual cortical areas of marmoset monkey. Layer IV of the primary visual cortex (V1) and layers III and V of the extrastriate areas showed the most abundant SMI-32-ir. The different areal and laminar distribution of SMI-32-ir allowed the distinction between various extrastriate areas and determined their exact anatomical boundaries in the New World monkey, Callithrix penicillata. It is shown here that the parcellating nature of SMI-32 described earlier in the visual cortical areas of other mammals - including Old World monkeys - is also present in the marmoset. Furthermore, a comparison became possible between the chemoanatomical organization of New World and Old World primates' visual cortical areas.

  14. Determination of the origin of groundwater nitrate at an air weapons range using the dual isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Savard, Martine M; Martel, Richard; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2008-06-01

    Nitrate is one of the most common contaminants in shallow groundwater, and many sources may contribute to the nitrate load within an aquifer. Groundwater nitrate plumes have been detected at several ammunition production sites. However, the presence of multiple potential sources and the lack of existing isotopic data concerning explosive degradation-induced nitrate constitute a limitation when it comes to linking both types of contaminants. On military training ranges, high nitrate concentrations in groundwater were reported for the first time as part of the hydrogeological characterization of the Cold Lake Air Weapons Range (CLAWR), Alberta, Canada. Explosives degradation is thought to be the main source of nitrate contamination at CLAWR, as no other major source is present. Isotopic analyses of N and O in nitrate were performed on groundwater samples from the unconfined and confined aquifers; the dual isotopic analysis approach was used in order to increase the chances of identifying the source of nitrate. The isotopic ratios for the groundwater samples with low nitrate concentration suggested a natural origin with a strong contribution of anthropogenic atmospheric NOx. For the samples with nitrate concentration above the expected background level the isotopic ratios did not correspond to any source documented in the literature. Dissolved RDX samples were degraded in the laboratory and results showed that all reproduced degradation processes released nitrate with a strong fractionation. Laboratory isotopic values for RDX-derived NO(3)(-) produced a trend of high delta(18)O-low delta(15)N to low delta(18)O-high delta(15)N, and groundwater samples with nitrate concentrations above the expected background level appeared along this trend. Our results thus point toward a characteristic field of isotopic ratios for nitrate being derived from the degradation of RDX.

  15. Framland parcels extraction from high-resolution remote sensing images based on the two-stage image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoying; Song, Xu; Lv, Jing

    2015-12-01

    It is difficult and boring for people to artificially extract farmland parcels from high resolution remote sensing images. Therefore, automatic methods are in the urgent need to release image interpreters from such a work as well as achieve accurate results. In the past years, although many researchers have made attempts to solve this problem by using different techniques and also produced some good results, they still cannot meet the demand of practical applications. In this paper, a farmland extraction method is proposed based on a new technique of two-stage image classification. The first stage aims at producing a map of farmland area by using the supervised iterative conditional mode (ICM), where a novel mixture posterior is proposed based on the tree-structured interpretation of certain complex landscapes, e.g., farmland and building area, and the Markov random field model (MRF) is also used to make use of spatial information between neighboring pixels. The second stage extracts the farmland parcels by using the Meanshift algorithm (MS) based on the hybrid of the original image and the texture image produced by the local binary pattern (LBP) method. We applied our method to a piece of aerial image in the urban area of Taizhou, China. The results show that the proposed method has an ability to produce more accurate results than the MS method.

  16. Smart tetroons for Lagrangian air-mass tracking during ACE 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Businger, Steven; Johnson, Randy; Katzfey, Jack; Siems, Steven; Wang, Qing

    1999-05-01

    A series of "smart" tetroons was released from shipboard during the recent ACE 1 field experiment designed to monitor changes in the sulfur budget in a remote marine boundary layer (MBL) south of Tasmania, Australia. The smart tetroons were designed at NOAA Air Resources Laboratory Field Research Division to provide air parcel tracking information. The adjective smart here refers here to the fact that the buoyancy of the tetroons automatically adjusts through the action of a pump and valves when the tetroon travels vertically outside a range of pressures set prior to tetroon release. The smart tetroon design provides GPS location, barometric pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and tetroon status data via a transponder to the NCAR C-130 research aircraft flying in the vicinity of the tetroons. In this paper we will describe (1) the design and capability of the smart tetroons and their performance during the two Lagrangian experiments conducted during ACE 1, (2) the synoptic context of the Lagrangians, including the origin of the air parcels being tracked, and (3) the results of trajectory predictions derived from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Spectral Model (GSM) and Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Division of Atmospheric Research (DAR) limited-area model.

  17. Why item parcels are (almost) never appropriate: two wrongs do not make a right--camouflaging misspecification with item parcels in CFA models.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Herbert W; Lüdtke, Oliver; Nagengast, Benjamin; Morin, Alexandre J S; Von Davier, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    The present investigation has a dual focus: to evaluate problematic practice in the use of item parcels and to suggest exploratory structural equation models (ESEMs) as a viable alternative to the traditional independent clusters confirmatory factor analysis (ICM-CFA) model (with no cross-loadings, subsidiary factors, or correlated uniquenesses). Typically, it is ill-advised to (a) use item parcels when ICM-CFA models do not fit the data, and (b) retain ICM-CFA models when items cross-load on multiple factors. However, the combined use of (a) and (b) is widespread and often provides such misleadingly good fit indexes that applied researchers might believe that misspecification problems are resolved--that 2 wrongs really do make a right. Taking a pragmatist perspective, in 4 studies we demonstrate with responses to the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965), Big Five personality factors, and simulated data that even small cross-loadings seriously distort relations among ICM-CFA constructs or even decisions on the number of factors; although obvious in item-level analyses, this is camouflaged by the use of parcels. ESEMs provide a viable alternative to ICM-CFAs and a test for the appropriateness of parcels. The use of parcels with an ICM-CFA model is most justifiable when the fit of both ICM-CFA and ESEM models is acceptable and equally good, and when substantively important interpretations are similar. However, if the ESEM model fits the data better than the ICM-CFA model, then the use of parcels with an ICM-CFA model typically is ill-advised--particularly in studies that are also interested in scale development, latent means, and measurement invariance.

  18. 76 FR 23749 - Intelligent Mail Package Barcode (IMpb) Implementation for Commercial Parcels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... 111 Intelligent Mail Package Barcode (IMpb) Implementation for Commercial Parcels AGENCY: Postal... currently enhancing its operational capability to allow for the scanning of Intelligent Mail package barcodes (IMpb) and other extra services barcodes via automated processing equipment and Intelligent...

  19. 133. PARCEL HANDLING SPACE OF POST OFFICE BUILDING, LEVEL 72.5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. PARCEL HANDLING SPACE OF POST OFFICE BUILDING, LEVEL 72.5, NORTH OF TRUCKING PASSAGE MAIL TRANSPORT AREA, VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Terminal Tower Building, Cleveland Union Terminal, 50 Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. Localization and quantification of intramuscular damage using statistical parametric mapping and skeletal muscle parcellation

    PubMed Central

    Fouré, Alexandre; Le Troter, Arnaud; Guye, Maxime; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we proposed an original and robust methodology which combines the spatial normalization of skeletal muscle images, the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis and the use of a specific parcellation in order to accurately localize and quantify the extent of skeletal muscle damage within the four heads of the quadriceps femoris. T2 maps of thigh muscles were characterized before, two (D2) and four (D4) days after 40 maximal isometric electrically-evoked contractions in 25 healthy young males. On the basis of SPM analysis of coregistrated T2 maps, the alterations were similarly detected at D2 and D4 in the superficial and distal regions of the vastus medialis (VM) whereas the proportion of altered muscle was higher in deep muscle regions of the vastus lateralis at D4 (deep: 35 ± 25%, superficial: 23 ± 15%) as compared to D2 (deep: 18 ± 13%, superficial: 17 ± 13%). The present methodology used for the first time on skeletal muscle would be of utmost interest to detect subtle intramuscular alterations not only for the diagnosis of muscular diseases but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions and clinical treatment strategies. PMID:26689827

  1. Connectivity-based parcellation of the human frontal polar cortex.

    PubMed

    Moayedi, Massieh; Salomons, Tim V; Dunlop, Katharine A M; Downar, Jonathan; Davis, Karen D

    2015-09-01

    The frontal pole corresponds to Brodmann area (BA) 10, the largest single architectonic area in the human frontal lobe. Generally, BA10 is thought to contain two or three subregions that subserve broad functions such as multitasking, social cognition, attention, and episodic memory. However, there is a substantial debate about the functional and structural heterogeneity of this large frontal region. Previous connectivity-based parcellation studies have identified two or three subregions in the human frontal pole. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging to assess structural connectivity of BA10 in 35 healthy subjects and delineated subregions based on this connectivity. This allowed us to determine the correspondence of structurally based subregions with the scheme previously defined functionally. Three subregions could be defined in each subject. However, these three subregions were not spatially consistent between subjects. Therefore, we accepted a solution with two subregions that encompassed the lateral and medial frontal pole. We then examined resting-state functional connectivity of the two subregions and found significant differences between their connectivities. The medial cluster was connected to nodes of the default-mode network, which is implicated in internally focused, self-related thought, and social cognition. The lateral cluster was connected to nodes of the executive control network, associated with directed attention and working memory. These findings support the concept that there are two major anatomical subregions of the frontal pole related to differences in functional connectivity.

  2. Intracellular parcel service: current issues in intracellular membrane trafficking.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Johannes M; Spang, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells contain a multitude of membrane structures that are connected through a highly dynamic and complex exchange of their constituents. The vibrant instability of these structures challenges the classical view of defined, static compartments that are connected by different types of vesicles. Despite this astonishing complexity, proteins and lipids are accurately transported into the different intracellular membrane systems. Over the past few decades many factors have been identified that either mediate or regulate intracellular membrane trafficking. Like in a modern parcel sorting system of a logistics center, the cargo typically passes through several sequential sorting stations until it finally reaches the location that is specified by its individual address label. While each membrane system employs specific sets of factors, the transport processes typically operate on common principles. With the advent of genome- and proteome-wide screens, the availability of mutant collections, exciting new developments in microscope technology and sophisticated methods to study their dynamics, the future promises a broad and comprehensive picture of the processes by which eukaryotic cells sort their proteins.

  3. Tractography-based Parcellation of the Human Middle Temporal Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinping; Wang, Jiaojian; Fan, Lingzhong; Li, Hai; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Qingmao; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-01-01

    The middle temporal gyrus (MTG) participates in a variety of functions, suggesting the existence of distinct functional subregions. In order to further delineate the functions of this brain area, we parcellated the MTG based on its distinct anatomical connectivity profiles and identified four distinct subregions, including the anterior (aMTG), middle (mMTG), posterior (pMTG), and sulcus (sMTG). Both the anatomical connectivity patterns and the resting-state functional connectivity patterns revealed distinct connectivity profiles for each subregion. The aMTG was primarily involved in the default mode network, sound recognition, and semantic retrieval. The mMTG was predominantly involved in the semantic memory and semantic control networks. The pMTG seems to be a part of the traditional sensory language area. The sMTG appears to be associated with decoding gaze direction and intelligible speech. Interestingly, the functional connectivity with Brodmann’s Area (BA) 40, BA 44, and BA 45 gradually increased from the anterior to the posterior MTG, a finding which indicated functional topographical organization as well as implying that language processing is functionally segregated in the MTG. These proposed subdivisions of the MTG and its functions contribute to understanding the complex functions of the MTG at the subregional level. PMID:26689815

  4. Calculation of Per Parcel Probability for Dud Bombs in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakkoli Sabour, S. M.; Agarius, J.; Sadidi, J.

    2014-10-01

    Unexploded aerial Bombs, also known as duds or unfused bombs, of the bombardments in the past wars remain explosive for decades after the war under the earth's surface threatening the civil activities especially if dredging works are involved. Interpretation of the aerial photos taken shortly after bombardments has been proven to be useful for finding the duds. Unfortunately, the reliability of this method is limited by some factors. The chance of finding a dud on an aerial photo depends strongly on the photography system, the size of the bomb and the landcover. On the other hand, exploded bombs are considerably better detectable on aerial photos and confidently represent the extent and density of a bombardment. Considering an empirical quota of unfused bombs, the expected number of duds can be calculated by the number of exploded bombs. This can help to have a better calculation of cost-risk ratio and to classify the areas for clearance. This article is about a method for calculation of a per parcel probability of dud bombs according to the distribution and density of exploded bombs. No similar work has been reported in this field by other authors.

  5. Improving reliability of subject-level resting-state fMRI parcellation with shrinkage estimators.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Amanda F; Nebel, Mary Beth; Shou, Haochang; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A

    2015-05-15

    A recent interest in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) lies in subdividing the human brain into anatomically and functionally distinct regions of interest. For example, brain parcellation is often a necessary step for defining the network nodes used in connectivity studies. While inference has traditionally been performed on group-level data, there is a growing interest in parcellating single subject data. However, this is difficult due to the inherent low signal-to-noise ratio of rsfMRI data, combined with typically short scan lengths. A large number of brain parcellation approaches employ clustering, which begins with a measure of similarity or distance between voxels. The goal of this work is to improve the reproducibility of single-subject parcellation using shrinkage-based estimators of such measures, allowing the noisy subject-specific estimator to "borrow strength" in a principled manner from a larger population of subjects. We present several empirical Bayes shrinkage estimators and outline methods for shrinkage when multiple scans are not available for each subject. We perform shrinkage on raw inter-voxel correlation estimates and use both raw and shrinkage estimates to produce parcellations by performing clustering on the voxels. While we employ a standard spectral clustering approach, our proposed method is agnostic to the choice of clustering method and can be used as a pre-processing step for any clustering algorithm. Using two datasets - a simulated dataset where the true parcellation is known and is subject-specific and a test-retest dataset consisting of two 7-minute resting-state fMRI scans from 20 subjects - we show that parcellations produced from shrinkage correlation estimates have higher reliability and validity than those produced from raw correlation estimates. Application to test-retest data shows that using shrinkage estimators increases the reproducibility of subject-specific parcellations of the motor cortex by

  6. Improving Reliability of Subject-Level Resting-State fMRI Parcellation with Shrinkage Estimators

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Amanda F.; Nebel, Mary Beth; Shou, Haochang; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    A recent interest in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) lies in subdividing the human brain into anatomically and functionally distinct regions of interest. For example, brain parcellation is often a necessary step for defining the network nodes used in connectivity studies. While inference has traditionally been performed on group-level data, there is a growing interest in parcellating single subject data. However, this is difficult due to the inherent low signal-to-noise ratio of rsfMRI data, combined with typically short scan lengths. A large number of brain parcellation approaches employ clustering, which begins with a measure of similarity or distance between voxels. The goal of this work is to improve the reproducibility of single-subject parcellation using shrinkage-based estimators of such measures, allowing the noisy subject-specific estimator to “borrow strength” in a principled manner from a larger population of subjects. We present several empirical Bayes shrinkage estimators and outline methods for shrinkage when multiple scans are not available for each subject. We perform shrinkage on raw inter-voxel correlation estimates and use both raw and shrinkage estimates to produce parcellations by performing clustering on the voxels. While we employ a standard spectral clustering approach, our proposed method is agnostic to the choice of clustering method and can be used as a pre-processing step for any clustering algorithm. Using two datasets – a simulated dataset where the true parcellation is known and is subject-specific and a test-retest dataset consisting of two 7-minute resting-state fMRI scans from 20 subjects – we show that parcellations produced from shrinkage correlation estimates have higher reliability and validity than those produced from raw correlation estimates. Application to test-retest data shows that using shrinkage estimators increases the reproducibility of subject-specific parcellations of the motor

  7. Improving reliability of subject-level resting-state fMRI parcellation with shrinkage estimators.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Amanda F; Nebel, Mary Beth; Shou, Haochang; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A

    2015-05-15

    A recent interest in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) lies in subdividing the human brain into anatomically and functionally distinct regions of interest. For example, brain parcellation is often a necessary step for defining the network nodes used in connectivity studies. While inference has traditionally been performed on group-level data, there is a growing interest in parcellating single subject data. However, this is difficult due to the inherent low signal-to-noise ratio of rsfMRI data, combined with typically short scan lengths. A large number of brain parcellation approaches employ clustering, which begins with a measure of similarity or distance between voxels. The goal of this work is to improve the reproducibility of single-subject parcellation using shrinkage-based estimators of such measures, allowing the noisy subject-specific estimator to "borrow strength" in a principled manner from a larger population of subjects. We present several empirical Bayes shrinkage estimators and outline methods for shrinkage when multiple scans are not available for each subject. We perform shrinkage on raw inter-voxel correlation estimates and use both raw and shrinkage estimates to produce parcellations by performing clustering on the voxels. While we employ a standard spectral clustering approach, our proposed method is agnostic to the choice of clustering method and can be used as a pre-processing step for any clustering algorithm. Using two datasets - a simulated dataset where the true parcellation is known and is subject-specific and a test-retest dataset consisting of two 7-minute resting-state fMRI scans from 20 subjects - we show that parcellations produced from shrinkage correlation estimates have higher reliability and validity than those produced from raw correlation estimates. Application to test-retest data shows that using shrinkage estimators increases the reproducibility of subject-specific parcellations of the motor cortex by

  8. Model-Based Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R. A.; Brooker, A. D.; Ramroth, L.

    2010-12-01

    Medium-duty vehicles are used in a broad array of fleet applications, including parcel delivery. These vehicles are excellent candidates for electric drive applications due to their transient-intensive duty cycles, operation in densely populated areas, and relatively high fuel consumption and emissions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a robust assessment of parcel delivery routes and completed a model-based techno-economic analysis of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle configurations. First, NREL characterized parcel delivery vehicle usage patterns, most notably daily distance driven and drive cycle intensity. Second, drive-cycle analysis results framed the selection of drive cycles used to test a parcel delivery HEV on a chassis dynamometer. Next, measured fuel consumption results were used to validate simulated fuel consumption values derived from a dynamic model of the parcel delivery vehicle. Finally, NREL swept a matrix of 120 component size, usage, and cost combinations to assess impacts on fuel consumption and vehicle cost. The results illustrated the dependency of component sizing on drive-cycle intensity and daily distance driven and may allow parcel delivery fleets to match the most appropriate electric drive vehicle to their fleet usage profile.

  9. Influence of air mass origin on the wet deposition of nitrogen to Tampa Bay, Florida—An eight-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Hillary; Smith, Ronald; Mizak, Connie; Poor, Noreen

    Rainfall delivers on the average ˜10% of the total annual nitrogen load directly to Tampa Bay, based on precipitation monitoring at a National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN) site located adjacent to Tampa Bay in urban Tampa. We coupled the chemical analyses for 606 daily precipitation samples collected from 1996 to 2004 with corresponding air mass trajectory information to investigate if wet-deposited nitrogen originated from near versus removed source regions. Air mass trajectories were obtained using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, and were classified into six trajectory categories by the direction of their approach to Tampa Bay. Rainfall nitrate and ammonium concentrations were significantly lower for over-water air mass trajectories than for over-land trajectories as expected, but contributed to 40% of the total wet-deposited nitrogen, a likely consequence of the higher frequency of rain events for these trajectories. Average rainfall nitrate concentrations were significantly higher for air masses that stagnated over the urbanized bay region. We estimated that local sources contributed 1kgNha-1yr-1 or 25% of the total inorganic nitrogen wet-deposited to Tampa Bay.

  10. Accounting for Parcel-Allocation Variability in Practice: Combining Sources of Uncertainty and Choosing the Number of Allocations.

    PubMed

    Sterba, Sonya K; Rights, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Item parceling remains widely used under conditions that can lead to parcel-allocation variability in results. Hence, researchers may be interested in quantifying and accounting for parcel-allocation variability within sample. To do so in practice, three key issues need to be addressed. First, how can we combine sources of uncertainty arising from sampling variability and parcel-allocation variability when drawing inferences about parameters in structural equation models? Second, on what basis can we choose the number of repeated item-to-parcel allocations within sample? Third, how can we diagnose and report proportions of total variability per estimate arising due to parcel-allocation variability versus sampling variability? This article addresses these three methodological issues. Developments are illustrated using simulated and empirical examples, and software for implementing them is provided.

  11. Hydrologic evaluation and water-supply considerations for five Paiute Indian land parcels, Millard, Sevier, and Iron counties, southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don; Stephens, D.W.; Conroy, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrologic resources in and adjacent to five parcels of land held in trust for the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah were evaluated. The land, located in southwestern Utah, is generally arid and has had only limited use for grazing. The parcels are located near the towns of Cove Fort, Joseph, Koosharem, and Kanarraville. On the basis of available geohydrologic and hydrologic data, water of suitable quality is locally available in the areas of all parcels for domestic, stock, recreation, and limited irrigation use. Developing this water for use on the parcels would potentially involve obtaining water rights, drilling wells, and constructing diversion structures. Surface water apparently is the most favorable source of supply available for the Joseph parcel, and groundwater apparently is the most favorable source of supply available for the other parcels. (USGS)

  12. Census parcels cropping system classification from multitemporal remote imagery: a proposed universal methodology.

    PubMed

    García-Torres, Luis; Caballero-Novella, Juan J; Gómez-Candón, David; Peña, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A procedure named CROPCLASS was developed to semi-automate census parcel crop assessment in any agricultural area using multitemporal remote images. For each area, CROPCLASS consists of a) a definition of census parcels through vector files in all of the images; b) the extraction of spectral bands (SB) and key vegetation index (VI) average values for each parcel and image; c) the conformation of a matrix data (MD) of the extracted information; d) the classification of MD decision trees (DT) and Structured Query Language (SQL) crop predictive model definition also based on preliminary land-use ground-truth work in a reduced number of parcels; and e) the implementation of predictive models to classify unidentified parcels land uses. The software named CROPCLASS-2.0 was developed to semi-automatically perform the described procedure in an economically feasible manner. The CROPCLASS methodology was validated using seven GeoEye-1 satellite images that were taken over the LaVentilla area (Southern Spain) from April to October 2010 at 3- to 4-week intervals. The studied region was visited every 3 weeks, identifying 12 crops and others land uses in 311 parcels. The DT training models for each cropping system were assessed at a 95% to 100% overall accuracy (OA) for each crop within its corresponding cropping systems. The DT training models that were used to directly identify the individual crops were assessed with 80.7% OA, with a user accuracy of approximately 80% or higher for most crops. Generally, the DT model accuracy was similar using the seven images that were taken at approximately one-month intervals or a set of three images that were taken during early spring, summer and autumn, or set of two images that were taken at about 2 to 3 months interval. The classification of the unidentified parcels for the individual crops was achieved with an OA of 79.5%. PMID:25689830

  13. Census Parcels Cropping System Classification from Multitemporal Remote Imagery: A Proposed Universal Methodology

    PubMed Central

    García-Torres, Luis; Caballero-Novella, Juan J.; Gómez-Candón, David; Peña, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A procedure named CROPCLASS was developed to semi-automate census parcel crop assessment in any agricultural area using multitemporal remote images. For each area, CROPCLASS consists of a) a definition of census parcels through vector files in all of the images; b) the extraction of spectral bands (SB) and key vegetation index (VI) average values for each parcel and image; c) the conformation of a matrix data (MD) of the extracted information; d) the classification of MD decision trees (DT) and Structured Query Language (SQL) crop predictive model definition also based on preliminary land-use ground-truth work in a reduced number of parcels; and e) the implementation of predictive models to classify unidentified parcels land uses. The software named CROPCLASS-2.0 was developed to semi-automatically perform the described procedure in an economically feasible manner. The CROPCLASS methodology was validated using seven GeoEye-1 satellite images that were taken over the LaVentilla area (Southern Spain) from April to October 2010 at 3- to 4-week intervals. The studied region was visited every 3 weeks, identifying 12 crops and others land uses in 311 parcels. The DT training models for each cropping system were assessed at a 95% to 100% overall accuracy (OA) for each crop within its corresponding cropping systems. The DT training models that were used to directly identify the individual crops were assessed with 80.7% OA, with a user accuracy of approximately 80% or higher for most crops. Generally, the DT model accuracy was similar using the seven images that were taken at approximately one-month intervals or a set of three images that were taken during early spring, summer and autumn, or set of two images that were taken at about 2 to 3 months interval. The classification of the unidentified parcels for the individual crops was achieved with an OA of 79.5%. PMID:25689830

  14. Polychlorinated naphthalenes and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in arctic air

    SciTech Connect

    Harner, T.; Kylin, H.; Bidleman, T.F.; Barrie, L.A.; Halsall, C.; Strachan, W.M.J.; Fellin, P.

    1998-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are reported for the first time in arctic air. The data represent combined air samples from the Barents Sea, eastern Arctic Ocean, Norwegian Sea, and two land-based monitoring stations at Alert, Canada, and Dunai Island in eastern Siberia, Russia. Values for {Sigma}PCN were 6--49 for shipboard samples and 0.3--8 for land-based stations and were dominated by the 3-Cl and 4-Cl homologues, which accounted for 90--95% of the total mass. Average values for {Sigma}PCB for the shipboard samples were 126, 24, and 75 for the Barents Sea, eastern Arctic, and Norwegian Sea, respectively. Three-dimensional 5-day air parcel back-trajectories arriving at the ship at 850 and 925 hPa suggested that elevated PCB and PCN concentrations for shipboard samples originated in Europe. Concentrations (fg m{sup {minus}3}) of coplanar PCBs in arctic air were 3--40 (PCB 77) and 0.3--8 (PCB 126) -- about an order of magnitude lower than in urban air. Higher concentrations of PCB 77 and PCB 126, 347 and 5.0 (fg m{sup {minus}3}), respectively, were found in the Barents Sea for two samples with elevated {Sigma}PCBs.

  15. Identifying functional subdivisions in the human brain using meta-analytic activation modeling-based parcellation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Fan, Lingzhong; Chu, Congying; Zhuo, Junjie; Wang, Jiaojian; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Parcellation of the human brain into fine-grained units by grouping voxels into distinct clusters has been an effective approach for delineating specific brain regions and their subregions. Published neuroimaging studies employing coordinate-based meta-analyses have shown that the activation foci and their corresponding behavioral categories may contain useful information about the anatomical-functional organization of brain regions. Inspired by these developments, we proposed a new parcellation scheme called meta-analytic activation modeling-based parcellation (MAMP) that uses meta-analytically obtained information. The raw meta data, including the experiments and the reported activation coordinates related to a brain region of interest, were acquired from the Brainmap database. Using this data, we first obtained the "modeled activation" pattern by modeling the voxel-wise activation probability given spatial uncertainty for each experiment that featured at least one focus within the region of interest. Then, we processed these "modeled activation" patterns across the experiments with a K-means clustering algorithm to group the voxels into different subregions. In order to verify the reliability of the method, we employed our method to parcellate the amygdala and the left Brodmann area 44 (BA44). The parcellation results were quite consistent with previous cytoarchitectonic and in vivo neuroimaging findings. Therefore, the MAMP proposed in the current study could be a useful complement to other methods for uncovering the functional organization of the human brain.

  16. Parcel: Project for the Automatic Restructuring and Concurrent Evaluation of Lisp

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.L. III; Padua, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Parcel (Project for the Automatic Restructuring and Concurrent Evaluation of Lisp) is an investigation of the problem of compiling Lisp for evaluation on a shared memory multiprocessor. In this paper, we present an overview of the process of compilation in Parcel. This process consists, broadly, of an interprocedural analysis, followed by the function-level restructuring of the lambda expressions composing a program. We discuss both of the phases, and illustrate the steps of restructuring with a few examples. A novel representation for s-expressions is employed in Parcel, to facilitate the parallel creation and access of lists; we review this representation, and discuss its implications for the compilation process. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Parcellation of Infant Surface Atlas Using Developmental Trajectories of Multidimensional Cortical Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Gilmore, John H.; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Cortical surface atlases, equipped with anatomically and functionally defined parcellations, are of fundamental importance in neuroimaging studies. Typically, parcellations of surface atlases are derived based on the sulcal-gyral landmarks, which are extremely variable across individuals and poorly matched with microstructural and functional boundaries. Cortical developmental trajectories in infants reflect underlying changes of microstructures, which essentially determines the molecular organization and functional principles of the cortex, thus allowing better definition of developmentally, microstructurally, and functionally distinct regions, compared to conventional sulcal-gyral landmarks. Accordingly, a parcellation of infant cortical surface atlas was proposed, based on the developmental trajectories of cortical thickness in infants, revealing regional patterning of cortical growth. However, cortical anatomy is jointly characterized by biologically-distinct, multidimensional cortical attributes, i.e., cortical thickness, surface area, and local gyrification, each with its distinct genetic underpinning, cellular mechanism, and developmental trajectories. To date, the parcellations based on the development of surface area and local gyrification is still missing. To bridge this critical gap, for the first time, we parcellate an infant cortical surface atlas into distinct regions based solely on developmental trajectories of surface area and local gyrification, respectively. For each cortical attribute, we first nonlinearly fuse the subject-specific similarity matrices of vertices' developmental trajectories of all subjects into a single matrix, which helps better capture common and complementary information of the population than the conventional method of simple averaging of all subjects' matrices. Then, we perform spectral clustering based on this fused matrix. We have applied our method to parcellate an infant surface atlas using the developmental trajectories

  18. [Winter wheat area estimation with MODIS-NDVI time series based on parcel].

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Zhang, Jin-shui; Zhu, Wen-quan; Hu, Tan-gao; Hou, Dong

    2011-05-01

    Several attributes of MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) data, especially the short temporal intervals and the global coverage, provide an extremely efficient way to map cropland and monitor its seasonal change. However, the reliability of their measurement results is challenged because of the limited spatial resolution. The parcel data has clear geo-location and obvious boundary information of cropland. Also, the spectral differences and the complexity of mixed pixels are weak in parcels. All of these make that area estimation based on parcels presents more advantage than on pixels. In the present study, winter wheat area estimation based on MODIS-NDVI time series has been performed with the support of cultivated land parcel in Tongzhou, Beijing. In order to extract the regional winter wheat acreage, multiple regression methods were used to simulate the stable regression relationship between MODIS-NDVI time series data and TM samples in parcels. Through this way, the consistency of the extraction results from MODIS and TM can stably reach up to 96% when the amount of samples accounts for 15% of the whole area. The results shows that the use of parcel data can effectively improve the error in recognition results in MODIS-NDVI based multi-series data caused by the low spatial resolution. Therefore, with combination of moderate and low resolution data, the winter wheat area estimation became available in large-scale region which lacks completed medium resolution images or has images covered with clouds. Meanwhile, it carried out the preliminary experiments for other crop area estimation.

  19. Parcellation of the human orbitofrontal cortex based on gray matter volume covariance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaigui; Qin, Wen; Qi, Haotian; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-02-01

    The human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is an enigmatic brain region that cannot be parcellated reliably using diffusional and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) because there is signal dropout that results from an inherent defect in imaging techniques. We hypothesise that the OFC can be reliably parcellated into subregions based on gray matter volume (GMV) covariance patterns that are derived from artefact-free structural images. A total of 321 healthy young subjects were examined by high-resolution structural MRI. The OFC was parcellated into subregions-based GMV covariance patterns; and then sex and laterality differences in GMV covariance pattern of each OFC subregion were compared. The human OFC was parcellated into the anterior (OFCa), medial (OFCm), posterior (OFCp), intermediate (OFCi), and lateral (OFCl) subregions. This parcellation scheme was validated by the same analyses of the left OFC and the bilateral OFCs in male and female subjects. Both visual observation and quantitative comparisons indicated a unique GMV covariance pattern for each OFC subregion. These OFC subregions mainly covaried with the prefrontal and temporal cortices, cingulate cortex and amygdala. In addition, GMV correlations of most OFC subregions were similar across sex and laterality except for significant laterality difference in the OFCl. The right OFCl had stronger GMV correlation with the right inferior frontal cortex. Using high-resolution structural images, we established a reliable parcellation scheme for the human OFC, which may provide an in vivo guide for subregion-level studies of this region and improve our understanding of the human OFC at subregional levels.

  20. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1; The Critical Components to Simulate Cirrus Initiation Explicitly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David OC; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Sassen, Kenneth; Jensen, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    clear if the two approaches can be made consistent. Large haze particles may deviate considerably from equilibrium size in moderate to strong updrafts (20-100 centimeters per second) at -60 C when the commonly invoked equilibrium assumption is lifted. The resulting difference in particle-size- dependent solution concentration of haze particles may significantly affect the ice particle formation rate during the initial nucleation interval. The uptake rate for water vapor excess by ice crystals is another key component regulating the total number of nucleated ice crystals. This rate, the product of particle number concentration and ice crystal diffusional growth rate, which is particularly sensitive to the deposition coefficient when ice particles are small, modulates the peak particle formation rate achieved in an air parcel and the duration of the active nucleation time period. The effects of heterogeneous nucleation are most pronounced in weak updraft situations. Vapor competition by the heterogeneously nucleated ice crystals may limit the achieved ice supersaturation and thus suppresses the contribution of homogeneous nucleation. Correspondingly, ice crystal number density is markedly reduced. Definitive laboratory and atmospheric benchmark data are needed for the heterogeneous nucleation process. Inter-model differences are correspondingly greater than in the case of the homogeneous nucleation process acting alone.

  1. GraSP: Geodesic Graph-based Segmentation With Shape Priors for the Functional Parcellation of the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Honnorat, N.; Eavani, H.; Satterthwaite, T. D.; Gur, R. E.; Gur, R. C.; Davatzikos, C.

    2014-01-01

    Resting-state functional MRI is a powerful technique for mapping the functional organization of the human brain. However, for many types of connectivity analysis, high-resolution voxelwise analyses are computationally infeasible and dimensionality reduction is typically used to limit the number of network nodes. Most commonly, network nodes are defined using standard anatomic atlases that do not align well with functional neuroanatomy or regions of interest covering a small portion of the cortex. Data-driven parcellation methods seek to overcome such limitations, but existing approaches are highly dependent on initialization procedures and produce spatially fragmented parcels or overly isotropic parcels that are unlikely to be biologically grounded. In this paper, we propose a novel graph-based parcellation method that relies on a discrete Markov Random Field framework. The spatial connectedness of the parcels is explicitly enforced by shape priors. The shape of the parcels is adapted to underlying data through the use of functional geodesic distances. Our method is initialization-free and rapidly segments the cortex in a single optimization. The performance of the method was assessed using a large developmental cohort of more than 850 subjects. Compared to two prevalent parcellation methods, our approach provides superior reproducibility for a similar data fit. Furthermore, compared to other methods, it avoids incoherent parcels. Finally, the method’s utility is demonstrated through its ability to detect strong brain developmental effects that are only weakly observed using other methods. PMID:25462796

  2. 25 CFR 166.303 - Can more than one parcel of Indian land be combined into one permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can more than one parcel of Indian land be combined into one permit? 166.303 Section 166.303 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.303 Can more than one parcel of...

  3. GraSP: geodesic Graph-based Segmentation with Shape Priors for the functional parcellation of the cortex.

    PubMed

    Honnorat, N; Eavani, H; Satterthwaite, T D; Gur, R E; Gur, R C; Davatzikos, C

    2015-02-01

    Resting-state functional MRI is a powerful technique for mapping the functional organization of the human brain. However, for many types of connectivity analysis, high-resolution voxelwise analyses are computationally infeasible and dimensionality reduction is typically used to limit the number of network nodes. Most commonly, network nodes are defined using standard anatomic atlases that do not align well with functional neuroanatomy or regions of interest covering a small portion of the cortex. Data-driven parcellation methods seek to overcome such limitations, but existing approaches are highly dependent on initialization procedures and produce spatially fragmented parcels or overly isotropic parcels that are unlikely to be biologically grounded. In this paper, we propose a novel graph-based parcellation method that relies on a discrete Markov Random Field framework. The spatial connectedness of the parcels is explicitly enforced by shape priors. The shape of the parcels is adapted to underlying data through the use of functional geodesic distances. Our method is initialization-free and rapidly segments the cortex in a single optimization. The performance of the method was assessed using a large developmental cohort of more than 850 subjects. Compared to two prevalent parcellation methods, our approach provides superior reproducibility for a similar data fit. Furthermore, compared to other methods, it avoids incoherent parcels. Finally, the method's utility is demonstrated through its ability to detect strong brain developmental effects that are only weakly observed using other methods.

  4. [The origin and quality of water for human consumption: the health of the population residing in the Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Monteverde, Malena; Cipponeri, Marcos; Angelaccio, Carlos; Gianuzzi, Leda

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the origin and quality of water used for consumption in a sample of households in Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. The results of drinking water by source indicated that 9% of water samples from the public water system, 45% of bottled water samples and 80% of well water samples were not safe for drinking due to excess content of coliforms, Escherichia coli or nitrates. Individuals living in households where well water is the main source of drinking water have a 55% higher chance of suffering a water-borne disease; in the cases of diarrheas, the probability is 87% higher and in the case of dermatitis, 160% higher. The water for human consumption in this region should be provided by centralized sources that assure control over the quality of the water.

  5. 56. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1934, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1934, by Sverdrup and Parcel, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Bar bill and bending details - Mark Twain Memorial Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at US Route 36, Hannibal, Marion County, MO

  6. 61. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 19356, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1935-6, by Sverdrup and Parcel, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Revisions in back wall of abutment B17 - Mark Twain Memorial Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at US Route 36, Hannibal, Marion County, MO

  7. 20. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 193031, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1930-31, by Sverdrup and Parcel, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City, Missouri. Truss stress diagram, and plans of laterals and sway braces - Gasconade Bridge, Spanning Gasconade River at State Route 100, Gasconade, Gasconade County, MO

  8. 37. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1934, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1934, by Sverdrup and Parcel, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Stress sheet, continuous span - Mark Twain Memorial Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at US Route 36, Hannibal, Marion County, MO

  9. 9 CFR 325.2 - Parcel post and ferries deemed carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parcel post and ferries deemed carriers. 325.2 Section 325.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... to transportation by ferry of any products loaded on a truck or other vehicle, or otherwise moved...

  10. 76 FR 13000 - Transfer of Commercial First-Class Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Transfer of Commercial First-Class Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List AGENCY: Postal Service.\\TM\\ ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service hereby provides notice that it has filed a request with the Postal...

  11. Archaeological Survey of 56 Preselected Parcels on the AridLands Ecology Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Sharpe.

    1999-04-22

    An archaeological survey of 56 preselected parcels on the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve was undertaken in support of compensatory mitigation for the construction of the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) cells 3 and 4 on the Hanford Site. This report presents the findings of the archaeological survey.

  12. 76 FR 14284 - Domestic Shipping Services Product Launch of Parcel Select Regional Ground

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    .... Enter a minimum of 200 pieces or 50 pounds of mail for each mailing. Use the Electronic Verification... (electronic option only), insurance, and Hold For Pickup service. Markings and Mail Preparation The basic...); Standard Mail prepared as Not Flat-Machinable pieces or as machinable or irregular parcels...

  13. Measurement and analysis of aerosol and black carbon in the southwestern United States and Panama and their dependence on air mass origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, C.; Sheahan, J. N.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Brien, P.; Hinds, B. D.; Martinez-Twary, E.; Hansen, A. D. A.; White, C.; Garvey, D. M.; Pinnick, R. G.

    2004-07-01

    centres on the west coast of the USA can lead to significant BC loading, while air masses originating from the southeast of the site tend to have less BC. Additional aerosol measurements are reported for a remote maritime site located on the Atlantic side of the former Panama Canal Zone for the 1976-1979 period, although these data have been analyzed with less statistical rigor. The average geometric mean value of aerosol mass loading for this site is 9.7 μg/m3, with a significant decreasing trend of -19% per year. The mean value of aerosol absorption is 0.59 Mm-1, with a decreasing trend of -15% per year.

  14. Long-range transport of air pollutants originating in China: A possible major cause of multi-day high-PM10 episodes during cold season in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hye-Ryun; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Jinwon; Chen, Deliang; Lee, Seungmin; Choi, Yong-Sang; Chang, Lim-Seok; Song, Chang-Keun

    2015-05-01

    Massive air pollutants originating in China and their trans-boundary transports are an international concern in East Asia. Despite its importance, details in the trans-boundary transport of air pollutants over East Asia and its impact on regional air quality remain to be clarified. This study presents an evidence which strong support that aerosols emitting in China play a major role in the occurrence of multi-day (≥4 days) severe air pollution episodes in cold seasons (October through March) for 2001-2013 in Seoul, Korea, where the concentration of PM10 (particulates with diameters ≤ 10 μm) exceeds 100 μg m-3. Observations show that these multi-day severe air pollution episodes occur when a strong high-pressure system resides over the eastern China-Korea region. In such weather conditions, air pollutants emitted in eastern China/southwestern Manchuria are trapped within the atmospheric boundary layer, and gradually spread into neighboring countries by weak lower tropospheric westerlies. Understanding of trans-boundary transports of air pollutants will advance the predictability of local air quality, and will encourage the development of international measures to improve air quality.

  15. Predictive Capabilities of a Relaxation Model for Parcel-Based Granular Flow Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radl, Stefan; Sundaresan, Sankaran

    2011-11-01

    Parcel-based methods have a great potential to reduce the computational cost of particle simulations for dense flows. Here we investigate a relaxation model, similar to that of Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK), when applied to such a parcel-based simulation method. Specifically, we have chosen the simulation methodology initially proposed by Patankar and Joseph, and combined it with the relaxation model published by O'Rourke and Snider. We show that a relaxation model is key to correctly predicting macroscopic flow features, e.g., the scattering pattern of a granular jet impinging on a flat surface, studied experimentally by Cheng et al.. Simple shear flow simulations reveal that calculation of the locally-averaged velocity is a critical ingredient to correctly predict streaming and collisional stresses. SR acknowledges the support of the Austrian Science Foundation through the Erwin-Schroedinger fellowship J-3072.

  16. Multi-Contrast Multi-Atlas Parcellation of Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoying; Yoshida, Shoko; Hsu, John; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.; Faria, Andreia V.; Oishi, Kenichi; Kutten, Kwame; Poretti, Andrea; Li, Yue; Miller, Michael I.; Mori, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for parcellating the human brain into 193 anatomical structures based on diffusion tensor images (DTIs). This was accomplished in the setting of multi-contrast diffeomorphic likelihood fusion using multiple DTI atlases. DTI images are modeled as high dimensional fields, with each voxel exhibiting a vector valued feature comprising of mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), and fiber angle. For each structure, the probability distribution of each element in the feature vector is modeled as a mixture of Gaussians, the parameters of which are estimated from the labeled atlases. The structure-specific feature vector is then used to parcellate the test image. For each atlas, a likelihood is iteratively computed based on the structure-specific vector feature. The likelihoods from multiple atlases are then fused. The updating and fusing of the likelihoods is achieved based on the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation problems. We first demonstrate the performance of the algorithm by examining the parcellation accuracy of 18 structures from 25 subjects with a varying degree of structural abnormality. Dice values ranging 0.8–0.9 were obtained. In addition, strong correlation was found between the volume size of the automated and the manual parcellation. Then, we present scan-rescan reproducibility based on another dataset of 16 DTI images – an average of 3.73%, 1.91%, and 1.79% for volume, mean FA, and mean MD respectively. Finally, the range of anatomical variability in the normal population was quantified for each structure. PMID:24809486

  17. Using geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels for classification of detailed urban land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.-S.; Qiu, X.; Usery, E.L.; Wang, L.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed urban land use data are important to government officials, researchers, and businesspeople for a variety of purposes. This article presents an approach to classifying detailed urban land use based on geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels. An area of 6 by 14 km in Austin, Texas, with land parcel boundaries delineated by the Travis Central Appraisal District of Travis County, Texas, is tested for the approach. We derive fifty parcel attributes from relevant geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing data and use them to discriminate among nine urban land uses: single family, multifamily, commercial, office, industrial, civic, open space, transportation, and undeveloped. Half of the 33,025 parcels in the study area are used as training data for land use classification and the other half are used as testing data for accuracy assessment. The best result with a decision tree classification algorithm has an overall accuracy of 96 percent and a kappa coefficient of 0.78, and two naive, baseline models based on the majority rule and the spatial autocorrelation rule have overall accuracy of 89 percent and 79 percent, respectively. The algorithm is relatively good at classifying single-family, multifamily, commercial, open space, and undeveloped land uses and relatively poor at classifying office, industrial, civic, and transportation land uses. The most important attributes for land use classification are the geometrical attributes, particularly those related to building areas. Next are the contextual attributes, particularly those relevant to the spatial relationship between buildings, then the textural attributes, particularly the semivariance texture statistic from 0.61-m resolution images.

  18. Interim Project Results: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the performance evaluation of United Parcel Service's second-generation hybrid-electric delivery vans. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 of these vans along with 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operating in Minneapolis, Minnesota. As a complement to the field study, the team recently completed fuel economy and emissions testing at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) laboratory.

  19. Computational neuroanatomy using brain deformations: From brain parcellation to multivariate pattern analysis and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-10-01

    The past 20 years have seen a mushrooming growth of the field of computational neuroanatomy. Much of this work has been enabled by the development and refinement of powerful, high-dimensional image warping methods, which have enabled detailed brain parcellation, voxel-based morphometric analyses, and multivariate pattern analyses using machine learning approaches. The evolution of these 3 types of analyses over the years has overcome many challenges. We present the evolution of our work in these 3 directions, which largely follows the evolution of this field. We discuss the progression from single-atlas, single-registration brain parcellation work to current ensemble-based parcellation; from relatively basic mass-univariate t-tests to optimized regional pattern analyses combining deformations and residuals; and from basic application of support vector machines to generative-discriminative formulations of multivariate pattern analyses, and to methods dealing with heterogeneity of neuroanatomical patterns. We conclude with discussion of some of the future directions and challenges. PMID:27514582

  20. Computational neuroanatomy using brain deformations: From brain parcellation to multivariate pattern analysis and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-10-01

    The past 20 years have seen a mushrooming growth of the field of computational neuroanatomy. Much of this work has been enabled by the development and refinement of powerful, high-dimensional image warping methods, which have enabled detailed brain parcellation, voxel-based morphometric analyses, and multivariate pattern analyses using machine learning approaches. The evolution of these 3 types of analyses over the years has overcome many challenges. We present the evolution of our work in these 3 directions, which largely follows the evolution of this field. We discuss the progression from single-atlas, single-registration brain parcellation work to current ensemble-based parcellation; from relatively basic mass-univariate t-tests to optimized regional pattern analyses combining deformations and residuals; and from basic application of support vector machines to generative-discriminative formulations of multivariate pattern analyses, and to methods dealing with heterogeneity of neuroanatomical patterns. We conclude with discussion of some of the future directions and challenges.

  1. Parcellation in Left Lateral Parietal Cortex Is Similar in Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Steven M.; Cohen, Alexander L.; Power, Jonathan D.; Coalson, Rebecca S.; Miezin, Francis M.; Vogel, Alecia C.; Dubis, Joseph W.; Church, Jessica A.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2012-01-01

    A key question in developmental neuroscience involves understanding how and when the cerebral cortex is partitioned into distinct functional areas. The present study used functional connectivity MRI mapping and graph theory to identify putative cortical areas and generate a parcellation scheme of left lateral parietal cortex (LLPC) in 7 to 10-year-old children and adults. Results indicated that a majority of putative LLPC areas could be matched across groups (mean distance between matched areas across age: 3.15 mm). Furthermore, the boundaries of children's putative LLPC areas respected the boundaries generated from the adults' parcellation scheme for a majority of children's areas (13/15). Consistent with prior research, matched LLPC areas showed age-related differences in functional connectivity strength with other brain regions. These results suggest that LLPC cortical parcellation and functional connectivity mature along different developmental trajectories, with adult-like boundaries between LLPC areas established in school-age children prior to adult-like functional connectivity. PMID:21810781

  2. Green infrastructure retrofits on residential parcels: Ecohydrologic modeling for stormwater design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    To meet water quality goals stormwater utilities and not-for-profit watershed organizations in the U.S. are working with citizens to design and implement green infrastructure on residential land. Green infrastructure, as an alternative and complement to traditional (grey) stormwater infrastructure, has the potential to contribute to multiple ecosystem benefits including stormwater volume reduction, carbon sequestration, urban heat island mitigation, and to provide amenities to residents. However, in small (1-10-km2) medium-density urban watersheds with heterogeneous land cover it is unclear whether stormwater retrofits on residential parcels significantly contributes to reduce stormwater volume at the watershed scale. In this paper, we seek to improve understanding of how small-scale redistribution of water at the parcel scale as part of green infrastructure implementation affects urban water budgets and stormwater volume across spatial scales. As study sites we use two medium-density headwater watersheds in Baltimore, MD and Durham, NC. We develop ecohydrology modeling experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of redirecting residential rooftop runoff to un-altered pervious surfaces and to engineered rain gardens to reduce stormwater runoff. As baselines for these experiments, we performed field surveys of residential rooftop hydrologic connectivity to adjacent impervious surfaces, and found low rates of connectivity. Through simulations of pervasive adoption of downspout disconnection to un-altered pervious areas or to rain garden stormwater control measures (SCM) in these catchments, we find that most parcel-scale changes in stormwater fate are attenuated at larger spatial scales and that neither SCM alone is likely to provide significant changes in streamflow at the watershed scale.

  3. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  8. Method for combining information from white matter fiber tracking and gray matter parcellation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Jeong; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Talos, Ion-Florin; Brun, Anders; Peiper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ference A; McCarley, Robert W; Shenton, Martha E

    2004-09-01

    We introduce a method for combining fiber tracking from diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging with cortical gray matter parcellation from structural high-spatial-resolution 3D spoiled gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady state images. We applied this method to a tumor case to determine the impact of the tumor on white matter architecture. We conclude that this new method for combining structural and DT imaging data is useful for understanding cortical connectivity and the localization of fiber tracts and their relationship with cortical anatomy and brain abnormalities.

  9. Bidirectional iterative parcellation of diffusion weighted imaging data: Separating cortical regions connected by the arcuate fasciculus and extreme capsule

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Dianne K.; Van Petten, Cyma; Beeson, Pélagie M.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Plante, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a Bidirectional Iterative Parcellation (BIP) procedure designed to identify the location and size of connected cortical regions (parcellations) at both ends of a white matter tract in diffusion weighted images. The procedure applies the FSL option “probabilistic tracking with classification targets” in a bidirectional and iterative manner. To assess the utility of BIP, we applied the procedure to the problem of parcellating a limited set of well-established gray matter seed regions associated with the dorsal (arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus) and ventral (extreme capsule fiber system) white matter tracts in the language networks of 97 participants. These left hemisphere seed regions and the two white matter tracts, along with their right hemisphere homologues, provided an excellent test case for BIP because the resulting parcellations overlap and their connectivity via the arcuate fasciculi and extreme capsule fiber systems are well studied. The procedure yielded both confirmatory and novel findings. Specifically, BIP confirmed that each tract connects within the seed regions in unique, but expected ways. Novel findings included increasingly left-lateralized parcellations associated with the arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus as a function of age and education. These results demonstrate that BIP is an easily implemented technique that successfully confirmed cortical connectivity patterns predicted in the literature, and has the potential to provide new insights regarding the architecture of the brain. PMID:25173414

  10. Joint Spectral Decomposition for the Parcellation of the Human Cerebral Cortex Using Resting-State fMRI.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Salim; Parisot, Sarah; Rueckert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Identification of functional connections within the human brain has gained a lot of attention due to its potential to reveal neural mechanisms. In a whole-brain connectivity analysis, a critical stage is the computation of a set of network nodes that can effectively represent cortical regions. To address this problem, we present a robust cerebral cortex parcellation method based on spectral graph theory and resting-state fMRI correlations that generates reliable parcellations at the single-subject level and across multiple subjects. Our method models the cortical surface in each hemisphere as a mesh graph represented in the spectral domain with its eigenvectors. We connect cortices of different subjects with each other based on the similarity of their connectivity profiles and construct a multi-layer graph, which effectively captures the fundamental properties of the whole group as well as preserves individual subject characteristics. Spectral decomposition of this joint graph is used to cluster each cortical vertex into a subregion in order to obtain whole-brain parcellations. Using rs-fMRI data collected from 40 healthy subjects, we show that our proposed algorithm computes highly reproducible parcellations across different groups of subjects and at varying levels of detail with an average Dice score of 0.78, achieving up to 9% better reproducibility compared to existing approaches. We also report that our group-wise parcellations are functionally more consistent, thus, can be reliably used to represent the population in network analyses.

  11. Functional Connectivity-Based Parcellation of Amygdala Using Self-Organized Mapping: A Data Driven Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Arabinda; Rogers, Baxter P.; Chen, Li Min; Gore, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of this work is to demonstrate how resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals may be used to objectively parcellate functionally heterogeneous subregions of the human amygdala into structures characterized by similar patterns of functional connectivity. We hypothesize that similarity of functional connectivity of subregions with other parts of the brain can be a potential basis to segment and cluster voxels using data driven approaches. In this work, self-organizing map (SOM) was implemented to cluster the connectivity maps associated with each voxel of the human amygdala, thereby defining distinct subregions. The functional separation was optimized by evaluating the overall differences in functional connectivity between the subregions at group level. Analysis of 25 resting state fMRI data sets suggests that SOM can successfully identify functionally independent nuclei based on differences in their inter subregional functional connectivity, evaluated statistically at various confidence levels. Although amygdala contains several nuclei whose distinct roles are implicated in various functions, our objective approach discerns at least two functionally distinct volumes comparable to previous parcellation results obtained using probabilistic tractography and cytoarchitectonic analysis. Association of these nuclei with various known functions and a quantitative evaluation of their differences in overall functional connectivity with lateral orbital frontal cortex and temporal pole confirms the functional diversity of amygdala. The data driven approach adopted here may be used as a powerful indicator of structure–function relationships in the amygdala and other functionally heterogeneous structures as well. PMID:23418140

  12. Bystanders, parcelling, and an absence of trust in the grooming interactions of wild male chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Kaburu, Stefano S K; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation remains a central issue in socio-biology with the fundamental problem of how individuals minimize the risks of being short-changed ('cheated') should their behavioural investment in another not be returned. Economic decisions that individuals make during interactions may depend upon the presence of potential partners nearby, which offers co operators a temptation to defect from the current partner. The parcelling model posits that donors subdivide services into parcels to force cooperation, and that this is contingent on opportunities for defection; that is, the presence of bystanders. Here we test this model and the effect of bystander presence using grooming interactions of wild chimpanzees. We found that with more bystanders, initiators gave less grooming at the beginning of the bout and were more likely to abandon a grooming bout, while bouts were less likely to be reciprocated. We also found that the groomer's initial investment was not higher among frequent groomers or stronger reciprocators, suggesting that contrary to current assumptions, grooming decisions are not based on trust, or bonds, within dyads. Our work highlights the importance of considering immediate social context and the influence of bystanders for understanding the evolution of the behavioural strategies that produce cooperation. PMID:26856371

  13. Expert System For Flexible Palletizing Of Mixed Size And Weight Parcels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazouz, A. Kader; Shell, Richard L.; Hall, E. L.

    1988-02-01

    Stacking boxes of mixed size and weight is a tedious task requiring intelligence. It requires the ability to recognize that boxes are available to be stacked, the recognition of different box types, the selection of a grasping point for picking up the box and most importantly, a determination of where to stack the box on a partially loaded pallet. The purpose of this paper is to describe an expert system for determining how to stack a set of mixed size and weight boxes and provide control information to a robot to perform actual palletizing. A prototype system has been developed using an expert programming language and an industrial robot work cell. The system has been tested with actual food parcels weighing up to 50 pounds and performs very well. The formation of flat regions is one of the many rules implemented in the expert system. The system also works at speeds comparable to human speeds. The study demonstrates, in large measure, the feasibility of the use of expert system AI techniques and industrial robots for palletizing mixed size weight parcels in a general workhousing application.

  14. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Paveglio, Travis B; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability-human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others.

  15. Bystanders, parcelling, and an absence of trust in the grooming interactions of wild male chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation remains a central issue in socio-biology with the fundamental problem of how individuals minimize the risks of being short-changed (‘cheated’) should their behavioural investment in another not be returned. Economic decisions that individuals make during interactions may depend upon the presence of potential partners nearby, which offers co operators a temptation to defect from the current partner. The parcelling model posits that donors subdivide services into parcels to force cooperation, and that this is contingent on opportunities for defection; that is, the presence of bystanders. Here we test this model and the effect of bystander presence using grooming interactions of wild chimpanzees. We found that with more bystanders, initiators gave less grooming at the beginning of the bout and were more likely to abandon a grooming bout, while bouts were less likely to be reciprocated. We also found that the groomer’s initial investment was not higher among frequent groomers or stronger reciprocators, suggesting that contrary to current assumptions, grooming decisions are not based on trust, or bonds, within dyads. Our work highlights the importance of considering immediate social context and the influence of bystanders for understanding the evolution of the behavioural strategies that produce cooperation. PMID:26856371

  16. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paveglio, Travis B.; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability—human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others.

  17. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Paveglio, Travis B; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability-human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others. PMID:27272166

  18. Impact of the resolution of brain parcels on connectome-wide association studies in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Bellec, Pierre; Benhajali, Yassine; Carbonell, Felix; Dansereau, Christian; Albouy, Geneviève; Pelland, Maxime; Craddock, Cameron; Collignon, Oliver; Doyon, Julien; Stip, Emmanuel; Orban, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    A recent trend in functional magnetic resonance imaging is to test for association of clinical disorders with every possible connection between selected brain parcels. We investigated the impact of the resolution of functional brain parcels, ranging from large-scale networks to local regions, on a mass univariate general linear model (GLM) of connectomes. For each resolution taken independently, the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure controlled the false-discovery rate (FDR) at nominal level on realistic simulations. However, the FDR for tests pooled across all resolutions could be inflated compared to the FDR within resolution. This inflation was severe in the presence of no or weak effects, but became negligible for strong effects. We thus developed an omnibus test to establish the overall presence of true discoveries across all resolutions. Although not a guarantee to control the FDR across resolutions, the omnibus test may be used for descriptive analysis of the impact of resolution on a GLM analysis, in complement to a primary analysis at a predefined single resolution. On three real datasets with significant omnibus test (schizophrenia, congenital blindness, motor practice), markedly higher rate of discovery were obtained at low resolutions, below 50, in line with simulations showing increase in sensitivity at such resolutions. This increase in discovery rate came at the cost of a lower ability to localize effects, as low resolution parcels merged many different brain regions together. However, with 30 or more parcels, the statistical effect maps were biologically plausible and very consistent across resolutions. These results show that resolution is a key parameter for GLM-connectome analysis with FDR control, and that a functional brain parcellation with 30 to 50 parcels may lead to an accurate summary of full connectome effects with good sensitivity in many situations.

  19. Air mass origin and its influence on radionuclide activities ( 7Be and 210Pb) in aerosol particles at a coastal site in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueñas, C.; Orza, J. A. G.; Cabello, M.; Fernández, M. C.; Cañete, S.; Pérez, M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-07-01

    Studies of radionuclide activities in aerosol particles provide a means for evaluating the integrated effects of transport and meteorology on the atmospheric loadings of substances with different sources. Measurements of aerosol mass concentration and specific activities of 7Be and 210Pb in aerosols at Málaga (36° 43' 40″ N; 4° 28' 8″ W) for the period 2000-2006 were used to obtain the relationships between radionuclide activities and airflow patterns by comparing the data grouped by air mass trajectory clusters. The average concentration values of 7Be and 210Pb over the 7 year period have been found to be 4.6 and 0.58 mBq m -3, respectively, with mean aerosol mass concentration of 53.6 μg m -3. The identified air flow types arriving at Málaga reflect the transitional location of the Iberian Peninsula and show significant differences in radionuclide activities. Air concentrations of both nuclides and the aerosol mass concentration are controlled predominantly by the synoptic scenarios leading to the entrance of dust-laden continental flows from northern Africa and the arrival of polar maritime air masses, as implied by the strong correlations found between the monthly frequencies of the different air masses and the specific activities of both radionuclides. Correlations between activity concentrations and precipitation are significant though lower than with air masses.

  20. A Lagrangian analysis of ice-supersaturated air over the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, E. A.; Hoskins, B. J.; Shine, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nature of air parcels that exhibit ice supersaturation is important because they are the regions of potential formation of both cirrus and aircraft contrails, which affect the radiation balance. Ice-supersaturated air parcels in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over the North Atlantic are investigated using Lagrangian trajectories. The trajectory calculations use European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim reanalysis data for three winter and three summer seasons, resulting in approximately 200,000 trajectories with ice supersaturation for each season. For both summer and winter, the median duration of ice supersaturation along a trajectory is less than 6 h. Five percent of air which becomes ice supersaturated in the troposphere and 23% of air which becomes ice supersaturated in the stratosphere will remain ice supersaturated for at least 24 h. Weighting the ice-supersaturation duration with the observed frequency indicates the likely overall importance of the longer duration ice-supersaturated trajectories. Ice-supersaturated air parcels typically experience a decrease in moisture content while ice supersaturated, suggesting that cirrus clouds eventually form in the majority of such air. A comparison is made between short-lived (less than 24 h) and long-lived (greater than 24 h) ice-supersaturated air flows. For both air flows, ice supersaturation occurs around the northernmost part of the trajectory. Short-lived ice-supersaturated air flows show no significant differences in speed or direction of movement to subsaturated air parcels. However, long-lived ice-supersaturated air occurs in slower-moving air flows, which implies that they are not associated with the fastest moving air through a jet stream.

  1. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... tubes for export other than by parcel post. The claimant, upon release of the tobacco products,...

  2. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... tubes for export other than by parcel post. The claimant, upon release of the tobacco products,...

  3. Origins and seasonality of greenhouse gases over the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Sabrina G.; Feist, Dietrich G.; Wang, Zhiting

    2016-04-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) has become the reference network for all total-column observations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) like CO2, CH4, CO, N2O and others. Within TCCON, the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC) has been operating a Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on Ascension Island (8°S, 14°W) since May 2012. This is currently the only TCCON station covering the South Atlantic Ocean. So far, the measurements span more than two complete seasonal cycles. Due to its location in the southern trade wind zone, the station is downwind from Africa most of the time. A detailed trajectory analysis shows that different parts of the total atmospheric column typically have different origins. Air in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) typically comes from the deep southern Atlantic Ocean and had only little GHG exchange with land surfaces. However, air in the free troposphere above the PBL usually comes from tropical and southern Africa and sometimes also from South America. A detailed analysis allowed us to separate the total column of CH4 into a tropospheric and stratospheric part. Together with independent flask measurements from the surface, the effects of the different origins of air parcels can be seen in the PBL, the free troposphere and the stratosphere. For example, there are striking differences in seasonality for CH4 between the PBL and the free troposphere. Unlike over typical land stations, trace gas concentrations in the free troposphere above Ascension Island seem to be generally much higher than near the surface. Above the PBL, there is a whole layer of GHGs transported from Africa which shows land seasonal effects and biomass burning signals. This layer remains undetectable for surface observations.

  4. Evaluating the Long-Term Health and Economic Impacts of Central Residential Air Filtration for Reducing Premature Mortality Associated with Indoor Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) of Outdoor Origin

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dan; Azimi, Parham; Stephens, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Much of human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) of outdoor origin occurs in residences. High-efficiency particle air filtration in central heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is increasingly being used to reduce concentrations of particulate matter inside homes. However, questions remain about the effectiveness of filtration for reducing exposures to PM2.5 of outdoor origin and adverse health outcomes. Here we integrate epidemiology functions and mass balance modeling to estimate the long-term health and economic impacts of HVAC filtration for reducing premature mortality associated with indoor PM2.5 of outdoor origin in residences. We evaluate 11 classifications of filters (MERV 5 through HEPA) using six case studies of single-family home vintages and ventilation system combinations located in 22 U.S. cities. We estimate that widespread use of higher efficiency filters would reduce premature mortality by 0.002–2.5% and increase life expectancy by 0.02–1.6 months, yielding annual monetary benefits ranging from $1 to $1348 per person in the homes and locations modeled herein. Large differences in the magnitude of health and economic impacts are driven largely by differences in rated filter efficiency and building and ventilation system characteristics that govern particle infiltration and persistence, with smaller influences attributable to geographic location. PMID:26197328

  5. Evaluating the Long-Term Health and Economic Impacts of Central Residential Air Filtration for Reducing Premature Mortality Associated with Indoor Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) of Outdoor Origin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan; Azimi, Parham; Stephens, Brent

    2015-07-21

    Much of human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) of outdoor origin occurs in residences. High-efficiency particle air filtration in central heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is increasingly being used to reduce concentrations of particulate matter inside homes. However, questions remain about the effectiveness of filtration for reducing exposures to PM2.5 of outdoor origin and adverse health outcomes. Here we integrate epidemiology functions and mass balance modeling to estimate the long-term health and economic impacts of HVAC filtration for reducing premature mortality associated with indoor PM2.5 of outdoor origin in residences. We evaluate 11 classifications of filters (MERV 5 through HEPA) using six case studies of single-family home vintages and ventilation system combinations located in 22 U.S. cities. We estimate that widespread use of higher efficiency filters would reduce premature mortality by 0.002-2.5% and increase life expectancy by 0.02-1.6 months, yielding annual monetary benefits ranging from $1 to $1348 per person in the homes and locations modeled herein. Large differences in the magnitude of health and economic impacts are driven largely by differences in rated filter efficiency and building and ventilation system characteristics that govern particle infiltration and persistence, with smaller influences attributable to geographic location.

  6. Evaluating the Long-Term Health and Economic Impacts of Central Residential Air Filtration for Reducing Premature Mortality Associated with Indoor Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) of Outdoor Origin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan; Azimi, Parham; Stephens, Brent

    2015-07-01

    Much of human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) of outdoor origin occurs in residences. High-efficiency particle air filtration in central heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is increasingly being used to reduce concentrations of particulate matter inside homes. However, questions remain about the effectiveness of filtration for reducing exposures to PM2.5 of outdoor origin and adverse health outcomes. Here we integrate epidemiology functions and mass balance modeling to estimate the long-term health and economic impacts of HVAC filtration for reducing premature mortality associated with indoor PM2.5 of outdoor origin in residences. We evaluate 11 classifications of filters (MERV 5 through HEPA) using six case studies of single-family home vintages and ventilation system combinations located in 22 U.S. cities. We estimate that widespread use of higher efficiency filters would reduce premature mortality by 0.002-2.5% and increase life expectancy by 0.02-1.6 months, yielding annual monetary benefits ranging from $1 to $1348 per person in the homes and locations modeled herein. Large differences in the magnitude of health and economic impacts are driven largely by differences in rated filter efficiency and building and ventilation system characteristics that govern particle infiltration and persistence, with smaller influences attributable to geographic location. PMID:26197328

  7. 77 FR 54607 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Sugar Parcel Lands, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Proclaiming Certain Lands, Sugar Parcel Lands, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation for the Bay Mills Indian Community of Michigan AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...

  8. Three Approaches to Using Lengthy Ordinal Scales in Structural Equation Models: Parceling, Latent Scoring, and Shortening Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chongming; Nay, Sandra; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2010-01-01

    Lengthy scales or testlets pose certain challenges for structural equation modeling (SEM) if all the items are included as indicators of a latent construct. Three general approaches to modeling lengthy scales in SEM (parceling, latent scoring, and shortening) have been reviewed and evaluated. A hypothetical population model is simulated containing…

  9. Investigating Historic Parcel Changes to Understand Land Use Trends: A Methodology and Application for the San Pedro River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term land use and land cover change, and the associated impacts, pose critical challenges to sustaining healthy communities and ecosystems. In this study, a methodology was developed to use parcel data to evaluate land use trends in southeast Arizona’s San Pedro River Water...

  10. A Monte Carlo Study Investigating the Impact of Item Parceling Strategies on Parameter Estimates and Their Standard Errors in CFA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhija, Fadia Nasser-Abu; Wisenbaker, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to examine the effect of item parceling on confirmatory factor analysis parameter estimates and their standard errors at different levels of sample size, number of indicators per factor, size of factor structure/pattern coefficients, magnitude of interfactor correlations, and variations in item-level data…

  11. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  12. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  13. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  14. Three Approaches to Using Lengthy Ordinal Scales in Structural Equation Models: Parceling, Latent Scoring, and Shortening Scales

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chongming; Nay, Sandra; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2009-01-01

    Lengthy scales or testlets pose certain challenges for structural equation modeling (SEM) if all the items are included as indicators of a latent construct. Three general approaches (parceling, latent scoring, and shortening) to modeling lengthy scales in SEM were reviewed and evaluated. A hypothetical population model was simulated containing two exogenous constructs with 14 indicators each and an endogenous construct with four indicators. The simulation generated data sets with varying numbers of response options, two types of distributions, factor loadings ranging from low to high, and sample sizes ranging from small to moderate. The population model was varied to incorporate one of the following: (1) single parcels, (2) various parcels as indicators of two exogenous constructs, (3) latent scores as observed exogenous variables, and (4) four and six of individual items as indicators of two exogenous constructs. The dependent variables evaluated were biases in the covariance and partial covariance population parameters. Biases in these parameters were found to be minimal under the following conditions: (1) when parcels of indicators of five response options were used as indicators of two latent exogenous constructs; (2) when latent scores were used as observed variables at sample sizes above 100 and with indicators that were relatively less skewed in the case of dichotomous indicators; and (3) when four or six individual items with high or diverse factor loadings were used as indicators of two exogenous constructs. These findings provided guidelines for resolving the inconsistency of findings from applying various approaches to empirical data. PMID:20514149

  15. The Impact of the Parcel-Level Land Architecture on Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, X.; Ouyang, Y.; Turner, B. L., II; Harlan, S.; Brazel, A.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and characteristics of the urban land system has received increasing attention in urban heat island research, especially for desert cities. The relationship between the land composition and LST has been widely studied. Such researches generally employ medium or coarser spatial resolution remotely sensed data and primarily focuses on the effects of one land cover type on the LST. In this study, we explore the effects of land system architecture - composition and configuration of different land-cover classes - on LST in the central Arizona-Phoenix metropolitan area at a fine-scale resolution, focused on the composition and configuration of single family residential parcels. A 1 m resolution land-cover map is used to calculate landscape metrics at the parcel level, and 6.8 m resolution data from the MODIS/ASTER are employed to retrieve LST. We introduce the socio-economic factors at neighborhood level as explanatory variables to help control for potential neighborhood effects. Multiple linear regression models examine the effects of landscape configuration on LST at the parcel scale, controlling for the effects of landscape composition and neighborhood characteristics. Results show that the configuration of parcels affects LST, revealing significant variable relationships between that architecture and LST at nighttime and daytime, and the role of the neighborhood effects on the outcomes.

  16. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  17. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  18. 78 FR 56242 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of 28 Parcels of Public Land in Clark County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... Bureau of Land Management [LLNVS00560 L58530000 EU0000 241A; N-78190 et al.; 13-08807; MO 4500053642; TAS: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of 28 Parcels of Public Land in Clark County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Realty Action. SUMMARY: The Bureau of...

  19. 43 CFR 2568.80 - Does the parcel have to be surveyed before I can receive title to it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... I can receive title to it? 2568.80 Section 2568.80 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... § 2568.80 Does the parcel have to be surveyed before I can receive title to it? Yes. The land in your application must be surveyed before BLM can convey it to you. BLM will survey your allotment at no charge...

  20. 43 CFR 2568.80 - Does the parcel have to be surveyed before I can receive title to it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... I can receive title to it? 2568.80 Section 2568.80 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... § 2568.80 Does the parcel have to be surveyed before I can receive title to it? Yes. The land in your application must be surveyed before BLM can convey it to you. BLM will survey your allotment at no charge...

  1. Thalamus parcellation using multi-modal feature classification and thalamic nuclei priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaister, Jeffrey; Carass, Aaron; Stough, Joshua V.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-03-01

    Segmentation of the thalamus and thalamic nuclei is useful to quantify volumetric changes from neurodegenerative diseases. Most thalamus segmentation algorithms only use T1-weighted magnetic resonance images and current thalamic parcellation methods require manual interaction. Smaller nuclei, such as the lateral and medial geniculates, are challenging to locate due to their small size. We propose an automated segmentation algorithm using a set of features derived from diffusion tensor image (DTI) and thalamic nuclei location priors. After extracting features, a hierarchical random forest classifier is trained to locate the thalamus. A second random forest classifies thalamus voxels as belonging to one of six thalamic nuclei classes. The proposed algorithm was tested using a leave-one-out cross validation scheme and compared with state-of-the-art algorithms. The proposed algorithm has a higher Dice score compared to other methods for the whole thalamus and several nuclei.

  2. Regional structural differences across functionally parcellated Brodmann areas of human primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Panchuelo, Rosa-María; Besle, Julien; Mougin, Olivier; Gowland, Penny; Bowtell, Richard; Schluppeck, Denis; Francis, Susan

    2014-06-01

    Ultra-high-field (UHF) MRI is ideally suited for structural and functional imaging of the brain. High-resolution structural MRI can be used to map the anatomical boundaries between functional domains of the brain by identifying changes related to the pattern of myelination within cortical gray matter, opening up the possibility to study the relationship between functional domains and underlying structure in vivo. In a recent study, we demonstrated the correspondence between functional (based on retinotopic mapping) and structural (based on changes in T2(⁎)-weighted images linked to myelination) parcellations of the primary visual cortex (V1) in vivo at 7T (Sanchez-Panchuelo et al., 2012b). Here, we take advantage of the improved BOLD CNR and high spatial resolution achievable at 7T to study regional structural variations across the functionally defined areas within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in individual subjects. Using a traveling wave fMRI paradigm to map the internal somatotopic representation of the index, middle, and ring fingers in S1, we were able to identify multiple map reversals at the tip and base, corresponding to the boundaries between Brodmann areas 3a, 3b, 1 and 2. Based on high resolution structural MRI data acquired in the same subjects, we inspected these functionally-parcellated Brodmann areas for differences in cortical thickness and MR contrast measures (magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and signal intensity in phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) images) that are sensitive to myelination. Consistent area-related differences in cortical thickness and MTR/PSIR measurements were found across subjects. However these measures did not have sufficient sensitivity to allow definition of areal boundaries.

  3. FORMAL UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS OF A LAGRANGIAN PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION MODEL. (R824792)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study applied Monte Carlo analysis with Latin
    hypercube sampling to evaluate the effects of uncertainty
    in air parcel trajectory paths, emissions, rate constants,
    deposition affinities, mixing heights, and atmospheric stability
    on predictions from a vertically...

  4. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

  5. The effect of secondary inorganic aerosols, soot and the geographical origin of air mass on acute myocardial infarction hospitalisations in Gothenburg, Sweden during 1985–2010: a case-crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relative importance of different sources of air pollution for cardiovascular disease is unclear. The aims were to compare the associations between acute myocardial infarction (AMI) hospitalisations in Gothenburg, Sweden and 1) the long-range transported (LRT) particle fraction, 2) the remaining particle fraction, 3) geographical air mass origin, and 4) influence of local dispersion during 1985–2010. Methods A case-crossover design was applied using lag0 (the exposure the same day as hospitalisation), lag1 (exposure one day prior hospitalisation) and 2-day cumulative average exposure (CA2) (mean of lag0 and lag1). The LRT fractions included PMion (sum of sulphate, nitrate and ammonium) and soot measured at a rural site. The difference between urban PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and rural PMion was a proxy for locally generated PM10 (PMrest). The daily geographical origin of air mass was estimated as well as days with limited or effective local dispersion. The entire year was considered, as well as warm and cold periods, and different time periods. Results In total 28 215 AMI hospitalisations occurred during 26 years. PM10, PMion, PMrest and soot did not influence AMI for the entire year. In the cold period, the association was somewhat stronger for PMrest than for urban PM10; the strongest associations were observed during 1990–2000 between AMI and CA2 of PMrest (6.6% per inter-quartile range (IQR), 95% confidence interval 2.1 to 11.4%) and PM10 (4.1%, 95% CI 0.2% − 8.2%). Regarding the geographical air mass origins there were few associations. Days with limited local dispersion showed an association with AMI in the cold period of 2001–2010 (6.7%, 95% CI 0.0% − 13.0%). Conclusions In the cold period, locally generated PM and days with limited local dispersion affected AMI hospitalisations, indicating importance of local emissions from e.g. traffic. PMID:25069830

  6. 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, Eva; Andersson, Patrik L; Bidleman, Terry; Boman, Christoffer; Carlin, Danielle J; Collina, Elena; Cormier, Stephania A; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gullett, Brian K; Johansson, Christer; Lucas, Donald; Lundin, Lisa; Lundstedt, Staffan; Marklund, Stellan; Nording, Malin L; Ortuño, Nuria; Sallam, Asmaa A; Schmidt, Florian M; Jansson, Stina

    2016-04-01

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in Umeå, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

  7. 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, Eva; Andersson, Patrik L; Bidleman, Terry; Boman, Christoffer; Carlin, Danielle J; Collina, Elena; Cormier, Stephania A; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gullett, Brian K; Johansson, Christer; Lucas, Donald; Lundin, Lisa; Lundstedt, Staffan; Marklund, Stellan; Nording, Malin L; Ortuño, Nuria; Sallam, Asmaa A; Schmidt, Florian M; Jansson, Stina

    2016-04-01

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in Umeå, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants. PMID:26906006

  8. Origin of the water vapor responsible for the European extreme rainfalls of August 2002: 1. High-resolution simulations and tracking of air masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangoiti, G.; SáEz de CáMara, E.; Alonso, L.; Navazo, M.; Gómez, M. C.; Iza, J.; GarcíA, J. A.; Ilardia, J. L.; MilláN, M. M.

    2011-11-01

    This article investigates an extreme rainfall event occurred over wide areas of central Europe on August 11-13, 2002. By using a synergistic approach that includes regional modeling, air mass tracking, and observational data sets, the importance of moisture accumulation processes in the Western Mediterranean basin (WMB) is acknowledged as an important mechanism responsible for the magnitude of this event. The RAMS-HYPACT modeling system is used to track air masses from potential marine sources of evaporation. MODIS water vapor products, wind profilers and surface rain gauge measurements are used to substantiate our simulations. Results show that most of the precipitation occurring in central Europe during the initiation of the rainfall episode (August 11) came from vapor accumulated over 4 days (August 6-9) within the WMB: the vapor was transported, after the irruption of the Vb cyclone Ilse, through the Italian Peninsula and the Adriatic Sea, into the target area, causing the precipitation episode. On August 12 and 13 the marine sources of evaporation changed to include the north-Atlantic region. The north-African convergence region, the eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea are revealed to be sources more related to the intense rainfall experienced in eastern Europe. The subsidence-related processes through which pollutants and water vapor can accumulate for several days in the WMB are shown to be very relevant for this event. The quantification of the evaporative sources, responsible for the extreme rainfall events in central Europe, and the relative importance of marine and terrestrial sources within a chosen regional domain are discussed in the companion following article.

  9. Downward transport of ozone rich air and implications for atmospheric chemistry in the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, Tobias; Wei, Dandan; Chase, Randy J.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Schumacher, Courtney; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Ferreira de Souza, Rodrigo A.; Freire, Livia S.; Jardine, Angela B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Nascimento dos Santos, Rosa M.; von Randow, Celso; dos Santos Costa, Patrícia; Stoy, Paul C.; Tóta, Julio; Trowbridge, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    From April 2014 to January 2015, ozone (O3) dynamics were investigated as part of GoAmazon 2014/5 project in the central Amazon rainforest of Brazil. Just above the forest canopy, maximum hourly O3 mixing ratios averaged 20 ppbv (parts per billion on a volume basis) during the June-September dry months and 15 ppbv during the wet months. Ozone levels occasionally exceeded 75 ppbv in response to influences from biomass burning and regional air pollution. Individual convective storms transported O3-rich air parcels from the mid-troposphere to the surface and abruptly enhanced the regional atmospheric boundary layer by as much as 25 ppbv. In contrast to the individual storms, days with multiple convective systems produced successive, cumulative ground-level O3 increases. The magnitude of O3 enhancements depended on the vertical distribution of O3 within storm downdrafts and origin of downdrafts in the troposphere. Ozone mixing ratios remained enhanced for > 2 h following the passage of storms, which enhanced chemical processing of rainforest-emitted isoprene and monoterpenes. Reactions of isoprene and monoterpenes with O3 are modeled to generate maximum hydroxyl radical formation rates of 6 × 106 radicals cm-3s-1. Therefore, one key conclusion of the present study is that downdrafts of convective storms are estimated to transport enough O3 to the surface to initiate a series of reactions that reduce the lifetimes of rainforest-emitted hydrocarbons.

  10. Connectivity-based whole brain dual parcellation by group ICA reveals tract structures and decreased connectivity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Calhoun, Vince D; Jung, Rex E; Caprihan, Arvind

    2015-11-01

    Mapping brain connectivity based on neuroimaging data is a promising new tool for understanding brain structure and function. In this methods paper, we demonstrate that group independent component analysis (GICA) can be used to perform a dual parcellation of the brain based on its connectivity matrix (cmICA). This dual parcellation consists of a set of spatially independent source maps, and a corresponding set of paired dual maps that define the connectivity of each source map to the brain. These dual maps are called the connectivity profiles of the source maps. Traditional analysis of connectivity matrices has been used previously for brain parcellation, but the present method provides additional information on the connectivity of these segmented regions. In this paper, the whole brain structural connectivity matrices were calculated on a 5 mm(3) voxel scale from diffusion imaging data based on the probabilistic tractography method. The effect of the choice of the number of components (30 and 100) and their stability were examined. This method generated a set of spatially independent components that are consistent with the canonical brain tracts provided by previous anatomic descriptions, with the high order model yielding finer segmentations. The corpus-callosum example shows how this method leads to a robust parcellation of a brain structure based on its connectivity properties. We applied cmICA to study structural connectivity differences between a group of schizophrenia subjects and healthy controls. The connectivity profiles at both model orders showed similar regions with reduced connectivity in schizophrenia patients. These regions included forceps major, right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, thalamic radiation, and corticospinal tract. This paper provides a novel unsupervised data-driven framework that summarizes the information in a large global connectivity matrix and tests for brain connectivity differences. It has the

  11. A comparison of working postures of parcel sorters using three different working methods.

    PubMed

    Derksen, J C; Van Riel, M P; Van Wingerden, J P; Snijders, C J

    1994-02-01

    The postures of the trunk of eight parcel sorters were measured continuously under three different working conditions, during whole shifts. The working methods used were two different sorting tables and a hydraulic lifting platform on which the carts were to be placed. The question posed by the PTT-Post occupational health service was whether the latter method proved to be the better one with respect to the load on the musculoskeletal system. This study will help them to make a well-considered decision on which working method to choose for the new distribution centre in Rotterdam. The method used for measuring the working postures and movements of the trunk is the Portable Posture Registration Set (PPRS). This method was developed at the department of Biomedical Physics and Technology of the Erasmus University Rotterdam. While using the lifting platform, the subjects stood 8-11% more erect compared to the work at the sorting tables, thereby reducing the load on the lumbar spine. For this reason the lifting platform is preferred, although sagittal flexion of the back was somewhat more. It is stressed that the way in which sorters use the lifting platform is very important. PMID:8119262

  12. Data model for the collaboration between land administration systems and agricultural land parcel identification systems.

    PubMed

    Inan, Halil Ibrahim; Sagris, Valentina; Devos, Wim; Milenov, Pavel; van Oosterom, Peter; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2010-12-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) has dramatically changed after 1992, and from then on the CAP focused on the management of direct income subsidies instead of production-based subsidies. For this focus, Member States (MS) are expected to establish Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS), including a Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) as the spatial part of IACS. Different MS have chosen different solutions for their LPIS. Currently, some MS based their IACS/LPIS on data from their Land Administration Systems (LAS), and many others use purpose built special systems for their IACS/LPIS. The issue with these different IACS/LPIS is that they do not have standardized structures; rather, each represents a unique design in each MS, both in the case of LAS based or special systems. In this study, we aim at designing a core data model for those IACS/LPIS based on LAS. For this purpose, we make use of the ongoing standardization initiatives for LAS (Land Administration Domain Model: LADM) and IACS/LPIS (LPIS Core Model: LCM). The data model we propose in this study implies the collaboration between LADM and LCM and includes some extensions. Some basic issues with the collaboration model are discussed within this study: registration of farmers, land use rights and farming limitations, geometry/topology, temporal data management etc. For further explanation of the model structure, sample instance level diagrams illustrating some typical situations are also included.

  13. Volumetric and Correlational Implications of Brain Parcellation Method Selection: A 3-Way Comparison in the Frontal Lobes

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Simon R.; McKenzie, Tahlia I.; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Royle, Natalie A.; MacPherson, Sarah E.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Bastin, Mark E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.; Ferguson, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to compare distinct brain frontal lobe parcellation methods across 90 brain magnetic resonance imaging scans and examine their associations with cognition in older age. Methods Three parcellation methods (Manual, FreeSurfer, and Stereology) were applied to T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of 90 older men, aged ∼73 years. A measure of general fluid intelligence (gf) associated with dorsolateral frontal regions was also derived from a contemporaneous psychological test battery. Results Despite highly discordant raw volumes for the same nominal regions, Manual and FreeSurfer (but not Stereology) left dorsolateral measures were significantly correlated with gf (r > 0.22), whereas orbital and inferior lateral volumes were not, consistent with the hypothesized frontal localization of gf. Conclusions Individual differences in specific frontal lobe brain volumes—variously measured—show consistent associations with cognitive ability in older age. Importantly, differences in parcellation protocol for some regions that may impact the outcome of brain-cognition analyses are discussed. PMID:26466114

  14. Ammonia removal from air stream and biogas by a H2SO4 impregnated adsorbent originating from waste wood-shavings and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuejun Jack; Tak, Jin Kwon; Johnson, Richard L

    2009-07-15

    A new and cost-effective adsorbent N-TRAP, made from waste wood-shavings and anaerobically digestion biosolids and impregnated with H(2)SO(4), was applied for the ammonia removal from air stream and biogas with high efficiency and effectiveness. Bearing a 75-80 and 65 wt.% sulfuric acid, the N-TRAPs mediated with wood shavings and biosolids showed the maximum ammonia adsorption capacity of 260-280 and 230 mg g(-1), respectively. Gas temperatures (20 and 60 degrees C) and moisture content (100% relative humidity) had no significantly negative effect on ammonia capture performance when temperature in the fixed-bed column was kept equalled to or slightly above the feed gas temperature. The pressure drop increased significantly when NH(3) began to break through the N-TRAP stripper due to the formation of ammonium sulfate blocking the vacuum space of packed adsorbent. At last, an alternative N-TRAP filter bed design was proposed to resolve the problem of pressure drop evolution.

  15. Concentrations and origins of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in urban and rural areas in northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Shen, Huizhong; Su, Shu; Shen, Guofeng; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Chen, Han; Lin, Nan; Zhuo, Shaojie; Zhong, Qirui; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu

    2015-02-01

    Twelve nitro-PAHs (nPAHs) and four oxy-PAHs (oPAHs) were measured in air samples for 12 months at 18 sites in urban settings, rural villages, or rural fields in northern China. The nPAH concentrations were higher in urban areas (1.3 ± 1.3 ng/m(3)), and nPAH/parent PAH ratios were higher (suggesting important contributions from motor vehicles and secondary formation) in urban sites than in rural villages. oPAHs are primarily emitted from solid fuel combustion and motor vehicles, and similar oPAH concentrations were found in urban areas (23 ± 20 ng/m(3)) and rural villages (29 ± 24 ng/m(3)). The high numbers of motor vehicles in Beijing and intensive industrial activity in Taiyuan and Dezhou caused higher nPAH concentrations. No spatial trend in oPAH concentrations was found in the rural villages, because similar oPAH mixtures are emitted from solild fuel combustion. The nPAH and oPAH concentrations were higher in the winter, and correlated with residential energy consumption and precipitation.

  16. On the motion of air through the stratospheric polar vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Zurek, R. W.; O'Neill, A.; Swinbank, R.

    1994-01-01

    Trajectory calculations using horizontal winds from the U.K. Meteorological Office data assimilation system and vertical velocities from a radiation calculation are used to simulate the three-dimensional motion of air through the stratospheric polar vortex for Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH) winters since the launch of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Throughout the winter, air from the upper stratosphere moves poleward and descends into the middle stratosphere. In the SH lower to middle stratosphere, strongest descent occurs near the edge of the polar vortex, with that edge defined by mixing characteristics. The NH shows a similar pattern in late winter, but in early winter strongest descent is near the center of the vortex, except when wave activity is particularly strong. Strong barriers to latitudinal mixing exist above about 420 K throughout the winter. Below this, the polar night jet is weak in early winter, so air descending below that level mixes between polar and middle latitudes. In late winter, parcels descend less and the polar night jet moves downward, so there is less latitudinal mixing. The degree of mixing in the lower stratosphere thus depends strongly on the position and evolution of the polar night jet and on the amount of descent experienced by the air parcels; these characteristics show considerable interannual variability in both hemispheres. The computed trajectories provide a three-dimensional picture of air motion during the final warming. Large tongues of air are drawn off the vortex and stretched into increasingly long and narrow tongues extending into low latitudes. This vortex erosion process proceeds more rapidly in the NH than in he SH. In the lower stratosphere, the majority of air parcels remain confined within a lingering region of strong potential vorticity gradients into December in the SH and April in the NH, well after the vortex breaks up in the midstratosphere.

  17. Modification of ozone deposition and I2 emissions at the air-aqueous interface by dissolved organic carbon of marine origin.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Marvin D; Carpenter, Lucy J

    2013-10-01

    The reaction between gaseous ozone (O3) and aqueous iodide (I(-)) at the surface microlayer (SML) is believed to be a major chemical contributor to the oceanic dry deposition of O3 over open ocean waters and has also recently been shown to produce environmentally significant quantities of gaseous molecular iodine (I2). Here we investigate how this reaction is affected by the presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of marine origin, using a heterogeneous flow reactor and detection of gaseous I2 by solvent trapping and UV/vis spectroscopy. Ozone deposition measurements over coastal seawater implied an O3 reactivity (λ) toward coastal marine DOC of ∼500 (420-580) s(-1), 2-5 times higher than that toward iodide at typical ocean concentrations (∼0.5-1 × 10(-7) M). We added varying amounts of highly concentrated DOC extracted from coastal seawater to I(-) solutions (1 × 10(-5) M) such that the relative reactivities of DOC and I(-) toward O3 (λDOC/λI) were in the expected range for natural seawater. The evolution of gaseous I2 and the loss of aqueous I(-) both reduced as DOC concentrations increased, with an overall suppression of I2 emissions of about a factor of 2 under conditions of λDOC/λI representative of open ocean waters (0.5-1). A kinetic model of the SML suggested that neither competition of DOC with I(-) for reaction with interfacial O3, nor direct loss of I2 and hypoiodous acid (HOI) through reaction with increasing quantities of DOC, can fully explain these results. We conclude that the suppression of I2 emissions by DOC is largely a physical effect arising from a decrease in the net transfer of I2 from the aqueous to gas phase, as suggested by recent laboratory studies.

  18. Overview of aerosol properties associated with air masses sampled by the ATR-42 during the EUCAARI campaign (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumeyrolle, S.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Roger, J. C.; Sellegri, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Stohl, A.; Gomes, L.; Quennehen, B.; Roberts, G.; Weigel, R.; Villani, P.; Pichon, J. M.; Bourrianne, T.; Laj, P.

    2013-05-01

    Within the frame of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) project, the Météo-France aircraft ATR-42 performed 22 research flights over central Europe and the North Sea during the intensive observation period in May 2008. For the campaign, the ATR-42 was equipped to study the aerosol physical, chemical, hygroscopic and optical properties, as well as cloud microphysics. For the 22 research flights, retroplume analyses along the flight tracks were performed with FLEXPART in order to classify air masses into five sectors of origin, allowing for a qualitative evaluation of emission influence on the respective air parcel. This study shows that the extensive aerosol parameters (aerosol mass and number concentrations) show vertical decreasing gradients and in some air masses maximum mass concentrations (mainly organics) in an intermediate layer (1-3 km). The observed mass concentrations (in the boundary layer (BL): between 10 and 30 μg m-3; lower free troposphere (LFT): 0.8 and 14 μg m-3) are high especially in comparison with the 2015 European norms for PM2.5 (25 μg m-3) and with previous airborne studies performed over England (Morgan et al., 2009; McMeeking et al., 2012). Particle number size distributions show a larger fraction of particles in the accumulation size range in the LFT compared to BL. The chemical composition of submicron aerosol particles is dominated by organics in the BL, while ammonium sulphate dominates the submicron aerosols in the LFT, especially in the aerosol particles originated from north-eastern Europe (~ 80%), also experiencing nucleation events along the transport. As a consequence, first the particle CCN acting ability, shown by the CCN/CN ratio, and second the average values of the scattering cross sections of optically active particles (i.e. scattering coefficient divided by the optical active particle concentration) are increased in the LFT compared to BL.

  19. Project Overview: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    This fact sheet describes UPS second generation hybrid-electric delivery vehicles as compared to conventional delivery vehicles. Medium-duty commercial vehicles such as moving trucks, beverage-delivery trucks, and package-delivery vans consume almost 2,000 gal of fuel per year on average. United Parcel Service (UPS) operates hybrid-electric package-delivery vans to reduce the fuel use and emissions of its fleet. In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluation Team evaluated the first generation of UPS' hybrid delivery vans. These hybrid vans demonstrated 29%-37% higher fuel economy than comparable conventional diesel vans, which contributed to UPS' decision to add second-generation hybrid vans to its fleet. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team is now evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 second-generation hybrid vans and 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operated by UPS in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The evaluation also includes testing fuel economy and emissions at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory and comparing diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. In addition, a followup evaluation of UPS' first-generation hybrid vans will show how those vehicles performed over three years of operation. One goal of this project is to provide a consistent comparison of fuel economy and operating costs between the second-generation hybrid vans and comparable conventional vans. Additional goals include quantifying the effects of hybridization on DPF regeneration and helping UPS select delivery routes for its hybrid vans that maximize the benefits of hybrid technology. This document introduces the UPS second-generation hybrid evaluation project. Final results will be available in mid-2012.

  20. Catchment-scale hydrologic implications of parcel-level stormwater management (Ohio USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuster, William; Rhea, Lee

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThe effectiveness of stormwater management strategies is a key issue affecting decision making on urban water resources management, and so proper monitoring and analysis of pilot studies must be addressed before drawing conclusions. We performed a pilot study in the suburban Shepherd Creek watershed located in Cincinnati, Ohio to evaluate the practicality of voluntary incentives for stormwater quantity reduction on privately owned suburban properties. Stream discharge and precipitation were monitored 3 years before and after implementation of the stormwater management treatments. To implement stormwater control measures, we elicited the participation of citizen landowners with two successive reverse-auctions. Auctions were held in spring 2007, and 2008, resulting in the installation of 85 rain gardens and 174 rain barrels. We demonstrated an analytic process of increasing model flexibility to determine hydrologic effectiveness of stormwater management at the sub-catchment level. A significant albeit small proportion of total variance was explained by both the effects of study period (˜69%) and treatment-vs.-control (˜7%). Precipitation-discharge relationships were synthesized in estimated unit hydrographs, which were decomposed and components tested for influence of treatments. Analysis of unit hydrograph parameters showed a weakened correlation between precipitation and discharge, and support the output from the initial model that parcel-level green infrastructure added detention capacity to treatment basins. We conclude that retrofit management of stormwater runoff quantity with green infrastructure in a small suburban catchment can be successfully initiated with novel economic incentive programs, and that these measures can impart a small, but statistically significant decrease in otherwise uncontrolled runoff volume. Given consistent monitoring data and analysis, water resource managers can use our approach as a way to estimate actual effectiveness of

  1. Deducing logical relationships between spatially registered cortical parcellations under conditions of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Bezgin, Gleb; Wanke, Egon; Krumnack, Antje; Kötter, Rolf

    2008-10-01

    We propose a new technique, called Spatial Objective Relational Transformation (SORT), as an automated approach for derivation of logical relationships between cortical areas in different brain maps registered in the same Euclidean space. Recently, there have been large amounts of voxel-based three-dimensional structural and functional imaging data that provide us with coordinate-based information about the location of differently defined areas in the brain, whereas coordinate-independent, parcellation-based mapping is still commonly used in the majority of animal tracing and mapping studies. Because of the impact of voxel-based imaging methods and the need to attribute their features to coordinate-independent brain entities, this mapping becomes increasingly important. Our motivation here is not to make vague statements where more precise spatial statements would be better, but to find criteria for the identity (or other logical relationships) between areas that were delineated by different methods, in different individuals, or mapped to three-dimensional space using different deformation algorithms. The relevance of this problem becomes immediately obvious as one superimposes and compares different datasets in multimodal databases (e.g. CARET, http://brainmap.wustl.edu/caret), where voxel-based data are registered to surface nodes exploited by the procedure presented here. We describe the SORT algorithm and its implementation in the Java 2 programming language (http://java.sun.com/, which we make available for download. We give an example of practical use of our approach, and validate the SORT approach against a database of the coordinate-independent statements and inferences that have been deduced using alternative techniques.

  2. Phase I Archaeological Survey of Parcel ED-3 and Historic Assessement of the Happy Valley Worker Camp Roane County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    New South Associates

    2009-08-17

    Parcel ED-3 was the location of a portion of 'Happy Valley', a temporary worker housing area occupied from 1943 to 1947 during the construction of the K-25 Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The project was carried out under subcontract for the Department of Energy. The survey report will be used in the preparation of an Environmental Assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). New South Associates conducted a Phase I Archaeological Survey of Parcel ED-3 at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation in Roane County, Tennessee. The survey was conducted in two parts. The first survey was carried out in 2008 and covered an area measuring approximately 110 acres. The second survey took place in 2009 and focused on 72 acres west of the first survey area. The objective of the surveys was to identify any archaeological remains associated with Happy Valley and any additional sites on the property and to assess these sites for National Register eligibility. New South Associates also conducted a historic assessment to gather information on Happy Valley. This historic assessment was used in conjunction with the archaeological survey to evaluate the significance of the Happy Valley site. Archaeological remains of Happy Valley were located throughout the parcel, but no additional sites were located. The official state site number for Happy Valley is 40RE577. During the two surveys a total of 13 artifact concentrations, 14 isolated finds, and 75 structural features were located. Due to the Happy Valley's stron gassociation with the Manhattan Project, the site is recommended eligible for the National Register of Historic Places under Criterion A.

  3. Original Misunderstanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high school,…

  4. Air pollution modifies floral scent trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFrederick, Quinn S.; Kathilankal, James C.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    Floral hydrocarbons provide essential signals to attract pollinators. As soon as they are emitted to the atmosphere, however, hydrocarbons are destroyed by chemical reactions involving pollutants such as ozone. It is therefore likely that increased air pollution interferes with pollinator attracting hydrocarbon signals. To test this hypothesis, a Lagrangian diffusion model was used to determine the position of air parcels away from hydrocarbon sources and to estimate the rate of chemical destruction of hydrocarbons as air parcels moved across the landscape. The hydrocarbon compounds linalool, β-myrcene, and β-ocimene were chosen because they are known to be common scents released from flowers. The suppressed ambient abundances of volatile organic compounds were determined in response to increased regional levels of ozone, hydroxyl, and nitrate radicals. The results indicate that the documented increases in air pollution concentrations, from pre-industrial to present times, can lead to reductions in volatile compound concentrations insects detect as they pollinate flowers. For highly reactive volatiles the maximum downwind distance from the source at which pollinators can detect the scents may have changed from kilometers during pre-industrial times to <200 m during the more polluted conditions of present times. The increased destruction of floral signals in polluted air masses may have important implications for both pollinators and signaling plants. When patches of flowers are further apart than the visual range of pollinators, such as in fragmented landscapes, the loss of scent signals may mean that pollinators spend more time searching for patches and less time foraging. This decrease in pollinator foraging efficiency will simultaneously decrease the pollinator's reproductive output and the amount of pollen flow in flowering plants.

  5. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  6. Decoding the Role of the Insula in Human Cognition: Functional Parcellation and Large-Scale Reverse Inference

    PubMed Central

    Yarkoni, Tal; Khaw, Mel Win; Sanfey, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has indicated that the insula may be involved in goal-directed cognition, switching between networks, and the conscious awareness of affect and somatosensation. However, these findings have been limited by the insula’s remarkably high base rate of activation and considerable functional heterogeneity. The present study used a relatively unbiased data-driven approach combining resting-state connectivity-based parcellation of the insula with large-scale meta-analysis to understand how the insula is anatomically organized based on functional connectivity patterns as well as the consistency and specificity of the associated cognitive functions. Our findings support a tripartite subdivision of the insula and reveal that the patterns of functional connectivity in the resting-state analysis appear to be relatively conserved across tasks in the meta-analytic coactivation analysis. The function of the networks was meta-analytically “decoded” using the Neurosynth framework and revealed that while the dorsoanterior insula is more consistently involved in human cognition than ventroanterior and posterior networks, each parcellated network is specifically associated with a distinct function. Collectively, this work suggests that the insula is instrumental in integrating disparate functional systems involved in processing affect, sensory-motor processing, and general cognition and is well suited to provide an interface between feelings, cognition, and action. PMID:22437053

  7. Using tax parcels to select a location-based sample: an illustration that examines residents' awareness of sex offenders in neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Craun, Sarah W; Freisthler, Bridget

    2008-08-01

    Social science research is increasingly considering place when examining social programs and policies with a spatial component. A specific research challenge involving spatial policies is how to select a sample of individuals based on their geographic locations. This article illustrates the use of geographic information systems, tax parcels, and mail surveys to target residents in varied geographic areas. A provided example demonstrates how researchers obtained a sample of respondents living within one tenth of a mile of multiple registered sex offenders. The challenges of using tax parcels to obtain addresses for apartments and mobile home parks are also explored.

  8. A human brain atlas derived via n-cut parcellation of resting-state and task-based fMRI data.

    PubMed

    James, George Andrew; Hazaroglu, Onder; Bush, Keith A

    2016-02-01

    The growth of functional MRI has led to development of human brain atlases derived by parcellating resting-state connectivity patterns into functionally independent regions of interest (ROIs). All functional atlases to date have been derived from resting-state fMRI data. But given that functional connectivity between regions varies with task, we hypothesized that an atlas incorporating both resting-state and task-based fMRI data would produce an atlas with finer characterization of task-relevant regions than an atlas derived from resting-state alone. To test this hypothesis, we derived parcellation atlases from twenty-nine healthy adult participants enrolled in the Cognitive Connectome project, an initiative to improve functional MRI's translation into clinical decision-making by mapping normative variance in brain-behavior relationships. Participants underwent resting-state and task-based fMRI spanning nine cognitive domains: motor, visuospatial, attention, language, memory, affective processing, decision-making, working memory, and executive function. Spatially constrained n-cut parcellation derived brain atlases using (1) all participants' functional data (Task) or (2) a single resting-state scan (Rest). An atlas was also derived from random parcellation for comparison purposes (Random). Two methods were compared: (1) a parcellation applied to the group's mean edge weights (mean), and (2) a two-stage approach with parcellation of individual edge weights followed by parcellation of mean binarized edges (two-stage). The resulting Task and Rest atlases had significantly greater similarity with each other (mean Jaccard indices JI=0.72-0.85) than with the Random atlases (JI=0.59-0.63; all p<0.001 after Bonferroni correction). Task and Rest atlas similarity was greatest for the two-stage method (JI=0.85), which has been shown as more robust than the mean method; these atlases also better reproduced voxelwise seed maps of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during

  9. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  10. Eukaryotic origins.

    PubMed

    Lake, James A

    2015-09-26

    The origin of the eukaryotes is a fundamental scientific question that for over 30 years has generated a spirited debate between the competing Archaea (or three domains) tree and the eocyte tree. As eukaryotes ourselves, humans have a personal interest in our origins. Eukaryotes contain their defining organelle, the nucleus, after which they are named. They have a complex evolutionary history, over time acquiring multiple organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticula, and other organelles all of which may hint at their origins. It is the evolutionary history of the nucleus and their other organelles that have intrigued molecular evolutionists, myself included, for the past 30 years and which continues to hold our interest as increasingly compelling evidence favours the eocyte tree. As with any orthodoxy, it takes time to embrace new concepts and techniques.

  11. Eukaryotic origins

    PubMed Central

    Lake, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the eukaryotes is a fundamental scientific question that for over 30 years has generated a spirited debate between the competing Archaea (or three domains) tree and the eocyte tree. As eukaryotes ourselves, humans have a personal interest in our origins. Eukaryotes contain their defining organelle, the nucleus, after which they are named. They have a complex evolutionary history, over time acquiring multiple organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticula, and other organelles all of which may hint at their origins. It is the evolutionary history of the nucleus and their other organelles that have intrigued molecular evolutionists, myself included, for the past 30 years and which continues to hold our interest as increasingly compelling evidence favours the eocyte tree. As with any orthodoxy, it takes time to embrace new concepts and techniques. PMID:26323753

  12. 26. "AIR INSTALLATIONS; EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA; HIGH SPEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. "AIR INSTALLATIONS; EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA; HIGH SPEED TEST TRACK." Drawing No. 10-259. One inch to 400 feet plan of original 10,000-foot sled track. No date. No D.O. series number. No headings as above. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Using Tax Parcels to Select a Location-Based Sample: An Illustration that Examines Residents' Awareness of Sex Offenders in Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Sarah W.; Freisthler, Bridget

    2008-01-01

    Social science research is increasingly considering place when examining social programs and policies with a spatial component. A specific research challenge involving spatial policies is how to select a sample of individuals based on their geographic locations. This article illustrates the use of geographic information systems, tax parcels, and…

  14. Original Version

    Cancer.gov

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families. The curricula is available as an online Self-Study Section and as a CD-ROM you can order.

  15. Characterization of the temporo-parietal junction by combining data-driven parcellation, complementary connectivity analyses, and functional decoding

    PubMed Central

    Bzdok, Danilo; Langner, Robert; Schilbach, Leonhard; Jakobs, Oliver; Roski, Christian; Caspers, Svenja; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    The right temporo-parietal junction (RTPJ) is consistently implicated in two cognitive domains, attention and social cognitions. We conducted multi-modal connectivity-based parcellation to investigate potentially separate functional modules within RTPJ implementing this cognitive dualism. Both task-constrained meta-analytic coactivation mapping and task-free resting-state connectivity analysis independently identified two distinct clusters within RTPJ, subsequently characterized by network mapping and functional forward/reverse inference. Coactivation mapping and resting-state correlations revealed that the anterior cluster increased neural activity concomitantly with a midcingulate–motor–insular network, functionally associated with attention, and decreased neural activity concomitantly with a parietal network, functionally associated with social cognition and memory retrieval. The posterior cluster showed the exact opposite association pattern. Our data thus suggest that RTPJ links two antagonistic brain networks processing external versus internal information. PMID:23689016

  16. Environmental Baseline Survey Report for the Title Transfer of Land Parcel ED-4 at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    SAIC

    2008-05-01

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of a land parcel referred to as 'ED-4' (ED-4) at the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). DOE is proposing to transfer the title of this land to the Heritage Center, LLC. Parcel ED-4 is a land parcel that consists of two noncontiguous areas comprising a total of approximately 18 acres located east of the ETTP. The western tract of ED-4 encompasses approximately 8.5 acres in the northeastern quadrant of the intersection of Boulevard Road and Highway 58. The eastern tract encompasses an area of approximately 9.5 acres in the northwestern quadrant of the intersection of Blair Road and Highway 58 (the Oak Ridge Turnpike). Aerial photographs and site maps from throughout the history of the ETTP, going back to its initial development in the 1940s as the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), indicate that this area has been undeveloped woodland with the exception of three support facilities for workers constructing the ORGDP since federal acquisition in 1943. These three support facilities, which were located in the western tract of ED-4, included a recreation hall, the Town Hall Camp Operations Building, and the Property Warehouse. A railroad spur also formerly occupied a portion of Parcel ED-4. These former facilities only occupied approximately 5 percent of the total area of Parcel ED-4. This report provides supporting information for the transfer of this government-owned property at ETTP to a non-federal entity. This EBS is based upon the requirements of Sect. 120(h) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). In order to support a Clean Parcel Determination (CPD) in accordance with CERCLA Sect. 120(h)(4)(d), groundwater and sediment samples were collected within, and adjacent to, the Parcel ED-4 study area. The potential for DOE to make a CPD for ED-4 is further supported by a No

  17. West Florida shelf upwelling: Origins and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, Robert H.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Liu, Yonggang

    2016-08-01

    Often described as oligotrophic, the west Florida continental shelf supports abundant fisheries, experiences blooms of the harmful alga, Karenia brevis, and exhibits subsurface chlorophyll maxima evident in shipboard and glider surveys. Renewal of inorganic nutrients by the upwelling of deeper ocean water onto the shelf may account for this, but what are the origins and pathways by which such new water may broach the shelf break and advance toward the shoreline? We address these questions via numerical model simulations of pseudo-Lagrangian, isopycnic water parcel trajectories. Focus is on 2010, when the west Florida shelf was subjected to an anomalously protracted period of upwelling caused by Gulf of Mexico Loop Current interactions with the shelf slope. Origins and pathways are determined by integrating trajectories over successive 45 day intervals, beginning from different locations along the shelf break and at various locations and depths along the shelf slope. Waters upwelling across the shelf break are found to originate from relatively shallow depths along the shelf slope. Even for the anomalous 2010 year, much of this upwelling occurs from about 150 m and above, although waters may broach the shelf break from 300 m depth, particularly in the Florida Panhandle. Such interannual renewal of west Florida shelf waters appears to have profound effects on west Florida shelf ecology.

  18. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  19. 9. Photograph copy of construction drawing, 1964 (original drawing in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph copy of construction drawing, 1964 (original drawing in Building No. 301, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Nebraska). Site plan of project looking glass historic district and Offutt Air Force Base. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. Design and implementation of an air monitoring program in support of a brownfields redevelopment program

    SciTech Connect

    Maisel, B.E.; Hunt, G.T.; Devaney, R.J. Jr.; Gauvin, M.R.

    1998-12-31

    EPA`s Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Initiative has sparked renewal of industrial and commercial parcels otherwise idled or under-utilized because of real or perceived environmental contamination. In certain cases, restoring such parcels to productive economic use requires a redevelopment effort protective of human health and welfare through minimizing offsite migration of environmental contaminants during cleanup, demolition and remediation activities. To support these objectives, an air monitoring program is often required as an integral element of a comprehensive brownfields redevelopment effort. This paper presents a strategic framework for design and execution of an ambient air monitoring program in support of a brownfields remediation effort ongoing in Lawrence, MA. Based on site characterization, the program included sample collection and laboratory analysis of ambient air samples for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total suspended particulate (TSP), inhalable particulate (PM10), and lead. The program included four monitoring phases, identified as background, wintertime, demolition/remediation and post-demolition. Air sampling occurred over a 16 month period during 1996--97, during which time nine sampling locations were utilized to produce approximately 1,500 ambient air samples. Following strict data review and validation procedures, ambient air data interpretation focused on the following: evaluation of upwind/downwind sample pairs, comparison of ambient levels to existing regulatory standards, relation of ambient levels to data reported in the open literature, and, determination of normal seasonal variations in existing background burden, comparison of ambient levels measured during site activity to background levels.

  1. 8. ORIGINAL HELIUM COMPRESSOR, CIRCA 1957, BY HASKELL ENGINEERING, GLENDALE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. ORIGINAL HELIUM COMPRESSOR, CIRCA 1957, BY HASKELL ENGINEERING, GLENDALE, CALIFORNIA. Looking north. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Helium Compression Plant, Test Area 1-115, intersection of Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. 7. Photograph is copy of historic photo (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph is copy of historic photo (original print located in Ogden Air Logistics Center, Hill Air Force Base, Utah). Photographer unknown. - Ogden Arsenal, Primer Loading Building for 37mm Shell Loading, 7726 North Carolina Way, Layton, Davis County, UT

  3. 39 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Mail Classification Schedule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Parcel Post (at non-UPU rates) Royal Mail Group Inbound Air Parcel Post Agreement Inbound Air Parcel Post... Mail Outbound Priority Mail International Inbound Air Parcel Post (at non-UPU rates) Royal Mail...

  4. Mitigation Action Plan: Lease of Parcel ED-1 of the Oak Ridge Reservation by the East Tennessee Economic Council

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In April 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1113) for the proposed lease of 957-16 acres (Parcel ED-1) of the Oak Ridge (Tennessee) Reservation (ORR) by the East Tennessee Economic Council (ETEC) for industrial development. DOE plans to issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the proposed action, conditional upon the implementation of mitigation and monitoring to protect environmental resources. According to DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) regulations (10 CFR 1021.322), a FONSI shall include {open_quotes}any commitments to mitigations that are essential to render the impacts of the proposed action not significant, beyond those mitigations that are integral elements of the proposed action, and a reference to the Mitigation Action Plan prepared under 10 CTR 1021.331{close_quotes}. Terms of the lease offer DOE the option of terminating the lease with ETEC should the lessee and/or sublessees fail to implement the mitigation defined in the FONSI.

  5. Parcellation of the Healthy Neonatal Brain into 107 Regions Using Atlas Propagation through Intermediate Time Points in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Blesa, Manuel; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair G.; Anblagan, Devasuda; Telford, Emma J.; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A.; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I.; Bastin, Mark E.; Boardman, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2–41+6). An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO) was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database), with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33) constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization (SyGN) method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modeling brain growth during development. PMID:27242423

  6. Integrated Testing, Simulation and Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.

    2012-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory verified diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reduction and cost implications of plug-in hybrid gasoline and diesel variants. These variants are run on a field-data-derived design matrix to analyze the effects of drive cycle, distance, battery replacements, battery capacity, and motor power on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. Two cost scenarios using fuel prices corresponding to forecasted highs for 2011 and 2030 and battery costs per kilowatt-hour representing current and long-term targets compare plug-in hybrid lifetime costs with diesel conventional lifetime costs. Under a future cost scenario of $100/kWh battery energy and $5/gal fuel, plug-in hybrids are cost effective. Assuming a current cost of $700/kWh and $3/gal fuel, they rarely recoup the additional motor and battery cost. The results highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle, daily driving distance, and kinetic intensity. For instances in the current-cost scenario where the additional plug-in hybrid cost is regained in fuel savings, the combination of kinetic intensity and daily distance travelled does not coincide with the usage patterns observed in the field data. If the usage patterns were adjusted, the hybrids could become cost effective.

  7. Assessing the Battery Cost at Which Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles Become Cost-Effective

    SciTech Connect

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J. D.; Brooker, A. D.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validated diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid medium-duty parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reductions and cost implications of hybrid and plug-in hybrid diesel variants. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid variants are run on a field data-derived design matrix to analyze the effect of drive cycle, distance, engine downsizing, battery replacements, and battery energy on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. For an array of diesel fuel costs, the battery cost per kilowatt-hour at which the hybridized configuration becomes cost-effective is calculated. This builds on a previous analysis that found the fuel savings from medium duty plug-in hybrids more than offset the vehicles' incremental price under future battery and fuel cost projections, but that they seldom did so under present day cost assumptions in the absence of purchase incentives. The results also highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle specific daily distance and kinetic intensity.

  8. NeuroVault.org: A repository for sharing unthresholded statistical maps, parcellations, and atlases of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwartz, Yannick; Sochat, Vanessa V; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, Thomas E; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    NeuroVault.org is dedicated to storing outputs of analyses in the form of statistical maps, parcellations and atlases, a unique strategy that contrasts with most neuroimaging repositories that store raw acquisition data or stereotaxic coordinates. Such maps are indispensable for performing meta-analyses, validating novel methodology, and deciding on precise outlines for regions of interest (ROIs). NeuroVault is open to maps derived from both healthy and clinical populations, as well as from various imaging modalities (sMRI, fMRI, EEG, MEG, PET, etc.). The repository uses modern web technologies such as interactive web-based visualization, cognitive decoding, and comparison with other maps to provide researchers with efficient, intuitive tools to improve the understanding of their results. Each dataset and map is assigned a permanent Universal Resource Locator (URL), and all of the data is accessible through a REST Application Programming Interface (API). Additionally, the repository supports the NIDM-Results standard and has the ability to parse outputs from popular FSL and SPM software packages to automatically extract relevant metadata. This ease of use, modern web-integration, and pioneering functionality holds promise to improve the workflow for making inferences about and sharing whole-brain statistical maps.

  9. NeuroVault.org: A repository for sharing unthresholded statistical maps, parcellations, and atlases of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwartz, Yannick; Sochat, Vanessa V; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, Thomas E; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    NeuroVault.org is dedicated to storing outputs of analyses in the form of statistical maps, parcellations and atlases, a unique strategy that contrasts with most neuroimaging repositories that store raw acquisition data or stereotaxic coordinates. Such maps are indispensable for performing meta-analyses, validating novel methodology, and deciding on precise outlines for regions of interest (ROIs). NeuroVault is open to maps derived from both healthy and clinical populations, as well as from various imaging modalities (sMRI, fMRI, EEG, MEG, PET, etc.). The repository uses modern web technologies such as interactive web-based visualization, cognitive decoding, and comparison with other maps to provide researchers with efficient, intuitive tools to improve the understanding of their results. Each dataset and map is assigned a permanent Universal Resource Locator (URL), and all of the data is accessible through a REST Application Programming Interface (API). Additionally, the repository supports the NIDM-Results standard and has the ability to parse outputs from popular FSL and SPM software packages to automatically extract relevant metadata. This ease of use, modern web-integration, and pioneering functionality holds promise to improve the workflow for making inferences about and sharing whole-brain statistical maps. PMID:25869863

  10. Parcellation of the Healthy Neonatal Brain into 107 Regions Using Atlas Propagation through Intermediate Time Points in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Blesa, Manuel; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair G; Anblagan, Devasuda; Telford, Emma J; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I; Bastin, Mark E; Boardman, James P

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39(+5) weeks, range 37(+2)-41(+6)). An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO) was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database), with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33) constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization (SyGN) method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modeling brain growth during development.

  11. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  12. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  13. Formation of ozone and growth of aerosols in young smoke plumes from biomass burning: 1. Lagrangian parcel studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, Matthew James; Prinn, Ronald G.

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a new model of the gas- and aerosol-phase chemistry of biomass burning smoke plumes called Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP). Here we use ASP combined with a Lagrangian parcel model to simulate the chemistry in smoke plumes from three fires: the Otavi savannah fire in Namibia, an Alaska boreal forest fire, and the Timbavati savannah fire. Our model explained the observations of ozone in the Otavi and Alaska plumes fairly well, but our initial model simulation of the Timbavati plume underestimated the concentrations of ozone, OH, and secondary aerosol matter. The Timbavati simulation agrees with observations if we increase OH to equal its observed levels. Heterogeneous reactions of NO2 and SO2 could explain the needed higher concentrations of OH and the rapid formation of ozone, nitrate, and sulfate in the smoke plume if the uptake coefficients on smoke aerosols are large (O(10-3) and O(10-4), respectively). Uncharacterized organic species in the smoke plume were likely responsible for the rapid formation of aerosol organic carbon. The changes in the aerosol size distribution were dominated by plume dilution and condensational growth. The single scattering albedo of the modeled smoke increases from 0.866 to 0.902 over 1 h of aging. The change in aerosol scattering with relative humidity for the modeled fresh smoke matches observations up to 66% RH, but the model greatly overestimates the humidification factor at 80% RH (2.88 versus an observed value of 1.70-1.79). For the aged smoke, the modeled humidification factor is 1.22, slightly below the observed value of 1.40.

  14. Connectivity-Based Parcellation of the Thalamus Explains Specific Cognitive and Behavioural Symptoms in Patients with Bilateral Thalamic Infarct

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Laura; Cercignani, Mara; Carlesimo, Giovanni A.; Fadda, Lucia; Tini, Nadia; Giulietti, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bozzali, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach based on diffusion tractography was used here to characterise the cortico-thalamic connectivity in two patients, both presenting with an isolated bilateral infarct in the thalamus, but exhibiting partially different cognitive and behavioural profiles. Both patients (G.P. and R.F.) had a pervasive deficit in episodic memory, but only one of them (R.F.) suffered also from a dysexecutive syndrome. Both patients had an MRI scan at 3T, including a T1-weighted volume. Their lesions were manually segmented. T1-volumes were normalised to standard space, and the same transformations were applied to the lesion masks. Nineteen healthy controls underwent a diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) scan. Their DTI data were normalised to standard space and averaged. An atlas of Brodmann areas was used to parcellate the prefrontal cortex. Probabilistic tractography was used to assess the probability of connection between each voxel of the thalamus and a set of prefrontal areas. The resulting map of corticothalamic connections was superimposed onto the patients’ lesion masks, to assess whether the location of the thalamic lesions in R.F. (but not in G. P.) implied connections with prefrontal areas involved in dysexecutive syndromes. In G.P., the lesion fell within areas of the thalamus poorly connected with prefrontal areas, showing only a modest probability of connection with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Conversely, R.F.’s lesion fell within thalamic areas extensively connected with the ACC bilaterally, with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and with the left supplementary motor area. Despite a similar, bilateral involvement of the thalamus, the use of connectivity-based segmentation clarified that R.F.’s lesions only were located within nuclei highly connected with the prefrontal cortical areas, thus explaining the patient’s frontal syndrome. This study confirms that DTI tractography is a useful tool to examine in vivo the effect of focal lesions

  15. The Origin of River Meanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahagian, D. L.; Chatanantavet, P.; Bradley, C.; Friedgen-Veitch, D.; Diplas, P.

    2015-12-01

    Various propositions for the origin of meanders have been suggested in the past, involving local disturbances such as variable bank material, obstructions to flow, and sediment transport. Each of these approaches has required a very special and complex set of circumstances for the onset of meandering. However, meanders have also been observed in other systems such as the gulf stream , window glass , glacial meltwater, channels in submarine fans, the jet stream, water faucets, and many others. What has not been satisfactorily demonstrated is why some rivers (or parts of rivers) should tend to meander in the first place rather than ply a straight course to base level. We suggest that the fundamental cause of the river meander instability is simply a minimization of power (rate of work done), with an onset that occurs when inertial terms exceed body forces (e.g. gravity) acting on the flow, and thus create an adverse pressure gradient directed in the opposite direction of the flow. A simple way to visualize the cause of the instability is that the water "backs up" upon itself, running into a parcel of water downstream that is flowing more slowly than the water upstream. This causes the direction of maximum local water surface slope to be diverted to one side or the other of the regional slope. This can occur when a river encounters the ocean (or a lake, or a break in slope), and can occur in many other situations as well. We analyzed various meandering systems globally, and conducted laboratory experiments under controlled conditions to determine the conditions necessary for the onset of the meander instability. The results indicate that the meander instability does not depend on sediment or erodible banks. The critical threshold for the onset of the meander instability occurs when inertial forces exceed body forces acting on the fluid such that an adverse pressure gradient arises. Better understanding of the meander instability should thus elucidate some of the

  16. Comparison of stratospheric air parcel trajectories calculated from SSU and LIMS satellite data. [Stratospheric Sounding Unit/Limb Infrared Monitor of Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, J.

    1986-01-01

    Midstratospheric trajectories for February and March 1979 are calculated using geopotential analyses derived from limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere data. These trajectories are compared with the corresponding results using stratospheric sounding unit data. The trajectories are quasi-isentropic in that a radiation scheme is used to simply cross-isentrope flow. The results show that in disturbed conditions, quantitative agreement the trajectories, that is, within 25 great circle degrees (GCD) (one GCD about 110 km) may be valid for only 3 or 4 days, whereas during quiescent periods, quantitative agreement may last up to 10 days. By comparing trajectories calculated with different data some insight can be gained as to errors due to vertical resolution and horizontal resolution (due to infrequent sampling) in the analyzed geopotential height fields. For the disturbed trajectories described in this paper the horizontal resolution of the data was more important than vertical resolution; however, for the quiescent trajectories, which could be calculated accurately for a longer duration because of the absence of appreciable transients, the vertical resolution of the data was found to be more important than the horizontal resolution. It is speculated that these characteristics are also applicable to trajectories calculated during disturbed and quiescent periods in general. A review of some recently published trajectories shows that the qualitative conclusions of such works remains unaffected when the calculations are repeated using different data.

  17. 28. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering vault). ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING. AIR COOLED TEST STAND. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  18. 41. Photocopy of progress photograph ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Photocopy of progress photograph ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph Property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. This is the source for views 41 to 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - SHOWING BUILDING "RED IRON" STEEL STRUCTURE NEARING COMPLETION. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  19. 31. Photographic copy of original construction drawing (dated 1959, in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photographic copy of original construction drawing (dated 1959, in possession of the Grissom Air Force Baase Conversion Agency, Grissom Air Reserve Base, Peru, Indiana. This source is the same for views 32-36). Plan of northern section of lower level - Grissom Air Force Base, Building No. 747, Peru, Miami County, IN

  20. 21. Photographic copy of original construction drawing (dated 1943, in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photographic copy of original construction drawing (dated 1943, in possession of the Grissom Air Force Base Conversion Agency, Grissom Air Reserve Base, Indiana. This source is the same for views 22-25). Ground floor plan - Grissom Air Force Base, Building No. 143, Peru, Miami County, IN

  1. Parceling the Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiatt, Blanchard; Gwynne, Peter

    1984-01-01

    To make computing power broadly available and truly friendly, both soft and hard meshing and synchronization problems will have to be solved. Possible solutions and research related to these problems are discussed. Topics considered include compilers, parallelism, networks, distributed sensors, dataflow, CEDAR system (using dataflow principles),…

  2. Plutonium in the air in Kurchatov, Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Lehto, J; Salminen, S; Jaakkola, T; Outola, I; Pulli, S; Paatero, J; Tarvainen, M; Ristonmaa, S; Zilliacus, R; Ossintsev, A; Larin, V

    2006-07-31

    Weekly air samples of 25000 m(3) volume were taken with two air samplers over a period of one year in 2000-2001 in the town of Kurchatov in Kazakhstan. For another three-month period in 2001, the samplers were run in the city of Astana, about 500 km west of Kurchatov. (137)Cs, Pu and U concentrations were determined from the filters. Pu activities in Kurchatov varied in a 100-fold range; median (239,240)Pu activities were 100 nBq/m(3) and (238)Pu activities 34 nBq/m(3). The corresponding values for Astana were considerably lower: 29 and 9 nBq/m(3), respectively, and in half of the filters the (238)Pu activity was below the detection limit. Plutonium concentration correlated with the amount of dust retained on the filters only at the highest dust loads. Also no correlation between wind speed and the plutonium activity in the filters was observed. Thus, resuspension does not seem to be the mechanism responsible for the airborne plutonium. No clear seasonal variation of Pu air concentration was observed, though levels were somewhat elevated in February to April. There was no correlation between the plutonium and (137)Cs concentrations. In most of the filters the cesium concentration was below the detection limit, but in those filters where it could be detected the cesium concentration was practically constant at 3.9+/-1.6 microBq/m(3). Dose estimation for the inhalation of the airborne plutonium gave a low value of 0.018 microSv/a for the inhabitants in Kurchatov, which is about a thousand times lower than the dose caused by the naturally occurring (210)Po. Air parcel trajectory analysis indicated that the observed Pu activities in the air could not unambiguously be attributed to the most contaminated areas at the Semipalatinsk Test Site.

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  4. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  5. 13. Photocopy of engineering drawing (original drawing,(original drawing, #MH 10460086, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of engineering drawing (original drawing,(original drawing, #MH 104-600-86, dated October 31, 1995, and drawn by W. Robinson, is located in the Mountain Home Air Force Base Civil Engineering archives. This 1995 drawing is a copy of drawing #MH 104-600-06, dated December 21, 1955, entitled "Repair Exterior Siding Elev. & Exterior Painting. Bldg. 611," also located in the Mountain Home Air Force Base Civil Engineering archives). FAC 611. - Mountain Home Air Force Base, Base Chapel, 350 Willow Street, Cantonment Area, Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  6. The impact of mixing on Age of Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garny, Hella; Birner, Thomas; Bönisch, Harald

    2013-04-01

    Transport in the stratosphere is determined both by the mean meridional circulation and two-way mixing. Stratospheric age of air (AoA) is a measure of the integrated effect of all transport processes that affected an air parcel on its way through the stratosphere after crossing the tropopause. Mean AoA is often used to quantify the transport circulation in the stratosphere, namely the Brewer-Dobson Circulation (BDC). Global models project an increase in the mean meridional circulation in a changing climate, and simultaneously a decrease in AoA. However, evidence of changes in mean AoA from observations is weak. To infer from the AoA measurements on changes in the residual circulation, that cannot be measured directly, a better understanding of the relation between AoA and the residual circulation is necessary. Global models provide residual circulation data consistent with AoA, and thus can be used to investigate this relationship. We use trajectories driven only by the residual circulation to derive the hypothetical 'age' that air would have if it was transported only by the residual circulation. This quantity is referred to as 'residual circulation transit time' (RCTT). The difference between AoA and RCTT is then the additional aging of air caused by mixing processes. It is shown that this aging by mixing is positive throughout the lower stratosphere, only in the lowermost stratosphere at high latitudes, air is younger than expected from residual circulation transport only. The processes of the impact of mixing on AoA are further investigated using a simple tropical leaky pipe (TLP) model. The TLP model can explain the general increase of AoA in the lower stratosphere and above by mixing with the recirculation of air parcels. Aging by mixing is dependent both on 1) the mixing strength, that controls the fraction of air that recirculates, and 2) the residual circulation strength, that controls the speed of recirculation. Thus, stronger mixing increases aging by

  7. Environmental Baseline Survey Report for the Title Transfer of Parcel ED-9 at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    SAIC

    2010-05-01

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Parcel ED-9 at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). Parcel ED-9 consists of about 13 acres that DOE proposes to transfer to Heritage Center, LLC (hereafter referred to as 'Heritage Center'), a subsidiary of the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET). The 13 acres include two tracts of land, referred to as ED-9A (7.06 acres) and ED-9B (5.02 acres), and a third tract consisting of about 900 linear feet of paved road and adjacent right-of-way, referred to as ED-9C (0.98 acres). Transfer of the title to ED-9 will be by deed under a Covenant Deferral Request (CDR) pursuant to Section 120(h)(3)(C) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This report provides a summary of information to support the transfer of this government-owned property at ETTP to a non-federal entity.

  8. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  9. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  10. Urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Air pollution and the risk of potential health effects are not sufficiently convincing reasons for people to stop driving their cars, according to a study by the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) released on November 18.While sufficient levels of suspended particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and lead can present health concerns, the study found that many people surveyed for the study were not convinced of the clear linkage between air pollution and health.

  11. A Comprehensive Assessment of Biologicals Contained Within Commercial Airliner Cabin Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Osman, Shariff; Dekas, Anne; Stuecker, Tara; Newcombe, Dave; Piceno, Yvette; Fuhrman, J.; Andersen, Gary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Bearman, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria, Fusobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Deinococci, Bacterioidetes, Spirochetes, and Planctomyces in varying abundance. Neisseria meningitidis rDNA sequences were retrieved in great abundance from Airline A followed by Streptococcus oralis/mitis sequences. Pseudomonas synxantha sequences dominated Airline B clone libraries, followed by those of N. meningitidis and S. oralis/mitis. In Phase II, Airline C, sequences representative of more than 113 species, enveloping 12 classes of bacteria, were retrieved. Proteobacterial sequences were retrieved in greatest frequency (58% of all clone sequences), followed in short order by those stemming from Gram-positives bacteria (31% of all clone sequences). As for overall phylogenetic breadth, Gram-positive and alpha-proteobacteria seem to have a higher affinity for international flights, whereas beta-and gamma-proteobacteria are far more common about domestic cabin air parcels in Airline C samples. Ultimately, the majority of microbial species circulating throughout the cabin airs of commercial airliners are commensal, infrequently pathogenic normal flora of the human nasopharynx and respiratory system. Many of these microbes likely originate from the oral and nasal cavities, and lungs of passengers and flight crew and are disseminated unknowingly via routine conversation, coughing, sneezing, and stochastic passing of fomites. The data documented in this study will be useful to generate a baseline microbial population database and can be utilized to develop biosensor instrumentation for monitoring microbial quality of cabin or urban air.

  12. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  13. Covenant Deferral Request for the Proposed Transfer of Land Parcel ED-8 at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - Final - May 2009

    SciTech Connect

    SAIC

    2009-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to transfer a land parcel (hereinafter referred to as 'the Property') designated as Land Parcel ED-8 at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by deed, and is submitting this Covenant Deferral Request (CDR) pursuant to Section 120(h)(3)(C) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, and applicable U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance. The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), which includes ETTP, was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in November 1989. Environmental investigation and cleanup activities are continuing at ETTP in accordance with CERCLA, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). The FFA was entered into by the DOE-Oak Ridge Office (ORO), EPA Region 4, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in 1991. The FFA establishes the schedule and milestones for environmental remediation of the ORR. The proposed property transfer is a key component of the Oak Ridge Performance Management Plan (ORPMP) for accelerated cleanup of the ORR. DOE, using its authority under Section 161(g) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), proposes to transfer the Property to Heritage Center, LLC, a subsidiary of the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET), hereafter referred to as 'Heritage Center.' CROET is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit corporation established to foster the diversification of the regional economy by re-utilizing DOE property for private-sector investment and job creation. The Property is located in the southern portion of ETTP and consists of approximately 84 acres proposed as the potential site for new facilities to be used for office space, industrial activities, or other commercial uses. The parcel contains both grassy fields located outside the ETTP 'main plant' area and infrastructure located inside the 'main plant' area. No

  14. Environmental baseline survey report for West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge and parcel 21D in the vicinity of the East Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    King, David A.

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE?s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only no-further-investigation (NFI) reports. Groundwater sampling was also conducted to support a Parcel 21d decision. Based on available data West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, and West Pine Ridge are not impacted by site operations and are not subject to actions per the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). This determination is supported by visual inspections, records searches and interviews, groundwater conceptual modeling, approved NFI reports, analytical data, and risk analysis results. Parcel 21d data, however, demonstrate impacts from site

  15. Hippocampal Volume Is Reduced in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder But Not in Psychotic Bipolar I Disorder Demonstrated by Both Manual Tracing and Automated Parcellation (FreeSurfer)

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Sara J. M.; Ivleva, Elena I.; Gopal, Tejas A.; Reddy, Anil P.; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Sacco, Carolyn B.; Francis, Alan N.; Tandon, Neeraj; Bidesi, Anup S.; Witte, Bradley; Poudyal, Gaurav; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Sweeney, John A.; Clementz, Brett A.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Tamminga, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined hippocampal volume as a putative biomarker for psychotic illness in the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) psychosis sample, contrasting manual tracing and semiautomated (FreeSurfer) region-of-interest outcomes. The study sample (n = 596) included probands with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 71), schizoaffective disorder (SAD, n = 70), and psychotic bipolar I disorder (BDP, n = 86); their first-degree relatives (SZ-Rel, n = 74; SAD-Rel, n = 62; BDP-Rel, n = 88); and healthy controls (HC, n = 145). Hippocampal volumes were derived from 3Tesla T1-weighted MPRAGE images using manual tracing/3DSlicer3.6.3 and semiautomated parcellation/FreeSurfer5.1,64bit. Volumetric outcomes from both methodologies were contrasted in HC and probands and relatives across the 3 diagnoses, using mixed-effect regression models (SAS9.3 Proc MIXED); Pearson correlations between manual tracing and FreeSurfer outcomes were computed. SZ (P = .0007–.02) and SAD (P = .003–.14) had lower hippocampal volumes compared with HC, whereas BDP showed normal volumes bilaterally (P = .18–.55). All relative groups had hippocampal volumes not different from controls (P = .12–.97) and higher than those observed in probands (P = .003–.09), except for FreeSurfer measures in bipolar probands vs relatives (P = .64–.99). Outcomes from manual tracing and FreeSurfer showed direct, moderate to strong, correlations (r = .51–.73, P < .05). These findings from a large psychosis sample support decreased hippocampal volume as a putative biomarker for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, but not for psychotic bipolar I disorder, and may reflect a cumulative effect of divergent primary disease processes and/or lifetime medication use. Manual tracing and semiautomated parcellation regional volumetric approaches may provide useful outcomes for defining measurable biomarkers underlying severe mental illness. PMID:24557771

  16. Synchronous Changes of Cortical Thickness and Corresponding White Matter Microstructure During Brain Development Accessed by Diffusion MRI Tractography from Parcellated Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Ouyang, Minhui; Chen, Min; Huang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Cortical thickness (CT) changes during normal brain development is associated with complicated cellular and molecular processes including synaptic pruning and apoptosis. In parallel, the microstructural enhancement of developmental white matter (WM) axons with their neuronal bodies in the cerebral cortex has been widely reported with measurements of metrics derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), especially fractional anisotropy (FA). We hypothesized that the changes of CT and microstructural enhancement of corresponding axons are highly interacted during development. DTI and T1-weighted images of 50 healthy children and adolescents between the ages of 7 and 25 years were acquired. With the parcellated cortical gyri transformed from T1-weighted images to DTI space as the tractography seeds, probabilistic tracking was performed to delineate the WM fibers traced from specific parcellated cortical regions. CT was measured at certain cortical regions and FA was measured from the WM fibers traced from same cortical regions. The CT of all frontal cortical gyri, including Brodmann areas 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 44, 45, 46, and 47, decreased significantly and heterogeneously; concurrently, significant, and heterogeneous increases of FA of WM traced from corresponding regions were found. We further revealed significant correlation between the slopes of the CT decrease and the slopes of corresponding WM FA increase in all frontal cortical gyri, suggesting coherent cortical pruning and corresponding WM microstructural enhancement. Such correlation was not found in cortical regions other than frontal cortex. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of these synchronous changes may be associated with overlapping signaling pathways of axonal guidance, synaptic pruning, neuronal apoptosis, and more prevalent interstitial neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Revealing the coherence of cortical and WM structural changes during development may open a new window for understanding the

  17. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  18. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  19. When Poor Indoor Air Causes a Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    An air quality problem originating with a steam leak in an improperly maintained heating system resulted in unanticipated expenses of $420,000 for the Lakeview (Michigan) School District. Indoor air quality complaints require immediate investigation and action; clear communication to parents, staff, and media representatives; competent…

  20. Interior view of bath 1 showing original cabinet and bath ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath 1 showing original cabinet and bath fixtures, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower stall, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Interior view of groundfloor servants bath showing original casement windows, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of ground-floor servants bath showing original casement windows, shower stall, and pipes at ceiling, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Interior view at top of parachute drying tower showing original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view at top of parachute drying tower showing original steel wall-mounted ladder, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Interior view of main entry hall showing stairs and original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of main entry hall showing stairs and original pipe handrails, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. EXTERIOR NORTH VIEW, WITH BUILDING 91 (ORIGINALLY THE WRIGHT FIELD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR NORTH VIEW, WITH BUILDING 91 (ORIGINALLY THE WRIGHT FIELD LAUNDRY) IN THE FOREGROUND - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 67, Emergency Power Plant, North side of Third Street between D & E Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  6. 7. Credit USAF, 1945. Original housed in the Muroc Flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Credit USAF, 1945. Original housed in the Muroc Flight Test Base, Unit History, 1 September 1942 30 June 1945. Alfred F. Simpson Historical Research Agency. United States Air Force. Maxwell AFB, Alabama. Interior view in shop wing on south side of hangar. Original caption reads "7 Sept. 1945, BH-10, Hangar No. 4 4505 Machine Shop." - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Hangar, End of North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. 29. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering vault). ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING. 19508 RENOVATION OF FIRST FLOOR, CENTRAL PORTION. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  8. 20. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). READINESS CREW BUILDING, ELEVATIONS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  9. 25. Photocopy of engineering drawing, January, 1988 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of engineering drawing, January, 1988 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS (northeast and southeast) - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  10. Photocopy of drawing (original blueprint of Special Type Service Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original blueprint of Special Type Service Station in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1941 architectural drawings by Standard Oil Company Engineering Department of Louisville, KY) PLAN - MacDill Air Force Base, Service Station, 7303 Hanger Loop Drive, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  11. 26. Photocopy of engineering drawing, March 3, 1988 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of engineering drawing, March 3, 1988 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS (southwest and northwest) - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  12. 23. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). READINESS CREW BUILDING, UPPER FLOOR PLANS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  13. Photocopy of drawing (original blueprint of Special Type Service Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original blueprint of Special Type Service Station in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1941 architectural drawings by Standard Oil Company Engineering Department of Louisville, KY) ELEVATIONS & SECTION - MacDill Air Force Base, Service Station, 7303 Hanger Loop Drive, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  14. Photocopy of drawing (original blueprint of Special Type Service Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original blueprint of Special Type Service Station in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1941 architectural drawings by Standard Oil Company Engineering Department of Louisville, KY) SITE PLAN - MacDill Air Force Base, Service Station, 7303 Hanger Loop Drive, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  15. 22. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). READINESS CREW BUILDING, LOWER FLOOR PLANS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  16. 14. Photocopy of engineering drawing (original drawing, #MH 10460086, dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of engineering drawing (original drawing, #MH 104-600-86, dated October 31, 1995, and drawn by W. Robinson, is located in the Mountain Home Air Force Base Civil Engineering archives). - Mountain Home Air Force Base, Base Chapel, 350 Willow Street, Cantonment Area, Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  17. 24. Photocopy of engineering drawing, August 17, 1965 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of engineering drawing, August 17, 1965 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). 2080 READINESS CREW, COVERED WALKWAYS, PLAN AND DETAILS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  18. 21. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). READINESS CREW BUILDING, RAMP DETAILS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  19. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant - No. 1 Pump House in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) FLOOR PLANS AND SECTIONS - MacDill Air Force Base, Pump House No. 1, Hillsborough Garden Drive & Tampa Boulevard, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  20. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant - No. 1 Pump House in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS, AND DETAILS - MacDill Air Force Base, Pump House No. 1, Hillsborough Garden Drive & Tampa Boulevard, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  1. 25. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering vault). ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING. ELEVATIONS, RIGHT AND LEFT PORTIONS, TEST CELLS 5-12. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  2. 17. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering vault). ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN, RIGHT AND LEFT END PORTIONS, TEST CELLS 5-12. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  3. 27. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering vault). ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING. CROSS-SECTION, RIGHT AND LEFT END PORTIONS, TEST CELLS 5-12. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  4. 23. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering vault). ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING. THIRD FLOOR AND ROOF PLAN, RIGHT AND LEFT END PORTIONS, TEST CELLS 5-12. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  5. 26. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering vault). ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING. CROSS-SECTION, CENTRAL PORTION AND TEST CELLS 1-4. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  6. 22. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering vault). ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING. THIRD FLOOR AND ROOF PLAN, CENTRAL PORTION AND TEST CELLS 1-4. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  7. 20. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering vault). ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING. SECOND FLOOR PLAN, CENTRAL PORTION AND TEST CELLS 1-4. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  8. 18. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering vault). ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING. FIRST FLOOR PLAN, CENTRAL PORTION AND TEST CELLS 1-4. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  9. 24. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering vault). ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING. ELEVATIONS, CENTRAL PORTION AND TEST CELLS 1-4. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  10. 19. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering vault). ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING. FIRST FLOOR PLAN, RIGHT AND LEFT END PORTIONS, TEST CELLS 5-12. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  11. 16. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering vault). ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN, CENTRAL PORTION AND TEST CELLS 1-4. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  12. 21. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of engineering drawing, May, 1941 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering vault). ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING. SECOND FLOOR PLAN, RIGHT AND LEFT END PORTIONS, TEST CELLS 5-12. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  13. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Fire and Guard House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Fire and Guard House with Communication Center in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) FRONT ELEVATION DETAILS - MacDill Air Force Base, Fire & Guard House, 2709 Florida Keys Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  14. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Fire and Guard House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Fire and Guard House with Communication Center in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) EXTERIOR AND MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS - MacDill Air Force Base, Fire & Guard House, 2709 Florida Keys Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  15. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Fire and Guard House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Fire and Guard House with Communication Center in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR AND ROOF PLANS - MacDill Air Force Base, Fire & Guard House, 2709 Florida Keys Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  16. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Fire and Guard House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Fire and Guard House with Communication Center in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS - MacDill Air Force Base, Fire & Guard House, 2709 Florida Keys Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  17. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Fire and Guard House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Fire and Guard House with Communication Center in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) CELL BLOCK DETAILS - MacDill Air Force Base, Fire & Guard House, 2709 Florida Keys Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  18. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of War Department Theater in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of War Department Theater in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) FIRST FLOOR AND CEILING PLAN - MacDill Air Force Base, Base Theater, 2420 Florida Keys Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  19. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of War Department Theater in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of War Department Theater in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) FLOOR PLAN AND BENCH DETAILS - MacDill Air Force Base, Base Theater, 2420 Florida Keys Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  20. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of War Department Theater in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of War Department Theater in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS - MacDill Air Force Base, Base Theater, 2420 Florida Keys Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  1. 40 CFR 52.1037 - Original identification of plan section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Plans to meet various requirements of the Clean Air Act, including Part C, were submitted on May 1, 1979... plans to meet the requirements of Part D and the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977, were submitted on... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Original identification of plan...

  2. 40 CFR 52.622 - Original identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (a) This section identified the original “State of Hawaii Air Pollution Control Implementation Plan... paragraph (b) of this section and now deleted from the SIP without replacement Air Pollution Control Law... replacement chapter 43, section 20. (ii) (6) Regulations establishing a permit system for agricultural...

  3. 40 CFR 52.622 - Original identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (a) This section identified the original “State of Hawaii Air Pollution Control Implementation Plan... paragraph (b) of this section and now deleted from the SIP without replacement Air Pollution Control Law... replacement chapter 43, section 20. (ii) (6) Regulations establishing a permit system for agricultural...

  4. 40 CFR 52.622 - Original identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (a) This section identified the original “State of Hawaii Air Pollution Control Implementation Plan... paragraph (b) of this section and now deleted from the SIP without replacement Air Pollution Control Law... replacement chapter 43, section 20. (ii) (6) Regulations establishing a permit system for agricultural...

  5. 11. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Val ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Val Brose, General Dynamics Space Systems Division, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California). Photographer unknown, circa July 1961. CREW OF FIRST LAUNCH FROM POINT ARGUELLO LAUNCH COMPLEX 1, PAD 2, (SLC-3E) ON LAUNCH PAD. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 35. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated May 22, 1951 (from paper copy at Engineering Flight, Ellsworth Air Force Base, SD). Readiness hangar structural: front elevation bracing details. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Readiness Hangar, Kenny Road, southeast corner of interstction with G Avenue, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  7. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of War Department Theater in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of War Department Theater in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General)STRUCTURAL - FOUNDATIONS - MacDill Air Force Base, Base Theater, 2420 Florida Keys Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  8. 36. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated May 22, 1951 (from paper copy at Engineering Flight, Ellsworth Air Force Base, SD). Readiness hangar structural: rear elevation framing details. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Readiness Hangar, Kenny Road, southeast corner of interstction with G Avenue, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  9. 34. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated May 22, 1951 (from paper copy at Engineering Flight, Ellsworth Air Force Base, SD). Readiness hangar structural: truss braces TB1 to TB4. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Readiness Hangar, Kenny Road, southeast corner of interstction with G Avenue, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  10. 30. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated May 22, 1951 (from paper copy at Engineering Flight, Ellsworth Air Force Base, SD). Readiness hangar structural: buttresses & misc. Details. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Readiness Hangar, Kenny Road, southeast corner of interstction with G Avenue, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  11. 33. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated May 22, 1951 (from paper copy at Engineering Flight, Ellsworth Air Force Base, SD). Readiness hangar structural: details of trusses T2 to T6. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Readiness Hangar, Kenny Road, southeast corner of interstction with G Avenue, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  12. 32. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated May 22, 1951 (from paper copy at Engineering Flight, Ellsworth Air Force Base, SD). Readiness hangar structural: details of trusses T1 & T7. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Readiness Hangar, Kenny Road, southeast corner of interstction with G Avenue, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  13. 31. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated May 22, 1951 (from paper copy at Engineering Flight, Ellsworth Air Force Base, SD). Readiness hangar structural: top chord framing & details. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Readiness Hangar, Kenny Road, southeast corner of interstction with G Avenue, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  14. The Origin(s) of Whales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhen, Mark D.

    2010-05-01

    Whales are first found in the fossil record approximately 52.5 million years ago (Mya) during the early Eocene in Indo-Pakistan. Our knowledge of early and middle Eocene whales has increased dramatically during the past three decades to the point where hypotheses of whale origins can be supported with a great deal of evidence from paleontology, anatomy, stratigraphy, and molecular biology. Fossils also provide preserved evidence of behavior and habitats, allowing the reconstruction of the modes of life of these semiaquatic animals during their transition from land to sea. Modern whales originated from ancient whales at or near the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, approximately 33.7 Mya. During the Oligocene, ancient whales coexisted with early baleen whales and early toothed whales. By the end of the Miocene, most modern families had originated, and most archaic forms had gone extinct. Whale diversity peaked in the late middle Miocene and fell thereafter toward the Recent, yielding our depauperate modern whale fauna.

  15. The Breath of Life. The Problem of Poisoned Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Donald E.

    The origins and nature of air pollution, from earliest days to the present, are examined in this book. Although air pollution has been with us since the discovery of fire, it is proffered that the major culprit now is the burning of gasoline and low-grade heating oil. All other sources of air pollution are negligible. The main thesis is that only…

  16. 10. "TEST STAND 15, AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER." ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. "TEST STAND 1-5, AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER." ca. 1958. Test Area 1-115. Original is a color print, showing Test Stand 1-5 from below, also showing the superstructure of TS1-4 at left. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 7. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of the Ralph M. Parsons Company, Los Angeles, California). Photography by Ralph M. Parsons Co. circa August 1959. AERIAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION OF POINT ARGUELLO LAUNCH COMPLEX 1 (SLC-3) FROM THE SOUTHEAST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. 10. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL PHOTOGRAPH, DATED APRIL 29, 1926, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL PHOTOGRAPH, DATED APRIL 29, 1926, DOUBLE BARRACK, BUILDING 452, (ORIGINAL No. 655), SOUTH FRONT AND RIGHT SIDE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES PHOTOGRAPH, RECORD GROUP 92, GEOGRAPHIC FILE, 1922-1935, No. 600-1, FORT BLISS - Fort Bliss, 7th Cavalry Buildings, U.S. Army Air Defence Artillery Center & Fort Bliss, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  19. 40 CFR 52.622 - Original identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Original identification of plan. 52.622 Section 52.622 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.622 Original identification of plan. (a) This section identified the...

  20. Credit WCT. Original 4" x 5" black and white negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Original 4" x 5" black and white negative is housed in the JPL Archives, Pasadena, California. This view shows the original furnace for burning scrap propellant, the surrounding incinerator pit, and the earth mound personnel shield (JPL negative no. 381-2737, 11 February 1963) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Incinerator, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 17. Photographic copy of original remodeling drawings dated July 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of original remodeling drawings dated July 8, 1988 (original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) First and second floor plans - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

  2. 15. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated September 15, 1938 (original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) Elevations - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

  3. 18. Photographic copy of original remodeling drawings dated July 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of original remodeling drawings dated July 8, 1988 (original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) First and second floor demolition and framing plan - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

  4. 14. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated September 15, 1938 (Original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) First and second floor plans - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

  5. 16. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated September 15, 1938 (original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) Interior details - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

  6. Credit WCT. Original 2'" x 2%" color negative is housed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Original 2-'" x 2-%" color negative is housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. This view shows the propellant cutter as it was originally installed (JPL negative no. 381-2274A, 29 June 1962) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Preparation Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. Multiple origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  8. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  9. Geochemical Assessment of Groundwater in the Peri-urban Environment of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pollution is a major concern in peri-urban environments. Thus, water quality is being investigated at several domestic wells in Brandsen, 70 km south of Buenos Aires, Argentina. To present, about 20 water sources were sampled in orchards and small farms of the area. There is limited data about the wells construction, although collected information suggests that groundwater is derived from the superficial sandy loams of the Pampean Aquifer. Samples were analysed for major inorganic elements using ion chromatography and ICP-MS. Titration was used to estimate alkalinity. Physical characteristics (EC, pH, temperature) were measured on site. Results show that groundwater pH ranges from 6.5 to 7.8, with a specific conductance of 180 to 255 mS/m. A peak of 360 mS/m in one horticultural parcel is associated to local NO3- concentrations up to 140 mg/L. This value exceeds the maximum recommendations set by the WHO (50 mg/L). Considering that fertilizer inputs in that property are negligible, the high levels of NO3- might be attributed to effluents from a neighbour septic tank. An increase in NO3- (>150mg/L) was also detected in two conventional farms. This increase correlates to elevated SO42- concentrations (>300 mg/L) suggesting thus, fertilizers percolation into the saturated zone. The leaching of these fluids might be exacerbated by irrigation during new planting, and accumulations of fertilizer-solids in the root zones from previous seasons. Chloride concentrations average ~90 mg/L and would not pose a threat to health at the moment. Its main origin would be related to connate waters in the loam matrix, although some anthropogenic inputs might occur in the previously described farms. In general, the rest of the analysed elements fall within acceptable levels for drinking purposes as well. Nevertheless, further work is still necessary to better define the fate of the potential harmful elements and assess seasonal variations in water quality.

  10. DNA replication origins.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Alan C; Méchali, Marcel

    2013-10-01

    The onset of genomic DNA synthesis requires precise interactions of specialized initiator proteins with DNA at sites where the replication machinery can be loaded. These sites, defined as replication origins, are found at a few unique locations in all of the prokaryotic chromosomes examined so far. However, replication origins are dispersed among tens of thousands of loci in metazoan chromosomes, thereby raising questions regarding the role of specific nucleotide sequences and chromatin environment in origin selection and the mechanisms used by initiators to recognize replication origins. Close examination of bacterial and archaeal replication origins reveals an array of DNA sequence motifs that position individual initiator protein molecules and promote initiator oligomerization on origin DNA. Conversely, the need for specific recognition sequences in eukaryotic replication origins is relaxed. In fact, the primary rule for origin selection appears to be flexibility, a feature that is modulated either by structural elements or by epigenetic mechanisms at least partly linked to the organization of the genome for gene expression.

  11. Religion: Origins and Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John K.

    2004-01-01

    We present the purpose of study of the origins and development of affect-relevant and religion-relevant hypotheses, and conjectured prediction of proto-religious sequences in pre-human anthropoids and primitive human cultures. We anticipate more comprehensive study of modern cultural outcomes of these origins and developments.

  12. Chemical Origins of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J. Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    Reviews ideas and evidence bearing on the origin of life. Shows that evidence to support modifications of Oparin's theories of the origin of biological constituents from inorganic materials is accumulating, and that the necessary components are readily obtained from the simple gases found in the universe. (AL)

  13. The Moon's Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadogan, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Presents findings and conclusions about the origin of the moon, favoring the capture hypothesis of lunar origin. Advantage of the hypothesis is that it allows the moon to have been formed elsewhere, specifically in a hotter part of the solar nebula, accounting for chemical differences between earth and moon. (JN)

  14. Originalism in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, David F.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a detailed legal history of originalism and investigates whether, and to what extent, originalism is a part of law school teaching on the Constitution. He shares the results of an examination of the leading constitutional law textbooks used in the top fifty law schools and a selection of responses gathered from…

  15. The Growth of Originalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bork, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    The latest episode in the long-running struggle for control of the Constitution, and the political power that goes with it, is playing out in the federal courts in California. The contending philosophies are originalism, which holds that the Constitution should be read as it was originally understood by the framers and ratifiers, and the congeries…

  16. The harmonised data model for assessing Land Parcel Identification Systems compliance with requirements of direct aid and agri-environmental schemes of the CAP.

    PubMed

    Sagris, Valentina; Wojda, Piotr; Milenov, Pavel; Devos, Wim

    2013-03-30

    The EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) subsidies to farmers are administered through dedicated information systems, a part of which is the GIS-based Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS). The requirement to map and record land eligible for payments has led to a situation where the agricultural administrations have acquired a large amount of geographic data. As the geospatial community of data producers, custodians and users has grown during the last decades, so has the need to assess the quality and consistency of the LPIS towards the EU regulations on the CAP as well as for cross compliance with environmental legislation. In view of this, a LPIS Conceptual Model (LCM) is presented in this paper in order to address harmonisation and data quality needs. The ISO 19100 series standards on geoinformatics were used for LCM development, including an UML modelling approach and the handling of the quality of geographical information. This paper describes the core elements of the LCM and their integration with data supporting management of agri-environment schemes. Later, the paper shows how the LCM is used for conformity and quality checks of the member states' LPIS system; an Abstract Test Suite (ATS) for mapping the LCM model against existing system implementations was developed and tested in collaboration with several member states. PMID:23391811

  17. The harmonised data model for assessing Land Parcel Identification Systems compliance with requirements of direct aid and agri-environmental schemes of the CAP.

    PubMed

    Sagris, Valentina; Wojda, Piotr; Milenov, Pavel; Devos, Wim

    2013-03-30

    The EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) subsidies to farmers are administered through dedicated information systems, a part of which is the GIS-based Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS). The requirement to map and record land eligible for payments has led to a situation where the agricultural administrations have acquired a large amount of geographic data. As the geospatial community of data producers, custodians and users has grown during the last decades, so has the need to assess the quality and consistency of the LPIS towards the EU regulations on the CAP as well as for cross compliance with environmental legislation. In view of this, a LPIS Conceptual Model (LCM) is presented in this paper in order to address harmonisation and data quality needs. The ISO 19100 series standards on geoinformatics were used for LCM development, including an UML modelling approach and the handling of the quality of geographical information. This paper describes the core elements of the LCM and their integration with data supporting management of agri-environment schemes. Later, the paper shows how the LCM is used for conformity and quality checks of the member states' LPIS system; an Abstract Test Suite (ATS) for mapping the LCM model against existing system implementations was developed and tested in collaboration with several member states.

  18. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

  19. Simulated Convectively Influenced vs. Lightning Influenced Air: Methods for Calculation and Associated Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, N.; Freeman, S.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    Some atmospheric chemical processes are influenced by the presence of convection and/or lightning. Therefore, it is often important to determine whether a sampled air parcel previously has encountered these influences. This paper describes procedures for making these determinations and provides uncertainties associated with the procedures. Prior locations of the sampled air are obtained by calculating backward trajectories based on 1 h WRF output with 3 domains (horizontal grid spacing of 36, 12, and 4 km). Back trajectories are released along every DC-8 flight track from the recent NASA SEAC4RS campaign (~22,000 trajectories total). If lightning influence is sought, locations of the flashes usually are obtained from ground-based networks such as the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). Results show that the user-defined spatial and temporal separation between a trajectory and the flash location greatly influences whether the trajectory is considered lightning influenced. For example, a spatial threshold of 0.5 (0.25) deg lat/lon leads to 69% (60%) of the trajectories being lightning influenced. If model-derived convective influence is sought, a vertical displacement threshold corresponding to w≥1 m s-1 is used to identify convectively influenced parcels. Remarkably, the model-derived method using the 4 km WRF output leads to only 5% (compared to ~60% from lightning) of the trajectories being convectively influenced. Additionally, the horizontal grid spacing (36 km vs. 4 km) exerts a major influence on the paths of the trajectories. The overriding conclusion is that very different results are obtained depending on whether simulated convectively influenced or lightning influenced air is being sought. Also, once this choice is made, the resolution of the model and the time/space thresholds that are chosen will have a major impact on the number of trajectories that are determined to be influenced. This paper will provide guidance on these choices.

  20. Hydrocarbon Observations and Ozone Production Rates in Western Houston During the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Spicer, Chet W.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2005-06-01

    Measurements of total non-methane hydrocarbon in whole air canisters collected from the top of a skyscraper on the western edge of Houston, Texas are summarized with an emphasis on samples collected during the passage of plumes of O{sub 3} and the associated rapid increase in the mixing ratio of this species. The back-trajectories associated with these events showed a pronounced deceleration of air parcels over central and western Houston and were not necessarily associated with direct passage over the petrochemical plants located in the heavily industrialized eastern part of Houston. As a result of the time these air parcels spent over the central and western parts of Houston, their VOC mix and associated chemical production rates were expected to differ from similar observations made over eastern Houston from aircraft sampling at low altitudes. Although periods of high O{sub 3} in the western part of the city were closely associated with light alkenes, these same observations show isoprene to make a significant contribution to the total VOC reactivity in the early afternoon (the start of peak photochemical activity) in contrast to observations made east of our sampling site that found the reactivity to be dominated by anthropogenic species. By initializing a 0-dimensional chemical kinetic model with observations made at the Williams Tower, we find that the ozone production efficiency scaled linearly to the ratio of total hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}, with an average OPE of 7.2, ranging from 2.3 to 16.9; these values are smaller than those reported in eastern Houston, suggesting a strong gradient in photochemical productivity across the city.

  1. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  2. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  3. 8. Photographic copy of photograph, 1975 (original photograph in 55th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photographic copy of photograph, 1975 (original photograph in 55th Wing Historian files, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Nebraska). Looking glass crew celebrating the mission's twentieth anniversary. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 14. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th Audiovisual Squadron, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California). Photography by United States Air Force, date unknown. ATLAS VEHICLE BEING PREPARED FOR LAUNCH FROM SLC-3E. NOTE EXTERNAL SHEATHING AND CUPOLA ON MOBILE SERVICE TOWER. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. 13. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th Audiovisual Squadron, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California). Photography by United States Air Force, date unknown. THRUST AUGMENTED THOR PREPARED FOR LAUNCH FROM SLC-3W. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 12. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th Audiovisual Squadron, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California). Photography by United States Air Force, date unknown. LAUNCH OF AN ATLAS FROM SLC-3. MOBILE SERVICE TOWER (MST) IN PARKED POSITION. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the bentonite in the A2 test parcel of the LOT field experiments at Äspö HRL, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Siv; Karnland, Ola

    The Long Term Test of Buffer Material (LOT) project at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden, is a series of medium-scale field experiments focused on validating models and hypotheses concerning long term processes in the bentonite buffer of a repository for high-level radioactive waste. The test parcels emplaced in crystalline bedrock consist of blocks of compacted MX80 bentonite embedding a Cu-tube equipped with a heater to simulate the heat generation from radionuclide decay. The A2 test parcel had been subjected to elevated temperature (up to 130 °C) and hydration by a Na-Ca-Cl type groundwater for almost 6 years when it was retrieved to be analysed. The analyses included determinations of chemical composition, cation exchange capacity (CEC), exchangeable cations and mineralogy. Both the bulk bentonite and dialysed, homo-ionic Na-clay (<2 μm and <0.2 μm fractions) were analysed when relevant. Sulphate was redistributed in the heated part of the buffer under the thermal and hydration gradients that prevailed during the test period. Anhydrite accumulated in the warmer parts, whereas gypsum was dissolved in the peripheral parts of the buffer where water was supplied. Carbonate dissolution increased with temperature in the warmest parts, whereas chloride behaved conservatively in all blocks. Cu was incorporated in the bentonite matrix at the surface of the Cu-tube indicating some corrosion, which may be explained by reactions in an early stage of the test when trapped oxygen existed in the system. Along with the dissolution/precipitation reactions the porewater composition changed, which resulted in replacement of exchangeable sodium by calcium and magnesium in the warmest zone. Also Mg in the clay (<2 μm and <0.2 μm fractions) displays a clear gradient with peak values at the heater. Because several of the alternative sinks for Mg were eliminated in the sample preparation prior to the chemical analysis (purified clay fractions, removal of carbonates, Na

  8. [Hypotension from endocrine origin].

    PubMed

    Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Douillard, Claire; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie

    2012-11-01

    Hypotension is defined by a low blood pressure either permanently or only in upright posture (orthostatic hypotension). In contrast to hypertension, there is no threshold defining hypotension. The occurrence of symptoms for systolic and diastolic measurements respectively below 90 and 60 mm Hg establishes the diagnosis. Every acute hypotensive event should suggest shock, adrenal failure or an iatrogenic cause. Chronic hypotension from endocrine origin may be linked to adrenal failure from adrenal or central origin, isolated hypoaldosteronism, pseudohypoaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, neuro-endocrine tumors (carcinoïd syndrome) or diabetic dysautonomia. Hypotension related to hypoaldosteronism associates low blood sodium and above all high blood potassium levels. They are generally classified according to their primary (hyperreninism) or secondary (hyporeninism) adrenal origin. Isolated primary hypoaldosteronisms are rare in adults (intensive care unit, selective injury of the glomerulosa area) and in children (aldosterone synthase deficiency). Isolated secondary hypoaldosteronism is related to mellitus diabetes complicated with dysautonomia, kidney failure, age, iatrogenic factors, and HIV infections. In both cases, they can be associated to glucocorticoid insufficiency from primary adrenal origin (adrenal failure of various origins with hyperreninism, among which congenital 21 hydroxylase deficiency with salt loss) or from central origin (hypopituitarism with hypo-reninism). Pseudohypoaldosteronisms are linked to congenital (type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism) or acquired states of resistance to aldosterone. Acquired salt losses from enteric (total colectomy with ileostomy) or renal (interstitial nephropathy, Bartter and Gitelman syndromes…) origin might be responsible for hypotension and are associated with hyperreninism-hyperaldosteronism. Hypotension is a rare manifestation of pheochromocytomas, especially during surgical removal when the patient has not been

  9. Connectivity-based parcellation increases network detection sensitivity in resting state fMRI: An investigation into the cingulate cortex in autism.

    PubMed

    Balsters, Joshua H; Mantini, Dante; Apps, Matthew A J; Eickhoff, Simon B; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Although resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI) is increasingly used to generate biomarkers of psychiatric illnesses, analytical choices such as seed size and placement can lead to variable findings. Seed placement especially impacts on RS-fMRI studies of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), because individuals with ASD are known to possess more variable network topographies. Here, we present a novel pipeline for analysing RS-fMRI in ASD using the cingulate cortex as an exemplar anatomical region of interest. Rather than using seeds based on previous literature, or gross morphology, we used a combination of structural information, task-independent (RS-fMRI) and task-dependent functional connectivity (Meta-Analytic Connectivity Modeling) to partition the cingulate cortex into six subregions with unique connectivity fingerprints and diverse behavioural profiles. This parcellation was consistent between groups and highly replicable across individuals (up to 93% detection) suggesting that the organisation of cortico-cingulo connections is highly similar between groups. However, our results showed an age-related increase in connectivity between the anterior middle cingulate cortex and right lateral prefrontal cortex in ASD, whilst this connectivity decreased in controls. There was also a Group × Grey Matter (GM) interaction, showing increased connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and the rectal gyrus in concert with increasing rectal gyrus GM in controls. By comparing our approach to previously established methods we revealed that our approach improves network detection in both groups, and that the ability to detect group differences using 4 mm radius spheres varies greatly with seed placement. Using our multi-modal approach we find disrupted cortico-cingulo circuits that, based on task-dependent information, may contribute to ASD deficits in attention and social interaction. Moreover, we highlight how more sensitive approaches to RS-fMRI are crucial for establishing

  10. Connectivity-based parcellation increases network detection sensitivity in resting state fMRI: An investigation into the cingulate cortex in autism

    PubMed Central

    Balsters, Joshua H.; Mantini, Dante; Apps, Matthew A.J.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Although resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI) is increasingly used to generate biomarkers of psychiatric illnesses, analytical choices such as seed size and placement can lead to variable findings. Seed placement especially impacts on RS-fMRI studies of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), because individuals with ASD are known to possess more variable network topographies. Here, we present a novel pipeline for analysing RS-fMRI in ASD using the cingulate cortex as an exemplar anatomical region of interest. Rather than using seeds based on previous literature, or gross morphology, we used a combination of structural information, task-independent (RS-fMRI) and task-dependent functional connectivity (Meta-Analytic Connectivity Modeling) to partition the cingulate cortex into six subregions with unique connectivity fingerprints and diverse behavioural profiles. This parcellation was consistent between groups and highly replicable across individuals (up to 93% detection) suggesting that the organisation of cortico-cingulo connections is highly similar between groups. However, our results showed an age-related increase in connectivity between the anterior middle cingulate cortex and right lateral prefrontal cortex in ASD, whilst this connectivity decreased in controls. There was also a Group × Grey Matter (GM) interaction, showing increased connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and the rectal gyrus in concert with increasing rectal gyrus GM in controls. By comparing our approach to previously established methods we revealed that our approach improves network detection in both groups, and that the ability to detect group differences using 4 mm radius spheres varies greatly with seed placement. Using our multi-modal approach we find disrupted cortico-cingulo circuits that, based on task-dependent information, may contribute to ASD deficits in attention and social interaction. Moreover, we highlight how more sensitive approaches to RS-fMRI are crucial for establishing

  11. Green-roof as a solution to solve stormwater management issues? Assessment on a long time period at the parcel scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versini, P.-A.; Petrucci, G.; de Gouvello, B.

    2014-09-01

    Experimental green-roof rainfall-runoff observations have shown a positive impact on stormwater management at the building scale; with a decrease in the peak discharge and a decrease in runoff volume. This efficiency of green-roofs varies from one rainfall event to another depending on precipitation characteristics and substrate antecedent conditions. Due to this variability, currently, green-roofs are rarely officially used as a regulation tool to manage stormwater. Indeed, regulation rules governing the connection to the stormwater network are usually based on absolute threshold values that always have to be respected: maximum areal flow-rate or minimum retention volume for example. In this context, the aim of this study is to illustrate how a green-roof could represent an alternative to solve stormwater management issues, if the regulation rules were further based on statistics. For this purpose, a modelling scheme has been established at the parcel scale to simulate the hydrological response of several roof configurations: impervious, strictly regulated (in terms of areal flow-rate or retention volume), and covered by different types of green-roof matter. Simulations were carried out on a long precipitation time period (23 years) that included a large and heterogeneous set of hydrometeorological conditions. Results obtained for the different roof configurations were compared. Based on the return period of the rainfall event, the probability to respect some regulation rules (defined from real situations) was assessed. They illustrate that green-roofs reduce stormwater runoff compared to an impervious roof surface and can guarantee the respect of the regulation rules in most of the cases. Moreover, their implementation can appear more realistic than that of other infrastructures strictly complying with regulations and demanding significant storage capacity.

  12. Changing spatial patterns of evapotranspiration and deep drainage in response to the interactions among impervious surface arrangement, soil characteristics, and weather on a residential parcel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voter, C. B.; Steven, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    The introduction impervious surfaces in urban areas is a key driver of hydrologic change. It is now well understood that the amount of "effective" impervious area directly connected to the storm sewer network is a better indicator of hydrologic behavior than the total amount of impervious area. Most studies in urban hydrology have focused on the relationship between impervious connectivity and stormwater runoff or other surface water flows, with the result that the effect on subsurface flow is not as well understood. In the field, we observe differences in soil moisture availability that are dependent on proximity to impervious features and significant from a root water uptake perspective, which indicates that parcel-scale subsurface and plant water fluxes may also be sensitive to fine-scaled heterogeneity in impervious surface arrangement and connectivity. We use ParFlow with CLM, a watershed model with fully integrated variably-saturated subsurface flow, overland flow, and land-surface processes, to explore the extent to which soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and deep drainage vary under various impervious surface arrangement and soil condition scenarios, as well as under a range of precipitation regimes. We investigate the effect of several impervious surface and soil characteristics, including general lot layout, downspout disconnect, and direction of driveway/sidewalk slope, and soil compaction. We show that that some impervious connectivity schemes transfer more water from impervious areas to pervious ones and promote localized recharge by developing well-defined, fast-moving wetting fronts that are able to penetrate the root zone. Enhanced infiltration is translated more directly to recharge in normal to wet years but partitioned more often to transpiration in dry years, leading to a nonlinear relationship among precipitation, runoff and recharge.

  13. Nucleus of the solitary tract in the C57BL/6J mouse: Subnuclear parcellation, chorda tympani nerve projections, and brainstem connections

    PubMed Central

    Ganchrow, Donald; Ganchrow, Judith R; Cicchini, Vanessa; Bartel, Dianna L; Kaufman, Daniel; Girard, David; Whitehead, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) processes gustatory and related somatosensory information rostrally and general viscerosensory information caudally. To compare its connections with those of other rodents, this study in the C57BL/6J mouse provides a subnuclear cytoarchitectonic parcellation (Nissl stain) of the NST into rostral, intermediate, and caudal divisions. Subnuclei are further characterized by NADPH staining and P2X2 immunoreactivity (IR). Cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) labeling revealed those NST subnuclei receiving chorda tympani nerve (CT) afferents, those connecting with the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and reticular formation (RF), and those interconnecting NST subnuclei. CT terminals are densest in the rostral central (RC) and medial (M) subnuclei; less dense in the rostral lateral (RL) subnucleus; and sparse in the ventral (V), ventral lateral (VL), and central lateral (CL) subnuclei. CTb injection into the PBN retrogradely labels cells in the aforementioned subnuclei; RC and M providing the largest source of PBN projection neurons. Pontine efferent axons terminate mainly in V and rostral medial (RM) subnuclei. CTb injection into the medullary RF labels cells and axonal endings predominantly in V at rostral and intermediate NST levels. Small CTb injections within the NST label extensive projections from the rostral division to caudal subnuclei. Projections from the caudal division primarily interconnect subnuclei confined to the caudal division of the NST; they also connect with the area postrema. P2X2-IR identifies probable vagal nerve terminals in the central (Ce) subnucleus in the intermediate/caudal NST. Ce also shows intense NADPH staining and does not project to the PBN. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:1565–1596, 2014. PMID:24151133

  14. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  15. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  16. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters Tobacco Education and Training Ask ...

  17. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  18. Controversy on chloroplast origins.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, P J; Penny, D; Hendy, M D; Howe, C J; Beanland, T J; Larkum, A W

    1992-04-20

    Controversy exists over the origins of photosynthetic organelles in that contradictory trees arise from different sequence, biochemical and ultrastructural data sets. We propose a testable hypothesis which explains this inconsistency as a result of the differing GC contents of sequences. We report that current methods of tree reconstruction tend to group sequences with similar GC contents irrespective of whether the similar GC content is due to common ancestry or is independently acquired. Nuclear encoded sequences (high GC) give different trees from chloroplast encoded sequences (low GC). We find that current data is consistent with the hypothesis of multiple origins for photosynthetic organelles and single origins for each type of light harvesting complex. PMID:1568469

  19. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  20. Observations of NO y , CO, and SO2 and the origin of reactive nitrogen in the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehr, J. W.; Dickerson, R. R.; Hallock-Waters, K. A.; Doddridge, B. G.; Kirk, D.

    2000-02-01

    We have developed a technique to quantify better the relative significance of reactive nitrogen sources at a given site by measuring NOy, SO2, and CO. Measurements taken on Maryland's eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay indicate that, on average, a minimum of 20% of the NOy is coming from coal-fired point sources. Measurements in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, and near Arendtsville, Pennsylvania, indicate that these minimum fractions are 34% and 32%, respectively. The remainder is coming predominantly from mobile sources, though there are some NOy sources whose influence cannot be determined with this technique. If the emissions inventories are taken to be correct, half the emitted NOy has been lost (probably deposited as nitrate) by the time it reaches the site. Analysis of air parcel back trajectories reveals that the likely source of elevated SO2 levels, and therefore point source emissions of NOy, is the industrialized Midwest of the United States.

  1. Thick Photoresist Original Master:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Hirotaka; Sugihara, Okihiro; Kaino, Toshikuni; Ohe, Yuka; Okamoto, Naomichi; Hoshino, Masahito

    A simple and low-cost fabrication method of polymeric optical waveguides with large core sizes for plastic optical fibers is presented. The waveguides are fabricated by hot embossing with a rectangular ridge ultraviolet (UV)-cured epoxy resin stamper. The stamper is fabricated by replication of a rectangular groove mold that is made from silicone rubber replicated from a rectangular ridge original master made from thick photoresist (SU-8). A rectangular ridge shape of the original photoresist master of 1 mm size was realized by using a flattening process, which involves hot embossing before the exposure process and using a UV-cut filter during the exposure process.

  2. Tektites and their origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Questions concerning the tektite distribution are examined, taking into account the Australasian strewn field, the Ivory Coast strewn field, the Moldavite strewn field, the North American strewn field, the Libyan desert glass, the Aouelloul crater glass, and amerikanites. Attention is given to the shapes of tektites, the internal structure of tektites, the physical properties of tektite glass, the chemical composition of tektites, isotopes, fission tracks, cosmic ray tracks, and arguments in favor and against the terrestrial origin of tektites. It is concluded that tektites cannot be terrestrial in origin. They are probably volcanic ejects, of geologically recent epochs, from one or a number of lunar volcanoes.

  3. Megacity and Air Pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean: Istanbul Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Im, Ulas; Markakis, Kostas; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Kocak, Mustafa; Mangir, Nizamettin; Kubilay, Nilgun; Kanakidou, Maria

    2010-05-01

    Turkey, with a population of 75 million, is located at the confluence of Europe and Asia. Istanbul is at the hearth of Turkey's fast economic growth. The city has an annual growth of 3.7% and, according to a study conducted by OECD, is ranked 12th among 45 OECD metro-regions. Istanbul generates 27% of Turkey's Gross Domestic Product (GDP); 40% of tax revenues; and 38% of total industrial output (OECD, 2008). As a result, Istanbul is facing a variety of challenging environmental problems affecting more than 15 million people. Observations show that the number of days exceeding the 24-hour limit value of 50 μgm-3 reached 157 in 2008, with a significant increase from previous years. The city is also a hot spot of pollutant emissions for the surrounding Eastern Mediterranean area. As part of the CityZEN project, in order to quantify the contribution of this megacity as a source of air pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean, a climatological trajectory analysis using a regional climate model output (RegCM3) and a high resolution regional modeling study were performed using the Models-3 WRF meteorological and CMAQ air quality models. Trajectory approach was used to identify the effects of Istanbul emissions on other cities in regional scale. A 30-year (1961-1990) period RegCM3 simulations were used to get a meaningful evaluation. The trajectories were computed according to a method described by Pettersen (1956) as a forward trajectory approach in a 27-km grid resolution. An air parcel was released once every 6h and a total of 42,368 air parcels (trajectories) were released during these 30 years. Long-term meteorological observations in Istanbul show northeasterly and southwesterly prevailing winds over the city. According to these prevailing winds, the distributions of trajectories were mainly observed from the north and south directions of the city. In order to run an air quality model, anthropogenic emission inventory was compiled from a number of different sources

  4. Nozzle Extension for Safety Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbrun, H. N.; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    New nozzle-extension design overcomes problems and incorporates original commercial nozzle, retaining intrinsic safety features. Components include extension tube, length of which made to suit application; adaptor fitting, and nozzle adaptor repinned to maintain original safety features. Design moves conical airstream to end of extension to blow machine chips away from operator. Nozzle-extension modification allows safe and efficient operation of machine tools while maintaining integrity of orginial safety-air-gun design.

  5. Radiation Detection Field Test at the Federal Express (FedEx) Air Cargo Facility at Denver International Airport (DIA)

    SciTech Connect

    Weirup, D; Waters, A; Hall, H; Dougan, A; Trombino, D; Mattesich, G; Hull, E; Bahowick, S; Loshak, A; Gruidl, J

    2004-02-11

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) recently conducted a field-test of radiation detection and identification equipment at the air cargo facility of Federal Express (FedEx) located at Denver International Airport (DIA) over a period of two weeks. Comprehensive background measurements were performed and were analyzed, and a trial strategy for detection and identification of parcels displaying radioactivity was implemented to aid in future development of a comprehensive protection plan. The purpose of this project was threefold: {sm_bullet} Quantify background radiation environments at an air cargo facility. {sm_bullet} Quantify and identify ''nuisance'' alarms. {sm_bullet} Evaluate the performance of various isotope identifiers deployed in an operational environment (in this case, the operational environment included the biggest blizzard in over 90 years!).

  6. The Origin And Spread Of Airborne Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson-Begg, S. K.; Moffett, B. F.

    2009-12-01

    The presence of bacteria in clouds may affect their radiation and precipitation properties as some species are able to catalyse the freezing of water at high temperatures (-2C to -10C). Where cloud-borne bacteria originate and the distances they are able to travel in the air remains a mystery. In this study we have attempted to address these issues by comparing metagenomic DNA sequences from air samples with those from other environmental sources. Air samples were collected on 1 July 2009 from a hill top at Thursley Nature Reserve in Surrey, United Kingdom, a rural site, 31 miles from the nearest stretch of coastline, and on 6 July 2009 from the top of a six storey building in Stratford on the East end of London, 38 miles from the nearest coastal area. Samples were collected using the Karcher DS5500 vacuum into a liquid filled collection vessel at an air flow rate of 3.3 m3 min-1 over a 4 hour period. Samples were then concentrated and the bacterial content was investigated by PCR, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. During the collection period on 1 July the Royston Weather Station in the South East of England recorded wind speed of 1.9 miles/hour in an Easterly direction, with no cloud cover, relative humidity of 74% and atmospheric pressure of 1021.6 mB. On 6 July wind speed was 9.8 miles/hour in a South Westerly direction, there was light cloud cover, relative humidity was 73.8% and atmospheric pressure was 1002.8 mB. Twenty cloned 16S PCR products from each air sample were sequenced. The species identification of each clone is shown in Table 1. The diversity of bacteria found at both sites was similar, with Stenotrophomona and Pedobacteria species dominating both samples. When the DNA sequences were blasted against the environmental samples database, all sequences were found to display greatest homology to metagenomic DNA from marine sources. This may suggest that the most numerous bacteria in air samples originate in the oceans. Taking account of the

  7. 8. Credit USAF, ca. 1945. Original housed in the Muroc ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Credit USAF, ca. 1945. Original housed in the Muroc Flight Test Base, Unit History, 1 September 1942 - 30 June 1945. Alfred F. Simpson Historical Research Agency. United States Air Force. Maxwell AFB, Alabama. View of concrete base for jet engine rotor balancing machine. Location where photograph was taken not determined, but presumed to be in shops of Building 4505 which had a sizeable machine shop. - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Hangar, End of North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. 9. Credit USAF, ca. 1945. Original housed in the Muroc ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Credit USAF, ca. 1945. Original housed in the Muroc Flight Test Base, Unit History, 1 September 1942 - 30 June 1945. Alfred F. Simpson Historical Research Agency. United States Air Force. Maxwell AFB, Alabama. View of concrete base and brackets of jet engine rotor balancing machine. Location where photograph was taken not determined, but presumed to be in shops of Building 4505. - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Hangar, End of North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. Credit USAF, ca. 1943. Original housed in the Muroc Flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit USAF, ca. 1943. Original housed in the Muroc Flight Test Base, Unit History, 1 September 1942 - 30 June 1945. Alfred F. Simpson Historical Research Agency. United States Air Force. Maxwell AFB, Alabama. Historic view looking north across southwest end of swimming pool as army personnel work on finishing the pool bottom. View looks towards Mess Hall (T-10) on Second Street - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Swimming Pool, Second Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. Credit USAF. Original housed in the Muroc Flight Test Base, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit USAF. Original housed in the Muroc Flight Test Base, Unit History, 1 September 1942 - 30 June 1945. Alfred F. Simpson Historical Research Agency. United States Air Force. Maxwell AFB, Alabama. View captioned as "7 Sept 1945, BH-5 Base Ordinance Motor Repair Shop" with gas station and gasoline pump. View looks roughly northwest - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Motor Repair Shop T-16, Third & C Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. Credit USAF, 7 September 1945. Original housed in the Muroc ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit USAF, 7 September 1945. Original housed in the Muroc Flight Test Base, Unit History, 1 September 1942 - 30 June 1945. Alfred F. Simpson Historical Research Agency. United States Air Force. Maxwell AFB, Alabama. View of the mess hall, looking to the north. Sign over door reads "MFTB Muroc Flight Test Base Base Mess." - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Base Mess Hall T-27, Third Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. 4. Credit USAF, ca. 1945. Original housed in the Muroc ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Credit USAF, ca. 1945. Original housed in the Muroc Flight Test Base, Unit History, 1 September 1942 - 30 June 1945. Alfred F. Simpson Historical Research Agency. United States Air Force. Maxwell AFB, Alabama. Photographic copy of photograph captioned "Hangar No. 2 Hydraulics Room." Location within Building 4402 not determined. - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Hangar No. 2, First & A Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. The Origin of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, D.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an outline of lectures given on this topic to British secondary students. Man's various ideas about the origin of life are included in three categories: those that consider life to have been created by a Divine Being; those that consider life to have developed from non-living matter; and those that consider life to be eternal. (MLH)

  14. The Origins of Mass

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Higgs boson was discovered in July of 2012 and is generally understood to be the origin of mass. While those statements are true, they are incomplete. It turns out that the Higgs boson is responsible for only about 2% of the mass of ordinary matter. In this dramatic new video, Dr. Don Lincoln of Fermilab tells us the rest of the story.

  15. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  16. Originality and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Shaun

    This paper discusses the creative process of one author, a professional author/illustrator of picture books. The paper muses about the meaning of creativity and originality and states inspiration has to do with careful research and looking for a challenge. Creativity is about testing one proposition against another and seeing how things combine…

  17. The origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClendon, John H.

    1999-07-01

    Microfossil finds have been firmly established at about 3.5 Ga (giga annee=10 9 years), but no rocks older than about 4.0 Ga have been demonstrated, leaving the history of the first 0.6 Ga missing. This gap has been filled by models of the solar system. The origin of the ocean, atmosphere, and much crustal material apparently lies in a heavy rain of comets, subsequent to the catastrophic Moon-forming event. The earliest microfossils are those of the Apex chert in Australia, about 3.5 Ga old. `Prebiotic' simulations of possible biochemistry have made some progress in recent years, but many obstacles remain, and there is no agreement as to the course of development. The `ribose nucleic acid (RNA) World', aboriginal `clay genes', and catalysis on iron-sulfide precipitates are not ruled out. The search for the `last common ancestor' has reached a point between the Bacteria and the Archaea. It is possible that this organism may have been a thermophile, similar to many modern hot spring organisms. But it is likely to have been an autotroph, and a late development after the true origin of life. Even more speculative are suggestions about the origins of metabolic sequences, in particular the origin of the genetic code. Since all modern organisms share this code (and many other things), there had to be a long history of development during the blank period of Earth history.

  18. The Origins of Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-07-30

    The Higgs boson was discovered in July of 2012 and is generally understood to be the origin of mass. While those statements are true, they are incomplete. It turns out that the Higgs boson is responsible for only about 2% of the mass of ordinary matter. In this dramatic new video, Dr. Don Lincoln of Fermilab tells us the rest of the story.

  19. Origins of Coordinate Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, Frederick G.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the origins of post-coordinate searching and emphasizes that the focal point should be on the searcher, not on the item being indexed. Highlights include the history of the term information retrieval; edge notched punch cards; the "peek-a-boo" system; the Uniterm system; and using computers to search for information. (LRW)

  20. The Origin of Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Sheng Ming

    2012-10-01

    In the natural world, people have discovered four kinds of forces: electromagnetic force, gravitation, weak force, and strong force. Although the gravitation has been discovered more than three hundred years, its mechanism of origin is unclear until today. While investigating the origin of gravitation, I do some experiments discover the moving photons produce gravitation. This discovery shows the origin of gravitation. Meanwhile I do some experiments discover the light interference fringes are produced by the gravitation: my discovery demonstrate light is a particle, but is not a wave-particle duality. Furthermore, applications of this discovery to other moving particles show a similar effect. In a word: the micro particle moving produce gravitation and electromagnetic force. Then I do quantity experiment get a general formula: Reveal the essence of gravitational mass and the essence of electric charge; reveal the origin of gravitation and the essence of matter wave. Along this way, I unify the gravitation and electromagnetic force. Namely I find a natural law that from atomic world to star world play in moving track. See website: https://www.lap-publishing.com/catalog/details/store/gb/book/978-3-8473-2658-8/mechanism-of-interaction-in-moving-matter

  1. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of MacDill Field in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of MacDill Field in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1952 architectural drawings by Strategic Air Command, MacDill Air Force Base) BASE LAYOUT, 1952 - MacDill Air Force Base, Bounded by City of Tampa North, Tampa Bay South, Old Tampa Bay West, & Hillsborough Bay East, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  2. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  3. 14 CFR Sec. 19-7 - Passenger origin-destination survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-7 Passenger origin-destination survey. (a... Collecting and Reporting Passenger Origin-Destination Survey Statistics (Appendix A to this section), and in Passenger Origin-Destination Directives issued by the Department's Bureau of Transportation Statistics...

  4. 10. Credit USAF, 1945. Original housed in the Muroc Flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Credit USAF, 1945. Original housed in the Muroc Flight Test Base, Unit History, 1 September 1942 30 June 1945. Alfred F. Simpson Historical Research Agency. United States Air Force. Maxwell AFB, Alabama. View of jet engine rotor balancing machine with engine rotor in place for balancing operations. Original caption reads "Balancing bucket wheel of jet engine, Muroc Flight Test Base, Oct. 1945"; personnel not identified. Location where photograph was taken not determined, but presumed to be in shops of Building 4505. - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Hangar, End of North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. Modeling upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric water vapor anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Dessler, A. E.; Wang, T.

    2013-04-01

    The domain-filling, forward trajectory calculation model developed by Schoeberl and Dessler (2011) is used to further investigate processes that produce upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric water vapor anomalies. We examine the pathways parcels take from the base of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) to the lower stratosphere. Most parcels found in the lower stratosphere arise from East Asia, the Tropical West Pacific (TWP) and the Central/South America. The belt of TTL parcel origins is very wide compared to the final dehydration zones near the top of the TTL. This is due to the convergence of rising air as a result of the stronger diabatic heating near the tropopause relative to levels above and below. The observed water vapor anomalies - both wet and dry - correspond to regions where parcels have minimal displacement from their initialization. These minimum displacement regions include the winter TWP and the Asian and American monsoons. To better understand the stratospheric water vapor concentration we introduce the water vapor spectrum and investigate the source of the wettest and driest components of the spectrum. We find that the driest air parcels that originate below the TWP, moving upward to dehydrate in the TWP cold upper troposphere. The wettest air parcels originate at the edges of the TWP as well as the summer American and Asian monsoons. The wet air parcels are important since they skew the mean stratospheric water vapor distribution toward higher values. Both TWP cold temperatures that produce dry parcels as well as extra-TWP processes that control the wet parcels determine stratospheric water vapor.

  6. Modeling upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric water vapor anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Dessler, A. E.; Wang, T.

    2013-08-01

    The domain-filling, forward trajectory calculation model developed by Schoeberl and Dessler (2011) is used to further investigate processes that produce upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric water vapor anomalies. We examine the pathways parcels take from the base of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) to the lower stratosphere. Most parcels found in the lower stratosphere arise from East Asia, the Tropical West Pacific (TWP) and Central/South America. The belt of TTL parcel origins is very wide compared to the final dehydration zones near the top of the TTL. This is due to the convergence of rising air due to the stronger diabatic heating near the tropopause relative to levels above and below. The observed water vapor anomalies - both wet and dry - correspond to regions where parcels have minimal displacement from their initialization. These minimum displacement regions include the winter TWP and the Asian and American monsoons. To better understand the stratospheric water vapor concentration we introduce the water vapor spectrum and investigate the source of the wettest and driest components of the spectrum. We find that the driest air parcels originate below the TWP, moving upward to dehydrate in the TWP cold upper troposphere. The wettest air parcels originate at the edges of the TWP as well as in the summer American and Asian monsoons. The wet air parcels are important since they skew the mean stratospheric water vapor distribution toward higher values. Both TWP cold temperatures that produce dry parcels as well as extra-TWP processes that control the wet parcels determine stratospheric water vapor.

  7. Fraction and composition of NOy transported in air masses lofted from the North American continental boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Holloway, J. S.; Neuman, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.; Williams, J.; Stroud, C. A.; Frost, G. J.; Trainer, M.; Hübler, G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Flocke, F.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2004-05-01

    Five field studies have included research aircraft flights over the continental United States and the western North Atlantic Ocean from 1996 through 2000 in spring, summer, and fall seasons. The major source of NOx in this region is fossil fuel combustion, which is localized within the continental boundary layer (CBL). We use CO as a tracer of these anthropogenic emissions to estimate the fraction of the emitted NOx that is exported to the free troposphere (FT), either as NOx itself or as its oxidation products. This export was identified as plumes enhanced in CO above an estimated background by at least 30 ppbv, which account for 20-31% of the air parcels sampled in the FT during the five field studies. These plumes were encountered throughout the FT up to the 8 km ceiling of the aircraft but were primarily located just above the CBL with average altitudes of 3.0-4.1 km above ground level. In the summer over the continent, only 20 ± 5% of the originally emitted nitrogen oxides was transported in those plumes. This fraction is in reasonable accord with model results, but the models include only deep convection and not the shallow CBL venting mechanisms responsible for the observed plumes. During the two field studies in the early fall and in the spring over the western North Atlantic, we find that 9 ± 4% of the NOy was transported, although [2004] suggest that this is an underestimate and that 15 ± 11% is more accurate. Both of these numbers indicate that model results in the literature overestimate the amount of NOy transported from the CBL to the FT. In these five field studies, HNO3 generally accounted for one-half to two-thirds of the NOy, which is in contrast to the dominance by NOx and organic nitrates suggested by models. Over the North Atlantic, this difference is likely due to further photochemical processing of the NOy species within the FT and over the continent due to the different transport mechanism considered in the models.

  8. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  9. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  10. Air traffic coverage

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.L.

    1988-09-16

    The Federal Aviation Administration plans to consolidate several hundred air traffic control centers and TRACONs into area control facilities while maintaining air traffic coverage. This paper defines air traffic coverage, a performance measure of the air traffic control system. Air traffic coverage measures performance without controversy regarding delay and collision probabilities and costs. Coverage measures help evaluate alternative facility architectures and help schedule consolidation. Coverage measures also help evaluate protocols for handling one facility's air traffic to another facility in case of facility failure. Coverage measures help evaluate radar, communications and other air traffic control systems and procedures. 4 refs., 2 figs.,

  11. The origin of the 1883 Krakatau tsunamis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Three hypotheses proposed to explain possible causes of the Aug. 27, 1883 Krakatau tsunamis were analyzed: (1) large-scale collapse of the northern part of Krakatau island (Verbeek, 1884), (2) submarine explosion (Yokoyama, 1981), and (3) emplacement of pyroclastic flows (Latter, 1981). A study of timings of the air and sea waves between Krakatau and Batavia, showing that no precise sea wave travel times can be obtained, and a study of the tide and pressure gage records made on August 27, indicating that the air and sea waves were propagated from the focus of eruption on Krakatau island, suggest that neither hypothesis 2 or 3 are sufficiently substantiated. In addition, the event that caused the major air and sea wave was preceded (by 40 min) by a similar, smaller event which generated the second largest tsunami and an air wave. It is concluded that the most likely mechanism for the eruption is a Mt. St. Helens scenario, close to the hypothesis of Verbeek, in which collapse of part of the original volcanic edifice propagated a major explosion.

  12. Air Safety Spinoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Weight saving-even a matter of a few pounds-is an important consideration in airplane design and . construction. Boeing saved 200 pounds simply by substituting a new type of compressed gas cylinder on their 747 commercial airliners. For quickly evacuating passengers in the event of a ground emergency the 747 escape chutes allow ' passengers to slide to safety from the two-story height of the cabin deck. The chutes pop out of exitways and are automatically inflated in seconds by compressed air stored in pressure vessels. Boeing's weight saving resulted from a recent changeover to a new type of pressure vessel built by Structural Composites Industries Inc. of Azusa, Cal. The company employs technology originally developed for rocket motor casings; the cylinders are constructed by winding fibers around an aluminum liner. This technique offers high strength for very low weight-in this case 60 percent less than the pressure vessels earlier used on the 747. Another contribution to improved air safety is an underwater locator device. Called the "Pinger," it uses sonar techniques to locate aircraft crashed in water-or, more specifically, to recover the flight recorder aboard the airplane. Its recovery provides clues as to what caused the accident and suggests measures to prevent similar future occurrences. Until recently, there was no way to recover flight recorders aboard aircraft lost in water crashes. The Pinger, now serving 95 percent of the airline industry, provides an answer. Key element of the Pinger system is a small, battery-powered transmitter, or homing beacon, included as part of the recorder package. For as long as 30 days, the transmitter sends out an acoustic signal from water depths up to 20,000 feet. The other element of the system is a receiver, used by search crews to home in on the transmitter's signal. Originating as a U.S. Navy project, this device was refined and further developed by NASA's Langley Research Center to retrieve submerged nose cones

  13. 9. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of the Ralph M. Parsons Company, Los Angeles, California). Photography by the Ralph M. Parsons Co. circa 1959. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION OF A-FRAME ATLAS GANTRY AT POINT ARGUELLO LAUNCH COMPLEX 1, PAD 1 (SLC-3W) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. Footprint Reduction Process: Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technologies to Identify Non-Contaminated Land Parcels on the Oak Ridge Reservation National Priorities List Site

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, P.A.; Kendall, D.T.; King, A.L.; Storms, R.A.

    1998-12-09

    In 1989, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry evaluated the entire 35,000-acre U. S: Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR, located in Oak Ridge, TN) and placed it on the National Priorities List (NPL), making the ORR subject to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulations. Although much of the ORR has not been impacted by previous federal activities, without investigation it is difficult to discern which parcels of land are free of surface contamination. In 1996, the DOE Oak Ridge Environmental Management Program (EM) funded the Footprint Reduction Project to: 1) develop a process to study the large areas of the ORR that are believed to be free of surface contamination and 2) initiate the delisting of the "clean" areas from the NPL. Although this project's goals do not include the transfer of federal property to non-federal entities, the process development team aimed to provide a final product with multiple uses. Therefore, the process was developed to meet the requirements of NPL delisting and the transfer of non- contaminated federal lands to future land users. Section 120 (h) of the CERCLA law identifies the requirements for the transfer of federal property that is currently part of an NPL site. Reviews of historical information (including aerial photography), field inspections, and the recorded chain of title documents for the property are required for the delisting of property prior to transfer from the federal government. Despite the widespread availability of remote sensing and other digital geographic data and geographic information systems (GIS) for the analysis of such data, historical aerial photography is the only geographic data source required for review under the CERCLA 120 (h) process. However, since the ORR Environmental Management Program had an established Remote Sensing Program, the Footprint Reduction Project included the development and application of a methodology

  15. High ice water content at low radar reflectivity near deep convection - Part 2: Evaluation of microphysical pathways in updraft parcel simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, A. S.; Fridlind, A. M.; Grandin, A.; Dezitter, F.; Weber, M.; Strapp, J. W.; Korolev, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    The aeronautics industry has established that a threat to aircraft is posed by atmospheric conditions of substantial ice water content (IWC) where equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) does not exceed 20-30 dBZ and supercooled water is not present; these conditions are encountered almost exclusively in the vicinity of deep convection. Part 1 (Fridlind et al., 2015) of this two-part study presents in situ measurements of such conditions sampled by Airbus in three tropical regions, commonly near 11 km and -43 °C, and concludes that the measured ice particle size distributions are broadly consistent with past literature with profiling radar measurements of Ze and mean Doppler velocity obtained within monsoonal deep convection in one of the regions sampled. In all three regions, the Airbus measurements generally indicate variable IWC that often exceeds 2 g m-3 with relatively uniform mass median area-equivalent diameter (MMDeq) of 200-300 μm. Here we use a parcel model with size-resolved microphysics to investigate microphysical pathways that could lead to such conditions. Our simulations indicate that homogeneous freezing of water drops produces a much smaller ice MMDeq than observed, and occurs only in the absence of hydrometeor gravitational collection for the conditions considered. Development of a mass mode of ice aloft that overlaps with the measurements requires a substantial source of small ice particles at temperatures of about -10 °C or warmer, which subsequently grow from water vapor. One conceivable source in our simulation framework is Hallett-Mossop ice production; another is abundant concentrations of heterogeneous ice freezing nuclei acting together with copious shattering of water drops upon freezing. Regardless of the production mechanism, the dominant mass modal diameter of vapor-grown ice is reduced as the ice-multiplication source strength increases and as competition for water vapor increases. Both mass and modal diameter are reduced by

  16. High ice water content at low radar reflectivity near deep convection - Part 2: Evaluation of microphysical pathways in updraft parcel simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, A. S.; Fridlind, A. M.; Grandin, A.; Dezitter, F.; Weber, M.; Strapp, J. W.; Korolev, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    The aeronautics industry has established that a threat to aircraft is posed by atmospheric conditions of substantial ice water content (IWC) where equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) does not exceed 20-30 dBZ and supercooled water is not present, encountered almost exclusively in the vicinity of deep convection. Part 1 of this two-part study presents in situ measurements of such conditions sampled by Airbus in three tropical regions, commonly near 11 km and -43 °C, and concludes that the measured ice particle size distributions are broadly consistent with past literature and with profiling radar measurements of Ze and mean Doppler velocity obtained within monsoonal deep convection in one of the regions sampled. In all three regions the Airbus measurements generally indicate variable IWC that often exceeds 2 g m-3 with relatively uniform mass median area-equivalent diameter (MMDeq) of 200-300 μm. Here we use a parcel model with size-resolved microphysics to investigate microphysical pathways that could lead to such conditions. Our simulations indicate that homogeneous freezing of water drops produces a much smaller ice MMDeq than observed, and occurs only in the absence of hydrometeor gravitational collection for the conditions considered. Development of a mass mode of ice aloft that overlaps with the measurements requires a substantial source of small ice particles at temperatures of about -10 °C or warmer, which subsequently grow from water vapor. One conceivable source in our simulation framework is Hallett-Mossop ice production; another is abundant concentrations of heterogeneous ice freezing nuclei acting together with copious shattering of water drops upon freezing. Regardless of production mechanism, the dominant mass modal diameter of vapor-grown ice is reduced as the ice multiplication source strength increases and as competition for water vapor increases. Both mass and modal diameter are reduced by entrainment and by increasing aerosol concentrations

  17. Not one extrastriate body area: Using anatomical landmarks, hMT+, and visual field maps to parcellate limb-selective activations in human lateral occipitotemporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Kevin S.; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2011-01-01

    alone is an insufficient organization principle for defining brain areas. Instead, multiple properties are necessary in order to parcellate and understand the functional organization of high-level visual cortex. PMID:21439386

  18. High Ice Water Content at Low Radar Reflectivity near Deep Convection: Part II. Evaluation of Microphysical Pathways in Updraft Parcel Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, A. S.; Fridlind, A. M.; Grandin, A.; Dezitter, F.; Weber, M.; Strapp, J. W.; Korolev, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The aeronautics industry has established that a threat to aircraft is posed by atmospheric conditions of substantial ice water content (IWC) where equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) does not exceed 20-30 dBZ and supercooled water is not present; these conditions are encountered almost exclusively in the vicinity of deep convection. Part 1 (Fridlind et al., 2015) of this two-part study presents in situ measurements of such conditions sampled by Airbus in three tropical regions, commonly near 11 km and -43 C, and concludes that the measured ice particle size distributions are broadly consistent with past literature with profiling radar measurements of Z(sub e) and mean Doppler velocity obtained within monsoonal deep convection in one of the regions sampled. In all three regions, the Airbus measurements generally indicate variable IWC that often exceeds 2 gm (exp -3) with relatively uniform mass median area-equivalent diameter (MMD(sub eq) of 200-300 micrometers. Here we use a parcel model with size-resolved microphysics to investigate microphysical pathways that could lead to such conditions. Our simulations indicate that homogeneous freezing of water drops produces a much smaller ice MMD(sub eq) than observed, and occurs only in the absence of hydrometeor gravitational collection for the conditions considered. Development of a mass mode of ice aloft that overlaps with the measurements requires a substantial source of small ice particles at temperatures of about -10 C or warmer, which subsequently grow from water vapor. One conceivable source in our simulation framework is Hallett-Mossop ice production; another is abundant concentrations of heterogeneous ice freezing nuclei acting together with copious shattering of water drops upon freezing. Regardless of the production mechanism, the dominant mass modal diameter of vapor-grown ice is reduced as the ice-multiplication source strength increases and as competition for water vapor increases. Both mass and modal

  19. Assessing land-use history for reporting on cropland dynamics - A case study using the Land-Parcel Identification System in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Jesko; González, Ainhoa; Jones, Michael; O'Brien, Phillip; Stout, Jane C.; Green, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    In developed countries, cropland and grassland conversions and management can be a major factor in Land Use and Land Use Change (LULUC) related Greenhouse Gas (GHG) dynamics. Depending on land use, management and factors such as soil properties land can either act as source or sink for GHGs. Currently many countries depend on national statistics combined with socio-economic modelling to assess current land use as well as inter-annual changes. This potentially introduces a bias as it neither provides information on direct land- use change trajectories nor spatially explicit information to assess the environmental context. In order to improve reporting countries are shifting towards high resolution spatial datasets. In this case study, we used the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), a pan-European geographical database developed to assist farmers and authorities with agricultural subsidies, to analyse cropland dynamics in Ireland. The database offer high spatial resolution and is updated annually. Generally Ireland is considered grassland dominated with 90 % of its agricultural area under permanent grassland, and only a small area dedicated to cropland. However an in-depth analysis of the LPIS for the years 2000 to 2012 showed strong underlying dynamics. While the annual area reported as cropland remained relatively constant at 3752.3 ± 542.3 km2, the area of permanent cropland was only 1251.9 km2. Reversely, the area that was reported as cropland for at least one year during the timeframe was 7373.4 km2, revealing a significantly higher area with cropland history than annual statistics would suggest. Furthermore, the analysis showed that one quarter of the land converting from or to cropland will return to the previous land use within a year. To demonstrate potential policy impact, we assessed cropland/grassland dynamics from the 2008 to 2012 commitment period using (a) annual statistics, and (b) data including land use history derived from LPIS. Under

  20. Bioenergetics and Life's Origins

    PubMed Central

    Deamer, David; Weber, Arthur L.

    2010-01-01

    Bioenergetics is central to our understanding of living systems, yet has attracted relatively little attention in origins of life research. This article focuses on energy resources available to drive primitive metabolism and the synthesis of polymers that could be incorporated into molecular systems having properties associated with the living state. The compartmented systems are referred to as protocells, each different from all the rest and representing a kind of natural experiment. The origin of life was marked when a rare few protocells happened to have the ability to capture energy from the environment to initiate catalyzed heterotrophic growth directed by heritable genetic information in the polymers. This article examines potential sources of energy available to protocells, and mechanisms by which the energy could be used to drive polymer synthesis. PMID:20182625

  1. Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Ashwini Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, microbiology and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle is as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of the universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the earth and elsewhere in the universe, the issue, however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life-like abiogenesis, RNA world, iron-sulphur world and panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  2. Endosymbionts and mitochondrial origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility is put forth that the mitochondrion did not originate from an endosymbiosis 1-2 billion years ago involving an aerobic bacterium. Rather, it arose by endosymbiosis in a much earlier anaerobic period and was initially a photosynthetic organelle analogous to the modern chloroplast. This suggestion arises from a reconsideration of the nature of endosymbiosis. It explains the remarkable diversity in mitochondrial information storage and processing systems.

  3. Origins of magnetospheric plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.E. )

    1991-01-01

    A review is given of recent (1987-1990) progress in understanding of the origins of plasmas in the earth's magnetosphere. In counterpoint to the early supposition that geomagnetic phenomena are produced by energetic plasmas of solar origin, 1987 saw the publication of a provocative argument that accelerated ionospheric plasma could supply all magnetospheric auroral and ring current particles. Significant new developments of existing data sets, as well as the establishment of entirely new data sets, have improved the ability to identify plasma source regions and to track plasma through the magnetospheric system of boundary layers and reservoirs. These developments suggest that the boundary between ionospheric and solar plasmas, once taken to lie at the plasmapause, actually lies much nearer to the magnetopause. Defining this boundary as the surface where solar wind and ionosphere contribute equally to the plasma, it is referred to herein as the 'geopause'. It is now well established that the infusion of ionospheric O(+) plays a major role in the storm-time distention of the magnetotail and inflation of the inner magnetosphere. After more than two decades of observation and debate, the question remains whether magnetosheric are protons of solar or terrestrial origin. 161 refs.

  4. Origin of tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, John A.

    1994-01-01

    The origin of tektites has been obscure because of the following dilemma. The application of physical principles to the data available on tektites points strongly to origin from one or more lunar volcanoes; but few glasses of tektite composition have hitherto been reported from the lunar samples. Instead, the lunar silicic glasses consist chiefly of a material very rich in K2O and poor in MgO. The ratio of K2O/MgO is higher in these glasses than in any tektites reported. The solution of the dilemma seems to come from the study of some recently discovered terrestrial deposits of tektite glass with high values of K2O/MgO at the Cretaceous Tertiary boundary. These glasses are found to be very vulnerable to crystallization into sandine or to alteration to smectite. These end products are known and are more abundant than any terrestrial deposits of tektite glass. It seems possible that, in fact, the moon produces tektite glass, mostly of the high K2O-low MgO type; but on Earth these deposits are destroyed. The much less abundant deposits with lower K and higher Mg are observed because they survive. Other objections to the lunar origin hypothesis appear to be answerable.

  5. Placing the pieces: Reconstructing the original property mosaic in a warrant and patent watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bain, D.J.; Brush, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research shows that land use history is an important determinant of current ecosystem function. In the United States, characterization of land use change following European settlement requires reconstruction of the original property mosaic. However, this task is difficult in unsystematically surveyed areas east of the Appalachian Mountains. The Gwynns Falls watershed (Baltimore, MD) was originally surveyed in the 1600-1700s under a system of warrants and patents (commonly known as 'metes and bounds'). A method for the reconstruction and mapping of warrant and patent properties is presented and used to map the original property mosaic in the Gwynns Falls watershed. Using the mapped mosaic, the persistence of properties and property lines in the current Gwynns Falls landscape is considered. The results of this research indicate that as in agricultural areas, the original property lines in the Gwynns Falls watershed are persistent. At the same time, the results suggest that the property mosaic in heavily urbanized/suburbanized areas is generally 'reset.' Further, trends in surveying technique, parcel size, and settlement patterns cause property line density and property shape complexity to increase in the less urbanized upper watershed. The persistence of original patterns may be damping expression of heterogeneity gradients in this urban landscape. This spatial pattern of complexity in the original mosaic is directly opposite of hypothesized patterns of landscape heterogeneity arising from urbanization. The technique reported here and the resulting observations are important for landscape pattern studies in areas settled under unsystematic survey systems, especially the heavily urbanized areas of the eastern United States. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  6. Air bubble bursting effect of lotus leaf.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingming; Zheng, Yongmei; Nie, Fu-Qiang; Zhai, Jin; Jiang, Lei

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, a phenomenon of air bubbles quickly bursting within several milliseconds on a "self-cleaning" lotus leaf was described. This observation prompted the synthesis of artificial surfaces similar to that of the lotus leaf. The artificial leaf surfaces, prepared by photolithography and wet etching, showed a similar air bubble bursting effect. Smooth and rough silicon surfaces with an ordered nanostructure or patterned microstructure were utilized to study the contribution of the micro/nano hierarchical structures to this phenomenon of air bubble bursting. Air bubbles were found to burst on some superhydrophobic surfaces with microstructure (within 220 ms). However, air bubbles burst much more rapidly (within 13 ms) on similar surfaces with micro/nanostructure. The height, width, and spacing of hierarchical structures could also affect air bubble bursting, and the effect of the height was more obvious. When the height of hierarchical structures was around the height found in natural lotus papillae, the width and spacing were significant for air bubble bursting. An original model was proposed to further evaluate the reason why the micro/nano hierarchical rough structures had an excellent air bubble bursting effect, and the validity of the model was theoretically demonstrated.

  7. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  8. Origin of earth's moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The major geochemical properties of the moon are briefly considered along with the significant facts of the moon's geologic history, and then the three current hypotheses regarding the moon's origin, namely, fission, capture, and binary accretion, are reviewed. The individual merits and improbabilities associated with each mechanism are taken into consideration. Special attention is given to the binary accretion model as the most promising one. In the variants of this model, of crucial importance is the nature of the more general hypothesis assumed for planetary formation from the solar nebula. The two main models differ considerably in the amount of chemical fractionation they allow to accompany planetary formation.

  9. Origin of Tektites.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Shute, B E

    1963-03-29

    A comet of the size recently postulated by H. C. Urey would leave a large crater. It is shown, from aerodynamic theory, from observations of distribution around terrestrial impact craters, and from experimental nuclear explosions, that the observed distribution of tektites cannot be the result of impact on the earth, whether cometary or meteoritic. It is further shown, from aerodynamic theory, from observation of a meteor shower, and from study of the breakup of artificial satellites, that the distribution of tektites can be accounted for as a result of fusion stripping of a satellite, as originally suggested by Suess. PMID:17757065

  10. The Origin of Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Siddharth; Goyal, Abha

    2007-01-01

    The original description of M-mode echocardiography in 1953, by Inge Edler (1911–2001) and his physicist friend Hellmuth Hertz, marked the beginning of a new diagnostic noninvasive technique. Edler used this technique primarily for the preoperative study of mitral stenosis and diagnosis of mitral regurgitation. His work was carried forward by cardiologists all over the world, who developed Doppler, 2-dimensional, contrast, and transesophageal echocardiography. These are now standard in cardiologic examinations. Edler also influenced neurologists and obstetricians at Lund University (Sweden) to use ultrasound in their fields. For his landmark discovery, Edler is recognized as the “Father of Echocardiography.” PMID:18172524

  11. Origin of Tektites.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Shute, B E

    1963-03-29

    A comet of the size recently postulated by H. C. Urey would leave a large crater. It is shown, from aerodynamic theory, from observations of distribution around terrestrial impact craters, and from experimental nuclear explosions, that the observed distribution of tektites cannot be the result of impact on the earth, whether cometary or meteoritic. It is further shown, from aerodynamic theory, from observation of a meteor shower, and from study of the breakup of artificial satellites, that the distribution of tektites can be accounted for as a result of fusion stripping of a satellite, as originally suggested by Suess.

  12. Combined effects of wind and solar irradiance on the spatial variation of midday air temperature over a mountainous terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Ock; Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Dae-Jun; Shim, Kyo Moon; Yun, Jin I.

    2015-08-01

    When the midday temperature distribution in a mountainous region was estimated using data from a nearby weather station, the correction of elevation difference based on temperature lapse caused a large error. An empirical approach reflecting the effects of solar irradiance and advection was suggested in order to increase the reliability of the results. The normalized slope irradiance, which was determined by normalizing the solar irradiance difference between a horizontal surface and a sloping surface from 1100 to 1500 LST on a clear day, and the deviation relationship between the horizontal surface and the sloping surface at the 1500 LST temperature on each day were presented as simple empirical formulas. In order to simulate the phenomenon that causes immigrant air parcels to push out or mix with the existing air parcels in order to decrease the solar radiation effects, an advection correction factor was added to exponentially reduce the solar radiation effect with an increase in wind speed. In order to validate this technique, we estimated the 1500 LST air temperatures on 177 clear days in 2012 and 2013 at 10 sites with different slope aspects in a mountainous catchment and compared these values to the actual measured data. The results showed that this technique greatly improved the error bias and the overestimation of the solar radiation effect in comparison with the existing methods. By applying this technique to the Korea Meteorological Administration's 5-km grid data, it was possible to determine the temperature distribution at a 30-m resolution over a mountainous rural area south of Jiri Mountain National Park, Korea.

  13. Credit USAF, ca. 1943. Original housed in the Photograph Files, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit USAF, ca. 1943. Original housed in the Photograph Files, AFFTC/HO, Edwards AFB, California. Historic view of finished swimming pool, with fence and lifeguard station. View looks west - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Swimming Pool, Second Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. 7. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Sections and details, both buildings. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 3. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Blast deflector fence plan. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 8. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1964 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1964 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior isometric with pump equipment, building no. 528. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 24. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1957 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1957 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Elevations and sectinos for fabric closure (gasket) for hangar doors. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 4. Northeast front and northwest side of original section and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Northeast front and northwest side of original section and addition. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 18. Photographic copy of photograph, 1970 (original photograph in STRATCOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of photograph, 1970 (original photograph in STRATCOM Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior view of two crew members operating the data display system in the battle staff compartment. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor plan, roof plan, and elevations, both buildings. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 23. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1985 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1985 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Elevation drawings of nose dock nos. 491, 492, and 493. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 4. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Blast deflector fence plan, elevations, and details. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 1. Northeast front and southeast side of original section. Addition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Northeast front and southeast side of original section. Addition to rear view to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 26. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1957 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1957 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor and ceiling plan, interior elevations, detail sections, dock nos. 491, 492, and 493. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. Photography of photograph (original print located at Engineering Management Building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photography of photograph (original print located at Engineering Management Building, Naval Shipyard, Long Beach). U.S. Naval Air Station San Pedro Photograph, May 7, 1945, Photograph #9374. NET PIER, FACING NORTHEAST - Roosevelt Base, Net Pier, Corner of Richardson Avenue & Idaho Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 1. Photographic copy of original engineering drawing for Test Stand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of original engineering drawing for Test Stand 'C.' California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'New Test Stand Plan -- Edwards Test Station' drawing no. E18/2-3, 18 January 1957. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand C, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. 21. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in possession of Army Corps of Engineers, Ft. Belvoir, Virginia) Photographer unknown. View of beginning preparation of reinforcing steel for egg of launch control center - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  8. 26. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in possession of Peter Kiewit Sons' Co., Omaha, Nebraska) Photographer unknown. View of egg of launch control center and elevator shaft, forms still in place - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  9. 23. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in possession of Peter Kiewit Sons' Co., Omaha, Nebraska) Photographer unknown. View of reinforcing steel for egg of launch control center - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  10. 22. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in possession of Army Corps of Engineers, Ft. Belvoir, Virginia) Photographer unknown. View of concrete forms for egg of launch control center - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  11. 25. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in possession of Peter Kiewit Sons' Co., Omaha, Nebraska) Photographer unknown. View of reinforcing steel and forms for egg of launch control center, showing vents - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  12. 29. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in possession of Peter Kiewit Sons' Co., Omaha, Nebraska) Photographer unknown. View of egg of launch control center and elevator shaft, forms removed - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  13. 30. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in possession of Peter Kiewit Sons' Co., Omaha, Nebraska) Photographer unknown. View of egg of launch control center and elevator shaft, vents installed - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  14. 27. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in possession of Peter Kiewit Sons' Co., Omaha, Nebraska) Photographer unknown. View of passage from elevator shaft to egg of launch control center - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  15. 24. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in possession of Peter Kiewit Sons' Co., Omaha, Nebraska) Photographer unknown. View of reinforcing steel and forms for egg of launch control center - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  16. 20. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in possession of Peter Kiewit Sons' Co., Omaha, Nebraska) Photographer unknown. View of bed preparation for concrete "egg" of launch control center - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  17. 31. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in possession of Army Corps of Engineers, Ft. Belvoir, Virginia) Photographer unknown. Aerial view of egg of launch control center, nearly buried - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  18. 10. Photocopy of photograph, 1945 (original print on file at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph, 1945 (original print on file at U.S. Army Intelligence Security Command, Fort Belvoir, Virginia). AIR VIEW OF ARLINGTON HALL STATION SHOWING EXTENT OF BOUNDARY LINES. VIEW TO NORTH. - Arlington Hall Station, 4000 Arlington Boulevard, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  19. 6. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED MAY 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED MAY 15, 1919, 7TH CAVALRY CANTONMENT POST EXCHANGE, WAR DEPARTMENT, CONSTRUCTION DIVISION, PLAN No. 357, COPY ON FILE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OFFICE, FORT BLISS - Fort Bliss, 7th Cavalry Buildings, U.S. Army Air Defence Artillery Center & Fort Bliss, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  20. 4. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED MAY 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED MAY 13, 1919, DETACHMENT BARRACK WITHOUT MESS, WAR DEPARTMENT, CONSTRUCTION DIVISION, PLAN # 353, COPY ON FILE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OFFICE, FORT BLISS - Fort Bliss, 7th Cavalry Buildings, U.S. Army Air Defence Artillery Center & Fort Bliss, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  1. 5. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED JUNE 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED JUNE 14, 1919, 7TH CAVALRY CANTONMENT MESS BUILDING, WAR DEPARTMENT, CONSTRUCTION DIVISION, PLAN No. 316A, COPY ON FILE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OFFICE, FORT BLISS - Fort Bliss, 7th Cavalry Buildings, U.S. Army Air Defence Artillery Center & Fort Bliss, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  2. 11. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL PHOTOGRAPH, DATED APRIL 29, 1926, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL PHOTOGRAPH, DATED APRIL 29, 1926, 7TH CAVALRY CANTONMENT MESS HALL, NATIONAL ARCHIVES PHOTOGRAPH, RECORD GROUP 92, GEOGRAPHIC FILE, 1922-1935, No. 600-1, FORT BLISS - Fort Bliss, 7th Cavalry Buildings, U.S. Army Air Defence Artillery Center & Fort Bliss, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  3. Credit WCT. Original 2'" x 2'" color negative is housed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Original 2-'" x 2-'" color negative is housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. View shows small autoclave demonstrated by JPL staff member Milton Clay (JPL negative no. JPL-10286AC, 27 January 1989). - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Liner Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. 40 CFR 52.824 - Original identification of plan section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Nonattainment plan provisions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 were submitted on April 18... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Original identification of plan section... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.824...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1426 - Original identification of plan section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... plan revision to meet the requirements of 40 CFR 58.20, dealing with statewide air quality monitoring... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Original identification of plan section... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nebraska §...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2565 - Original identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original identification of plan. 52.2565 Section 52.2565 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... submitting 45 Code of State Regulations (CSR) Series 29 “Rule Requiring the Submission of Emission...

  7. 19. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in possession of Peter Kiewit Sons' Co., Omaha, Nebraska) Photographer unknown. Road signs for Alpha Flight Launch Facility sites 8-11 and Bravo Flight Launch Facility sites 2 and 11 - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  8. 40 CFR 52.2087 - Original identification of plan section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comprehensive air quality monitoring plan, intended to meet requirements of 40 CFR part 58, was submitted by the... rate (LAER) requirements under Rhode Island's approved new source review plan. The amended sections are... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original identification of plan...

  9. 33. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in possession of Army Corps of Engineers, Ft. Belvoir, Virginia) Photographer unknown. Aerial view of launch control facility under construction, parking area and approach road completed, sewage lagoon at lower right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  10. 8. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1976 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1976 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor plan of entire building. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 7. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1976 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1976 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Elevations of entire building exterior. Includes elevation, plan and details of the addition's interior stairs. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 4. EAST FRONT. Original viewing windows on upper level have ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EAST FRONT. Original viewing windows on upper level have been filled in with concrete block. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ceramic soap dishes, ceramic towel rod, and triangular motif on ceramic features, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. 4. Photocopy of photograph, original negative in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph, original negative in the possession of John R. Morison, Peterborough, New Hampshire. Photographer unknown, 14 September 1888. INSIDE CAISSON PIER IV, 60 FEET BELOW WATER LINE, 25 POUNDS AIR PRESSURE - Sioux City Bridge, Spanning the Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  15. 7. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED 1918, HORIZONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED 1918, HORIZONAL SLIDING WINDOW DETAIL, WAR DEPARTMENT, MANUAL OF THE CONSTRUCTION DIVISION OF THE ARMY, WAR EMERGENCY CONSTRUCTION, SECTION C, ENGINEERING DIVISION, PLATE 5, CONSOLIDATED SUPPLY COMPANY PRINTERS, WASHINGTON - Fort Bliss, 7th Cavalry Buildings, U.S. Army Air Defence Artillery Center & Fort Bliss, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  16. Credit USAF, ca. 1945. Original housed in the Photograph Files, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit USAF, ca. 1945. Original housed in the Photograph Files, AFFTC/HO, Edwards AFB, California. Early view of the Control Tower (designated T-65, Building 4500) fitted out with radio antennae. Structure at base of tower was T42 (later Building 4503), Flight Operations - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Radio & Control Tower T-65, Northeast of A Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 7. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Elevations and roof plan. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Squadron Operations Building, At southwestern-most boundary of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1970 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1970 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor plan and section. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Shop, In west corner of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1968 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1968 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor plan and roof framing plan for addition. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Squadron Operations Building, At southwestern-most boundary of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Plan, elevations, sections, and details - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Water Supply Building, Southwest of West corner of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 4. Credit WCT. Original 2'" x 21" color negative is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Credit WCT. Original 2-'" x 2-1" color negative is housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. This view shows the control room in use, with JPL employees Ron Wright, Harold Anderson, and John Morrow presiding. (JPL negative no. JPL-10288A, 27 January 1989.) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Weigh & Control Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. 34. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1962, original print in possession of Army Corps of Engineers, Ft. Belvoir, Virginia) Photographer unknown. View of launch control facility under construction, security gate at left - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  3. The Origins of Options

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.; Richerson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one’s current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options. PMID:22514515

  4. Bad Air Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... children living near busy roadways—surrounded by particulate air pollution—are more likely to develop asthma and other ... found that genes may affect your response to air pollution. At least one gene seems to protect against ...

  5. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  6. Air stripping industrial wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, B.; Shearouse, D.

    1994-09-01

    Industrial wastewater can be quickly, efficiently and economically treated using air strippers. Air stripping removes a range of volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from water. And the performance of various types and sizes of tray-type air stripper for treating contaminated water now is highly predictable because of laboratory studies. Air stripping can be a fast, efficient and economical approach to treating industrial wastewater. However, since every industrial wastewater stream is unique, each must be evaluated to determine its constituents, its potentially adverse effects on treatability, and any pretreatment steps necessary to ensure desired results. The general principles of air stripping are simple. In an air stripper, the surfaces area of a film of contaminated water is maximized while air is directed across it. Contaminants at the air/water interface volatilize and are discharged to the atmosphere or to an off-gas treatment system.

  7. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  8. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  9. Nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters.

  10. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Airing It Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  12. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Building 253; 1920. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Dry dock 2 with six destroyers; 1922 - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 2, California Avenue, east side near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. 14. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) SECTIONS AND DETAILS-PIERS 2, 3, AND 4 - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  15. 13. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) ARMY SUPPLY BASE-PLAN OF CONSTRUCTION PLANT - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  16. 18. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) PLANS AND SECTIONS, MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT-PIERS 2, 3, AND 4 - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  17. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Dry dock 1 with sailing ship, 1899. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 1, California Avenue, east side near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of sawmill after earthquake of 1898. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. 2. Photocopy of original photograph (Original in collection of Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of original photograph (Original in collection of Historical Society of Montana) MAIN AND SIDE ELEVATIONS, SHOWING AWNINGS LOWERED OVER PORCH - W. C. Child Ranch, State Highway 279, Helena, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  20. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Coal sheds with coals; 1906. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Coal Sheds, Waterfront Avenue, northwest corner of Waterfront Avenue & Fourth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA