Science.gov

Sample records for air parcels reach

  1. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  2. Air parcel random walk and droplet spectra broadening in clouds.

    PubMed

    Turitsyn, K S

    2003-06-01

    We study the effect of turbulent flow on the droplet growth in a cloud during the condensation phase. Using the air parcel model, we describe analytically how the size distribution of droplets evolves at the different stages of parcel movement. We show that turbulent random walk superimposed on an accelerated ascent of the parcel makes the relative width of droplet distribution to grow initially as t(1/2) and then decay as t(-3/2).

  3. Evolution of chemically processed air parcels in the lower stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Schoeberl, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft, ground-based, and satellite measurements indicate large concentrations of ClO in the lower stratosphere in and near the polar vortex. The amount of local ozone depletion caused by these large ClO concentrations will depend on the relative rates of ozone loss and ClO recovery. ClO recovery occurs when NO(x), from HNO3 photolysis, reacts with ClO to form ClONO2. We show that air parcels with large amounts of ClO will experience a subsequent ozone depletion that depends on the solar zenith angle. When the solar zenith angle is large in the middle of winter, the recovery of the ClO concentration in the parcel is slow relative to ozone depletion. In the spring, when the solar zenith angle is smaller, the ClO recovery is much faster. After ClO recovery, the chlorine chemistry has not returned to normal. The ClO has been converted to ClONO2. ClO production from further encounters with PSCs will be limited by the heterogeneous reaction of ClONO2 with water. Large ozone depletions, of the type seen in the Antarctic, occur only if there is significant irreversible denitrification in the air parcel.

  4. Air parcel trajectory dispersion near the tropical tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, John W.; Jensen, Eric J.; Pfister, Leonhard; Bui, Thaopaul V.

    2016-04-01

    Dispersion of backward air parcel trajectories that are initially tightly grouped near the tropical tropopause is examined using three ensemble approaches: "RANWIND," in which different ensemble members use identical resolved wind fluctuations but different realizations of stochastic, multifractal simulations of unresolved winds; "PERTLOC," in which members use identical resolved wind fields but initial locations are perturbed 2° in latitude and longitude; and a multimodel ensemble ("MULTIMODEL") that uses identical initial conditions but different resolved wind fields and/or trajectory formulations. Comparisons among the approaches distinguish, to some degree, physical dispersion from that due to data uncertainty and the impacts of unresolved wind fluctuations from those of resolved variability. Dispersion rates are robust properties of trajectories near the tropical tropopause. Horizontal dispersion rates are typically ~3°/d, which is large enough to spread parcels throughout the tropics within typical tropical tropopause layer transport times (30-60 days) and underscores the importance of averaging large collections of trajectories to obtain reliable parcel source and pathway distributions. Vertical dispersion rates away from convection are ~2-3 hPa/d. Dispersion is primarily carried out by the resolved flow, and the RANWIND approach provides a plausible representation of actual trajectory dispersion rates, while PERTLOC provides a reasonable and inexpensive alternative to RANWIND. In contrast, dispersion from the MULTIMODEL calculations is important because it reflects systematic differences in resolved wind fields from different reanalysis data sets.

  5. In situ observations of dehydrated air parcels advected horizontally in the Tropical Tropopause Layer of the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasebe, F.; Fujiwara, M.; Nishi, N.; Shiotani, M.; Vömel, H.; Oltmans, S.; Takashima, H.; Saraspriya, S.; Komala, N.; Inai, Y.

    2007-02-01

    Water vapor observations by chilled-mirror hygrometers were conducted at Bandung, Indonesia (6.90° S, 107.60° E) and Tarawa, Kiribati (1.35° N, 172.91° E) in December 2003 to examine the efficiency of dehydration during horizontal advection in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Trajectory analyses based on bundles of isentropic trajectories suggest that the modification of air parcels' identity due to irreversible mixing by the branching-out and merging-in of nearby trajectories is found to be an important factor, in addition to the routes air parcels follow, for interpreting the water vapor concentrations observed by chilled-mirror frostpoint hygrometers in the TTL. Clear correspondence between the observed water vapor concentration and the estimated temperature history of air parcels is found showing that drier air parcels were exposed to lower temperatures than were more humid ones during advection. Although the number of observations is quite limited, the water content in the observed air parcels on many occasions was more than that expected from the minimum saturation mixing ratio during horizontal advection prior to sonde observations.

  6. Uncertainty and dispersion in air parcel trajectories near the tropical tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, John; Jensen, Eric; Pfister, Leonhard; Bui, Thoapaul

    2016-04-01

    The Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) is important as the gateway to the stratosphere for chemical constituents produced at the Earth's surface. As such, understanding the processes that transport air through the upper tropical troposphere is important for a number of current scientific issues such as the impact of stratospheric water vapor on the global radiative budget and the depletion of ozone by both anthropogenically- and naturally-produced halocarbons. Compared to the lower troposphere, transport in the TTL is relatively unaffected by turbulent motion. Consequently, Lagrangian particle models are thought to provide reasonable estimates of parcel pathways through the TTL. However, there are complications that make trajectory analyses difficult to interpret; uncertainty in the wind data used to drive these calculations and trajectory dispersion being among the most important. These issues are examined using ensembles of backward air parcel trajectories that are initially tightly grouped near the tropical tropopause using three approaches: A Monte Carlo ensemble, in which different members use identical resolved wind fluctuations but different realizations of stochastic, multi-fractal simulations of unresolved winds, perturbed initial location ensembles, in which members use identical resolved wind fields but initial locations are displaced 2° in latitude and longitude, and a multi-model ensemble that uses identical initial conditions but different resolved wind fields and/or trajectory formulations. Comparisons among the approaches distinguish, to some degree, physical dispersion from that due to data uncertainty and the impact of unresolved wind fluctuations from that of resolved variability.

  7. Reaching agreements on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, S.M.

    1992-08-01

    The phrases sick building syndrome and indoor air quality (IAQ) are in common use today because of a heightened public awareness of various environmental issues. IAQ complaints must be diplomatically resolved because employers and building owners and managers now face a potential impact on their bottom-lines. The office's IAQ was first questioned when 12 of the 47 employees reported complaints particular to the time they spent in the office building. Three employees were so severely affected, they developed respective cases of rhinitis, conjunctivitis and sinus infection. When the tenant presented this information to the building owner, he was told that there was not an IAQ problem within the building. This article summarizes an unfortunate, yet typical, aspect of IAQ problems. It also offers a more efficient method for evaluating and resolving all IAQ problems.

  8. Improving stable isotope-based reconstructions of Sierra Nevada paleotopography using insights from regional air parcel trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechler, A.; Galewsky, J.

    2012-12-01

    The geodynamic evolution of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of the western US remains subject to debate due to the lack of consensus on the Cenozoic paleoelevation history of the range. The majority of recent studies attempting to quantify the surface uplift history of the Sierra Nevada rely on stable isotope paleoaltimetry methods that often implicitly assume that atmospheric flow interactions with topography can be simply modeled as a Rayleigh distillation process in which air mass trajectories ascend and rainout heavy isotopologues of water (18O and D) across topographic barriers relatively unimpeded. Accordingly, stable isotope paleoaltimetry studies commonly target leeward side paleo-meteoric water proxies to constrain paleotopography of the windward barrier. We present a modern (1979 - 2010) air parcel trajectory analysis using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model that shows that the fundamental assumptions of stable isotope paleoaltimetry are often violated in the Sierra Nevada region. Trajectory analysis indicates that westerly air masses are frequently orographically blocked by and redirected around the higher elevations (> 2.5 km) of the Sierra Nevada. As a result, trajectories reaching the Sierran lee commonly travel around, rather than over, the highest range elevations. These blocking and redirection effects are particularly pronounced for leeward sites that are distal (> 150 km) from the Sierran crest but are also evident in trajectory patterns for both windward and proximal leeward locations in the northern Sierra Nevada. In addition, trajectory patterns indicate that much of the Sierran lee receives a non-negligible proportion of annual precipitation from summer storm systems sourced in the subtropical Pacific Ocean and Gulf of California that have little to no interaction with Sierran topography. This trajectory analysis highlights the complexity of orographic precipitation patterns and processes in the Sierra

  9. 76 FR 77856 - International Mail Price Change for Inbound Air Parcel Post

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... service bonus eligibility and submission of annual inflation information from the Consumer Price Index for... may qualify for percentage ``bonuses'' to their base rate based upon their provision of certain value... International Bureau publishes an annual notice establishing the postal administration's parcel rates for...

  10. The Use of Compensated Aerological No-Lift Balloons to Determine Relatively Long-Term Dry-Air Parcel Trajectories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terliuc, Benjamin; Asculai, Ephraim; Doron, Eli

    1983-10-01

    A method to compensate the loss of buoyancy due to gas leakage from aerological no-lift balloons is presented. The method is implemented by means of a double vessel device that supplies a constant liquid outflow at constant temperature. It is shown that the average buoyancy loss rate dependence on temperature is almost perfectly matched by the outflow rate dependence on temperature when soya-bean oil is used. The device is simple, inexpensive and can be easily manufactured using standard laboratory equipment.A simple and safe method to carry no-lift systems to prefixed levels is also presented. It is based on a single 30 g pilot balloon provided with a gas leakage nozzle, inflated with H2 to a calibrated initial free-lift. The balloon is totally emptied at the required level, and remains suspended from the no-lift system.The whole system can be easily prepared under field conditions to be used in long travel-time studies of dry-air parcel trajectories in the atmosphere.An example of the use of the improved method over complex terrain is presented. A no-lift system provided with a 1680 MHz radiosonde transmitter, was tracked by two RD-65 radio-theodolites, to investigate the effects of the topographic structure of the Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) area on the Mediterranean sea breeze summer regime. The system was tracked for at least one hour, following a trajectory with severe vertical variations. This increases our confidence in the ability to track much longer trajectories, if required.

  11. New particle-dependent parameterizations of heterogeneous freezing processes: sensitivity studies of convective clouds with an air parcel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, K.; Mitra, S. K.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the outcome of laboratory results, new particle-dependent parameterizations of heterogeneous freezing were derived and used to improve and extend a two-dimensional spectral microphysics scheme. They include (1) a particle-type-dependent parameterization of immersion freezing using the numbers of active sites per mass, (2) a particle-type and size-resolved parameterization of contact freezing, and (3) a particle-type-dependent description of deposition freezing. The modified microphysical scheme was embedded in an adiabatic air parcel model with entrainment. Sensitivity studies were performed to simulate convective situations and to investigate the impact of ice nuclei concentrations and types on ice formation. As a central diagnostic parameter, the ice water fraction (IWF) was selected, which is the relation of the ice water content to the total amount of water in the condensed form. The following parameters were varied: initial aerosol particle number size distributions, types of ice nucleating particles, final temperature, and the fractions of potential ice nucleating particles. Single and coupled freezing processes were investigated. The results show that immersion freezing seems to be the most efficient process. Contact freezing is constrained by the collision kernel between supercooled drops and potential ice nucleating particles. The importance of deposition freezing lies in secondary ice formation; i.e., small ice particles produced by deposition nucleation trigger the freezing of supercooled drops by collisions. Thus, a broader ice particle spectrum is generated than that by immersion and contact freezing. During coupled immersion-contact and contact-deposition freezing no competition was observed, and both processes contribute to cloud ice formation but do not impede each other. As already suggested in the literature, mineral dust particles seem to be the most important ice nucleating particles. Biological particles are probably not involved in

  12. Let's talk sex on the air: ReachOut launches radio campaign.

    PubMed

    This article reports on the launching of the National Radio and Public Relations Campaign to Promote Modern Methods of Contraception by the ReachOut AIDS Foundation Incorporated in the Philippines. ReachOut has tapped radio veteran Tiya Dely Magpayo as the official campaign spokesperson, thus, putting a mother's touch to a serious promotional drive to reach the far-flung areas of the country. It is noted that the project promotes the wider use of modern methods of contraception as its contribution to the Philippines Population Program goals of controlling the population rate. Since radio is the most patronized media in the country, ReachOut hopes that the radio soap opera format will attract the listeners to use contraceptives. The campaign encourages men and women of reproductive age to seek information and services regarding modern methods of contraception from health service providers in their respective areas. The Department of Health will provide the technical support to ensure that the campaign is keeping with the government's programs. PMID:12322659

  13. Unsupervised fetal cortical surface parcellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    At the core of many neuro-imaging studies, atlas-based brain parcellations are used for example to study normal brain evolution across the lifespan. These atlases rely on the assumption that the same anatomical features are present on all subjects to be studied and that these features are stable enough to allow meaningful comparisons between different brain surfaces and structures These methods, however, often fail when applied to fetal MRI data, due to the lack of consistent anatomical features present across gestation. This paper presents a novel surface-based fetal cortical parcellation framework which attempts to circumvent the lack of consistent anatomical features by proposing a brain parcellation scheme that is based solely on learned geometrical features. A mesh signature incorporating both extrinsic and intrinsic geometrical features is proposed and used in a clustering scheme to define a parcellation of the fetal brain. This parcellation is then learned using a Random Forest (RF) based learning approach and then further refined in an alpha-expansion graph-cut scheme. Based on the votes obtained by the RF inference procedure, a probability map is computed and used as a data term in the graph-cut procedure. The smoothness term is defined by learning a transition matrix based on the dihedral angles of the faces. Qualitative and quantitative results on a cohort of both healthy and high-risk fetuses are presented. Both visual and quantitative assessments show good results demonstrating a reliable method for fetal brain data and the possibility of obtaining a parcellation of the fetal cortical surfaces using only geometrical features.

  14. 78 FR 63521 - Product Change-Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Contract 5 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available...

  15. The Origins of Air Parcels Uplifted in a Two Dimensional Gravity Wave in the Tropical Upper Troposphere During the NASA Stratosphere Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Pfister, Leonhard; Chan, K. Roland; Kritz, Mark; Kelly, Ken

    1989-01-01

    During January and February 1987, as part of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project, the NASA ER-2 made 11 flights from Darwin, Australia to investigate dehydration mechanisms in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause. After the monsoon onset in the second week of January, steady easterly flow of 15-25 ms (exp -1) was established in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over northern Australia and adjacent seas. Penetrating into this regime were elements of the monsoon convection such as overshooting convective turrets and extensive anvils including cyclone cloud shields. In cases of the latter, the resulting flow obstructions tended to produce mesoscale gravity waves. In several instances the ER- 2 meteorological and trace constituent measurements provide a detailed description of the structure of these gravity waves. Among these was STEP Flight 6, 22-23 January. It is of particular interest to STEP because of the close proximity of ice-laden and dehydrated air on the same isentropic surfaces. Convective events inject large amounts of ice into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere which may not be completely removed by local precipitation processes. In the present instance, a gravity wave for removed from the source region appears to induce relativity rapid upward motion in the ice-laden air and subsequent dessication. Potential mechanisms for such a localized removal process are under investigation.

  16. Parcellating connectivity in spatial maps.

    PubMed

    Baldassano, Christopher; Beck, Diane M; Fei-Fei, Li

    2015-01-01

    A common goal in biological sciences is to model a complex web of connections using a small number of interacting units. We present a general approach for dividing up elements in a spatial map based on their connectivity properties, allowing for the discovery of local regions underlying large-scale connectivity matrices. Our method is specifically designed to respect spatial layout and identify locally-connected clusters, corresponding to plausible coherent units such as strings of adjacent DNA base pairs, subregions of the brain, animal communities, or geographic ecosystems. Instead of using approximate greedy clustering, our nonparametric Bayesian model infers a precise parcellation using collapsed Gibbs sampling. We utilize an infinite clustering prior that intrinsically incorporates spatial constraints, allowing the model to search directly in the space of spatially-coherent parcellations. After showing results on synthetic datasets, we apply our method to both functional and structural connectivity data from the human brain. We find that our parcellation is substantially more effective than previous approaches at summarizing the brain's connectivity structure using a small number of clusters, produces better generalization to individual subject data, and reveals functional parcels related to known retinotopic maps in visual cortex. Additionally, we demonstrate the generality of our method by applying the same model to human migration data within the United States. This analysis reveals that migration behavior is generally influenced by state borders, but also identifies regional communities which cut across state lines. Our parcellation approach has a wide range of potential applications in understanding the spatial structure of complex biological networks.

  17. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  18. 77 FR 28409 - Product Change-Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select & Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM... Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select &...

  19. 77 FR 37078 - Product Change-Parcel Select and Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select and Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select &...

  20. 76 FR 16460 - Parcel Select Price and Classification Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Parcel Select Price and Classification Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... changes affecting Parcel Select. The Postal Service seeks to implement new prices for Parcel Select for... implement new prices for Parcel Select for forwarding and return to sender. The fee would be the...

  1. Proposed sale of Parcel A2 of the Oak Ridge Reservation to the City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Parcel A encompasses two tracts of land owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The disposal of land was recommended by a General Services Administration 1981 land utilization survey. On June 21, 1988, 21.3 ha (52.7 acres) of land, Parcel A1, were transferred to the City of Oak Ridge. Parcel Al has since been transferred to the private sector for residential development. The City of Oak Ridge has requested acquisition of Parcel A2 for residential and industrial development. The purpose of the proposed action is to transfer Parcel A2 to the City of Oak Ridge for residential and industrial development. The need for the proposed action is for DOE to respond to the General Services Administration directive to dispose of Parcel A2 and to respond to the request by the City of Oak Ridge for its acquisition and development. The proposed sale of Parcel A2 would have no environmental impacts; however, the subsequent development by the City would affect the existing environment. It is the potential effects of the City's development of Parcel A2 that are addressed by this environmental assessment (EA). Areas of concern include land use, air quality, hydrology and water quality, wetlands and floodplains, ecological resources, and socioeconomic resources.

  2. Proposed sale of Parcel A2 of the Oak Ridge Reservation to the City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental asssessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Parcel A encompasses two tracts of land owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The disposal of land was recommended by a General Services Administration 1981 land utilization survey. On June 21, 1988, 21.3 ha (52.7 acres) of land, Parcel A1, were transferred to the City of Oak Ridge. Parcel Al has since been transferred to the private sector for residential development. The City of Oak Ridge has requested acquisition of Parcel A2 for residential and industrial development. The purpose of the proposed action is to transfer Parcel A2 to the City of Oak Ridge for residential and industrial development. The need for the proposed action is for DOE to respond to the General Services Administration directive to dispose of Parcel A2 and to respond to the request by the City of Oak Ridge for its acquisition and development. The proposed sale of Parcel A2 would have no environmental impacts; however, the subsequent development by the City would affect the existing environment. It is the potential effects of the City`s development of Parcel A2 that are addressed by this environmental assessment (EA). Areas of concern include land use, air quality, hydrology and water quality, wetlands and floodplains, ecological resources, and socioeconomic resources.

  3. GCSS Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David OC.; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Jensen, Eric; Sassen, Kenneth; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    assumptions that can only be justified by further laboratory data. Consequently, it is not yet clear if the two approaches can be made consistent. Large haze particles may deviate considerably from equilibrium size in moderate to strong updrafts (20-100 cm/s) at -60 C when the commonly invoked equilibrium assumption is lifted. The resulting difference in particle-size-dependent solution concentration of haze particles may significantly affect the ice nucleation rate during the initial nucleation interval. The uptake rate for water vapor excess by ice crystals is another key component regulating the total number of nucleated ice crystals. This rate, the product of ice number concentration and ice crystal diffusional growth rate, which is sensitive to the deposition coefficient when ice particles are small, partially controls the peak nucleation rate achieved in an air parcel and the duration of the active nucleation time period. The effects of heterogeneous nucleation are most pronounced in weak updraft situations. Vapor competition by the nucleated (heterogeneous) ice crystals limits the achieved ice supersaturation and thus suppresses the contribution of homogeneous nucleation. Correspondingly, ice crystal number density is markedly reduced. Definitive laboratory and atmospheric benchmark data are needed for the heterogeneous nucleation process. Inter-model differences are correspondingly greater than in the case of the homogeneous nucleation process acting alone.

  4. Optimal combination of multiple cortical surface parcellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xintao; Guo, Lei; Li, Gang; Li, Kaiming; Liu, Tianming

    2010-03-01

    A variety of methodologies have been developed for the parcellation of human cortical surface into sulcal or gyral regions due to its importance in structural and functional mapping of the human brain. However, characterizing the performance of surface parcellation methods and the estimation of ground truth of segmentation are still open problems. In this paper, we present an algorithm for simultaneous truth and performance estimation of various approaches for human cortical surface parcellation. The probabilistic true segmentation is estimated as a weighted combination of the segmentations resulted from multiple methods. Afterward, an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is used to optimize the weighting depending on the estimated performance level of each method. Furthermore, a spatial homogeneity constraint modeled by the Hidden Markov Random Field (HMRF) theory is incorporated to refine the estimated true segmentation into a spatially homogenous decision. The proposed method has been evaluated using both synthetic and real data. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the method proposed in this paper. Also, it has been used to generate reference sulci regions to perform a comparison study of three methods for cortical surface parcellation.

  5. Mathematical Model of Evolution of Brain Parcellation.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Daniel D; Wei, Yi; Koulakov, Alexei A

    2016-01-01

    We study the distribution of brain and cortical area sizes [parcellation units (PUs)] obtained for three species: mouse, macaque, and human. We find that the distribution of PU sizes is close to lognormal. We propose the mathematical model of evolution of brain parcellation based on iterative fragmentation and specialization. In this model, each existing PU has a probability to be split that depends on PU size only. This model suggests that the same evolutionary process may have led to brain parcellation in these three species. Within our model, region-to-region (macro) connectivity is given by the outer product form. We show that most experimental data on non-zero macaque cortex macroscopic-level connections can be explained by the outer product power-law form suggested by our model (62% for area V1). We propose a multiplicative Hebbian learning rule for the macroconnectome that could yield the correct scaling of connection strengths between areas. We thus propose an evolutionary model that may have contributed to both brain parcellation and mesoscopic level connectivity in mammals. PMID:27378859

  6. Mathematical Model of Evolution of Brain Parcellation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, Daniel D.; Wei, Yi; Koulakov, Alexei A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the distribution of brain and cortical area sizes [parcellation units (PUs)] obtained for three species: mouse, macaque, and human. We find that the distribution of PU sizes is close to lognormal. We propose the mathematical model of evolution of brain parcellation based on iterative fragmentation and specialization. In this model, each existing PU has a probability to be split that depends on PU size only. This model suggests that the same evolutionary process may have led to brain parcellation in these three species. Within our model, region-to-region (macro) connectivity is given by the outer product form. We show that most experimental data on non-zero macaque cortex macroscopic-level connections can be explained by the outer product power-law form suggested by our model (62% for area V1). We propose a multiplicative Hebbian learning rule for the macroconnectome that could yield the correct scaling of connection strengths between areas. We thus propose an evolutionary model that may have contributed to both brain parcellation and mesoscopic level connectivity in mammals. PMID:27378859

  7. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David O'C.; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Jensen, Eric; Sassen, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison (CPMC) is a project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (GCSS WG2). The primary goal of this project is to identify cirrus model sensitivities to the state of our knowledge of nucleation and microphysics. Furthermore, the common ground of the findings may provide guidelines for models with simpler cirrus microphysics modules. We focus on the nucleation regimes of the warm (parcel starting at -40 C and 340 hPa) and cold (-60 C and 170 hPa) cases studied in the GCSS WG2 Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project. Nucleation and ice crystal growth were forced through an externally imposed rate of lift and consequent adiabatic cooling. The background haze particles are assumed to be lognormally-distributed H2SO4 particles. Only the homogeneous nucleation mode is allowed to form ice crystals in the HN-ONLY runs; all nucleation modes are switched on in the ALL-MODE runs. Participants were asked to run the HN-lambda-fixed runs by setting lambda = 2 (lambda is further discussed in section 2) or tailoring the nucleation rate calculation in agreement with lambda = 2 (exp 1). The depth of parcel lift (800 m) was set to assure that parcels underwent complete transition through the nucleation regime to a stage of approximate equilibrium between ice mass growth and vapor supplied by the specified updrafts.

  8. 7 CFR 318.13-15 - Parcel post inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parcel post inspection. 318.13-15 Section 318.13-15... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-15 Parcel post inspection. Inspectors are authorized to inspect, with the cooperation of the U.S. Postal Service, parcel post packages placed in the mails...

  9. From the air to digital landscapes: generating reach-scale topographic models from aerial photography in gravel-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vericat, Damià; Narciso, Efrén; Béjar, Maria; Tena, Álvaro; Brasington, James; Gibbins, Chris; Batalla, Ramon J.

    2014-05-01

    Digital Terrain Models are fundamental to characterise landscapes, to support numerical modelling and to monitor topographic changes. Recent advances in topography, remote sensing and geomatics are providing new opportunities to obtain high density/quality and rapid topographic data. In this paper we present an integrated methodology to rapidly obtain reach scale topographic models of fluvial systems. This methodology has been tested and is being applied to develop event-scale terrain models of a 11-km river reach in the highly dynamic Upper Cinca (NE Iberian Peninsula). This research is conducted in the background of the project MorphSed. The methodology integrates (a) the acquisition of dense point clouds of the exposed floodplain (aerial photography and digital photogrammetry); (b) the registration of all observations to the same coordinate system (using RTK-GPS surveyed GCPs); (c) the acquisition of bathymetric data (using aDcp measurements integrated with RTK-GPS); (d) the intelligent decimation of survey observations (using the open source TopCat toolkit) and, finally, (e) data fusion (elaborating Digital Elevation Models). In this paper special emphasis is given to the acquisition and registration of point clouds. 3D point clouds are obtained from aerial photography and by means of automated digital photogrammetry. Aerial photographs are taken at 275 meters above the ground by means of a SLR digital camera manually operated from an autogyro. Four flight paths are defined in order to cover the 11 km long and 500 meters wide river reach. A total of 45 minutes are required to fly along these paths. Camera has been previously calibrated with the objective to ensure image resolution at around 5 cm. A total of 220 GCPs are deployed and RTK-GPS surveyed before the flight is conducted. Two people and one full workday are necessary to deploy and survey the full set of GCPs. Field data acquisition may be finalised in less than 2 days. Structure-from-Motion is

  10. [Winter wheat area estimation with MODIS-NDVI time series based on parcel].

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Zhang, Jin-shui; Zhu, Wen-quan; Hu, Tan-gao; Hou, Dong

    2011-05-01

    Several attributes of MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) data, especially the short temporal intervals and the global coverage, provide an extremely efficient way to map cropland and monitor its seasonal change. However, the reliability of their measurement results is challenged because of the limited spatial resolution. The parcel data has clear geo-location and obvious boundary information of cropland. Also, the spectral differences and the complexity of mixed pixels are weak in parcels. All of these make that area estimation based on parcels presents more advantage than on pixels. In the present study, winter wheat area estimation based on MODIS-NDVI time series has been performed with the support of cultivated land parcel in Tongzhou, Beijing. In order to extract the regional winter wheat acreage, multiple regression methods were used to simulate the stable regression relationship between MODIS-NDVI time series data and TM samples in parcels. Through this way, the consistency of the extraction results from MODIS and TM can stably reach up to 96% when the amount of samples accounts for 15% of the whole area. The results shows that the use of parcel data can effectively improve the error in recognition results in MODIS-NDVI based multi-series data caused by the low spatial resolution. Therefore, with combination of moderate and low resolution data, the winter wheat area estimation became available in large-scale region which lacks completed medium resolution images or has images covered with clouds. Meanwhile, it carried out the preliminary experiments for other crop area estimation.

  11. REACH. Refrigeration Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  12. Reaching Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Randall C.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses technology and equipment requirements for developing an effective distance-learning classroom. Areas covered include cabling, the control booth, microphones, acoustics, lighting, heating and air conditioning, cameras, video monitors, staffing, and power requirements. (GR)

  13. A simple parcel method for prediction of cumulus onset and area-averaged cloud amount over heterogeneous land surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzel, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    A set of PBL data selected from the Wangara experiment is used to examine the relationship between cumulus amount and the calculated relative humidity of rising parcels. The Wilde et al. (1985) method is compared to two explicit parcel methods. It is shown that predictions using parcel methods, in which surface air is lifted to its equilibrium level while being diluted by a defined amount of mixed layer air, are superior for cloud amount, especially during periods of rapid cloud onset when the mean boundary layer top is swiftly rising through a near-neutral layer. Pending independent verification, it appears that an rms error in instantaneous cloud amount of + or - 10 percent may be achievable.

  14. Gyral parcellation of cortical surfaces via coupled flow field tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Guo, Lei; Li, Kaiming; Nie, Jingxin; Liu, Tianming

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method for parcellation of the cortical surface of human brain into gyral based regions via coupled flow field tracking. The proposed method consists of two major steps. First, the cortical surface is automatically parcellated into sulcal based regions using several procedures: estimating principal curvatures and principal directions; applying the hidden Markov random field and the Expectation-Maximization (HMRF-EM) framework for sulcal region segmentation based on the maximum principal curvature; diffusing the maximum principal direction field in order to propagate reliable and informative principal directions at gyral crests and sulcal bottoms to other flat cortical regions with noisy principal directions by minimization of an energy function; tracking the flow field towards sulcal bottoms to parcellate the cortical surfaces into sulcal basins. The sulcal parcellation provides a very good initialization for the following steps of gyral parcellation on cortical surfaces. Second, based on the sulcal parcellation results, the cortical surface is further parcellated into gyral based regions using the following procedures: extracting gyral crest segments; dilating gyral crest segments; inverting the principal direction flow field and tracking the flow field towards gyral crests in order to partition the cortical surface into a collection of gyral patches; merging gyral patches to obtain gyral parcellation of the cortical surface. The proposed algorithm pipeline is applied to nine randomly selected cortical surfaces of normal brains and promising results are obtained. The accuracy of the semi-automatic gyral parcellation is comparable to that labeled manually by experts.

  15. Shape-based multifeature brain parcellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel approach to parcellate - delineate the anatomical feature (folds, gyri, sulci) boundaries - the brain cortex. Our approach is based on extracting the 3D brain cortical surface mesh from magnetic resonance (MR) images, computing the shape measures (area, mean curvature, geodesic, and travel depths) for this mesh, and delineating the anatomical feature boundaries using these measures. We use angle-area preserving mapping of the cortical surface mesh to a simpler topology (disk or rectangle) to aid in the visualization and delineation of these boundaries. Contrary to commonly used generic 2D brain image atlas-based approaches, we use 3D surface mesh data extracted from a given brain MR imaging data and its specific shape measures for the parcellation. Our method does not require any non-linear registration of a given brain dataset to a generic atlas and hence, does away with the structure similarity assumption critical to the atlas-based approaches. We evaluate our approach using Mindboggle manually labeled brain datasets and achieve the following accuracies: 72.4% for gyri, 78.5% for major sulci, and 98.4% for folds. These results warrant further investigation of this approach as an alternative or as an initialization to the atlas-based approaches.

  16. Automatic parcellation of longitudinal cortical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alassaf, Manal H.; Hahn, James K.

    2015-03-01

    We present a novel automatic method to parcellate the cortical surfaces of the neonatal brain longitudinal atlas at different stages of development. A labeled brain atlas of newborn at 41 weeks gestational age (GA) is used to propagate labels of anatomical regions of interest to an unlabeled spatio-temporal atlas, which provides a dynamic model of brain development at each week between 28-44 GA weeks. First, labels from the cortical volume of the labeled newborn brain are propagated to an age-matched cortical surface from the spatio-temporal atlas. Then, labels are propagated across the cortical surfaces of each week of the spatio-temporal atlas by registering successive cortical surfaces using a novel approach and an energy optimization function. This procedure incorporates local and global, spatial and temporal information when assigning the labels to each surface. The result is a complete parcellation of 17 neonatal brain surfaces of the spatio-temporal atlas with similar points per labels distributions across weeks.

  17. Manual MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Marin E; Crocetti, Deana; Clauss, Jacqueline A; Kraut, Michael A; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Kaufmann, Walter E

    2009-05-15

    The ability to examine associations between neuropsychiatric conditions and functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry, but methods for identifying frontal sub-regions in MR (magnetic resonance) images are not well established. Prior published techniques have principally defined gyral regions that do not necessarily correspond to known functional divisions. We present a method in which sulcal-gyral landmarks are used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex (SMC), frontal eye field and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial OFC). Feasibility was tested by applying the protocol to brain MR data from 15 boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 15 typically developing controls, 8-12 years old. Intra- and inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated using parcellation volumes from a subset of that group. Inter-rater results for the 22 hemisphere specific sub-regions ranged from 0.724 to 0.997, with all but seven values above 0.9. Boys with ADHD showed significantly smaller left hemisphere SMC and DLPFC volumes after normalization for total cerebral volume. These findings support the method as a reliable and valid technique for parcellating the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions.

  18. Manual MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Marin E.; Crocetti, Deana; Clauss, Jacqueline A.; Kraut, Michael A.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Kaufmann, Walter E.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to examine associations between neuropsychiatric conditions and functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry, but methods for identifying frontal sub-regions in MR (magnetic resonance) images are not well established. Prior published techniques have principally defined gyral regions that do not necessarily correspond to known functional divisions. We present a method in which sulcal-gyral landmarks are used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex (SMC), frontal eye field and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial OFC). Feasibility was tested by applying the protocol to brain MR data from 15 boys with ADHD and 15 typically developing controls, 8–12 years old. Intra- and inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated using parcellation volumes from a subset of that group. Inter-rater results for the 22 hemisphere specific sub-regions ranged from 0.724 to 0.997, with all but six values above 0.9. Boys with ADHD showed significantly smaller left hemisphere SMC and DLPFC volumes after normalization for total cerebral volume. These findings support the method as a reliable and valid technique for parcellating the frontal lobe into functionally relevant subregions. PMID:19324532

  19. 75 FR 52378 - Transfer of Commercial Standard Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Commission to transfer commercial Standard Mail Parcels from the Mail Classification Schedule's Market... to transfer commercial Standard Mail Parcels from the Mail Classification Schedule's Market Dominant... Commercial Standard Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List AGENCY: Postal Service. TM ACTION:...

  20. 7 CFR 1955.140 - Sale in parcels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sale in parcels. 1955.140 Section 1955.140...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.140 Sale... Programs property, may be offered for sale as a whole or subdivided into parcels as determined by the...

  1. 19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical plan, 1986. Barton and Martin, Engineers. 'Topographical Plan for Dobson Mills.' Prepared for Rouse Urban Housing, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1986. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 12. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, West Parcel, site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, West Parcel, site plan-upper right, and surrounding environs, 1884. Hopkins, Griffith Morgan. City Atlas of Philadelphia by Wards, 7 vols., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: G. M. Hopkins and Co., 1884, Plate 9. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 48 CFR 242.1404-1 - Parcel post eligible shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parcel post eligible shipments. 242.1404-1 Section 242.1404-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Traffic and Transportation Management 242.1404-1 Parcel post eligible shipments. (b)(1) See DoD...

  4. 48 CFR 242.1404-1 - Parcel post eligible shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Parcel post eligible shipments. 242.1404-1 Section 242.1404-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Traffic and Transportation Management 242.1404-1 Parcel post eligible shipments. (b)(1) See DoD...

  5. The Origin of Stratospheric Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Dessler, A. E.; Wang, T.

    2012-12-01

    The domain-filling, forward trajectory calculation model developed by Schoeberl and Dessler [2011] is used to investigate the origin of air that enters the stratosphere, and the origin of the driest and wettest air parcels. We compare results from NASA's MERRA, NCEP's CFSR, and ECMWF's ERAi reanalyses in a non-convection simulation. The stratospheric air parcel origin is related to but distinct from the location of final dehydration zones. Final dehydration zones control stratospheric water vapor, but stratospheric air origin tells about the origin of non-water soluble constituents such as HCN or CO. The models broadly agree that stratospheric air parcel origins follow the ITCZ in winter with maxima over the tropical west Pacific and South America. The origins are more broadly dispersed in summer. Somewhat surprisingly, the seasonal cycle for the origins is small with most of the air parcels entering the stratosphere from 360K originate in non-DJF months. The origin of the wettest and driest parcels shows that the driest parcels (1-3 ppmv) originate in the tropical West Pacific while the wettest (6-10 ppmv) parcels originate in the East Pacific/ Central America.

  6. Parcellating Cortical Functional Networks in Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danhong; Buckner, Randy L.; Fox, Michael D.; Holt, Daphne J.; Holmes, Avram J.; Stoecklein, Sophia; Langs, Georg; Pan, Ruiqi; Qian, Tianyi; Li, Kuncheng; Baker, Justin T.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xiaomin; Hong, Bo; Liu, Hesheng

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to identify the unique functional architecture of an individual’s brain is a critical step towards personalized medicine and understanding the neural basis of variations in human cognition and behavior. Here, we developed a novel cortical parcellation approach to accurately map functional organization at the individual level using resting-state fMRI. A population-based functional atlas and a map of inter-individual variability were employed to guide the iterative search for functional networks in individual subjects. Functional networks mapped by this approach were highly reproducible within subjects and effectively captured the variability across subjects, including individual differences in brain lateralization. The algorithm performed well across different subject populations and data types including task fMRI data. The approach was then validated by invasive cortical stimulation mapping in surgical patients, suggesting great potential for use in clinical applications. PMID:26551545

  7. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Ranta, Marin E.; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L.; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. (2009) in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions. PMID:23897577

  8. Intracellular parcel service: current issues in intracellular membrane trafficking.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Johannes M; Spang, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells contain a multitude of membrane structures that are connected through a highly dynamic and complex exchange of their constituents. The vibrant instability of these structures challenges the classical view of defined, static compartments that are connected by different types of vesicles. Despite this astonishing complexity, proteins and lipids are accurately transported into the different intracellular membrane systems. Over the past few decades many factors have been identified that either mediate or regulate intracellular membrane trafficking. Like in a modern parcel sorting system of a logistics center, the cargo typically passes through several sequential sorting stations until it finally reaches the location that is specified by its individual address label. While each membrane system employs specific sets of factors, the transport processes typically operate on common principles. With the advent of genome- and proteome-wide screens, the availability of mutant collections, exciting new developments in microscope technology and sophisticated methods to study their dynamics, the future promises a broad and comprehensive picture of the processes by which eukaryotic cells sort their proteins.

  9. The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, D.; DeMott, P.; Cotten, R.; Jensen, E.; Sassen, K.

    2000-01-01

    nucleation interval. The uptake rate for water vapor excess by ice crystals is another key component regulating the total number of nucleated ice crystals. This rate, the product of ice number concentration and ice crystal diffusional growth rate, partially controls the peak nucleation rate achieved in an air parcel and the duration of the active nucleation time period.

  10. Variability in Parameter Estimates and Model Fit across Repeated Allocations of Items to Parcels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya K.; MacCallum, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Different random or purposive allocations of items to parcels within a single sample are thought not to alter structural parameter estimates as long as items are unidimensional and congeneric. If, additionally, numbers of items per parcel and parcels per factor are held fixed across allocations, different allocations of items to parcels within a…

  11. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  12. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  13. A GIS-based shape index for land parcels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demetriou, Demetris; Stillwell, John; See, Linda

    2013-08-01

    Shape analysis is of interest in many fields of spatial science and planning including land management in rural areas. In particular, evaluating the shape of existing land parcels is critical when implementing rural development schemes such as land consolidation. However, existing land parcel shape indices have major deficiencies: completely different shapes of parcels may have the same index value or similar parcel shapes may have different index scores. Thus, there is a clear requirement for a more accurate and reliable measurement method. This paper therefore presents a new parcel shape index (PSI) which integrates a geographical information system (GIS) with a multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) method. It involves the amalgamated outcome of six geometric measures represented by value functions involving a mathematical representation of judgements by experts that compare each geometric measure with that of an optimum parcel shape defined for land consolidation projects. The optimum shape has a PSI value of 1 while the worst shape has a value close to 0. The shape measures used in the model include length of sides, acute angles, reflex angles, boundary points, compactness and regularity. The paper uses data for two case study areas in Cyprus to demonstrate the superiority of the new PSI over three existing shape indices employed in other studies. The methodology utilized here can be implemented in other disciplines dealing with the assessment of objects that can be compared to an optimum.

  14. Earthquake Hazard Class Mapping by Parcel in Las Vegas Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancha, A.; Pullammanappallil, S.; Louie, J. N.; Hellmer, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    Clark County, Nevada completed the very first effort in the United States to map earthquake hazard class systematically through an entire urban area. The map is used in development and disaster response planning, in addition to its direct use for building code implementation and enforcement. The County contracted with the Nevada System of Higher Education to classify about 500 square miles including urban Las Vegas Valley, and exurban areas considered for future development. The Parcel Map includes over 10,000 surface-wave array measurements accomplished over three years using Optim's SeisOpt° ReMi measurement and processing techniques adapted for large scale data. These array measurements classify individual parcels on the NEHRP hazard scale. Parallel "blind" tests were conducted at 93 randomly selected sites. The rms difference between the Vs30 values yielded by the blind data and analyses and the Parcel Map analyses is 4.92%. Only six of the blind-test sites showed a difference with a magnitude greater than 10%. We describe a "C+" Class for sites with Class B average velocities but soft surface soil. The measured Parcel Map shows a clearly definable C+ to C boundary on the west side of the Valley. The C to D boundary is much more complex. Using the parcel map in computing shaking in the Valley for scenario earthquakes is crucial for obtaining realistic predictions of ground motions.

  15. Semi-automatic parcellation of the corpus striatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hakim, Ramsey; Nain, Delphine; Levitt, James; Shenton, Martha; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2007-03-01

    The striatum is the input component of the basal ganglia from the cerebral cortex. It includes the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens. Thus, the striatum is an important component in limbic frontal-subcortical circuitry and is believed to be relevant both for reward-guided behaviors and for the expression of psychosis. The dorsal striatum is composed of the caudate and putamen, both of which are further subdivided into pre- and post-commissural components. The ventral striatum (VS) is primarily composed of the nucleus accumbens. The striatum can be functionally divided into three broad regions: 1) a limbic; 2) a cognitive and 3) a sensor-motor region. The approximate corresponding anatomic subregions for these 3 functional regions are: 1) the VS; 2) the pre/post-commissural caudate and the pre-commissural putamen and 3) the post-commissural putamen. We believe assessing these subregions, separately, in disorders with limbic and cognitive impairment such as schizophrenia may yield more informative group differences in comparison with normal controls than prior parcellation strategies of the striatum such as assessing the caudate and putamen. The manual parcellation of the striatum into these subregions is currently defined using certain landmark points and geometric rules. Since identification of these areas is important to clinical research, a reliable and fast parcellation technique is required. Currently, only full manual parcellation using editing software is available; however, this technique is extremely time intensive. Previous work has shown successful application of heuristic rules into a semi-automatic platform1. We present here a semi-automatic algorithm which implements the rules currently used for manual parcellation of the striatum, but requires minimal user input and significantly reduces the time required for parcellation.

  16. DESCRIPTION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Key differences among many types of air quality models are the way atmospheric advection and turbulent diffusion processes are treated. Gaussian models use analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equations. Lagrangian models use a hypothetical air parcel concept effecti...

  17. Concentrations, atmospheric partitioning, and air-water/soil surface exchange of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran along the upper reaches of the Haihe River basin, North China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Die, Qingqi; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) were overall measured and compared in ambient air, water, soils, and sediments along the upper reaches of the Haihe River of North China, so as to evaluate their concentrations, profiles, and to understand the processes of gas-particle partitioning and air-water/soil exchange. The following results were obtained: (1) The average concentrations (toxic equivalents, TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/PCDF in air, water, sediment, and soil samples were 4,855 fg/m(3), 9.5 pg/L, 99.2 pg/g dry weight (dw), and 56.4 pg/g (203 fg TEQ/m(3), 0.46 pg TEQ/L, 2.2 pg TEQ/g dw, and 1.3 pg TEQ/g, respectively), respectively. (2) Although OCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDD, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD were the dominant congeners among four environmental sinks, obvious discrepancies of these congener and homologue patterns of PCDD/PCDF were observed still. (3) Significant linear correlations for PCDD/PCDF were observed between the gas-particle partition coefficient (K p) and the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (P L (0)) and octanol-air partition coefficient (K oa). (4) Fugacity fraction values of air-water exchange indicated that most of PCDD/PCDF homologues were dominated by net volatilization from water into air. The low-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (tetra- to hexa-) presented a strong net volatilization from the soil into air, while high-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (hepta- to octa-) were mainly close to equilibrium for air-soil exchange. PMID:24643387

  18. 76 FR 11297 - New Regional Ground Service for Parcels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ...: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service notice of rate and classification changes affecting Parcel Select. The changes involve a new offering identified as Regional Ground service. This notice informs the public of the filing, addresses preliminary procedural matters, and invites...

  19. United Parcel Service Evaluates Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-02-01

    This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet Test and Evaluation team evaluated the 12-month, in-service performance of six Class 4 hybrid electric delivery vans - fueled by regular diesel - and six comparable conventional diesel vans operated by the United Parcel Service.

  20. View of structures at rear of parcel with 12' scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of structures at rear of parcel with 12' scale (in tenths). From right: edge of Round House, Pencil house, Shell House, edge of School House. Heart Shrine made from mortared car headlights at frame left. Camera facing east. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  1. 7 CFR 318.13-15 - Parcel post inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parcel post inspection. 318.13-15 Section 318.13-15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated...

  2. 7 CFR 318.13-15 - Parcel post inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parcel post inspection. 318.13-15 Section 318.13-15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated...

  3. Center of parcel with picture tube wall along walkway. Leaning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Center of parcel with picture tube wall along walkway. Leaning Tower of Bottle Village at frame right; oblique view of Rumpus Room, remnants of Little Hut destroyed by Northridge earthquake at frame left. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  4. 7 CFR 318.13-15 - Parcel post inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parcel post inspection. 318.13-15 Section 318.13-15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... subpart, to examine any such products that are found for insect infestation, and to notify the...

  5. A multi-modal parcellation of human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Matthew F; Coalson, Timothy S; Robinson, Emma C; Hacker, Carl D; Harwell, John; Yacoub, Essa; Ugurbil, Kamil; Andersson, Jesper; Beckmann, Christian F; Jenkinson, Mark; Smith, Stephen M; Van Essen, David C

    2016-08-11

    Understanding the amazingly complex human cerebral cortex requires a map (or parcellation) of its major subdivisions, known as cortical areas. Making an accurate areal map has been a century-old objective in neuroscience. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance images from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and an objective semi-automated neuroanatomical approach, we delineated 180 areas per hemisphere bounded by sharp changes in cortical architecture, function, connectivity, and/or topography in a precisely aligned group average of 210 healthy young adults. We characterized 97 new areas and 83 areas previously reported using post-mortem microscopy or other specialized study-specific approaches. To enable automated delineation and identification of these areas in new HCP subjects and in future studies, we trained a machine-learning classifier to recognize the multi-modal 'fingerprint' of each cortical area. This classifier detected the presence of 96.6% of the cortical areas in new subjects, replicated the group parcellation, and could correctly locate areas in individuals with atypical parcellations. The freely available parcellation and classifier will enable substantially improved neuroanatomical precision for studies of the structural and functional organization of human cerebral cortex and its variation across individuals and in development, aging, and disease. PMID:27437579

  6. Use of Item Parceling in Structural Equation Modeling with Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcan, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Parceling is referred to as a procedure for computing sums or average scores across multiple items. Parcels instead of individual items are then used as indicators of latent factors in the structural equation modeling analysis (Bandalos 2002, 2008; Little et al., 2002; Yang, Nay, & Hoyle, 2010). Item parceling may be applied to alleviate some…

  7. 76 FR 17784 - Forwarding and Return Service for Parcel Select Mailpieces

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... 111 Forwarding and Return Service for Parcel Select Mailpieces AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... Parcel Select mailpieces and to eliminate the option to request discontinuance of forwarding. The Postal Service also implements a new price for Parcel Select forwards and returns; those pieces will now pay...

  8. 15 CFR 740.12 - Gift parcels and humanitarian donations (GFT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...—(i) Item limitations—(A) Prohibited items. (1) For Cuba no items listed on the Commerce Control List... in gift parcels. (iii) Frequency. (A) Except for gift parcels of food to Cuba, not more than one gift... frequency limit on gift parcels of food to Cuba. (C) Parties seeking authorization to exceed the...

  9. MarsAtlas: A cortical parcellation atlas for functional mapping.

    PubMed

    Auzias, Guillaume; Coulon, Olivier; Brovelli, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    An open question in neuroimaging is how to develop anatomical brain atlases for the analysis of functional data. Here, we present a cortical parcellation model based on macroanatomical information and test its validity on visuomotor-related cortical functional networks. The parcellation model is based on a recently developed cortical parameterization method (Auzias et al., [2013]: IEEE Trans Med Imaging 32:873-887), called HIP-HOP. This method exploits a set of primary and secondary sulci to create an orthogonal coordinate system on the cortical surface. A natural parcellation scheme arises from the axes of the HIP-HOP model running along the fundus of selected sulci. The resulting parcellation scheme, called MarsAtlas, complies with dorsoventral/rostrocaudal direction fields and allows inter-subject matching. To test it for functional mapping, we analyzed a MEG dataset collected from human participants performing an arbitrary visuomotor mapping task. Single-trial high-gamma activity, HGA (60-120 Hz), was estimated using spectral analysis and beamforming techniques at cortical areas arising from a Talairach atlas (i.e., Brodmann areas) and MarsAtlas. Using both atlases, we confirmed that visuomotor associations involve an increase in HGA over the sensorimotor and fronto-parietal network, in addition to medial prefrontal areas. However, MarsAtlas provided: (1) crucial functional information along both the dorsolateral and rostrocaudal direction; (2) an increase in statistical significance. To conclude, our results suggest that the MarsAtlas is a valid anatomical atlas for functional mapping, and represents a potential anatomical framework for integration of functional data arising from multiple techniques such as MEG, intracranial EEG and fMRI. PMID:26813563

  10. Functional connectivity based parcellation of the human medial temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Fang; Ritchey, Maureen; Libby, Laura A; Ranganath, Charan

    2016-10-01

    Regional differences in large-scale connectivity have been proposed to underlie functional specialization along the anterior-posterior axis of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus (HC) and the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG). However, it is unknown whether functional connectivity (FC) can be used reliably to parcellate the human MTL. The current study aimed to differentiate subregions of the HC and the PHG based on patterns of whole-brain intrinsic FC. FC maps were calculated for each slice along the longitudinal axis of the PHG and the HC. A hierarchical clustering algorithm was then applied to these data in order to group slices according to the similarity of their connectivity patterns. Surprisingly, three discrete clusters were identified in the PHG. Two clusters corresponded to the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and the perirhinal cortex (PRC), and these regions showed preferential connectivity with previously described posterior-medial and anterior-temporal networks, respectively. The third cluster corresponded to an anterior PRC region previously described as area 36d, and this region exhibited preferential connectivity with auditory cortical areas and with a network involved in visceral processing. The three PHG clusters showed different profiles of activation during a memory-encoding task, demonstrating that the FC-based parcellation identified functionally dissociable sub-regions of the PHG. In the hippocampus, no sub-regions were identified via the parcellation procedure. These results indicate that connectivity-based methods can be used to parcellate functional regions within the MTL, and they suggest that studies of memory and high-level cognition need to differentiate between PHC, posterior PRC, and anterior PRC.

  11. The Brain Atlas Concordance Problem: Quantitative Comparison of Anatomical Parcellations

    PubMed Central

    Bohland, Jason W.; Bokil, Hemant; Allen, Cara B.; Mitra, Partha P.

    2009-01-01

    Many neuroscientific reports reference discrete macro-anatomical regions of the brain which were delineated according to a brain atlas or parcellation protocol. Currently, however, no widely accepted standards exist for partitioning the cortex and subcortical structures, or for assigning labels to the resulting regions, and many procedures are being actively used. Previous attempts to reconcile neuroanatomical nomenclatures have been largely qualitative, focusing on the development of thesauri or simple semantic mappings between terms. Here we take a fundamentally different approach, discounting the names of regions and instead comparing their definitions as spatial entities in an effort to provide more precise quantitative mappings between anatomical entities as defined by different atlases. We develop an analytical framework for studying this brain atlas concordance problem, and apply these methods in a comparison of eight diverse labeling methods used by the neuroimaging community. These analyses result in conditional probabilities that enable mapping between regions across atlases, which also form the input to graph-based methods for extracting higher-order relationships between sets of regions and to procedures for assessing the global similarity between different parcellations of the same brain. At a global scale, the overall results demonstrate a considerable lack of concordance between available parcellation schemes, falling within chance levels for some atlas pairs. At a finer level, this study reveals spatial relationships between sets of defined regions that are not obviously apparent; these are of high potential interest to researchers faced with the challenge of comparing results that were based on these different anatomical models, particularly when coordinate-based data are not available. The complexity of the spatial overlap patterns revealed points to problems for attempts to reconcile anatomical parcellations and nomenclatures using strictly

  12. Intrinsic functional connectivity pattern-based brain parcellation using normalized cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hewei; Song, Dandan; Wu, Hong; Fan, Yong

    2012-02-01

    In imaging data based brain network analysis, a necessary precursor for constructing meaningful brain networks is to identify functionally homogeneous regions of interest (ROIs) for defining network nodes. For parcellating the brain based on resting state fMRI data, normalized cut is one widely used clustering algorithm which groups voxels according to the similarity of functional signals. Due to low signal to noise ratio (SNR) of resting state fMRI signals, spatial constraint is often applied to functional similarity measures to generate smooth parcellation. However, improper spatial constraint might alter the intrinsic functional connectivity pattern, thus yielding biased parcellation results. To achieve reliable and least biased parcellation of the brain, we propose an optimization method for the spatial constraint to functional similarity measures in normalized cut based brain parcellation. Particularly, we first identify the space of all possible spatial constraints that are able to generate smooth parcellation, then find the spatial constraint that leads to the brain parcellation least biased from the intrinsic function pattern based parcellation, measured by the minimal Ncut value calculated based on the functional similarity measure of original functional signals. The proposed method has been applied to the parcellation of medial superior frontal cortex for 20 subjects based on their resting state fMRI data. The experiment results indicate that our method can generate meaningful parcellation results, consistent with existing functional anatomy knowledge.

  13. Approaching Expert Results Using a Hierarchical Cerebellum Parcellation Protocol for Multiple Inexpert Human Raters

    PubMed Central

    Bogovic, John A.; Jedynak, Bruno; Rigg, Rachel; Du, Annie; Landman, Bennett A.; Prince, Jerry L.; Ying, Sarah H.

    2012-01-01

    Volumetric measurements obtained from image parcellation have been instrumental in uncovering structure-function relationships. However, anatomical study of the cerebellum is a challenging task. Because of its complex structure, expert human raters have been necessary for reliable and accurate segmentation and parcellation. Such delineations are time-consuming and prohibitively expensive for large studies. Therefore, we present a three-part cerebellar parcellation system that utilizes multiple inexpert human raters that can efficiently and expediently produce results nearly on par with those of experts. This system includes a hierarchical delineation protocol, a rapid verification and evaluation process, and statistical fusion of the inexpert rater parcellations. The quality of the raters’ and fused parcellations was established by examining their Dice similarity coefficient, region of interest (ROI) volumes, and the intraclass correlation coefficient of region volume. The intra-rater ICC was found to be 0.93 at the finest level of parcellation. PMID:22975160

  14. CBOs: Reaching the Hardest to Reach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The agents most successful in reaching and teaching those most in need of basic skills instruction are the community-based organizations (CBOs). They come into being in response to social and economic problems faced by their constituents--disadvantaged minorities, the poor, the unemployed, and the alienated. Because of their close ties to the…

  15. Co-activation based parcellation of the human frontal pole.

    PubMed

    Ray, K L; Zald, D H; Bludau, S; Riedel, M C; Bzdok, D; Yanes, J; Falcone, K E; Amunts, K; Fox, P T; Eickhoff, S B; Laird, A R

    2015-12-01

    Historically, the human frontal pole (FP) has been considered as a single architectonic area. Brodmann's area 10 is located in the frontal lobe with known contributions in the execution of various higher order cognitive processes. However, recent cytoarchitectural studies of the FP in humans have shown that this portion of cortex contains two distinct cytoarchitectonic regions. Since architectonic differences are accompanied by differential connectivity and functions, the frontal pole qualifies as a candidate region for exploratory parcellation into functionally discrete sub-regions. We investigated whether this functional heterogeneity is reflected in distinct segregations within cytoarchitectonically defined FP-areas using meta-analytic co-activation based parcellation (CBP). The CBP method examined the co-activation patterns of all voxels within the FP as reported in functional neuroimaging studies archived in the BrainMap database. Voxels within the FP were subsequently clustered into sub-regions based on the similarity of their respective meta-analytically derived co-activation maps. Performing this CBP analysis on the FP via k-means clustering produced a distinct 3-cluster parcellation for each hemisphere corresponding to previously identified cytoarchitectural differences. Post-hoc functional characterization of clusters via BrainMap metadata revealed that lateral regions of the FP mapped to memory and emotion domains, while the dorso- and ventromedial clusters were associated broadly with emotion and social cognition processes. Furthermore, the dorsomedial regions contain an emphasis on theory of mind and affective related paradigms whereas ventromedial regions couple with reward tasks. Results from this study support previous segregations of the FP and provide meta-analytic contributions to the ongoing discussion of elucidating functional architecture within human FP. PMID:26254112

  16. Subject-specific functional parcellation via Prior Based Eigenanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Paramveer S.; Wolk, David A.; Das, Sandhitsu R.; Ungar, Lyle H.; Gee, James C.; Avants, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new framework for prior-constrained sparse decomposition of matrices derived from the neuroimaging data and apply this method to functional network analysis of a clinically relevant population. Matrix decomposition methods are powerful dimensionality reduction tools that have found widespread use in neuroimaging. However, the unconstrained nature of these totally data-driven techniques makes it difficult to interpret the results in a domain where network-specific hypotheses may exist. We propose a novel approach, Prior Based Eigenanatomy (p-Eigen), which seeks to identify a data-driven matrix decomposition but at the same time constrains the individual components by spatial anatomical priors (probabilistic ROIs). We formulate our novel solution in terms of prior-constrained ℓ1 penalized (sparse) principal component analysis. p-Eigen starts with a common functional parcellation for all the subjects and refines it with subject-specific information. This enables modeling of the inter-subject variability in the functional parcel boundaries and allows us to construct subject specific networks with reduced sensitivity to ROI placement. We show that while still maintaining correspondence across subjects, p-Eigen extracts biologically-relevant and patient-specific functional parcels that facilitate hypothesis-driven network analysis. We construct Default Mode Network (DMN) connectivity graphs using p-Eigen refined ROIs and use them in a classification paradigm. Our results show that the functional connectivity graphs derived from p-Eigen significantly aid classification of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) as well as the prediction of scores in a Delayed Recall memory task when compared to graph metrics derived from 1) standard registration-based seed ROI definitions, 2) totally data driven ROIs 3) a model based on standard demographics plus hippocampal volume as covariates and 4) Ward Clustering based data driven ROIs. In summary, p-Eigen incarnates a new

  17. Using natural beta emission for detecting concealed tobacco in parcels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Jeremy; Hussein, Esam M. A.

    2007-10-01

    It is suspected that postal systems are used for the illegal shipment of tobacco products to circumvent taxation and excise payments. This paper demonstrates that beta-particle emission from the potassium-40 contained in tobacco can be used to passively detect its presence in paperboard postal parcels. The same concept can be utilized for the detection of marijuana, whose leaves are also rich in 40K. The combination of high beta activity and a low weight is a good indicator of the presence of these two contraband materials.

  18. Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original skinny mosaic path along edge of structures was altered (delineation can be seen in concrete) path was widened with a newer mosaic to make access to the site safer. Structures (from right) edge of Round House (with "Spring Garden"), Pencil house, Shell House, School House, wood lattice is attached to chain-link fence along north (rear) property line. These structures were all damaged by the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  19. Cerebellar Functional Parcellation Using Sparse Dictionary Learning Clustering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changqing; Kipping, Judy; Bao, Chenglong; Ji, Hui; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    The human cerebellum has recently been discovered to contribute to cognition and emotion beyond the planning and execution of movement, suggesting its functional heterogeneity. We aimed to identify the functional parcellation of the cerebellum using information from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). For this, we introduced a new data-driven decomposition-based functional parcellation algorithm, called Sparse Dictionary Learning Clustering (SDLC). SDLC integrates dictionary learning, sparse representation of rs-fMRI, and k-means clustering into one optimization problem. The dictionary is comprised of an over-complete set of time course signals, with which a sparse representation of rs-fMRI signals can be constructed. Cerebellar functional regions were then identified using k-means clustering based on the sparse representation of rs-fMRI signals. We solved SDLC using a multi-block hybrid proximal alternating method that guarantees strong convergence. We evaluated the reliability of SDLC and benchmarked its classification accuracy against other clustering techniques using simulated data. We then demonstrated that SDLC can identify biologically reasonable functional regions of the cerebellum as estimated by their cerebello-cortical functional connectivity. We further provided new insights into the cerebello-cortical functional organization in children.

  20. Cerebellar Functional Parcellation Using Sparse Dictionary Learning Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changqing; Kipping, Judy; Bao, Chenglong; Ji, Hui; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    The human cerebellum has recently been discovered to contribute to cognition and emotion beyond the planning and execution of movement, suggesting its functional heterogeneity. We aimed to identify the functional parcellation of the cerebellum using information from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). For this, we introduced a new data-driven decomposition-based functional parcellation algorithm, called Sparse Dictionary Learning Clustering (SDLC). SDLC integrates dictionary learning, sparse representation of rs-fMRI, and k-means clustering into one optimization problem. The dictionary is comprised of an over-complete set of time course signals, with which a sparse representation of rs-fMRI signals can be constructed. Cerebellar functional regions were then identified using k-means clustering based on the sparse representation of rs-fMRI signals. We solved SDLC using a multi-block hybrid proximal alternating method that guarantees strong convergence. We evaluated the reliability of SDLC and benchmarked its classification accuracy against other clustering techniques using simulated data. We then demonstrated that SDLC can identify biologically reasonable functional regions of the cerebellum as estimated by their cerebello-cortical functional connectivity. We further provided new insights into the cerebello-cortical functional organization in children. PMID:27199650

  1. 39 CFR 320.7 - Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels... advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals. (a) The operation of 39 U.S.C. 601(a) (1) through (6) and § 310.2(b) (1) through (6) of this chapter is suspended on all post routes for advertisements...

  2. 78 FR 56248 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... the Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel...

  3. 77 FR 66193 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... the Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service To Add Parcel...

  4. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 4...

  5. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 5...

  6. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 3...

  7. 77 FR 28410 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 1 to...

  8. 76 FR 2930 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... ] Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Parcel Select Contract 1 to...

  9. 77 FR 43561 - Proposed Eligibility Criteria for Bound Printed Matter Parcels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... 111 Proposed Eligibility Criteria for Bound Printed Matter Parcels AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... criterion for eligibility of Bound Printed Matter (BPM) parcels by adding a physical density threshold for... matter, weighing no more than 15 pounds and requiring postage payment by permit imprint. BPM is...

  10. Semi-supervised clustering for parcellating brain regions based on resting state fMRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hewei; Fan, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Many unsupervised clustering techniques have been adopted for parcellating brain regions of interest into functionally homogeneous subregions based on resting state fMRI data. However, the unsupervised clustering techniques are not able to take advantage of exiting knowledge of the functional neuroanatomy readily available from studies of cytoarchitectonic parcellation or meta-analysis of the literature. In this study, we propose a semi-supervised clustering method for parcellating amygdala into functionally homogeneous subregions based on resting state fMRI data. Particularly, the semi-supervised clustering is implemented under the framework of graph partitioning, and adopts prior information and spatial consistent constraints to obtain a spatially contiguous parcellation result. The graph partitioning problem is solved using an efficient algorithm similar to the well-known weighted kernel k-means algorithm. Our method has been validated for parcellating amygdala into 3 subregions based on resting state fMRI data of 28 subjects. The experiment results have demonstrated that the proposed method is more robust than unsupervised clustering and able to parcellate amygdala into centromedial, laterobasal, and superficial parts with improved functionally homogeneity compared with the cytoarchitectonic parcellation result. The validity of the parcellation results is also supported by distinctive functional and structural connectivity patterns of the subregions and high consistency between coactivation patterns derived from a meta-analysis and functional connectivity patterns of corresponding subregions.

  11. Robust brain parcellation using sparse representation on resting-state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Caspers, Svenja; Fan, Lingzhong; Fan, Yong; Song, Ming; Liu, Cirong; Mo, Yin; Roski, Christian; Eickhoff, Simon; Amunts, Katrin; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-11-01

    Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been widely used to segregate the brain into individual modules based on the presence of distinct connectivity patterns. Many parcellation methods have been proposed for brain parcellation using rs-fMRI, but their results have been somewhat inconsistent, potentially due to various types of noise. In this study, we provide a robust parcellation method for rs-fMRI-based brain parcellation, which constructs a sparse similarity graph based on the sparse representation coefficients of each seed voxel and then uses spectral clustering to identify distinct modules. Both the local time-varying BOLD signals and whole-brain connectivity patterns may be used as features and yield similar parcellation results. The robustness of our method was tested on both simulated and real rs-fMRI datasets. In particular, on simulated rs-fMRI data, sparse representation achieved good performance across different noise levels, including high accuracy of parcellation and high robustness to noise. On real rs-fMRI data, stable parcellation of the medial frontal cortex (MFC) and parietal operculum (OP) were achieved on three different datasets, with high reproducibility within each dataset and high consistency across these results. Besides, the parcellation of MFC was little influenced by the degrees of spatial smoothing. Furthermore, the consistent parcellation of OP was also well corresponding to cytoarchitectonic subdivisions and known somatotopic organizations. Our results demonstrate a new promising approach to robust brain parcellation using resting-state fMRI by sparse representation.

  12. SMI-32 parcellates the visual cortical areas of the marmoset.

    PubMed

    Baldauf, Zsolt B

    The distribution pattern of SMI-32-immunoreactivity (SMI-32-ir) of neuronal elements was examined in the visual cortical areas of marmoset monkey. Layer IV of the primary visual cortex (V1) and layers III and V of the extrastriate areas showed the most abundant SMI-32-ir. The different areal and laminar distribution of SMI-32-ir allowed the distinction between various extrastriate areas and determined their exact anatomical boundaries in the New World monkey, Callithrix penicillata. It is shown here that the parcellating nature of SMI-32 described earlier in the visual cortical areas of other mammals - including Old World monkeys - is also present in the marmoset. Furthermore, a comparison became possible between the chemoanatomical organization of New World and Old World primates' visual cortical areas.

  13. Teratology testing under REACH.

    PubMed

    Barton, Steve

    2013-01-01

    REACH guidelines may require teratology testing for new and existing chemicals. This chapter discusses procedures to assess the need for teratology testing and the conduct and interpretation of teratology tests where required.

  14. Global reach and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-09-01

    Popular culture reflects both the interests of and the issues affecting the general public. As concerns regarding climate change and its impacts grow, is it permeating into popular culture and reaching that global audience?

  15. Reaching for the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper-Davis, Sharon

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Reaching for the Stars," a program which develops teaming and mentoring skills in senior physics students. Phase 1 requires student pairs to design a rocket; Phase 2 pairs seniors with gifted second graders who build the rocket from written instructions; and in Phase 3, pairs of seniors create a children's storybook explaining one of…

  16. "Brown's" Far Reaching Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" U.S. Supreme Court decision changed the face of American education forever, few individuals at that time could have fully realized its far-reaching implications. Certainly, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Director Thurgood Marshall in his arguments was focusing on…

  17. Reaching for the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Dorothy Givens

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Mae Jemison is the world's first woman astronaut of color who continues to reach for the stars. Jemison was recently successful in leading a team that has secured a $500,000 federal grant to make interstellar space travel a reality. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence (named after Jemison's mother) was selected in June by the Defense…

  18. Why item parcels are (almost) never appropriate: two wrongs do not make a right--camouflaging misspecification with item parcels in CFA models.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Herbert W; Lüdtke, Oliver; Nagengast, Benjamin; Morin, Alexandre J S; Von Davier, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    The present investigation has a dual focus: to evaluate problematic practice in the use of item parcels and to suggest exploratory structural equation models (ESEMs) as a viable alternative to the traditional independent clusters confirmatory factor analysis (ICM-CFA) model (with no cross-loadings, subsidiary factors, or correlated uniquenesses). Typically, it is ill-advised to (a) use item parcels when ICM-CFA models do not fit the data, and (b) retain ICM-CFA models when items cross-load on multiple factors. However, the combined use of (a) and (b) is widespread and often provides such misleadingly good fit indexes that applied researchers might believe that misspecification problems are resolved--that 2 wrongs really do make a right. Taking a pragmatist perspective, in 4 studies we demonstrate with responses to the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965), Big Five personality factors, and simulated data that even small cross-loadings seriously distort relations among ICM-CFA constructs or even decisions on the number of factors; although obvious in item-level analyses, this is camouflaged by the use of parcels. ESEMs provide a viable alternative to ICM-CFAs and a test for the appropriateness of parcels. The use of parcels with an ICM-CFA model is most justifiable when the fit of both ICM-CFA and ESEM models is acceptable and equally good, and when substantively important interpretations are similar. However, if the ESEM model fits the data better than the ICM-CFA model, then the use of parcels with an ICM-CFA model typically is ill-advised--particularly in studies that are also interested in scale development, latent means, and measurement invariance.

  19. 76 FR 23749 - Intelligent Mail Package Barcode (IMpb) Implementation for Commercial Parcels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... 111 Intelligent Mail Package Barcode (IMpb) Implementation for Commercial Parcels AGENCY: Postal... currently enhancing its operational capability to allow for the scanning of Intelligent Mail package barcodes (IMpb) and other extra services barcodes via automated processing equipment and Intelligent...

  20. 133. PARCEL HANDLING SPACE OF POST OFFICE BUILDING, LEVEL 72.5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. PARCEL HANDLING SPACE OF POST OFFICE BUILDING, LEVEL 72.5, NORTH OF TRUCKING PASSAGE MAIL TRANSPORT AREA, VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Terminal Tower Building, Cleveland Union Terminal, 50 Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. Pretoria Centre Reaches Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosman, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    On 5 July 2014 six members of the Pretoria Centre of ASSA braved the light pollution of one of the shopping malls in Centurion to reach out to shoppers a la John Dobson and to show them the moon, Mars and Saturn. Although the centre hosts regular monthly public observing evenings, it was felt that we should take astronomy to the people rather than wait for the people to come to us.

  2. Connectivity-based parcellation of the human frontal polar cortex.

    PubMed

    Moayedi, Massieh; Salomons, Tim V; Dunlop, Katharine A M; Downar, Jonathan; Davis, Karen D

    2015-09-01

    The frontal pole corresponds to Brodmann area (BA) 10, the largest single architectonic area in the human frontal lobe. Generally, BA10 is thought to contain two or three subregions that subserve broad functions such as multitasking, social cognition, attention, and episodic memory. However, there is a substantial debate about the functional and structural heterogeneity of this large frontal region. Previous connectivity-based parcellation studies have identified two or three subregions in the human frontal pole. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging to assess structural connectivity of BA10 in 35 healthy subjects and delineated subregions based on this connectivity. This allowed us to determine the correspondence of structurally based subregions with the scheme previously defined functionally. Three subregions could be defined in each subject. However, these three subregions were not spatially consistent between subjects. Therefore, we accepted a solution with two subregions that encompassed the lateral and medial frontal pole. We then examined resting-state functional connectivity of the two subregions and found significant differences between their connectivities. The medial cluster was connected to nodes of the default-mode network, which is implicated in internally focused, self-related thought, and social cognition. The lateral cluster was connected to nodes of the executive control network, associated with directed attention and working memory. These findings support the concept that there are two major anatomical subregions of the frontal pole related to differences in functional connectivity.

  3. Tractography-based Parcellation of the Human Middle Temporal Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinping; Wang, Jiaojian; Fan, Lingzhong; Li, Hai; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Qingmao; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-01-01

    The middle temporal gyrus (MTG) participates in a variety of functions, suggesting the existence of distinct functional subregions. In order to further delineate the functions of this brain area, we parcellated the MTG based on its distinct anatomical connectivity profiles and identified four distinct subregions, including the anterior (aMTG), middle (mMTG), posterior (pMTG), and sulcus (sMTG). Both the anatomical connectivity patterns and the resting-state functional connectivity patterns revealed distinct connectivity profiles for each subregion. The aMTG was primarily involved in the default mode network, sound recognition, and semantic retrieval. The mMTG was predominantly involved in the semantic memory and semantic control networks. The pMTG seems to be a part of the traditional sensory language area. The sMTG appears to be associated with decoding gaze direction and intelligible speech. Interestingly, the functional connectivity with Brodmann’s Area (BA) 40, BA 44, and BA 45 gradually increased from the anterior to the posterior MTG, a finding which indicated functional topographical organization as well as implying that language processing is functionally segregated in the MTG. These proposed subdivisions of the MTG and its functions contribute to understanding the complex functions of the MTG at the subregional level. PMID:26689815

  4. Calculation of Per Parcel Probability for Dud Bombs in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakkoli Sabour, S. M.; Agarius, J.; Sadidi, J.

    2014-10-01

    Unexploded aerial Bombs, also known as duds or unfused bombs, of the bombardments in the past wars remain explosive for decades after the war under the earth's surface threatening the civil activities especially if dredging works are involved. Interpretation of the aerial photos taken shortly after bombardments has been proven to be useful for finding the duds. Unfortunately, the reliability of this method is limited by some factors. The chance of finding a dud on an aerial photo depends strongly on the photography system, the size of the bomb and the landcover. On the other hand, exploded bombs are considerably better detectable on aerial photos and confidently represent the extent and density of a bombardment. Considering an empirical quota of unfused bombs, the expected number of duds can be calculated by the number of exploded bombs. This can help to have a better calculation of cost-risk ratio and to classify the areas for clearance. This article is about a method for calculation of a per parcel probability of dud bombs according to the distribution and density of exploded bombs. No similar work has been reported in this field by other authors.

  5. Improving reliability of subject-level resting-state fMRI parcellation with shrinkage estimators.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Amanda F; Nebel, Mary Beth; Shou, Haochang; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A

    2015-05-15

    A recent interest in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) lies in subdividing the human brain into anatomically and functionally distinct regions of interest. For example, brain parcellation is often a necessary step for defining the network nodes used in connectivity studies. While inference has traditionally been performed on group-level data, there is a growing interest in parcellating single subject data. However, this is difficult due to the inherent low signal-to-noise ratio of rsfMRI data, combined with typically short scan lengths. A large number of brain parcellation approaches employ clustering, which begins with a measure of similarity or distance between voxels. The goal of this work is to improve the reproducibility of single-subject parcellation using shrinkage-based estimators of such measures, allowing the noisy subject-specific estimator to "borrow strength" in a principled manner from a larger population of subjects. We present several empirical Bayes shrinkage estimators and outline methods for shrinkage when multiple scans are not available for each subject. We perform shrinkage on raw inter-voxel correlation estimates and use both raw and shrinkage estimates to produce parcellations by performing clustering on the voxels. While we employ a standard spectral clustering approach, our proposed method is agnostic to the choice of clustering method and can be used as a pre-processing step for any clustering algorithm. Using two datasets - a simulated dataset where the true parcellation is known and is subject-specific and a test-retest dataset consisting of two 7-minute resting-state fMRI scans from 20 subjects - we show that parcellations produced from shrinkage correlation estimates have higher reliability and validity than those produced from raw correlation estimates. Application to test-retest data shows that using shrinkage estimators increases the reproducibility of subject-specific parcellations of the motor cortex by

  6. Improving Reliability of Subject-Level Resting-State fMRI Parcellation with Shrinkage Estimators

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Amanda F.; Nebel, Mary Beth; Shou, Haochang; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    A recent interest in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) lies in subdividing the human brain into anatomically and functionally distinct regions of interest. For example, brain parcellation is often a necessary step for defining the network nodes used in connectivity studies. While inference has traditionally been performed on group-level data, there is a growing interest in parcellating single subject data. However, this is difficult due to the inherent low signal-to-noise ratio of rsfMRI data, combined with typically short scan lengths. A large number of brain parcellation approaches employ clustering, which begins with a measure of similarity or distance between voxels. The goal of this work is to improve the reproducibility of single-subject parcellation using shrinkage-based estimators of such measures, allowing the noisy subject-specific estimator to “borrow strength” in a principled manner from a larger population of subjects. We present several empirical Bayes shrinkage estimators and outline methods for shrinkage when multiple scans are not available for each subject. We perform shrinkage on raw inter-voxel correlation estimates and use both raw and shrinkage estimates to produce parcellations by performing clustering on the voxels. While we employ a standard spectral clustering approach, our proposed method is agnostic to the choice of clustering method and can be used as a pre-processing step for any clustering algorithm. Using two datasets – a simulated dataset where the true parcellation is known and is subject-specific and a test-retest dataset consisting of two 7-minute resting-state fMRI scans from 20 subjects – we show that parcellations produced from shrinkage correlation estimates have higher reliability and validity than those produced from raw correlation estimates. Application to test-retest data shows that using shrinkage estimators increases the reproducibility of subject-specific parcellations of the motor

  7. Improving reliability of subject-level resting-state fMRI parcellation with shrinkage estimators.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Amanda F; Nebel, Mary Beth; Shou, Haochang; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A

    2015-05-15

    A recent interest in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) lies in subdividing the human brain into anatomically and functionally distinct regions of interest. For example, brain parcellation is often a necessary step for defining the network nodes used in connectivity studies. While inference has traditionally been performed on group-level data, there is a growing interest in parcellating single subject data. However, this is difficult due to the inherent low signal-to-noise ratio of rsfMRI data, combined with typically short scan lengths. A large number of brain parcellation approaches employ clustering, which begins with a measure of similarity or distance between voxels. The goal of this work is to improve the reproducibility of single-subject parcellation using shrinkage-based estimators of such measures, allowing the noisy subject-specific estimator to "borrow strength" in a principled manner from a larger population of subjects. We present several empirical Bayes shrinkage estimators and outline methods for shrinkage when multiple scans are not available for each subject. We perform shrinkage on raw inter-voxel correlation estimates and use both raw and shrinkage estimates to produce parcellations by performing clustering on the voxels. While we employ a standard spectral clustering approach, our proposed method is agnostic to the choice of clustering method and can be used as a pre-processing step for any clustering algorithm. Using two datasets - a simulated dataset where the true parcellation is known and is subject-specific and a test-retest dataset consisting of two 7-minute resting-state fMRI scans from 20 subjects - we show that parcellations produced from shrinkage correlation estimates have higher reliability and validity than those produced from raw correlation estimates. Application to test-retest data shows that using shrinkage estimators increases the reproducibility of subject-specific parcellations of the motor cortex by

  8. Model-Based Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R. A.; Brooker, A. D.; Ramroth, L.

    2010-12-01

    Medium-duty vehicles are used in a broad array of fleet applications, including parcel delivery. These vehicles are excellent candidates for electric drive applications due to their transient-intensive duty cycles, operation in densely populated areas, and relatively high fuel consumption and emissions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a robust assessment of parcel delivery routes and completed a model-based techno-economic analysis of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle configurations. First, NREL characterized parcel delivery vehicle usage patterns, most notably daily distance driven and drive cycle intensity. Second, drive-cycle analysis results framed the selection of drive cycles used to test a parcel delivery HEV on a chassis dynamometer. Next, measured fuel consumption results were used to validate simulated fuel consumption values derived from a dynamic model of the parcel delivery vehicle. Finally, NREL swept a matrix of 120 component size, usage, and cost combinations to assess impacts on fuel consumption and vehicle cost. The results illustrated the dependency of component sizing on drive-cycle intensity and daily distance driven and may allow parcel delivery fleets to match the most appropriate electric drive vehicle to their fleet usage profile.

  9. Reaching the unreached.

    PubMed

    Ariyaratne, A T

    1989-01-01

    Embodied in the child survival revolution are ideological, methodological, and organizational innovations aimed at radical change in the condition of the world's children as rapidly as possible. In countries such as Sri Lanka, child survival and health for all by the year 2000 often seem to be impossible goals, given the tumultuous socioeconomic and political conditions. In Sri Lanka, the quality of life has been eroded, not enhanced, by the importation of Western technology and managerial capitalism and the destruction of indigenous processes. The chaos and violence that have been brought into the country have made it difficult to reach the poor children, women, and refugees in rural areas with primary health care interventions. Sri Lanka's unreachable--the decision making elites--have blocked access to the unreached--the urban and rural poor. If governments are to reach the unreached, they must remove the obstacles to a people-centered, community development process. It is the people themselves, and the institutions of their creation, that can reach the children amidst them in greatest need. To achieve this task, local communities must be provided with basic human rights, the power to make decisions that affect their lives, necessary resources, and appropriate technologies. Nongovernmental organizations can play a crucial role as bridges between the unreached and the unreachable by promoting community empowerment, aiding in the formation of networks of community organizations, and establishing linkages with government programs. If the ruling elites in developing countries can be persuaded to accommodate the needs and aspirations of those who, to date, have been excluded from the development process, the child survival revolution can be a nonviolent one.

  10. REACH. Teacher's Guide, Volume III. Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, James Lee; And Others

    Designed for use with individualized instructional units (CE 026 345-347, CE 026 349-351) in the electromechanical cluster, this third volume of the postsecondary teacher's guide presents the task analysis which was used in the development of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air Conditioning, Heating) curriculum. The major blocks of…

  11. REACH. Electricity Units, Post-Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this postsecondary student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals, electric motors, electrical components, and controls and installation.…

  12. Accounting for Parcel-Allocation Variability in Practice: Combining Sources of Uncertainty and Choosing the Number of Allocations.

    PubMed

    Sterba, Sonya K; Rights, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Item parceling remains widely used under conditions that can lead to parcel-allocation variability in results. Hence, researchers may be interested in quantifying and accounting for parcel-allocation variability within sample. To do so in practice, three key issues need to be addressed. First, how can we combine sources of uncertainty arising from sampling variability and parcel-allocation variability when drawing inferences about parameters in structural equation models? Second, on what basis can we choose the number of repeated item-to-parcel allocations within sample? Third, how can we diagnose and report proportions of total variability per estimate arising due to parcel-allocation variability versus sampling variability? This article addresses these three methodological issues. Developments are illustrated using simulated and empirical examples, and software for implementing them is provided.

  13. Hydrologic evaluation and water-supply considerations for five Paiute Indian land parcels, Millard, Sevier, and Iron counties, southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don; Stephens, D.W.; Conroy, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrologic resources in and adjacent to five parcels of land held in trust for the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah were evaluated. The land, located in southwestern Utah, is generally arid and has had only limited use for grazing. The parcels are located near the towns of Cove Fort, Joseph, Koosharem, and Kanarraville. On the basis of available geohydrologic and hydrologic data, water of suitable quality is locally available in the areas of all parcels for domestic, stock, recreation, and limited irrigation use. Developing this water for use on the parcels would potentially involve obtaining water rights, drilling wells, and constructing diversion structures. Surface water apparently is the most favorable source of supply available for the Joseph parcel, and groundwater apparently is the most favorable source of supply available for the other parcels. (USGS)

  14. Census parcels cropping system classification from multitemporal remote imagery: a proposed universal methodology.

    PubMed

    García-Torres, Luis; Caballero-Novella, Juan J; Gómez-Candón, David; Peña, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A procedure named CROPCLASS was developed to semi-automate census parcel crop assessment in any agricultural area using multitemporal remote images. For each area, CROPCLASS consists of a) a definition of census parcels through vector files in all of the images; b) the extraction of spectral bands (SB) and key vegetation index (VI) average values for each parcel and image; c) the conformation of a matrix data (MD) of the extracted information; d) the classification of MD decision trees (DT) and Structured Query Language (SQL) crop predictive model definition also based on preliminary land-use ground-truth work in a reduced number of parcels; and e) the implementation of predictive models to classify unidentified parcels land uses. The software named CROPCLASS-2.0 was developed to semi-automatically perform the described procedure in an economically feasible manner. The CROPCLASS methodology was validated using seven GeoEye-1 satellite images that were taken over the LaVentilla area (Southern Spain) from April to October 2010 at 3- to 4-week intervals. The studied region was visited every 3 weeks, identifying 12 crops and others land uses in 311 parcels. The DT training models for each cropping system were assessed at a 95% to 100% overall accuracy (OA) for each crop within its corresponding cropping systems. The DT training models that were used to directly identify the individual crops were assessed with 80.7% OA, with a user accuracy of approximately 80% or higher for most crops. Generally, the DT model accuracy was similar using the seven images that were taken at approximately one-month intervals or a set of three images that were taken during early spring, summer and autumn, or set of two images that were taken at about 2 to 3 months interval. The classification of the unidentified parcels for the individual crops was achieved with an OA of 79.5%. PMID:25689830

  15. Census Parcels Cropping System Classification from Multitemporal Remote Imagery: A Proposed Universal Methodology

    PubMed Central

    García-Torres, Luis; Caballero-Novella, Juan J.; Gómez-Candón, David; Peña, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A procedure named CROPCLASS was developed to semi-automate census parcel crop assessment in any agricultural area using multitemporal remote images. For each area, CROPCLASS consists of a) a definition of census parcels through vector files in all of the images; b) the extraction of spectral bands (SB) and key vegetation index (VI) average values for each parcel and image; c) the conformation of a matrix data (MD) of the extracted information; d) the classification of MD decision trees (DT) and Structured Query Language (SQL) crop predictive model definition also based on preliminary land-use ground-truth work in a reduced number of parcels; and e) the implementation of predictive models to classify unidentified parcels land uses. The software named CROPCLASS-2.0 was developed to semi-automatically perform the described procedure in an economically feasible manner. The CROPCLASS methodology was validated using seven GeoEye-1 satellite images that were taken over the LaVentilla area (Southern Spain) from April to October 2010 at 3- to 4-week intervals. The studied region was visited every 3 weeks, identifying 12 crops and others land uses in 311 parcels. The DT training models for each cropping system were assessed at a 95% to 100% overall accuracy (OA) for each crop within its corresponding cropping systems. The DT training models that were used to directly identify the individual crops were assessed with 80.7% OA, with a user accuracy of approximately 80% or higher for most crops. Generally, the DT model accuracy was similar using the seven images that were taken at approximately one-month intervals or a set of three images that were taken during early spring, summer and autumn, or set of two images that were taken at about 2 to 3 months interval. The classification of the unidentified parcels for the individual crops was achieved with an OA of 79.5%. PMID:25689830

  16. Reaching Beyond The Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Mariah; Rosenthal, L.; Gaughan, A.; Hopkins, E.

    2014-01-01

    Strawbridge Observatory at Haverford College is home to a undergraduate-led public observing program. Our program holds ~once monthly public events throughout the academic year that take advantage of eyepiece observing on our 16-inch and 12-inch telescopes as well as of the classroom, library, and projection system. These resources allow us to organize a variety of astronomy related activities that are engaging for individuals of all ages: accessible student talks, current film screenings and even arts and crafts for the families who attend with young children. These events aim to spark curiosity in others about scientific discovery and about the remarkable nature of the world in which we live. In addition to exciting local families about astronomy, this program has excited Haverford students from a range of disciplines about both science and education. Being entirely student led means that we are able to take the initiative in planning, coordinating and running all events, fostering an atmosphere of collaboration, experimentation and commitment amongst our volunteers. Additionally, this program is one of the few at Haverford that regularly reaches beyond the campus walls to promote and build relationships with the outside community. In light of this, our program presents a distinctive and enlightening opportunity for student volunteers: we get to use our scientific backgrounds to educate a general audience, while also learning from them about how to communicate and inspire in others the excitement we feel about the subject of astronomy. The work on this project has been supported by NSF AST-1151462.

  17. Identifying functional subdivisions in the human brain using meta-analytic activation modeling-based parcellation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Fan, Lingzhong; Chu, Congying; Zhuo, Junjie; Wang, Jiaojian; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Parcellation of the human brain into fine-grained units by grouping voxels into distinct clusters has been an effective approach for delineating specific brain regions and their subregions. Published neuroimaging studies employing coordinate-based meta-analyses have shown that the activation foci and their corresponding behavioral categories may contain useful information about the anatomical-functional organization of brain regions. Inspired by these developments, we proposed a new parcellation scheme called meta-analytic activation modeling-based parcellation (MAMP) that uses meta-analytically obtained information. The raw meta data, including the experiments and the reported activation coordinates related to a brain region of interest, were acquired from the Brainmap database. Using this data, we first obtained the "modeled activation" pattern by modeling the voxel-wise activation probability given spatial uncertainty for each experiment that featured at least one focus within the region of interest. Then, we processed these "modeled activation" patterns across the experiments with a K-means clustering algorithm to group the voxels into different subregions. In order to verify the reliability of the method, we employed our method to parcellate the amygdala and the left Brodmann area 44 (BA44). The parcellation results were quite consistent with previous cytoarchitectonic and in vivo neuroimaging findings. Therefore, the MAMP proposed in the current study could be a useful complement to other methods for uncovering the functional organization of the human brain.

  18. Parcel: Project for the Automatic Restructuring and Concurrent Evaluation of Lisp

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.L. III; Padua, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Parcel (Project for the Automatic Restructuring and Concurrent Evaluation of Lisp) is an investigation of the problem of compiling Lisp for evaluation on a shared memory multiprocessor. In this paper, we present an overview of the process of compilation in Parcel. This process consists, broadly, of an interprocedural analysis, followed by the function-level restructuring of the lambda expressions composing a program. We discuss both of the phases, and illustrate the steps of restructuring with a few examples. A novel representation for s-expressions is employed in Parcel, to facilitate the parallel creation and access of lists; we review this representation, and discuss its implications for the compilation process. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Parcellation of Infant Surface Atlas Using Developmental Trajectories of Multidimensional Cortical Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Gilmore, John H.; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Cortical surface atlases, equipped with anatomically and functionally defined parcellations, are of fundamental importance in neuroimaging studies. Typically, parcellations of surface atlases are derived based on the sulcal-gyral landmarks, which are extremely variable across individuals and poorly matched with microstructural and functional boundaries. Cortical developmental trajectories in infants reflect underlying changes of microstructures, which essentially determines the molecular organization and functional principles of the cortex, thus allowing better definition of developmentally, microstructurally, and functionally distinct regions, compared to conventional sulcal-gyral landmarks. Accordingly, a parcellation of infant cortical surface atlas was proposed, based on the developmental trajectories of cortical thickness in infants, revealing regional patterning of cortical growth. However, cortical anatomy is jointly characterized by biologically-distinct, multidimensional cortical attributes, i.e., cortical thickness, surface area, and local gyrification, each with its distinct genetic underpinning, cellular mechanism, and developmental trajectories. To date, the parcellations based on the development of surface area and local gyrification is still missing. To bridge this critical gap, for the first time, we parcellate an infant cortical surface atlas into distinct regions based solely on developmental trajectories of surface area and local gyrification, respectively. For each cortical attribute, we first nonlinearly fuse the subject-specific similarity matrices of vertices' developmental trajectories of all subjects into a single matrix, which helps better capture common and complementary information of the population than the conventional method of simple averaging of all subjects' matrices. Then, we perform spectral clustering based on this fused matrix. We have applied our method to parcellate an infant surface atlas using the developmental trajectories

  20. Parcellation of the human orbitofrontal cortex based on gray matter volume covariance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaigui; Qin, Wen; Qi, Haotian; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-02-01

    The human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is an enigmatic brain region that cannot be parcellated reliably using diffusional and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) because there is signal dropout that results from an inherent defect in imaging techniques. We hypothesise that the OFC can be reliably parcellated into subregions based on gray matter volume (GMV) covariance patterns that are derived from artefact-free structural images. A total of 321 healthy young subjects were examined by high-resolution structural MRI. The OFC was parcellated into subregions-based GMV covariance patterns; and then sex and laterality differences in GMV covariance pattern of each OFC subregion were compared. The human OFC was parcellated into the anterior (OFCa), medial (OFCm), posterior (OFCp), intermediate (OFCi), and lateral (OFCl) subregions. This parcellation scheme was validated by the same analyses of the left OFC and the bilateral OFCs in male and female subjects. Both visual observation and quantitative comparisons indicated a unique GMV covariance pattern for each OFC subregion. These OFC subregions mainly covaried with the prefrontal and temporal cortices, cingulate cortex and amygdala. In addition, GMV correlations of most OFC subregions were similar across sex and laterality except for significant laterality difference in the OFCl. The right OFCl had stronger GMV correlation with the right inferior frontal cortex. Using high-resolution structural images, we established a reliable parcellation scheme for the human OFC, which may provide an in vivo guide for subregion-level studies of this region and improve our understanding of the human OFC at subregional levels.

  1. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1; The Critical Components to Simulate Cirrus Initiation Explicitly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David OC; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Sassen, Kenneth; Jensen, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    clear if the two approaches can be made consistent. Large haze particles may deviate considerably from equilibrium size in moderate to strong updrafts (20-100 centimeters per second) at -60 C when the commonly invoked equilibrium assumption is lifted. The resulting difference in particle-size- dependent solution concentration of haze particles may significantly affect the ice particle formation rate during the initial nucleation interval. The uptake rate for water vapor excess by ice crystals is another key component regulating the total number of nucleated ice crystals. This rate, the product of particle number concentration and ice crystal diffusional growth rate, which is particularly sensitive to the deposition coefficient when ice particles are small, modulates the peak particle formation rate achieved in an air parcel and the duration of the active nucleation time period. The effects of heterogeneous nucleation are most pronounced in weak updraft situations. Vapor competition by the heterogeneously nucleated ice crystals may limit the achieved ice supersaturation and thus suppresses the contribution of homogeneous nucleation. Correspondingly, ice crystal number density is markedly reduced. Definitive laboratory and atmospheric benchmark data are needed for the heterogeneous nucleation process. Inter-model differences are correspondingly greater than in the case of the homogeneous nucleation process acting alone.

  2. GraSP: Geodesic Graph-based Segmentation With Shape Priors for the Functional Parcellation of the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Honnorat, N.; Eavani, H.; Satterthwaite, T. D.; Gur, R. E.; Gur, R. C.; Davatzikos, C.

    2014-01-01

    Resting-state functional MRI is a powerful technique for mapping the functional organization of the human brain. However, for many types of connectivity analysis, high-resolution voxelwise analyses are computationally infeasible and dimensionality reduction is typically used to limit the number of network nodes. Most commonly, network nodes are defined using standard anatomic atlases that do not align well with functional neuroanatomy or regions of interest covering a small portion of the cortex. Data-driven parcellation methods seek to overcome such limitations, but existing approaches are highly dependent on initialization procedures and produce spatially fragmented parcels or overly isotropic parcels that are unlikely to be biologically grounded. In this paper, we propose a novel graph-based parcellation method that relies on a discrete Markov Random Field framework. The spatial connectedness of the parcels is explicitly enforced by shape priors. The shape of the parcels is adapted to underlying data through the use of functional geodesic distances. Our method is initialization-free and rapidly segments the cortex in a single optimization. The performance of the method was assessed using a large developmental cohort of more than 850 subjects. Compared to two prevalent parcellation methods, our approach provides superior reproducibility for a similar data fit. Furthermore, compared to other methods, it avoids incoherent parcels. Finally, the method’s utility is demonstrated through its ability to detect strong brain developmental effects that are only weakly observed using other methods. PMID:25462796

  3. 25 CFR 166.303 - Can more than one parcel of Indian land be combined into one permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can more than one parcel of Indian land be combined into one permit? 166.303 Section 166.303 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.303 Can more than one parcel of...

  4. GraSP: geodesic Graph-based Segmentation with Shape Priors for the functional parcellation of the cortex.

    PubMed

    Honnorat, N; Eavani, H; Satterthwaite, T D; Gur, R E; Gur, R C; Davatzikos, C

    2015-02-01

    Resting-state functional MRI is a powerful technique for mapping the functional organization of the human brain. However, for many types of connectivity analysis, high-resolution voxelwise analyses are computationally infeasible and dimensionality reduction is typically used to limit the number of network nodes. Most commonly, network nodes are defined using standard anatomic atlases that do not align well with functional neuroanatomy or regions of interest covering a small portion of the cortex. Data-driven parcellation methods seek to overcome such limitations, but existing approaches are highly dependent on initialization procedures and produce spatially fragmented parcels or overly isotropic parcels that are unlikely to be biologically grounded. In this paper, we propose a novel graph-based parcellation method that relies on a discrete Markov Random Field framework. The spatial connectedness of the parcels is explicitly enforced by shape priors. The shape of the parcels is adapted to underlying data through the use of functional geodesic distances. Our method is initialization-free and rapidly segments the cortex in a single optimization. The performance of the method was assessed using a large developmental cohort of more than 850 subjects. Compared to two prevalent parcellation methods, our approach provides superior reproducibility for a similar data fit. Furthermore, compared to other methods, it avoids incoherent parcels. Finally, the method's utility is demonstrated through its ability to detect strong brain developmental effects that are only weakly observed using other methods.

  5. 9 CFR 325.2 - Parcel post and ferries deemed carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parcel post and ferries deemed carriers. 325.2 Section 325.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... to transportation by ferry of any products loaded on a truck or other vehicle, or otherwise moved...

  6. 76 FR 13000 - Transfer of Commercial First-Class Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Transfer of Commercial First-Class Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List AGENCY: Postal Service.\\TM\\ ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service hereby provides notice that it has filed a request with the Postal...

  7. Archaeological Survey of 56 Preselected Parcels on the AridLands Ecology Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Sharpe.

    1999-04-22

    An archaeological survey of 56 preselected parcels on the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve was undertaken in support of compensatory mitigation for the construction of the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) cells 3 and 4 on the Hanford Site. This report presents the findings of the archaeological survey.

  8. 76 FR 14284 - Domestic Shipping Services Product Launch of Parcel Select Regional Ground

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    .... Enter a minimum of 200 pieces or 50 pounds of mail for each mailing. Use the Electronic Verification... (electronic option only), insurance, and Hold For Pickup service. Markings and Mail Preparation The basic...); Standard Mail prepared as Not Flat-Machinable pieces or as machinable or irregular parcels...

  9. Predictive Capabilities of a Relaxation Model for Parcel-Based Granular Flow Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radl, Stefan; Sundaresan, Sankaran

    2011-11-01

    Parcel-based methods have a great potential to reduce the computational cost of particle simulations for dense flows. Here we investigate a relaxation model, similar to that of Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK), when applied to such a parcel-based simulation method. Specifically, we have chosen the simulation methodology initially proposed by Patankar and Joseph, and combined it with the relaxation model published by O'Rourke and Snider. We show that a relaxation model is key to correctly predicting macroscopic flow features, e.g., the scattering pattern of a granular jet impinging on a flat surface, studied experimentally by Cheng et al.. Simple shear flow simulations reveal that calculation of the locally-averaged velocity is a critical ingredient to correctly predict streaming and collisional stresses. SR acknowledges the support of the Austrian Science Foundation through the Erwin-Schroedinger fellowship J-3072.

  10. Multi-Contrast Multi-Atlas Parcellation of Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoying; Yoshida, Shoko; Hsu, John; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.; Faria, Andreia V.; Oishi, Kenichi; Kutten, Kwame; Poretti, Andrea; Li, Yue; Miller, Michael I.; Mori, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for parcellating the human brain into 193 anatomical structures based on diffusion tensor images (DTIs). This was accomplished in the setting of multi-contrast diffeomorphic likelihood fusion using multiple DTI atlases. DTI images are modeled as high dimensional fields, with each voxel exhibiting a vector valued feature comprising of mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), and fiber angle. For each structure, the probability distribution of each element in the feature vector is modeled as a mixture of Gaussians, the parameters of which are estimated from the labeled atlases. The structure-specific feature vector is then used to parcellate the test image. For each atlas, a likelihood is iteratively computed based on the structure-specific vector feature. The likelihoods from multiple atlases are then fused. The updating and fusing of the likelihoods is achieved based on the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation problems. We first demonstrate the performance of the algorithm by examining the parcellation accuracy of 18 structures from 25 subjects with a varying degree of structural abnormality. Dice values ranging 0.8–0.9 were obtained. In addition, strong correlation was found between the volume size of the automated and the manual parcellation. Then, we present scan-rescan reproducibility based on another dataset of 16 DTI images – an average of 3.73%, 1.91%, and 1.79% for volume, mean FA, and mean MD respectively. Finally, the range of anatomical variability in the normal population was quantified for each structure. PMID:24809486

  11. Using geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels for classification of detailed urban land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.-S.; Qiu, X.; Usery, E.L.; Wang, L.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed urban land use data are important to government officials, researchers, and businesspeople for a variety of purposes. This article presents an approach to classifying detailed urban land use based on geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels. An area of 6 by 14 km in Austin, Texas, with land parcel boundaries delineated by the Travis Central Appraisal District of Travis County, Texas, is tested for the approach. We derive fifty parcel attributes from relevant geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing data and use them to discriminate among nine urban land uses: single family, multifamily, commercial, office, industrial, civic, open space, transportation, and undeveloped. Half of the 33,025 parcels in the study area are used as training data for land use classification and the other half are used as testing data for accuracy assessment. The best result with a decision tree classification algorithm has an overall accuracy of 96 percent and a kappa coefficient of 0.78, and two naive, baseline models based on the majority rule and the spatial autocorrelation rule have overall accuracy of 89 percent and 79 percent, respectively. The algorithm is relatively good at classifying single-family, multifamily, commercial, open space, and undeveloped land uses and relatively poor at classifying office, industrial, civic, and transportation land uses. The most important attributes for land use classification are the geometrical attributes, particularly those related to building areas. Next are the contextual attributes, particularly those relevant to the spatial relationship between buildings, then the textural attributes, particularly the semivariance texture statistic from 0.61-m resolution images.

  12. Interim Project Results: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the performance evaluation of United Parcel Service's second-generation hybrid-electric delivery vans. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 of these vans along with 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operating in Minneapolis, Minnesota. As a complement to the field study, the team recently completed fuel economy and emissions testing at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) laboratory.

  13. On the Origin of Polar Vortex Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, J. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The existence of the multi-year HALOE CH4 data set, together with some comparisons of forward with back trajectory calculations which we have carried out, has motivated us to reexamine the question of polar vortex descent. Three-dimensional diabatic trajectory calculations have been carried out for the seven month fall to spring period in both the northern hemisphere (NH) and southern hemisphere (SH) polar stratosphere for the years 1992-1999. These computations are compared to fixed descent computations where the parcels were fixed at their latitude-longitude locations and allowed to descend without circulating. The forward trajectory computed descent is always less than the fixed descent due to horizontal parcel motions and variations in heating rates with latitude and longitude. Although the forward calculations estimate the maximum amount of descent that can occur, they do not necessarily indicate the actual origin of springtime vortex air. This is because more equator-ward air can be entrained within the vortex during its formation. To examine the origin of the springtime vortex air, the trajectory model was run backward for seven months from spring to fall. The back trajectories show a complex distribution of parcels in which one population originates in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere and experiences considerable descent in the polar regions, while the remaining parcels originate at lower altitudes of the middle and lower stratosphere and are mixed into the polar regions during vortex formation without experiencing as much vertical transport. The amount of descent experienced by the first population shows little variability from year to year, while the computed descent and mixing of the remaining parcels show considerable interannual variability due to the varying polar meteorology. Because of this complex parcel distribution it is not meaningful to speak of a net amount of descent experienced over the entire winter period. Since the back trajectories

  14. Reaching ignition in the tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.

    1985-06-01

    This review covers the following areas: (1) the physics of burning plasmas, (2) plasma physics requirements for reaching ignition, (3) design studies for ignition devices, and (4) prospects for an ignition project. (MOW)

  15. Computational neuroanatomy using brain deformations: From brain parcellation to multivariate pattern analysis and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-10-01

    The past 20 years have seen a mushrooming growth of the field of computational neuroanatomy. Much of this work has been enabled by the development and refinement of powerful, high-dimensional image warping methods, which have enabled detailed brain parcellation, voxel-based morphometric analyses, and multivariate pattern analyses using machine learning approaches. The evolution of these 3 types of analyses over the years has overcome many challenges. We present the evolution of our work in these 3 directions, which largely follows the evolution of this field. We discuss the progression from single-atlas, single-registration brain parcellation work to current ensemble-based parcellation; from relatively basic mass-univariate t-tests to optimized regional pattern analyses combining deformations and residuals; and from basic application of support vector machines to generative-discriminative formulations of multivariate pattern analyses, and to methods dealing with heterogeneity of neuroanatomical patterns. We conclude with discussion of some of the future directions and challenges. PMID:27514582

  16. Computational neuroanatomy using brain deformations: From brain parcellation to multivariate pattern analysis and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-10-01

    The past 20 years have seen a mushrooming growth of the field of computational neuroanatomy. Much of this work has been enabled by the development and refinement of powerful, high-dimensional image warping methods, which have enabled detailed brain parcellation, voxel-based morphometric analyses, and multivariate pattern analyses using machine learning approaches. The evolution of these 3 types of analyses over the years has overcome many challenges. We present the evolution of our work in these 3 directions, which largely follows the evolution of this field. We discuss the progression from single-atlas, single-registration brain parcellation work to current ensemble-based parcellation; from relatively basic mass-univariate t-tests to optimized regional pattern analyses combining deformations and residuals; and from basic application of support vector machines to generative-discriminative formulations of multivariate pattern analyses, and to methods dealing with heterogeneity of neuroanatomical patterns. We conclude with discussion of some of the future directions and challenges.

  17. Parcellation in Left Lateral Parietal Cortex Is Similar in Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Steven M.; Cohen, Alexander L.; Power, Jonathan D.; Coalson, Rebecca S.; Miezin, Francis M.; Vogel, Alecia C.; Dubis, Joseph W.; Church, Jessica A.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2012-01-01

    A key question in developmental neuroscience involves understanding how and when the cerebral cortex is partitioned into distinct functional areas. The present study used functional connectivity MRI mapping and graph theory to identify putative cortical areas and generate a parcellation scheme of left lateral parietal cortex (LLPC) in 7 to 10-year-old children and adults. Results indicated that a majority of putative LLPC areas could be matched across groups (mean distance between matched areas across age: 3.15 mm). Furthermore, the boundaries of children's putative LLPC areas respected the boundaries generated from the adults' parcellation scheme for a majority of children's areas (13/15). Consistent with prior research, matched LLPC areas showed age-related differences in functional connectivity strength with other brain regions. These results suggest that LLPC cortical parcellation and functional connectivity mature along different developmental trajectories, with adult-like boundaries between LLPC areas established in school-age children prior to adult-like functional connectivity. PMID:21810781

  18. Megacity and Air Pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean: Istanbul Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Im, Ulas; Markakis, Kostas; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Kocak, Mustafa; Mangir, Nizamettin; Kubilay, Nilgun; Kanakidou, Maria

    2010-05-01

    Turkey, with a population of 75 million, is located at the confluence of Europe and Asia. Istanbul is at the hearth of Turkey's fast economic growth. The city has an annual growth of 3.7% and, according to a study conducted by OECD, is ranked 12th among 45 OECD metro-regions. Istanbul generates 27% of Turkey's Gross Domestic Product (GDP); 40% of tax revenues; and 38% of total industrial output (OECD, 2008). As a result, Istanbul is facing a variety of challenging environmental problems affecting more than 15 million people. Observations show that the number of days exceeding the 24-hour limit value of 50 μgm-3 reached 157 in 2008, with a significant increase from previous years. The city is also a hot spot of pollutant emissions for the surrounding Eastern Mediterranean area. As part of the CityZEN project, in order to quantify the contribution of this megacity as a source of air pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean, a climatological trajectory analysis using a regional climate model output (RegCM3) and a high resolution regional modeling study were performed using the Models-3 WRF meteorological and CMAQ air quality models. Trajectory approach was used to identify the effects of Istanbul emissions on other cities in regional scale. A 30-year (1961-1990) period RegCM3 simulations were used to get a meaningful evaluation. The trajectories were computed according to a method described by Pettersen (1956) as a forward trajectory approach in a 27-km grid resolution. An air parcel was released once every 6h and a total of 42,368 air parcels (trajectories) were released during these 30 years. Long-term meteorological observations in Istanbul show northeasterly and southwesterly prevailing winds over the city. According to these prevailing winds, the distributions of trajectories were mainly observed from the north and south directions of the city. In order to run an air quality model, anthropogenic emission inventory was compiled from a number of different sources

  19. Reaching the "iBored"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauleke, Debra S.; Herrmann, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, they are always looking for creative ways to engage their students. They start the school year determined to bring to the classroom creative projects that generate student interest and foster critical thinking skills. Reaching today's Gen M student is challenging and changing the way they teach. The idea of using music to teach…

  20. Reaching All Students with Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Gilbert, Ed.; Driscoll, Mark, Ed.

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics'"Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" and "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" reflect the belief that all students can learn a significant core of high-quality mathematics. Recognizing the magnitude of the task of reaching all students, this book was put together…

  1. Schools Reaching Out: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heleen, Owen

    1990-01-01

    Introduces an issue devoted to the Schools Reaching Out projects at David A. Ellis School in Roxbury (MA) and Adolph S. Ochs School in New York City. Projects attempt to link the schools with parents and their communities to promote the students' academic and social success. (DM)

  2. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory took another step forward and upward, as one of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to Chile's 16,500-foot-high plateau of Chajnantor on the back of a giant, custom-built transporter. The 40-foot-diameter antenna, weighing about 100 tons, was moved to ALMA's high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for observing the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only about half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 9,500-foot altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF). It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "The successful transport of the first ALMA Antenna to the high site marks the start of the next phase of the project. Now that we are starting to move the ALMA antennas to the high site, the real work begins and the exciting part is just beginning," said Adrian Russell, North American ALMA Project Manager. The antenna's trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters lifted the antenna onto its back, carrying its heavy load along the 17-mile road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 8 miles per hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas use state-of-the-art technology, and are the most advanced submillimeter-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions of the Array Operations Site, to survive strong winds and extreme temperatures, to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf

  3. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory has taken another step forward - and upwards. One of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to the 5000m plateau of Chajnantor, in the Chilean Andes, on the back of a custom-built giant transporter. The antenna, which weighs about 100 tons and has a diameter of 12 metres, was transported up to the high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for ALMA's observations of the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 2900 m altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility. It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "This is an important moment for ALMA. We are very happy that the first transport of an antenna to the high site went flawlessly. This achievement was only possible through contributions from all international ALMA partners: this particular antenna is provided by Japan, the heavy-lift transporter by Europe, and the receiving electronics inside the antenna by North America, Europe, and Asia", said Wolfgang Wild, European ALMA Project Manager. The trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters, named Otto, lifted the antenna onto its back. It then carried its heavy load along the 28 km road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 12 km/hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas are the most advanced submillimetre-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions

  4. Green infrastructure retrofits on residential parcels: Ecohydrologic modeling for stormwater design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    To meet water quality goals stormwater utilities and not-for-profit watershed organizations in the U.S. are working with citizens to design and implement green infrastructure on residential land. Green infrastructure, as an alternative and complement to traditional (grey) stormwater infrastructure, has the potential to contribute to multiple ecosystem benefits including stormwater volume reduction, carbon sequestration, urban heat island mitigation, and to provide amenities to residents. However, in small (1-10-km2) medium-density urban watersheds with heterogeneous land cover it is unclear whether stormwater retrofits on residential parcels significantly contributes to reduce stormwater volume at the watershed scale. In this paper, we seek to improve understanding of how small-scale redistribution of water at the parcel scale as part of green infrastructure implementation affects urban water budgets and stormwater volume across spatial scales. As study sites we use two medium-density headwater watersheds in Baltimore, MD and Durham, NC. We develop ecohydrology modeling experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of redirecting residential rooftop runoff to un-altered pervious surfaces and to engineered rain gardens to reduce stormwater runoff. As baselines for these experiments, we performed field surveys of residential rooftop hydrologic connectivity to adjacent impervious surfaces, and found low rates of connectivity. Through simulations of pervasive adoption of downspout disconnection to un-altered pervious areas or to rain garden stormwater control measures (SCM) in these catchments, we find that most parcel-scale changes in stormwater fate are attenuated at larger spatial scales and that neither SCM alone is likely to provide significant changes in streamflow at the watershed scale.

  5. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  10. Environmental Degradation, Disproportionality, and the Double Diversion: Reaching out, Reaching ahead, and Reaching beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenburg, William R.

    2006-01-01

    Rather than seeking ivory-tower isolation, members of the Rural Sociological Society have always been distinguished by a willingness to work with specialists from a broad range of disciplines, and to work on some of the world's most challenging problems. What is less commonly recognized is that the willingness to reach beyond disciplinary…

  11. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  12. Method for combining information from white matter fiber tracking and gray matter parcellation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Jeong; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Talos, Ion-Florin; Brun, Anders; Peiper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ference A; McCarley, Robert W; Shenton, Martha E

    2004-09-01

    We introduce a method for combining fiber tracking from diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging with cortical gray matter parcellation from structural high-spatial-resolution 3D spoiled gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady state images. We applied this method to a tumor case to determine the impact of the tumor on white matter architecture. We conclude that this new method for combining structural and DT imaging data is useful for understanding cortical connectivity and the localization of fiber tracts and their relationship with cortical anatomy and brain abnormalities.

  13. Neural Correlates of Reach Errors

    PubMed Central

    Hashambhoy, Yasmin; Rane, Tushar; Shadmehr, Reza

    2005-01-01

    Reach errors may be broadly classified into errors arising from unpredictable changes in target location, called target errors, and errors arising from miscalibration of internal models, called execution errors. Execution errors may be caused by miscalibration of dynamics (e.g.. when a force field alters limb dynamics) or by miscalibration of kinematics (e.g., when prisms alter visual feedback). While all types of errors lead to similar online corrections, we found that the motor system showed strong trial-by-trial adaptation in response to random execution errors but not in response to random target errors. We used fMRI and a compatible robot to study brain regions involved in processing each kind of error. Both kinematic and dynamic execution errors activated regions along the central and the post-central sulci and in lobules V, VI, and VIII of the cerebellum, making these areas possible sites of plastic changes in internal models for reaching. Only activity related to kinematic errors extended into parietal area 5. These results are inconsistent with the idea that kinematics and dynamics of reaching are computed in separate neural entities. In contrast, only target errors caused increased activity in the striatum and the posterior superior parietal lobule. The cerebellum and motor cortex were as strongly activated as with execution errors. These findings indicate a neural and behavioral dissociation between errors that lead to switching of behavioral goals, and errors that lead to adaptation of internal models of limb dynamics and kinematics. PMID:16251440

  14. Bidirectional iterative parcellation of diffusion weighted imaging data: Separating cortical regions connected by the arcuate fasciculus and extreme capsule

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Dianne K.; Van Petten, Cyma; Beeson, Pélagie M.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Plante, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a Bidirectional Iterative Parcellation (BIP) procedure designed to identify the location and size of connected cortical regions (parcellations) at both ends of a white matter tract in diffusion weighted images. The procedure applies the FSL option “probabilistic tracking with classification targets” in a bidirectional and iterative manner. To assess the utility of BIP, we applied the procedure to the problem of parcellating a limited set of well-established gray matter seed regions associated with the dorsal (arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus) and ventral (extreme capsule fiber system) white matter tracts in the language networks of 97 participants. These left hemisphere seed regions and the two white matter tracts, along with their right hemisphere homologues, provided an excellent test case for BIP because the resulting parcellations overlap and their connectivity via the arcuate fasciculi and extreme capsule fiber systems are well studied. The procedure yielded both confirmatory and novel findings. Specifically, BIP confirmed that each tract connects within the seed regions in unique, but expected ways. Novel findings included increasingly left-lateralized parcellations associated with the arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus as a function of age and education. These results demonstrate that BIP is an easily implemented technique that successfully confirmed cortical connectivity patterns predicted in the literature, and has the potential to provide new insights regarding the architecture of the brain. PMID:25173414

  15. Joint Spectral Decomposition for the Parcellation of the Human Cerebral Cortex Using Resting-State fMRI.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Salim; Parisot, Sarah; Rueckert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Identification of functional connections within the human brain has gained a lot of attention due to its potential to reveal neural mechanisms. In a whole-brain connectivity analysis, a critical stage is the computation of a set of network nodes that can effectively represent cortical regions. To address this problem, we present a robust cerebral cortex parcellation method based on spectral graph theory and resting-state fMRI correlations that generates reliable parcellations at the single-subject level and across multiple subjects. Our method models the cortical surface in each hemisphere as a mesh graph represented in the spectral domain with its eigenvectors. We connect cortices of different subjects with each other based on the similarity of their connectivity profiles and construct a multi-layer graph, which effectively captures the fundamental properties of the whole group as well as preserves individual subject characteristics. Spectral decomposition of this joint graph is used to cluster each cortical vertex into a subregion in order to obtain whole-brain parcellations. Using rs-fMRI data collected from 40 healthy subjects, we show that our proposed algorithm computes highly reproducible parcellations across different groups of subjects and at varying levels of detail with an average Dice score of 0.78, achieving up to 9% better reproducibility compared to existing approaches. We also report that our group-wise parcellations are functionally more consistent, thus, can be reliably used to represent the population in network analyses.

  16. Extending earthquakes' reach through cascading.

    PubMed

    Marsan, David; Lengliné, Olivier

    2008-02-22

    Earthquakes, whatever their size, can trigger other earthquakes. Mainshocks cause aftershocks to occur, which in turn activate their own local aftershock sequences, resulting in a cascade of triggering that extends the reach of the initial mainshock. A long-lasting difficulty is to determine which earthquakes are connected, either directly or indirectly. Here we show that this causal structure can be found probabilistically, with no a priori model nor parameterization. Large regional earthquakes are found to have a short direct influence in comparison to the overall aftershock sequence duration. Relative to these large mainshocks, small earthquakes collectively have a greater effect on triggering. Hence, cascade triggering is a key component in earthquake interactions.

  17. Functional Connectivity-Based Parcellation of Amygdala Using Self-Organized Mapping: A Data Driven Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Arabinda; Rogers, Baxter P.; Chen, Li Min; Gore, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of this work is to demonstrate how resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals may be used to objectively parcellate functionally heterogeneous subregions of the human amygdala into structures characterized by similar patterns of functional connectivity. We hypothesize that similarity of functional connectivity of subregions with other parts of the brain can be a potential basis to segment and cluster voxels using data driven approaches. In this work, self-organizing map (SOM) was implemented to cluster the connectivity maps associated with each voxel of the human amygdala, thereby defining distinct subregions. The functional separation was optimized by evaluating the overall differences in functional connectivity between the subregions at group level. Analysis of 25 resting state fMRI data sets suggests that SOM can successfully identify functionally independent nuclei based on differences in their inter subregional functional connectivity, evaluated statistically at various confidence levels. Although amygdala contains several nuclei whose distinct roles are implicated in various functions, our objective approach discerns at least two functionally distinct volumes comparable to previous parcellation results obtained using probabilistic tractography and cytoarchitectonic analysis. Association of these nuclei with various known functions and a quantitative evaluation of their differences in overall functional connectivity with lateral orbital frontal cortex and temporal pole confirms the functional diversity of amygdala. The data driven approach adopted here may be used as a powerful indicator of structure–function relationships in the amygdala and other functionally heterogeneous structures as well. PMID:23418140

  18. Bystanders, parcelling, and an absence of trust in the grooming interactions of wild male chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Kaburu, Stefano S K; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation remains a central issue in socio-biology with the fundamental problem of how individuals minimize the risks of being short-changed ('cheated') should their behavioural investment in another not be returned. Economic decisions that individuals make during interactions may depend upon the presence of potential partners nearby, which offers co operators a temptation to defect from the current partner. The parcelling model posits that donors subdivide services into parcels to force cooperation, and that this is contingent on opportunities for defection; that is, the presence of bystanders. Here we test this model and the effect of bystander presence using grooming interactions of wild chimpanzees. We found that with more bystanders, initiators gave less grooming at the beginning of the bout and were more likely to abandon a grooming bout, while bouts were less likely to be reciprocated. We also found that the groomer's initial investment was not higher among frequent groomers or stronger reciprocators, suggesting that contrary to current assumptions, grooming decisions are not based on trust, or bonds, within dyads. Our work highlights the importance of considering immediate social context and the influence of bystanders for understanding the evolution of the behavioural strategies that produce cooperation. PMID:26856371

  19. Expert System For Flexible Palletizing Of Mixed Size And Weight Parcels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazouz, A. Kader; Shell, Richard L.; Hall, E. L.

    1988-02-01

    Stacking boxes of mixed size and weight is a tedious task requiring intelligence. It requires the ability to recognize that boxes are available to be stacked, the recognition of different box types, the selection of a grasping point for picking up the box and most importantly, a determination of where to stack the box on a partially loaded pallet. The purpose of this paper is to describe an expert system for determining how to stack a set of mixed size and weight boxes and provide control information to a robot to perform actual palletizing. A prototype system has been developed using an expert programming language and an industrial robot work cell. The system has been tested with actual food parcels weighing up to 50 pounds and performs very well. The formation of flat regions is one of the many rules implemented in the expert system. The system also works at speeds comparable to human speeds. The study demonstrates, in large measure, the feasibility of the use of expert system AI techniques and industrial robots for palletizing mixed size weight parcels in a general workhousing application.

  20. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Paveglio, Travis B; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability-human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others.

  1. Bystanders, parcelling, and an absence of trust in the grooming interactions of wild male chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation remains a central issue in socio-biology with the fundamental problem of how individuals minimize the risks of being short-changed (‘cheated’) should their behavioural investment in another not be returned. Economic decisions that individuals make during interactions may depend upon the presence of potential partners nearby, which offers co operators a temptation to defect from the current partner. The parcelling model posits that donors subdivide services into parcels to force cooperation, and that this is contingent on opportunities for defection; that is, the presence of bystanders. Here we test this model and the effect of bystander presence using grooming interactions of wild chimpanzees. We found that with more bystanders, initiators gave less grooming at the beginning of the bout and were more likely to abandon a grooming bout, while bouts were less likely to be reciprocated. We also found that the groomer’s initial investment was not higher among frequent groomers or stronger reciprocators, suggesting that contrary to current assumptions, grooming decisions are not based on trust, or bonds, within dyads. Our work highlights the importance of considering immediate social context and the influence of bystanders for understanding the evolution of the behavioural strategies that produce cooperation. PMID:26856371

  2. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paveglio, Travis B.; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability—human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others.

  3. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Paveglio, Travis B; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability-human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others. PMID:27272166

  4. Impact of the resolution of brain parcels on connectome-wide association studies in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Bellec, Pierre; Benhajali, Yassine; Carbonell, Felix; Dansereau, Christian; Albouy, Geneviève; Pelland, Maxime; Craddock, Cameron; Collignon, Oliver; Doyon, Julien; Stip, Emmanuel; Orban, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    A recent trend in functional magnetic resonance imaging is to test for association of clinical disorders with every possible connection between selected brain parcels. We investigated the impact of the resolution of functional brain parcels, ranging from large-scale networks to local regions, on a mass univariate general linear model (GLM) of connectomes. For each resolution taken independently, the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure controlled the false-discovery rate (FDR) at nominal level on realistic simulations. However, the FDR for tests pooled across all resolutions could be inflated compared to the FDR within resolution. This inflation was severe in the presence of no or weak effects, but became negligible for strong effects. We thus developed an omnibus test to establish the overall presence of true discoveries across all resolutions. Although not a guarantee to control the FDR across resolutions, the omnibus test may be used for descriptive analysis of the impact of resolution on a GLM analysis, in complement to a primary analysis at a predefined single resolution. On three real datasets with significant omnibus test (schizophrenia, congenital blindness, motor practice), markedly higher rate of discovery were obtained at low resolutions, below 50, in line with simulations showing increase in sensitivity at such resolutions. This increase in discovery rate came at the cost of a lower ability to localize effects, as low resolution parcels merged many different brain regions together. However, with 30 or more parcels, the statistical effect maps were biologically plausible and very consistent across resolutions. These results show that resolution is a key parameter for GLM-connectome analysis with FDR control, and that a functional brain parcellation with 30 to 50 parcels may lead to an accurate summary of full connectome effects with good sensitivity in many situations.

  5. A Lagrangian analysis of ice-supersaturated air over the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, E. A.; Hoskins, B. J.; Shine, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nature of air parcels that exhibit ice supersaturation is important because they are the regions of potential formation of both cirrus and aircraft contrails, which affect the radiation balance. Ice-supersaturated air parcels in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over the North Atlantic are investigated using Lagrangian trajectories. The trajectory calculations use European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim reanalysis data for three winter and three summer seasons, resulting in approximately 200,000 trajectories with ice supersaturation for each season. For both summer and winter, the median duration of ice supersaturation along a trajectory is less than 6 h. Five percent of air which becomes ice supersaturated in the troposphere and 23% of air which becomes ice supersaturated in the stratosphere will remain ice supersaturated for at least 24 h. Weighting the ice-supersaturation duration with the observed frequency indicates the likely overall importance of the longer duration ice-supersaturated trajectories. Ice-supersaturated air parcels typically experience a decrease in moisture content while ice supersaturated, suggesting that cirrus clouds eventually form in the majority of such air. A comparison is made between short-lived (less than 24 h) and long-lived (greater than 24 h) ice-supersaturated air flows. For both air flows, ice supersaturation occurs around the northernmost part of the trajectory. Short-lived ice-supersaturated air flows show no significant differences in speed or direction of movement to subsaturated air parcels. However, long-lived ice-supersaturated air occurs in slower-moving air flows, which implies that they are not associated with the fastest moving air through a jet stream.

  6. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... tubes for export other than by parcel post. The claimant, upon release of the tobacco products,...

  7. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... tubes for export other than by parcel post. The claimant, upon release of the tobacco products,...

  8. Project Completion Report on China's Room AC Reach Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang

    2005-03-10

    After much anticipation and hard work, China's reach standard for room air-conditioners was announced in September 2004, with the first tier going into effect on March 1, 2005 and the reach standard taking effect on January 1, 2009. This is a major milestone in the development of minimum energy efficiency standards in China: finally China has set a minimum standard that is meaningful and stringent. According to our preliminary analysis, the majority of room ACs products on the Chinese market in 2004 would not meet the 2009 reach standard requirement. In addition to setting the minimum requirement, China's new AC standard also include classification requirement for the newly established Energy Information Label, as well as the certification requirement for CECP's Energy Conservation Label. Highlights of the 2009 reach standard include: (1) The Chinese Reach Standard for Room AC in 2009 is tighter than American counterpart, and almost matches the efficiency of American Central Air-Conditioners; and (2) Summer peak demand reduction in 2020 due to the reach standard exceeds the capacity of the Three Gorges Project.

  9. Reaching for the red planet

    PubMed

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet.

  10. Infrastructure for Reaching Disadvantaged Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Hovenga, Evelyn J. S.; Hovel, Joe; Klotz, Jeanette; Robins, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Both consumers and health service providers need access to up-to-date information, including patient and practice guidelines, that allows them to make decisions in partnership about individual and public health in line with the primary health care model of health service delivery. Only then is it possible for patient preferences to be considered while the health of the general population is improved. The Commonwealth Government of Australia has allocated $250 million over five years, starting July 1, 1997, to support activities and projects designed to meet a range of telecommunication needs in regional, rural, and remote Australia. This paper defines rural and remote communities, then reviews rural and remote health services, information, and telecommunication technology infrastructures and their use in Australia to establish the current state of access to information tools by rural and remote communities and rural health workers in Australia today. It is argued that a suitable telecommunication infrastructure is needed to reach disadvantaged persons in extremely remote areas and that intersectoral support is essential to build this infrastructure. In addition, education will make its utilization possible. PMID:9609497

  11. 77 FR 54607 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Sugar Parcel Lands, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Proclaiming Certain Lands, Sugar Parcel Lands, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation for the Bay Mills Indian Community of Michigan AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...

  12. Three Approaches to Using Lengthy Ordinal Scales in Structural Equation Models: Parceling, Latent Scoring, and Shortening Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chongming; Nay, Sandra; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2010-01-01

    Lengthy scales or testlets pose certain challenges for structural equation modeling (SEM) if all the items are included as indicators of a latent construct. Three general approaches to modeling lengthy scales in SEM (parceling, latent scoring, and shortening) have been reviewed and evaluated. A hypothetical population model is simulated containing…

  13. Investigating Historic Parcel Changes to Understand Land Use Trends: A Methodology and Application for the San Pedro River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term land use and land cover change, and the associated impacts, pose critical challenges to sustaining healthy communities and ecosystems. In this study, a methodology was developed to use parcel data to evaluate land use trends in southeast Arizona’s San Pedro River Water...

  14. A Monte Carlo Study Investigating the Impact of Item Parceling Strategies on Parameter Estimates and Their Standard Errors in CFA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhija, Fadia Nasser-Abu; Wisenbaker, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to examine the effect of item parceling on confirmatory factor analysis parameter estimates and their standard errors at different levels of sample size, number of indicators per factor, size of factor structure/pattern coefficients, magnitude of interfactor correlations, and variations in item-level data…

  15. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  16. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  17. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  18. Three Approaches to Using Lengthy Ordinal Scales in Structural Equation Models: Parceling, Latent Scoring, and Shortening Scales

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chongming; Nay, Sandra; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2009-01-01

    Lengthy scales or testlets pose certain challenges for structural equation modeling (SEM) if all the items are included as indicators of a latent construct. Three general approaches (parceling, latent scoring, and shortening) to modeling lengthy scales in SEM were reviewed and evaluated. A hypothetical population model was simulated containing two exogenous constructs with 14 indicators each and an endogenous construct with four indicators. The simulation generated data sets with varying numbers of response options, two types of distributions, factor loadings ranging from low to high, and sample sizes ranging from small to moderate. The population model was varied to incorporate one of the following: (1) single parcels, (2) various parcels as indicators of two exogenous constructs, (3) latent scores as observed exogenous variables, and (4) four and six of individual items as indicators of two exogenous constructs. The dependent variables evaluated were biases in the covariance and partial covariance population parameters. Biases in these parameters were found to be minimal under the following conditions: (1) when parcels of indicators of five response options were used as indicators of two latent exogenous constructs; (2) when latent scores were used as observed variables at sample sizes above 100 and with indicators that were relatively less skewed in the case of dichotomous indicators; and (3) when four or six individual items with high or diverse factor loadings were used as indicators of two exogenous constructs. These findings provided guidelines for resolving the inconsistency of findings from applying various approaches to empirical data. PMID:20514149

  19. The Impact of the Parcel-Level Land Architecture on Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, X.; Ouyang, Y.; Turner, B. L., II; Harlan, S.; Brazel, A.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and characteristics of the urban land system has received increasing attention in urban heat island research, especially for desert cities. The relationship between the land composition and LST has been widely studied. Such researches generally employ medium or coarser spatial resolution remotely sensed data and primarily focuses on the effects of one land cover type on the LST. In this study, we explore the effects of land system architecture - composition and configuration of different land-cover classes - on LST in the central Arizona-Phoenix metropolitan area at a fine-scale resolution, focused on the composition and configuration of single family residential parcels. A 1 m resolution land-cover map is used to calculate landscape metrics at the parcel level, and 6.8 m resolution data from the MODIS/ASTER are employed to retrieve LST. We introduce the socio-economic factors at neighborhood level as explanatory variables to help control for potential neighborhood effects. Multiple linear regression models examine the effects of landscape configuration on LST at the parcel scale, controlling for the effects of landscape composition and neighborhood characteristics. Results show that the configuration of parcels affects LST, revealing significant variable relationships between that architecture and LST at nighttime and daytime, and the role of the neighborhood effects on the outcomes.

  20. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  1. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  2. 78 FR 56242 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of 28 Parcels of Public Land in Clark County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... Bureau of Land Management [LLNVS00560 L58530000 EU0000 241A; N-78190 et al.; 13-08807; MO 4500053642; TAS: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of 28 Parcels of Public Land in Clark County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Realty Action. SUMMARY: The Bureau of...

  3. 43 CFR 2568.80 - Does the parcel have to be surveyed before I can receive title to it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... I can receive title to it? 2568.80 Section 2568.80 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... § 2568.80 Does the parcel have to be surveyed before I can receive title to it? Yes. The land in your application must be surveyed before BLM can convey it to you. BLM will survey your allotment at no charge...

  4. 43 CFR 2568.80 - Does the parcel have to be surveyed before I can receive title to it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... I can receive title to it? 2568.80 Section 2568.80 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... § 2568.80 Does the parcel have to be surveyed before I can receive title to it? Yes. The land in your application must be surveyed before BLM can convey it to you. BLM will survey your allotment at no charge...

  5. Thalamus parcellation using multi-modal feature classification and thalamic nuclei priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaister, Jeffrey; Carass, Aaron; Stough, Joshua V.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-03-01

    Segmentation of the thalamus and thalamic nuclei is useful to quantify volumetric changes from neurodegenerative diseases. Most thalamus segmentation algorithms only use T1-weighted magnetic resonance images and current thalamic parcellation methods require manual interaction. Smaller nuclei, such as the lateral and medial geniculates, are challenging to locate due to their small size. We propose an automated segmentation algorithm using a set of features derived from diffusion tensor image (DTI) and thalamic nuclei location priors. After extracting features, a hierarchical random forest classifier is trained to locate the thalamus. A second random forest classifies thalamus voxels as belonging to one of six thalamic nuclei classes. The proposed algorithm was tested using a leave-one-out cross validation scheme and compared with state-of-the-art algorithms. The proposed algorithm has a higher Dice score compared to other methods for the whole thalamus and several nuclei.

  6. Regional structural differences across functionally parcellated Brodmann areas of human primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Panchuelo, Rosa-María; Besle, Julien; Mougin, Olivier; Gowland, Penny; Bowtell, Richard; Schluppeck, Denis; Francis, Susan

    2014-06-01

    Ultra-high-field (UHF) MRI is ideally suited for structural and functional imaging of the brain. High-resolution structural MRI can be used to map the anatomical boundaries between functional domains of the brain by identifying changes related to the pattern of myelination within cortical gray matter, opening up the possibility to study the relationship between functional domains and underlying structure in vivo. In a recent study, we demonstrated the correspondence between functional (based on retinotopic mapping) and structural (based on changes in T2(⁎)-weighted images linked to myelination) parcellations of the primary visual cortex (V1) in vivo at 7T (Sanchez-Panchuelo et al., 2012b). Here, we take advantage of the improved BOLD CNR and high spatial resolution achievable at 7T to study regional structural variations across the functionally defined areas within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in individual subjects. Using a traveling wave fMRI paradigm to map the internal somatotopic representation of the index, middle, and ring fingers in S1, we were able to identify multiple map reversals at the tip and base, corresponding to the boundaries between Brodmann areas 3a, 3b, 1 and 2. Based on high resolution structural MRI data acquired in the same subjects, we inspected these functionally-parcellated Brodmann areas for differences in cortical thickness and MR contrast measures (magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and signal intensity in phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) images) that are sensitive to myelination. Consistent area-related differences in cortical thickness and MTR/PSIR measurements were found across subjects. However these measures did not have sufficient sensitivity to allow definition of areal boundaries.

  7. FORMAL UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS OF A LAGRANGIAN PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION MODEL. (R824792)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study applied Monte Carlo analysis with Latin
    hypercube sampling to evaluate the effects of uncertainty
    in air parcel trajectory paths, emissions, rate constants,
    deposition affinities, mixing heights, and atmospheric stability
    on predictions from a vertically...

  8. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

  9. Venus within ESA probe reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-03-01

    Venus Express mission controllers at the ESA Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany are making intensive preparations for orbit insertion. This comprises a series of telecommands, engine burns and manoeuvres designed to slow the spacecraft down from a velocity of 29000 km per hour relative to Venus, just before the first burn, to an entry velocity some 15% slower, allowing the probe to be captured into orbit around the planet. The spacecraft will have to ignite its main engine for 50 minutes in order to achieve deceleration and place itself into a highly elliptical orbit around the planet. Most of its 570 kg of onboard propellant will be used for this manoeuvre. The spacecraft’s solar arrays will be positioned so as to reduce the possibility of excessive mechanical load during engine ignition. Over the subsequent days, a series of additional burns will be done to lower the orbit apocentre and to control the pericentre. The aim is to end up in a 24-hour orbit around Venus early in May. The Venus orbit injection operations can be followed live at ESA establishments, with ESOC acting as focal point of interest (see attached programme). In all establishments, ESA specialists will be on hand for interviews. ESA TV will cover this event live from ESOC in Darmstadt. The live transmission will be carried free-to-air. For broadcasters, complete details of the various satellite feeds are listed at http://television.esa.int. The event will be covered on the web at venus.esa.int. The website will feature regular updates, including video coverage of the press conference and podcast from the control room at ESA’s Operations Centre. Media representatives wishing to follow the event at one of the ESA establishments listed below are requested to fill in the attached registration form and fax it back to the place of their choice. For further information, please contact: ESA Media Relations Division Tel : +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.7690 Venus Express

  10. RELATIONSIPS BETWEEN AQUATIC INVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES AND REACH AND LANDSCAPE ATTRIBUTES ON WADEABLE, WILLAMETTE VALLEY STREAMS IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In summer 1997, we sampled reaches in 24 wadeable, Willamette Valley ecoregion streams draining agriculturally-infiuenced watersheds. Within these reaches, physical habitat, water chemistry, aquatic invertebrate and fish data and samples were collected. Low-level air photos were ...

  11. Connectivity-based whole brain dual parcellation by group ICA reveals tract structures and decreased connectivity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Calhoun, Vince D; Jung, Rex E; Caprihan, Arvind

    2015-11-01

    Mapping brain connectivity based on neuroimaging data is a promising new tool for understanding brain structure and function. In this methods paper, we demonstrate that group independent component analysis (GICA) can be used to perform a dual parcellation of the brain based on its connectivity matrix (cmICA). This dual parcellation consists of a set of spatially independent source maps, and a corresponding set of paired dual maps that define the connectivity of each source map to the brain. These dual maps are called the connectivity profiles of the source maps. Traditional analysis of connectivity matrices has been used previously for brain parcellation, but the present method provides additional information on the connectivity of these segmented regions. In this paper, the whole brain structural connectivity matrices were calculated on a 5 mm(3) voxel scale from diffusion imaging data based on the probabilistic tractography method. The effect of the choice of the number of components (30 and 100) and their stability were examined. This method generated a set of spatially independent components that are consistent with the canonical brain tracts provided by previous anatomic descriptions, with the high order model yielding finer segmentations. The corpus-callosum example shows how this method leads to a robust parcellation of a brain structure based on its connectivity properties. We applied cmICA to study structural connectivity differences between a group of schizophrenia subjects and healthy controls. The connectivity profiles at both model orders showed similar regions with reduced connectivity in schizophrenia patients. These regions included forceps major, right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, thalamic radiation, and corticospinal tract. This paper provides a novel unsupervised data-driven framework that summarizes the information in a large global connectivity matrix and tests for brain connectivity differences. It has the

  12. Localization and quantification of intramuscular damage using statistical parametric mapping and skeletal muscle parcellation

    PubMed Central

    Fouré, Alexandre; Le Troter, Arnaud; Guye, Maxime; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we proposed an original and robust methodology which combines the spatial normalization of skeletal muscle images, the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis and the use of a specific parcellation in order to accurately localize and quantify the extent of skeletal muscle damage within the four heads of the quadriceps femoris. T2 maps of thigh muscles were characterized before, two (D2) and four (D4) days after 40 maximal isometric electrically-evoked contractions in 25 healthy young males. On the basis of SPM analysis of coregistrated T2 maps, the alterations were similarly detected at D2 and D4 in the superficial and distal regions of the vastus medialis (VM) whereas the proportion of altered muscle was higher in deep muscle regions of the vastus lateralis at D4 (deep: 35 ± 25%, superficial: 23 ± 15%) as compared to D2 (deep: 18 ± 13%, superficial: 17 ± 13%). The present methodology used for the first time on skeletal muscle would be of utmost interest to detect subtle intramuscular alterations not only for the diagnosis of muscular diseases but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions and clinical treatment strategies. PMID:26689827

  13. A comparison of working postures of parcel sorters using three different working methods.

    PubMed

    Derksen, J C; Van Riel, M P; Van Wingerden, J P; Snijders, C J

    1994-02-01

    The postures of the trunk of eight parcel sorters were measured continuously under three different working conditions, during whole shifts. The working methods used were two different sorting tables and a hydraulic lifting platform on which the carts were to be placed. The question posed by the PTT-Post occupational health service was whether the latter method proved to be the better one with respect to the load on the musculoskeletal system. This study will help them to make a well-considered decision on which working method to choose for the new distribution centre in Rotterdam. The method used for measuring the working postures and movements of the trunk is the Portable Posture Registration Set (PPRS). This method was developed at the department of Biomedical Physics and Technology of the Erasmus University Rotterdam. While using the lifting platform, the subjects stood 8-11% more erect compared to the work at the sorting tables, thereby reducing the load on the lumbar spine. For this reason the lifting platform is preferred, although sagittal flexion of the back was somewhat more. It is stressed that the way in which sorters use the lifting platform is very important. PMID:8119262

  14. Data model for the collaboration between land administration systems and agricultural land parcel identification systems.

    PubMed

    Inan, Halil Ibrahim; Sagris, Valentina; Devos, Wim; Milenov, Pavel; van Oosterom, Peter; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2010-12-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) has dramatically changed after 1992, and from then on the CAP focused on the management of direct income subsidies instead of production-based subsidies. For this focus, Member States (MS) are expected to establish Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS), including a Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) as the spatial part of IACS. Different MS have chosen different solutions for their LPIS. Currently, some MS based their IACS/LPIS on data from their Land Administration Systems (LAS), and many others use purpose built special systems for their IACS/LPIS. The issue with these different IACS/LPIS is that they do not have standardized structures; rather, each represents a unique design in each MS, both in the case of LAS based or special systems. In this study, we aim at designing a core data model for those IACS/LPIS based on LAS. For this purpose, we make use of the ongoing standardization initiatives for LAS (Land Administration Domain Model: LADM) and IACS/LPIS (LPIS Core Model: LCM). The data model we propose in this study implies the collaboration between LADM and LCM and includes some extensions. Some basic issues with the collaboration model are discussed within this study: registration of farmers, land use rights and farming limitations, geometry/topology, temporal data management etc. For further explanation of the model structure, sample instance level diagrams illustrating some typical situations are also included.

  15. Volumetric and Correlational Implications of Brain Parcellation Method Selection: A 3-Way Comparison in the Frontal Lobes

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Simon R.; McKenzie, Tahlia I.; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Royle, Natalie A.; MacPherson, Sarah E.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Bastin, Mark E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.; Ferguson, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to compare distinct brain frontal lobe parcellation methods across 90 brain magnetic resonance imaging scans and examine their associations with cognition in older age. Methods Three parcellation methods (Manual, FreeSurfer, and Stereology) were applied to T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of 90 older men, aged ∼73 years. A measure of general fluid intelligence (gf) associated with dorsolateral frontal regions was also derived from a contemporaneous psychological test battery. Results Despite highly discordant raw volumes for the same nominal regions, Manual and FreeSurfer (but not Stereology) left dorsolateral measures were significantly correlated with gf (r > 0.22), whereas orbital and inferior lateral volumes were not, consistent with the hypothesized frontal localization of gf. Conclusions Individual differences in specific frontal lobe brain volumes—variously measured—show consistent associations with cognitive ability in older age. Importantly, differences in parcellation protocol for some regions that may impact the outcome of brain-cognition analyses are discussed. PMID:26466114

  16. On the motion of air through the stratospheric polar vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Zurek, R. W.; O'Neill, A.; Swinbank, R.

    1994-01-01

    Trajectory calculations using horizontal winds from the U.K. Meteorological Office data assimilation system and vertical velocities from a radiation calculation are used to simulate the three-dimensional motion of air through the stratospheric polar vortex for Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH) winters since the launch of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Throughout the winter, air from the upper stratosphere moves poleward and descends into the middle stratosphere. In the SH lower to middle stratosphere, strongest descent occurs near the edge of the polar vortex, with that edge defined by mixing characteristics. The NH shows a similar pattern in late winter, but in early winter strongest descent is near the center of the vortex, except when wave activity is particularly strong. Strong barriers to latitudinal mixing exist above about 420 K throughout the winter. Below this, the polar night jet is weak in early winter, so air descending below that level mixes between polar and middle latitudes. In late winter, parcels descend less and the polar night jet moves downward, so there is less latitudinal mixing. The degree of mixing in the lower stratosphere thus depends strongly on the position and evolution of the polar night jet and on the amount of descent experienced by the air parcels; these characteristics show considerable interannual variability in both hemispheres. The computed trajectories provide a three-dimensional picture of air motion during the final warming. Large tongues of air are drawn off the vortex and stretched into increasingly long and narrow tongues extending into low latitudes. This vortex erosion process proceeds more rapidly in the NH than in he SH. In the lower stratosphere, the majority of air parcels remain confined within a lingering region of strong potential vorticity gradients into December in the SH and April in the NH, well after the vortex breaks up in the midstratosphere.

  17. Neural coordination during reach-to-grasp.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Mukta; Kording, Konrad; Saleh, Maryam; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G

    2015-09-01

    When reaching to grasp, we coordinate how we preshape the hand with how we move it. To ask how motor cortical neurons participate in this coordination, we examined the interactions between reach- and grasp-related neuronal ensembles while monkeys reached to grasp a variety of different objects in different locations. By describing the dynamics of these two ensembles as trajectories in a low-dimensional state space, we examined their coupling in time. We found evidence for temporal compensation across many different reach-to-grasp conditions such that if one neural trajectory led in time the other tended to catch up, reducing the asynchrony between the trajectories. Granger causality revealed bidirectional interactions between reach and grasp neural trajectories beyond that which could be attributed to the joint kinematics that were consistently stronger in the grasp-to-reach direction. Characterizing cortical coordination dynamics provides a new framework for understanding the functional interactions between neural populations.

  18. From Hard to Reach to How to Reach: A Systematic Review of the Literature on Hard-to-Reach Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boag-Munroe, Gill; Evangelou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature relating to hard-to-reach families which has been published over the last 12 years in the UK, USA, Canada and Australia. The purpose of the review was twofold: to gain insights to understandings of the term "hard-to-reach" within these services--education, health and social--which might be aiming to…

  19. Project Overview: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    This fact sheet describes UPS second generation hybrid-electric delivery vehicles as compared to conventional delivery vehicles. Medium-duty commercial vehicles such as moving trucks, beverage-delivery trucks, and package-delivery vans consume almost 2,000 gal of fuel per year on average. United Parcel Service (UPS) operates hybrid-electric package-delivery vans to reduce the fuel use and emissions of its fleet. In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluation Team evaluated the first generation of UPS' hybrid delivery vans. These hybrid vans demonstrated 29%-37% higher fuel economy than comparable conventional diesel vans, which contributed to UPS' decision to add second-generation hybrid vans to its fleet. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team is now evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 second-generation hybrid vans and 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operated by UPS in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The evaluation also includes testing fuel economy and emissions at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory and comparing diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. In addition, a followup evaluation of UPS' first-generation hybrid vans will show how those vehicles performed over three years of operation. One goal of this project is to provide a consistent comparison of fuel economy and operating costs between the second-generation hybrid vans and comparable conventional vans. Additional goals include quantifying the effects of hybridization on DPF regeneration and helping UPS select delivery routes for its hybrid vans that maximize the benefits of hybrid technology. This document introduces the UPS second-generation hybrid evaluation project. Final results will be available in mid-2012.

  20. Catchment-scale hydrologic implications of parcel-level stormwater management (Ohio USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuster, William; Rhea, Lee

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThe effectiveness of stormwater management strategies is a key issue affecting decision making on urban water resources management, and so proper monitoring and analysis of pilot studies must be addressed before drawing conclusions. We performed a pilot study in the suburban Shepherd Creek watershed located in Cincinnati, Ohio to evaluate the practicality of voluntary incentives for stormwater quantity reduction on privately owned suburban properties. Stream discharge and precipitation were monitored 3 years before and after implementation of the stormwater management treatments. To implement stormwater control measures, we elicited the participation of citizen landowners with two successive reverse-auctions. Auctions were held in spring 2007, and 2008, resulting in the installation of 85 rain gardens and 174 rain barrels. We demonstrated an analytic process of increasing model flexibility to determine hydrologic effectiveness of stormwater management at the sub-catchment level. A significant albeit small proportion of total variance was explained by both the effects of study period (˜69%) and treatment-vs.-control (˜7%). Precipitation-discharge relationships were synthesized in estimated unit hydrographs, which were decomposed and components tested for influence of treatments. Analysis of unit hydrograph parameters showed a weakened correlation between precipitation and discharge, and support the output from the initial model that parcel-level green infrastructure added detention capacity to treatment basins. We conclude that retrofit management of stormwater runoff quantity with green infrastructure in a small suburban catchment can be successfully initiated with novel economic incentive programs, and that these measures can impart a small, but statistically significant decrease in otherwise uncontrolled runoff volume. Given consistent monitoring data and analysis, water resource managers can use our approach as a way to estimate actual effectiveness of

  1. Deducing logical relationships between spatially registered cortical parcellations under conditions of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Bezgin, Gleb; Wanke, Egon; Krumnack, Antje; Kötter, Rolf

    2008-10-01

    We propose a new technique, called Spatial Objective Relational Transformation (SORT), as an automated approach for derivation of logical relationships between cortical areas in different brain maps registered in the same Euclidean space. Recently, there have been large amounts of voxel-based three-dimensional structural and functional imaging data that provide us with coordinate-based information about the location of differently defined areas in the brain, whereas coordinate-independent, parcellation-based mapping is still commonly used in the majority of animal tracing and mapping studies. Because of the impact of voxel-based imaging methods and the need to attribute their features to coordinate-independent brain entities, this mapping becomes increasingly important. Our motivation here is not to make vague statements where more precise spatial statements would be better, but to find criteria for the identity (or other logical relationships) between areas that were delineated by different methods, in different individuals, or mapped to three-dimensional space using different deformation algorithms. The relevance of this problem becomes immediately obvious as one superimposes and compares different datasets in multimodal databases (e.g. CARET, http://brainmap.wustl.edu/caret), where voxel-based data are registered to surface nodes exploited by the procedure presented here. We describe the SORT algorithm and its implementation in the Java 2 programming language (http://java.sun.com/, which we make available for download. We give an example of practical use of our approach, and validate the SORT approach against a database of the coordinate-independent statements and inferences that have been deduced using alternative techniques.

  2. Calibrating Reach Distance to Visual Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the calibration of reach distance by gradually distorting the haptic feedback obtained when participants grasped visible target objects. The authors found that the modified relationship between visually specified distance and reach distance could be captured by a straight-line mapping function. Thus, the relation could be…

  3. Reach preparation enhances visual performance and appearance.

    PubMed

    Rolfs, Martin; Lawrence, Bonnie M; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-10-19

    We investigated the impact of the preparation of reach movements on visual perception by simultaneously quantifying both an objective measure of visual sensitivity and the subjective experience of apparent contrast. Using a two-by-two alternative forced choice task, observers compared the orientation (clockwise or counterclockwise) and the contrast (higher or lower) of a Standard Gabor and a Test Gabor, the latter of which was presented during reach preparation, at the reach target location or the opposite location. Discrimination performance was better overall at the reach target than at the opposite location. Perceived contrast increased continuously at the target relative to the opposite location during reach preparation, that is, after the onset of the cue indicating the reach target. The finding that performance and appearance do not evolve in parallel during reach preparation points to a distinction with saccade preparation, for which we have shown previously there is a parallel temporal evolution of performance and appearance. Yet akin to saccade preparation, this study reveals that overall reach preparation enhances both visual performance and appearance.

  4. Reaching higher goals by means of a reflecting wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faella, O.; De Luca, R.

    2015-05-01

    A student realizes that a point particle that is able to rise at a given point P0 at height H when launched vertically from the origin O of a Cartesian plane at a fixed initial speed V0 cannot reach, by means of a direct shot from a small spring cannon, a point P positioned at the same height H and distance d from P0, with 0 < d ≤ R, where R is the maximum horizontal distance attainable with an optimum throw at an angle of 45°. However, the student realizes that, in the absence of air resistance, conservation of energy does not prevent this possibility. Therefore, in order to reach point P, the student uses a perfectly reflecting surface, opportunely inclined with respect to the horizontal. The full story of how this is done will be narrated in this article.

  5. The Database for Reaching Experiments and Models

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ben; Kording, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Reaching is one of the central experimental paradigms in the field of motor control, and many computational models of reaching have been published. While most of these models try to explain subject data (such as movement kinematics, reaching performance, forces, etc.) from only a single experiment, distinct experiments often share experimental conditions and record similar kinematics. This suggests that reaching models could be applied to (and falsified by) multiple experiments. However, using multiple datasets is difficult because experimental data formats vary widely. Standardizing data formats promises to enable scientists to test model predictions against many experiments and to compare experimental results across labs. Here we report on the development of a new resource available to scientists: a database of reaching called the Database for Reaching Experiments And Models (DREAM). DREAM collects both experimental datasets and models and facilitates their comparison by standardizing formats. The DREAM project promises to be useful for experimentalists who want to understand how their data relates to models, for modelers who want to test their theories, and for educators who want to help students better understand reaching experiments, models, and data analysis. PMID:24244351

  6. Scaling affordances for human reach actions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeg Joo; Mark, Leonard S

    2004-12-01

    A methodology developed by Cesari and Newell [Cesari, P., & Newell, K. M. (1999). The scaling of human grip configuration. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 25, 927-935; Cesari, P., & Newell, K. M. (2000). The body-scaling of grip configurations in children aged 6-12 years. Developmental Psychobiology 36, 301-310] was used to delineate the roles of an object's weight (W) and distance (D) as well as the actor's strength (S) in determining the macroscopic action used to reach for the object. Participants reached for objects of five different weights placed at 10 distances. The findings of a single discriminant analysis revealed that when object weight is scaled in terms of each individual's strength and reach distance is scaled in terms of each individual's maximum-seated reach distance, a single discriminant analysis was able to predict 90% of the reach modes used by both men and women. The result of the discriminant analysis was used to construct a body-scaled equation, K=lnD+ln(W/S)/36, similar in form to the one derived by Cesari and Newell, accurately predicted the reach action used. Our findings indicate that Cesari and Newell's method can identify a complex relationship between geometric and dynamic constraints that determine the affordances for different reach actions. PMID:15664673

  7. Phase I Archaeological Survey of Parcel ED-3 and Historic Assessement of the Happy Valley Worker Camp Roane County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    New South Associates

    2009-08-17

    Parcel ED-3 was the location of a portion of 'Happy Valley', a temporary worker housing area occupied from 1943 to 1947 during the construction of the K-25 Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The project was carried out under subcontract for the Department of Energy. The survey report will be used in the preparation of an Environmental Assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). New South Associates conducted a Phase I Archaeological Survey of Parcel ED-3 at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation in Roane County, Tennessee. The survey was conducted in two parts. The first survey was carried out in 2008 and covered an area measuring approximately 110 acres. The second survey took place in 2009 and focused on 72 acres west of the first survey area. The objective of the surveys was to identify any archaeological remains associated with Happy Valley and any additional sites on the property and to assess these sites for National Register eligibility. New South Associates also conducted a historic assessment to gather information on Happy Valley. This historic assessment was used in conjunction with the archaeological survey to evaluate the significance of the Happy Valley site. Archaeological remains of Happy Valley were located throughout the parcel, but no additional sites were located. The official state site number for Happy Valley is 40RE577. During the two surveys a total of 13 artifact concentrations, 14 isolated finds, and 75 structural features were located. Due to the Happy Valley's stron gassociation with the Manhattan Project, the site is recommended eligible for the National Register of Historic Places under Criterion A.

  8. Reaching the Overlooked Student in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esslinger, Keri; Esslinger, Travis; Bagshaw, Jarad

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the use of live action role-playing, or "LARPing," as a non-traditional activity that has the potential to reach students who are not interested in traditional physical education.

  9. Air pollution modifies floral scent trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFrederick, Quinn S.; Kathilankal, James C.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    Floral hydrocarbons provide essential signals to attract pollinators. As soon as they are emitted to the atmosphere, however, hydrocarbons are destroyed by chemical reactions involving pollutants such as ozone. It is therefore likely that increased air pollution interferes with pollinator attracting hydrocarbon signals. To test this hypothesis, a Lagrangian diffusion model was used to determine the position of air parcels away from hydrocarbon sources and to estimate the rate of chemical destruction of hydrocarbons as air parcels moved across the landscape. The hydrocarbon compounds linalool, β-myrcene, and β-ocimene were chosen because they are known to be common scents released from flowers. The suppressed ambient abundances of volatile organic compounds were determined in response to increased regional levels of ozone, hydroxyl, and nitrate radicals. The results indicate that the documented increases in air pollution concentrations, from pre-industrial to present times, can lead to reductions in volatile compound concentrations insects detect as they pollinate flowers. For highly reactive volatiles the maximum downwind distance from the source at which pollinators can detect the scents may have changed from kilometers during pre-industrial times to <200 m during the more polluted conditions of present times. The increased destruction of floral signals in polluted air masses may have important implications for both pollinators and signaling plants. When patches of flowers are further apart than the visual range of pollinators, such as in fragmented landscapes, the loss of scent signals may mean that pollinators spend more time searching for patches and less time foraging. This decrease in pollinator foraging efficiency will simultaneously decrease the pollinator's reproductive output and the amount of pollen flow in flowering plants.

  10. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  11. Framland parcels extraction from high-resolution remote sensing images based on the two-stage image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoying; Song, Xu; Lv, Jing

    2015-12-01

    It is difficult and boring for people to artificially extract farmland parcels from high resolution remote sensing images. Therefore, automatic methods are in the urgent need to release image interpreters from such a work as well as achieve accurate results. In the past years, although many researchers have made attempts to solve this problem by using different techniques and also produced some good results, they still cannot meet the demand of practical applications. In this paper, a farmland extraction method is proposed based on a new technique of two-stage image classification. The first stage aims at producing a map of farmland area by using the supervised iterative conditional mode (ICM), where a novel mixture posterior is proposed based on the tree-structured interpretation of certain complex landscapes, e.g., farmland and building area, and the Markov random field model (MRF) is also used to make use of spatial information between neighboring pixels. The second stage extracts the farmland parcels by using the Meanshift algorithm (MS) based on the hybrid of the original image and the texture image produced by the local binary pattern (LBP) method. We applied our method to a piece of aerial image in the urban area of Taizhou, China. The results show that the proposed method has an ability to produce more accurate results than the MS method.

  12. Decoding the Role of the Insula in Human Cognition: Functional Parcellation and Large-Scale Reverse Inference

    PubMed Central

    Yarkoni, Tal; Khaw, Mel Win; Sanfey, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has indicated that the insula may be involved in goal-directed cognition, switching between networks, and the conscious awareness of affect and somatosensation. However, these findings have been limited by the insula’s remarkably high base rate of activation and considerable functional heterogeneity. The present study used a relatively unbiased data-driven approach combining resting-state connectivity-based parcellation of the insula with large-scale meta-analysis to understand how the insula is anatomically organized based on functional connectivity patterns as well as the consistency and specificity of the associated cognitive functions. Our findings support a tripartite subdivision of the insula and reveal that the patterns of functional connectivity in the resting-state analysis appear to be relatively conserved across tasks in the meta-analytic coactivation analysis. The function of the networks was meta-analytically “decoded” using the Neurosynth framework and revealed that while the dorsoanterior insula is more consistently involved in human cognition than ventroanterior and posterior networks, each parcellated network is specifically associated with a distinct function. Collectively, this work suggests that the insula is instrumental in integrating disparate functional systems involved in processing affect, sensory-motor processing, and general cognition and is well suited to provide an interface between feelings, cognition, and action. PMID:22437053

  13. Distance reached in the Anteromedial Reach Test as a function of learning and leg length.

    PubMed

    Bent, Nicholas P; Rushton, Alison B; Wright, Chris C; Batt, Mark E

    2012-06-01

    The anteromedial reach test (ART) is a new outcome measure for assessing dynamic knee stability in anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients. The effect of learning and leg length on distance reached in the ART was examined. Thirty-two healthy volunteers performed 15 trials of the ART on each leg. There was a moderate correlation (r = .44-.50) between reach distance and leg length, therefore reach distances were normalized for leg length. Normalized reach distance increased significantly over the 15 trials (p < .01), reaching a plateau after 8 trials, identified by a moving average graph. It is recommended that participants be afforded eight practice trials and that reach distances be normalized by expressing them as a percentage of leg length.

  14. Using tax parcels to select a location-based sample: an illustration that examines residents' awareness of sex offenders in neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Craun, Sarah W; Freisthler, Bridget

    2008-08-01

    Social science research is increasingly considering place when examining social programs and policies with a spatial component. A specific research challenge involving spatial policies is how to select a sample of individuals based on their geographic locations. This article illustrates the use of geographic information systems, tax parcels, and mail surveys to target residents in varied geographic areas. A provided example demonstrates how researchers obtained a sample of respondents living within one tenth of a mile of multiple registered sex offenders. The challenges of using tax parcels to obtain addresses for apartments and mobile home parks are also explored.

  15. A human brain atlas derived via n-cut parcellation of resting-state and task-based fMRI data.

    PubMed

    James, George Andrew; Hazaroglu, Onder; Bush, Keith A

    2016-02-01

    The growth of functional MRI has led to development of human brain atlases derived by parcellating resting-state connectivity patterns into functionally independent regions of interest (ROIs). All functional atlases to date have been derived from resting-state fMRI data. But given that functional connectivity between regions varies with task, we hypothesized that an atlas incorporating both resting-state and task-based fMRI data would produce an atlas with finer characterization of task-relevant regions than an atlas derived from resting-state alone. To test this hypothesis, we derived parcellation atlases from twenty-nine healthy adult participants enrolled in the Cognitive Connectome project, an initiative to improve functional MRI's translation into clinical decision-making by mapping normative variance in brain-behavior relationships. Participants underwent resting-state and task-based fMRI spanning nine cognitive domains: motor, visuospatial, attention, language, memory, affective processing, decision-making, working memory, and executive function. Spatially constrained n-cut parcellation derived brain atlases using (1) all participants' functional data (Task) or (2) a single resting-state scan (Rest). An atlas was also derived from random parcellation for comparison purposes (Random). Two methods were compared: (1) a parcellation applied to the group's mean edge weights (mean), and (2) a two-stage approach with parcellation of individual edge weights followed by parcellation of mean binarized edges (two-stage). The resulting Task and Rest atlases had significantly greater similarity with each other (mean Jaccard indices JI=0.72-0.85) than with the Random atlases (JI=0.59-0.63; all p<0.001 after Bonferroni correction). Task and Rest atlas similarity was greatest for the two-stage method (JI=0.85), which has been shown as more robust than the mean method; these atlases also better reproduced voxelwise seed maps of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during

  16. The REACH Youth Program Learning Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra Health Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Believing in the value of using video documentaries and data as learning tools, members of the REACH technical assistance team collaborated to develop this toolkit. The learning toolkit was designed using and/or incorporating components of the "Engaging Youth in Community Change: Outcomes and Lessons Learned from Sierra Health Foundation's REACH…

  17. Reaching Rural Women: Case Studies and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colle, Royal D.; Fernandez de Colle, Susana

    Although not often considered in the past by planners because their economic contributions are not performed for money, rural women are contributors to the development of their countries. The urgency of reaching women with important information to break the cycle of poverty is now being recognized by the major development agencies. While there are…

  18. Does Bead B Always Reach "d" First?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, T. F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Applies the concepts of kinematics and conservation of mechanical energy to calculate the time needed to reach a certain point along semicircular and parabolic paths. Presents numerical calculations for the critical speed thresholds for the paths of semicircular and parabolic curves. (JRH)

  19. A Rotation Invariant in 3-D Reaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Suvobrata; Turvey, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated changes in hand orientation during a 3-D reaching task that imposed specific position and orientation requirements on the hand's initial and final postures. Instantaneous hand orientation was described using 3-element rotation vectors representing current orientation as a rotation from a fixed reference…

  20. What Determines Limb Selection for Reaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbig, Casi Rabb; Gabbard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    While motor dominance appears to drive limb selection for reaching movements at the midline and ipsilateral (dominant) side, this study examined the possible determinants associated with what drives the programming of movements in response to stimuli presented in contralateral space. Experiment 1 distinguished between object proximity and a…

  1. Science Experiments: Reaching Out to Our Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Maureen; Tschirhart, Lori; Wright, Stephanie; Barrett, Laura; Parsons, Matthew; Whang, Linda

    2008-01-01

    As more users access library services remotely, it has become increasingly important for librarians to reach out to their user communities and promote the value of libraries. Convincing the faculty and students in the sciences of the value of libraries and librarians can be a particularly "hard sell" as more and more of their primary journal…

  2. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  3. Reach and Grasp reconfigurations reveal that proprioception assists reaching and hapsis assists grasping in peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lauren A; Karl, Jenni M; Thomas, Brittany L; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2014-09-01

    The dual visuomotor channel theory proposes that prehension consists of a Reach that transports the hand in relation to an object's extrinsic properties (e.g., location) and a Grasp that shapes the hand to an object's intrinsic properties (e.g., size and shape). In central vision, the Reach and the Grasp are integrated but when an object cannot be seen, the movements can decompose with the Reach first used to locate the object and the Grasp postponed until it is assisted by touch. Reaching for an object in a peripheral visual field is an everyday act, and although it is reported that there are changes in Grasp aperture with target eccentricity, it is not known whether the configuration of the Reach and the Grasp also changes. The present study examined this question by asking participants to reach for food items at 0° or 22.5° and 45° from central gaze. Participants made 15 reaches for a larger round donut ball and a smaller blueberry, and hand movements were analyzed using frame-by-frame video inspection and linear kinematics. Perception of targets was degraded as participants could not identify objects in peripheral vision but did recognize their differential size. The Reach to peripheral targets featured a more dorsal trajectory, a more open hand, and less accurate digit placement. The Grasp featured hand adjustments or target manipulations after contact, which were associated with a prolonged Grasp duration. Thus, Grasps to peripheral vision did not consist only of a simple modification of visually guided reaching but included the addition of somatosensory assistance. The kinematic and behavioral changes argue that proprioception assists the Reach and touch assists the Grasp in peripheral vision, supporting the idea that Reach and Grasp movements are used flexibly in relation to sensory guidance depending upon the salience of target properties.

  4. [Implications of the REACH registry for neurologists].

    PubMed

    Roquer, Jaume

    2009-09-01

    Data from the REACH registry help to understand distinct problems affecting patients with arteriosclerotic disease. The arteriosclerotic burden evaluated by quantifying the number of diseased vascular territories is a marker of poor prognosis that increases the risk of recurrences, morbidity and mortality and death at 1 year. In cerebrovascular disease, it is important to highlight that patients with stroke are those with the highest rates of cerebral reinfarction and also show the highest combined rate of cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke. Special care must be taken in patients who have had a transient ischemic attack since these patients accumulate a number of vascular risk factors. Data from the REACH registry suggest that preventive treatment and control of vascular risk factors could be improved, especially control of hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Consequently, preventive measures should be intensified in these patients to achieve adequate control of risk factors through encouraging healthy lifestyle habits, appropriate use of drugs and treatment adherence.

  5. Rules of engagement: reaching out to communities.

    PubMed

    Rellon, Lakhvir

    2009-06-01

    With the right form of engagement, so-called hard-to-reach communities can play vital roles in shaping and improving services. This article describes some of the innovative ways in which Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust engages with local communities and offers some advice to senior nurses and managers who want to make contact with people in their localities PMID:19534178

  6. Exposure-based waiving under REACH.

    PubMed

    Vermeire, Theo; van de Bovenkamp, Marja; de Bruin, Yuri Bruinen; Delmaar, Christiaan; van Engelen, Jacqueline; Escher, Sylvia; Marquart, Hans; Meijster, Tim

    2010-12-01

    Within the REACH framework, but also within OECD, there is understanding that for reasons of animal welfare, costs and logistics, it is important to limit the number of tests to be conducted. Exposure-based waiving (EBW) is a potentially important element in testing strategies. This publication describes criteria for exposure-based waiving as foreseen in the REACH regulation and gives more detail to the REACH requirements for exposure-based waiving The principle behind any EBW is that there are situations when human or environmental exposures are so low or infrequent that there is a very low probability that the acquisition of additional effect information may lead to an improvement in the ability to manage risk. EBW therefore is risk-based and needs thorough knowledge on exposure as well as on effects criteria. Both elements are discussed: exposure models are analysed and the uncertainty in their predictions discussed as well as no-effect criteria such as the threshold of toxicological concern. Examples of EBW are provided for environmental, consumer and worker exposure. REACH only allows EBW in a limited number of cases with constraints on tonnage levels, types of tests to be waived and the need for a thorough ES and exposure assessment throughout the life cycle of a chemical and for all human exposure routes and environmental pathways. EBW will only be considered a real option by industry if a cost-benefit analysis shows an advantage, which may heavily depend on the weighing factor one applies for the non-use of experimental animals.

  7. Exposure-based waiving under REACH.

    PubMed

    Vermeire, Theo; van de Bovenkamp, Marja; de Bruin, Yuri Bruinen; Delmaar, Christiaan; van Engelen, Jacqueline; Escher, Sylvia; Marquart, Hans; Meijster, Tim

    2010-12-01

    Within the REACH framework, but also within OECD, there is understanding that for reasons of animal welfare, costs and logistics, it is important to limit the number of tests to be conducted. Exposure-based waiving (EBW) is a potentially important element in testing strategies. This publication describes criteria for exposure-based waiving as foreseen in the REACH regulation and gives more detail to the REACH requirements for exposure-based waiving The principle behind any EBW is that there are situations when human or environmental exposures are so low or infrequent that there is a very low probability that the acquisition of additional effect information may lead to an improvement in the ability to manage risk. EBW therefore is risk-based and needs thorough knowledge on exposure as well as on effects criteria. Both elements are discussed: exposure models are analysed and the uncertainty in their predictions discussed as well as no-effect criteria such as the threshold of toxicological concern. Examples of EBW are provided for environmental, consumer and worker exposure. REACH only allows EBW in a limited number of cases with constraints on tonnage levels, types of tests to be waived and the need for a thorough ES and exposure assessment throughout the life cycle of a chemical and for all human exposure routes and environmental pathways. EBW will only be considered a real option by industry if a cost-benefit analysis shows an advantage, which may heavily depend on the weighing factor one applies for the non-use of experimental animals. PMID:20713110

  8. Using Tax Parcels to Select a Location-Based Sample: An Illustration that Examines Residents' Awareness of Sex Offenders in Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Sarah W.; Freisthler, Bridget

    2008-01-01

    Social science research is increasingly considering place when examining social programs and policies with a spatial component. A specific research challenge involving spatial policies is how to select a sample of individuals based on their geographic locations. This article illustrates the use of geographic information systems, tax parcels, and…

  9. Action Sounds Modulate Arm Reaching Movements

    PubMed Central

    Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Marquardt, Torsten; Swapp, David; Kitagawa, Norimichi; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Our mental representations of our body are continuously updated through multisensory bodily feedback as we move and interact with our environment. Although it is often assumed that these internal models of body-representation are used to successfully act upon the environment, only a few studies have actually looked at how body-representation changes influence goal-directed actions, and none have looked at this in relation to body-representation changes induced by sound. The present work examines this question for the first time. Participants reached for a target object before and after adaptation periods during which the sounds produced by their hand tapping a surface were spatially manipulated to induce a representation of an elongated arm. After adaptation, participants’ reaching movements were performed in a way consistent with having a longer arm, in that their reaching velocities were reduced. These kinematic changes suggest auditory-driven recalibration of the somatosensory representation of the arm morphology. These results provide support to the hypothesis that one’s represented body size is used as a perceptual ruler to measure objects’ distances and to accordingly guide bodily actions. PMID:27695430

  10. Action Sounds Modulate Arm Reaching Movements

    PubMed Central

    Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Marquardt, Torsten; Swapp, David; Kitagawa, Norimichi; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Our mental representations of our body are continuously updated through multisensory bodily feedback as we move and interact with our environment. Although it is often assumed that these internal models of body-representation are used to successfully act upon the environment, only a few studies have actually looked at how body-representation changes influence goal-directed actions, and none have looked at this in relation to body-representation changes induced by sound. The present work examines this question for the first time. Participants reached for a target object before and after adaptation periods during which the sounds produced by their hand tapping a surface were spatially manipulated to induce a representation of an elongated arm. After adaptation, participants’ reaching movements were performed in a way consistent with having a longer arm, in that their reaching velocities were reduced. These kinematic changes suggest auditory-driven recalibration of the somatosensory representation of the arm morphology. These results provide support to the hypothesis that one’s represented body size is used as a perceptual ruler to measure objects’ distances and to accordingly guide bodily actions.

  11. Distance Reached in the Anteromedial Reach Test as a Function of Learning and Leg Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Nicholas P.; Rushton, Alison B.; Wright, Chris C.; Batt, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    The Anteromedial Reach Test (ART) is a new outcome measure for assessing dynamic knee stability in anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients. The effect of learning and leg length on distance reached in the ART was examined. Thirty-two healthy volunteers performed 15 trials of the ART on each leg. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.44-0.50)…

  12. Characterization of the temporo-parietal junction by combining data-driven parcellation, complementary connectivity analyses, and functional decoding

    PubMed Central

    Bzdok, Danilo; Langner, Robert; Schilbach, Leonhard; Jakobs, Oliver; Roski, Christian; Caspers, Svenja; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    The right temporo-parietal junction (RTPJ) is consistently implicated in two cognitive domains, attention and social cognitions. We conducted multi-modal connectivity-based parcellation to investigate potentially separate functional modules within RTPJ implementing this cognitive dualism. Both task-constrained meta-analytic coactivation mapping and task-free resting-state connectivity analysis independently identified two distinct clusters within RTPJ, subsequently characterized by network mapping and functional forward/reverse inference. Coactivation mapping and resting-state correlations revealed that the anterior cluster increased neural activity concomitantly with a midcingulate–motor–insular network, functionally associated with attention, and decreased neural activity concomitantly with a parietal network, functionally associated with social cognition and memory retrieval. The posterior cluster showed the exact opposite association pattern. Our data thus suggest that RTPJ links two antagonistic brain networks processing external versus internal information. PMID:23689016

  13. Environmental Baseline Survey Report for the Title Transfer of Land Parcel ED-4 at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    SAIC

    2008-05-01

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of a land parcel referred to as 'ED-4' (ED-4) at the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). DOE is proposing to transfer the title of this land to the Heritage Center, LLC. Parcel ED-4 is a land parcel that consists of two noncontiguous areas comprising a total of approximately 18 acres located east of the ETTP. The western tract of ED-4 encompasses approximately 8.5 acres in the northeastern quadrant of the intersection of Boulevard Road and Highway 58. The eastern tract encompasses an area of approximately 9.5 acres in the northwestern quadrant of the intersection of Blair Road and Highway 58 (the Oak Ridge Turnpike). Aerial photographs and site maps from throughout the history of the ETTP, going back to its initial development in the 1940s as the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), indicate that this area has been undeveloped woodland with the exception of three support facilities for workers constructing the ORGDP since federal acquisition in 1943. These three support facilities, which were located in the western tract of ED-4, included a recreation hall, the Town Hall Camp Operations Building, and the Property Warehouse. A railroad spur also formerly occupied a portion of Parcel ED-4. These former facilities only occupied approximately 5 percent of the total area of Parcel ED-4. This report provides supporting information for the transfer of this government-owned property at ETTP to a non-federal entity. This EBS is based upon the requirements of Sect. 120(h) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). In order to support a Clean Parcel Determination (CPD) in accordance with CERCLA Sect. 120(h)(4)(d), groundwater and sediment samples were collected within, and adjacent to, the Parcel ED-4 study area. The potential for DOE to make a CPD for ED-4 is further supported by a No

  14. Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. William F. Brinkman

    2009-09-30

    The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

  15. Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. William F. Brinkman

    2016-07-12

    The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

  16. Reaching Diverse Audiences through NOAO Education Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Sparks, R. T.; Walker, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    NOAO education programs are designed to reach diverse audiences. Examples described in this poster include the Hands-On Optics Project nationwide, an extension of the Hands-On Optics program at Boys and Girls Clubs in Arizona and in Hawaii, a professional development program for Navajo and Hopi teachers, a number of programs for the Tohono O'odham Nation, and a project collecting and reviewing Spanish language astronomy materials. Additionally NOAO is also involved in several local outreach projects for diverse and underserved audiences.

  17. Nonvisual learning of intrinsic object properties in a reaching task dissociates grasp from reach.

    PubMed

    Karl, Jenni M; Schneider, Leandra R; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2013-04-01

    The Dual Visuomotor Channel theory proposes that skilled reaching is composed of a Reach that directs the hand in relation to the extrinsic properties of an object (e.g., location) and a Grasp that opens and closes the hand in relation to the intrinsic properties of an object (e.g., size). While Reach and Grasp movements are often guided by vision, they can also be performed without vision when reaching for a body part or an object on one's own body. Memory of a recently touched but unseen object can also be used to guide Reach and Grasp movements although the touch-response memory durations described are extremely brief (Karl et al. in Exp Brain Res 219:59-74, 2012a). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether repeated nonvisual reaching for a consistent object could calibrate Reach and Grasp movements in a way similar to those guided by vision. The nonvision group wore vision-occluding goggles and reached for fifty consecutive trials for a round donut ball placed on a pedestal. The control group performed the same task with vision. Frame-by-frame video analysis and linear kinematics revealed that nonvision participants consistently used an elevated Reach trajectory, in which the hand, rather than being directed toward the target in the horizontal plane, was first elevated above the target before being lowered to touch and locate it. First contact was established with the dorsal surface of the target, and thus, adjustments in contact locations were often required for purchase. Although nonvision participants initially used an open and extended hand during transport, with practice they began to scale digit aperture to object size with an accuracy and temporal relation similar to vision participants. The different ways in which the Reach and Grasp movements respond to nonvisual learning are discussed in relation to support for the dual channel theory of reaching and to the idea that the Reach and Grasp channels may be differentially dependent on

  18. Google Hangouts: Leveraging Social Media to Reach the Education Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Summers, Frank; McCallister, Dan; Ryer, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that educator professional development is most effective when it is sustained and/or when a follow-on component is included to support the learning process. In order to create more comprehensive learning experiences for our workshop participants, the education team at the Space Telescope Science Institute is working collaboratively with scientific staff and other experts to create a follow-on component for our professional development program. The new component utilizes video conferencing platforms, such as Google's Hangouts On Air, to provide educators with content updates and extended learning opportunities in between in-person professional development experiences. The goal is to enhance our professional development program in a cost-effective way while reaching a greater cross-section of educators. Video broadcasts go live on Google+, YouTube, and our website - thus providing access to any user with a web browser. Additionally, the broadcasts are automatically recorded and archived for future viewing on our YouTube channel. This provides educators with anywhere, anytime training that best suits their needs and schedules. This poster will highlight our new Hangouts for educators as well as our cross-departmental efforts to expand the reach of our Hubble Hangouts for the public through a targeted recruitment strategy.

  19. Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

    2007-03-01

    The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in order to achieve

  20. NASA's Astronomy Education Program: Reaching Diverse Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Hashima; Smith, Denise Anne; Hertz, Paul; Meinke, Bonnie

    2015-08-01

    An overview will be given of the rich programs developed by NASA to inject the science from it's Astrophysics missions into STEM activities targeted to diverse audiences. For example, Astro4Girls was started as a pilot program during IYA2009. This program partners NASA astrophysics education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed hands-on education activities for girls and their families, and has been executed across the country. School curricula and NASA websites have been translated in Spanish; Braille books have been developed for the visually impaired; programs have been developed for the hearing impaired. Special effort has been made to reach underrepresented minorities. Audiences include students, teachers, and the general public through formal and informal education settings, social media and other outlets. NASA Astrophysics education providers include teams embedded in its space flight missions; professionals selected though peer reviewed programs; as well as the Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Education forum. Representative examples will be presented to demonstrate the reach of NASA education programs, as well as an evaluation of the effectiveness of these programs.

  1. Mass reach scaling for future hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2015-04-01

    The primary goal of any future hadron collider is to discover new physics (NP) associated with a high mass scale, , beyond the range of the LHC. In order to maintain the same relative mass reach for rate-limited NP, , as increases, Richter recently reminded us that the required integrated luminosity obtainable at future hadron colliders (FHC) must grow rapidly, , in the limit of naive scaling. This would imply, e.g., a 50-fold increase in the required integrated luminosity when going from the 14 TeV LHC to a FHC with TeV, an increase that would prove quite challenging on many different fronts. In this paper we point out, due to the scaling violations associated with the evolution of the parton density functions (PDFs) and the running of the strong coupling, , that the actual luminosity necessary in order to maintain any fixed value of the relative mass reach is somewhat greater than this scaling result indicates. However, the actual values of the required luminosity scaling are found to be dependent upon the detailed nature of the NP being considered. Here we elucidate this point explicitly by employing several specific benchmark examples of possible NP scenarios and briefly discuss the (relatively weak) search impact in each case if these luminosity goals are not met.

  2. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer. PMID:23720533

  3. Reach Out, Reach Out and Beep Someone: People Communicate Better via Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Arlene M.

    1983-01-01

    An electronic mail system used by and within a college development office provides a communication network reaching all parts of the institution's administration and colleagues nationwide. The applications include sending individual or group messages, teleconferencing, and maintenance of files. (MSE)

  4. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  5. A thermal profile method to identify potential ground-water discharge areas and preferred salmonid habitats for long river reaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Maloy, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal regime of riverine systems is a major control on aquatic ecosystems. Ground water discharge is an important abiotic driver of the aquatic ecosystem because it provides preferred thermal structure and habitat for different types of fish at different times in their life history. In large diverse river basins with an extensive riverine system, documenting the thermal regime and ground-water discharge is difficult and problematic. A method was developed to thermally profile long (5-25 kilometers) river reaches by towing in a Lagrangian framework one or two probes that measure temperature, depth, and conductivity. One probe is towed near the streambed and, if used, a second probe is towed near the surface. The probes continuously record data at 1-3-second intervals while a Global Positioning System logs spatial coordinates. The thermal profile provides valuable information about spatial and temporal variations in habitat, and, notably, indicates ground-water discharge areas. This method was developed and tested in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, in summer 2001 during low flows in an extreme drought year. The temperature profile comprehensively documents the longitudinal distribution of a river's temperature regime that cannot be captured by fixed station data. The example profile presented exhibits intra-reach diversity that reflects the many factors controlling the temperature of a parcel of water as it moves downstream. Thermal profiles provide a new perspective on riverine system temperature regimes that represent part of the aquatic habitat template for lotic community patterns.

  6. Reaching Consensus by Allowing Moments of Indecision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenkeson, A.; Swami, A.

    2015-10-01

    Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form.

  7. Reach and get capability in a computing environment

    DOEpatents

    Bouchard, Ann M.; Osbourn, Gordon C.

    2012-06-05

    A reach and get technique includes invoking a reach command from a reach location within a computing environment. A user can then navigate to an object within the computing environment and invoke a get command on the object. In response to invoking the get command, the computing environment is automatically navigated back to the reach location and the object copied into the reach location.

  8. TB deaths reach historic levels. International (global).

    PubMed

    More tuberculosis (TB)-related deaths occurred in 1995 than in any other year in history (almost 3 million, vs. 2.1 million for the TB epidemic around 1990). In the next 50 years, as many as 500 million people may develop TB if current rates continue. More and more of these people will develop multidrug resistant TB. TB affects all social groups. It is the leading fatal infection in youth and adults. HIV positive people are more likely to die from TB than any other condition. More women die from TB than all causes of maternal mortality combined. Almost 50% of the world's refugees may have TB. All people are at risk of TB since TB bacteria, which enter the air via coughing or sneezing, can be suspended in the air for hours. Increased air travel and migration have brought TB back to industrialized countries. Multi-drug resistant TB has emerged in New York City, London, Milan, Paris, Atlanta, Chicago, and cities in developing countries. Governments of industrialized and developing countries have been slow to understand the effects of multi-drug resistant TB for public health. During the 1970s and 1980s, TB was greatly neglected resulting in the current multi-drug resistant TB epidemic. Policy makers have not applied the tools discovered by scientists to help eliminate TB. The World Health Organization recommends directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) to fight TB. DOTS can increase the number of cured TB patients two-fold. It can cure almost 95% of TB patients with medicines costing less than $11 in some areas of the world. Yet DOTS is being used to cure only 10% of all TB patients in the world. If it were used in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, South Africa, and Zaire, about 75% of all TB cases would be cured. In DOTS, health workers, not the TB patient, are responsible for curing the TB patient. Poor patient compliance is responsible for the current TB epidemic because TB patients remain

  9. TB deaths reach historic levels. International (global).

    PubMed

    More tuberculosis (TB)-related deaths occurred in 1995 than in any other year in history (almost 3 million, vs. 2.1 million for the TB epidemic around 1990). In the next 50 years, as many as 500 million people may develop TB if current rates continue. More and more of these people will develop multidrug resistant TB. TB affects all social groups. It is the leading fatal infection in youth and adults. HIV positive people are more likely to die from TB than any other condition. More women die from TB than all causes of maternal mortality combined. Almost 50% of the world's refugees may have TB. All people are at risk of TB since TB bacteria, which enter the air via coughing or sneezing, can be suspended in the air for hours. Increased air travel and migration have brought TB back to industrialized countries. Multi-drug resistant TB has emerged in New York City, London, Milan, Paris, Atlanta, Chicago, and cities in developing countries. Governments of industrialized and developing countries have been slow to understand the effects of multi-drug resistant TB for public health. During the 1970s and 1980s, TB was greatly neglected resulting in the current multi-drug resistant TB epidemic. Policy makers have not applied the tools discovered by scientists to help eliminate TB. The World Health Organization recommends directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) to fight TB. DOTS can increase the number of cured TB patients two-fold. It can cure almost 95% of TB patients with medicines costing less than $11 in some areas of the world. Yet DOTS is being used to cure only 10% of all TB patients in the world. If it were used in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, South Africa, and Zaire, about 75% of all TB cases would be cured. In DOTS, health workers, not the TB patient, are responsible for curing the TB patient. Poor patient compliance is responsible for the current TB epidemic because TB patients remain

  10. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  11. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  12. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  13. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  14. Preparatory delay activity in the monkey parietal reach region predicts reach reaction times.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Lawrence H; Dickinson, Anthony R; Calton, Jeffrey L

    2006-10-01

    To acquire something that we see, visual spatial information must ultimately result in the activation of the appropriate set of muscles. This sensory to motor transformation requires an interaction between information coding target location and information coding which effector will be moved. Activity in the monkey parietal reach region (PRR) reflects both spatial information and the effector (arm or eye) that will be used in an upcoming reach or saccade task. To further elucidate the functional role of PRR in visually guided movement tasks and to obtain evidence that PRR signals are used to drive arm movements, we tested the hypothesis that increased neuronal activity during a preparatory delay period would lead to faster reach reaction times but would not be correlated with saccade reaction times. This proved to be the case only when the type of movement and not the spatial goal of that movement was known in advance. The correlation was strongest in cells that showed significantly more activity on arm reach compared with saccade trials. No significant correlations were found during delay periods in which spatial information was provided in advance. These data support the idea that PRR constitutes a bottleneck in the processing of spatial information for an upcoming arm reach. The lack of a correlation with saccadic reaction time also supports the idea that PRR processing is effector specific, that is, it is involved in specifying targets for arm movements but not targets for eye movements.

  15. Design and implementation of an air monitoring program in support of a brownfields redevelopment program

    SciTech Connect

    Maisel, B.E.; Hunt, G.T.; Devaney, R.J. Jr.; Gauvin, M.R.

    1998-12-31

    EPA`s Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Initiative has sparked renewal of industrial and commercial parcels otherwise idled or under-utilized because of real or perceived environmental contamination. In certain cases, restoring such parcels to productive economic use requires a redevelopment effort protective of human health and welfare through minimizing offsite migration of environmental contaminants during cleanup, demolition and remediation activities. To support these objectives, an air monitoring program is often required as an integral element of a comprehensive brownfields redevelopment effort. This paper presents a strategic framework for design and execution of an ambient air monitoring program in support of a brownfields remediation effort ongoing in Lawrence, MA. Based on site characterization, the program included sample collection and laboratory analysis of ambient air samples for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total suspended particulate (TSP), inhalable particulate (PM10), and lead. The program included four monitoring phases, identified as background, wintertime, demolition/remediation and post-demolition. Air sampling occurred over a 16 month period during 1996--97, during which time nine sampling locations were utilized to produce approximately 1,500 ambient air samples. Following strict data review and validation procedures, ambient air data interpretation focused on the following: evaluation of upwind/downwind sample pairs, comparison of ambient levels to existing regulatory standards, relation of ambient levels to data reported in the open literature, and, determination of normal seasonal variations in existing background burden, comparison of ambient levels measured during site activity to background levels.

  16. Reaching site closure for groundwater under multiple regulatory agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Glucksberg, N.; Couture, B.

    2007-07-01

    Groundwater at the Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company (CYAPCO) Haddam Neck Plant (HNP) has been impacted by both radionuclides and chemical constituents. Furthermore, the cleanup standards and closure requirements for HNP are regulated both by federal and state agencies. The only consistent requirement is the development of a site conceptual model and an understanding of the hydrogeologic conditions that will govern contaminant transport and identify potential receptors. The cleanup criteria to reach site closure for radionuclides is regulated by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CTDEP) Bureau of Air Management, Radiological Division. For license termination under the NRC, the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) for all media can not exceed 25 milli-Rem per year (mRem/yr) plus As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). The CTDEP has a similar requirement with the TEDE not to exceed 19 mRem/yr plus ALARA. To reach these criteria, derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) were developed for radiological exposures from three (3) media components; soil, existing groundwater and future groundwater from left-in place foundations or footings. Based on current conditions, the target dose contribution from existing and future groundwater is not to exceed 2 mRem/yr TEDE. After source (soil) remediation is complete, the NRC requires two (2) years of quarterly monitoring to demonstrate that groundwater quality meets the DCGLs and does not show an upward trend. CYAPCO's NRC License Termination Plan (LTP) specifies a minimum 18-month period of groundwater monitoring, as long as samples are collected during two spring/high water seasons, to verify the efficacy of remedial actions at HNP. In addition to the 19 mRem/yr criteria, the CTDEP also requires groundwater to be in compliance with the Remediation Standards Regulation (RSRs). There are no published criteria for radionuclides in the RSRs

  17. Has Athletic Performance Reached its Peak?

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Sedeaud, Adrien; Marck, Adrien; Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Schipman, Julien; Saulière, Guillaume; Marc, Andy; Desgorces, François-Denis; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    Limits to athletic performance have long been a topic of myth and debate. However, sport performance appears to have reached a state of stagnation in recent years, suggesting that the physical capabilities of humans and other athletic species, such as greyhounds and thoroughbreds, cannot progress indefinitely. Although the ultimate capabilities may be predictable, the exact path for the absolute maximal performance values remains difficult to assess and relies on technical innovations, sport regulation, and other parameters that depend on current societal and economic conditions. The aim of this literature review was to assess the possible plateau of top physical capabilities in various events and detail the historical backgrounds and sociocultural, anthropometrical, and physiological factors influencing the progress and regression of athletic performance. Time series of performances in Olympic disciplines, such as track and field and swimming events, from 1896 to 2012 reveal a major decrease in performance development. Such a saturation effect is simultaneous in greyhound, thoroughbred, and frog performances. The genetic condition, exhaustion of phenotypic pools, economic context, and the depletion of optimal morphological traits contribute to the observed limitation of physical capabilities. Present conditions prevailing, we approach absolute physical limits and endure a continued period of world record scarcity. Optional scenarios for further improvements will mostly depend on sport technology and modification competition rules. PMID:26094000

  18. ESO telbib: Linking In and Reaching Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2015-04-01

    Measuring an observatory's research output is an integral part of its science operations. Like many other observatories, ESO tracks scholarly papers that use observational data from ESO facilities and uses state-of-the-art tools to create, maintain, and further develop the Telescope Bibliography database (telbib). While telbib started out as a stand-alone tool mostly used to compile lists of papers, it has by now developed into a multi-faceted, interlinked system. The core of the telbib database is links between scientific papers and observational data generated by the La Silla Paranal Observatory residing in the ESO archive. This functionality has also been deployed for ALMA data. In addition, telbib reaches out to several other systems, including ESO press releases, the NASA ADS Abstract Service, databases at the CDS Strasbourg, and impact scores at Altmetric.com. We illustrate these features to show how the interconnected telbib system enhances the content of the database as well as the user experience.

  19. Reaching the Next Generation of Marine Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, J.

    2009-04-01

    The next generation of marine scientists are today at primary school, secondary school or at college. To encourage them in their career, and to introduce those who are as yet undecided to the wonders of marine science, the Irish Marine Institute has devised a series of three overlapping outreach programmes to reach children at all three levels. Beginning at primary school, the "Explorers" programme offers a range of resources to teachers to enable them to teach marine-related examples as part of the science or geography modules of the SESE curriculum. These include teacher training, expert visits to schools, the installation and stocking of aquaria, field trips and downloadable lesson plans. For older pupils, the "Follow the Fleet" programme is a web-based education asset that allows users to track individual merchant ships and research vessels across the world, to interact with senior crew members of ships and to learn about their cargoes, the ports they visit and the sea conditions along the way. Finally, the "Integrated Marine Exploration Programme (IMEP)" takes secondary school pupils and university students to sea aboard the Marine Institute's research vessels to give them a taste of life as a marine scientist or to educate them in the practical day-to-day sampling and data processing tasks that make up a marine scientist's job.

  20. Media perspective - new opportunities for reaching audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haswell, Katy

    2007-08-01

    The world of media is experiencing a period of extreme and rapid change with the rise of internet television and the download generation. Many young people no longer watch standard TV. Instead, they go on-line, talking to friends and downloading pictures, videos, music clips to put on their own websites and watch/ listen to on their laptops and mobile phones. Gone are the days when TV controllers determined what you watched and when you watched it. Now the buzzword is IPTV, Internet Protocol Television, with companies such as JOOST offering hundreds of channels on a wide range of subjects, all of which you can choose to watch when and where you wish, on your high-def widescreen with stereo surround sound at home or on your mobile phone on the train. This media revolution is changing the way organisations get their message out. And it is encouraging companies such as advertising agencies to be creative about new ways of accessing audiences. The good news is that we have fresh opportunities to reach young people through internet-based media and material downloaded through tools such as games machines, as well as through the traditional media. And it is important for Europlanet to make the most of these new and exciting developments.

  1. Reaching lost-to-care populations.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Wilbert C

    2007-12-15

    Identification of patients who are at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can lead to reduced frequencies of high-risk behaviors, provision of timely care for infected individuals, and decreased transmission of HIV. The HIV-associated outreach programs at the OASIS Clinic of the King-Harbor/Drew University complex (Los Angeles, CA) has 3 components: a traditional partner-notification (i.e., contact-tracing) component, a focused-intervention component through which clients are given incentives to bring in persons they feel are at high risk for HIV infection, and an outreach component targeting hard-to-reach populations. These interventions are highly effective in identifying individuals early during the course of their disease, when initiation of antiretroviral therapy is most effective. The partner-services program at the OASIS Clinic has been particularly useful in identifying partners of HIV-positive women, whereas the focused-intervention program is most useful for identifying gay men who are unaware of their positive HIV serostatus. Successful targeted outreach programs can identify many individuals who would not otherwise be aware of their HIV infection, but the programs also require more clinicians to manage these patients.

  2. 39 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Mail Classification Schedule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Parcel Post (at non-UPU rates) Royal Mail Group Inbound Air Parcel Post Agreement Inbound Air Parcel Post... Mail Outbound Priority Mail International Inbound Air Parcel Post (at non-UPU rates) Royal Mail...

  3. Mitigation Action Plan: Lease of Parcel ED-1 of the Oak Ridge Reservation by the East Tennessee Economic Council

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In April 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1113) for the proposed lease of 957-16 acres (Parcel ED-1) of the Oak Ridge (Tennessee) Reservation (ORR) by the East Tennessee Economic Council (ETEC) for industrial development. DOE plans to issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the proposed action, conditional upon the implementation of mitigation and monitoring to protect environmental resources. According to DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) regulations (10 CFR 1021.322), a FONSI shall include {open_quotes}any commitments to mitigations that are essential to render the impacts of the proposed action not significant, beyond those mitigations that are integral elements of the proposed action, and a reference to the Mitigation Action Plan prepared under 10 CTR 1021.331{close_quotes}. Terms of the lease offer DOE the option of terminating the lease with ETEC should the lessee and/or sublessees fail to implement the mitigation defined in the FONSI.

  4. Parcellation of the Healthy Neonatal Brain into 107 Regions Using Atlas Propagation through Intermediate Time Points in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Blesa, Manuel; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair G.; Anblagan, Devasuda; Telford, Emma J.; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A.; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I.; Bastin, Mark E.; Boardman, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2–41+6). An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO) was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database), with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33) constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization (SyGN) method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modeling brain growth during development. PMID:27242423

  5. Integrated Testing, Simulation and Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.

    2012-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory verified diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reduction and cost implications of plug-in hybrid gasoline and diesel variants. These variants are run on a field-data-derived design matrix to analyze the effects of drive cycle, distance, battery replacements, battery capacity, and motor power on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. Two cost scenarios using fuel prices corresponding to forecasted highs for 2011 and 2030 and battery costs per kilowatt-hour representing current and long-term targets compare plug-in hybrid lifetime costs with diesel conventional lifetime costs. Under a future cost scenario of $100/kWh battery energy and $5/gal fuel, plug-in hybrids are cost effective. Assuming a current cost of $700/kWh and $3/gal fuel, they rarely recoup the additional motor and battery cost. The results highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle, daily driving distance, and kinetic intensity. For instances in the current-cost scenario where the additional plug-in hybrid cost is regained in fuel savings, the combination of kinetic intensity and daily distance travelled does not coincide with the usage patterns observed in the field data. If the usage patterns were adjusted, the hybrids could become cost effective.

  6. Assessing the Battery Cost at Which Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles Become Cost-Effective

    SciTech Connect

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J. D.; Brooker, A. D.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validated diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid medium-duty parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reductions and cost implications of hybrid and plug-in hybrid diesel variants. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid variants are run on a field data-derived design matrix to analyze the effect of drive cycle, distance, engine downsizing, battery replacements, and battery energy on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. For an array of diesel fuel costs, the battery cost per kilowatt-hour at which the hybridized configuration becomes cost-effective is calculated. This builds on a previous analysis that found the fuel savings from medium duty plug-in hybrids more than offset the vehicles' incremental price under future battery and fuel cost projections, but that they seldom did so under present day cost assumptions in the absence of purchase incentives. The results also highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle specific daily distance and kinetic intensity.

  7. NeuroVault.org: A repository for sharing unthresholded statistical maps, parcellations, and atlases of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwartz, Yannick; Sochat, Vanessa V; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, Thomas E; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    NeuroVault.org is dedicated to storing outputs of analyses in the form of statistical maps, parcellations and atlases, a unique strategy that contrasts with most neuroimaging repositories that store raw acquisition data or stereotaxic coordinates. Such maps are indispensable for performing meta-analyses, validating novel methodology, and deciding on precise outlines for regions of interest (ROIs). NeuroVault is open to maps derived from both healthy and clinical populations, as well as from various imaging modalities (sMRI, fMRI, EEG, MEG, PET, etc.). The repository uses modern web technologies such as interactive web-based visualization, cognitive decoding, and comparison with other maps to provide researchers with efficient, intuitive tools to improve the understanding of their results. Each dataset and map is assigned a permanent Universal Resource Locator (URL), and all of the data is accessible through a REST Application Programming Interface (API). Additionally, the repository supports the NIDM-Results standard and has the ability to parse outputs from popular FSL and SPM software packages to automatically extract relevant metadata. This ease of use, modern web-integration, and pioneering functionality holds promise to improve the workflow for making inferences about and sharing whole-brain statistical maps.

  8. NeuroVault.org: A repository for sharing unthresholded statistical maps, parcellations, and atlases of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwartz, Yannick; Sochat, Vanessa V; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, Thomas E; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    NeuroVault.org is dedicated to storing outputs of analyses in the form of statistical maps, parcellations and atlases, a unique strategy that contrasts with most neuroimaging repositories that store raw acquisition data or stereotaxic coordinates. Such maps are indispensable for performing meta-analyses, validating novel methodology, and deciding on precise outlines for regions of interest (ROIs). NeuroVault is open to maps derived from both healthy and clinical populations, as well as from various imaging modalities (sMRI, fMRI, EEG, MEG, PET, etc.). The repository uses modern web technologies such as interactive web-based visualization, cognitive decoding, and comparison with other maps to provide researchers with efficient, intuitive tools to improve the understanding of their results. Each dataset and map is assigned a permanent Universal Resource Locator (URL), and all of the data is accessible through a REST Application Programming Interface (API). Additionally, the repository supports the NIDM-Results standard and has the ability to parse outputs from popular FSL and SPM software packages to automatically extract relevant metadata. This ease of use, modern web-integration, and pioneering functionality holds promise to improve the workflow for making inferences about and sharing whole-brain statistical maps. PMID:25869863

  9. Parcellation of the Healthy Neonatal Brain into 107 Regions Using Atlas Propagation through Intermediate Time Points in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Blesa, Manuel; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair G; Anblagan, Devasuda; Telford, Emma J; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I; Bastin, Mark E; Boardman, James P

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39(+5) weeks, range 37(+2)-41(+6)). An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO) was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database), with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33) constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization (SyGN) method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modeling brain growth during development.

  10. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic Reach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  11. Monkey see, Monkey reach: Action selection of reaching movements in the macaque monkey

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient systems are needed to link perception with action in the context of the highly complex environments in which primates move and interact. Another important component is, nonetheless, needed for action: selection. When one piece of fruit from a branch is being chosen by a monkey, many other pieces are within reach and visible: do the perceptual features of the objects surrounding a target determine interference effects? In humans, reaching to grasp a desired object appears to integrate the motor features of the objects which might become potential targets - a process which seems to be driven by inhibitory attention mechanisms. Here we show that non-human primates use similar mechanisms when carrying out goal-directed actions. The data indicate that the volumetric features of distractors are internally represented, implying that the basic cognitive operations allowing for action selection have deep evolutionary roots. PMID:24503774

  12. Scientists Provide Perspectives as Drilling Reaches Subglacial Antarctic Lake Vostok

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    Culminating decades of effort, researchers drilled to subglacial Lake Vostok on 5 February. The glacial drilling team of the 57th Russian Antarctic Expedition penetrated to the waters of the lake at a depth of 3769.3 meters through deep ice borehole 5G, according to a report sent to the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute by the head of Vostok station and the head of the glacial drilling team. Researchers collected about 1.5 cubic meters of water while working to prevent contamination of the lake before a plug of frozen water sealed the lake again, as researchers had planned. The accomplishment culminates decades of effort to reach Lake Vostok—a freshwater lake roughly the size of Lake Ontario located near the middle of the continent—and it opens up a new era in investigating subglacial Antarctic lakes. Some scientists speculate that Lake Vostok, the largest of more than 280 known subglacial lakes on the continent, could harbor life forms in an environment that has been sealed off from light and air for possibly tens of millions of years. They also speculate that the Vostok environment could be analogous to that of some icy moons in the solar system.

  13. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  14. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  15. Formation of ozone and growth of aerosols in young smoke plumes from biomass burning: 1. Lagrangian parcel studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, Matthew James; Prinn, Ronald G.

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a new model of the gas- and aerosol-phase chemistry of biomass burning smoke plumes called Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP). Here we use ASP combined with a Lagrangian parcel model to simulate the chemistry in smoke plumes from three fires: the Otavi savannah fire in Namibia, an Alaska boreal forest fire, and the Timbavati savannah fire. Our model explained the observations of ozone in the Otavi and Alaska plumes fairly well, but our initial model simulation of the Timbavati plume underestimated the concentrations of ozone, OH, and secondary aerosol matter. The Timbavati simulation agrees with observations if we increase OH to equal its observed levels. Heterogeneous reactions of NO2 and SO2 could explain the needed higher concentrations of OH and the rapid formation of ozone, nitrate, and sulfate in the smoke plume if the uptake coefficients on smoke aerosols are large (O(10-3) and O(10-4), respectively). Uncharacterized organic species in the smoke plume were likely responsible for the rapid formation of aerosol organic carbon. The changes in the aerosol size distribution were dominated by plume dilution and condensational growth. The single scattering albedo of the modeled smoke increases from 0.866 to 0.902 over 1 h of aging. The change in aerosol scattering with relative humidity for the modeled fresh smoke matches observations up to 66% RH, but the model greatly overestimates the humidification factor at 80% RH (2.88 versus an observed value of 1.70-1.79). For the aged smoke, the modeled humidification factor is 1.22, slightly below the observed value of 1.40.

  16. Connectivity-Based Parcellation of the Thalamus Explains Specific Cognitive and Behavioural Symptoms in Patients with Bilateral Thalamic Infarct

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Laura; Cercignani, Mara; Carlesimo, Giovanni A.; Fadda, Lucia; Tini, Nadia; Giulietti, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bozzali, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach based on diffusion tractography was used here to characterise the cortico-thalamic connectivity in two patients, both presenting with an isolated bilateral infarct in the thalamus, but exhibiting partially different cognitive and behavioural profiles. Both patients (G.P. and R.F.) had a pervasive deficit in episodic memory, but only one of them (R.F.) suffered also from a dysexecutive syndrome. Both patients had an MRI scan at 3T, including a T1-weighted volume. Their lesions were manually segmented. T1-volumes were normalised to standard space, and the same transformations were applied to the lesion masks. Nineteen healthy controls underwent a diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) scan. Their DTI data were normalised to standard space and averaged. An atlas of Brodmann areas was used to parcellate the prefrontal cortex. Probabilistic tractography was used to assess the probability of connection between each voxel of the thalamus and a set of prefrontal areas. The resulting map of corticothalamic connections was superimposed onto the patients’ lesion masks, to assess whether the location of the thalamic lesions in R.F. (but not in G. P.) implied connections with prefrontal areas involved in dysexecutive syndromes. In G.P., the lesion fell within areas of the thalamus poorly connected with prefrontal areas, showing only a modest probability of connection with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Conversely, R.F.’s lesion fell within thalamic areas extensively connected with the ACC bilaterally, with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and with the left supplementary motor area. Despite a similar, bilateral involvement of the thalamus, the use of connectivity-based segmentation clarified that R.F.’s lesions only were located within nuclei highly connected with the prefrontal cortical areas, thus explaining the patient’s frontal syndrome. This study confirms that DTI tractography is a useful tool to examine in vivo the effect of focal lesions

  17. ESA's Venus Express to reach final destination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-04-01

    burn, at 09:45 (CEST), Venus Express will disappear behind the planet and will not be visible from Earth. This is known as its ‘occultation’ period. The spacecraft will re-emerge from behind Venus’s disc some ten minutes later. So, even with the low gain antenna’s signal, it will only be visible during the first half of the burn and the last six minutes. Receiving the spacecraft signal after the occultation period will be the first positive sign of successful orbit insertion. 11 April, h 11:13 (CEST), re-establish communication with Earth. At the end of the burn, Venus Express still has to perform a few automatic operations. These re-orient the solar panels towards the sun and one of the high gain antennas (the smaller High Gain Antenna 2) towards Earth. If everything goes as expected, at 11:13 the spacecraft should be able to establish its first communication link with ESA’s Cebreros ground station near Madrid. Over the next few hours, it will send much-awaited information about its state of health. Information about its actual trajectory will be available from ESOC’s flight dynamics team around 12:30 (CEST). 12 to 13 April 2006, full reactivation starts. During the 24 hours following orbital capture, time will be devoted to reactivating all spacecraft functions, including all internal monitoring capacity. By the morning of the 13th, the larger ‘High Gain Antenna 1, hitherto unused, will be oriented and fed by the transmitter to communicate with Earth. The two high gain antennas, located on different sides of the spacecraft, will be used alternately during the mission, to avoid exposure to the sun of critical equipment on the outside. Reaching final orbit A series of further manoeuvres and many more days will be required to settle Venus Express into its final orbit. The preliminary nine-day orbit is elliptical, ranging from 350 000 kilometres at its furthest point from the planet (apocentre) to less than 400 kilometres at its closest (pericentre). During

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY REPORT FOR WEST BLACK OAK RIDGE, EAST BLACK OAK RIDGE, MCKINNEY RIDGE, WEST PINE RIDGE, AND PARCEL 21D IN THE VICINITY OF THE EAST TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGY PARK, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect

    David A. King

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. The goal is to obtain all media no-further-investigation (NFI) determinations for the subject parcels considering existing soils. To augment the existing soils-only NFI determinations, samples of groundwater, surface water, soil, and sediment were collected to support all media NFI decisions. The only updates presented here are those that were made after the original issuance of the NFI documents. In the subject parcel where the soils NFI determination was not completed for approval (Parcel 21d), the full process has been performed to address the soils as well. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only NFI

  19. Reach and its Impact: NASA and US Aerospace Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    REACH is a European law that threatens to impact materials used within the US aerospace communities, including NASA. The presentation briefly covers REACH and generally, its perceived impacts to NASA and the aerospace community within the US.

  20. Reaching hard-to-reach individuals: Nonselective versus targeted outbreak response vaccination for measles.

    PubMed

    Minetti, Andrea; Hurtado, Northan; Grais, Rebecca F; Ferrari, Matthew

    2014-01-15

    Current mass vaccination campaigns in measles outbreak response are nonselective with respect to the immune status of individuals. However, the heterogeneity in immunity, due to previous vaccination coverage or infection, may lead to potential bias of such campaigns toward those with previous high access to vaccination and may result in a lower-than-expected effective impact. During the 2010 measles outbreak in Malawi, only 3 of the 8 districts where vaccination occurred achieved a measureable effective campaign impact (i.e., a reduction in measles cases in the targeted age groups greater than that observed in nonvaccinated districts). Simulation models suggest that selective campaigns targeting hard-to-reach individuals are of greater benefit, particularly in highly vaccinated populations, even for low target coverage and with late implementation. However, the choice between targeted and nonselective campaigns should be context specific, achieving a reasonable balance of feasibility, cost, and expected impact. In addition, it is critical to develop operational strategies to identify and target hard-to-reach individuals.

  1. Flight testing air-to-air missiles for flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutschinski, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    The philosophy of the design of air-to-air missiles and hence of flight testing them for flutter differs from that of manned aircraft. Primary emphasis is put on analytical and laboratory evaluation of missile susceptibility to aeroelastic and aero-servo-elastic instabilities and uses flight testing for confirmation of the absence of such instabilities. Flight testing for flutter is accomplished by using specially instrumented programmed missiles, air or ground launched with a booster to reach the extreme flight conditions of tactical use, or by using guided missiles with telemetered performance data. The instrumentation and testing techniques are discussed along with the success of recent flight tests.

  2. Characterization of the NOx-Ox relationship in a mountain gap rural area of interchange of air masses southeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Suarez, L.; Garcia-Yee, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.; Barrera Huertas, H.; Torres-Jaramillo, A.; Ortinez, A.

    2013-05-01

    Varying levels of oxidants (Ox = O3 + NO2) with respect to NOx were registered at three sites in a mountain southeast of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in February and March 2011. The Ox-NOx ratio was used to gain a better understanding of the photochemical and transport processes happening over this mountain pass. Relatively high concentrations of O3 (moving average concentrations of 8 hours) exceeded maximum levels of the World Health Organization, and the European Union. The cumulative exceedances above background level of O3 in the one month-long campaign also exceeded the three months accumulative UN-ECE AOT40 critical level for crop protection. It was observed that the level of Ox in the mountain gap sites consisted of two contributions: One, independent of NOx emissions, extremely dominant and considered equivalent to the regional background O3 concentration; the second and much smaller was dependent of NOx local concentrations. Evidence was found that the oxidation of NO provided the major contribution of NO2 to Ox, rather than direct NO2 emissions. The contribution of regional Ox dominated from midmorning to noon when the boundary layer height began to increase due to sunlight heating of the surface leading to the mixing of higher concentrations of O3 above the nighttime thermal inversion. After noon, when the ozone vertical distribution was uniform, the Ox and O3 concentrations reached their maximum; they were very similar with very low levels of NO2. The analysis of wind data collected at the monitoring sites showed that from mid-morning to early afternoon, a northerly weak flow was common. Afterwards stronger southerly winds became dominant bringing in O3 rich air parcels into the atmospheric basin where MCMA is located. The high regional ozone concentrations add evidence for the need of coordinated air quality management policies for the complete central part of Mexico. Keywords: mountain gap, oxidant, ground level ozone, Central Mexico

  3. Proprioceptive recalibration arises slowly compared to reach adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zbib, Basel; Henriques, Denise Y P; Cressman, Erin K

    2016-08-01

    When subjects reach in a novel visuomotor environment (e.g. while viewing a cursor representing their hand that is rotated from their hand's actual position), they typically adjust their movements (i.e. bring the cursor to the target), thus reducing reaching errors. Additionally, research has shown that reaching with altered visual feedback of the hand results in sensory changes, such that proprioceptive estimates of hand position are shifted in the direction of the visual feedback experienced (Cressman and Henriques in J Neurophysiol 102:3505-3518, 2009). This study looked to establish the time course of these sensory changes. Additionally, the time courses of implicit sensory and motor changes were compared. Subjects reached to a single visual target while seeing a cursor that was either aligned with their hand position (50 trials) or rotated 30° clockwise relative to their hand (150 trials). Reach errors and proprioceptive estimates of felt hand position were assessed following the aligned reach training trials and at seven different times during the rotated reach training trials by having subjects reach to the target without visual feedback, and provide estimates of their hand relative to a visual reference marker, respectively. Results revealed a shift in proprioceptive estimates throughout the rotated reach training trials; however, significant sensory changes were not observed until after 70 trials. In contrast, results showed a greater change in reaches after a limited number of reach training trials with the rotated cursor. These findings suggest that proprioceptive recalibration arises more slowly than reach adaptation.

  4. Modifications to the Standard Sit-and-Reach Flexibility Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Laurence E.; Pelham, Thomas W.; Burke, Darren G.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To present several modifications of the standard sit-and-reach protocol. Background: Many exercises designed to increase strength and aerobic capacity tend to decrease the flexibility of the erector spinae and hamstrings musculature. Less-than-ideal flexibility in these soft tissues may increase the risk of injury during training, competition, or activities of daily living. The most widely used measures of flexibility have been either the stand-and-reach or the sit-and-reach, but both are limited to a single measure. Description: Using the new multitest flexometer, we were able to take 6 flexibility measures beyond the stand-and-reach test: standard active sit-and-reach, standard passive sit-and-reach, modified active sit-and-reach with external rotators slackened, modified passive sit-and-reach with external rotators slackened, modified active sit-and-reach with the hamstrings, gastrocnemii, and external rotators slackened, and modified passive sit-and-reach with the hamstrings, gastrocnemii, and external rotators slackened. Clinical Advantages: This modified sit-and-reach protocol allows the indirect assessment of the influence of the 4 major muscle groups that affect sit-and-reach scores: erector spinae, hip rotators, hamstrings, and gastrocnemii. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:16558547

  5. Comparison of stratospheric air parcel trajectories calculated from SSU and LIMS satellite data. [Stratospheric Sounding Unit/Limb Infrared Monitor of Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, J.

    1986-01-01

    Midstratospheric trajectories for February and March 1979 are calculated using geopotential analyses derived from limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere data. These trajectories are compared with the corresponding results using stratospheric sounding unit data. The trajectories are quasi-isentropic in that a radiation scheme is used to simply cross-isentrope flow. The results show that in disturbed conditions, quantitative agreement the trajectories, that is, within 25 great circle degrees (GCD) (one GCD about 110 km) may be valid for only 3 or 4 days, whereas during quiescent periods, quantitative agreement may last up to 10 days. By comparing trajectories calculated with different data some insight can be gained as to errors due to vertical resolution and horizontal resolution (due to infrequent sampling) in the analyzed geopotential height fields. For the disturbed trajectories described in this paper the horizontal resolution of the data was more important than vertical resolution; however, for the quiescent trajectories, which could be calculated accurately for a longer duration because of the absence of appreciable transients, the vertical resolution of the data was found to be more important than the horizontal resolution. It is speculated that these characteristics are also applicable to trajectories calculated during disturbed and quiescent periods in general. A review of some recently published trajectories shows that the qualitative conclusions of such works remains unaffected when the calculations are repeated using different data.

  6. Multizone Age-of-Air Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.

    2007-07-01

    Age of air is a technique for evaluating ventilation that has been actively used for over 20 years. Age of air quantifies the time it takes for outdoor air to reach a particular location or zone within then indoor environment. Age of air is often also used to quantify the ventilation effectiveness with respect to indoor air quality. In a purely single zone situation this use of age of air is straightforward, but application of age of air techniques in the general multizone environment has not been fully developed. This article looks at expanding those single-zone techniques to the more complicated environment of multizone buildings and in doing so develops further the general concept of age of air. The results of this analysis shows that the nominal age of air as often used cannot be directly used for determining ventilation effectiveness unless specific assumptions are made regarding source distributions.

  7. Spiking and LFP activity in PRR during symbolically instructed reaches

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    The spiking activity in the parietal reach region (PRR) represents the spatial goal of an impending reach when the reach is directed toward or away from a visual object. The local field potentials (LFPs) in this region also represent the reach goal when the reach is directed to a visual object. Thus PRR is a candidate area for reading out a patient's intended reach goals for neural prosthetic applications. For natural behaviors, reach goals are not always based on the location of a visual object, e.g., playing the piano following sheet music or moving following verbal directions. So far it has not been directly tested whether and how PRR represents reach goals in such cognitive, nonlocational conditions, and knowing the encoding properties in various task conditions would help in designing a reach goal decoder for prosthetic applications. To address this issue, we examined the macaque PRR under two reach conditions: reach goal determined by the stimulus location (direct) or shape (symbolic). For the same goal, the spiking activity near reach onset was indistinguishable between the two tasks, and thus a reach goal decoder trained with spiking activity in one task performed perfectly in the other. In contrast, the LFP activity at 20–40 Hz showed small but significantly enhanced reach goal tuning in the symbolic task, but its spatial preference remained the same. Consequently, a decoder trained with LFP activity performed worse in the other task than in the same task. These results suggest that LFP decoders in PRR should take into account the task context (e.g., locational vs. nonlocational) to be accurate, while spike decoders can robustly provide reach goal information regardless of the task context in various prosthetic applications. PMID:22072511

  8. Spiking and LFP activity in PRR during symbolically instructed reaches.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eun Jung; Andersen, Richard A

    2012-02-01

    The spiking activity in the parietal reach region (PRR) represents the spatial goal of an impending reach when the reach is directed toward or away from a visual object. The local field potentials (LFPs) in this region also represent the reach goal when the reach is directed to a visual object. Thus PRR is a candidate area for reading out a patient's intended reach goals for neural prosthetic applications. For natural behaviors, reach goals are not always based on the location of a visual object, e.g., playing the piano following sheet music or moving following verbal directions. So far it has not been directly tested whether and how PRR represents reach goals in such cognitive, nonlocational conditions, and knowing the encoding properties in various task conditions would help in designing a reach goal decoder for prosthetic applications. To address this issue, we examined the macaque PRR under two reach conditions: reach goal determined by the stimulus location (direct) or shape (symbolic). For the same goal, the spiking activity near reach onset was indistinguishable between the two tasks, and thus a reach goal decoder trained with spiking activity in one task performed perfectly in the other. In contrast, the LFP activity at 20-40 Hz showed small but significantly enhanced reach goal tuning in the symbolic task, but its spatial preference remained the same. Consequently, a decoder trained with LFP activity performed worse in the other task than in the same task. These results suggest that LFP decoders in PRR should take into account the task context (e.g., locational vs. nonlocational) to be accurate, while spike decoders can robustly provide reach goal information regardless of the task context in various prosthetic applications. PMID:22072511

  9. Parceling the Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiatt, Blanchard; Gwynne, Peter

    1984-01-01

    To make computing power broadly available and truly friendly, both soft and hard meshing and synchronization problems will have to be solved. Possible solutions and research related to these problems are discussed. Topics considered include compilers, parallelism, networks, distributed sensors, dataflow, CEDAR system (using dataflow principles),…

  10. Changes in context and perception of maximum reaching height.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Day, Brian M

    2014-01-01

    Successfully performing a given behavior requires flexibility in both perception and behavior. In particular, doing so requires perceiving whether that behavior is possible across the variety of contexts in which it might be performed. Three experiments investigated how (changes in) context (ie point of observation and intended reaching task) influenced perception of maximum reaching height. The results of experiment 1 showed that perceived maximum reaching height more closely reflected actual reaching ability when perceivers occupied a point of observation that was compatible with that required for the reaching task. The results of experiments 2 and 3 showed that practice perceiving maximum reaching height from a given point of observation improved perception of maximum reaching height from a different point of observation, regardless of whether such practice occurred at a compatible or incompatible point of observation. In general, such findings show bounded flexibility in perception of affordances and are thus consistent with a description of perceptual systems as smart perceptual devices.

  11. Plutonium in the air in Kurchatov, Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Lehto, J; Salminen, S; Jaakkola, T; Outola, I; Pulli, S; Paatero, J; Tarvainen, M; Ristonmaa, S; Zilliacus, R; Ossintsev, A; Larin, V

    2006-07-31

    Weekly air samples of 25000 m(3) volume were taken with two air samplers over a period of one year in 2000-2001 in the town of Kurchatov in Kazakhstan. For another three-month period in 2001, the samplers were run in the city of Astana, about 500 km west of Kurchatov. (137)Cs, Pu and U concentrations were determined from the filters. Pu activities in Kurchatov varied in a 100-fold range; median (239,240)Pu activities were 100 nBq/m(3) and (238)Pu activities 34 nBq/m(3). The corresponding values for Astana were considerably lower: 29 and 9 nBq/m(3), respectively, and in half of the filters the (238)Pu activity was below the detection limit. Plutonium concentration correlated with the amount of dust retained on the filters only at the highest dust loads. Also no correlation between wind speed and the plutonium activity in the filters was observed. Thus, resuspension does not seem to be the mechanism responsible for the airborne plutonium. No clear seasonal variation of Pu air concentration was observed, though levels were somewhat elevated in February to April. There was no correlation between the plutonium and (137)Cs concentrations. In most of the filters the cesium concentration was below the detection limit, but in those filters where it could be detected the cesium concentration was practically constant at 3.9+/-1.6 microBq/m(3). Dose estimation for the inhalation of the airborne plutonium gave a low value of 0.018 microSv/a for the inhabitants in Kurchatov, which is about a thousand times lower than the dose caused by the naturally occurring (210)Po. Air parcel trajectory analysis indicated that the observed Pu activities in the air could not unambiguously be attributed to the most contaminated areas at the Semipalatinsk Test Site.

  12. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  13. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  14. Postural control during standing reach in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao-Ling; Yeh, Chun-Fu; Howe, Tsu-Hsin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the dynamic postural control of children with Down syndrome (DS). Specifically, we compared postural control and goal-directed reaching performance between children with DS and typically developing children during standing reach. Standing reach performance was analyzed in three main phases using the kinematic and kinetic data collected from a force plate and a motion capture system. Fourteen children with DS, age and gender matched with fourteen typically developing children, were recruited for this study. The results showed that the demand of the standing reach task affected both dynamic postural control and reaching performance in children with DS, especially in the condition of beyond arm's length reaching. More postural adjustment strategies were recruited when reaching distance was beyond arm's length. Children with DS tended to use inefficient and conservative strategies for postural stability and reaching. That is, children with DS perform standing reach with increased reaction and execution time and decreased amplitudes of center of pressure displacements. Standing reach resembled functional balance that is required in daily activities. It is suggested to be considered as a part of strength and balance training program with graded task difficulty.

  15. The impact of mixing on Age of Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garny, Hella; Birner, Thomas; Bönisch, Harald

    2013-04-01

    Transport in the stratosphere is determined both by the mean meridional circulation and two-way mixing. Stratospheric age of air (AoA) is a measure of the integrated effect of all transport processes that affected an air parcel on its way through the stratosphere after crossing the tropopause. Mean AoA is often used to quantify the transport circulation in the stratosphere, namely the Brewer-Dobson Circulation (BDC). Global models project an increase in the mean meridional circulation in a changing climate, and simultaneously a decrease in AoA. However, evidence of changes in mean AoA from observations is weak. To infer from the AoA measurements on changes in the residual circulation, that cannot be measured directly, a better understanding of the relation between AoA and the residual circulation is necessary. Global models provide residual circulation data consistent with AoA, and thus can be used to investigate this relationship. We use trajectories driven only by the residual circulation to derive the hypothetical 'age' that air would have if it was transported only by the residual circulation. This quantity is referred to as 'residual circulation transit time' (RCTT). The difference between AoA and RCTT is then the additional aging of air caused by mixing processes. It is shown that this aging by mixing is positive throughout the lower stratosphere, only in the lowermost stratosphere at high latitudes, air is younger than expected from residual circulation transport only. The processes of the impact of mixing on AoA are further investigated using a simple tropical leaky pipe (TLP) model. The TLP model can explain the general increase of AoA in the lower stratosphere and above by mixing with the recirculation of air parcels. Aging by mixing is dependent both on 1) the mixing strength, that controls the fraction of air that recirculates, and 2) the residual circulation strength, that controls the speed of recirculation. Thus, stronger mixing increases aging by

  16. Mark III Space Suit Mobility: A Reach Evaluation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Sherry S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Onady, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the reach envelope and field of vision (FOV) for a subject wearing a Mark III space suit was requested for use in human-machine interface design of the Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) vehicle. The reach and view of two suited and unsuited subjects were evaluated while seated in the vehicle using 3-dimensional position data collected during a series of reaching motions. Data was interpolated and displayed in orthogonal views and cross-sections. Compared with unsuited conditions, medio-lateral reach was not strongly affected by the Mark III suit, whereas vertical and antero-posterior reach were inhibited by the suit. Lateral FOV was reduced by approximately 40 deg. in the suit. The techniques used in this case study may prove useful in human-machine interface design by providing a new means of developing and displaying reach envelopes.

  17. Environmental Baseline Survey Report for the Title Transfer of Parcel ED-9 at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    SAIC

    2010-05-01

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Parcel ED-9 at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). Parcel ED-9 consists of about 13 acres that DOE proposes to transfer to Heritage Center, LLC (hereafter referred to as 'Heritage Center'), a subsidiary of the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET). The 13 acres include two tracts of land, referred to as ED-9A (7.06 acres) and ED-9B (5.02 acres), and a third tract consisting of about 900 linear feet of paved road and adjacent right-of-way, referred to as ED-9C (0.98 acres). Transfer of the title to ED-9 will be by deed under a Covenant Deferral Request (CDR) pursuant to Section 120(h)(3)(C) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This report provides a summary of information to support the transfer of this government-owned property at ETTP to a non-federal entity.

  18. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOEpatents

    Atabay, Keramettin

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  19. Smart tetroons for Lagrangian air-mass tracking during ACE 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Businger, Steven; Johnson, Randy; Katzfey, Jack; Siems, Steven; Wang, Qing

    1999-05-01

    A series of "smart" tetroons was released from shipboard during the recent ACE 1 field experiment designed to monitor changes in the sulfur budget in a remote marine boundary layer (MBL) south of Tasmania, Australia. The smart tetroons were designed at NOAA Air Resources Laboratory Field Research Division to provide air parcel tracking information. The adjective smart here refers here to the fact that the buoyancy of the tetroons automatically adjusts through the action of a pump and valves when the tetroon travels vertically outside a range of pressures set prior to tetroon release. The smart tetroon design provides GPS location, barometric pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and tetroon status data via a transponder to the NCAR C-130 research aircraft flying in the vicinity of the tetroons. In this paper we will describe (1) the design and capability of the smart tetroons and their performance during the two Lagrangian experiments conducted during ACE 1, (2) the synoptic context of the Lagrangians, including the origin of the air parcels being tracked, and (3) the results of trajectory predictions derived from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Spectral Model (GSM) and Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Division of Atmospheric Research (DAR) limited-area model.

  20. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüthi, Z. L.; Škerlak, B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lauer, A.; Mues, A.; Rupakheti, M.; Kang, S.

    2014-11-01

    The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP), despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines the available yet sparse ground-based and satellite data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13-19 March 2009. We detail how polluted air masses such as an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) over South Asia reached the Tibetan Plateau during this pre-monsoon case study. In order to address the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP, air-mass trajectories are calculated using hourly outputs from the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO. Cross-mountain pollution transport is found to occur to a large extent at elevated tropospheric levels other than just through major river valleys. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic and local meteorological settings. Winds over the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) are generally weak at lower levels during the event, allowing for accumulation of pollutants. The passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to south-westerly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India. Thus, ABC can build up south of the Himalayas and get carried northwards across the mountain range and onto the Tibetan Plateau as the winds obtain a southerly component. Air masses from the ABC hot-spot of the IGP can reach the high glaciers, which may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP region and for climate on regional to global scales.

  1. Polychlorinated naphthalenes and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in arctic air

    SciTech Connect

    Harner, T.; Kylin, H.; Bidleman, T.F.; Barrie, L.A.; Halsall, C.; Strachan, W.M.J.; Fellin, P.

    1998-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are reported for the first time in arctic air. The data represent combined air samples from the Barents Sea, eastern Arctic Ocean, Norwegian Sea, and two land-based monitoring stations at Alert, Canada, and Dunai Island in eastern Siberia, Russia. Values for {Sigma}PCN were 6--49 for shipboard samples and 0.3--8 for land-based stations and were dominated by the 3-Cl and 4-Cl homologues, which accounted for 90--95% of the total mass. Average values for {Sigma}PCB for the shipboard samples were 126, 24, and 75 for the Barents Sea, eastern Arctic, and Norwegian Sea, respectively. Three-dimensional 5-day air parcel back-trajectories arriving at the ship at 850 and 925 hPa suggested that elevated PCB and PCN concentrations for shipboard samples originated in Europe. Concentrations (fg m{sup {minus}3}) of coplanar PCBs in arctic air were 3--40 (PCB 77) and 0.3--8 (PCB 126) -- about an order of magnitude lower than in urban air. Higher concentrations of PCB 77 and PCB 126, 347 and 5.0 (fg m{sup {minus}3}), respectively, were found in the Barents Sea for two samples with elevated {Sigma}PCBs.

  2. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  3. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  4. Urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Air pollution and the risk of potential health effects are not sufficiently convincing reasons for people to stop driving their cars, according to a study by the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) released on November 18.While sufficient levels of suspended particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and lead can present health concerns, the study found that many people surveyed for the study were not convinced of the clear linkage between air pollution and health.

  5. Validating CAR - A comparison study of experimentally-derived and computer-generated reach envelopes. [Crewstation Assessment of Reach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R.; Bennett, J.; Stokes, J.

    1982-01-01

    In the present investigation, Crewstation Assessment of Reach (CAR) results in the form of male hand reach envelopes were generated and compared with an anthropometric survey performed by Kennedy (1978) to determine the extent of the validity of the CAR model with respect to experimentally-derived anthropometric data. The CAR-generated reach envelopes extensively matched the Kennedy envelopes. The match was particularly good in the areas to the front and side from which the reach originated. Attention is given to the crewstation model, the operator sample population, the CAR analysis, aspects of validation methodology, and the modeling of experimental parameters.

  6. Florida Keys Community College's College Reach-Out Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warfield, Deborah

    Because of its Reach-Out Program, Florida Keys Community College (FKCC) has been successful in recruiting black high school students to achieve its highest proportion of racial parity in first-time-in-college enrollments (i.e., 5.2%). Through its Eighth Grade Visitation Program, High School Recruitment Program, and other components, the Reach-Out…

  7. Infants' Predictive Reaching for Moving Objects in the Dark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Daniel J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Thirteen infants were presented with a moving object under two lighting conditions to investigate the role of vision in early reaching. Infants were tested twice, at 5 and 7.5 months of age. The results suggest that proprioceptive feedback and sight of the target allowed for successful reaching with limited visual information, even in relatively…

  8. Postural responses to unexpected perturbations of balance during reaching

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Hari; Leonard, Julia A.; Ting, Lena H.; Stapley, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    To study the interaction between feedforward and feedback modes of postural control, we investigated postural responses during unexpected perturbations of the support surface that occurred during forward reaching in a standing position. We examined postural responses in lower limb muscles of 9 human subjects. Baseline measures were obtained when subjects executed reaching movements to a target placed in front of them (R condition) and during postural responses to forward and backward support-surface perturbations (no reaching, P condition) during quiet stance. Perturbations were also given at different delays after the onset of reaching movements (RP conditions) as well as with the arm extended in the direction of the target, but not reaching (P/AE condition). Results showed that during perturbations to reaching (RP), the initial automatic postural response, occurring around 100 ms after the onset of perturbations, was relatively unchanged in latency or amplitude compared to control conditions (P and P/AE). However, longer latency postural responses were modulated to aid in the reaching movements during forward perturbations but not during backward perturbations. Our results suggest that the nervous system prioritizes the maintenance of a stable postural base during reaching, and that later components of the postural responses can be modulated to ensure the performance of the voluntary task. PMID:20035321

  9. Reaching out in many directions: the fight against prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Judith D

    2005-01-01

    The National Prostate Cancer Coalition, Washington, D.C., reaches out to men across the country with its travelling screening van. It also reaches a audience through promotions with NASCAR, the National Baseball League, and Spike TV. Its partnerships and lobbying efforts have resulted in this year's unprecedented 500 million dollars federal funding of prostate cancer research.

  10. Ambient air quality monitoring plan, Cumberland Steam Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, A.E. Jr.; Carter, R.V.

    1981-09-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has conducted ambient air quality monitoring at Cumberland Steam Plant since 1971. The monitoring network was operated to collect background air quality information prior to plant startup (1972) and to document ambient air quality after the plant reached full operating levels in 1973. This monitoring plan presents a new network design for Cumberland Steam Plant.

  11. Reach Envelope and Field of Vision Quantification in Mark III Space Suit using Delaunay Triangulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Thaxton, Sherry S.; Onady, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2006-01-01

    The Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) project is focused on the development of a rover vehicle that can be utilized by two crewmembers during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) on the moon and Mars. The current SCOUT vehicle can transport two suited astronauts riding in open cockpit seats. Among the aspects currently being developed is the cockpit design and layout. This process includes the identification of possible locations for a socket to which a crewmember could connect a portable life support system (PLSS) for recharging power, air, and cooling while seated in the vehicle. The spaces in which controls and connectors may be situated within the vehicle are constrained by the reach and vision capabilities of the suited crewmembers. Accordingly, quantification of the volumes within which suited crewmembers can both see and reach relative to the vehicle represents important information during the design process.

  12. Proprioceptive body illusions modulate the visual perception of reaching distance.

    PubMed

    Petroni, Agustin; Carbajal, M Julia; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiology of reaching has been extensively studied in human and non-human primates. However, the mechanisms that allow a subject to decide-without engaging in explicit action-whether an object is reachable are not fully understood. Some studies conclude that decisions near the reach limit depend on motor simulations of the reaching movement. Others have shown that the body schema plays a role in explicit and implicit distance estimation, especially after motor practice with a tool. In this study we evaluate the causal role of multisensory body representations in the perception of reachable space. We reasoned that if body schema is used to estimate reach, an illusion of the finger size induced by proprioceptive stimulation should propagate to the perception of reaching distances. To test this hypothesis we induced a proprioceptive illusion of extension or shrinkage of the right index finger while participants judged a series of LEDs as reachable or non-reachable without actual movement. Our results show that reach distance estimation depends on the illusory perceived size of the finger: illusory elongation produced a shift of reaching distance away from the body whereas illusory shrinkage produced the opposite effect. Combining these results with previous findings, we suggest that deciding if a target is reachable requires an integration of body inputs in high order multisensory parietal areas that engage in movement simulations through connections with frontal premotor areas.

  13. Proprioceptive body illusions modulate the visual perception of reaching distance.

    PubMed

    Petroni, Agustin; Carbajal, M Julia; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiology of reaching has been extensively studied in human and non-human primates. However, the mechanisms that allow a subject to decide-without engaging in explicit action-whether an object is reachable are not fully understood. Some studies conclude that decisions near the reach limit depend on motor simulations of the reaching movement. Others have shown that the body schema plays a role in explicit and implicit distance estimation, especially after motor practice with a tool. In this study we evaluate the causal role of multisensory body representations in the perception of reachable space. We reasoned that if body schema is used to estimate reach, an illusion of the finger size induced by proprioceptive stimulation should propagate to the perception of reaching distances. To test this hypothesis we induced a proprioceptive illusion of extension or shrinkage of the right index finger while participants judged a series of LEDs as reachable or non-reachable without actual movement. Our results show that reach distance estimation depends on the illusory perceived size of the finger: illusory elongation produced a shift of reaching distance away from the body whereas illusory shrinkage produced the opposite effect. Combining these results with previous findings, we suggest that deciding if a target is reachable requires an integration of body inputs in high order multisensory parietal areas that engage in movement simulations through connections with frontal premotor areas. PMID:26110274

  14. Environmental stressors afflicting tailwater stream reaches across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Krogman, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The tailwater is the reach of a stream immediately below an impoundment that is hydrologically, physicochemically and biologically altered by the presence and operation of a dam. The overall goal of this study was to gain a nationwide awareness of the issues afflicting tailwater reaches in the United States. Specific objectives included the following: (i) estimate the percentage of reservoirs that support tailwater reaches with environmental conditions suitable for fish assemblages throughout the year, (ii) identify and quantify major sources of environmental stress in those tailwaters that do support fish assemblages and (iii) identify environmental features of tailwater reaches that determine prevalence of key fish taxa. Data were collected through an online survey of fishery managers. Relative to objective 1, 42% of the 1306 reservoirs included in this study had tailwater reaches with sufficient flow to support a fish assemblage throughout the year. The surface area of the reservoir and catchment most strongly delineated reservoirs maintaining tailwater reaches with or without sufficient flow to support a fish assemblage throughout the year. Relative to objective 2, major sources of environmental stress generally reflected flow variables, followed by water quality variables. Relative to objective 3, zoogeography was the primary factor discriminating fish taxa in tailwaters, followed by a wide range of flow and water quality variables. Results for objectives 1–3 varied greatly among nine geographic regions distributed throughout the continental United States. Our results provide a large-scale view of the effects of reservoirs on tailwater reaches and may help guide research and management needs.

  15. Visual information throughout a reach determines endpoint precision.

    PubMed

    Ma-Wyatt, Anna; McKee, Suzanne P

    2007-05-01

    People make rapid, goal-directed movements to interact with their environment. Because these movements have consequences, it is important to be able to control them with a high level of precision and accuracy. Our hypothesis is that vision guides rapid hand movements, thereby enhancing their accuracy and precision. To test this idea, we asked observers to point to a briefly presented target (110 ms). We measured the impact of visual information on endpoint precision by using a shutter to close off view of the hand 50, 110 and 250 ms into the reach. We found that precision was degraded if the view of the hand was restricted at any time during the reach, despite the fact that the target disappeared long before the reach was completed. We therefore conclude that vision keeps the hand on the planned trajectory. We then investigated the effects of a perturbation of target position during the reach. For these experiments, the target remained visible until the reach was completed. The target position was shifted at 110, 180 or 250 ms into the reach. Early shifts in target position were easily compensated for, but late shifts led to a shift in the mean position of the endpoints; observers pointed to the center of the two locations, as a kind of best bet on the position of the target. Visual information is used to guide the hand throughout a reach and has a significant impact on endpoint precision.

  16. Air Pollution: Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation & CNS Disease

    PubMed Central

    Block, Michelle L.; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2009-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates air pollution as a chronic source of neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuropathology instigating central nervous system (CNS) disease. Stroke incidence, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease pathology are linked to air pollution. Recent reports reveal that air pollution components reach the brain. Further, systemic effects known to impact lung and cardiovascular disease also impinge upon CNS health. While mechanisms driving air pollution-induced CNS pathology are poorly understood, new evidence suggests that activation of microglia and changes in the blood brain barrier may be key to this process. Here, we summarize recent findings detailing the mechanisms through which air pollution reaches the brain and activates the resident innate immune response to become a chronic source of pro-inflammatory factors and ROS culpable in CNS disease. PMID:19716187

  17. The Social Reach: 8-Month-Olds Reach for Unobtainable Objects in the Presence of Another Person.

    PubMed

    Ramenzoni, Verónica C; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    Linguistic communication builds on prelinguistic communicative gestures, but the ontogenetic origins and complexities of these prelinguistic gestures are not well known. The current study tested whether 8-month-olds, who do not yet point communicatively, use instrumental actions for communicative purposes. In two experiments, infants reached for objects when another person was present and when no one else was present; the distance to the objects was varied. When alone, the infants reached for objects within their action boundaries and refrained from reaching for objects out of their action boundaries; thus, they knew about their individual action efficiency. However, when a parent (Experiment 1) or a less familiar person (Experiment 2) sat next to them, the infants selectively increased their reaching for out-of-reach objects. The findings reveal that before they communicate explicitly through pointing gestures, infants use instrumental actions with the apparent expectation that a partner will adopt and complete their goals. PMID:27481910

  18. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  19. Alpha-environmental continuous air monitor inlet

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2003-01-01

    A wind deceleration and protective shroud that provides representative samples of ambient aerosols to an environmental continuous air monitor (ECAM) has a cylindrical enclosure mounted to an input on the continuous air monitor, the cylindrical enclosure having shrouded nozzles located radially about its periphery. Ambient air flows, often along with rainwater flows into the nozzles in a sampling flow generated by a pump in the continuous air monitor. The sampling flow of air creates a cyclonic flow in the enclosure that flows up through the cylindrical enclosure until the flow of air reaches the top of the cylindrical enclosure and then is directed downward to the continuous air monitor. A sloped platform located inside the cylindrical enclosure supports the nozzles and causes any moisture entering through the nozzle to drain out through the nozzles.

  20. Covenant Deferral Request for the Proposed Transfer of Land Parcel ED-8 at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - Final - May 2009

    SciTech Connect

    SAIC

    2009-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to transfer a land parcel (hereinafter referred to as 'the Property') designated as Land Parcel ED-8 at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by deed, and is submitting this Covenant Deferral Request (CDR) pursuant to Section 120(h)(3)(C) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, and applicable U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance. The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), which includes ETTP, was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in November 1989. Environmental investigation and cleanup activities are continuing at ETTP in accordance with CERCLA, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). The FFA was entered into by the DOE-Oak Ridge Office (ORO), EPA Region 4, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in 1991. The FFA establishes the schedule and milestones for environmental remediation of the ORR. The proposed property transfer is a key component of the Oak Ridge Performance Management Plan (ORPMP) for accelerated cleanup of the ORR. DOE, using its authority under Section 161(g) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), proposes to transfer the Property to Heritage Center, LLC, a subsidiary of the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET), hereafter referred to as 'Heritage Center.' CROET is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit corporation established to foster the diversification of the regional economy by re-utilizing DOE property for private-sector investment and job creation. The Property is located in the southern portion of ETTP and consists of approximately 84 acres proposed as the potential site for new facilities to be used for office space, industrial activities, or other commercial uses. The parcel contains both grassy fields located outside the ETTP 'main plant' area and infrastructure located inside the 'main plant' area. No

  1. New Stream-Reach Hydropower Development (NSD) Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-25

    This fact sheet explores the more than 65 gigawatts (GW) of sustainable hydropower potential in U.S. stream-reaches, according to the hydropower resource assessment funded by DOE and executed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  2. Reach tracking reveals dissociable processes underlying cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Erb, Christopher D; Moher, Jeff; Sobel, David M; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The current study uses reach tracking to investigate how cognitive control is implemented during online performance of the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and the Eriksen flanker task (Experiment 2). We demonstrate that two of the measures afforded by reach tracking, initiation time and reach curvature, capture distinct patterns of effects that have been linked to dissociable processes underlying cognitive control in electrophysiology and functional neuroimaging research. Our results suggest that initiation time reflects a response threshold adjustment process involving the inhibition of motor output, while reach curvature reflects the degree of co-activation between response alternatives registered by a monitoring process over the course of a trial. In addition to shedding new light on fundamental questions concerning how these processes contribute to the cognitive control of behavior, these results present a framework for future research to investigate how these processes function across different tasks, develop across the lifespan, and differ among individuals. PMID:27045465

  3. Environmental baseline survey report for West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge and parcel 21D in the vicinity of the East Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    King, David A.

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE?s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only no-further-investigation (NFI) reports. Groundwater sampling was also conducted to support a Parcel 21d decision. Based on available data West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, and West Pine Ridge are not impacted by site operations and are not subject to actions per the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). This determination is supported by visual inspections, records searches and interviews, groundwater conceptual modeling, approved NFI reports, analytical data, and risk analysis results. Parcel 21d data, however, demonstrate impacts from site

  4. Hippocampal Volume Is Reduced in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder But Not in Psychotic Bipolar I Disorder Demonstrated by Both Manual Tracing and Automated Parcellation (FreeSurfer)

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Sara J. M.; Ivleva, Elena I.; Gopal, Tejas A.; Reddy, Anil P.; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Sacco, Carolyn B.; Francis, Alan N.; Tandon, Neeraj; Bidesi, Anup S.; Witte, Bradley; Poudyal, Gaurav; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Sweeney, John A.; Clementz, Brett A.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Tamminga, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined hippocampal volume as a putative biomarker for psychotic illness in the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) psychosis sample, contrasting manual tracing and semiautomated (FreeSurfer) region-of-interest outcomes. The study sample (n = 596) included probands with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 71), schizoaffective disorder (SAD, n = 70), and psychotic bipolar I disorder (BDP, n = 86); their first-degree relatives (SZ-Rel, n = 74; SAD-Rel, n = 62; BDP-Rel, n = 88); and healthy controls (HC, n = 145). Hippocampal volumes were derived from 3Tesla T1-weighted MPRAGE images using manual tracing/3DSlicer3.6.3 and semiautomated parcellation/FreeSurfer5.1,64bit. Volumetric outcomes from both methodologies were contrasted in HC and probands and relatives across the 3 diagnoses, using mixed-effect regression models (SAS9.3 Proc MIXED); Pearson correlations between manual tracing and FreeSurfer outcomes were computed. SZ (P = .0007–.02) and SAD (P = .003–.14) had lower hippocampal volumes compared with HC, whereas BDP showed normal volumes bilaterally (P = .18–.55). All relative groups had hippocampal volumes not different from controls (P = .12–.97) and higher than those observed in probands (P = .003–.09), except for FreeSurfer measures in bipolar probands vs relatives (P = .64–.99). Outcomes from manual tracing and FreeSurfer showed direct, moderate to strong, correlations (r = .51–.73, P < .05). These findings from a large psychosis sample support decreased hippocampal volume as a putative biomarker for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, but not for psychotic bipolar I disorder, and may reflect a cumulative effect of divergent primary disease processes and/or lifetime medication use. Manual tracing and semiautomated parcellation regional volumetric approaches may provide useful outcomes for defining measurable biomarkers underlying severe mental illness. PMID:24557771

  5. Synchronous Changes of Cortical Thickness and Corresponding White Matter Microstructure During Brain Development Accessed by Diffusion MRI Tractography from Parcellated Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Ouyang, Minhui; Chen, Min; Huang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Cortical thickness (CT) changes during normal brain development is associated with complicated cellular and molecular processes including synaptic pruning and apoptosis. In parallel, the microstructural enhancement of developmental white matter (WM) axons with their neuronal bodies in the cerebral cortex has been widely reported with measurements of metrics derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), especially fractional anisotropy (FA). We hypothesized that the changes of CT and microstructural enhancement of corresponding axons are highly interacted during development. DTI and T1-weighted images of 50 healthy children and adolescents between the ages of 7 and 25 years were acquired. With the parcellated cortical gyri transformed from T1-weighted images to DTI space as the tractography seeds, probabilistic tracking was performed to delineate the WM fibers traced from specific parcellated cortical regions. CT was measured at certain cortical regions and FA was measured from the WM fibers traced from same cortical regions. The CT of all frontal cortical gyri, including Brodmann areas 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 44, 45, 46, and 47, decreased significantly and heterogeneously; concurrently, significant, and heterogeneous increases of FA of WM traced from corresponding regions were found. We further revealed significant correlation between the slopes of the CT decrease and the slopes of corresponding WM FA increase in all frontal cortical gyri, suggesting coherent cortical pruning and corresponding WM microstructural enhancement. Such correlation was not found in cortical regions other than frontal cortex. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of these synchronous changes may be associated with overlapping signaling pathways of axonal guidance, synaptic pruning, neuronal apoptosis, and more prevalent interstitial neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Revealing the coherence of cortical and WM structural changes during development may open a new window for understanding the

  6. REACH: next step to a sound chemicals management.

    PubMed

    Van der Wielen, Arnold

    2007-12-01

    REACH is the new European Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It entered into force on 1st June 2007 to streamline and improve the former legislative framework on new and on existing chemical substances of the European Union. Companies which manufacture or import more than 1 tonne of a substance per year will be required to register the substance at the new EU Chemicals Agency located in Helsinki. REACH places greater responsibility on industry to manage the risks that chemicals may pose to the health and the environment and to provide safety information that will be passed down the supply chain. In principle, REACH applies to all chemicals as such, as components in preparations and as used in articles. REACH is a radical step forward in the EU chemicals management. The onus will move from the authorities to industry. In addition, REACH will allow the further evaluation of substances where there are grounds for concern, foresees an authorisation system for the use of substances of very high concern and a system of restrictions, where applicable, for substances of concern. The Authorisation system will require companies to switch progressively to safer alternatives where a suitable alternative exists. Current use restrictions will remain under REACH system.

  7. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  8. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  9. Concept of REACH and impact on evaluation of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Foth, H; Hayes, Aw

    2008-01-01

    Industrial chemicals have been in use for many decades and new products are regularly invented and introduced to the market. Also for decades, many different chemical laws have been introduced to regulate safe handling of chemicals in different use patterns. The patchwork of current regulation in the European Union is to be replaced by the new regulation on industrial chemical control, REACH. REACH stands for registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals. REACH entered force on June 1, 2007. REACH aims to overcome limitations in testing requirements of former regulation on industrial chemicals to enhance competitiveness and innovation with regard to manufacture safer substances and to promote the development of alternative testing methods. A main task of REACH is to address data gaps regarding the properties and uses of industrial chemicals. Producers, importers, and downstream users will have to compile and communicate standard information for all chemicals. Information sets to be prepared include safety data sheets (SDS), chemical safety reports (CSR), and chemical safety assessments (CSA). These are designed to guarantee adequate handling in the production chain, in transport and in use and to prevent the substances from being released to and distributed within the environment. Another important aim is to identify the most harmful chemicals and to set incentives to substitute them with safer alternatives. On one hand, REACH will have substantial impact on the basic understanding of the evaluation of chemicals. However, the toxicological sciences can also substantially influence the workability of REACH that supports the transformation of data to the information required to understand and manage acceptable and non acceptable risks in the use of industrial chemicals. The REACH regulation has been laid down in the main document and 17 Annexes of more than 849 pages. Even bigger technical guidance documents will follow and will inform about the rules for

  10. Magnitude and extent of flooding at selected river reaches in western Washington, January 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, M.C.; Gendaszek, A.S.; Barnas, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    A narrow plume of warm, moist tropical air produced prolonged precipitation and melted snow in low-to-mid elevations throughout western Washington in January 2009. As a result, peak-of-record discharges occurred at many long-term streamflow-gaging stations in the region. A disaster was declared by the President for eight counties in Washington State and by May 2009, aid payments by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) had exceeded $17 million. In an effort to document the flood and to obtain flood information that could be compared with simulated flood extents that are commonly prepared in conjunction with flood insurance studies by FEMA, eight stream reaches totaling 32.6 miles were selected by FEMA for inundation mapping. The U.S. Geological Survey?s Washington Water Science Center used a survey-grade global positioning system (GPS) the following summer to survey high-water marks (HWMs) left by the January 2009 flood at these reaches. A Google Maps (copyright) application was developed to display all HWM data on an interactive mapping tool on the project?s web site soon after the data were collected. Water-surface profiles and maps that display the area and depth of inundation were produced through a geographic information system (GIS) analysis that combined surveyed HWM elevations with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived digital elevation models of the study reaches and surrounding terrain. In several of the reaches, floods were well confined in their flood plains and were relatively straightforward to map. More common, however, were reaches with more complicated hydraulic geometries where widespread flooding resulted in flows that separated from the main channel. These proved to be more difficult to map, required subjective hydrologic judgment, and relied on supplementary information, such as aerial photographs and descriptions of the flooding from local landowners and government officials to obtain the best estimates of the extent of flooding.

  11. Rapid plasticity of motor corticospinal system with robotic reach training.

    PubMed

    Kantak, S S; Jones-Lush, L M; Narayanan, P; Judkins, T N; Wittenberg, G F

    2013-09-01

    Goal-directed reaching is important for the activities of daily living. Populations of neurons in the primary motor cortex that project to spinal motor circuits are known to represent the kinematics of reaching movements. We investigated whether repetitive practice of goal-directed reaching movements induces use-dependent plasticity of those kinematic characteristics, in a manner similar to finger movements, as had been shown previously. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to evoke upper extremity movements while the forearm was resting in a robotic cradle. Plasticity was measured by the change in kinematics of these evoked movements following goal-directed reaching practice. Baseline direction of TMS-evoked arm movements was determined for each subject. Subjects then practiced three blocks of 160 goal-directed reaching movements in a direction opposite to the baseline direction (14 cm reach 180° from baseline direction) against a 75-Nm spring field. Changes in TMS-evoked whole arm movements were assessed after each practice block and after 5 min following the end of practice. Direction and the position of the point of peak velocity of TMS-evoked movements were significantly altered following training and at a 5-min interval following training, while amplitude did not show significant changes. This was accompanied by changes in the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the shoulder and elbow agonist muscles that partly explained the change in direction, mainly by increase in agonist MEP, without significant changes in antagonists. These findings demonstrate that the arm representation accessible by motor cortical stimulation under goes rapid plasticity induced by goal-directed robotic reach training in healthy subjects. PMID:23669007

  12. Stable isotope composition of waters in the Great Basin, United States 1. Air-mass trajectories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Harris, J.M.; Smith, G.I.; Johnson, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Isentropic trajectories, calculated using the NOAA/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory's isentropic transport model, were used to determine air-parcel origins and the influence of air mass trajectories on the isotopic composition of precipitation events that occurred between October 1991 and September 1993 at Cedar City, Utah, and Winnemucca, Nevada. Examination of trajectories that trace the position of air parcels backward in time for 10 days indicated five distinct regions of water vapor origin: (1) Gulf of Alaska and North Pacific, (2) central Pacific, (3) tropical Pacific, (4) Gulf of Mexico, and (5) continental land mass. Deuterium (??D) and oxygen-18 (??18O) analyses were made of precipitation representing 99% of all Cedar City events. Similar analyses were made on precipitation representing 66% of the precipitation falling at Winnemucca during the same period. The average isotopic composition of precipitation derived from each water vapor source was determined. More than half of the precipitation that fell at both sites during the study period originated in the tropical Pacific and traveled northeast to the Great Basin; only a small proportion traversed the Sierra Nevada. The isotopic composition of precipitation is determined by air-mass origin and its track to the collection station, mechanism of droplet formation, reequilibration within clouds, and evaporation during its passage from cloud to ground. The Rayleigh distillation model can explain the changes in isotopic composition of precipitation as an air mass is cooled pseudo-adiabatically during uplift. However, the complicated processes that take place in the rapidly convecting environment of cumulonimbus and other clouds that are common in the Great Basin, especially in summer, require modification of this model because raindrops that form in the lower portion of those clouds undergo isotopic change as they are elevated to upper levels of the clouds from where they eventually drop to the

  13. Reach-Scale Channel Geometry of a Mountain River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, E.; Kuzma, J.; Brown, N.

    2002-12-01

    N. St. Vrain Creek drains 250 km2 of the Colorado Front Range. The basin is underlain by granitic rocks, and the upper half was glaciated. We used 25 study reaches to examine controls on reach-scale channel geometry. Variables measured included channel geometry (width, depth, gradient, bedforms), grain size, and mean velocity. Drainage area at each study reach ranged from 2.2-245 km2, and gradient from 0.013-0.147 m/m. The increase in discharge with drainage area is strongly linear. Channel types included cascade, step-pool, plane-bed and pool-riffle. We examined correlations among (1) the reach-scale response variables bankfull width (w), hydraulic radius (R), mean velocity (v), Darcy-Weisbach ff, bedform wavelength (bw) and amplitude (a), grain size, relative roughness (R/D84) and shear stress (ss), and (2) potential control variables that change progressively downstream (drainage area, discharge) or that are reach-specific (bed gradient). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that response variables correlate most strongly with local gradient because of the segmented nature of mountain channels. Results from linear regression analyses indicate that most response variables(R/D84, D50, D84, ff, ss) correlate best with gradient, although w, w/d ratio, and bw correlate best with discharge. Multiple regression analyses using Mallow's Cp selection criterion produced similar results in that most response variables correlate strongly with gradient, although the specific variables differ from those selected with linear regressions: w, a, v, ff and ss correlate with gradient, whereas R, bw and v correlate with discharge. These results suggest that the hypothesis is partially supported: channel bed gradient is likely to be a good predictor for many reach-scale response variables along mountain rivers, but discharge is also a good predictor for some response variables. Thus, although subject to strong constraints imposed by changes in gradient and grain size supplied by

  14. The Cognition of Maximal Reach Distance in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the cognition of spatial distance in reaching movements was decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether this cognition was associated with various symptoms of PD. Estimated and actual maximal reaching distances were measured in three directions in PD patients and healthy elderly volunteers. Differences between estimated and actual measurements were compared within each group. In the PD patients, the associations between “error in cognition” of reaching distance and “clinical findings” were also examined. The results showed that no differences were observed in any values regardless of dominance of hand and severity of symptoms. The differences between the estimated and actual measurements were negatively deviated in the PD patients, indicating that they tended to underestimate reaching distance. “Error in cognition” of reaching distance correlated with the items of posture in the motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. This suggests that, in PD patients, postural deviation and postural instability might affect the cognition of the distance from a target object. PMID:27597927

  15. The Cognition of Maximal Reach Distance in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the cognition of spatial distance in reaching movements was decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether this cognition was associated with various symptoms of PD. Estimated and actual maximal reaching distances were measured in three directions in PD patients and healthy elderly volunteers. Differences between estimated and actual measurements were compared within each group. In the PD patients, the associations between “error in cognition” of reaching distance and “clinical findings” were also examined. The results showed that no differences were observed in any values regardless of dominance of hand and severity of symptoms. The differences between the estimated and actual measurements were negatively deviated in the PD patients, indicating that they tended to underestimate reaching distance. “Error in cognition” of reaching distance correlated with the items of posture in the motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. This suggests that, in PD patients, postural deviation and postural instability might affect the cognition of the distance from a target object.

  16. Impacts on industry of Europe's emerging chemicals policy REACh.

    PubMed

    Angerer, Gerhard; Nordbeck, Ralf; Sartorius, Christian

    2008-03-01

    For Europe, a new regime in chemicals regulation is about to start. After the proposal of the European Commission concerning the Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACh) passed its readings in the European Parliament and some differences with the European Council of Ministers were resolved, the regulation will come into force in June 2007. This paper is focused on the question how serious the cost burdens for industry induced by REACh will be, and whether the New European Member States (NMS) which joined the European Union in May 2004 will be able to cope with the regulation. This evaluation has been done by assessing the legislative, administrative and economic framework in New Member States and by analysing real business cases in companies. The empirical showcase business impact studies are at the same time of interest for companies of EU-15 states, other European countries who may implement the regulation, and even for exporters of raw materials and chemicals outside Europe, who will also have to comply with REACh if they market in the European Community. The results give no indications that REACh adoption will bring significant drawbacks to companies in the NMS. The emerging regulation will bring challenges for individual companies, especially for small and medium-sized ones, but for the European chemical industry as a whole, there is no question that it will be able to cope with REACh burdens without losing its global competitiveness. PMID:17321032

  17. The Cognition of Maximal Reach Distance in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Satoru; Nagaoka, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the cognition of spatial distance in reaching movements was decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether this cognition was associated with various symptoms of PD. Estimated and actual maximal reaching distances were measured in three directions in PD patients and healthy elderly volunteers. Differences between estimated and actual measurements were compared within each group. In the PD patients, the associations between "error in cognition" of reaching distance and "clinical findings" were also examined. The results showed that no differences were observed in any values regardless of dominance of hand and severity of symptoms. The differences between the estimated and actual measurements were negatively deviated in the PD patients, indicating that they tended to underestimate reaching distance. "Error in cognition" of reaching distance correlated with the items of posture in the motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. This suggests that, in PD patients, postural deviation and postural instability might affect the cognition of the distance from a target object. PMID:27597927

  18. The Cognition of Maximal Reach Distance in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Satoru; Nagaoka, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the cognition of spatial distance in reaching movements was decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether this cognition was associated with various symptoms of PD. Estimated and actual maximal reaching distances were measured in three directions in PD patients and healthy elderly volunteers. Differences between estimated and actual measurements were compared within each group. In the PD patients, the associations between "error in cognition" of reaching distance and "clinical findings" were also examined. The results showed that no differences were observed in any values regardless of dominance of hand and severity of symptoms. The differences between the estimated and actual measurements were negatively deviated in the PD patients, indicating that they tended to underestimate reaching distance. "Error in cognition" of reaching distance correlated with the items of posture in the motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. This suggests that, in PD patients, postural deviation and postural instability might affect the cognition of the distance from a target object.

  19. Impacts on industry of Europe's emerging chemicals policy REACh.

    PubMed

    Angerer, Gerhard; Nordbeck, Ralf; Sartorius, Christian

    2008-03-01

    For Europe, a new regime in chemicals regulation is about to start. After the proposal of the European Commission concerning the Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACh) passed its readings in the European Parliament and some differences with the European Council of Ministers were resolved, the regulation will come into force in June 2007. This paper is focused on the question how serious the cost burdens for industry induced by REACh will be, and whether the New European Member States (NMS) which joined the European Union in May 2004 will be able to cope with the regulation. This evaluation has been done by assessing the legislative, administrative and economic framework in New Member States and by analysing real business cases in companies. The empirical showcase business impact studies are at the same time of interest for companies of EU-15 states, other European countries who may implement the regulation, and even for exporters of raw materials and chemicals outside Europe, who will also have to comply with REACh if they market in the European Community. The results give no indications that REACh adoption will bring significant drawbacks to companies in the NMS. The emerging regulation will bring challenges for individual companies, especially for small and medium-sized ones, but for the European chemical industry as a whole, there is no question that it will be able to cope with REACh burdens without losing its global competitiveness.

  20. [The REACH legislation: the consumer and environment protection perspective].

    PubMed

    Gundert-Remy, Ursula

    2008-12-01

    REACH has been initiated with the aim of improving existing legislation. In order to assist in the interpretation of the REACH legislation, guidance documents have been developed, which have only lately become available. According to the REACH annexes and supported by guidance documents, waiving of test requirements will be possible, thus, opening the possibility that under REACH no new (eco)toxicological data will be required. Concerning products, a guidance document was released in April 2008 stating that the substance concentration threshold of 0.1 % (w/w) applies to the article as produced or imported and it does not relate to the homogeneous materials or parts of an article, but relates to the article as such (i.e., as produced or imported). Hence, notification will not be required for many products containing chemicals with properties which place them on the candidate list for authorization. In summary, it is at present not foreseeable whether the expected benefit of the REACH legislation will materialise for the environment and for the health of consumers and at the work place.

  1. Error Signals in Motor Cortices Drive Adaptation in Reaching.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masato; Uchimura, Motoaki; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2016-06-01

    Reaching movements are subject to adaptation in response to errors induced by prisms or external perturbations. Motor cortical circuits have been hypothesized to provide execution errors that drive adaptation, but human imaging studies to date have reported that execution errors are encoded in parietal association areas. Thus, little evidence has been uncovered that supports the motor hypothesis. Here, we show that both primary motor and premotor cortices encode information on end-point errors in reaching. We further show that post-movement microstimulation to these regions caused trial-by-trial increases in errors, which subsided exponentially when the stimulation was terminated. The results indicate for the first time that motor cortical circuits provide error signals that drive trial-by-trial adaptation in reaching movements. PMID:27181058

  2. Full monitoring for long-reach TWDM passive optical networks.

    PubMed

    Cen, Min; Chen, Jiajia; Moeyaert, Véronique; Mégret, Patrice; Wuilpart, Marc

    2016-07-11

    This paper presents a novel and simple fiber monitoring system based on multi-wavelength transmission-reflection analysis for long-reach time and wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks. For the first time, the full localization functionality of long-reach passive optical networks is possible with the proposed monitoring scheme, including supporting fault detection, identification, and localization in both feeder and distribution fiber segments. By measuring the transmitted and reflected/backscattered optical powers launched by an unmodulated continuous-wave optical source, the proposed solution is able to supervise the network with good spatial accuracy, a high detection speed and a low impact on data traffic. Both the theoretical analysis and experimental validation show that the proposed scheme is capable of providing an accurate fault monitoring functionality for long-reach time and wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks. PMID:27410849

  3. 75 FR 81591 - U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... of the Air Force. In addition, the SAB will discuss and reach a consensus on the results of the Air Force Research Laboratory Science and Technology FY11 Review. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552b, as amended,...

  4. Age-related changes in the performance of forward reach.

    PubMed

    Lin, S I; Liao, C F

    2011-01-01

    Aging is widely considered to be associated with limited balance capacity. It is not clear if forward reach ability is also affected by aging. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging was associated with reduced ability of forward reach or changes in movement patterns. Thirty-three young and 31 older adults were instructed to reach forward as far as possible without losing balance. A motion analysis system was used to record the body kinematics to calculate the joint angle and estimate the motion of center of mass (COM) using a five-segment model. Reach distance (measured from the finger marker), COM displacement, and the distance that the COM exceeded the 2nd toe marker (COM-toe) were used to represent reach performance. The movement patterns were classified as hip, ankle or mixed strategies based upon joint kinematics. It was found that the initial location of the COM was significantly more anterior in the older adults. Older adults were found to have significantly smaller COM displacement and greater hip flexion, but did not differ from young adults in reach distance or COM-toe. Older adults overwhelmingly adopted a hip strategy, but none adopted an ankle strategy. The distribution of the different strategies also differed significantly between groups. These findings suggest that aging appears to be associated with modifications in movement patterns, but not necessarily with a reduction in the ability to approach the boundary of stability. Clinically, balance training for older adults may include the exploration and instruction of atypical movement patterns. PMID:20951591

  5. How to conquer air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, H. . Faculty of Engineering)

    1989-01-01

    Many parts of the world suffer from urban air pollution and, despite the vast amount of knowledge about its causes, most countries are slow to implement counter-measures. An exception is Tokyo which, once blanketed in a mantle of smog, now enjoys clean air in spite of highly concentrated activity and congested traffic. Based on the successful Japanese experience, this book describes all aspects of the measures necessary to combat air pollution. It begins with a well-documented history of the fight against air pollution and describes the processes and mechanisms of reaching a social consensus on pollution control. The essential steps in the process are the establishment of ambient air quality standards, the introduction of the total allowable mass of emission, and the legal control of each emission based on diffusion equations. The scientific background to this approach is explained, from epidemiology to computer simulations of air quality. An up-to-date account of emission control technology is also given, and the controversial issue of health damage compensation is examined, based on actual experience.

  6. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  9. Perceiving Children's Behavior and Reaching Limits in a Risk Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordovil, Rita; Santos, Carlos; Barreiros, Joao

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of parents' perception of children's reaching limits in a risk scenario. A sample of 68 parents of 1- to 4-year-olds were asked to make a prior estimate of their children's behavior and action limits in a task that involved retrieving a toy out of the water. The action modes used for…

  10. Postural optimization during functional reach while kneeling and standing.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Kawakami, Shingo; Murakami, Kenichi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity of functional reach models by comparing actual values with estimated values. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volunteers were included in this study (male: 14, female: 14, age: 21 ± 1 years, height: 166.8 ± 9.0 cm, and body mass: 60.1 ± 8.5 kg). The maximum forward fingertip position and joint angles were measured using the original equipment. In addition, the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee or ankle joint angle were estimated using the functional reach model. [Results] The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and ankle joint angle while standing were 0.93, 0.83, and 0.73, respectively. The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee joint angle while kneeling were 0.86, 0.81, and 0.72, respectively. [Conclusion] The validity of both functional reach models in estimating optimal posture was confirmed. Therefore, the functional reach model is useful for evaluation of postural control and optimal postural control exercises. PMID:27630433

  11. How Can We Reach Reluctant Parents in Childcare Programmes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalls, A. Mercedes; Mullis, Ronald L.; Cornille, Thomas A.; Mullis, Ann K.; Jeter, Nari

    2010-01-01

    Young children benefit most from their experiences in childcare centres when their parents are actively involved in centre activities. However, childcare professionals sometimes face obstacles in engaging and maintaining cooperative working relationships with families. This is especially true for families that are hard to reach or families that…

  12. 14. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN Reach by foot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN Reach by foot from E end of Vine St. St. Louis and San Francisco RR bridge. Bridge built 1887, replaced, 1969. Credit: Evans Memorial Library, Aberdeen, Ms. No date. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  13. The influence of object identity on obstacle avoidance reaching behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Haan, A M; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijnens, C M; Dijkerman, H C

    2014-07-01

    When reaching for target objects, we hardly ever collide with other objects located in our working environment. Behavioural studies have demonstrated that the introduction of non-target objects into the workspace alters both spatial and temporal parameters of reaching trajectories. Previous studies have shown the influence of spatial object features (e.g. size and position) on obstacle avoidance movements. However, obstacle identity may also play a role in the preparation of avoidance responses as this allows prediction of possible negative consequences of collision based on recognition of the obstacle. In this study we test this hypothesis by asking participants to reach towards a target as quickly as possible, in the presence of an empty or full glass of water placed about half way between the target and the starting position, at 8 cm either left or right of the virtual midline. While the spatial features of full and empty glasses of water are the same, the consequences of collision are clearly different. Indeed, when there was a high chance of collision, reaching trajectories veered away more from filled than from empty glasses. This shows that the identity of potential obstacles, which allows for estimating the predicted consequences of collision, is taken into account during obstacle avoidance.

  14. The Art and Design Directory: Reaching the Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Glen

    2004-01-01

    The title of this paper is derived from the advertising campaign of a well-known drinks company that claimed to reach the parts that its competitors did not. It could be argued that it is an equally appropriate description of the principles underpinning the Art and Design Directory, a weekend staff development event in Scotland. The mantra of…

  15. Numeric Comparison in a Visually-Guided Manual Reaching Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Joo-Hyun; Nakayama, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Nearly all studies on perception and cognition have used discrete responses to infer internal cognitive processes. In the current study, we demonstrate that visually-guided manual reaching can provide new opportunities to access internal processes over time. In each trial, participants were required to compare a single digit Arabic number…

  16. "Terms of Engagement" Not "Hard to Reach Parents"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This article presents findings of qualitative research commissioned by the Achievement for All project in a UK local authority. The research investigated how schools should engage parents, including those considered to be "hard to reach". A focus group methodology was adapted to enable parents to provide answers to the research questions. The…

  17. REACH coarse-grained simulation of a cellulose fiber.

    PubMed

    Glass, Dennis C; Moritsugu, Kei; Cheng, Xiaolin; Smith, Jeremy C

    2012-09-10

    A molecular level understanding of the structure, dynamics and mechanics of cellulose fibers can aid in understanding the recalcitrance of biomass to hydrolysis in cellulosic biofuel production. Here, a residue-scale REACH (Realistic Extension Algorithm via Covariance Hessian) coarse-grained force field was derived from all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the crystalline Iβ cellulose fibril. REACH maps the atomistic covariance matrix onto coarse-grained elastic force constants. The REACH force field was found to reproduce the positional fluctuations and low-frequency vibrational spectra from the all-atom model, allowing elastic properties of the cellulose fibril to be characterized using the coarse-grained force field with a speedup of >20 relative to atomistic MD on systems of the same size. The calculated longitudinal/transversal Young's modulus and the velocity of sound are in agreement with experiment. The persistence length of a 36-chain cellulose microcrystal was estimated to be ~380 μm. Finally, the normal-mode analysis with the REACH force field suggests that intrinsic dynamics might facilitate the deconstruction of the cellulose fibril from the hydrophobic surface.

  18. Priming of Reach and Grasp Actions by Handled Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Bub, Daniel N.; Breuer, Andreas T.

    2011-01-01

    Pictures of handled objects such as a beer mug or frying pan are shown to prime speeded reach and grasp actions that are compatible with the object. To determine whether the evocation of motor affordances implied by this result is driven merely by the physical orientation of the object's handle as opposed to higher-level properties of the object,…

  19. Reaching First Year College Students: Current Practices in Instructional Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Byrnes, Mary Kate; McDermott, Dona

    2006-01-01

    In light of the new emphasis on information literacy, this research updates previous studies and explores current practices in first year library instruction and programming. Academic librarians are reaching out to freshmen seminar programs, first year orientations, Introduction to College courses, and English composition courses to integrate…

  20. Our Global Reach: UNESCO and ICAE as Catalysts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    2012-01-01

    Globalization has become a household word, permeating workplaces and communities, while internationalizing the curriculum has become common practice, not just in higher education, but also reaching into the primary grades and outward into program planning efforts in the non-formal sector. Few fields, however, can claim two international bodies…

  1. Reaching and Grasping Movements in Infants at Risk: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Campos, Ana Carolina; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Although the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the development of reaching and grasping skills in typical infants has been extensively described in the literature, the effect of such factors on at-risk infants is still poorly understood. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to analyze the scientific publications, from 1980…

  2. 12. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS REACHING FOR THE SAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS REACHING FOR THE SAND RELEASE LEVER WHICH WILL OPEN THE OVERHEAD STORAGE BIN AND PERMIT A SET AMOUNT OF SAND TO BE DEPOSITED INTO THE FLASK PRIOR TO COMPRESSION BY THE MOLDING MACHINE INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Reaching the Underserved: Complementary Models of Effective Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeStefano, Joseph; Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh; Balwanz, David; Hartwell, Ash

    2007-01-01

    Many countries that have undergone expansion of access to public education still face significant disparities in school enrollment and attendance rates at sub-national levels, and fail to reach a high proportion of children who are outside of the government system. Completion and student learning have also continued to be system-wide challenges…

  4. Reaching a Representative Sample of College Students: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovenco, Daniel P.; Gundersen, Daniel A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of a random-digit dial (RDD) cellular phone survey in order to reach a national and representative sample of college students. Methods: Demographic distributions from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey (NYAHS) were benchmarked against enrollment numbers from the Integrated Postsecondary Education…

  5. Funding Schools and Colleges To Reach Educational Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    States should strive for national, and increasingly international, standards in education. States that set educational goals will need to know what indicators of progress will signal to citizens, educators, and government leaders that they are moving toward or reaching those goals. In a separate report, the Southern Regional Education Board has…

  6. Reaching a Moveable Visual Target: Dissociations in Brain Tumour Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buiatti, Tania; Skrap, Miran; Shallice, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Damage to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) can lead to Optic Ataxia (OA), in which patients misreach to peripheral targets. Recent research suggested that the PPC might be involved not only in simple reaching tasks toward peripheral targets, but also in changing the hand movement trajectory in real time if the target moves. The present study…

  7. Hand preference status and reach kinematics in infants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Eliza L; Konidaris, George D; Berthier, Neil E

    2014-11-01

    Infants show age-related improvements in reach straightness and smoothness over the first years of life as well as a decrease in average movement speed. This period of changing kinematics overlaps the emergence of handedness. We examined whether infant hand preference status is related to the development of motor control in 53 infants ranging from 11 to 14 months old. Hand preference status was assessed from reaching to a set of 5 objects presented individually at the infant's midline; infants were classified into 'right preference' or 'no preference' groups. Three-dimensional (3-D) recordings were made of each arm for reaches under two distinct conditions: pick up a ball and fit it into the opening of a toy (grasp-to-place task) or pick up a Cheerio® and consume it (grasp-to-eat task). Contrary to expectations, there was no effect of hand preference status on reach smoothness or straightness for either task. On the grasp-to-eat task only, average speed of the left hand differed as a function of hand preference status. Infants in the no preference group exhibited higher left hand average speeds than infants in the right preference group. Our results suggest that while behavioral differences in the use of the two hands may be present in some infants, these differences do not appear to be systematically linked to biases in motor control of the arms early in development.

  8. Reach for the Stars: Visions for Literacy Coaching Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFord, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This brief by the Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse is about reaching for the stars--stories of vision and commitment from educators in small and large schools. Everyone knows of people who are held up as "visionaries" throughout history: Leonardo Da Vinci, Mahatma Gandhi, Jules Verne, Thomas Edison, Susan Anthony, or John Dewey, to name a few. The…

  9. Is there a hard-to-reach audience?

    PubMed Central

    Freimuth, V S; Mettger, W

    1990-01-01

    The "hard-to-reach" label has been applied to many different audiences. Persons who have a low socioeconomic status (SES), members of ethnic minorities, and persons who have a low level of literacy often are tagged as "hard-to-reach." The authors identify reasons why these groups have been labelled "hard-to-reach," discuss preconceptions associated with the "hard-to-reach" label, propose alternative conceptualizations of these audiences, and present implications of such conceptualizations for health communication campaigns. Pejorative labels and preconceptions about various groups may lead to depicting these audiences as powerless, apathetic, and isolated. The authors discuss alternative conceptualizations, which highlight the strengths of different audience segments and encourage innovative approaches to the communication process. These alternative conceptualizations emphasize interactive communication, a view of society in which individuals are seen as members of equivalent--albeit different--cultures, and a shift of responsibility for health problems from individuals to social systems. Recommendations for incorporating these alternative concepts into health campaigns include formative research techniques that create a dialogue among participants, more sophisticated segmentation techniques to capture audience diversity, and new roles for mass media that are more interactive and responsive to individual needs. PMID:2113680

  10. Macroscopic Neural Oscillation during Skilled Reaching Movements in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chun Kee

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanism of skilled movements, such as reaching, has been considered to differ from that of rhythmic movement such as locomotion. It is generally thought that skilled movements are consciously controlled by the brain, while rhythmic movements are usually controlled autonomously by the spinal cord and brain stem. However, several studies in recent decades have suggested that neural networks in the spinal cord may also be involved in the generation of skilled movements. Moreover, a recent study revealed that neural activities in the motor cortex exhibit rhythmic oscillations corresponding to movement frequency during reaching movements as rhythmic movements. However, whether the oscillations are generated in the spinal cord or the cortical circuit in the motor cortex causes the oscillations is unclear. If the spinal cord is involved in the skilled movements, then similar rhythmic oscillations with time delays should be found in macroscopic neural activity. We measured whole-brain MEG signals during reaching. The MEG signals were analyzed using a dynamical analysis method. We found that rhythmic oscillations with time delays occur in all subjects during reaching movements. The results suggest that the corticospinal system is involved in the generation and control of the skilled movements as rhythmic movements. PMID:27524996

  11. The Development of Infants' Reaches for Stationary and Moving Targets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, Naomi; Benson, Janette B.; Haith, Marshall M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined organization of 5.5, 8.5, and 11.5-month-olds' reaching skill for stationary and moving targets. Found that infants of all ages made anticipatory adjustments of hand alignment; effectiveness of these adjustments improved with age. Regardless of age, infants used dynamic information from spinning and oscillating targets to update ongoing…

  12. EFNEP Reaches Refugee Youth Using a Mobile Van

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gossett, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    New groups of refugees settled in apartments far from city services. Their children lacked access to organized after-school activities and the opportunity to practice English. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) wanted to reach and teach the young refugees but lacked the staff and budget to do so. This article discusses how…

  13. Postural optimization during functional reach while kneeling and standing

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Kawakami, Shingo; Murakami, Kenichi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity of functional reach models by comparing actual values with estimated values. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volunteers were included in this study (male: 14, female: 14, age: 21 ± 1 years, height: 166.8 ± 9.0 cm, and body mass: 60.1 ± 8.5 kg). The maximum forward fingertip position and joint angles were measured using the original equipment. In addition, the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee or ankle joint angle were estimated using the functional reach model. [Results] The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and ankle joint angle while standing were 0.93, 0.83, and 0.73, respectively. The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee joint angle while kneeling were 0.86, 0.81, and 0.72, respectively. [Conclusion] The validity of both functional reach models in estimating optimal posture was confirmed. Therefore, the functional reach model is useful for evaluation of postural control and optimal postural control exercises. PMID:27630433

  14. Now and Then: The U.S. Reaches 300 Million

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Judith; Crews, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    Today, the Census Bureau compiles extensive information every year about the people and the economy of the United States. That is how the authors know that in 2006 the United States is going to reach an extraordinary milestone--300 million people. In this article, the authors discuss the "now and then" of the U.S. society. The authors observed…

  15. Imaginative Play during Childhood: Required for Reaching Full Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Karen

    2009-01-01

    At a brisk pace, research findings focused on children's play are finally reaching the light of day in popular media. No longer left sitting in archives of academic journals, the benefits of play to lifelong success have been touted in radio, television, magazines, and newspapers. It gives early childhood professionals a powerful, credible…

  16. Reaching Higher Ground: Parental Outreach Programs at the Postsecondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Celina; Marquez, Amalia

    2005-01-01

    In this follow-up study to "College Knowledge: What Latino Parents Need to Know and Why They Don't Know It," [see ED469295], the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute examines how postsecondary institutions are mobilizing to address the need for college information among Latino parents. The primary objective of "Reaching Higher Ground" is to profile in…

  17. Reaching All Students with Excellent STEM Teachers. Education Leaders' Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Impact, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S., STEM subjects--science, technology, engineering, and math--face urgent needs for great STEM teachers and well-educated students. An Opportunity Culture can help by extending the reach of excellent STEM teachers already in our schools and creating a teaching profession that attracts and retains these teachers through higher pay, within…

  18. Postural optimization during functional reach while kneeling and standing

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Kawakami, Shingo; Murakami, Kenichi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity of functional reach models by comparing actual values with estimated values. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volunteers were included in this study (male: 14, female: 14, age: 21 ± 1 years, height: 166.8 ± 9.0 cm, and body mass: 60.1 ± 8.5 kg). The maximum forward fingertip position and joint angles were measured using the original equipment. In addition, the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee or ankle joint angle were estimated using the functional reach model. [Results] The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and ankle joint angle while standing were 0.93, 0.83, and 0.73, respectively. The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee joint angle while kneeling were 0.86, 0.81, and 0.72, respectively. [Conclusion] The validity of both functional reach models in estimating optimal posture was confirmed. Therefore, the functional reach model is useful for evaluation of postural control and optimal postural control exercises.

  19. Accessible Buildings for People with Walking and Reaching Limitations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinfeld, Edward; And Others

    Research was reviewed and conducted regarding the accessibility of buildings for physically disabled persons. Data was produced regarding anthropometrics (eye level and reach limits for ambulant, semiambulant, and wheelchair bound persons); wheelchair maneuvers; speed and distance (maximum travel distances for people with limitations of stamina);…

  20. Science Behind Bars: Reaching Inmates on Rikers Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mócsy, Ágnes

    2016-03-01

    I report on the project ``Science Behind Bars: Reaching Inmates on Rikers Island'' partially funded through an APS Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grant. This project involves setting up meetings to speak with female prisoners on Rikers Island about science, evidence based reasoning and the dangers of stereo-type threat.

  1. Anadromous salmonids of the Hanford Reach, Columbia River: 1984 status

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Hanford Reach, a regulated but flowing section of the Columbia River, supports spawning populations of fall chinook salmon and steelhead. It also serves as a migration route for upriver runs of chinook, coho and sockeye salmon, and of steelhead. Environmental studies conducted in association with activities on the Hanford Site provide a basis for assessing present ecological conditions in the Hanford Reach. Spawning populations of fall chinook salmon at Hanford increased dramatically after 1960, when Priest Rapids Dam was completed, and have remained relatively stable since 1969. Generally, upriver runs of spring, summer, and fall chinook salmon have been depressed, but the fall run has been increasing since 1980. Habitat modification represents the greatest threat to sustained production of fall chinook salmon in the Hanford Reach. Operations on and near the Hanford Site releases of small amounts of radioactivity from onsite operations to river and groundwater, and operation of a steam electric plant, can have negligible effects on salmonids and other aquatic resources. Possible activities with potential future impacts include development of a multi-unit power plant complex at Hanford, construction of a low-head hydroelectric dam above Richland, flow fluctuations from peaking power generation at Priest Rapids Dam, irrigation and reductions of instream flows, and dredging and commercial navigation above Hanford. If reproducing populations of fall chinook salmon and steelhead are to survive in the mid-Columbia River, the Hanford Reach must remain flowing, undeveloped for navigation, and with unimpaired water quality. 156 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Brood ecology of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.E.

    1983-12-01

    The objective was to examine the ecology of broods of the western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River in southcentral Washington. Broods were captured and equipped with radio transmitters and their movements tracked. Major brood rearing areas were identified. 5 references, 2 tables. (ACR)

  3. Research Within Reach: Resources for School Improvement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.

    A detailed report is given on the mechanics involved in conducting a successful bi-regional workshop for educators. The theme of the workshop was designed around two Research Within Reach (RWR) documents dealing with oral/written communications and secondary mathematics; however, papers and discussion generated by the workshop are not included in…

  4. Within Our Reach: How America Can Educate Every Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chubb, John E.

    2005-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is bolder than all previous federal education laws, setting ambitious goals for universal student achievement and authorizing severe remedies for schools not reaching them. In a nation where most youngsters are far from proficient in reading and mathematics and where innumerable efforts to boost learning levels…

  5. Reaching Rural Communities: Increasing Access to Disability Research Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Exchange, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Nonmetropolitan areas have the highest percentage of people with disabilities, including severe disabilities. However, rural people with disabilities may represent a population that is underserved or difficult to reach. Barriers to information dissemination in rural areas include limited transportation and communications infrastructures, greater…

  6. Family Stories, by the Members of the Reach One Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Peg, Ed.

    This collection of stories is the result of a publishing project conducted with adult learners in the Reach One Program. The first page describes the steps that led to the finished product: providing a catalyst to stress the value of maintaining a family history; providing activities to stimulate memories of family stories; encouraging prewriting…

  7. Variation in reach-scale hydraulic conductivity of streambeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewardson, M. J.; Datry, T.; Lamouroux, N.; Pella, H.; Thommeret, N.; Valette, L.; Grant, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    Streambed hydraulic conductivity is an important control on flow within the hyporheic zone, affecting hydrological, ecological, and biogeochemical processes essential to river ecosystem function. Despite many published field measurements, few empirical studies examine the drivers of spatial and temporal variations in streambed hydraulic conductivity. Reach-averaged hydraulic conductivity estimated for 119 surveys in 83 stream reaches across continental France, even of coarse bed streams, are shown to be characteristic of sand and finer sediments. This supports a model where processes leading to the accumulation of finer sediments within streambeds largely control hydraulic conductivity rather than the size of the coarse bed sediment fraction. After describing a conceptual model of relevant processes, we fit an empirical model relating hydraulic conductivity to candidate geomorphic and hydraulic drivers. The fitted model explains 72% of the deviance in hydraulic conductivity (and 30% using an external cross-validation). Reach hydraulic conductivity increases with the amplitude of bedforms within the reach, the bankfull channel width-depth ratio, stream power and upstream catchment erodibility but reduces with time since the last streambed disturbance. The correlation between hydraulic conductivity and time since a streambed mobilisation event is likely a consequence of clogging processes. Streams with a predominantly suspended load and less frequent streambed disturbances are expected to have a lower streambed hydraulic conductivity and reduced hyporheic fluxes. This study suggests a close link between streambed sediment transport dynamics and connectivity between surface water and the hyporheic zone.

  8. Linking transient storage parameters to exchange mechanisms and reach characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morén, Ida; Wörman, Anders; Riml, Joakim

    2015-04-01

    A traditional way of investigating transient storage zones in streams and rivers comprises the performance of tracer tests. The information gained from the tests however, is in many ways limited by the geomorphological and hydraulic local conditions under which the test was performed. Consequently, there is a need for more general information about how reach characteristics and combined exchange mechanisms affect transient storage retention that can be expressed by scaling factors between physical, measurable parameters and the integrated total retention in a reach. A large number of tracer tests have been performed in a wide variety of reaches around the world and in this project we are taking advantage of already collected data as well as new tracer test performed within the study, to quantitatively evaluate how different geomorphic and hydraulic conditions affect the retention of solutes in rivers. By advancing existing physically based models on the local-scale with the combinations of exchange mechanisms we theoretically describe the relative magnitude of exchange mechanisms, and combinations of these, under specific hydraulic conditions and show how exchange parameters associated with different mechanisms are correlated physically. Both hyporheic transient storage zones (HTS) and surface transient storage zones (STS) are considered. Combined vertical exchange with the HTS can be evaluated by superimposing the velocity fields associated with stream features of different size described mathematically by harmonic functions, while exchange with other zones can be treated as independent and after evaluating the relative importance of the associated exchange parameters it can be added to the vertical exchange to obtain the total integrated retention. Based on the tracer tests, each tested reach is characterised in terms of its geomorphologic and hydraulic features and related statistically to reach-scale parameters evaluated from the tests with a longitudinal

  9. 76 FR 77996 - Notice of Issuance of Final Air Permits for Eni US Operating Co., Inc. and Port Dolphin Energy, LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Eva Land, Air Permits Section, Air Planning Branch, Air... reached via electronic mail at land.eva@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On September 2, 2011, the...

  10. Amplified Erosion above Waterfalls and Oversteepened Bedrock Reaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haviv, I.; Enzel, Y.; Whipple, K. X.; Zilberman, E.; Stone, J.; Matmon, A.; Fifield, K. L.

    2005-12-01

    Although waterfalls are abundant along steep bedrock channels, none of the conventional erosion laws can predict incision at the lip of a waterfall where flow is non-uniform and bed slope can be vertical. Considering the expected increase in flow velocity and shear stress at the lip of a vertical waterfall we determine erosion amplification at a waterfall lip as: Elip/Enormal= (1+0.4/Fr2)3n, where Fr is the Froude number and n ranges between 0.5-1.7. This amplification expression suggests that erosion at the lip could be as much as 2-5 times higher than normally expected in a setting with identical hydraulic geometry. It also demonstrates that a freefall is expected to amplify upstream incision rates even when the flow approaching the waterfall is highly supercritical. Utilizing this erosion amplification expression in numerical simulations in conjunction with a standard detachment-limited incision model we demonstrate its impact on reach-scale morphology above waterfalls. These simulations indicate that amplified erosion at the lip of a waterfall can trigger the formation of an oversteepened reach whose length is longer than the flow acceleration zone, provided incision velocity (Vi) at the edge of the flow acceleration zone is higher than the retreat velocity of the waterfall face. Such an oversteepened reach is expected to be more pronounced when Vi increases with increasing slope. The simulations also suggest that oversteepening can eventually lead to quasi steady-state gradients upstream from a waterfall provided Vi decreases with increasing slope. Flow acceleration above waterfalls can thus account, at least partially, for oversteepened bedrock reaches that are prevalent above waterfalls. Such reaches have been reported for the escarpments of southeast Australia, western Dead Sea, and at Niagara Falls. Using the cosmogenic isotope 36Cl we demonstrate that Vi upstream of a waterfall at the Dead Sea western escarpment is high enough for freefall

  11. Specificity of human cortical areas for reaches and saccades

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Ifat; Schluppeck, Denis; Heeger, David J.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2007-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have identified effector-related regions in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The lateral intraparietal area (LIP), for example, responds preferentially for saccades whereas the parietal reach region (PRR) responds preferentially for arm movements. However, the degree of effector selectivity actually observed is limited; each area contains neurons selective for the non-preferred effector, and many neurons in both areas respond for both effectors. We used fMRI to assess the degree of effector preference at the population level, focusing on topographically organized regions in the human PPC (V7, IPS1 and IPS2). An event-related design adapted from monkey experiments was employed. In each trial, an effector cue preceded the appearance of a spatial target, after which a go-signal instructed subjects to produce the specified movement with the specified effector. Our results show that the degree of effector specificity is limited in many cortical areas, and transitions gradually from saccade to reach preference as one moves through the hierarchy of areas in the occipital, parietal, and frontal cortices. Saccade preference was observed in visual cortex, including early areas and V7. IPS1 exhibited balanced activation to saccades and reaches, whereas IPS2 showed a weak but significant preference for reaches. In frontal cortex, areas near the central sulcus showed a clear and absolute preference for reaches while the Frontal Eye Field (FEF) showed little or no effector selectivity. Although these results contradict many theoretical conclusions about effector specificity, they are compatible with the complex picture arising from electrophysiological studies and also with previous imaging studies that reported largely overlapping saccade and arm related activation. The results are also compatible with theories of efficient coding in cortex. PMID:17460081

  12. Investigation of Ice Phenomena On The Hungarian Danube Reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keve, G.; Kontur, I.

    The importance of scientific work in the field of ice floods is high on the southern Hungarian reach of the Danube. The most dangerous floods of the reach in the past were almost all icy. This used to be so for two main reasons, out of which one is a hydro-meteorological, the other is a morphological factor. River training works on the reach have been completed, only maintenance and small corrections are being done. In spite of the process of global warming, that can be concluded analyzing the past few decades' data, an unfortunate constellation of hydro-meteorological factors can anytime cause serious frosts, and, consequently, ice floods. In our study we statisti- cally analyzed the past hundred years' data series of the reach in question. The results proved the existence of a 30-years long, almost iceless period, that we investigated the reasons for. Because of the above-mentioned rare occurence of ice phenomena, the observation and study of these processes also deteriorated. It is a big luck that Hungarian experts have dealt a lot with past ice phenomena up to 1970. Starting out from literal data and ideas, our investigations and new observations can be massively based. The newest computer technology features are now used for ice observations on the southern Hungarian Danube reach. We could gain useful experience already in the winter of 2001-2002 in computer-aided ice observation (CAIO). In our presenta- tion we would like to give an overall impression about the current issues of CAIO in southern Hungary.

  13. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  14. Reaching to Throw Compared to Reaching to Place: A Comparison across Individuals with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmut, Kate; Byrne, Maia; Barnett, Anna L.

    2013-01-01

    When picking up an object, adults show a longer deceleration phase when the onward action has a greater precision requirement. Tailoring action in this way is thought to need forward modelling in order to predict the consequences of movement. Some evidence suggests that young children also tailor reaching in this way; however, how this skill…

  15. Translating the REACH Caregiver Intervention for Use by Area Agency on Aging Personnel: the REACH OUT Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgio, Louis D.; Collins, Irene B.; Schmid, Bettina; Wharton, Tracy; McCallum, Debra; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to translate the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) II intervention for use in 4 Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs). A secondary aim was to examine possible moderators of treatment outcome. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental pre-post treatment design with no…

  16. Redesigning Schools to Reach Every Student with Excellent Teachers: Change Management--Key Theories to Consider when Extending Reach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Sharon Kebschull

    2012-01-01

    As schools, their teachers, and outside facilitators redesign jobs and incorporate technology to extend the reach of excellent teachers to more students and develop an Opportunity Culture for all, choosing the right school models is just one part of the task. The human experience--and experience in education--says that even perfect design will not…

  17. Finding balance: Virus populations reach equilibrium during the infection process.

    PubMed

    Harper, S J; Cowell, S J; Dawson, W O

    2015-11-01

    Virus populations, mixtures of viral strains or species, are a common feature of viral infection, and influence many viral processes including infection, transmission, and the induction of disease. Yet, little is known of the rules that define the composition and structure of these populations. In this study, we used three distinct strains of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) to examine the effect of inoculum composition, titer, and order, on the virus population. We found that CTV populations stabilized at the same equilibrium irrespective of how that population was introduced into a host. In addition, both field and experimental observations showed that these equilibria were relatively uniform between individual hosts of the same species and under the same conditions. We observed that the structure of the equilibria reached is determined primarily by the host, with the same inoculum reaching different equilibria in different species, and by the fitness of individual virus variants. PMID:26291064

  18. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in infants with CP.

    PubMed

    Hadders-Algra, M; van der Fits, I B; Stremmelaar, E F; Touwen, B C

    1999-11-01

    The development of postural adjustments during reaching movements was longitudinally studied in seven infants with cerebral palsy (CP) between 4 and 18 months of age. Five infants developed spastic hemiplegia, one spastic tetraplegia, and one spastic tetraplegia with athetosis. Each assessment consisted of a simultaneous recording of video data and surface EMGs of arm, neck, trunk, and leg muscles during reaching in various lying and sitting positions. The basic organization of postural adjustments of the children developing spastic CP was intact. Their main problem was a deficient capacity to modulate the postural adjustments to task-specific constraints - a deficit which was attributed to a combination of an impaired motor coordination and deficits in sensory integration. The child with spastic-dyskinetic CP showed distinct abnormalities in the basic organization of postural adjustments. PMID:10576641

  19. Key design requirements for long-reach manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, D.S.; March-Leuba, S.; Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.

    1993-09-01

    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional kinematic, and performance requirements an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented.

  20. [Ecological sensitivity of jingnanxia-heishanxia reach of Yellow River].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao-long; Wang, Jun; Xu, Shi-yuan; Xie, Cui-na; Chen, Jing-jing; Ye, Ming-wu

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the ecological problems such as soil erosion, desertification, and salinization in the Jingnanxia-Heishanxia reach of Yellow River, the single-factorial ecological problem's sensitivity and the comprehensive ecological sensitivity of the reach were analyzed by GIS spatial analysis, grid computing and superposition, and RS image feature extraction. The results showed that the regions with medium- and high ecological sensitivities almost covered the whole study area, including the Wufo Town of Jingtai County, the Beiwan Town, Wulan Town, Mitan Town, Dongwan Town, and Santan Town of Jingyuan County, and the area between Doucheng and Hongliutan of Pingchuan District. The high, medium, and low sensitive areas should be accordingly programmed as forbidden, medium, and deep constructing areas. During the development process of regional hydropower, effective measures should be adopted to protect the ecological environment to achieve the sustainable development of the drainage area.

  1. Key Design Requirements for Long-Reach Manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented.

  2. Discovery Reach of Charged MSSM Higgs Bosons at CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemeyer, S.; Nikitenko, A.; Weiglein, G.

    2008-11-23

    We review the 5{sigma} discovery contours for the charged MSSM Higgs boson at the CMS experiment with 30 fb{sup -1} for the two cases M{sub H{sup {+-}}}m{sub t}. In order to analyze the search reach we combine the latest results for the CMS experimental sensitivities based on full simulation studies with state-of-the-art theoretical predictions of MSSM Higgs-boson production and decay properties. Special emphasis is put on the SUSY parameter dependence of the 5{sigma} contours. The variation of {mu} can shift the prospective discovery reach in tan{beta} by up to {delta}tan{beta} = 40.

  3. Incidents when older homebound women tried to reach help quickly.

    PubMed

    Porter, Eileen J; Markham, Melinda Stafford; Ganong, Lawrence H

    2013-01-01

    During a longitudinal study of the experience of reaching help quickly, 34 homebound women (ages 85 to 97) who lived alone reported 106 reach-help-quickly incidents (RHQIs). The purpose of this study was to expand knowledge about RHQIs and intentions relative to them and to compare those facets of experience for subscribers to a personal emergency response system (PERS) and non-subscribers. We used a descriptive phenomenological method to analyze interview data, discerning six types of RHQIs, including finding myself down right here, realizing that I might not be alright after falling and getting up on my own, and realizing that something I cannot explain is or could be wrong with me. Intentions were focused on self-help before help seeking. The overall phenomenon was Handling a Situation When I Am Alone at Home and Probably Need Help Quickly. Practitioners should explore intentions about handling specific types of RHQIs and offer appropriate anticipatory guidance.

  4. Finding balance: Virus populations reach equilibrium during the infection process.

    PubMed

    Harper, S J; Cowell, S J; Dawson, W O

    2015-11-01

    Virus populations, mixtures of viral strains or species, are a common feature of viral infection, and influence many viral processes including infection, transmission, and the induction of disease. Yet, little is known of the rules that define the composition and structure of these populations. In this study, we used three distinct strains of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) to examine the effect of inoculum composition, titer, and order, on the virus population. We found that CTV populations stabilized at the same equilibrium irrespective of how that population was introduced into a host. In addition, both field and experimental observations showed that these equilibria were relatively uniform between individual hosts of the same species and under the same conditions. We observed that the structure of the equilibria reached is determined primarily by the host, with the same inoculum reaching different equilibria in different species, and by the fitness of individual virus variants.

  5. Hard x-ray Zernike microscopy reaches 30 nm resolution.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Chen, T.; Yi, J.; Chu, Y.; Lee, W.-K.; Wang, C.; Kempson, I.; Hwu, Y.; Gajdosik, V.; Margaritondo, G.

    2011-03-30

    Since its invention in 1930, Zernike phase contrast has been a pillar in optical microscopy and more recently in x-ray microscopy, in particular for low-absorption-contrast biological specimens. We experimentally demonstrate that hard-x-ray Zernike microscopy now reaches a lateral resolution below 30?nm while strongly enhancing the contrast, thus opening many new research opportunities in biomedicine and materials science.

  6. Hard x-ray Zernike Microscopy Reaches 30 nm Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.T.; Chu, Y.; Chen, T-Y.; Yi, J.; Lee, W-K.; Wang, C-L.; Kempson, I. M.; Hwu, Y.; Gajdosik, V.; Margaritondo, G.

    2011-03-30

    Since its invention in 1930, Zernike phase contrast has been a pillar in optical microscopy and more recently in x-ray microscopy, in particular for low-absorption-contrast biological specimens. We experimentally demonstrate that hard-x-ray Zernike microscopy now reaches a lateral resolution below 30 nm while strongly enhancing the contrast, thus opening many new research opportunities in biomedicine and materials science.

  7. MultiCASE Expert Systems and the REACH Initiative.

    PubMed

    Saiakhov, Roustem D; Klopman, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article is a review of the MultiCASE Inc. software and expert systems and their use to assess acute toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other health effects. It is demonstrated that MultiCASE expert systems satisfy the guidelines of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) principles and that the portfolio of available endpoints closely overlaps with the list of tests required by REACH.

  8. Physics Reach of Electron-Capture Neutrino Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabeu, J.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Espinoza, C.; Lindroos, M.

    2006-05-01

    To complete the picture of neutrino oscillations two fundamental parameters need to be measured, θ and δ. The next generation of long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments -superbeams, betabeams and neutrino factories- indeed take aim at measuring them. Here we explore the physics reach of a new candidate: an electron-capture beam. Emphasis is made on its feasibility thanks to the recent discovery of nuclei that decay fast through electron capture, and on the interplay with a betabeam (its closest relative).

  9. Reaching Higher Goals by Means of a Reflecting Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faella, Orazio; De Luca, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    A student realizes that a point particle that is able to rise at a given point P[subscript 0] at height H when launched vertically from the origin O of a Cartesian plane at a fixed initial speed V[subscript 0] cannot reach, by means of a direct shot from a small spring cannon, a point P positioned at the same height H and distance d from…

  10. LATENT DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE ESTIMATION IN HARD-TO-REACH GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Tyler H.; Zheng, Tian

    2015-01-01

    The sampling frame in most social science surveys excludes members of certain groups, known as hard-to-reach groups. These groups, or sub-populations, may be difficult to access (the homeless, e.g.), camouflaged by stigma (individuals with HIV/AIDS), or both (commercial sex workers). Even basic demographic information about these groups is typically unknown, especially in many developing nations. We present statistical models which leverage social network structure to estimate demographic characteristics of these subpopulations using Aggregated relational data (ARD), or questions of the form “How many X’s do you know?” Unlike other network-based techniques for reaching these groups, ARD require no special sampling strategy and are easily incorporated into standard surveys. ARD also do not require respondents to reveal their own group membership. We propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for estimating the demographic characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, or latent demographic profiles, using ARD. We propose two estimation techniques. First, we propose a Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithm for existing data or cases where the full posterior distribution is of interest. For cases when new data can be collected, we propose guidelines and, based on these guidelines, propose a simple estimate motivated by a missing data approach. Using data from McCarty et al. [Human Organization 60 (2001) 28–39], we estimate the age and gender profiles of six hard-to-reach groups, such as individuals who have HIV, women who were raped, and homeless persons. We also evaluate our simple estimates using simulation studies. PMID:26966475

  11. Compensatory arm reaching strategies after stroke: Induced position analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Waller, Sandy McCombe; Kepple, Tom; Whitall, Jill

    2013-01-01

    After stroke, movement patterns of the upper limb (UL) during functional arm reaching change to accommodate altered constraints. These compensatory movement control strategies do not, however, have a one-to-one mapping with posttraining outcomes. In this study, we quantify arm movement control strategies in unilateral and bilateral reaching tasks using induced position analysis. In addition, we assess how those strategies are associated with UL residual impairments and with functional improvement after a specific bilateral arm training intervention. Twelve individuals with chronic stroke were measured while reaching to a box as part of their pre- and posttesting assessments. Other measurements included the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Assessment (FM), Modified Wolf Motor Function Test (WT), and the University of Maryland Arm Questionnaire for Stroke (UMAQS). We identified arm control strategies that did not differ between unilateral and bilateral tasks but did differ by FM impairment level and by predicted gains in WT but not UMAQS. Increased shoulder relative to elbow moment contribution was associated with less impairment and greater gains of speed in functional tasks. These results suggest that one goal of training to achieve better outcomes may be to decrease the abnormal coupling of the shoulder and elbow. PMID:23516085

  12. Control of reaching finger movement accompanied with inhibitory intention.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Hiwaki, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the motor control of reaching finger movement interfered by the inhibitory intention triggered by the stop-signal. In the experiment, the subject started the reaching movement of the index finger with the go-signal of a green LED and stopped the ongoing movement with the stop-signal of a red LED. The stop-signal delay (SSD) was set at 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 ms. The movement trajectory was measured during the task. The index finger was able to stop prior to the target point when SSD was less than 400 ms, whereas not when SSD was 400 ms. We also measured electroencephalogram (EEG) during the task. A negative peak around the stop-signal response time (SSRT) and a positive peak around 400-600 ms of the event-related potentials (ERPs) were observed at Fz and Cz. These results indicate that these components of the ERPs were associated with the stop-signal task in the human reaching movement.

  13. Modeling basal ganglia for understanding Parkinsonian reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Magdoom, K N; Subramanian, D; Chakravarthy, V S; Ravindran, B; Amari, Shun-Ichi; Meenakshisundaram, N

    2011-02-01

    We present a computational model that highlights the role of basal ganglia (BG) in generating simple reaching movements. The model is cast within the reinforcement learning (RL) framework with correspondence between RL components and neuroanatomy as follows: dopamine signal of substantia nigra pars compacta as the temporal difference error, striatum as the substrate for the critic, and the motor cortex as the actor. A key feature of this neurobiological interpretation is our hypothesis that the indirect pathway is the explorer. Chaotic activity, originating from the indirect pathway part of the model, drives the wandering, exploratory movements of the arm. Thus, the direct pathway subserves exploitation, while the indirect pathway subserves exploration. The motor cortex becomes more and more independent of the corrective influence of BG as training progresses. Reaching trajectories show diminishing variability with training. Reaching movements associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) are simulated by reducing dopamine and degrading the complexity of indirect pathway dynamics by switching it from chaotic to periodic behavior. Under the simulated PD conditions, the arm exhibits PD motor symptoms like tremor, bradykinesia and undershooting. The model echoes the notion that PD is a dynamical disease. PMID:21105828

  14. Hazard and risk assessment of teratogenic chemicals under REACH.

    PubMed

    Prutner, Wiebke

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, a new European chemicals legislation was implemented: Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006, also known as "REACH." It obliges companies to take the main responsibility for the valid information on the safe use of the chemicals they manufacture and/or place on the European market. So they must, for example, register their chemicals at the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and submit extensive substance-related registration dossiers containing information on the substances' intrinsic hazardous properties and documentation of their risk assessment. REACH regulates the registration and evaluation process as well as the authorization and restriction procedure. In addition, classification, labeling, and packaging of chemicals apply in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 ("CLP Regulation"). It implements almost completely the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS) into European legislation and will fully replace the Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC) and the Dangerous Preparations Directive (1999/45/EC) by 2015. According to both the old and the new classification system, teratogenic chemicals are classified as developmental toxicants, with developmental toxicity falling within the hazard class of reproductive toxicity. REACH as well as the CLP Regulation provide several procedures in which reproductive toxicants take a special position because their harmful effects are considered particularly serious. Teratogenic substances are not explicitly named by these legal texts but, as they constitute as developmental toxicants a hazard differentiation of reproductive toxicity, they are implicitly always included by the provisions. PMID:23138924

  15. Dealing with target uncertainty in a reaching control interface.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Elaine A; Körding, Konrad P; Perreault, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetic devices need to be controlled by their users, typically using physiological signals. People tend to look at objects before reaching for them and we have shown that combining eye movements with other continuous physiological signal sources enhances control. This approach suffers when subjects also look at non-targets, a problem we addressed with a probabilistic mixture over targets where subject gaze information is used to identify target candidates. However, this approach would be ineffective if a user wanted to move towards targets that have not been foveated. Here we evaluated how the accuracy of prior target information influenced decoding accuracy, as the availability of neural control signals was varied. We also considered a mixture model where we assumed that the target may be foveated or, alternatively, that the target may not be foveated. We tested the accuracy of the models at decoding natural reaching data, and also in a closed-loop robot-assisted reaching task. The mixture model worked well in the face of high target uncertainty. Furthermore, errors due to inaccurate target information were reduced by including a generic model that relied on neural signals only. PMID:24489788

  16. The harmonised data model for assessing Land Parcel Identification Systems compliance with requirements of direct aid and agri-environmental schemes of the CAP.

    PubMed

    Sagris, Valentina; Wojda, Piotr; Milenov, Pavel; Devos, Wim

    2013-03-30

    The EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) subsidies to farmers are administered through dedicated information systems, a part of which is the GIS-based Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS). The requirement to map and record land eligible for payments has led to a situation where the agricultural administrations have acquired a large amount of geographic data. As the geospatial community of data producers, custodians and users has grown during the last decades, so has the need to assess the quality and consistency of the LPIS towards the EU regulations on the CAP as well as for cross compliance with environmental legislation. In view of this, a LPIS Conceptual Model (LCM) is presented in this paper in order to address harmonisation and data quality needs. The ISO 19100 series standards on geoinformatics were used for LCM development, including an UML modelling approach and the handling of the quality of geographical information. This paper describes the core elements of the LCM and their integration with data supporting management of agri-environment schemes. Later, the paper shows how the LCM is used for conformity and quality checks of the member states' LPIS system; an Abstract Test Suite (ATS) for mapping the LCM model against existing system implementations was developed and tested in collaboration with several member states. PMID:23391811

  17. The harmonised data model for assessing Land Parcel Identification Systems compliance with requirements of direct aid and agri-environmental schemes of the CAP.

    PubMed

    Sagris, Valentina; Wojda, Piotr; Milenov, Pavel; Devos, Wim

    2013-03-30

    The EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) subsidies to farmers are administered through dedicated information systems, a part of which is the GIS-based Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS). The requirement to map and record land eligible for payments has led to a situation where the agricultural administrations have acquired a large amount of geographic data. As the geospatial community of data producers, custodians and users has grown during the last decades, so has the need to assess the quality and consistency of the LPIS towards the EU regulations on the CAP as well as for cross compliance with environmental legislation. In view of this, a LPIS Conceptual Model (LCM) is presented in this paper in order to address harmonisation and data quality needs. The ISO 19100 series standards on geoinformatics were used for LCM development, including an UML modelling approach and the handling of the quality of geographical information. This paper describes the core elements of the LCM and their integration with data supporting management of agri-environment schemes. Later, the paper shows how the LCM is used for conformity and quality checks of the member states' LPIS system; an Abstract Test Suite (ATS) for mapping the LCM model against existing system implementations was developed and tested in collaboration with several member states.

  18. Impact of LSP character on Slepton reach at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckel, Jonathan; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Shepherd, William; Su, Shufang

    2014-11-01

    Searches for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have significantly constrained the parameter space associated with colored superpartners, whereas the constraints on color-singlet superpartners are considerably less severe. In this study, we investigate the dependence of slepton decay branching fractions on the nature of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). In particular, in the Higgsino-like LSP scenarios, both decay branching fractions of and depend strongly on the sign and value of M 1 /M 2, which has strong implications for the reach of dilepton plus [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] searches for slepton pair production. We extend the experimental results for same flavor, opposite sign dilepton plus [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] searches at the 8TeV LHC to various LSP scenarios. We find that the LHC bounds on sleptons are strongly enhanced for a non-Bino-like LSP: the 95% C.L. limit for extends from 300 GeV for a Bino-like LSP to about 370 GeV for a Wino-like LSP. The bound for with a Higgsino-like LSP is the strongest (˜ 490 GeV) for M 1 /M 2 ˜ - tan2 θ W and is the weakest (˜ 220 GeV) for M 1 /M 2 ˜ tan2 θ W . We also calculate prospective slepton search reaches at the 14 TeV LHC. With 100 fb-1 integrated luminosity, the projected 95% C.L. mass reach for the left-handed slepton varies from 550 (670) GeV for a Bino-like (Winolike) LSP to 900 (390) GeV for a Higgsino-like LSP under the most optimistic (pessimistic) scenario. The reach for the right-handed slepton is about 440 GeV. The corresponding 5 σ discovery sensitivity is about 100 GeV smaller. For 300 fb-1 integrated luminosity, the reach is about 50 - 100 GeV higher.

  19. Evaluation of a hydrological model based on Bidirectional Reach (BReach)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Katrien; Van Hoey, Stijn; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation and discrimination of model structures is crucial to ensure an appropriate use of hydrological models. When evaluating model results by aggregating their quality in (a subset of) individual observations, overall results of this analysis sometimes conceal important detailed information about model structural deficiencies. Analyzing model results within their local (time) context can uncover this detailed information. In this research, a methodology called Bidirectional Reach (BReach) is proposed to evaluate and analyze results of a hydrological model by assessing the maximum left and right reach in each observation point that is used for model evaluation. These maximum reaches express the capability of the model to describe a subset of the evaluation data both in the direction of the previous (left) and of the following data (right). This capability is evaluated on two levels. First, on the level of individual observations, the combination of a parameter set and an observation is classified as non-acceptable if the deviation between the accompanying model result and the measurement exceeds observational uncertainty. Second, the behavior in a sequence of observations is evaluated by means of a tolerance degree. This tolerance degree expresses the condition for satisfactory model behavior in a data series and is defined by the percentage of observations within this series that can have non-acceptable model results. Based on both criteria, the maximum left and right reaches of a model in an observation represent the data points in the direction of the previous respectively the following observations beyond which none of the sampled parameter sets both are satisfactory and result in an acceptable deviation. After assessing these reaches for a variety of tolerance degrees, results can be plotted in a combined BReach plot that show temporal changes in the behavior of model results. The methodology is applied on a Probability Distributed Model (PDM) of the river

  20. Environmental justice: Grass roots reach the White House lawn

    SciTech Connect

    Kratch, K.

    1995-05-01

    When 500 demonstrators gathered in 1982 to protest the siting of a polychlorinated-biphenyl landfill in predominantly black Warren County, N.C., cries of environmental racism filled the air. In response, District of Columbia Congressional Delegate Walter Fauntroy requested that the General Accounting Office investigate a possible link between hazardous waste landfill siting and the racial and socio-economic mix of surrounding communities. The environmental justice movement, as it is known today, had been born. Environmental justice is conceived as the right of all people--regardless of race, ethnicity, culture or income--to live in a healthy environment, breathe clean air, drink clean water and eat uncontaminated foods. The concept assumes that everyone is entitled to fair environmental protection without any population segment bearing a disproportionate pollution burden.

  1. Reaching hard to reach populations with hard to communicate messages: Efficacy of a Breast Health Research Champion Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Rafie, Carlin; Ayers, Antoinette; Cadet, Debbie; Quillin, John; Hackney, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    A Breast Health Research Champion training program was developed targeting self-identified community breast health advocates from a predominantly African American community with a significant breast cancer mortality disparity. Twelve individuals completed the program that provided training in breast cancer risk and screening, breast cancer research, biospecimen in cancer research, and human research subject protection. The training emphasized four key messages to be disseminated to the community. Trainees hosted a minimum of two social chats with individuals from their social networks, and functioned as community researchers, acquiring consent and gathering follow-up data from attendees. Trainees reached 199 individuals from their social networks, and chats were diverse in the venue selected, mode of message transmission, and the audience reached. Post/pre questionnaire data from attendees at the chats showed significant improvement in knowledge, attitudes and intended behaviors as it relates to breast cancer screening, clinical research and biospecimen in research. Forty percent of attendees provided 4 week follow-up information. Of respondents eligible for mammography, 38% had taken action to be screened, and 86% of respondents had spoken about the information to someone else in their social network. Trainees expressed feelings of empowerment after completing the project, “feeling like the expert,” and all trainees were surprised at the enthusiastic response from attendees of their chats. Trainees continued to disseminate the information learned from the training program during the six months following the training, reaching an additional 786 individuals in the community. PMID:25171905

  2. Engaging All Americans: Innovative Strategies for Reaching the Public with Climate and Environmental Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, S.

    2014-12-01

    From extensive drought and heat waves to floods, tornadoes and Superstorm Sandy, extreme weather and climate events provide teachable moments to help communities prepare for and respond to related environmental, economic and health impacts. The National Environmental Education Foundation (www.neefusa.org) works with the American Meteorological Society, the media and other trusted messengers to provide weather, climate and environmental information to the public in accessible and widely used formats, whether via TV, radio or social media. NEEF will provide an overview of innovative partnerships and projects that are engaging Americans in understanding and using climate and environmental information to make the best choices in their daily lives and improve the health of their communities, including: Assessing knowledge, attitudes and behaviors: NEEF will share results from its national survey research and targeted focus groups on current attitudes and practices relating to our nation's environment. Simplifying and amplifying key messages: NEEF provides a national network of more than 350 meteorologists, radio broadcasters and journalists with the science-based information and resources they need to present climate and environmental topics to their viewers on-air, online and in community outreach. Engaging television viewers in citizen science: Eyes on Central PA, a pilot project of NEEF, Project Noah and WTAJ-TV, harnesses Project Noah's citizen science platform to collect and display photos of wildlife from WTAJ-TV viewers. NEEF and WTAJ provide regular blogs and on-air stories that highlight viewers' photos and link them to local weather conditions and climate trends. Expanding the conversation: NEEF's multimedia strategy in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. is reaching Spanish-speaking audiences with climate and environmental information through regular radio and television broadcasts. We are also exploring ways to reach other non-traditional audiences, including faith

  3. Rain and hail can reach the surface of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, S. D. B.; McKay, C. P.; Griffith, C. A.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2008-03-01

    We have calculated the condensation and evaporation of ternary CH 4-N 2-C 2H 6 liquid drops and solid CH 4 hail as they fall through Titan's lower atmosphere to determine the likelihood that precipitation reaches the ground. Assuming the humidity profile determined by the Huygens probe, binary liquid CH 4/N 2 condensate grows in the region from ˜8 to 15 km in Titan's atmosphere because the combined humidity of CH 4 and N 2 exceeds saturation. These drops evaporate below ˜8 km. We determine the fate of 10 μm seeds composed of ethane, which is expected to provide condensation sites. In addition, we study the fate of already formed raindrops with radii of 1-4.75 mm falling out of the growth region. High (50%) and low (0%) ethane relative humidities (RH) are considered in the calculation. We find that drops with radii ˜3 mm and smaller dropping from 8 km reach the ground in compositional equilibrium with the atmosphere in the high ethane RH case as a result of the stabilizing influence of the ethane, and evaporate in the atmosphere in the low ethane RH case. Large drops (>˜3 mm) reach the surface large and cold because the latent heat loss due to the evaporation of methane cools the drop and slows the evaporation rate. Pure methane hail hits the ground if its radius is initially more than 4 mm at 16 km above the surface and sublimates in the atmosphere if its radius is smaller.

  4. Identification of consistency in rating curve data: Bidirectional Reach (BReach)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Katrien; Van Hoey, Stijn; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2016-04-01

    Before calculating rating curve discharges, it is crucial to identify possible interruptions in data consistency. In this research, a methodology to perform this preliminary analysis is developed and validated. This methodology, called Bidirectional Reach (BReach), evaluates in each data point results of a rating curve model with randomly sampled parameter sets. The combination of a parameter set and a data point is classified as non-acceptable if the deviation between the accompanying model result and the measurement exceeds observational uncertainty. Moreover, a tolerance degree that defines satisfactory behavior of a sequence of model results is chosen. This tolerance degree equals the percentage of observations that are allowed to have non-acceptable model results. Subsequently, the results of the classification is used to assess the maximum left and right reach for each data point of a chronologically sorted time series. This maximum left and right reach in a gauging point represent the data points in the direction of the previous respectively the following observations beyond which none of the sampled parameter sets both are satisfactory and result in an acceptable deviation. This analysis is repeated for a variety of tolerance degrees. Plotting results of this analysis for all data points and all tolerance degrees in a combined BReach plot enables the detection of changes in data consistency. Moreover, if consistent periods are detected, limits of these periods can be derived. The methodology is validated with various synthetic stage-discharge data sets and proves to be a robust technique to investigate temporal consistency of rating curve data. It provides satisfying results despite of low data availability, large errors in the estimated observational uncertainty, and a rating curve model that is known to cover only a limited part of the observations.

  5. East Ohio gas 'bridges' service to reach new customers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    A lift bridge across the Cuyahoga River at the eastern end of Whiskey Island provided the most feasible route to five new industrial customers for East Ohio Gas Co. in Cleveland. Previously considered ''unpipeable'', the island was reached by building a line along the stationary bridgework 125 ft above the bridge. The 6-in pipe is protected by a heat-fused epoxy coating; welded joints were covered in the field with heat-shrink sleeves. The line is fully electrically insulated and protected from lightning.

  6. Disappointment Reach, Australia as seen from STS-67 Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A nearly vertical view of Disappointment Reach and surroundings. Ripple-like patterns extending at right angles to the tidal flow can be discerned on shoals. Relict sand dune patterns, crests unvegetated, are evident on the western side of the estuary. Red mud brought down the Mooramel River on the east side of the estuary does extend into the shallow water of the inter-tidal lagoons. Most of the light-colored water along the coast, represents shoals of lime sediment. Patterns of sediment distribution by tides, waves, streams, and wind combine to create a complex and colorful scene.

  7. Near IR observations of η Car: Reaching its critical rotation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, Kazunori; Mehner, Andrea; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2016-07-01

    We report a preliminary result in the monitoring of η Carinae in JHKs bands through the “spectroscopic” event of 2014.5 at InfraRed Survey Facility (IRSF) located in South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). The latest photometric data, combined with the data taken with the MK-II photometer [1], show a sign of the same cyclic variation in the J-H vs. H-K diagram reported by Mehner et al.[2]. The change can still be attributed to an apparent increase in black-body temperature, potentially reaching 3,000 to 6,000K as of March 2015.

  8. Reaching a consensus: a discrete nonlinear time-varying case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saburov, M.; Saburov, K.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we have considered a nonlinear protocol for a structured time-varying and synchronous multi-agent system. By means of cubic triple stochastic matrices, we present an opinion sharing dynamics of the multi-agent system as a trajectory of a non-homogeneous system of cubic triple stochastic matrices. We show that the multi-agent system eventually reaches to a consensus if either of the following two conditions is satisfied: (1) every member of the group people has a positive subjective distribution on the given task after some revision steps or (2) all entries of some cubic triple stochastic matrix are positive.

  9. Simulated Convectively Influenced vs. Lightning Influenced Air: Methods for Calculation and Associated Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, N.; Freeman, S.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    Some atmospheric chemical processes are influenced by the presence of convection and/or lightning. Therefore, it is often important to determine whether a sampled air parcel previously has encountered these influences. This paper describes procedures for making these determinations and provides uncertainties associated with the procedures. Prior locations of the sampled air are obtained by calculating backward trajectories based on 1 h WRF output with 3 domains (horizontal grid spacing of 36, 12, and 4 km). Back trajectories are released along every DC-8 flight track from the recent NASA SEAC4RS campaign (~22,000 trajectories total). If lightning influence is sought, locations of the flashes usually are obtained from ground-based networks such as the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). Results show that the user-defined spatial and temporal separation between a trajectory and the flash location greatly influences whether the trajectory is considered lightning influenced. For example, a spatial threshold of 0.5 (0.25) deg lat/lon leads to 69% (60%) of the trajectories being lightning influenced. If model-derived convective influence is sought, a vertical displacement threshold corresponding to w≥1 m s-1 is used to identify convectively influenced parcels. Remarkably, the model-derived method using the 4 km WRF output leads to only 5% (compared to ~60% from lightning) of the trajectories being convectively influenced. Additionally, the horizontal grid spacing (36 km vs. 4 km) exerts a major influence on the paths of the trajectories. The overriding conclusion is that very different results are obtained depending on whether simulated convectively influenced or lightning influenced air is being sought. Also, once this choice is made, the resolution of the model and the time/space thresholds that are chosen will have a major impact on the number of trajectories that are determined to be influenced. This paper will provide guidance on these choices.

  10. Hydrocarbon Observations and Ozone Production Rates in Western Houston During the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Spicer, Chet W.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2005-06-01

    Measurements of total non-methane hydrocarbon in whole air canisters collected from the top of a skyscraper on the western edge of Houston, Texas are summarized with an emphasis on samples collected during the passage of plumes of O{sub 3} and the associated rapid increase in the mixing ratio of this species. The back-trajectories associated with these events showed a pronounced deceleration of air parcels over central and western Houston and were not necessarily associated with direct passage over the petrochemical plants located in the heavily industrialized eastern part of Houston. As a result of the time these air parcels spent over the central and western parts of Houston, their VOC mix and associated chemical production rates were expected to differ from similar observations made over eastern Houston from aircraft sampling at low altitudes. Although periods of high O{sub 3} in the western part of the city were closely associated with light alkenes, these same observations show isoprene to make a significant contribution to the total VOC reactivity in the early afternoon (the start of peak photochemical activity) in contrast to observations made east of our sampling site that found the reactivity to be dominated by anthropogenic species. By initializing a 0-dimensional chemical kinetic model with observations made at the Williams Tower, we find that the ozone production efficiency scaled linearly to the ratio of total hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}, with an average OPE of 7.2, ranging from 2.3 to 16.9; these values are smaller than those reported in eastern Houston, suggesting a strong gradient in photochemical productivity across the city.

  11. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  12. Integrated testing strategy (ITS) for bioaccumulation assessment under REACH.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Benfentati, Emilio; Nendza, Monika; Segner, Helmut; Fernández, Alberto; Kühne, Ralph; Franco, Antonio; Pauné, Eduard; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2014-08-01

    REACH (registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals) regulation requires that all the chemicals produced or imported in Europe above 1 tonne/year are registered. To register a chemical, physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological information needs to be reported in a dossier. REACH promotes the use of alternative methods to replace, refine and reduce the use of animal (eco)toxicity testing. Within the EU OSIRIS project, integrated testing strategies (ITSs) have been developed for the rational use of non-animal testing approaches in chemical hazard assessment. Here we present an ITS for evaluating the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals. The scheme includes the use of all available data (also the non-optimal ones), waiving schemes, analysis of physicochemical properties related to the end point and alternative methods (both in silico and in vitro). In vivo methods are used only as last resort. Using the ITS, in vivo testing could be waived for about 67% of the examined compounds, but bioaccumulation potential could be estimated on the basis of non-animal methods. The presented ITS is freely available through a web tool.

  13. A Sensorimotor Model for Computing Intended Reach Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Üstün, Cevat

    2016-01-01

    The presumed role of the primate sensorimotor system is to transform reach targets from retinotopic to joint coordinates for producing motor output. However, the interpretation of neurophysiological data within this framework is ambiguous, and has led to the view that the underlying neural computation may lack a well-defined structure. Here, I consider a model of sensorimotor computation in which temporal as well as spatial transformations generate representations of desired limb trajectories, in visual coordinates. This computation is suggested by behavioral experiments, and its modular implementation makes predictions that are consistent with those observed in monkey posterior parietal cortex (PPC). In particular, the model provides a simple explanation for why PPC encodes reach targets in reference frames intermediate between the eye and hand, and further explains why these reference frames shift during movement. Representations in PPC are thus consistent with the orderly processing of information, provided we adopt the view that sensorimotor computation manipulates desired movement trajectories, and not desired movement endpoints. PMID:26985662

  14. Reaching the unreached: Building resilience through engagement with diverse communities.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jannah; Coleman, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security Center for Faith-based & Neighborhood Partnerships (DHS Center) is one of 13 federal centres whose mandate is to engage faith-based and community groups with governments in the delivery of human services. Working alongside local jurisdictions, over the past five years, the DHS Center developed the Building Resilience with Diverse Communities (BRDC) engagement process to improve relationships with faith-based and community organisations and to 'reach unreached' populations in emergency preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation. BRDC works to improve community resilience by engaging the 'whole community' through its seven-stage process. The BRDC process has been successfully implemented in Los Angeles, California, Lakewood, New Jersey and in varying degrees in other communities. The initiative demonstrates that emergency management can adapt the BRDC process to effectively integrate faith-based and community groups into their plans and processes, leverage existing resources and, by doing so, increase resilience with some of the hardest to reach and unreached populations in their jurisdictions. PMID:27318290

  15. Generalization of unconstrained reaching with hand-weight changes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiang; Wang, Qining; Lu, Zhengchuan; Stevenson, Ian H; Körding, Konrad; Wei, Kunlin

    2013-01-01

    Studies of motor generalization usually perturb hand reaches by distorting visual feedback with virtual reality or by applying forces with a robotic manipulandum. Whereas such perturbations are useful for studying how the central nervous system adapts and generalizes to novel dynamics, they are rarely encountered in daily life. The most common perturbations that we experience are changes in the weights of objects that we hold. Here, we use a center-out, free-reaching task, in which we can manipulate the weight of a participant's hand to examine adaptation and generalization following naturalistic perturbations. In both trial-by-trial paradigms and block-based paradigms, we find that learning converges rapidly (on a timescale of approximately two trials), and this learning generalizes mostly to movements in nearby directions with a unimodal pattern. However, contrary to studies using more artificial perturbations, we find that the generalization has a strong global component. Furthermore, the generalization is enhanced with repeated exposure of the same perturbation. These results suggest that the familiarity of a perturbation is a major factor in movement generalization and that several theories of the neural control of movement, based on perturbations applied by robots or in virtual reality, may need to be extended by incorporating prior influence that is characterized by the familiarity of the perturbation. PMID:23054601

  16. Reaching the hip-hop generation: Final (symposium proceedings) report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The goal of this final (closing) report is to capture the flavor of the symposium held March 1 and 2, 1993 in New York City convened by Motivational Educational Entertainment, Inc. (MEE), a black-owned communications research, consulting, and video production company based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The mission of MEE is to understand, reach, and positively affect inner-city youth. Traditional communication approaches from mainstream sources to at-risk youth often don`t account for the unique way youth communicate among themselves and how they relate to the media. This understanding, however, is crucial. To understand youth communication, the people who create and send both entertaining and educational messages to urban youth must be brought into the dialogue. The meeting in New York was intended to provide an important opportunity for senders to meet and evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of their messages. In addition, the MEE symposium provided a forum for the continuing public debate about what needs to be done to reach today`s urban teens. Included in this document is a description of symposium goals/objectives, symposium activities, the reaction to and analysis of the symposium, recommendations for future MEE courses of action, and an appendix containing copies of press articles.

  17. Reaching the unreached: Building resilience through engagement with diverse communities.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jannah; Coleman, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security Center for Faith-based & Neighborhood Partnerships (DHS Center) is one of 13 federal centres whose mandate is to engage faith-based and community groups with governments in the delivery of human services. Working alongside local jurisdictions, over the past five years, the DHS Center developed the Building Resilience with Diverse Communities (BRDC) engagement process to improve relationships with faith-based and community organisations and to 'reach unreached' populations in emergency preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation. BRDC works to improve community resilience by engaging the 'whole community' through its seven-stage process. The BRDC process has been successfully implemented in Los Angeles, California, Lakewood, New Jersey and in varying degrees in other communities. The initiative demonstrates that emergency management can adapt the BRDC process to effectively integrate faith-based and community groups into their plans and processes, leverage existing resources and, by doing so, increase resilience with some of the hardest to reach and unreached populations in their jurisdictions.

  18. Ricin A chain reaches the endoplasmic reticulum after endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Qiong; Zhan Jinbiao . E-mail: jzhan2k@zju.edu.cn; Chen Xinhong; Zheng Shu

    2006-05-12

    Ricin is a potent ribosome inactivating protein and now has been widely used for synthesis of immunotoxins. To target ribosome in the mammalian cytosol, ricin must firstly retrograde transport from the endomembrane system to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where the ricin A chain (RTA) is recognized by ER components that facilitate its membrane translocation to the cytosol. In the study, the fusion gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-RTA was expressed with the pET-28a (+) system in Escherichia coli under the control of a T7 promoter. The fusion protein showed a green fluorescence. The recombinant protein can be purified by metal chelated affinity chromatography on a column of NTA. The rabbit anti-GFP antibody can recognize the fusion protein of EGFP-RTA just like the EGFP protein. The cytotoxicity of EGFP-RTA and RTA was evaluated by the MTT assay in HeLa and HEP-G2 cells following fluid-phase endocytosis. The fusion protein had a similar cytotoxicity of RTA. After endocytosis, the subcellular location of the fusion protein can be observed with the laser scanning confocal microscopy and the immuno-gold labeling Electro Microscopy. This study provided important evidence by a visualized way to prove that RTA does reach the endoplasmic reticulum.

  19. A Sensorimotor Model for Computing Intended Reach Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Üstün, Cevat

    2016-03-01

    The presumed role of the primate sensorimotor system is to transform reach targets from retinotopic to joint coordinates for producing motor output. However, the interpretation of neurophysiological data within this framework is ambiguous, and has led to the view that the underlying neural computation may lack a well-defined structure. Here, I consider a model of sensorimotor computation in which temporal as well as spatial transformations generate representations of desired limb trajectories, in visual coordinates. This computation is suggested by behavioral experiments, and its modular implementation makes predictions that are consistent with those observed in monkey posterior parietal cortex (PPC). In particular, the model provides a simple explanation for why PPC encodes reach targets in reference frames intermediate between the eye and hand, and further explains why these reference frames shift during movement. Representations in PPC are thus consistent with the orderly processing of information, provided we adopt the view that sensorimotor computation manipulates desired movement trajectories, and not desired movement endpoints. PMID:26985662

  20. Livestock First Reached Southern Africa in Two Separate Events

    PubMed Central

    Sadr, Karim

    2015-01-01

    After several decades of research on the subject, we now know when the first livestock reached southern Africa but the question of how they got there remains a contentious topic. Debate centres on whether they were brought with a large migration of Khoe-speakers who originated from East Africa; or whether the livestock were traded down-the-line among hunter-gatherer communities; or indeed whether there was a long history of diverse small scale population movements in this part of the world, one or more of which ‘infiltrated’ livestock into southern Africa. A new analysis of the distribution of stone toolkits from a sizeable sample of sub-equatorial African Later Stone Age sites, coupled with existing knowledge of the distribution of the earliest livestock remains and ceramics vessels, has allowed us to isolate two separate infiltration events that brought the first livestock into southern Africa just over 2000 years ago; one infiltration was along the Atlantic seaboard and another entered the middle reaches of the Limpopo River Basin. These findings agree well with the latest results of genetic research which together indicate that multiple, small-scale infiltrations probably were responsible for bringing the first livestock into southern Africa. PMID:26295347

  1. Optically trapped mirror for reaching the standard quantum limit.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Michimura, Yuta; Aso, Yoichi; Tsubono, Kimio

    2014-06-01

    The preparation of a mechanical oscillator driven by quantum back-action is a fundamental requirement to reach the standard quantum limit (SQL) for force measurement, in optomechanical systems. However, thermal fluctuating force generally dominates a disturbance on the oscillator. In the macroscopic scale, an optical linear cavity including a suspended mirror has been used for the weak force measurement, such as gravitational-wave detectors. This configuration has the advantages of reducing the dissipation of the pendulum (i.e., suspension thermal noise) due to a gravitational dilution by using a thin wire, and of increasing the circulating laser power. However, the use of the thin wire is weak for an optical torsional anti-spring effect in the cavity, due to the low mechanical restoring force of the wire. Thus, there is the trade-off between the stability of the system and the sensitivity. Here, we describe using a triangular optical cavity to overcome this limitation for reaching the SQL. The triangular cavity can provide a sensitive and stable system, because it can optically trap the mirror's motion of the yaw, through an optical positive torsional spring effect. To show this, we demonstrate a measurement of the torsional spring effect caused by radiation pressure forces.

  2. Reach-averaged sediment routing model of a canyon river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiele, S.M.; Wilcock, P.R.; Grams, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial complexity in channel geometry indicates that accurate prediction of sediment transport requires modeling in at least two dimensions. However, a one-dimensional model may be the only practical or possible alternative, especially for longer river reaches of practical concern in river management or landscape modeling. We have developed a one-dimensional model of the Colorado River through upper Grand Canyon that addresses this problem by reach averaging the channel properties and predicting changes in sand storage using separate source and sink functions coupled to the sand routing model. The model incorporates results from the application of a two-dimensional model of flow, sand transport, and bed evolution, and a new algorithm for setting the near-bed sand boundary condition for sand transported over an exposed bouldery bed. Model predictions were compared to measurements of sand discharge during intermittent tributary inputs and varying discharges controlled by dam releases. The model predictions generally agree well with the timing and magnitude of measured sand discharges but tend to overpredict sand discharge during the early stages of a high release designed to redistribute sand to higher-elevation deposits.

  3. Livestock First Reached Southern Africa in Two Separate Events.

    PubMed

    Sadr, Karim

    2015-01-01

    After several decades of research on the subject, we now know when the first livestock reached southern Africa but the question of how they got there remains a contentious topic. Debate centres on whether they were brought with a large migration of Khoe-speakers who originated from East Africa; or whether the livestock were traded down-the-line among hunter-gatherer communities; or indeed whether there was a long history of diverse small scale population movements in this part of the world, one or more of which 'infiltrated' livestock into southern Africa. A new analysis of the distribution of stone toolkits from a sizeable sample of sub-equatorial African Later Stone Age sites, coupled with existing knowledge of the distribution of the earliest livestock remains and ceramics vessels, has allowed us to isolate two separate infiltration events that brought the first livestock into southern Africa just over 2000 years ago; one infiltration was along the Atlantic seaboard and another entered the middle reaches of the Limpopo River Basin. These findings agree well with the latest results of genetic research which together indicate that multiple, small-scale infiltrations probably were responsible for bringing the first livestock into southern Africa.

  4. CP-violation reach of an electron capture neutrino beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orme, Christopher

    2010-07-01

    This article extends the work of Bernabeu and Espinoza by examining the CP-violation reach of a 150Dy electron capture beam through the variation of the two Lorentz boosts, the number of useful electron capture decays, the relative run time of each boost and the number of atmospheric backgrounds. The neutrinos are assumed to be sourced at CERN with an upgraded SPS and are directed towards a 440 kton Water Cerenkov detector located at the Canfranc laboratory. Two large ‘CP-coverage’ choices for the boost pairings are found; a δ-symmetrical coverage for ( γ 1, γ 2) = (280, 160) and an δ-asymmetric coverage for ( γ 1 , γ 2) = (440,150). With a nominal useful decay rate of N ions = 1018 ions per year, the δ-symmetric setup can rule out CP-conservation down to sin2 2 θ 13 = 3•10-4. To reach sin2 2 θ 13 =1•10-3 for both δ < 0 and δ > 0 requires a useful decay rate of N ions = 6•1017 ions per year.

  5. Transient Storage Parameterization of Wetland-dominated Stream Reaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilderotter, S. M.; Lightbody, A.; Kalnejais, L. H.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2014-12-01

    Current understanding of the importance of transient storage in fluvial wetlands is limited. Wetlands that have higher connectivity to the main stream channel are important because they have the potential to retain more nitrogen within the river system than wetlands that receive little direct stream discharge. In this study, we investigated how stream water accesses adjacent fluvial wetlands in New England coastal watersheds to improve parameterization in network-scale models. Break through curves of Rhodamine WT were collected for eight wetlands in the Ipswich and Parker (MA) and Lamprey River (NH) watersheds, USA. The curves were inverse modeled using STAMMT-L to optimize the connectivity and size parameters for each reach. Two approaches were tested, a single dominant storage zone and a range of storage zones represented using a power-law distribution of storage zone connectivity. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to relate transient storage parameters to stream discharge, area, length-to-width ratio, and reach slope. Resulting regressions will enable more accurate parameterization of surface water transient storage in network-scale models.

  6. Detecting intention to grasp during reaching movements from EEG.

    PubMed

    Randazzo, Luca; Iturrate, Inaki; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Leeb, Robert; Del Millan, Jose R

    2015-08-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have been shown to be a promising tool in rehabilitation and assistive scenarios. Within these contexts, brain signals can be decoded and used as commands for a robotic device, allowing to translate user's intentions into motor actions in order to support the user's impaired neuro-muscular system. Recently, it has been suggested that slow cortical potentials (SCPs), negative deflections in the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals peaking around one second before the initiation of movements, might be of interest because they offer an accurate time resolution for the provided feedback. Many state-of-the-art studies exploiting SCPs have focused on decoding intention of movements related to walking and arm reaching, but up to now few studies have focused on decoding the intention to grasp, which is of fundamental importance in upper-limb tasks. In this work, we present a technique that exploits EEG to decode grasping correlates during reaching movements. Results obtained with four subjects show the existence of SCPs prior to the execution of grasping movements and how they can be used to classify, with accuracy rates greater than 70% across all subjects, the intention to grasp. Using a sliding window approach, we have also demonstrated how this intention can be decoded on average around 400 ms before the grasp movements for two out of four subjects, and after the onset of grasp itself for the two other subjects. PMID:26736461

  7. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  8. Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the bentonite in the A2 test parcel of the LOT field experiments at Äspö HRL, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Siv; Karnland, Ola

    The Long Term Test of Buffer Material (LOT) project at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden, is a series of medium-scale field experiments focused on validating models and hypotheses concerning long term processes in the bentonite buffer of a repository for high-level radioactive waste. The test parcels emplaced in crystalline bedrock consist of blocks of compacted MX80 bentonite embedding a Cu-tube equipped with a heater to simulate the heat generation from radionuclide decay. The A2 test parcel had been subjected to elevated temperature (up to 130 °C) and hydration by a Na-Ca-Cl type groundwater for almost 6 years when it was retrieved to be analysed. The analyses included determinations of chemical composition, cation exchange capacity (CEC), exchangeable cations and mineralogy. Both the bulk bentonite and dialysed, homo-ionic Na-clay (<2 μm and <0.2 μm fractions) were analysed when relevant. Sulphate was redistributed in the heated part of the buffer under the thermal and hydration gradients that prevailed during the test period. Anhydrite accumulated in the warmer parts, whereas gypsum was dissolved in the peripheral parts of the buffer where water was supplied. Carbonate dissolution increased with temperature in the warmest parts, whereas chloride behaved conservatively in all blocks. Cu was incorporated in the bentonite matrix at the surface of the Cu-tube indicating some corrosion, which may be explained by reactions in an early stage of the test when trapped oxygen existed in the system. Along with the dissolution/precipitation reactions the porewater composition changed, which resulted in replacement of exchangeable sodium by calcium and magnesium in the warmest zone. Also Mg in the clay (<2 μm and <0.2 μm fractions) displays a clear gradient with peak values at the heater. Because several of the alternative sinks for Mg were eliminated in the sample preparation prior to the chemical analysis (purified clay fractions, removal of carbonates, Na

  9. Connectivity-based parcellation increases network detection sensitivity in resting state fMRI: An investigation into the cingulate cortex in autism.

    PubMed

    Balsters, Joshua H; Mantini, Dante; Apps, Matthew A J; Eickhoff, Simon B; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Although resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI) is increasingly used to generate biomarkers of psychiatric illnesses, analytical choices such as seed size and placement can lead to variable findings. Seed placement especially impacts on RS-fMRI studies of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), because individuals with ASD are known to possess more variable network topographies. Here, we present a novel pipeline for analysing RS-fMRI in ASD using the cingulate cortex as an exemplar anatomical region of interest. Rather than using seeds based on previous literature, or gross morphology, we used a combination of structural information, task-independent (RS-fMRI) and task-dependent functional connectivity (Meta-Analytic Connectivity Modeling) to partition the cingulate cortex into six subregions with unique connectivity fingerprints and diverse behavioural profiles. This parcellation was consistent between groups and highly replicable across individuals (up to 93% detection) suggesting that the organisation of cortico-cingulo connections is highly similar between groups. However, our results showed an age-related increase in connectivity between the anterior middle cingulate cortex and right lateral prefrontal cortex in ASD, whilst this connectivity decreased in controls. There was also a Group × Grey Matter (GM) interaction, showing increased connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and the rectal gyrus in concert with increasing rectal gyrus GM in controls. By comparing our approach to previously established methods we revealed that our approach improves network detection in both groups, and that the ability to detect group differences using 4 mm radius spheres varies greatly with seed placement. Using our multi-modal approach we find disrupted cortico-cingulo circuits that, based on task-dependent information, may contribute to ASD deficits in attention and social interaction. Moreover, we highlight how more sensitive approaches to RS-fMRI are crucial for establishing

  10. Connectivity-based parcellation increases network detection sensitivity in resting state fMRI: An investigation into the cingulate cortex in autism

    PubMed Central

    Balsters, Joshua H.; Mantini, Dante; Apps, Matthew A.J.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Although resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI) is increasingly used to generate biomarkers of psychiatric illnesses, analytical choices such as seed size and placement can lead to variable findings. Seed placement especially impacts on RS-fMRI studies of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), because individuals with ASD are known to possess more variable network topographies. Here, we present a novel pipeline for analysing RS-fMRI in ASD using the cingulate cortex as an exemplar anatomical region of interest. Rather than using seeds based on previous literature, or gross morphology, we used a combination of structural information, task-independent (RS-fMRI) and task-dependent functional connectivity (Meta-Analytic Connectivity Modeling) to partition the cingulate cortex into six subregions with unique connectivity fingerprints and diverse behavioural profiles. This parcellation was consistent between groups and highly replicable across individuals (up to 93% detection) suggesting that the organisation of cortico-cingulo connections is highly similar between groups. However, our results showed an age-related increase in connectivity between the anterior middle cingulate cortex and right lateral prefrontal cortex in ASD, whilst this connectivity decreased in controls. There was also a Group × Grey Matter (GM) interaction, showing increased connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and the rectal gyrus in concert with increasing rectal gyrus GM in controls. By comparing our approach to previously established methods we revealed that our approach improves network detection in both groups, and that the ability to detect group differences using 4 mm radius spheres varies greatly with seed placement. Using our multi-modal approach we find disrupted cortico-cingulo circuits that, based on task-dependent information, may contribute to ASD deficits in attention and social interaction. Moreover, we highlight how more sensitive approaches to RS-fMRI are crucial for establishing

  11. Green-roof as a solution to solve stormwater management issues? Assessment on a long time period at the parcel scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versini, P.-A.; Petrucci, G.; de Gouvello, B.

    2014-09-01

    Experimental green-roof rainfall-runoff observations have shown a positive impact on stormwater management at the building scale; with a decrease in the peak discharge and a decrease in runoff volume. This efficiency of green-roofs varies from one rainfall event to another depending on precipitation characteristics and substrate antecedent conditions. Due to this variability, currently, green-roofs are rarely officially used as a regulation tool to manage stormwater. Indeed, regulation rules governing the connection to the stormwater network are usually based on absolute threshold values that always have to be respected: maximum areal flow-rate or minimum retention volume for example. In this context, the aim of this study is to illustrate how a green-roof could represent an alternative to solve stormwater management issues, if the regulation rules were further based on statistics. For this purpose, a modelling scheme has been established at the parcel scale to simulate the hydrological response of several roof configurations: impervious, strictly regulated (in terms of areal flow-rate or retention volume), and covered by different types of green-roof matter. Simulations were carried out on a long precipitation time period (23 years) that included a large and heterogeneous set of hydrometeorological conditions. Results obtained for the different roof configurations were compared. Based on the return period of the rainfall event, the probability to respect some regulation rules (defined from real situations) was assessed. They illustrate that green-roofs reduce stormwater runoff compared to an impervious roof surface and can guarantee the respect of the regulation rules in most of the cases. Moreover, their implementation can appear more realistic than that of other infrastructures strictly complying with regulations and demanding significant storage capacity.

  12. Changing spatial patterns of evapotranspiration and deep drainage in response to the interactions among impervious surface arrangement, soil characteristics, and weather on a residential parcel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voter, C. B.; Steven, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    The introduction impervious surfaces in urban areas is a key driver of hydrologic change. It is now well understood that the amount of "effective" impervious area directly connected to the storm sewer network is a better indicator of hydrologic behavior than the total amount of impervious area. Most studies in urban hydrology have focused on the relationship between impervious connectivity and stormwater runoff or other surface water flows, with the result that the effect on subsurface flow is not as well understood. In the field, we observe differences in soil moisture availability that are dependent on proximity to impervious features and significant from a root water uptake perspective, which indicates that parcel-scale subsurface and plant water fluxes may also be sensitive to fine-scaled heterogeneity in impervious surface arrangement and connectivity. We use ParFlow with CLM, a watershed model with fully integrated variably-saturated subsurface flow, overland flow, and land-surface processes, to explore the extent to which soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and deep drainage vary under various impervious surface arrangement and soil condition scenarios, as well as under a range of precipitation regimes. We investigate the effect of several impervious surface and soil characteristics, including general lot layout, downspout disconnect, and direction of driveway/sidewalk slope, and soil compaction. We show that that some impervious connectivity schemes transfer more water from impervious areas to pervious ones and promote localized recharge by developing well-defined, fast-moving wetting fronts that are able to penetrate the root zone. Enhanced infiltration is translated more directly to recharge in normal to wet years but partitioned more often to transpiration in dry years, leading to a nonlinear relationship among precipitation, runoff and recharge.

  13. Nucleus of the solitary tract in the C57BL/6J mouse: Subnuclear parcellation, chorda tympani nerve projections, and brainstem connections

    PubMed Central

    Ganchrow, Donald; Ganchrow, Judith R; Cicchini, Vanessa; Bartel, Dianna L; Kaufman, Daniel; Girard, David; Whitehead, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) processes gustatory and related somatosensory information rostrally and general viscerosensory information caudally. To compare its connections with those of other rodents, this study in the C57BL/6J mouse provides a subnuclear cytoarchitectonic parcellation (Nissl stain) of the NST into rostral, intermediate, and caudal divisions. Subnuclei are further characterized by NADPH staining and P2X2 immunoreactivity (IR). Cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) labeling revealed those NST subnuclei receiving chorda tympani nerve (CT) afferents, those connecting with the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and reticular formation (RF), and those interconnecting NST subnuclei. CT terminals are densest in the rostral central (RC) and medial (M) subnuclei; less dense in the rostral lateral (RL) subnucleus; and sparse in the ventral (V), ventral lateral (VL), and central lateral (CL) subnuclei. CTb injection into the PBN retrogradely labels cells in the aforementioned subnuclei; RC and M providing the largest source of PBN projection neurons. Pontine efferent axons terminate mainly in V and rostral medial (RM) subnuclei. CTb injection into the medullary RF labels cells and axonal endings predominantly in V at rostral and intermediate NST levels. Small CTb injections within the NST label extensive projections from the rostral division to caudal subnuclei. Projections from the caudal division primarily interconnect subnuclei confined to the caudal division of the NST; they also connect with the area postrema. P2X2-IR identifies probable vagal nerve terminals in the central (Ce) subnucleus in the intermediate/caudal NST. Ce also shows intense NADPH staining and does not project to the PBN. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:1565–1596, 2014. PMID:24151133

  14. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  15. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  16. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters Tobacco Education and Training Ask ...

  17. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  18. Reaching is Better When You Get What You Want: Realtime Feedback of Intended Reaching Trajectory Despite an Unstable Environment

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Justin; Madhavan, Tejas; Massie, Christine; Patton, James

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in human-machine interaction may help overcome the unstable and uncertain environments that cause problems in everyday living. Here we experimentally evaluated intent feedback (IF), which estimates and displays the human operator's underlying intended trajectory in real-time. IF is a filter that combines a model of the arm with position and force data to determine the intended position. Subjects performed targeted reaching motions while seeing either their actual hand position or their estimated intent as a cursor while they experienced white noise forces rendered by a robotic handle. We found significantly better reaching performance during force exposure using the estimated intent. Additionally, in a second set of subjects with a reduced modeled stiffness, IF reduced estimated arm stiffness to about half that without IF, indicating a more relaxed state of operation. While visual distortions typically degrade performance and require an adaptation period to overcome, this particular distortion immediately enhanced performance. In the future, this method could provide novel insights into the nature of control. IF might also be applied in driving and piloting applications to best follow a person's desire in unpredictable or turbulent conditions. PMID:26793082

  19. Multiple scattering calculation of the middle ultraviolet reaching the ground.

    PubMed

    Shettle, E P; Green, A E

    1974-07-01

    We use a multiple channel solution to the radiative transfer equation, a computationally fast method which achieves reasonable accuracy. The method is applied to the problem of light scattering in a turbid atmosphere in the 280-340 nm wavelength region to calculate the direct, downward diffuse and global flux reaching the ground. This spectral region is of particular interest in studies of the biological effects of possible depletion of the ozone layer by a future fleet of supersonic transport planes. We input atmospheric conditions in terms of analytic models chosen to encompass standard ozone and aerosol distributions.We examine the changes in the results with respect to the variations of the solar zenith angle, wavelength ozone thickness, aerosol thickness, ground albedo, and ground height level. The results are fairly well represented by a semiempirical analytic formula which may be used for the purposes of interpolation and communication. PMID:20134511

  20. Outreach Beyond Limits - How CFHT reaches its diverse constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laychak, Mary Beth

    2015-08-01

    The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope serves a diverse audience of astronomers and the general public in six countries: Canada, France, Hawaii (US), Taiwan, Brazil and China. The recent hiring of a full time public outreach manager gives CFHT the opportunity to expand its outreach presence in each of these nations while simultaneously reaching our local Big Island community. These goals are ambitious; unlike other multi-national institutions pursuing a dynamic outreach presence, CFHT is a smaller facility with fewer staff fully devoted to public outreach.CFHT aims to maximize its outreach impact through a combination of online engagement and partnerships with users and stakeholders in its constituent communities. In this talk we will discuss our success, challenges, and lessons learned from our experiences coordinating activities and events in three diverse locations: Hawaii, Canada and France.

  1. Reaching Rural Canadian Communities in the Yukon and Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa L.

    2016-10-01

    Canada is very large geographically, so many rural communities are very far from major centers. People in such communities are at a severe disadvantage when it comes to in-person interaction with science or scientists because resources tend to be directed at large population centers, where more people can be reached for the same amount of effort. While this geographic distance can be mitigated by doing outreach over the internet, there is at some level no substitute for showing up in person with e.g. meteorites in hand. Due to where various members of my family are located, I have occasion to visit Whitehorse, YT and Andrew, AB (~1.5 hour drive north-east of Edmonton) and have taken advantage of trips to these locations to do astronomy outreach in both schools and public libraries. I will discuss how I arranged school and library visits and general observations from my experience doing outreach in rural Canadian communities.

  2. Reach the Bottom Line of the Sbottom Search

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Ezequiel; Bai, Yang

    2012-05-22

    We propose a new search strategy for directly-produced sbottoms at the LHC with a small mass splitting between the sbottom and its decayed stable neutralino. Our search strategy is based on boosting sbottoms through an energetic initial state radiation jet. In the final state, we require a large missing transverse energy and one or two b-jets besides the initial state radiation jet. We also define a few kinematic variables to further increase the discovery reach. For the case that the sbottom mainly decays into the bottom quark and the stable neutralino, we have found that even for a mass splitting as small as 10 GeV sbottoms with masses up to around 400 GeV can be excluded at the 95% confidence level with 20 inverse femtobarn data at the 8 TeV LHC.

  3. Reaching for the stars: SLPs shine on literacy teams.

    PubMed

    Staskowski, Maureen; Zagaiski, Kelley

    2003-08-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who work with school-age children have the opportunity to contribute to the literacy development of specific students as well as the literacy instruction and intervention programs in their district. These efforts are made in collaboration with other professionals and parents and may be referred to as participation on literacy teams. This article describes successful literacy teams in elementary schools including the variety of possible members as well as common characteristics of successful literacy teams. We describe how SLPs participate by developing collegial relationships with their team, using best practices for literacy, and supporting children as they progress in the general curriculum. Finally, we discuss some strategies for SLPs to take stock of their own literacy team participation, identify new goals, and map out a plan to reach new heights in literacy as integral members of literacy teams.

  4. Multiple scattering calculation of the middle ultraviolet reaching the ground.

    PubMed

    Shettle, E P; Green, A E

    1974-07-01

    We use a multiple channel solution to the radiative transfer equation, a computationally fast method which achieves reasonable accuracy. The method is applied to the problem of light scattering in a turbid atmosphere in the 280-340 nm wavelength region to calculate the direct, downward diffuse and global flux reaching the ground. This spectral region is of particular interest in studies of the biological effects of possible depletion of the ozone layer by a future fleet of supersonic transport planes. We input atmospheric conditions in terms of analytic models chosen to encompass standard ozone and aerosol distributions.We examine the changes in the results with respect to the variations of the solar zenith angle, wavelength ozone thickness, aerosol thickness, ground albedo, and ground height level. The results are fairly well represented by a semiempirical analytic formula which may be used for the purposes of interpolation and communication.

  5. The contributions of vision and haptics to reaching and grasping

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Kayla D.; Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.

    2015-01-01

    This review aims to provide a comprehensive outlook on the sensory (visual and haptic) contributions to reaching and grasping. The focus is on studies in developing children, normal, and neuropsychological populations, and in sensory-deprived individuals. Studies have suggested a right-hand/left-hemisphere specialization for visually guided grasping and a left-hand/right-hemisphere specialization for haptically guided object recognition. This poses the interesting possibility that when vision is not available and grasping relies heavily on the haptic system, there is an advantage to use the left hand. We review the evidence for this possibility and dissect the unique contributions of the visual and haptic systems to grasping. We ultimately discuss how the integration of these two sensory modalities shape hand preference. PMID:26441777

  6. The contributions of vision and haptics to reaching and grasping.

    PubMed

    Stone, Kayla D; Gonzalez, Claudia L R

    2015-01-01

    This review aims to provide a comprehensive outlook on the sensory (visual and haptic) contributions to reaching and grasping. The focus is on studies in developing children, normal, and neuropsychological populations, and in sensory-deprived individuals. Studies have suggested a right-hand/left-hemisphere specialization for visually guided grasping and a left-hand/right-hemisphere specialization for haptically guided object recognition. This poses the interesting possibility that when vision is not available and grasping relies heavily on the haptic system, there is an advantage to use the left hand. We review the evidence for this possibility and dissect the unique contributions of the visual and haptic systems to grasping. We ultimately discuss how the integration of these two sensory modalities shape hand preference.

  7. The cortical timeline for deciding on reach motor goals.

    PubMed

    Westendorff, Stephanie; Klaes, Christian; Gail, Alexander

    2010-04-14

    Flexible sensorimotor planning is the basis for goal-directed behavior. We investigated the integration of visuospatial information with context-specific transformation rules during reach planning. We were especially interested in the relative timing of motor-goal decisions in monkey dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and parietal reach region (PRR). We used a rule-based mapping task with different cueing conditions to compare task-dependent motor-goal latencies. The task allowed us a separation of cue-related from motor-related activity, and a separation of activity related to motor planning from activity related to motor initiation or execution. The results show that selectivity for the visuospatial goal of a pending movement occurred earlier in PMd than PRR whenever the task required spatial remapping. Such remapping was needed if the spatial representation of a cue or of a default motor plan had to be transformed into a spatially incongruent representation of the motor goal. In contrast, we did not find frontoparietal latency differences if the spatial representation of the cue or the default plan was spatially congruent with the motor goal. The fact that frontoparietal latency differences occurred only in conditions with spatial remapping was independent of the subjects' partial a priori knowledge about the pending goal. Importantly, frontoparietal latency differences existed for motor-goal representations during movement planning, without immediate motor execution. We interpret our findings as being in support of the hypothesis that latency differences reflect a dynamic reorganization of network activity in PRR, and suggest that the reorganization is contingent on frontoparietal projections from PMd.

  8. Walking Is Not Like Reaching: Evidence from Periodic Mechanical Perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jooeun; Hogan, Neville

    2012-01-01

    The control architecture underlying human reaching has been established, at least in broad outline. However, despite extensive research, the control architecture underlying human locomotion remains unclear. Some studies show evidence of high-level control focused on lower-limb trajectories; others suggest that nonlinear oscillators such as lower-level rhythmic central pattern generators (CPGs) play a significant role. To resolve this ambiguity, we reasoned that if a nonlinear oscillator contributes to locomotor control, human walking should exhibit dynamic entrainment to periodic mechanical perturbation; entrainment is a distinctive behavior of nonlinear oscillators. Here we present the first behavioral evidence that nonlinear neuro-mechanical oscillators contribute to the production of human walking, albeit weakly. As unimpaired human subjects walked at constant speed, we applied periodic torque pulses to the ankle at periods different from their preferred cadence. The gait period of 18 out of 19 subjects entrained to this mechanical perturbation, converging to match that of the perturbation. Significantly, entrainment occurred only if the perturbation period was close to subjects' preferred walking cadence: it exhibited a narrow basin of entrainment. Further, regardless of the phase within the walking cycle at which perturbation was initiated, subjects' gait synchronized or phase-locked with the mechanical perturbation at a phase of gait where it assisted propulsion. These results were affected neither by auditory feedback nor by a distractor task. However, the convergence to phase-locking was slow. These characteristics indicate that nonlinear neuro-mechanical oscillators make at most a modest contribution to human walking. Our results suggest that human locomotor control is not organized as in reaching to meet a predominantly kinematic specification, but is hierarchically organized with a semi-autonomous peripheral oscillator operating under episodic

  9. Measured variation in boron loads reaching European sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Fox, K K; Cassani, G; Facchi, A; Schröder, F R; Poelloth, C; Holt, M S

    2002-05-01

    Per capita boron loads reaching 48 sewage treatment works (STWs) in The Netherlands, Germany, Italy, and the UK have been determined from monitoring data. These have been compared with the per capita input predicted from boron in detergents, as determined from detergent product sales data. The resulting distribution of the ratios of measured boron to boron predicted from consumer usage has a 90th percentile of less than 1.5. Boron has previously been shown to be a good marker for substances contained in detergent products, as it cannot be biodegraded and is not substantially adsorbed in the sewer, and there is little or no removal during sewage treatment processes. The monitoring information on the distribution of boron loads found at the different STWs should thus be indicative of the distribution of other substances released to the environment by detergent products, as specified by the relevant industrial category (IC 5-personal/domestic) in the Technical Guidance Documents. Variation in detergent product consumption figures from 18 European countries is also low, with the country with the highest per capita detergent consumption having only 1.3 times the European average detergent use. Thus the present practice of determining a "reasonable worst case" by multiplying the average per capita consumption by a factor of four to account for geographic differences in distribution, is considered to be inappropriate. This should be replaced by a factor of less than two, which combines within country and between country variations to provide a reasonable worst case approximation of the load reaching the sewage treatment facility. PMID:11996125

  10. Physics reach of DUNE with a light sterile neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Chatterjee, Sabya Sachi; Palazzo, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the implications of one light eV scale sterile neutrino on the physics potential of the proposed long-baseline experiment DUNE. If the future short-baseline experiments confirm the existence of sterile neutrinos, then it can affect the mass hierarchy (MH) and CP-violation (CPV) searches at DUNE. The MH sensitivity still remains above 5 σ if the three new mixing angles ( θ 14, θ 24, θ 34) are all close to θ 13. In contrast, it can decrease to 4 σ if the least constrained mixing angle θ 34 is close to its upper limit ˜ 300. We also assess the sensitivity to the CPV induced both by the standard CP-phase δ 13 ≡ δ, and the new CP-phases δ 14 and δ 34. In the 3+1 scheme, the discovery potential of CPV induced by δ 13 gets deteriorated compared to the 3 ν case. In particular, the maximal sensitivity (reached around δ 13 ˜ ± 900) decreases from 5 σ to 4 σ if all the three new mixing angles are close to θ 13. It can further diminish to almost 3 σ if θ 34 is large (˜ 300). The sensitivity to the CPV due to δ 14 can reach 3 σ for an appreciable fraction of its true values. Interestingly, θ 34 and its associated phase δ 34 can influence both the ν e appearance and ν μ disappearance channels via matter effects, which in DUNE are pronounced. Hence, DUNE can also probe CPV induced by δ 34 provided θ 34 is large. We also reconstruct the two phases δ 13 and δ 14. The typical 1 σ uncertainty on δ 13 ( δ 14) is ˜ 200 (300) if θ 34 = 0. The reconstruction of δ 14 (but not that of δ 13) degrades if θ 34 is large.

  11. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  12. Radiation Detection Field Test at the Federal Express (FedEx) Air Cargo Facility at Denver International Airport (DIA)

    SciTech Connect

    Weirup, D; Waters, A; Hall, H; Dougan, A; Trombino, D; Mattesich, G; Hull, E; Bahowick, S; Loshak, A; Gruidl, J

    2004-02-11

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) recently conducted a field-test of radiation detection and identification equipment at the air cargo facility of Federal Express (FedEx) located at Denver International Airport (DIA) over a period of two weeks. Comprehensive background measurements were performed and were analyzed, and a trial strategy for detection and identification of parcels displaying radioactivity was implemented to aid in future development of a comprehensive protection plan. The purpose of this project was threefold: {sm_bullet} Quantify background radiation environments at an air cargo facility. {sm_bullet} Quantify and identify ''nuisance'' alarms. {sm_bullet} Evaluate the performance of various isotope identifiers deployed in an operational environment (in this case, the operational environment included the biggest blizzard in over 90 years!).

  13. Pathway of the Fukushima radioactive plume for reaching the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, R.; Hernández-Ceballos, M. A.; Adame, J. A.; Casas-Ruíz, M.; Sorribas, M.; San Miguel, E. G.; Bolívar, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Activity concentrations of several man-made radionuclides (such as 131I, 132I, 132Te, 134Cs and 137Cs) were detected along the Iberian Peninsula from March 28th to April 7th 2011, including the sampling stations, "El Carmen", located at the Campus of the University of Huelva (37.28° N, 6.91° W) (Southwest Spain). The highest activity concentrations of fission products were obtained on 28th March. After this date, the activity concentrations decreased and remained approximately constant during the following days until reaching values below detection limits. The study of the air masses by the computation of backward trajectories using the HYSPLIT model allowed to demonstrate that these radionuclide activity concentrations were derived of the atmospheric radionuclide releases from the accident produced in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima (Japan), occurred on March 11th, 2011, after an earthquake happened in the Pacific Ocean (9 degrees on the Richter Scale). Hourly Kinematic 3D-backward trajectories with a duration of eight days and at three different heights were calculated at 500 m, 1000 m and 1500 m over Huelva city (37.28° N, 6.91° W) from 26th March to 6th April, and at Washington DC (38.89° N, 77.02° W) from 18th to 29th March to check the connection between the air flows from the Pacific Ocean, east coast of North America, where activity concentrations were previously measured by E.P.A, and Iberian Peninsula. By connecting the results obtained, a wind corridor from the Bering Sea to the Iberian Peninsula was observed in 27th-29th March, coinciding with the maximum of concentrations measured in the south-western Iberian Peninsula. After these days, the progressive change in the dynamics of air masses over the east coast of North America tended to break this wind channelling, despite the continuous arrival of westerly flow over the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. This change happened in the same dates that a progressive decreasing in the

  14. Recovery of three arctic stream reaches from experimental nutrient enrichment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benstead, J.P.; Green, A.C.; Deegan, Linda A.; Peterson, B.J.; Slavik, K.; Bowden, W.B.; Hershey, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    1. Nutrient enrichment and resulting eutrophication is a widespread anthropogenic influence on freshwater ecosystems, but recovery from nutrient enrichment is poorly understood, especially in stream environments. We examined multi-year patterns in community recovery from experimental low-concentration nutrient enrichment (N + P or P only) in three reaches of two Arctic tundra streams (Kuparuk River and Oksrukuyik Creek) on the North Slope of Alaska (U.S.A.). 2. Rates of recovery varied among community components and depended on duration of enrichment (2-13 consecutive growing seasons). Biomass of epilithic algae returned to reference levels rapidly (within 2 years), regardless of nutrients added or enrichment duration. Aquatic bryophyte cover, which increased greatly in the Kuparuk River only after long-term enrichment (8 years), took 8 years of recovery to approach reference levels, after storms had scoured most remnant moss in the recovering reach. 3. Multi-year persistence of bryophytes in the Kuparuk River appeared to prevent recovery of insect populations that had either been positively (e.g. the mayfly Ephemerella, most chironomid midge taxa) or negatively (e.g. the tube-building chironomid Orthocladius rivulorum) affected by this shift in dominant primary producer. These lags in recovery (of >3 years) were probably driven by the persistent effect of bryophytes on physical benthic habitat. 4. Summer growth rates of Arctic grayling (both adults and young-of-year) in Oksrukuyik Creek (fertilised for 6 years with no bryophyte colonisation), which were consistently increased by nutrient addition, returned to reference rates within 1-2 years. 5. Rates of recovery of these virtually pristine Arctic stream ecosystems from low-level nutrient enrichment appeared to be controlled largely by duration of enrichment, mediated through physical habitat shifts caused by eventual bryophyte colonisation, and subsequent physical disturbance that removed bryophytes. Nutrient

  15. Far-Reaching Impacts of African Dust- A Calipso Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; Yuan, Tianle; Bian, Huisheng; Prospero, Joseph; Omar, Ali; Remer, Lorraine; Winker, David; Yang, Yuekui; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhibo

    2014-01-01

    African dust can transport across the tropical Atlantic and reach the Amazon basin, exerting far-reaching impacts on climate in downwind regions. The transported dust influences the surface-atmosphere interactions and cloud and precipitation processes through perturbing the surface radiative budget and atmospheric radiative heating and acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei. Dust also influences biogeochemical cycle and climate through providing nutrients vital to the productivity of ocean biomass and Amazon forests. Assessing these climate impacts relies on an accurate quantification of dust transport and deposition. Currently model simulations show extremely large diversity, which calls for a need of observational constraints. Kaufman et al. (2005) estimated from MODIS aerosol measurements that about 144 Tg of dust is deposited into the tropical Atlantic and 50 Tg of dust into the Amazon in 2001. This estimated dust import to Amazon is a factor of 3-4 higher than other observations and models. However, several studies have argued that the oversimplified characterization of dust vertical profile in the study would have introduced large uncertainty and very likely a high bias. In this study we quantify the trans-Atlantic dust transport and deposition by using 7 years (2007-2013) observations from CALIPSO lidar. CALIPSO acquires high-resolution aerosol extinction and depolarization profiles in both cloud-free and above-cloud conditions. The unique CALIPSO capability of profiling aerosols above clouds offers an unprecedented opportunity of examining uncertainties associated with the use of MODIS clear-sky data. Dust is separated from other types of aerosols using the depolarization measurements. We estimated that on the basis of 7-year average, 118142 Tg of dust is deposited into the tropical Atlantic and 3860 Tg of dust into the Amazon basin. Substantial interannual variations are observed during the period, with the maximum to minimum ratio of about 1

  16. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  1. Reaching Non-Traditional Audiences During IYA2009 in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, J. E.; Lane, D.; Langill, P. P.; Percy, J. R.

    2008-11-01

    Canada's far reaching plans for IYA2009 are highly inter-related. Unification arises from the major focus on maximizing the number and diversity of Canadians who will experience sometime in 2009 a moment of personal astronomical discovery, the Galileo Moment, through participation in astronomical observation or broadly defined activities with significant astronomical content that evoke awe and wonder. Among the latter are three broad themes: a) programmes involving Aboriginal children, youth and elders, b) partnerships with arts and cultural organizations, and c) astronomical imagery exhibits in high-traffic areas. Delivery of these programs rests upon our strong partnership between amateur [Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Fédération des astronomes amateurs du Québec and, we hope, independent clubs] and professional astronomers [Canadian Astronomical Society, including many active, enthusiastic graduate students] and collaborations with diverse sectors of society, the growth of which is encouraging. Our developing ideas and their implementation may be followed at http://www.astronomy2009.ca.

  2. Reaching Non-Traditional Audiences During IYA2009 in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, James E.; Lane, D.; Langill, P. P. L.; Percy, J. R.; Canada Committee, IYA

    2008-05-01

    Canada's far reaching plans for IYA2009 are highly inter-related. Unification arises from the major focus on maximizing the number and diversity of Canadians who will experience sometime in 2009 a moment of personal astronomical discovery, the Galileo Moment, through participation in astronomical observation or broadly defined activities with significant astronomical content that evoke awe and wonder. Among the latter are three broad themes that we will describe: a) programmes involving Aboriginal children, youth and elders, b) partnerships with arts and cultural organizations, and c) astronomical imagery exhibits in high-traffic areas. Delivery of these programs rests upon our strong partnership between amateur [Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Fédération des astronomes amateurs du Québec and, we hope, independent clubs] and professional astronomers (Canadian Astronomical Society, including many active, enthusiastic graduate students) and collaborations with diverse sectors of society, the growth of which is encouraging. Our developing ideas and their implementation may be followed at www.astronomy2009.ca.

  3. Reaching the quantum limit of sensitivity in electron spin resonance.

    PubMed

    Bienfait, A; Pla, J J; Kubo, Y; Stern, M; Zhou, X; Lo, C C; Weis, C D; Schenkel, T; Thewalt, M L W; Vion, D; Esteve, D; Julsgaard, B; Mølmer, K; Morton, J J L; Bertet, P

    2016-03-01

    The detection and characterization of paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is widely used throughout chemistry, biology and materials science, from in vivo imaging to distance measurements in spin-labelled proteins. ESR relies on the inductive detection of microwave signals emitted by the spins into a coupled microwave resonator during their Larmor precession. However, such signals can be very small, prohibiting the application of ESR at the nanoscale (for example, at the single-cell level or on individual nanoparticles). Here, using a Josephson parametric microwave amplifier combined with high-quality-factor superconducting microresonators cooled at millikelvin temperatures, we improve the state-of-the-art sensitivity of inductive ESR detection by nearly four orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the detection of 1,700 bismuth donor spins in silicon within a single Hahn echo with unit signal-to-noise ratio, reduced to 150 spins by averaging a single Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. This unprecedented sensitivity reaches the limit set by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field instead of thermal or technical noise, which constitutes a novel regime for magnetic resonance. The detection volume of our resonator is ∼ 0.02 nl, and our approach can be readily scaled down further to improve sensitivity, providing a new versatile toolbox for ESR at the nanoscale. PMID:26657787

  4. Breakthrough Capability for UVOIR Space Astronomy: Reaching the Darkest Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present a proof of concept case study in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. We also present flight dynamics analysis which illustrates that this concept can be extended beyond Explorers to substantially improve the sensitivity performance of heavier (7000 kg) flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope by using high power SEP that is being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission.

  5. Breakthrough Capability for UVOIR Space Astronomy: Reaching the Darkest Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffery W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present two case studies in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class and 7000 kg flagship-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. Similarly, we find that astrophysics utilization of high power SEP being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission (ARRM) can have a substantial impact on the sensitivity performance of heavier flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope.

  6. Hypothesis: origin of life in deep-reaching tectonic faults.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Locker-Grütjen, Oliver; Mayer, Christian

    2012-02-01

    The worldwide discussion on the origin of life encounters difficulties when it comes to estimate the conditions of the early earth and to define plausible environments for the development of the first complex organic molecules. Until now, the role of the earth's crust has been more or less ignored. In our opinion, deep-reaching open, interconnected tectonic fault systems may provide possible reaction habitats ranging from nano- to centimetre and even larger dimensions for the formation of prebiotic molecules. In addition to the presence of all necessary raw materials including phosphate, as well as variable pressure and temperature conditions, we suggest that supercritical CO2 as a nonpolar solvent could have played an important role. A hypothetical model for the origin of life is proposed which will be used to design crucial experiments for the model's verification. Because all proposed processes could still occur in tectonic faults at the present time, it may be possible to detect and analyse the formation of prebiotic molecules in order to assess the validity of the proposed hypothesis.

  7. Breakthrough capability for UVOIR space astronomy: Reaching the darkest sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-02-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present a proof of concept case study in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. We also present flight dynamics analysis which illustrates that this concept can be extended beyond Explorers to substantially improve the sensitivity performance of heavier (7000 kg) flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope by using high power SEP that is being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission.

  8. Breakthrough capability for UVOIR space astronomy: reaching the darkest sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2014-08-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present two case studies in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class and 7000 kg flagship-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. Similarly, we find that astrophysics utilization of high power SEP being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission (ARRM) can have a substantial impact on the sensitivity performance of heavier flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope.

  9. Reaching the Students: A New Approach to Enhancing Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, B. J.; Burnham, C. C.

    2002-05-01

    Most NSF supported programs directed at improving science literacy among university students who are not majoring in SMET normally target instruction in introductory science or math classes. Unfortunately these efforts seldom reach the vast majority of students at a university because students can fulfil their science requirement by taking several other classes or class sections that are not impacted by the NSF program. Ideally it would be desirable to address the issues of science literacy and science anxiety among non-science majors in a single class that is required of essentially all undergraduates. We describe such a program which is being tested at NMSU. The targeted class is the university's freshman level English class. The idea behind this effort is to provide students with the skills they will need to be successful in their science classes in a less threatening humanities environment. We describe the problems that this approach raises, suggest solutions to these problems, and then discuss the overall status of this effort.

  10. Advanced REACH Tool: a Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

  11. Higher harmonics increase LISA's mass reach for supermassive black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Arun, K. G.; Iyer, Bala R.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sinha, Siddhartha

    2007-06-15

    Current expectations on the signal-to-noise ratios and masses of supermassive black holes which the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) can observe are based on using in matched filtering only the dominant harmonic of the inspiral waveform at twice the orbital frequency. Other harmonics will affect the signal-to-noise ratio of systems currently believed to be observable by LISA. More significantly, inclusion of other harmonics in our matched filters would mean that more massive systems that were previously thought to be not visible in LISA should be detectable with reasonable SNRs. Our estimates show that we should be able to significantly increase the mass reach of LISA and observe the more commonly occurring supermassive black holes of masses {approx}10{sup 8}M{sub {center_dot}}. More specifically, with the inclusion of all known harmonics LISA will be able to observe even supermassive black hole coalescences with total mass {approx}10{sup 8}M{sub {center_dot}}(10{sup 9}M{sub {center_dot}}) (and mass ratio 0.1) for a low frequency cutoff of 10{sup -4} Hz (10{sup -5} Hz) with an SNR up to {approx}60 ({approx}30) at a distance of 3 Gpc. This is important from the astrophysical viewpoint since observational evidence for the existence of black holes in this mass range is quite strong and binaries containing such supermassive black holes will be inaccessible to LISA if one uses as detection templates only the dominant harmonic.

  12. How Physics World reaches out in a digital age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    Physics World is an award-winning international magazine that exists in print and digital formats. Exploiting the opportunities available with digital publishing and apps, our output has expanded hugely in recent years to include technology-linked focus issues, regional special reports on the likes of China, India, Mexico and Brazil, plus audio, video and interactive material too. This growth in content - and new media for presenting physics - reflects wider changes in communication. People increasingly want to access content in a manner and time of their choosing, seeking out information presented in a way that suits them and their needs. That can be challenging for physics communicators because it means tailoring your message to different audiences and the medium they are using. But it's exciting too as you can reach out to many more people into physics - and in many different ways - than was possible in the past. This talk outlines some principles of good communication, including telling a good story, bearing the reader, viewer or listener in mind, using appropriate media, keeping up with social media, and exploiting the power of video. But with new forms of communication constantly emerging, it's worth remembering there is no one ``right answer''.

  13. Dendritic mitochondria reach stable positions during circuit development

    PubMed Central

    Faits, Michelle C; Zhang, Chunmeng; Soto, Florentina; Kerschensteiner, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria move throughout neuronal dendrites and localize to sites of energy demand. The prevailing view of dendritic mitochondria as highly motile organelles whose distribution is continually adjusted by neuronal activity via Ca2+-dependent arrests is based on observations in cultured neurons exposed to artificial stimuli. Here, we analyze the movements of mitochondria in ganglion cell dendrites in the intact retina. We find that whereas during development 30% of mitochondria are motile at any time, as dendrites mature, mitochondria all but stop moving and localize stably to synapses and branch points. Neither spontaneous nor sensory-evoked activity and Ca2+ transients alter motility of dendritic mitochondria; and pathological hyperactivity in a mouse model of retinal degeneration elevates rather than reduces motility. Thus, our findings indicate that dendritic mitochondria reach stable positions during a critical developmental period of high motility, and challenge current views about the role of activity in regulating mitochondrial transport in dendrites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11583.001 PMID:26742087

  14. Reaching Out: The Bachelor of Arts Degree In Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    1996-05-01

    Physics degrees are not only for physicists. Our department believes that it would be healthy if attorneys, physicians, journalists, politicians, businesspeople, and others had undergraduate degrees in physics. Thus, we have begun offering a Bachelor of Arts degree in physics, for students who want to study physics as a background for other fields such as law (patents, environmental law), medical school, business (high-tech firms), journalism (science reporting, environmental reporting), music (accoustics, electronic music), and essentially any other profession. The program reaches outward, outside of physics, rather than pointing toward further work in physics. It begins with the algebra-based introductory course rather than the calculus-based course for future physicists and engineers. Two new courses are being created to provide these pre-professional students with broad science literacy and knowledge of physics-related technologies. The program is more flexible and less technical than the traditional Bachelor of Science program, allowing students time for outside electives and professional requirements in other fields.

  15. Reaching the quantum limit of sensitivity in electron spin resonance.

    PubMed

    Bienfait, A; Pla, J J; Kubo, Y; Stern, M; Zhou, X; Lo, C C; Weis, C D; Schenkel, T; Thewalt, M L W; Vion, D; Esteve, D; Julsgaard, B; Mølmer, K; Morton, J J L; Bertet, P

    2016-03-01

    The detection and characterization of paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is widely used throughout chemistry, biology and materials science, from in vivo imaging to distance measurements in spin-labelled proteins. ESR relies on the inductive detection of microwave signals emitted by the spins into a coupled microwave resonator during their Larmor precession. However, such signals can be very small, prohibiting the application of ESR at the nanoscale (for example, at the single-cell level or on individual nanoparticles). Here, using a Josephson parametric microwave amplifier combined with high-quality-factor superconducting microresonators cooled at millikelvin temperatures, we improve the state-of-the-art sensitivity of inductive ESR detection by nearly four orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the detection of 1,700 bismuth donor spins in silicon within a single Hahn echo with unit signal-to-noise ratio, reduced to 150 spins by averaging a single Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. This unprecedented sensitivity reaches the limit set by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field instead of thermal or technical noise, which constitutes a novel regime for magnetic resonance. The detection volume of our resonator is ∼ 0.02 nl, and our approach can be readily scaled down further to improve sensitivity, providing a new versatile toolbox for ESR at the nanoscale.

  16. Assessment of daily-life reaching performance after stroke.

    PubMed

    van Meulen, Fokke B; Reenalda, Jasper; Buurke, Jaap H; Veltink, Peter H

    2015-02-01

    For an optimal guidance of the rehabilitation therapy of stroke patients in an in-home setting, objective, and patient-specific performance assessment of arm movements is needed. In this study, metrics of hand movement relative to the pelvis and the sternum were estimated in 13 stroke subjects using a full body ambulatory movement analysis system, including 17 inertial sensors integrated in a body-worn suit. Results were compared with the level of arm impairment evaluated with the upper extremity part of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (uFMA). Metrics of arm movement performance of the affected side, including size of work area, maximum reaching distance and movement range in vertical direction, were evaluated during a simulated daily-life task. These metrics appeared to strongly correlate with uFMA scores. Using this body-worn sensor system, metrics of the performance of arm movements can easily be measured and evaluated while the subject is ambulating in a simulated daily-life setting. Suggested metrics can be used to objectively assess the performance of the arm movements over a longer period in a daily-life setting. Further development of the body-worn sensing system is needed before it can be unobtrusively used in a daily-life setting. PMID:25449150

  17. Flow model for open-channel reach or network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Formulation of a one-dimensional model for simulating unsteady flow in a single open-channel reach or in a network of interconnected channels is presented. The model is both general and flexible in that it can be used to simulate a wide range of flow conditions for various channel configurations. It is based on a four-point (box), implicit, finite-difference approximation of the governing nonlinear flow equations with user-definable weighting coefficients to permit varying the solution scheme from box-centered to fully forward. Unique transformation equations are formulated that permit correlation of the unknowns at the extremities of the channels, thereby reducing coefficient matrix and execution time requirements. Discharges and water-surface elevations computed at intermediate locations within a channel are determined following solution of the transformation equations. The matrix of transformation and boundary-condition equations is solved by Gauss elimination using maximum pivot strategy. Two diverse applications of the model are presented to illustrate its broad utility. (USGS)

  18. Reaching the quantum limit of sensitivity in electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienfait, A.; Pla, J. J.; Kubo, Y.; Stern, M.; Zhou, X.; Lo, C. C.; Weis, C. D.; Schenkel, T.; Thewalt, M. L. W.; Vion, D.; Esteve, D.; Julsgaard, B.; Mølmer, K.; Morton, J. J. L.; Bertet, P.

    2016-03-01

    The detection and characterization of paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is widely used throughout chemistry, biology and materials science, from in vivo imaging to distance measurements in spin-labelled proteins. ESR relies on the inductive detection of microwave signals emitted by the spins into a coupled microwave resonator during their Larmor precession. However, such signals can be very small, prohibiting the application of ESR at the nanoscale (for example, at the single-cell level or on individual nanoparticles). Here, using a Josephson parametric microwave amplifier combined with high-quality-factor superconducting microresonators cooled at millikelvin temperatures, we improve the state-of-the-art sensitivity of inductive ESR detection by nearly four orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the detection of 1,700 bismuth donor spins in silicon within a single Hahn echo with unit signal-to-noise ratio, reduced to 150 spins by averaging a single Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. This unprecedented sensitivity reaches the limit set by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field instead of thermal or technical noise, which constitutes a novel regime for magnetic resonance. The detection volume of our resonator is ˜0.02 nl, and our approach can be readily scaled down further to improve sensitivity, providing a new versatile toolbox for ESR at the nanoscale.

  19. Developing and Implementing an Interdisciplinary Air Pollution Workshop to Reach and Engage Rural High School Students in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubatova, Alena; Pedersen, Daphne E.

    2013-01-01

    The low interest of the U.S. students in sciences is an ongoing issue. One approach to promote the sciences is outreach activities, often targeted at grades K-12. Yet, a limiting factor in these outreach initiatives is their long-term feasibility, especially from an economic perspective. Another challenge is how to introduce scientific information…

  20. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)