Science.gov

Sample records for air particle detectors

  1. Characterization of Air Particles Giving False Responses with Biological Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    effectively reduced the size of aerosol particles with minimal breakup of pollen grains or spores. Cycloite separators were optimized for maximal reten...washing particles on CL detector response 31 10. Infrared spectroscopy results for several solvent blanks .31and extracts 11. CL Idetector response for...a drying water drop 24. Cumulative percentages of SM particles (lelivcred by the 66 aerosol particle concentrator 25. Two approaches to sampling the

  2. Field evaluation of nanofilm detectors for measuring acidic particles in indoor and outdoor air.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Beverly S; Heikkinen, Maire S A; Hazi, Yair; Gao, Hai; Peters, Paul; Lippmann, Morton

    2004-09-01

    This field evaluation study was conducted to assess new technology designed to measure number concentrations of strongly acidic ultrafine particles. Interest in these particles derives from their potential to cause adverse health effects. Current methods for counting and sizing airborne ultrafine particles cannot isolate those particles that are acidic. We hypothesized that the size-resolved number concentration of such particles to which people are exposed could be measured by newly developed iron nanofilm detectors on which sulfuric acid (H2SO4*) droplets produce distinctive ringed reaction sites visible by atomic force microscopy (AFM). We carried out field measurements using an array of samplers, with and without the iron nanofilm detectors, that allowed indirect comparison of particle number concentrations and size-resolved measures of acidity. The iron nanofilm detectors are silicon chips (5 mm x 5 mm x 0.6 mm) that are coated with iron by vapor deposition. The iron layer was 21.5 or 26 nm thick for the two batches used in these experiments. After exposure the detector surface was scanned topographically by AFM to view and enumerate the ringed acid reaction sites and deposited nonacidic particles. The number of reaction sites and particles per scan can be counted directly on the image displayed by AFM. Sizes can also be measured, but for this research we did not size particles collected in the field. The integrity of the surface of iron nanofilm detectors was monitored by laboratory analysis and by deploying blank detectors and detectors that had previously been exposed to H2SO4 calibration aerosols. The work established that the detectors could be used with confidence in temperate climates. Under extreme high humidity and high temperature, the surface film was liable to detach from the support, but remaining portions of the film still produced reliable data. Exposure to ambient gases in a filtered air canister during the field tests did not affect the film

  3. Fluorescence particle detector for real-time quantification of viable organisms in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoma, Greg; Cherrier, Pierre P.; Piccioni, Marc; Tanton, Carol; Herz, Steve; DeFreez, Richard K.; Potter, Michael; Girvin, Kenneth L.; Whitney, Ronald

    2002-02-01

    The ability to detect viable organisms in air in real time is important in a number of applications. Detecting high levels of airborne organisms in hospitals can prevent post-operative infections and the spread of diseases. Monitoring levels of airborne viable organisms in pharmaceutical facilities can ensure safe production of drugs or vaccines. Monitoring airborne bacterial levels in meat processing plants can help to prevent contamination of food products. Monitoring the level of airborne organisms in bio-containment facilities can ensure that proper procedures are being followed. Finally, detecting viable organisms in real time is a key to defending against biological agent attacks. This presentation describes the development and performance of a detector, based on fluorescence particle counting technology, where an ultraviolet laser is used to count particles by light scattering and elicit fluorescence from specific biomolecules found only in living organisms. The resulting detector can specifically detect airborne particles containing living organisms from among the large majority of other particles normally present in air. Efforts to develop the core sensor technology, focusing on integrating an UV laser with a specially designed particle-counting cell will be highlighted. The hardware/software used to capture the information from the sensor, provide an alarm in the presence of an unusual biological aerosol content will also be described. Finally, results from experiments to test the performance of the detector will be presented.

  4. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

    1993-02-02

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  5. The Next Generation Air Particle Detectors for the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes and Craig Marianno

    2007-06-24

    Design and testing of the United States Navy’s next generation air particle detector (NGAPD) is presently underway. The NGAPD is intended for use in nuclear applications for the United States Navy and is being designed to detect airborne Co-60 with a reduction in false alarms and improved ease of use. Features being developed include gamma compensation, low maintenance, commercial off-the-shelf electronics, and spectrum simulation for quality assurance and functional testing applications. By supplying a spectrum simulator, the radon stripping algorithm can be running when a simulated anthropogenic source spectrum (e.g., from Co-60 or transuranics) is superimposed on the radon progeny spectrum. This will allow alarm levels to be tested when the air flow is running and the radon stripping algorithm is providing the instrument response output. Modern units evaluate source spectra with the air flow off and the radon spectrum absent thereby not testing the true system performance which comes out of the radon stripping algorithm. Testing results of the preliminary prototype show promise along with computer simulations of source spectra. Primary testing results taken to date include gamma compensation, thermal insults, vibration and spectrum simulation.

  6. Particle impact location detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O.

    1974-01-01

    Detector includes delay lines connected to each detector surface strip. When several particles strike different strips simultaneously, pulses generated by each strip are time delayed by certain intervals. Delay time for each strip is known. By observing time delay in pulse, it is possible to locate strip that is struck by particle.

  7. Diamond detector for alpha-particle spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dueñas, J A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Martín Sánchez, A; Martel, I

    2014-08-01

    An artificially grown high purity diamond was used as a detector for alpha-particle spectrometry. Diamond detectors can match the performance of silicon detectors employed in standard continuous air monitoring systems. Its radiation hardness and electronic properties make them ideal to work under extreme condition such as high temperature and ambient lights. A 50 μm thickness single-crystal diamond detector has been compared with a 300 μm passivated implanted planar silicon detector, under ambient conditions.

  8. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  9. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  10. Fundamental principles of particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  11. The STEIN Particle Detector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-27

    associated with solar disturbances, magnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms. AF-STEIN has several distinct advantages over standard detectors flown on...low-earth- orbit (LEO) satellites. AF-STEIN provides the sensitivity, temporal resolution, energy resolution (~1 keV FWHM), dynamic range, and energy...essentially all important suprathermal (~4 to 200 keV) particle populations associated with solar disturbances, magnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms

  12. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

  13. The Sisyphus particle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soberman, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    The particle measurement subsystem planned for the MJS 77 mission is described. Scientific objectives with respect to Saturn's rings are as follows: (1) measure particles outside the visible rings, including particulates orbiting in more distant rings and particles scattered out of visible rings, (2) measure meteoroid environment in vicinity of Saturn, and (3) develop an understanding of the dynamics of the rings with respect to their collisional interaction with the environment.

  14. The atmosphere as particle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, Todor

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of using an inflatable, gas-filled balloon as a TeV gamma-ray detector on the moon is considered. By taking an atmosphere of Xenon gas there, or by extracting it on the moon, a layman's detector design is presented. In spite of its shortcomings, the exercise illustrates several of the novel features offered by particle physics on the moon.

  15. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-07-28

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

  16. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1989-01-01

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  17. On particle track detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Gruhn, T. A.; Andrus, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Aqueous sodium hydroxide is widely used to develop charged particle tracks in polycarbonate film, particularly Lexan. The chemical nature of the etching process for this system has been determined. A method employing ultra-violet absorbance was developed for monitoring the concentration of the etch products in solution. Using this method it was possible to study the formation of the etching solution saturated in etch products. It was found that the system super-saturates to a significant extent before precipitation occurs. It was also learned that the system approaches its equilibrium state rather slowly. It is felt that both these phenomena may be due to the presence of surfactant in the solution. In light of these findings, suggestions are given regarding the preparation and maintenance of the saturated etch solution. Two additional research projects, involving automated techniques for particle track analysis and particle identification using AgCl crystals, are briefly summarized.

  18. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; McAtee, James L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, whcih is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  19. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1993-02-16

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, which is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  20. Particle Detectors Subatomic Bomb Squad

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-29

    The manner in which particle physicists investigate collisions in particle accelerators is a puzzling process. Using vaguely-defined “detectors,” scientists are able to somehow reconstruct the collisions and convert that information into physics measurements. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln sheds light on this mysterious technique. In a surprising analogy, he draws a parallel between experimental particle physics and bomb squad investigators and uses an explosive example to illustrate his points. Be sure to watch this video… it’s totally the bomb.

  1. Particle Detectors Subatomic Bomb Squad

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The manner in which particle physicists investigate collisions in particle accelerators is a puzzling process. Using vaguely-defined “detectors,” scientists are able to somehow reconstruct the collisions and convert that information into physics measurements. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln sheds light on this mysterious technique. In a surprising analogy, he draws a parallel between experimental particle physics and bomb squad investigators and uses an explosive example to illustrate his points. Be sure to watch this video… it’s totally the bomb.

  2. Detector for Particle Surface Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogan, Paul A. (Inventor); Schwindt, Christian J. (Inventor); Mattson, Carl B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for detecting and quantizing particle fallout contamination particles which are collected on a transparent disk or other surface employs an optical detector, such as a CCD camera, to obtain images of the disk and a computer for analyzing the images. From the images, the computer detects, counts and sizes particles collected on the disk The computer also determines, through comparison to previously analyzed images, the particle fallout rate, and generates an alarm or other indication if the rate exceeds a maximum allowable value. The detector and disk are disposed in a housing having an aperture formed therein for defining the area on the surface of the disk which is exposed to the particle fallout. A light source is provided for evenly illuminating the disk. A first drive motor slowly rotates the disk to increase the amount of its surface area which is exposed through the aperture to the particle fallout. A second motor is also provided for incrementally scanning the disk in a radial direction back and forth over the camera so that the camera eventually obtains images of the entire surface of the disk which is exposed to the particle fallout.

  3. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, David K.; Haverty, Thomas W.; Nordin, Carl W.; Tyree, William H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  4. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  5. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    SciTech Connect

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1995-12-31

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  6. Resource Letter PD-1 on Particle Detectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trower, W. Peter

    1970-01-01

    Intended to guide college physicists to literature on nuclear and sub-nuclear particle detectors. The paper contains a discussion of (1) interactions of particles with matter and (2) individual particle detectors, each section being followed by an annotated bibliography of selected reference materials. Rankings are given to the articles on the…

  7. Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1992-12-31

    Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups: Classical semiconductor diode detectors and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported.

  8. The Galileo Energetic Particles Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. J.; Mcentire, R. W.; Jaskulek, S.; Wilken, B.

    1992-01-01

    Amongst its complement of particles and fields instruments, the Galileo spacecraft carries an Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) designed to measure the characteristics of particle populations important in determining the size, shape, and dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere. To do this the EPD provides 4pi angular coverage and spectral measurements for Z greater than or equal to 1 ions from 20 keV to 55 MeV, for electrons from 15 keV to greater than 11 MeV, and for the elemental species helium through iron from approximately 10 keV/nucl to 15 MeV/nucl. Two bidirectional telescopes, mounted on a stepping platform, employ magnetic deflection, energy loss versus energy, and time-of-flight techniques to provide 64 rate channels and pulse height analysis of priority selected events. The EPD data system provides a large number of possible operational modes from which a small number will be selected to optimize data collection during the many encounter and cruise phases of the mission. The EPD employs a number of safeing algorithms that are to be used in the event that its self-checking procedures indicate a problem. The instrument and its operation are described.

  9. The Physical Principles of Particle Detectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Goronwy Tudor

    1991-01-01

    Describes the use of a particle detector, an instrument that records the passage of particles through it, to determine the mass of a particle by measuring the particles momentum, speed, and kinetic energy. An appendix discusses the limits on the impact parameter. (MDH)

  10. Radiation and particle detector and amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, K. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A radiation or charged particle detector is described which incorporates a channel multiplier structure to amplify the detected rays or particles. The channel multiplier structure has a support multiplying element with a longitudinal slot along one side. The element supports a pair of plates positioned contiguous with the slot. The plates funnel the particles or rays to be detected into the slotted aperture and the element, thus creating an effectively wide aperture detector of the windowless type.

  11. Quenching gas for detectors of charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.

    1974-01-22

    Operation of detectors of charged particles such as wire counters and Geiger-Muller tubes is improved by filling the counters with a quenching-gas mixture of argon, isobutane and methylchloroform. (Official Gazette)

  12. Cadmium zinc telluride charged particle nuclear detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Toney, J.E. |; James, R.B.; Antolak, A.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the improvements in understanding of transport phenomena in cadmium zinc telluride radiation sensors achieved through studies of alpha particle response and spatially resolved photoconductivity mapping. Alpha particle response waveforms and photocurrent profiles both indicate non-uniformities in the electric field which may have detrimental effects on detector performance. Identifying and eliminating the sources of these nonuniformities will ultimately lead to improved detector performance.

  13. Metamaterials for Cherenkov Radiation Based Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tyukhtin, A. V.; Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Antipov, S.

    2009-01-22

    Measurement of Cherenkov radiation (CR) has long been a useful technique for charged particle detection and beam diagnostics. We are investigating metamaterials engineered to have refractive indices tailored to enhance properties of CR that are useful for particle detectors and that cannot be obtained using conventional media. Cherenkov radiation in dispersive media with a large refractive index differs significantly from the same effect in conventional detector media, like gases or aerogel. The radiation pattern of CR in dispersive metamaterials presents lobes at very large angles with respect to particle motion. Moreover, the frequency and particle velocity dependence of the radiated energy can differ significantly from CR in a conventional dielectric medium.

  14. Smoke and particle detector using tritiated semiconductor foil

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.; Alvarez-Ossa, D.; Kherani, N. P.; Zukotynski, S.; Chen, K. P.

    2008-07-15

    A smoke and particle ionization detector using tritiated amorphous silicon film as the radiation source is demonstrated. The ion chamber design includes both bipolar and unipolar region; the unipolar region is defined as the volume space extending beyond the range of ionizing particles. Attachment of ions to particulate matter in the unipolar region considerably reduces the mobility of the carriers, thus forming a space charge cloud accompanied by a reduction in the electrical field strength, thereby enhancing the particulate detection responsivity. Tritium {beta}s have a maximum range of about 6 mm in air, which makes the detector compact. Owing to the potential of increased specific activity, it results in a gamma-free detector with improved sensitivity. The results show that this gamma-free detector is several-fold to forty-fold more responsive than traditional ionization detectors using Am-241. In addition, this ion chamber can function as a dual detector having both photoelectric and ionization detector responsivities. (authors)

  15. The particles in town air

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, J. McK.

    1965-01-01

    Particles constitute an important part of air pollution, and their behaviour when suspended in air is very different from that of gas molecules: in particular, the mechanisms by which they become deposited on surfaces are different, and consequently the methods normally used for removing particles from the air, either for sampling or for cleaning it, rely mainly on mechanisms that do not enter into the behaviour of gas molecules. These mechanisms are described, and the ways in which they affect the problems of air pollution and its measurement are discussed. ImagesFIG. 8 PMID:14315713

  16. The Particle-Gamma Detector GODDESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratkiewicz, A.; Cizewski, J. A.; Baugher, T.; Burcher, S.; Hardy, S.; Lonsdale, S.; Shand, C.; Pain, S. D.; Marsh, I.; Jones, K. L.; Peters, W. A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Kozub, R. L.; Afanasieva, L.; Blackmon, J. C.

    2014-09-01

    Transfer reactions in inverse kinematics provide a powerful probe of the single-particle structure of nuclei far from stability. The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder (CARIBU) at ATLAS produces exotic nuclei near possible r-process paths and makes them available for study. Gammasphere ORRUBA: Dual Detectors for Experimental Structure Studies (GODDESS) employs the large internal geometry of the high-resolution γ-ray detector Gammasphere to instrument the large-area position-sensitive particle detector ORRUBA. This coupling of Gammasphere and ORRUBA allows high-efficiency, high-resolution measurements of surrogate reactions for neutron capture, collective excitations via inelastic scattering, pickup reactions (such as (d,t)), and stripping reactions (e.g. (d,p)). Results from commissioning measurements and plans for future experiments will be presented. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

  17. Surface Particle Detectors in Space Weather forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Ashot

    Recently several groups report on the development of the alarm system based on the surface particle detector data. Among them are high-latitude neutron monitors network "Spaceship Earth", coordinated by the group from Bartol Research Center; Muon network coordinated by the group from Shinshu University and Athens Neutron Monitor Data Processing Center. In the presented report, based on the information content of data from particle detectors of Aragats Space Environmental Center (ASEC) we made attempt to review possibility of surface particle detectors in Space Weather forecasts. Particle monitors located at ASEC at 1000, 2000 and 3200 m altitudes (40˚25 N, 44˚15 E; Vertical cut-off rigidity in 2007: 7.1 GV) detect charged and neutral components of the secondary cosmic rays with different energy thresholds and various angles of incidence. ASEC monitors reliably detect the highest energy CR due to unique geographical location and large underground high energy muon detector. Forecasting of the Solar Energetic Proton (SEP) events by surface particle detectors is based on the detection of the Ground Level Enhancements (GLE). Unfortunately not all SEPs contain particles energetic enough to produce GLE, therefore, the efficiency of the warnings will not be very high. Nonetheless, we can expect that the major events, (like 1859, 1956, 1972, 1989) with high probability will generate GLEs and surface detectors can provide forewarnings on upcoming abundant SEP particles. With the exception of the event on 20 January, when due to very good magnetic connection of the flare site with earth, all relativistic particles seem to come simultaneously, the enhancements of GeV solar particles detected by surface particle detectors can alert on upcoming severe radiation storm. The alerts from middle and low latitude monitors are even more important compared to high latitude networks, because of lower probability of false alarms. If an enhancement occurs at monitors with large cutoff

  18. Study of air pollutant detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

    1974-01-01

    The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

  19. Innovative particle detector for future heliophysics missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthomier, Matthieu; Techer, Jean-Denis; Morel, Xavier

    Innovative particle detectors are needed for future heliophysics missions in order to access to high-time resolution phenomena within limited resources. One of the main challenges is to accurately monitor solar wind plasmas from non-spinning platforms. Such an innovative particle detector which is based on a new optical concept allows the coverage of 4pi str solid angle with only two sensor heads. It fits the need of all-sky thermal plasma measurements on three axis stabilized spacecraft which are the most commonly used platforms for heliophysics missions with imaging capabilities. This 3D field-of-view plasma analyzer also takes advantage of the new possibilities offered by the development of an ultra low-power multichannel charge sensitive amplifier used for the imaging detector of the instrument. We present the design and measured performances of a prototype model that will fly on a test rocket in 2014. One of the possible applications of this innovative particle detector is the investigation of electron time scale phenomena in the turbulent solar wind of the inner heliosphere with unprecedented time resolution below 10 msec.

  20. Selective flow path alpha particle detector and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring alpha contamination are provided in which ions generated in the air surrounding the item, by the passage of alpha particles, are moved to a distant detector location. The parts of the item from which ions are withdrawn can be controlled by restricting the air flow over different portions of the apparatus. In this way, detection of internal and external surfaces separately, for instance, can be provided. The apparatus and method are particularly suited for use in undertaking alpha contamination measurements during the commissioning operations.

  1. Particle Detectors: Research and Development at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Fabjan, C. W.

    2008-04-21

    Over the past 15 years a worldwide Detector R and D Programme has made the LHC experiments possible. These experiments operate at a new level of event rate and detection capabilities. Based on these advances, Detector R and D is continuing at CERN in close collaboration with University and Research Institutes. Several main directions are being pursued for solid-state and gaseous tracking devices, advanced crystal and noble liquid calorimetry, particle identification methods, and advanced signal-processing techniques. This effort is directed towards experiments at even higher collision rates at the LHC, the requirements for the next generation of linear electron-positron colliders and for applications outside particle physics, such as medical diagnostics instrumentation. We shall illustrate this challenging, stimulating and creative programme with examples and show how these developments are taking place in close collaboration between CERN and institutions around the globe.

  2. Proposal for a Universal Particle Detector Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesho, J. C.; Cain, R. P; Uy, O. M.

    1993-01-01

    The Universal Particle Detector Experiment (UPDE), which consists of parallel planes of two diode laser beams of different wavelengths and a large surface metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) impact detector, is proposed. It will be used to perform real-time monitoring of contamination particles and meteoroids impacting the spacecraft surface with high resolution of time, position, direction, and velocity. The UPDE will discriminate between contaminants and meteoroids, and will determine their velocity and size distribution around the spacecraft environment. With two different color diode lasers, the contaminant and meteroid composition will also be determined based on laboratory calibration with different materials. Secondary particles dislodged from the top aluminum surface of the MOS detector will also be measured to determine the kinetic energy losses during energetic meteoroid impacts. The velocity range of this instrument is 0.1 m/s to more than 14 km/s, while its size sensitivity is from 0.2 microns to millimeter-sized particles. The particulate measurements in space of the kind proposed will be the first simultaneous multipurpose particulate experiment that includes velocities from very slow to hypervelocities, sizes from submicrometer- to pellet-sized diameters, chemical analysis of the particulate composition, and measurements of the kinetic energy losses after energetic impacts of meteroids. The experiment will provide contamination particles and orbital debris data that are critically needed for our present understanding of the space environment. The data will also be used to validate contamination and orbital debris models for predicting optimal configuration of future space sensors and for understanding their effects on sensitive surfaces such as mirrors, lenses, paints, and thermal blankets.

  3. Recovering from "amnesia" brought about by radiation. Verification of the "Over the air" (OTA) application software update mechanism On-Board Solar Orbiter's Energetic Particle Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Antonio; Sánchez Prieto, Sebastián; Rodriguez Polo, Oscar; Parra Espada, Pablo

    Computer memories are not supposed to forget, but they do. Because of the proximity of the Sun, from the Solar Orbiter boot software perspective, it is mandatory to look out for permanent memory errors resulting from (SEL) latch-up failures in application binaries stored in EEPROM and its SDRAM deployment areas. In this situation, the last line in defense established by FDIR mechanisms is the capability of the boot software to provide an accurate report of the memories’ damages and to perform an application software update, that avoid the harmed locations by flashing EEPROM with a new binary. This paper describes the OTA EEPROM firmware update procedure verification of the boot software that will run in the Instrument Control Unit (ICU) of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) on-board Solar Orbiter. Since the maximum number of rewrites on real EEPROM is limited and permanent memory faults cannot be friendly emulated in real hardware, the verification has been accomplished by the use of a LEON2 Virtual Platform (Leon2ViP) with fault injection capabilities and real SpaceWire interfaces developed by the Space Research Group (SRG) of the University of Alcalá. This way it is possible to run the exact same target binary software as if was run on the real ICU platform. Furthermore, the use of this virtual hardware-in-the-loop (VHIL) approach makes it possible to communicate with Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) through real SpaceWire interfaces in an agile, controlled and deterministic environment.

  4. Charged particle detectors with active detector surface for partial energy deposition of the charged particles and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R

    2013-02-19

    A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.

  5. Air shower detectors in gamma-ray astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Sinnis, Gus

    2008-01-01

    Extensive air shower (EAS) arrays directly detect the particles in an EAS that reach the observation altitude. This detection technique effectively makes air shower arrays synoptic telescopes -- they are capable of simultaneously and continuously viewing the entire overhead sky. Typical air shower detectors have an effective field-of-view of 2 sr and operate nearly 100% of the time. These two characteristics make them ideal instruments for studying the highest energy gamma rays, extended sources and transient phenomena. Until recently air shower arrays have had insufficient sensitivity to detect gamma-ray sources. Over the past decade, the situation has changed markedly. Milagro, in the US, and the Tibet AS{gamma} array in Tibet, have detected very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula and the active galaxy Markarian 421 (both previously known sources). Milagro has discovered TeV diffuse emission from the Milky Way, three unidentified sources of TeV gamma rays, and several candidate sources of TeV gamma rays. Given these successes and the suite of existing and planned instruments in the GeV and TeV regime (AGILE, GLAST, HESS, VERITAS, CTA, AGIS and IceCube) there are strong reasons for pursuing a next generation of EAS detectors. In conjunction with these other instruments the next generation of EAS instruments could answer long-standing problems in astrophysics.

  6. Study on the performance of electromagnetic particle detectors of LHAASO-KM2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongquan; Hou, Chao; Cao, Zhen; Chang, Jingfan; Feng, Cunfeng; Hanapia, Erlan; Gong, Guanghua; Liu, Jia; Lv, Hongkui; Sheng, Xiangdong; Zhang, Shaoru; Zhu, Chengguang

    2017-02-01

    The electromagnetic particle detectors (EDs) for one square kilometer detector array (KM2A) of large high altitude air shower observation (LHAASO) are designed to measure the densities and arrival times of secondary particles in extensive air showers (EASs). ED is a type of plastic scintillator detector with an active area of 1 m2. This study investigates the design and performance of prototype ED. Approximately 20 photoelectrons are collected by the 1st dynode of a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The prototype ED exhibited good detection efficiency and time resolution. The detection for the wide dynamic particle density varying from 1 to 10 000 particles/m2 is realized with the design of the PMT divider for the readout of both the anode and 6th dynode.

  7. Neutron detector using lithiated glass-scintillating particle composite

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Steven; Stephan, Andrew C.; Dai, Sheng; Im, Hee-Jung

    2009-09-01

    A neutron detector composed of a matrix of scintillating particles imbedded in a lithiated glass is disclosed. The neutron detector detects the neutrons by absorbing the neutron in the lithium-6 isotope which has been enriched from the natural isotopic ratio to a commercial ninety five percent. The utility of the detector is optimized by suitably selecting scintillating particle sizes in the range of the alpha and the triton. Nominal particle sizes are in the range of five to twenty five microns depending upon the specific scintillating particle selected.

  8. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, fun...

  9. Particle Detectors and Data Analysis for Cusp Transient Features Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Grant NAG5-5084 was awarded to support the participation of South West Research Institute (SwRI) in building the energy per unit charge particle detectors for the Cusp Transient Features Campaign and analysis of flight data from these instruments. The detectors are part of an instrumented payload (Rocket 36.152, Dr. R. Pfaff, P.I.) launched from Svalbard on December 3, 1997, into the dark cusp. The particle instruments, a Cusp Electron Detector (CED) and a Cusp Ion Detector (CID), built on this project, provided differential energy and angular measurements along the rocket trajectory throughout the flight.

  10. Determination of time zero from a charged particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Green, Jesse Andrew [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-15

    A method, system and computer program is used to determine a linear track having a good fit to a most likely or expected path of charged particle passing through a charged particle detector having a plurality of drift cells. Hit signals from the charged particle detector are associated with a particular charged particle track. An initial estimate of time zero is made from these hit signals and linear tracks are then fit to drift radii for each particular time-zero estimate. The linear track having the best fit is then searched and selected and errors in fit and tracking parameters computed. The use of large and expensive fast detectors needed to time zero in the charged particle detectors can be avoided by adopting this method and system.

  11. State-of-the-Art Particle Physics Detector

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 institutes from 16 countries and organized under United States...

  12. Particle-impact noise detector (PIND)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, R. J.; Jackson, D. E.; Leaf, W. D.; Meza, R. G.; Rader, G. E.

    1978-01-01

    Package, in page assembly, is subjected to low-frequency vibration, and noise generated by particle impacts is picked up by transducer. Test procedure calls for three transverse shocks to be applied to page to dislodge any trapped particles.

  13. Thermalization of particle detectors: The Unruh effect and its reverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, Luis J.; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; de Ramón, José

    2016-11-01

    We study the anti-Unruh effect in general stationary scenarios. We find that, for accelerated trajectories, a particle detector coupled to a Kubo-Martin-Schwinger (KMS) state of a quantum field can cool down (click less often) as the KMS temperature increases. Remarkably, this is so even when the detector is switched on adiabatically for infinitely long times. We also show that the anti-Unruh effect is characteristic of accelerated detectors and cannot appear for inertially moving detectors (e.g., in a thermal bath).

  14. Polyvinylidene fluoride dust detector response to particle impacts.

    PubMed

    James, D; Hoxie, V; Horanyi, M

    2010-03-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dust detectors have flown on many space missions since their first use on the Vega 1 and 2 spacecraft. The fundamental operating principle of these detectors is the production of a charge upon impact by a hypervelocity dust particle. This measured signal, N, depends on the speed, v, and mass, m, of the particle. The relationship between N, v, and m was first empirically derived by Simpson and Tuzzolino. All of the PVDF dust instruments prior to the Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons mission use their formula for the calibration of the detectors. This paper provides additional dust impact calibration data, proposes a modification in the exponents for m and v, and investigates the relationship between detector temperature and detector signal.

  15. Particle Type Identification with the Kek and IMB3 Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breault, John Louis, IV

    1997-12-01

    One of the outstanding problems in particle physics today is the discrepancy between the predicted and observed ratios of non-showering particles to all particles that are observed in earth-based detectors. These particles are produced by electron and muon neutrino interactions. The IMB3 detector (1) recorded the ratio of non-showering particles to total particles (the 'non-showering fraction') as being 0.36 ± 0.02(stat) ± 0.02(syst) (see Ref. (3)). The IMB group's Monte Carlo simulation gives the expected ratio of 0.51 ± 0.01(stat) ± 0.05(syst). The analysis contained in this dissertation results in a value of 0.281 ± 0.022(stat) ± 0.050(syst).

  16. HgI sub 2 low energy beta particle detector

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, K.S.; Squillante, M.R.; Entine, G. )

    1990-04-01

    This paper reports on a HgI{sub 2} device structure designed and tested which allows HgI{sub 2} to be used to make low energy beta particle detectors. The devices detected tritium beta particles with about a 25% efficiency. In addition, an encapsulation scheme was identified which has the potential to protect the devices while permitting most of the beta particles to reach the active region.

  17. Development of Interconnect Technologies for Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Mani

    2015-01-29

    This final report covers the three years of this grant, for the funding period 9/1/2010 - 8/31/2013. The project consisted of generic detector R&D work at UC Davis, with an emphasis on developing interconnect technologies for applications in HEP. Much of the work is done at our Facility for Interconnect Technologies (FIT) at UC Davis. FIT was established using ARRA funds, with further studies supported by this grant. Besides generic R&D work at UC Davis, FIT is engaged in providing bump bonding help to several DOE supported detector R&D efforts. Some of the developmental work was also supported by funding from other sources: continuing CMS project funds and the Linear Collider R&D funds. The latter program is now terminated. The three year program saw a good deal of progress on several fronts, which are reported here.

  18. Sampling Interplanetary Dust Particles from Antarctic Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S.; Lever, J. H.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Brownlee, D. E.; Messenger, S.; Littler, L. R.; Stroud, R. M.; Wozniakiewicz, P.; Clement, S.

    2016-08-01

    We are undertaking a NASA and NSF supported project to filter large volumes of clean Antarctic air to collect a broad range of cosmic dust, including CP-IDPs, rare ultra-carbonaceous particles and particles derived from specific meteor streams.

  19. Modular multi-element high energy particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Coon, Darryl D.; Elliott, John P.

    1990-01-02

    Multi-element high energy particle detector modules comprise a planar heavy metal carrier of tungsten alloy with planar detector units uniformly distributed over one planar surface. The detector units are secured to the heavy metal carrier by electrically conductive adhesive so that the carrier serves as a common ground. The other surface of each planar detector unit is electrically connected to a feedthrough electrical terminal extending through the carrier for front or rear readout. The feedthrough electrical terminals comprise sockets at one face of the carrier and mating pins porjecting from the other face, so that any number of modules may be plugged together to create a stack of modules of any desired number of radiation lengths. The detector units each comprise four, preferably rectangular, p-i-n diode chips arranged around the associated feedthrough terminal to form a square detector unit providing at least 90% detector element coverage of the carrier. Integral spacers projecting from the carriers extend at least partially along the boundaries between detector units to space the p-i-n diode chips from adjacent carriers in a stack. The spacers along the perimeters of the modules are one-half the width of the interior spacers so that when stacks of modules are arranged side by side to form a large array of any size or shape, distribution of the detector units is uniform over the entire array.

  20. Modular multi-element high energy particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Coon, D.D.; Elliott, J.P.

    1990-01-02

    Multi-element high energy particle detector modules comprise a planar heavy metal carrier of tungsten alloy with planar detector units uniformly distributed over one planar surface. The detector units are secured to the heavy metal carrier by electrically conductive adhesive so that the carrier serves as a common ground. The other surface of each planar detector unit is electrically connected to a feedthrough electrical terminal extending through the carrier for front or rear readout. The feedthrough electrical terminals comprise sockets at one face of the carrier and mating pins projecting from the other face, so that any number of modules may be plugged together to create a stack of modules of any desired number of radiation lengths. The detector units each comprise four, preferably rectangular, p-i-n diode chips arranged around the associated feedthrough terminal to form a square detector unit providing at least 90% detector element coverage of the carrier. Integral spacers projecting from the carriers extend at least partially along the boundaries between detector units to space the p-i-n diode chips from adjacent carriers in a stack. The spacers along the perimeters of the modules are one-half the width of the interior spacers so that when stacks of modules are arranged side by side to form a large array of any size or shape, distribution of the detector units is uniform over the entire array. 5 figs.

  1. Particle Identification in the NIMROD-ISiS Detector Array

    SciTech Connect

    Wuenschel, S.; Hagel, K.; May, L. W.; Wada, R.; Yennello, S. J.

    2009-03-10

    Interest in the influence of the neutron-to-proton (N/Z) ratio on multifragmenting nuclei has demanded an improvement in the capabilities of multi-detector arrays as well as the companion analysis methods. The particle identification method used in the NIMROD-ISiS 4{pi} array is described. Performance of the detectors and the analysis method are presented for the reaction of {sup 86}Kr+{sup 64}Ni at 35 MeV/u.

  2. Development of compact particle detectors for space based instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barner, Lindsey; Grove, Andrew; Mohler, Jacob; Sisson, Caleb; Roth, Alex; Kryemadhi, Abaz

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are new photon-detectors which have been increasingly used in particle physics. Their small size, good single photon resolution, simple readout, and immunity to magnetic fields offers benefits compared to traditional photomultipliers. LYSO and CeBr3 crystals are relatively new scintillators with high stopping power, very good light yield and fast decay time. The response of these detectors to low energy gamma rays will be presented. NASA Pennsylvania Space Grant Consortium.

  3. Scintillator-fiber charged-particle track-imaging detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Klarmann, J.

    1983-01-01

    A scintillator-fiber charged-particle track-imaging detector has been developed using a bundle of square cross-section plastic scintillator fiber optics, proximity focused onto an image intensified Charge Injection Device (CID) camera. Detector to beams of 15 MeV protons and relativistic Neon, Manganese, and Gold nuclei have been exposed and images of their tracks are obtained. This paper presents details of the detector technique, properties of the tracks obtained, and range measurements of 15 MeV protons stopping in the fiber bundle.

  4. Registration of alpha particles in Makrofol-E nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammah, Y. S.; Abdalla, Ayman M.; Ashraf, O.; Ashry, A. H.

    2016-06-01

    Fast detection of alpha particles in the range from 1 to 5 MeV in Makrofol-E polycarbonate nuclear track detectors (PCTDs) using a new chemical etchant was investigated. 252Cf and 241Am-thin open sources were used for irradiating Makrofol-E detectors with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal pressure and temperature (NPT). A chain of experimental work has been carried out using new etchants to register alpha particle in short time in Makrofol-E polycarbonate detectors. The etching efficiency were exhibited a clear dependence on the amount of methanol in the etching solution and etching time. The optimized chemical condition obtained at this stage of development for 200 μm Makrofol-E detectors are (8 ml of 10 N NaOH + 2 ml CH3OH) etching solutions at 60 °C for 3 h. In this study; it is possible to observe energy detection windows for Makrofol-E detectors according to applied etching duration. Makrofol-E introduced the characteristic Bragg peak, which indicates the advantages of this detector as alpha spectrometer. Consequently, the suggested new etchant can be developed for heavy ions detection and monitoring radon levels and its daughters.

  5. First Results from the ISS-RAD Charged Particle Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semones, Edward; Zeitland, Cary

    2016-01-01

    The Charged Particle Detector (CPD) subsystem of the ISS-RAD detector has been making measurements of high-energy charged and neutral particles since the unit was deployed on Feb. 1, 2016. The CPD is nearly identical to the MSL-RAD instrument, but onboard data processing has been significantly modified to meet ISS requirements. We will present dose rates and LET spectra obtained over the first six months of operations, as well as preliminary results obtained from the limited sample of pulse-height analyzed raw data that has been telemetered to Earth.

  6. Particle identification for the P¯ANDA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, C.; Ahmed, G.; Britting, A.; Bühler, P.; Cowie, E.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Düren, M.; Dutta, D.; Eyrich, W.; Föhl, K.; Glazier, D. I.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Hoek, M.; Hohler, R.; Lehmann, A.; Lehmann, D.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Koch, P.; Kröck, B.; Marton, J.; Merle, O.; Montgomery, R.; Peters, K.; Reinicke, S.; Rosner, G.; Roy, B.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Seitz, B.; Sfienti, C.; Suzuki, K.; Uhlig, F.; Vodopianov, A. S.; Watts, D. P.; Yu, W.

    2011-05-01

    Cooled antiproton beams of unprecedented intensities in the momentum range of 1.5-15 GeV/ c will be used for the P¯ANDA experiment at FAIR to perform high precision experiments in the charmed quark sector. The proposed P¯ANDA detector is a 4π internal target spectrometer at the HESR allowing the detection and identification of neutral and charged particles generated within the total energy range of the antiproton annihilation products. The detector is divided in a forward spectrometer and a target spectrometer. The charged particle identification in the latter is performed by ring imaging Cherenkov counters employing the DIRC principle.

  7. Microfabricated high-throughput electronic particle detector.

    PubMed

    Wood, D K; Requa, M V; Cleland, A N

    2007-10-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and use of a radio frequency reflectometer integrated with a microfluidic system, applied to the very high-throughput measurement of micron-scale particles, passing in a microfluidic channel through the sensor region. The device operates as a microfabricated Coulter counter [U.S. Patent No. 2656508 (1953)], similar to a design we have described previously, but here with significantly improved electrode geometry as well as including electronic tuning of the reflectometer; the two improvements yielding an improvement by more than a factor of 10 in the signal to noise and in the diametric discrimination of single particles. We demonstrate the high-throughput discrimination of polystyrene beads with diameters in the 4-10 microm range, achieving diametric resolutions comparable to the intrinsic spread of diameters in the bead distribution, at rates in excess of 15 x 10(6) beads/h.

  8. Scintillator-fiber charged particle track-imaging detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Klarmann, J.

    1983-01-01

    A scintillator-fiber charged-particle track-imaging detector was developed using a bundle of square cross section plastic scintillator fiber optics, proximity focused onto an image intensified charge injection device (CID) camera. The tracks of charged particle penetrating into the scintillator fiber bundle are projected onto the CID camera and the imaging information is read out in video format. The detector was exposed to beams of 15 MeV protons and relativistic Neon, Manganese, and Gold nuclei and images of their tracks were obtained. Details of the detector technique, properties of the tracks obtained, and preliminary range measurements of 15 MeV protons stopping in the fiber bundle are presented.

  9. A 3D diamond detector for particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bergonzo, P.; Caylar, B.; Forcolin, G.; Haughton, I.; Hits, D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Li, L.; Oh, A.; Phan, S.; Pomorski, M.; Smith, D. S.; Tyzhnevyi, V.; Wallny, R.; Whitehead, D.

    2015-06-01

    A novel device using single-crystal chemical vapour deposited diamond and resistive electrodes in the bulk forming a 3D diamond detector is presented. The electrodes of the device were fabricated with laser assisted phase change of diamond into a combination of diamond-like carbon, amorphous carbon and graphite. The connections to the electrodes of the device were made using a photo-lithographic process. The electrical and particle detection properties of the device were investigated. A prototype detector system consisting of the 3D device connected to a multi-channel readout was successfully tested with 120 GeV protons proving the feasibility of the 3D diamond detector concept for particle tracking applications for the first time.

  10. 3-D Spreadsheet Simulation of a Modern Particle Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    A spreadsheet simulation of a modern particle detector has been developed and can be readily used as an instructional tool in the physics classroom. The spreadsheet creates a three-dimensional model that can be rotated and helical trajectories can be highlighted. An associated student worksheet is also presented.

  11. Nobel physics prize to Charpak for inventing particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzschild, B.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the work of Georges Charpak of France leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Physics. The Nobel Prize was awarded to Charpak [open quotes]for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.[close quotes] Historical aspects of Charpak's life and research are given.

  12. Superconducting Kinetic Inductance Detectors for astronomy and particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, M.; Goupy, J.; D`Addabbo, A.; Benoit, A.; Bourrion, O.; Catalano, A.; Monfardini, A.

    2016-07-01

    Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) represent a novel detector technology based on superconducting resonators. Since their first demonstration in 2003, they have been rapidly developed and are today a strong candidate for present and future experiments in the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. This has been possible thanks to the unique features of such devices: in particular, they couple a very high sensitivity to their intrinsic suitability for frequency domain multiplexed readout, making the fabrication of large arrays of ultrasensitive detectors possible. There are many fields of application that can profit of such detectors. Here, we will briefly review the principle of operation of a KID, and give two sample applications, to mm-wave astronomy and to particle physics.

  13. DURIP: Fast Oscilloscope and Detectors for Air Laser Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.       DURIP: Fast Oscilloscope and Detectors for Air Laser Research Office of...1. Type of equipment The equipment purchased under this DURIP provides the capability to detect in real time events on very fast time scales, as...low as 10 picoseconds. Fast real-time oscilloscopes and fast detectors were needed for this purpose. 2. Manufacturer of equipment and model number

  14. Angular resolution of the Ohya air shower detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsui, K.; Aoki, T.; Okada, A.; Ohashi, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Shibata, S.; Nakamura, I.; Kojima, H.; Kitamura, T.; Minorikawa, Y.; Kato, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Higashi, S.; Kobayakawa, K.; Kamiya, Y.

    1990-05-01

    Accurate measurements of the total number of muons in an air shower are important for the discrimination of showers produced by astronomical gamma rays from those produced by protons. In order to perform this discrimination, muon detectors with a total area of about 400 m2 have been constructed in the Ohya stone mine. At ground level, scintillation detectors have been distributed for determining the total number of electrons in the air shower. The arrival direction of the air shower determined by usual timing information was examined using independent data on the arrival direction determined by muons in the shower. The angular resolution thus obtained at the shower maximum is 1.7° in the south-north plane and 2° in the east-west plane. The difference of the resolution is due to the asymmetric arrangement of scintillation detectors.

  15. Tunnel effect measuring systems and particle detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for measuring gravitational and inertial forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on an object or fluid in space provide an electric tunneling current through a gap between an electrode and that object or fluid in space and vary that gap with any selected one of such forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on that object or fluid. These methods and apparatus sense a corresponding variation in an electric property of that gap and determine the latter force, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy in response to that corresponding variation, and thereby sense or measure such parameters as acceleration, position, particle mass, velocity, magnetic field strength, presence or direction, or wave or radiant energy intensity, presence or direction.

  16. Tunnel effect measuring systems and particle detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for measuring gravitational and inertial forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on an object or fluid in space provide an electric tunneling current through a gap between an electrode and that object or fluid in space and vary that gap with any selected one of such forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on that object or fluid. These methods and apparatus sense a corresponding variation in an electric property of that gap and determine the latter force, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy in response to that corresponding variation, and thereby sense or measure such parameters as acceleration, position, particle mass, velocity, magnetic field strength, presence or direction, or wave or radiant energy intensity, presence or direction.

  17. Fast detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammah, Y. S.; Ashraf, O.; Abdalla, A. M.; Eisa, M.; Ashry, A. H.; Tsuruta, T.

    2015-02-01

    Fast detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detectors using a new chemical etchant was investigated. 252Cf and 241Am sources were used for irradiating samples of DAM-ADC SSNTDs with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal temperature and pressure. A series of experimental chemical etching are carried out using new etching solution (8 ml of 10 N NaOH+ 1 ml CH3OH) at 60 °C to detect alpha particle in short time in DAM-ADC detectors. Suitable analyzing software has been used to analyze experimental data. From fission and alpha track diameters, the value of bulk etching rate is equal to 8.52 μm/h. Both of the sensitivity and etching efficiency were found to vary with the amount of methanol in the etching solution and etching time. The DAM-ADC detectors represent the best efficiency applicable in detectors in the entire range of alpha energies (from 1 to 5 MeV). The activation energies of this etchant have been calculated; track activation energy, ET, has been found to be lower than the bulk activation energy, EB, for the DAM-ADC nuclear track detectors. These results are in more agreement with the previous work.

  18. Results from the Puebla extensive air shower detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, H.; Martinez, O.; Moreno, E.; Cotzomi, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Saavedrac, O.

    2003-07-01

    We describe the design and operation of the first stage of the EAS-UAP extensive air shower array, as a detector of very high energy cosmic rays ( Eo > 10 14eV). The array is located at the Campus of Puebla University and consists of 18 liquid scintillator detectors, with an active surface of 1 m2 each and a detector spacing of 20 m in a square grid. In this report we discuss the stability and the calibration of the detector array, as derived from the 10 detectors in operation in the first stage. The main characteristics of the array allow us also to use it as an educational and training facility. First distributions of the arrival direction and the lateral shower srpead are also given.

  19. HgI2 low energy beta particle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, K. S.; Squillante, M. R.; Entine, G.

    1990-01-01

    An HgI2 device structure was designed and tested which allows HgI2 to be used to make low-energy beta-particle detectors. The devices detected tritium beta particles with an efficiency of about 25 percent. A protective encapsulant has been developed which should protect the devices for up to 20 years and will attenuate only a small fraction of the beta particles. It is noted that the devices hold significant promise to provide a practical alternative to liquid scintillation counters and gas flow-through proportional counters.

  20. Using CHIMERA detector at LNS for gamma-particle coincidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardella, G.; Acosta, L.; Auditore, L.; Chatterjiee, M. B.; Castoldi, A.; De Filippo, E.; Dell'Aquila, D.; De Luca, S.; Gnoffo, B.; Guazzoni, C.; Francalanza, L.; Lanzalone, G.; Lombardo, I.; Martorana, N.; Norella, S.; Pagano, A.; Pagano, E. V.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Quattrocchi, L.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Verde, G.; Vigilante, M.

    2016-05-01

    We have recently evaluated the quality of γ-ray angular distributions that can be extracted in particle-gamma coincidence measurements using the CHIMERA detector at LNS. γ-rays have been detected using the CsI(Tl) detectors of the spherical part of the CHIMERA array. Very clean γ-rays angular distributions were extracted in reactions induced by different stable beams impinging on 12C thin targets. The results evidenced an effect of projectile spin flip on the γ-rays angular distributions. γ-particle coincidence measurements were also performed in reactions induced by neutron rich exotic beams produced through in-flight fragmentation at LNS. In recent experiments also the Farcos array was used to improve energy and angular resolution measurements of the detected charged particles. Results obtained with both stable and radioactive beams are reported.

  1. Liquid xenon detectors for particle physics and astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Doke, T.

    2010-07-15

    This article reviews the progress made over the last 20 years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics, and medical imaging experiments. A summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information is first provided. After an introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, a review of past, current, and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine is given. Each application is introduced with a survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From detectors based solely on liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation, such as in the MEG experiment for the search of the rare ''{mu}{yields}e{gamma}'' decay, currently the largest liquid xenon detector in operation, and in the XMASS experiment for dark matter detection, to the class of time projection chambers which exploit both scintillation and ionization of LXe, such as in the XENON dark matter search experiment and in the Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay, unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years are anticipated.

  2. Techniques for precise energy calibration of particle pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroupa, M.; Campbell-Ricketts, T.; Bahadori, A.; Empl, A.

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate techniques to improve the accuracy of the energy calibration of Timepix pixel detectors, used for the measurement of energetic particles. The typical signal from such particles spreads among many pixels due to charge sharing effects. As a consequence, the deposited energy in each pixel cannot be reconstructed unless the detector is calibrated, limiting the usability of such signals for calibration. To avoid this shortcoming, we calibrate using low energy X-rays. However, charge sharing effects still occur, resulting in part of the energy being deposited in adjacent pixels and possibly lost. This systematic error in the calibration process results in an error of about 5% in the energy measurements of calibrated devices. We use FLUKA simulations to assess the magnitude of charge sharing effects, allowing a corrected energy calibration to be performed on several Timepix pixel detectors and resulting in substantial improvement in energy deposition measurements. Next, we address shortcomings in calibration associated with the huge range (from kiloelectron-volts to megaelectron-volts) of energy deposited per pixel which result in a nonlinear energy response over the full range. We introduce a new method to characterize the non-linear response of the Timepix detectors at high input energies. We demonstrate improvement using a broad range of particle types and energies, showing that the new method reduces the energy measurement errors, in some cases by more than 90%.

  3. Evaluation of a digital optical ionizing radiation particle track detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.R.

    1987-06-01

    An ionizing radiation particle track detector is outlined which can, in principle, determine the three-dimensional spatial distribution of all the secondary electrons produced by the passage of ionizing radiation through a low-pressure (0.1 to 10 kPa) gas. The electrons in the particle track are excited by the presence of a high-frequency AC electric field, and two digital cameras image the optical radiation produced in electronic excitation collisions of the surroundings gas by the electrons. The specific requirements of the detector for neutron dosimetry and microdosimetry are outlined (i.e., operating conditions of the digital cameras, high voltage fields, gas mixtures, etc.) along with an estimate of the resolution and sensitivity achievable with this technique. The proposed detector is shown to compare favorable with other methods for obtaining the details of the track structure, particularly in the quality of the information obtainable about the particle track and the comparative simplicity and adaptability of the detector for measuring the secondary electron track structure for many forms of ionizing radiation over a wide range of energies.

  4. A new detector array for charged particle spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowin, R. L.; Watson, D. L.; Chappell, S. P. G.; Clarke, N. M.; Freer, M.; Fulton, B. R.; Cunningham, R. A.; Curtis, N.; Dillon, G. K.; Lilley, J.; Jones, C. D.; Lee, P.; Rae, W. D. M.

    1999-02-01

    A compact and highly segmented detector array consisting of 44 gas-silicon-caesium iodide, position sensitive, particle identification detector telescopes and up to 10 position-sensitive, silicon strip detectors has been constructed for the study of light-ion-heavy-ion reactions including cluster break-up in the energy range 5-15MeV/nucleon. The detectors are housed in a purpose built vacuum chamber. The telescopes are placed in fixed positions, covering the forward hemisphere from 3 to 30° in the laboratory with the target placed at 535mm from the front of the telescopes or 6-52° with the target placed at 215mm. The strip detectors are placed in any of 30 fixed positions in the forward hemisphere. For 85MeV 12C ions the telescope energy resolution (gas plus silicon) is 345keV with an angular resolution of 0.03°. Using the gas-silicon section ions with Z up to 21 can be identified. For ions that pass through the silicon isotopic identification is achieved using the silicon-CsI combination. The strip detector energy resolution is 200keV, with an angular resolution of 0.1°.

  5. Applications of gaseous particle detectors in physics and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauli, Fabio

    1995-08-01

    The multi-wire proportional chamber, introduced in 1967 by Georges Charpak (recipient of the 1992 Nobel prize for physics) allows to achieve high-rate, fully electronics detection and localization of ionizing radiation. The myriad of devices inspired by this initial work generated a revolution in the conception of detectors for elementary particle physics experiments; examples are the time projection chamber, the drift chamber, the micro-strip gas chamber. After a brief introduction on the basic operating principles of the device, I will describe several examples of application of advanced gas detectors in medicine and biology and analyze the operating characteristics that make the new devices attractive when confronted with classic detectors.

  6. Proposal for the geometrical distribution of the air cherenkov detectors for CHARM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Reyes, A. R.; Martínez Bravo, O. M.

    2011-04-01

    In this work we propose the geometrical distribution of the air Cherenkov detectors array (ACD), who will be part of the Cosmic High Altitude Radiation Monitor Observatory (CHARM) located at Pico de Orizaba Volcano at 4300 m.a.s.l.. The proposal is based on a library of events built with photons, protons and iron nuclei as primary particles by montecarlo simulations with energies from 1014 eV to 1017 eV. The goal of this detectors will be to determinate the nature of primary cosmic radiation, through measuring the height at which the secondary particles generated reach his maximum number or Xmax, this quantity is related with the effective cross section and finally with the atomic number A of the primary particles. In addition to this we proposed an energy estimator based on the study of the lateral distribution function of the generated events.

  7. Polarization of silicon detectors by minimum ionizing particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezillie, B.; Eremin, V.; Li, Z.; Verbitskaya, E.

    2000-10-01

    This work presents quantitative predictions of the properties of highly irradiated (e.g. by high-energy particles, up to an equivalent fluence of 1×10 14 n cm -2) silicon detectors operating at cryogenic temperature. It is shown that the exposure to the Minimum Ionising Particle (MIP) with counting rates of about 10 6 cm -2 s -1 can influence the electric field distribution in the detector's sensitive volume. This change in the electric field distribution and its effect on the charge collection efficiency are discussed in the frame of a model based on trapping of carriers generated by MIPs. The experiment was performed at 87 K with an infrared (1030 nm) laser to simulate MIPs.

  8. Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Graff, Robert T.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Reinhardt, Catherine; Voss, Lars F.; Cheung, Chin Li; Heineck, Daniel

    2014-09-09

    Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detectors utilize neutron sensitive conversion materials in the form of nano-powders and micro-sized particles, as opposed to thin films, suspensions, paraffin, etc. More specifically, methods to infiltrate, intersperse and embed the neutron nano-powders to form two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional charge sensitive platforms are specified. The use of nano-powders enables conformal contact with the entire charge-collecting structure regardless of its shape or configuration.

  9. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, functional groups at the surface of retained particle complex iron available in the cell. In response to a reduction in concentrations of requisite iron, a functional deficiency can result intracellularly. Superoxide production by the cell exposed to a particle increases ferrireduction which facilitates import of iron with the objective being the reversal of the metal deficiency. Failure to resolve the functional iron deficiency following cell exposure to particles activates kinases and transcription factors resulting in a release of inflammatory mediators and inflammation. Tissue injury is the end product of this disruption in iron homeostasis initiated by the particle exposure. Elevation of available iron to the cell precludes deficiency of the metal and either diminishes or eliminates biological effects.General Significance: Recognition of the pathway for biological effects after particle exposure to involve a functional deficiency of iron suggests novel therapies such as metal supplementation (e.g. inhaled and oral). In addition, the demonstration of a shared mechanism of biological effects allows understanding the common clinical, physiological, and pathological presentation fol

  10. Particle size characterization by quadruple-detector hydrodynamic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Amandaa K; Striegel, André M

    2009-01-01

    Particle size and shape and their distribution directly influence a variety of end-use material properties related to packing, mixing, and transport of powders, solutions, and suspensions. Many of the techniques currently employed for particle size characterization have found limited applicability for broadly polydisperse and/or nonspherical particles. Here, we introduce a quadruple-detector hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) method utilizing static multiangle light scattering (MALS), quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), differential viscometry (VISC), and differential refractometry (DRI), and apply the technique to characterizing a series of solid and hollow polystyrene latexes with diameters in the approximate range of 40-400 nm. Using HDC/MALS/QELS/VISC/DRI, we were able to determine a multiplicity of size parameters and their polydispersity and to monitor the size of the particles across the elution profile of each sample. Using self-similarity scaling relationships between the molar mass and the various particle radii, we were also able to ascertain the shape of the latexes and the shape constancy as a function of particle size. The particle shape for each latex was confirmed by the dimensionless ratio rho identical with R (G,z )/R (H,z ) which, in addition, provided information on the structure (compactness) of the latexes as a function of particle size. Solid and hollow polystyrene latex samples were also differentiable using these methods. Extension of this method to nonspherical, fractal objects should be possible.

  11. Optimization of detector positioning in the radioactive particle tracking technique.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Olivier; Dubé, David; Chaouki, Jamal; Bertrand, François

    2014-07-01

    The radioactive particle tracking (RPT) technique is a non-intrusive experimental velocimetry and tomography technique extensively applied to the study of hydrodynamics in a great variety of systems. In this technique, arrays of scintillation detector are used to track the motion of a single radioactive tracer particle emitting isotropic γ-rays. This work describes and applies an optimization strategy developed to find an optimal set of positions for the scintillation detectors used in the RPT technique. This strategy employs the overall resolution of the detectors as the objective function and a mesh adaptive direct search (MADS) algorithm to solve the optimization problem. More precisely, NOMAD, a C++ implementation of the MADS algorithm is used. First, the optimization strategy is validated using simple cases with known optimal detector configurations. Next, it is applied to a three-dimensional axisymmetric system (i.e. a vertical cylinder, which could represent a fluidized bed, bubble column, riser or else). The results obtained using the optimization strategy are in agreement with what was previously recommended by Roy et al. (2002) for a similar system. Finally, the optimization strategy is used for a system consisting of a partially filled cylindrical tumbler. The application of insights gained by the optimization strategy is shown to lead to a significant reduction in the error made when reconstructing the position of a tracer particle. The results of this work show that the optimization strategy developed is sensitive to both the type of objective function used and the experimental conditions. The limitations and drawbacks of the optimization strategy are also discussed.

  12. The High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD) for the CSES satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparvoli, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    We present the advanced High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD) developed to be installed on the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES), launch scheduled by the end of 2016. The HEPD instrument aims at studying the temporal stability of the inner Van Allen radiation belts and at investigating precipitation of trapped particles induced by magnetospheric, ionosferic and tropospheric EM emissions, as well as by the seismo-electromagnetic and anthropogenic disturbances. In occasion of many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, several measurements, on ground and by experiments on LEO satellites revealed: electromagnetic and plasma perturbations, and anomalous increases of high-energy Van Allen charged particle flux. The precipitation of trapped electrons and protons (from a few MeV to several tens of MeV) could be induced by diffusion of particles pitch-angle possibly caused by the seismo-electromagnetic emissions generated before (a few hours) earthquakes. Due to the longitudinal drift along a same L-shell, anomalous particle bursts of precipitating particles could be detected by satellites not only on the epicentral area of the incoming earthquake, but along the drift path. Moreover, the opposite drift directions of positive and negative particles could allow reconstructing the longitude of the earthquake focal area. Although, the earthquake prediction is not within the reach of current knowledge, however the study of the precursors aims at collecting all relevant information that can infer the spatial and temporal coordinates of the seismic events from measurements. At this purposes, it is essential to detect particles in a wide range of energies (because particles of different energies are sensitive to different frequencies of seismo-electromagnetic emissions), with a good angular resolution (in order to separate fluxes of trapped and precipitating particles), and excellent ability to recognize the charge (that determines the direction of the longitudinal drift

  13. Development of Yangbajing air shower core detector for a new EAS hybrid experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-Sheng; Huang, Jing; Chen, Ding; Zhang, Ying; Zhai, Liu-Ming; Chen, Xu; Hu, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Xue-Yao; Feng, Cun-Feng; Jia, Huan-Yu; Zhou, Xun-Xiu; Danzengluobu; Chen, Tian-Lu; Li, Hai-Jin; Liu, Mao-Yuan; Yuan, Ai-Fang

    2015-08-01

    Aiming at the observation of cosmic-ray chemical composition in the “knee” energy region, we have been developing a new type of air-shower core detector (YAC, Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array) to be set up at Yangbajing (90.522° E, 30.102° N, 4300 m above sea level, atmospheric depth: 606 g/m2) in Tibet, China. YAC works together with the Tibet air-shower array (Tibet-III) and an underground water Cherenkov muon detector array (MD) as a hybrid experiment. Each YAC detector unit consists of lead plates of 3.5 cm thickness and a scintillation counter which detects the burst size induced by high energy particles in the air-shower cores. The burst size can be measured from 1 MIP (Minimum Ionization Particle) to 106 MIPs. The first phase of this experiment, named “YAC- I”, consists of 16 YAC detectors each with a size of 40 cm×50 cm and distributed in a grid with an effective area of 10 m2. YAC- I is used to check hadronic interaction models. The second phase of the experiment, called “YAC- II”, consists of 124 YAC detectors with coverage of about 500 m2. The inner 100 detectors of 80 cm×50 cm each are deployed in a 10×10 matrix with a 1.9 m separation; the outer 24 detectors of 100 cm×50 cm each are distributed around these to reject non-core events whose shower cores are far from the YAC- II array. YAC- II is used to study the primary cosmic-ray composition, in particular, to obtain the energy spectra of protons, helium and iron nuclei between 5×1013 eV and 1016 eV, covering the “knee” and also connected with direct observations at energies around 100 TeV. We present the design and performance of YAC- II in this paper. Supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11078002, 11275212, 11165013), the Chinese Academy of Sciences (H9291450S3, Y4293211S5) and the Knowledge Innovation Fund of Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), China (H95451D0U2, H8515530U1)

  14. Extensive Air Shower Detector Array at the Universidad Autonoma de Puebla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotzomi, J.; Moreno, E.; Aguilar, S.; Palma, B.; Martinez, O.; Salazar, H.; Villasenor, L.

    2002-07-01

    We describe the operation of an Extensive Air Shower Array located at the campus of the FCFM-BUAP. The array consists of 8 liquid scintillation detectors with a surface of 1 m2 each and a detector spacing of 20 m in a square grid. The array was designed to measure the energy and arrival direction of primary particles that generate extensive air showers (EAS) in the region of 1013 eV - 1016 eV. The angular distribution measured with this array, Cos8(Theta) xSin(Theta), agrees very well with the literature. We also present the measured energies of a number of vertical showers in the range of 5 x1012 eV to 5 x1013 eV.

  15. Atmospheric effects on extensive air showers observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Luna García, R.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, A.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2009-09-01

    Atmospheric parameters, such as pressure (P), temperature (T) and density (ρ∝P/T), affect the development of extensive air showers initiated by energetic cosmic rays. We have studied the impact of atmospheric variations on extensive air showers by means of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The rate of events shows a ˜10% seasonal modulation and ˜2% diurnal one. We find that the observed behaviour is explained by a model including the effects associated with the variations of P and ρ. The former affects the longitudinal development of air showers while the latter influences the Molière radius and hence the lateral distribution of the shower particles. The model is validated with full simulations of extensive air showers using atmospheric profiles measured at the site of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  16. A generalized description of the time dependent signals in extensive air shower detectors and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ave, M.; Roth, M.; Schulz, A.

    2017-02-01

    The expected signal in extensive air shower (EAS) detectors can be predicted with a 10% accuracy by a parameterization that depends on a set of global shower parameters: the energy, the depth of the electromagnetic shower maximum (Xmax) and the overall muon content. By classifying shower particles in four components (muonic, purely electromagnetic, electromagnetic stemming from muon interactions and decay and electromagnetic-from-low-energy hadrons), shower-to-shower fluctuations are minimized. We follow this scheme to propose a model to describe the arrival time distributions of secondary particles as measured with surface detectors in an EAS experiment. This model is then used to reconstruct Xmax in Monte Carlo data sets. As an example, we show that for the case of the Pierre Auger Observatory Xmax can be reconstructed with an accuracy of about 45 g/cm2 at 1019 eV.

  17. Particle displacement tracking applied to air flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic Particle Image Velocimeter (PIV) techniques offer many advantages over conventional photographic PIV methods such as fast turn around times and simplified data reduction. A new all electronic PIV technique was developed which can measure high speed gas velocities. The Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) technique employs a single cw laser, small seed particles (1 micron), and a single intensified, gated CCD array frame camera to provide a simple and fast method of obtaining two-dimensional velocity vector maps with unambiguous direction determination. Use of a single CCD camera eliminates registration difficulties encountered when multiple cameras are used to obtain velocity magnitude and direction information. An 80386 PC equipped with a large memory buffer frame-grabber board provides all of the data acquisition and data reduction operations. No array processors of other numerical processing hardware are required. Full video resolution (640x480 pixel) is maintained in the acquired images, providing high resolution video frames of the recorded particle images. The time between data acquisition to display of the velocity vector map is less than 40 sec. The new electronic PDT technique is demonstrated on an air nozzle flow with velocities less than 150 m/s.

  18. STRV RADMON: An integrated high-energy particle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin; Soli, George; Blaes, Brent; Tardio, Gemma

    1993-01-01

    The RADMON (Radiation Monitor) was developed as a compact device with a 4-kbit SRAM particle detector and two p-FET total dose monitors. Thus it can be used as a spacecraft radiation alarm and in situ total dose monitor. This paper discusses the design and calibration of the SRAM for proton, alpha, and heavy ion detection. Upset rates for the RADMON, based on a newly developed space particle flux algorithm, are shown to vary over eight orders of magnitude. On the STRV (Space Technology Research Vehicle) the RADMON's SRAM will be used to detect trapped protons, solar flares, and cosmic rays and to evaluate our ability to predict space results from ground tests.

  19. Building a Neutral Particle Detector for the ASPERA Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Red, Jogenia; Bell, Maria; Allred, David D.; Lunt, Shannon; Turley, R. Steven; Olson, Spencer E.; Squires, Matthew B.

    2001-11-01

    We fabricated a start surface for a neutral particle detector to be used in the ASPERA mission sponsored by the European Space Agency. The mirror needed be a poor reflector at 1216 Åbut efficiently provide electrons when struck by particles with nearly elastic collisions. Our design consisted of an oxidized Ti substrate covered with approximately 300 Åof Cr, 110 Å of MgF_2, and 8 Å of WO_x. The thicknesses of the MgF2 and WO_x layers were determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The surfaces had a reflectance of about 24% at 15^circ incidence from grazing. The reflectance was measured using a hydrogen hollow-cathode source connected to a McPherson Vacuum Monochromator and a computer-controlled reflectometer we designed and built. The strong dependence of the reflectance on incident angle made the angular accuracy and uncertainty especially critical.

  20. The "Puck" energetic charged particle detector: Design, heritage, and advancements.

    PubMed

    Clark, G; Cohen, I; Westlake, J H; Andrews, G B; Brandt, P; Gold, R E; Gkioulidou, M A; Hacala, R; Haggerty, D; Hill, M E; Ho, G C; Jaskulek, S E; Kollmann, P; Mauk, B H; McNutt, R L; Mitchell, D G; Nelson, K S; Paranicas, C; Paschalidis, N; Schlemm, C E

    2016-08-01

    Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low-resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low-resource but highly capable, mass-species-discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the "Puck" EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of ~10 keV to several MeV. This sensor makes simultaneous angular measurements of electron fluxes from the tens of keV to about 1 MeV. The same measurements can be extended down to approximately 1 keV/nucleon, with some composition ambiguity. These sensors have a proven flight heritage record that includes missions such as MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and New Horizons, with multiple sensors on each of Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Magnetospheric Multiscale. In this review paper we discuss the Puck EPD design, its heritage, unexpected results from these past missions and future advancements. We also discuss high-voltage anomalies that are thought to be associated with the use of curved foils, which is a new foil manufacturing processes utilized on recent Puck EPD designs. Finally, we discuss the important role Puck EPDs can potentially play in upcoming missions.

  1. The "Puck" energetic charged particle detector: Design, heritage, and advancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.; Cohen, I.; Westlake, J. H.; Andrews, G. B.; Brandt, P.; Gold, R. E.; Gkioulidou, M. A.; Hacala, R.; Haggerty, D.; Hill, M. E.; Ho, G. C.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Kollmann, P.; Mauk, B. H.; McNutt, R. L.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nelson, K. S.; Paranicas, C.; Paschalidis, N.; Schlemm, C. E.

    2016-08-01

    Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low-resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low-resource but highly capable, mass-species-discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the "Puck" EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of ~10 keV to several MeV. This sensor makes simultaneous angular measurements of electron fluxes from the tens of keV to about 1 MeV. The same measurements can be extended down to approximately 1 keV/nucleon, with some composition ambiguity. These sensors have a proven flight heritage record that includes missions such as MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and New Horizons, with multiple sensors on each of Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Magnetospheric Multiscale. In this review paper we discuss the Puck EPD design, its heritage, unexpected results from these past missions and future advancements. We also discuss high-voltage anomalies that are thought to be associated with the use of curved foils, which is a new foil manufacturing processes utilized on recent Puck EPD designs. Finally, we discuss the important role Puck EPDs can potentially play in upcoming missions.

  2. A rocket-borne energy spectrometer using multiple solid-state detectors for particle identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, K. L.; Smith, L. G.; Voss, H. D.

    1979-01-01

    A rocket-borne experiment using energy spectrometers that allows particle identification by the use of multiple solid-state detectors is described. The instrumentation provides information regarding the energy spectrum, pitch-angle distribution, and the type of energetic particles present in the ionosphere. Particle identification was accomplished by considering detector loss mechanisms and their effects on various types of particles. Solid state detectors with gold and aluminum surfaces of several thicknesses were used. The ratios of measured energies for the various detectors were compared against known relationships during ground-based analysis. Pitch-angle information was obtained by using detectors with small geometrical factors mounted with several look angles. Particle flux was recorded as a function of rocket azimuth angle. By considering the rocket azimuth, the rocket precession, and the location of the detectors on the rocket, the pitched angle of the incident particles was derived.

  3. Calibration and Readiness of the ISS-RAD Charged Particle Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, R.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) is an intravehicular energetic particle detector designed to measure a broad spectrum of charged particle and neutron radiation unique to the ISS radiation environment. In this presentation, a summary of calibration and readiness of the RAD Sensor Head (RSH) - also referred to as the Charged Particle Detector (CPD) - for ISS will be presented. Calibration for the RSH consists of p, He, C, O, Si, and Fe ion data collected at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) and Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF). The RSH consists of four detectors used in measuring the spectroscopy of charged particles - A, B, C, and D; high-energy neutral particles and charged particles are measured in E; and the last detector - F - is an anti-coincidence detector. A, B, and C are made from Si; D is made from BGO; E and F are made from EJ260XL plastic scintillator.

  4. Development of a large-area silicon α-particle detector.

    PubMed

    Tran, Linh T; Prokopovich, Dale A; Lerch, Michael L F; Petasecca, Marco; Siegele, Rainer; Reinhard, Mark I; Perevertaylo, Vladimir; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

    2014-09-01

    Circular ion-implanted silicon detector of α-particles with a large, 5-cm(2), sensitive area has been developed. An advantage of the detector is that the detector surface is easily cleanable with chemicals. The hardened surface of the detector shows no signs of deterioration of the spectroscopic and electrical characteristics upon repeated cleaning. The energy resolution along the diameters of the detector was (1.0±0.1)% for the 5.486-MeV α-particles. Detailed tests of the charge collection efficiency and uniformity of the detector entrance window were also performed with a 5.5-MeV He(2+) microbeam.

  5. Prototype of readout electronics for the LHAASO KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Chang, Jing-Fan; Wang, Zheng; Fan, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The KM2A (one kilometer square extensive air shower array) is the largest detector array in the LHAASO (Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory) project. The KM2A consists of 5242 EDs (Electromagnetic particle Detectors) and 1221 MDs (Muon Detectors). The EDs are distributed and exposed in the wild. Two channels, anode and dynode, are employed for the PMT (photomultiplier tube) signal readout. The readout electronics designed in this paper aims at accurate charge and arrival time measurement of the PMT signals, which cover a large amplitude range from 20 P.E. (photoelectrons) to 2 × 105 P.E. By using a “trigger-less” architecture, we digitize signals close to the PMTs. All digitized data is transmitted to DAQ (Data Acquisition) via a simplified White Rabbit protocol. Compared with traditional high energy experiments, high precision of time measurement over such a large area and suppression of temperature effects in the wild become the key techniques. Experiments show that the design has fulfilled the requirements in this project. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375210) and the Knowledge Innovation Fund of IHEP, Beijing

  6. A generalized description of the signal size in extensive air shower detectors and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ave, M.; Engel, R.; Roth, M.; Schulz, A.

    2017-01-01

    The number as well as the energy and angular distributions of particles in extensive air showers (EAS) depend on the stage of the shower development and the distance to the shower axis. In this work we derive an analytic parameterization of the particle distributions at ground from air shower simulations convolved with the response of a surface detector array. Shower particles are classified into four components according to the shower component they belong to: the muonic component, the electromagnetic component stemming from muon interactions and muon decay, the purely electromagnetic component, and the newly introduced electromagnetic component from low-energy hadrons. Using this scheme, we will show that the total signal at ground level for different surface detectors can be described with minimal fluctuations with parameterizations depending on the primary energy, position of the shower maximum, and the overall number of muons in the shower. The simulation results for different combinations of primaries and hadronic interaction models are reproduced with an accuracy better than 5-10% in the range from 100 m to 2000 m from the shower core. This parameterization is then used as a Lateral Distribution ansatz to reconstruct showers in current EAS experiments. Since this ansatz depends on physical parameters, it opens the possibility to infer them from data.

  7. Charge collection studies in irradiated HV-CMOS particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolder, A.; Andelković, M.; Arndt, K.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Buttar, C.; Caragiulo, P.; Cindro, V.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Dragone, A.; Ehrler, F.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Gorišek, A.; Grabas, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grillo, A.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; Kanisauskas, K.; Kenney, C.; Kramberger, G.; Liang, Z.; Mandić, I.; Maneuski, D.; McMahon, S.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Nickerson, R.; Perić, I.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Seiden, A.; Shipsey, I.; Song, W.; Stanitzki, M.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Turchetta, R.; Vigani, L.; Volk, J.; Wang, R.; Warren, M.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Xiu, Q.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, H.

    2016-04-01

    Charge collection properties of particle detectors made in HV-CMOS technology were investigated before and after irradiation with reactor neutrons. Two different sensor types were designed and processed in 180 and 350 nm technology by AMS. Edge-TCT and charge collection measurements with electrons from 90Sr source were employed. Diffusion of generated carriers from undepleted substrate contributes significantly to the charge collection before irradiation, while after irradiation the drift contribution prevails as shown by charge measurements at different shaping times. The depleted region at a given bias voltage was found to grow with irradiation in the fluence range of interest for strip detectors at the HL-LHC. This leads to large gains in the measured charge with respect to the one before irradiation. The increase of the depleted region was attributed to removal of effective acceptors. The evolution of depleted region with fluence was investigated and modeled. Initial studies show a small effect of short term annealing on charge collection.

  8. Improved gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Maxey, D.V.; Carter, J.G.

    Improved binary and tertiary gas mixture for gas-filled particle detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one gas or mixture of two gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a gas (Ar) having a very small cross section at and below about 0.5 eV; whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electron field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  9. Gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; McCorkle, Dennis L.; Maxey, David V.; Carter, James G.

    1980-01-01

    Improved binary and tertiary gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one gas or mixture of two gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a gas (Ar) having a very small cross section at and below aout 0.5 eV, whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electron field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  10. Portable cosmic particle detectors for subsurface density mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oláh, László; Gábor Barnaföldi, Gergely; Hamar, Gergö; Surányi, Gergely; Varga, Dezsö

    2016-04-01

    Muography deduces the density length in the interior of the investigated geological object, such as a mountain or volcano by the measurement of the cosmic muon absorption along different paths through the object. If path lengths (average densities) are measured, the average density (path length) can be deduced along the muon paths. A portable, low power consumption cosmic particle tracking detector based on Close Cathode multi-wire proportional chambers [1,2] has been developed for muography based on our earlier developments and experiences at the Wigner RCP of the HAS in Budapest [3,4,5]. The newly developed tracking system consists of six layers with the sensitive area of 0.25 m2 [6]. The spatial resolution of 2 mm provides an angular resolution of 15 mrad. This instrument has been optimized for underground and outdoor measurements: it has a Raspberry pi controlled data acquisition system which includes a custom designed board with a coincidence unit and allows high level remote control, data management and analysis. The individual trigger signals, number of missed triggers, analogue signals from chambers and the temperature are recorded. The duration of data readout (dead time) is 100 microsec. The DAQ software runs on the Raspberry Pi. For standard operation, a graphical user interface has been developed, running on any remote computer with Internet connection (both of wired and wireless) to the Raspberry Pi. A temperature-controlled high-voltage power supply provides a stable and reasonable (> 95 %) tracking performance for the measurements. With total power consumption of 5W, a portable tracking detector can operate for 5 days with a standard 50 Ah battery and with gas (non flammable Ar-CO2 mixture) consumption of 0.5 liter per hour, a 10 l bottle at pressure of 150 bar is enough for four month. The portability (total weight of less than 30 kg) allowed that our tracking detectors have been applied in underground caverns for subsurface density mapping. The

  11. Effect of particle shape on capillary forces acting on particles at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Flury, Markus

    2013-06-25

    The capillary forces exerted by moving air-water interfaces can dislodge particles from stationary surfaces. The magnitude of the capillary forces depends on particle shape, orientation, and surface properties, such as contact angle and roughness. The objective was to quantify, both experimentally and theoretically, capillary force variations as an air-water interface moves over the particles. We measured capillary forces as a function of position, i.e., force-position curves, on particles of different shape by using force tensiometry. The particles (5 mm nominal size) were made of polyacrylate and were fabricated using a 3D printer. Experimental measurements were compared with theoretical calculations. We found that force-position curves could be classified into in three categories according to particle shapes: (1) curves for particles with round cross sections, such as spheroidal particles, (2) curves for particles with fixed cross sections, such cylindrical or cubical particles, and (3) curves for particles with tapering cross sections, such as prismatic or tetrahedral particles. Spheroidal particles showed a continuously varying capillary force. Cylindrical or cubical particles showed pronounced pinning of the air-water interface line at edges. The pinning led to an increased capillary force, which was relaxed when the interface snapped off from the edges. Particles with tapering cross section did not show pinning and showed reduced capillary forces as the air-water interface line perimeter and displacement cross section continuously decrease when the air-water interface moved over the particles.

  12. Development of a Focusing DIRC Detector for Particle Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Alan J.

    2014-03-16

    We have constructed a prototype Direct Ring Imaging ` Cerenkov (DIRC) detector in our optics lab to study its performance for identifying pions and kaons. This type of detector will be used for the Belle II experiment now under construction at the KEK laboratory in Japan. To test our prototype, we have constructed a cosmic ray telescope (CRT) that is able to trigger on and reconstruct cosmic ray tracks. We require that the tracks traverse the DIRC detector and study the resulting detector response.

  13. Monitor of the concentration of particles of dense radioactive materials in a stream of air

    DOEpatents

    Yule, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    A monitor of the concentration of particles of radioactive materials such as plutonium oxide in diameters as small as 1/2 micron includes in combination a first stage comprising a plurality of virtual impactors, a second stage comprising a further plurality of virtual impactors, a collector for concentrating particulate material, a radiation detector disposed near the collector to respond to radiation from collected material and means for moving a stream of air, possibly containing particulate contaminants, through the apparatus.

  14. JEDI -- The Jupiter Energetic Particle Detector for the Juno mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, D. K.; Mauk, B. H.; Paranicas, C. P.

    2008-12-01

    The Juno mission provides the first opportunity to conduct an in-depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The high-inclination, low-periapsis orbit provides in-situ access to three critical regions: the auroral magnetic field lines, the equatorial magnetosphere, and the polar ionosphere. The Jupiter Energetic Particle Detector Instrument (JEDI) is one of several Juno magnetospheric instruments that will work together to resolve critical scientific questions about these novel environments, most importantly how Jupiter's dramatic aurora is generated. JEDI measures the energy, spectra, mass species (H, He, O, S), and angular distributions of the higher energy charged particles that: 1) are accelerated at low altitude by Jovian auroral processes, 2) precipitate into Jupiter's upper atmosphere, 3) heat and ionize the Jovian upper atmosphere, and 4) populate Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. JEDI is a compact, light-weight, time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer that makes 3-parameter TOF and energy ion measurements, 2-parameter TOF-only ion measurements, and single parameter electron measurements in the 10-keV to 10-MeV ion and the 25-keV to 1-MeV electron energy range. The rapid spacecraft motion and slow spacecraft rotation requires that JEDI simultaneously and continuously resolve both magnetic loss cones at every position inside of ~3RJ. To achieve these measurements JEDI uses multiple sensors, each with six angular sectors evenly distributed in a 160° x 12° fan. Through these multiple views JEDI continuously samples within a 360° plane roughly normal to the spacecraft spin axis with full-sky coplanar coverage achieved each spacecraft spin. JEDI with its low resource requirements and rad-hard, high-speed electronics will make the demanding scientific observations required by the Juno mission.

  15. Discrimination of charged particles in a neutral beam line by using a solid scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Jong-Kwan; Ko, Jewou; Liu, Dong

    2017-01-01

    In the past several decades, many studies have been conducted to search for non-baryonic dark matter, such as weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs). In the search for WIMPs, charged particles incident on the detector are background particles because WIMPs are neutral. Charged particles originate from various sources, such as cosmic rays and laboratory materials surrounding the main detector. Therefore, a veto that discriminates charged particles can improve the particle-detection efficiency of the entire experiment for detecting WIMPs. Here, we investigate in the thickness range of 1 mm to 5 mm, the optimal thickness of a polystyrene scintillator as a chargedparticle veto detector. We found that 3-mm-thick polystyrene provides the best performance to veto charged particles and the charged-particle background in the search for the WIMP signal. Furthermore, we fabricated 3-mm-thick and 5-mm-thick polystyrene charged particle veto detectors that will be used in an underground laboratory in the search for WIMP dark matter. After exposing those detectors are the actual beam line, we compared the rate of charged particles measured using those detectors and the rate simulated through a Monte Carlo simulation.

  16. Detection of Extensive Cosmic Air Showers by Small Scintillation Detectors with Wavelength-Shifting Fibres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiola, Salvatore; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco; Riggi, Simone

    2012-01-01

    A set of three small scintillation detectors was employed to measure correlated events due to the passage of cosmic muons originating from extensive air showers. The coincidence rate between (any) two detectors was extracted as a function of their relative distance. The difference between the arrival times in three non-aligned detectors was used…

  17. Stochastic resonance-enhanced laser-based particle detector.

    PubMed

    Dutta, A; Werner, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a Laser-based particle detector whose response was enhanced by modulating the Laser diode with a white-noise generator. A Laser sheet was generated to cast a shadow of the object on a 200 dots per inch, 512 x 1 pixels linear sensor array. The Laser diode was modulated with a white-noise generator to achieve stochastic resonance. The white-noise generator essentially amplified the wide-bandwidth (several hundred MHz) noise produced by a reverse-biased zener diode operating in junction-breakdown mode. The gain in the amplifier in the white-noise generator was set such that the Receiver Operating Characteristics plot provided the best discriminability. A monofiber 40 AWG (approximately 80 microm) wire was detected with approximately 88% True Positive rate and approximately 19% False Positive rate in presence of white-noise modulation and with approximately 71% True Positive rate and approximately 15% False Positive rate in absence of white-noise modulation.

  18. Calibration of the Solar Orbiter Energetic Particle Detector Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Panitzsch, L.; Boettcher, S.; Mason, G. M.; Kohler, J.; Ho, G. C.; Boden, S.; Grunau, J.; Steinhagen, J.; Terasa, C.; Yu, J.; Prieto, M.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Blanco, J.

    2013-12-01

    We present the current status and plans for the calibration of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) suite on ESA's Solar Orbiter mission. Solar Orbiter is scheduled to launch in January 2017, instrument delivery in January 2015. EPD consists of four sensors: the SupraThermal Electron and Proton (STEP) sensor covers electrons (protons) from 2 (3) keV up to 100 keV, the Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) from 20 to 300 (7000) keV, the Suprathermal Ion Spectrograph (SIS) determines the ionic composition from ~0.05 to ~10 MeV/nuc (species dependent), and the High Energy Telescope (HET) measures electrons and protons (ions) from 0.3 to 30 and 10 to >100 MeV/nuc (20 - 200 MeV/nuc species dependent). EPT, HET, and SIS have two approximately opposite-facing fields of view, EPT, and HET share a common electronics box, two EPT/HET sensors allow the determination of second-order anisotropies (a total of 4 FoVs). Apart from the use of radioactive sources, STEP will be calibrated at the Kiel calibration facilities, EPT both at Kiel (electrons and low-energy protons) as well as at PTB in Braunschweig. SIS will undergo calibration at the LBL 88' cyclotron, HET at HIMAC in Chiba, Japan. Tests of the electron/protons discrimination of EPT show the expected behavior, HET prototypes have already been calibrated and the results will be shown.

  19. 30 CFR 75.320 - Air quality detectors and measurement devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality detectors and measurement devices... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.320 Air quality detectors and measurement devices. (a) Tests for methane shall be made by a qualified person...

  20. 30 CFR 75.320 - Air quality detectors and measurement devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality detectors and measurement devices... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.320 Air quality detectors and measurement devices. (a) Tests for methane shall be made by a qualified person...

  1. An ultra-thin Schottky diode as a transmission particle detector for biological microbeams

    PubMed Central

    Harken, Andrew; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Attinger, Daniel; Brenner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    We fabricated ultrathin metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes for use as transmission particle detectors in the biological microbeam at Columbia University’s Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF). The RARAF microbeam can deliver a precise dose of ionizing radiation in cell nuclei with sub-micron precision. To ensure an accurate delivery of charged particles, the facility currently uses a commercial charged-particle detector placed after the sample. We present here a transmission detector that will be placed between the particle accelerator and the biological specimen, allowing the irradiation of samples that would otherwise block radiation from reaching a detector behind the sample. Four detectors were fabricated with co-planar gold and aluminum electrodes thermally evaporated onto etched n-type crystalline silicon substrates, with device thicknesses ranging from 8.5 μm – 13.5 μm. We show coincident detections and pulse-height distributions of charged particles in both the transmission detector and the commercial detector above it. Detections are demonstrated at a range of operating conditions, including incoming particle type, count rate, and beam location on the detectors. The 13.5 μm detector is shown to work best to detect 2.7 MeV protons (H+), and the 8.5 μm detector is shown to work best to detect 5.4 MeV alpha particles (4He++). The development of a transmission detector enables a range of new experiments to take place at RARAF on radiation-stopping samples such as thick tissues, targets that need immersion microscopy, and integrated microfluidic devices for handling larger quantities of cells and small organisms. PMID:24058378

  2. An ultra-thin Schottky diode as a transmission particle detector for biological microbeams.

    PubMed

    Grad, Michael; Harken, Andrew; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Attinger, Daniel; Brenner, David J

    2012-12-01

    We fabricated ultrathin metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes for use as transmission particle detectors in the biological microbeam at Columbia University's Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF). The RARAF microbeam can deliver a precise dose of ionizing radiation in cell nuclei with sub-micron precision. To ensure an accurate delivery of charged particles, the facility currently uses a commercial charged-particle detector placed after the sample. We present here a transmission detector that will be placed between the particle accelerator and the biological specimen, allowing the irradiation of samples that would otherwise block radiation from reaching a detector behind the sample. Four detectors were fabricated with co-planar gold and aluminum electrodes thermally evaporated onto etched n-type crystalline silicon substrates, with device thicknesses ranging from 8.5 μm - 13.5 μm. We show coincident detections and pulse-height distributions of charged particles in both the transmission detector and the commercial detector above it. Detections are demonstrated at a range of operating conditions, including incoming particle type, count rate, and beam location on the detectors. The 13.5 μm detector is shown to work best to detect 2.7 MeV protons (H(+)), and the 8.5 μm detector is shown to work best to detect 5.4 MeV alpha particles ((4)He(++)). The development of a transmission detector enables a range of new experiments to take place at RARAF on radiation-stopping samples such as thick tissues, targets that need immersion microscopy, and integrated microfluidic devices for handling larger quantities of cells and small organisms.

  3. Construction of an Alpha Particle Spark Detector and Fusor for research in plasma physics and radiation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinsulire, Olorunsola; Fils-Aime, Fabrice; Hecla, Jake; Short, Michael; White, Anne

    2016-10-01

    This project delves into the realms of plasma physics and nuclear engineering by exploring systems used to generate plasmas and detect radiation. Basic plasma processes can be explored using inertial electrostatic confinement, in a device commonly called a ``fusor''. The fusor will generate neutrons and x-rays. The breakdown of air within a spark gap can be achieved with alpha particles and the avalanche effect; and constitutes an Alpha Particle Spark Detector (APSD), relevant for studies of basic nuclear processes and detectors. In the fusor, preliminary data was collected on breakdown voltage versus pressure in an air plasma to see how well the current system and geometry match up with expectations for the Paschen curve. A stable plasma was observed, at voltages roughly consistent with expectations, and it was concluded that a more controlled gas introduction system is needed to maintain a steady plasma over wider pressure ranges, and will allow for introduction of D2 gas for the study of neutron and x-ray producing plasmas. This poster will discuss the design, construction, and initial operation of the Alpha Particle Spark Detector and the fusor as part of an Undergraduate Research Opportunity (UROP) project. MIT UROP Program and the NSE department.

  4. Polarized polymer films as electronic pulse detectors of cosmic dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    A new type of dust particle detector has been developed which consists of a polarized film of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) having conducting electrons on its surface and operating with no bias voltage. Here, the response characteristics of PVDF detectors with areas in the range 4-150 sq cm and thickness in the range 2-28 microns to iron particles accelerated to velocities in the range 1-12 km/s are reported. The discussion also covers the mechanism of detection, fast pulse response, noise characteristics, and the dependence of the detector signal amplitude on particle mass and velocity. The detectors exhibit long-term stability and can be operated for extended periods of time over the temperature range -50 to +50 C; their response to dust particle impacts is unaffected by high background fluxes of charged particles.

  5. Digital micro-mirror device-based detector for particle-sizing instruments via Fraunhofer diffraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiayi; Cao, Zhang; Xie, Heng; Xu, Lijun

    2015-06-20

    In this paper, a digital micro-mirror device (DMD)-based detector is proposed for the detection of light intensity in particle-sizing instruments using Fraunhofer diffraction. The detector consists of only one photodiode, which eliminates the distortions caused by the nonuniformity of the detector arrays used in traditional instruments. The center of the diffraction pattern was accurately located to distribute the optimized arc-shaped mirror arrays for the intensity detection. Both simulated and experimental results showed that the proposed detector was superior to the classical one as it was less sensitive to noise than the detector arrays used in traditional systems.

  6. Delta-doped hybrid advanced detector for low energy particle detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A delta-doped hybrid advanced detector (HAD) is provided which combines at least four types of technologies to create a detector for energetic particles ranging in energy from hundreds of electron volts (eV) to beyond several million eV. The detector is sensitive to photons from visible light to X-rays. The detector is highly energy-sensitive from approximately 10 keV down to hundreds of eV. The detector operates with milliwatt power dissipation, and allows non-sequential readout of the array, enabling various advanced readout schemes.

  7. Delta-doped hybrid advanced detector for low energy particle detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A delta-doped hybrid advanced detector (HAD) is provided which combines at least four types of technologies to create a detector for energetic particles ranging in energy from hundreds of electron volts (eV) to beyond several million eV. The detector is sensitive to photons from visible light to X-rays. The detector is highly energy-sensitive from approximately 10 keV down to hundreds of eV. The detector operates with milliwatt power dissipation, and allows non-sequential readout of the array, enabling various advanced readout schemes.

  8. Charged Particle Induced Radiation damage of Germanium Detectors in Space: Two Mars Observer Gamma-Ray Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruekner, J.; Koenen, M.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R.; Bailey, S. H.; Boynton W. V.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Observer Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (MO GRS) was designed to measure gamma-rays emitted by the Martian surface. This gamma-ray emission is induced by energetic cosmic-ray particles penetrating the Martian surface and producing many secondary particles and gamma rays. The MO GRS consisted of an high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector with a passive cooler. Since radiation damage due to permanent bombardment of energetic cosmic ray particles (with energies up to several GeV) was expected for the MO GRS HPGe crystal, studies on radiation damage effects of HPGe crystals were carried on earth. One of the HPGe crystals (paradoxically called FLIGHT) was similar to the MO GRS crystal. Both detectors, MO GRS and FLIGHT, contained closed-end coaxial n-type HPGe crystals and had the same geometrical dimensions (5.6 x 5.6 cm). Many other parameters, such as HV and operation temperature, differed in space and on earth, which made it somewhat difficult to directly compare the performance of both detector systems. But among other detectors, detector FLIGHT provided many useful data to better understand radiation damage effects.

  9. Mechanisms and implications of air pollution particle associations with chemokines

    SciTech Connect

    Seagrave, JeanClare

    2008-11-01

    Inflammation induced by inhalation of air pollutant particles has been implicated as a mechanism for the adverse health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. The inflammatory response is associated with upregulation of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We have previously shown that diesel exhaust particles (DEP), a significant constituent of air pollution particulate matter in many urban areas, bind and concentrate IL-8, an important human neutrophil-attracting chemokine, and that the chemokine remains biologically active. In this report, we examine possible mechanisms of this association and the effects on clearance of the chemokine. The binding appears to be the result of ionic interactions between negatively charged particles and positively charged chemokine molecules, possibly combined with intercalation into small pores in the particles. The association is not limited to diesel exhaust particles and IL-8: several other particle types also adsorb the chemokine and several other cytokines are adsorbed onto the diesel particles. However, there are wide ranges in the effectiveness of various particle types and various cytokines. Finally, male Fisher 344 rats were intratracheally instilled with chemokine alone or combined with diesel exhaust or silica particles under isofluorane anesthesia. In contrast to silica particles, which do not bind the chemokine, the presence of diesel exhaust particles, which bind the chemokine, prolonged the retention of the chemokine.

  10. New air Cherenkov light detectors to study mass composition of cosmic rays with energies above knee region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Katsuya, Ryoichi; Mitsumori, Yu; Nakayama, Keisuke; Kakimoto, Fumio; Tokuno, Hisao; Tajima, Norio; Miranda, Pedro; Salinas, Juan; Tavera, Wilfredo

    2014-11-01

    We have installed a hybrid detection system for air showers generated by cosmic rays with energies greater than 3 ×1015 eV at Mount Chacaltaya (5200 m above the sea level), in order to study the mass composition of cosmic rays above the knee region. This detection system comprises an air shower array with 49 scintillation counters in an area of 500 m×650 m, and seven new Cherenkov light detectors installed in a radial direction from the center of the air shower array with a separation of 50 m. It is known that the longitudinal development of a particle cascade in the atmosphere strongly depends on the type of the primary nucleus, and an air shower initiated by a heavier nucleus develops faster than that by a lighter primary of the same energy, because of the differences in the interaction cross-section and the energy per nucleon. This can be measured by detecting the Cherenkov radiation emitted from charged particles in air showers at higher altitudes. In this paper we describe the design and performance of our new non-imaging Cherenkov light detectors at Mount Chacaltaya that are operated in conjunction with the air shower array. The arrival directions and energies of air showers are determined by the shower array, and information about the primary masses is obtained from the Cherenkov light data including the time profiles and lateral distributions. The detector consists of photomultiplier tube (PMT), high-speed ADCs, other control modules, and data storage device. The Cherenkov light signals from an air shower are typically 10-100 ns long, and the waveforms are digitized with a sampling frequency of 1 GHz and recorded in situ without long-distance analog signal transfers. All the Cherenkov light detectors record their time-series data by receiving a triggering signal transmitted from the trigger module of the air shower array, which is fired by a coincidence of shower signals in four neighboring scintillation counters. The optical characteristics of the

  11. Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ramdahl, T.; Becher, G.; Bjorseth, A.

    1982-12-01

    The organic extract of urban air particles from St. Louis, MO, was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The moderately polar fraction was characterized by gas chromatography-electron impact and methane negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The compounds identified in the sample included nitronaphthalene, 9-nitroanthracene, 3-nitrofluoranthene, 1-nitropyrene, arenecarbonitriles, and several polycyclic ketones, quinones, and anhydrides. These studies represent the first mass spectrometric evidence of nitroaromatics in urban air particles.

  12. BJT detector with FPGA-based read-out for alpha particle monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyzhnevyi, V.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Rovati, L.; Verzellesi, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we introduce a new prototype of readout electronics (ALPHADET), which was designed for an α-particle detection system based on a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) detector. The system uses an FPGA, which provides many advantages at the stage of prototyping and testing the detector. The main design and electrical features of the board are discussed in this paper, along with selected results from the characterization of ALPHADET coupled to BJT detectors.

  13. Incidence of rough and irregular atmospheric ice particles from Small Ice Detector 3 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulanowski, Z.; Kaye, P. H.; Hirst, E.; Greenaway, R. S.; Cotton, R. J.; Hesse, E.; Collier, C. T.

    2014-02-01

    The knowledge of properties of ice crystals such as size, shape, concavity and roughness is critical in the context of radiative properties of ice and mixed-phase clouds. Limitations of current cloud probes to measure these properties can be circumvented by acquiring two-dimensional light-scattering patterns instead of particle images. Such patterns were obtained in situ for the first time using the Small Ice Detector 3 (SID-3) probe during several flights in a variety of mid-latitude mixed-phase and cirrus clouds. The patterns are analysed using several measures of pattern texture, selected to reveal the magnitude of particle roughness or complexity. The retrieved roughness is compared to values obtained from a range of well-characterized test particles in the laboratory. It is found that typical in situ roughness corresponds to that found in the rougher subset of the test particles, and sometimes even extends beyond the most extreme values found in the laboratory. In this study we do not differentiate between small-scale, fine surface roughness and large-scale crystal complexity. Instead, we argue that both can have similar manifestations in terms of light-scattering properties and also similar causes. Overall, the in situ data are consistent, with ice particles with highly irregular or rough surfaces being dominant. Similar magnitudes of roughness were found in growth and sublimation zones of cirrus. The roughness was found to be negatively correlated with the halo ratio, but not with other thermodynamic or microphysical properties found in situ. Slightly higher roughness was observed in cirrus forming in clean oceanic air masses than in a continental, polluted one. Overall, the roughness and complexity are expected to lead to increased shortwave cloud reflectivity, in comparison with cirrus composed of more regular, smooth ice crystal shapes. These findings put into question suggestions that climate could be modified through aerosol seeding to reduce cirrus

  14. Detection and Real Time Spectroscopy of Charged Particles with the TimePix Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Carlos; Jakubek, Jan; Platkevic, Michal; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2010-01-01

    We tested the position—, spectral— and time—resolution capability of the TimePix semiconductor detector together with the USB readout interface and Pixelman control and DAQ software tool for detection and visualization of particles. Event—by—event spectroscopy can be achieved by real time analysis of the characteristic tracks and specific response of different radiation in the pixel detector.

  15. Cosmic dust or other similar outer-space particles location detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aver, S.

    1973-01-01

    Cosmic dust may be serious radiation hazard to man and electronic equipment caught in its path. Dust detector uses two operational amplifiers and offers narrower areas for collection of cosmic dust. Detector provides excellent resolution as result of which recording of particle velocities as well as positions of their impact are more accurately determined.

  16. Particle and Smoke Detection on ISS for Next Generation Smoke Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary; Yuan, Zeng-guang; Sheredy, William; Funk, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Rapid fire detection requires the ability to differentiate fire signatures from background conditions and nuisance sources. Proper design of a fire detector requires detailed knowledge of all of these signal sources so that a discriminating detector can be designed. Owing to the absence of microgravity smoke data, all current spacecraft smoke detectors were designed based upon normal-g conditions. The removal of buoyancy reduces the velocities in the high temperature zones in flames, increasing the residence time of smoke particles and consequently allowing longer growth time for the particles. Recent space shuttle experiments confirmed that, in some cases, increased particles sizes are seen in low-gravity and that the relative performance of the ISS (International Space Station) and space-shuttle smoke-detectors changes in low-gravity; however, sufficient particle size information to design new detectors was not obtained. To address this issue, the SAME (Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment) experiment is manifested to fly on the ISS in 2007. The SAME experiment will make measurements of the particle size distribution of the smoke particulate from several typical spacecraft materials providing quantitative design data for spacecraft smoke detectors. A precursor experiment (DAFT: Dust Aerosol measurement Feasibility Test) flew recently on the ISS and provided the first measurement of the background smoke particulate levels on the ISS. These background levels are critical to the design of future smoke detectors. The ISS cabin was found to be a very clean environment with particulate levels substantially below the space shuttle and typical ground-based environments.

  17. Optical Levitation of Micro-Scale Particles in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    Success has been achieved using a radiation pressure gradient to levitate microscale particles in air for as long as four hours. This work is performed as a precursor to the development of a vacuum based optical tweezers interrogation tool for nanotechnology research. It was decided to first proceed with solving the problem of achieving optical levitation of a micro-scale particle in air before trying the same in a vacuum environment. This successful optical levitation in air confirms the work of Ashkin and Dziedzic. Levitation of 10 and 13.8 microns diameter polystyrene spheres was achieved, as well as the levitation of 10 and 100 microns diameter glass spheres. Particles were raised and lowered. A modicum of success was achieved translating particles horizontally. Trapping of multiple particles in one laser beam has been photographed. Also, it has been observed that particles, that may be conglomerates or irregular in shape, can also be trapped by a focused laser beam. Levitated glass beads were photographed using laser light scattered from the beads. The fact that there is evidence of optical traps in air containing irregular and conglomerate particles provides hope that future tool particles need not be perfect spheres.

  18. A CAM (continuous air monitor) sampler for collecting and assessing alpha-emitting aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, A.R.; Bethel, E.L.; Ortiz, C.A.; Stanke, J.G. )

    1991-07-01

    A new continuous air monitor (CAM) sampler for assessing alpha-emitting transuranic aerosol particles has been developed. The system has been designed to permit collection of particles that can potentially penetrate into the thoracic region of the human respiratory system. Wind tunnel testing of the sampler has been used to characterize the penetration of aerosol to the collection filter. Results show that greater than or equal to 50% of 10-micrograms aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED) particles are collected by the filter at wind speeds of 0.3 to 2 m s-1 and at sampling flow rates of 28 to 113 L min-1 (1 to 4 cfm). The deposition of 10-microns AED particles takes place primarily in the center of the filter, where the counting efficiency of the detector is highest.

  19. Dynamic Monitoring of Cleanroom Fallout Using an Air Particle Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Radford

    2011-01-01

    The particle fallout limitations and periodic allocations for the James Webb Space Telescope are very stringent. Standard prediction methods are complicated by non-linearity and monitoring methods that are insufficiently responsive. A method for dynamically predicting the particle fallout in a cleanroom using air particle counter data was determined by numerical correlation. This method provides a simple linear correlation to both time and air quality, which can be monitored in real time. The summation of effects provides the program better understanding of the cleanliness and assists in the planning of future activities. Definition of fallout rates within a cleanroom during assembly and integration of contamination-sensitive hardware, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, is essential for budgeting purposes. Balancing the activity levels for assembly and test with the particle accumulation rate is paramount. The current approach to predicting particle fallout in a cleanroom assumes a constant air quality based on the rated class of a cleanroom, with adjustments for projected work or exposure times. Actual cleanroom class can also depend on the number of personnel present and the type of activities. A linear correlation of air quality and normalized particle fallout was determined numerically. An air particle counter (standard cleanroom equipment) can be used to monitor the air quality on a real-time basis and determine the "class" of the cleanroom (per FED-STD-209 or ISO-14644). The correlation function provides an area coverage coefficient per class-hour of exposure. The prediction of particle accumulations provides scheduling inputs for activity levels and cleanroom class requirements.

  20. GaAs detectors with an ultra-thin Schottky contact for spectrometry of charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernykh, S. V.; Chernykh, A. V.; Didenko, S. I.; Baryshnikov, F. M.; Burtebayev, N.; Britvich, G. I.; Chubenko, A. P.; Guly, V. G.; Glybin, Yu. N.; Zholdybayev, T. K.; Burtebayeva, J. T.; Nassurlla, M.

    2017-02-01

    For the first time, samples of particle detectors based on high-purity GaAs epilayers with an active area of 25 and 80 mm2 and an ultra-thin Pt Schottky barrier were fabricated for use in the spectrometry of charged particles and their operating characteristics were studied. The obtained FWHM of 14.2 (for 25 mm2 detector) and 15.5 keV (for 80 mm2 detector) on the 5.499 MeV line of 238Pu is at the level of silicon spectrometric detectors. It was found that the main component that determines the energy resolution of the detector is a fluctuation in the number of collected electron-hole pairs. This allows us to state that the obtained energy resolution is close to the limit for VPE GaAs.

  1. Plasma-Based Detector of Outer-Space Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Brinza, David E.; Henry, Michael D.; Clay, Douglas R.

    2006-01-01

    A report presents a concept for an instrument to be flown in outer space, where it would detect dust particles - especially those associated with comets. The instrument would include a flat plate that would intercept the dust particles. The anticipated spacecraft/dust-particle relative speeds are so high that the impingement of a dust particle on the plate would generate a plasma cloud. Simple electric dipole sensors located equidistantly along the circumference of the plate would detect the dust particle indirectly by detecting the plasma cloud. The location of the dust hit could be estimated from the timing of the detection pulses of the different dipoles. The mass and composition of the dust particle could be estimated from the shapes and durations of the pulses from the dipoles. In comparison with other instruments for detecting hypervelocity dust particles, the proposed instrument offers advantages of robustness, large collection area, and simplicity.

  2. Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, Charles Y.; Storti, George M.; Walter, Lee; Mathews, Scott

    1990-01-01

    This report presents work done under a Phase 2 SBIR contract for demonstrating large area detector planes utilizing Quantex electron trapping materials as a film medium for storing high-energy nuclide impingement information. The detector planes utilize energy dissipated by passage of the high-energy nuclides to produce localized populations of electrons stored in traps. Readout of the localized trapped electron populations is effected by scanning the ET plane with near-infrared, which frees the trapped electrons and results in optical emission at visible wavelengths. The effort involved both optimizing fabrication technology for the detector planes and developing a readout system capable of high spatial resolution for displaying the recorded nuclide passage tracks.

  3. Testing and assessment of a large BGO detector for beach monitoring of radioactive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Graaf, E. R.; Rigollet, C.; Maleka, P. P.; Jones, D. G.

    2007-06-01

    The Beach Monitoring Steering Group (BMSG) was set up by UKAEA to explore whether improved systems for beach monitoring of radioactive particles are available. The BMSG commissioned the British Geological Survey (BGS) and the Nuclear Geophysics Division of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI/NGD), and other companies, to test their most sensitive system. This paper presents the results of trials in a specially created test facility at UKAEA Harwell with a large BGO detector. The detector's size and weight mean that it would be suitable for vehicle deployment but would be too large and heavy to carry in areas that could not be accessed by a vehicle. However, it would be possible to use the same methodology that is described here with a smaller detector capable of being carried in a backpack, albeit with reduced sensitivity for particle detection. The approach that we present is also applicable, with modifications, to the detection of offshore particles using a towed seabed detector.

  4. Particle impactor assembly for size selective high volume air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Langer, Gerhard

    1988-08-16

    Air containing entrained particulate matter is directed through a plurality of parallel, narrow, vertically oriented impactor slots of an inlet element toward an adjacently located, relatively large, dust impaction surface preferably covered with an adhesive material. The air flow turns over the impaction surface, leaving behind the relatively larger particles according to the human thoracic separation system and passes through two elongate exhaust apertures defining the outer bounds of the impaction collection surface to pass through divergent passages which slow down and distribute the air flow, with entrained smaller particles, over a fine filter element that separates the fine particles from the air. The elongate exhaust apertures defining the impaction collection surface are spaced apart by a distance greater than the lengths of elongate impactor slots in the inlet element and are oriented to be normal thereto. By appropriate selection of dimensions and the number of impactor slots air flow through the inlet element is provided a nonuniform velocity distribution with the lower velocities being obtained near the center of the impactor slots, in order to separate out particles larger than a certain predetermined size on the impaction collection surface. The impaction collection surface, even in a moderately sized apparatus, is thus relatively large and permits the prolonged sampling of air for periods extending to four weeks.

  5. Effect of Clouds on Apertures of Space-based Air Fluorescence Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolsky, P.; Krizmanic, J.

    2003-01-01

    Space-based ultra-high-energy cosmic ray detectors observe fluorescence light from extensive air showers produced by these particles in the troposphere. Clouds can scatter and absorb this light and produce systematic errors in energy determination and spectrum normalization. We study the possibility of using IR remote sensing data from MODIS and GOES satellites to delimit clear areas of the atmosphere. The efficiency for detecting ultra-high-energy cosmic rays whose showers do not intersect clouds is determined for real, night-time cloud scenes. We use the MODIS SST cloud mask product to define clear pixels for cloud scenes along the equator and use the OWL Monte Carlo to generate showers in the cloud scenes. We find the efficiency for cloud-free showers with closest approach of three pixels to a cloudy pixel is 6.5% exclusive of other factors. We conclude that defining a totally cloud-free aperture reduces the sensitivity of space-based fluorescence detectors to unacceptably small levels.

  6. Single-crystal CVD diamond detector for high-resolution particle spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Y.; Murakami, H.; Shimaoka, T.; Tsubota, M.; Kaneko, J. H.

    2014-11-01

    The performance of a single-crystal diamond detector, grown by chemical vapour deposition, as an energy spectrometer for charged particles was studied. The detector was able to identify four different energies of 241\\text{Am} α -particles (5.389, 5.443, 5.486, and 5.545 MeV) thanks to a superior intrinsic energy resolution of ˜0.4{%} (full width at half maximum). The electrode configuration, specifically the electric field configuration inside the diamond crystal, and the electrode materials, strongly affect the energy resolution for charged particles. The charge collection efficiency inside the diamond crystal was ˜97{%} for both electrons and holes.

  7. A Detector Radioactive Particles Can't Evade

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-12

    As part of its national security mission, Lawrence Livermore develops technologies to help government agencies prevent terrorists from smuggling nuclear materials into the country. One ongoing effort is to design radiation detectors that can distinguish threat sources from legitimate sources, such as medical isotopes, and naturally occurring radiation. (See S&TR, September 2004, pp. 4-11; May 2006, pp. 4-10.) Detectors intended for use by nonspecialists must be easy to operate and require minimal maintenance. To be most effective, they also must detect both gamma and neutron energies. That may sound like a lot to ask of one instrument, but the Ultrahigh-Resolution Gamma and Neutron Spectrometer (UltraSpec) delivers all of these features. UltraSpec is so sensitive that even the minute thermal energy deposited by a single gamma ray or neutron can be detected with high precision. With this capability, the detector can identify differences in composition that help reveal a material's origin, processing history, and likely intended use. In addition to its application as a counterterrorism technology, UltraSpec can be used to protect nuclear material stored at nuclear power plants, to evaluate weapon stockpiles, and to verify material composition. UltraSpec was developed by a team of scientists and engineers from Livermore's Physics and Advanced Technologies and Engineering directorates working with VeriCold Technologies of Ismaning, Germany. The detector's design builds on a technology base established in three Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects. The UltraSpec team, which is led by Laboratory physicist Stephan Friedrich, received a 2006 R&D 100 Award for the detector's innovative design.

  8. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. However, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. A charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. The study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes.

  9. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. But, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. Moreover, a charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. Our study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes.

  10. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. But, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. Moreover, a charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify themore » particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. Our study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes.« less

  11. A transition radiation detector for RHIC featuring accurate tracking and dE/dx particle identification

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, E.; Lissauer, D.; McCorkle, S.; Polychronakos, V.; Takai, H.; Chi, C.Y.; Nagamiya, S.; Sippach, W.; Toy, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.F.; Wiggins, C.; Willis, W.; Cherniatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Bennett, M.; Chikanian, A.; Kumar, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Pope, K.

    1991-12-31

    We describe the results of a test ran involving a Transition Radiation Detector that can both distinguish electrons from pions which momenta greater titan 0.7 GeV/c and simultaneously track particles passing through the detector. The particle identification is accomplished through a combination of the detection of Transition Radiation from the electron and the differences in electron and pion energy loss (dE/dx) in the detector. The dE/dx particle separation is most, efficient below 2 GeV/c while particle ID utilizing Transition Radiation effective above 1.5 GeV/c. Combined, the electron-pion separation is-better than 5 {times} 10{sup 2}. The single-wire, track-position resolution for the TRD is {approximately}230 {mu}m.

  12. Ultrahigh sensitivity heavy noble gas detectors for long-term monitoring and monitoring air. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.D.; Gross, K.

    1998-06-01

    'The primary objective of this research project is to develop heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for: (1) long-term monitoring of transuranic waste, spent fuel, and other uranium and thorium bearing wastes, and (2) alpha particle air monitors that discriminate between radon emissions and other alpha emitters. A University of Cincinnati/Argonne National Laboratory (UC/ANL) Team has been assembled to complete this detector development project. DOE needs that are addressed by this project include improved long-term monitoring capability and improved air monitoring capability during remedial activities. Successful development and implementation of the proposed detection systems could significantly improve current capabilities with relatively simple and inexpensive equipment. As of June 1, 1998, the UC/ANL Team has: (1) made significant progress toward characterizing the fluid transfer process which is the basis for this detector development project and (2) evaluated several radiation detectors and several potential pulse processing schemes. The following discussion describes the progress made during the first year of this project and the implications of this progress.'

  13. Composition of air pollution particles modifies oxidative stress in cells, tissues, and living systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between increased levels of ambient air pollution particles and human morbidity and mortality. Production of oxidants, either directly by the air pollution particles or by the host response to the particles, appears to be fundame...

  14. The next generation of photo-detector for particle astrophysics.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R. G.; Byrum, K. L.; Sanchez, M.; Vaniachine, A. V.; Siegmund, O.; Otte, N.A.; Ramberg, E.; Hall, J.; Buckley, J.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of California at Berkeley; FNAL; Washington Univ.

    2009-06-02

    We advocate support of research aimed at developing alternatives to the photomultiplier tube for photon detection in large astroparticle experiments such as gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy, and direct dark matter detectors. Specifically, we discuss the development of large area photocathode microchannel plate photomultipliers and silicon photomultipliers. Both technologies have the potential to exhibit improved photon detection efficiency compared to existing glass vacuum photomultiplier tubes.

  15. The Next Generation of Photo-Detectors for Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert G.; Byrum, Karen L.; Sanchez, Mayly; Vaniachine, Alexandre V.; Siegmund, Oswald; Otte, Nepomuk A.; Ramberg, Erik; Hall, Jeter; Buckley, James

    2009-04-01

    We advocate support of research aimed at developing alternatives to the photomultiplier tube for photon detection in large astroparticle experiments such as gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy, and direct dark matter detectors. Specifically, we discuss the development of large area photocathode microchannel plate photomultipliers and silicon photomultipliers. Both technologies have the potential to exhibit improved photon detection efficiency compared to existing glass vacuum photomultiplier tubes.

  16. Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this SBIR Phase 1 feasibility effort was to demonstrate the usefulness of Quantex electron-trapping (ET) materials for spatial detection of nuclear particles over large areas. This demonstration entailed evaluating the prompt visible scintillation as nuclear particles impinged on films of ET materials, and subsequently detecting the nuclear particle impingement information pattern stored in the ET material, by means of the visible-wavelength luminescence produced by near-infrared interrogation. Readily useful levels of scintillation and luminescence outputs are demonstrated.

  17. Control of respirable particles in indoor air with portable air cleaners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offermann, F. J.; Sextro, R. G.; Fisk, W. J.; Grimsrud, D. T.; Nazaroff, W. W.; Nero, A. V.; Revzan, K. L.; Yater, J.

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles using in situ chamber decay tests. Following injection of cigarette smoke in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size with and without air cleaner operation. The size distribution of the tobacco smoke particles was log normal with a count median diameter of 0.15 μm and a geometric standard deviation of 2.0. Without air cleaner operation, the natural mass-averaged surface deposition rate of particles was observed to be 0.1 h -1. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filter devices, a residential-sized ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. Electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters removed particles at substantial rates, and a HEPA-type filter was most efficient air cleaner studied.

  18. Control of Respirable Particles in Indoor Air with Portable AirCleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-10-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles using in situ chamber decay tests. Following injection of cigarette smoke in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size with and without air cleaner operation. The size distribution of the tobacco smoke particles was log normal with a count median diameter of 0.15 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 2.0. Without air cleaner operation, the natural mass-averaged surface deposition rate of particles was observed to be 0.1 h{sup -1}. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filter devices, a residential-sized ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. Electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters removed particles at substantial rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner studied.

  19. Ultrafine particle removal and generation by portable air cleaners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waring, Michael S.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Corsi, Richard L.

    Portable air cleaners can both remove and generate pollutants indoors. To investigate these phenomena, we conducted a two-phase investigation in a 14.75 m 3 stainless steel chamber. In the first phase, particle size-resolved (12.6-514 nm diameter) clean air delivery rates (CADR) and efficiencies were determined, as were ozone emission rates, for two high-efficiency particle arresting (HEPA) filters, one electrostatic precipitator with a fan, and two ion generators without fans. The two HEPA air cleaners had count average CADR (standard deviation) of 188 (30) and 324 (44) m 3 h -1; the electrostatic precipitator 284 (62) m 3 h -1; and the two ion generators 41 (11) and 35 (13) m 3 h -1. The electrostatic precipitator emitted ozone at a rate of 3.8±0.2 mg h -1, and the two ion generators 3.3±0.2 and 4.3±0.2 mg h -1. Ozone initiates reactions with certain unsaturated organic compounds that produce ultrafine and fine particles, carbonyls, other oxidized products, and free radicals. During the second phase, five different ion generators were operated separately in the presence of a plug-in liquid or solid air freshener, representing a strong terpene source. For air exchange rates of between 0.49 and 0.96 h -1, three ion generators acted as steady-state net particle generators in the entire measured range of 4.61-157 nm, and two generated particles in the range of approximately 10 to 39-55 nm. Terpene and aldehyde concentrations were also sampled for one ion generator, and concentrations of terpenes decreased and formaldehyde increased. Given these results, the pollutant removal benefits of ozone-generating air cleaners may be outweighed by the generation of indoor pollution.

  20. MCNPX Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport in SiC semiconductor detectors of fast neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlačková, K.; Zat'ko, B.; Šagátová, A.; Pavlovič, M.; Nečas, V.; Stacho, M.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate particle transport properties of a fast neutron detector based on silicon carbide. MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) code was used in our study because it allows seamless particle transport, thus not only interacting neutrons can be inspected but also secondary particles can be banked for subsequent transport. Modelling of the fast-neutron response of a SiC detector was carried out for fast neutrons produced by 239Pu-Be source with the mean energy of about 4.3 MeV. Using the MCNPX code, the following quantities have been calculated: secondary particle flux densities, reaction rates of elastic/inelastic scattering and other nuclear reactions, distribution of residual ions, deposited energy and energy distribution of pulses. The values of reaction rates calculated for different types of reactions and resulting energy deposition values showed that the incident neutrons transfer part of the carried energy predominantly via elastic scattering on silicon and carbon atoms. Other fast-neutron induced reactions include inelastic scattering and nuclear reactions followed by production of α-particles and protons. Silicon and carbon recoil atoms, α-particles and protons are charged particles which contribute to the detector response. It was demonstrated that although the bare SiC material can register fast neutrons directly, its detection efficiency can be enlarged if it is covered by an appropriate conversion layer. Comparison of the simulation results with experimental data was successfully accomplished.

  1. High resolution alpha particle detectors based on 4H-SiC epitaxial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zat'ko, B.; Dubecký, F.; Šagátová, A.; Sedlačová, K.; Ryć, L.

    2015-04-01

    We fabricated and characterized 4H-SiC Schottky diodes as a spectrometric detector of alpha particles. A thin blocking contact of Ni/Au (15 nm) was used to minimize the influence on alpha particles energy. Current-voltage characteristics of the detector were measured and a low current density below 0.3 nAcm-2 was observed at room temperature. 239Pu241Am244Cm was used as a source of alpha particles within the energy range between 5.1 MeV and 5.8 MeV for detector testing. The charge collection efficiency close to 100 % at reverse bias exceeding 50 V was determined. The best spectrometric performance shows a pulse height spectrum at a reverse bias of 200 V giving an energy resolution of 0.25 % in the full width and half maximum for 5.486 MeV of 241Am.

  2. MCNP analysis of a multilayer phoswich detector for β-particle dosimetry and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsoni, A. T.; Hamby, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    To measure and study energy deposition of β-particles at different depths, a triple-layer phoswich detector has been designed. The phoswich detector consists of BC-400/CaF2:Eu/BC-444 with decay time constants of 2.4, 940 and 264 ns, respectively, all with thicknesses corresponding to that necessary to completely stop 0.1 MeV electrons in the first layer, 1.0 MeV electrons in the second layer and 2.5 MeV electrons in the third layer. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) version 4B was used to simulate energy deposition in each layer from monoenergetic β-particles. The simulations and measurements revealed that the traditional rise time measurement technique is not able to provide appropriate and accurate pulse shape discrimination for this type of detector.

  3. Calibrations for Charged Particle Tracking with the GlueX Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staib, Michael; GlueX Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Two gas detectors comprise the tracking system for the GlueX experiment, the Central Drift Chamber (CDC) and the Forward Drift Chamber (FDC). The CDC is a cylindrical straw-tube detector covering polar angles between 6° and 168°, delivering spatial resolution of ~150 μm. The FDC is a Cathode Strip Chamber consisting of four packages, each with six alternating layers of anode wires and cathode strips. The FDC is designed to track forward-going charged particles with polar angles between 1° and 20° with a spatial resolution of ~200 μm. Both tracking detectors record timing information and energy loss measurements useful for particle identification. During Fall 2014 and Spring 2015, the first photon beam was delivered on target for commissioning of the GlueX detector in Hall-D at Jefferson Lab. These data are currently being used in a large effort to calibrate the individual detector subsystems to achieve design performance. Methods and results for calibrations of each of the tracking detectors are presented. Techniques for alignment of the tracking system using a combination of cosmic rays and beam data is discussed. Finally, some early results of physics measurements including charged final-state particles are presented. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  4. Simulation Study of RICH Detector for Particle Identification in Forward Region at Electron-Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Cheuk-Ping

    2015-04-01

    eRD11 R&D program is focusing on the technology exploration for hadron particle identification in the forward region of Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) for studying quark and gluon distributions inside the nucleon. A modular Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector has been extensively studied in Geant4-based simulation. The detector consists of a block of aerogel, Fresnel lens, four side mirrors and a photosensor plane. The simulated performance of this detector will be presented in this talk. For the eRD11 Collaboration.

  5. CARDIAC MOLECULAR EFFECTS INDUCED BY AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Submitted to the American Thoracic Society 98th International Conference, May 17 - 22, 2002, Atlanta, GA

    CARDIAC MOLECULAR EFFECTS INDUCED BY AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES
    K. Dreher1, R. Jaskot1, J. Richards1, and T. Knuckles2. 1U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,...

  6. AIRBORNE PARTICLE SIZES AND SOURCES FOUND IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes results of a literature search into the sources, sizes, and concentrations of particles in indoor air, including the various types: plant, animal, mineral, combustion, home/personal care, and radioactive aerosols. This information, presented in a summary figu...

  7. [A Generator of Mono-energetic Electrons for Response Test of Charged Particle Detectors.].

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Fumiyasu; Yoshida, Katsuhide; Maruyama, Koichi

    2005-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a generator of mono-energetic electrons for the response test of charged particle detectors, which is used to measure fragmented particles of the carbon beam for cancer therapy. Mono-energetic electrons are extracted from (90)Sr by analyzing the energy of beta rays in the generator with a magnetic field. We evaluated performance parameters of the generator such as the absolute energy, the energy resolution and the counting rates of extracted electrons. The generator supplies mono-energetic electrons from 0.5MeV to 1.7MeV with the energy resolution of 20% in FWHM at higher energies than 1.0MeV. The counting rate of electrons is 400cpm at the maximum when the activity of (90)Sr is 298kBq. The generator was used to measure responses of fragmented-particle detectors and to determine the threshold energy of the detectors. We evaluated the dependence of pulse height variation on the detector position and the threshold energy by using the generator. We concluded this generator is useful for the response test of general charged particle detectors.

  8. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Supplemental... particle (PM 2.5 ) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) air quality designations for the...

  9. In-vehicle particle air pollution and its mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartakovsky, L.; Baibikov, V.; Czerwinski, J.; Gutman, M.; Kasper, M.; Popescu, D.; Veinblat, M.; Zvirin, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents results of particle mass, number and size measurements inside passenger cars (PCs), vans and urban buses. Effects of the in-cabin air purifier on particle concentrations and average size inside a vehicle are studied. Use of the air purifier leads to a dramatic reduction, by 95-99%, in the measured ultrafine particles number concentration inside a vehicle compared with outside readings. Extremely low particle concentrations may be reached without a danger of vehicle occupants' exposure to elevated CO2 levels. The lowest values of particle concentrations inside a PC without air purifier are registered under the recirculation ventilation mode, but the issue of CO2 accumulation limits the use of this mode to very short driving events. Lower PM concentrations are found inside newer cars, if this ventilation mode is used. Great differences by a factor of 2.5-3 in PM10 concentrations are found between the PCs and the buses. Smoking inside a car leads to a dramatic increase, by approximately 90 times, in PM2.5 concentrations.

  10. Radiation Hard Plastic Scintillators for a New Generation of Particle Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmann, M.; Herrig, V.; Maldonis, J.; Neuhaus, J.; Shrestha, D.; Rajbhandari, P.; Thune, Z.; Been, M.; Martinez-Szewczyk, M.; Khristenko, V.; Onel, Y.; Akgun, U.

    2017-03-01

    The radiation hardness of specific scintillating materials used in particle physics experiments is one of the main focuses of research in detector development. This report summarizes the preparation methods, light yield characterization and radiation damage tests of a plastic scintillator with a polysiloxane base and pTP and bis-MSB dopants. The scintillator is shown to be a promising candidate for particle detectors with its intense light output around 400 nm and very little scintillation or transmission loss after proton irradiation of 4 × 105 Gy.

  11. Search for fractionally charged particles in the Mont Blanc LSD scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietta, M.; Antonioli, P.; Badino, G.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Dadykin, V. L.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Khalchukov, F. F.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kortchaguin, P. V.; Kortchaguin, V. B.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Malguin, A. S.; Marchetti, G.; Periale, L.; Ryassny, V. G.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G. C.; Vernetto, S.; Yakushev, V. F.; Zatsepin, G. T.

    1994-02-01

    An analysis of the events recorded by the Mont Blanc Neutrino Scintillation Detector was performed in order to search for fractionally charged particles with |Q| = 1/3and |Q| = 2/3. In a live time of 2378 days, the obtained 90% C. L. upper limits on the fluxes of fractionally charged particles in the core of our detector are Φ(|Q| = 1/3) < 2. 3 10 -13cm-2s-1sr-1and Φ(|Q| = 2/3) < 2. 7 10 -13cm-2s-1sr-1, the best available limits obtained by scintillation counters technique.

  12. Data report of hypervelocity micro-particle impact light flash data and MOS impact detector output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serna, Patrick J.

    1995-06-01

    A series of hypervelocity impact tests were conducted at the Max-Plank Institut fur Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany using the Institut's 2 MV Van De Graaff micro-particle accelerator. The purpose of this experimental effort was to collect impact flash data resulting from hypervelocity impact events. The results of these test experiments are to be correlated with actual waveforms obtained from on-orbit systems. Furthermore, these experimental results will supplement ongoing theoretical predictions being conducted within the Phillips Laboratory by the Space Kinetic Impact/Debris Branch (pLJWSCD). This report only describes the instrumentation configuration and presents data collected from light flash measurements and a MOS micro-particle impact detector. An analysis of the acquired light flash data is contained in a separate report authored by Allahdadi, Medina, Serna, and Long. Iron particles in the mass range of 1 x 10(exp -15) to 8 x 10(exp -18) kg were accelerated to velocities between 7 and 38 km/sec. Three targets were used for these impact test: spacecraft optical lens, spacecraft optical sunshade, and MOS spacecraft micro-particle impact detector. The hypervelocity particle impacted the lens and micro-particle impact detector targets normal to the target surface. The sunshade was impacted at a 25 degree angle measured from the particle direction of flight.

  13. A heuristic approach to the quantum measurement problem: How to distinguish particle detectors from ordinary objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlin, R.

    2015-08-01

    Elementary particle detectors fall broadly into only two classes: phase-transformation devices, such as the bubble chamber, and charge-transfer devices like the Geiger-Müller tube. Quantum measurements are seen to involve transitions from a long-lived metastable state (e.g., superheated liquid or a gas of atoms between charged capacitor plates) to a thermodynamically stable condition. A detector is then a specially prepared object undergoing a metastable-to-stable transformation that is significantly enhanced by the presence of the measured particle, which behaves, in some sense, as the seed of a process of heterogeneous nucleation. Based on this understanding of the operation of a conventional detector, and using results of orthogonality-catastrophe theory, we argue that, in the thermodynamic limit, the pre-measurement Hamiltonian is not the same as that describing the detector during or after the interaction with a particle and, thus, that superpositions of pointer states (Schrödinger’s cats) are unphysical because their time evolution is ill defined. Examples of particle-induced changes in the Hamiltonian are also given for ordinary systems whose macroscopic parameters are susceptible to radiation damage, but are not modified by the interaction with a single particle.

  14. Development of real time detector for fluorescent particles

    SciTech Connect

    Prevost, C.; Vendel, J.; Seigneur, A.

    1997-08-01

    Aerosols tagged by a fluorescent dye are a worthwhile tool within the framework of ventilation and filtration studies. The detection in real time of a specific particulate tracer allows characterization of ventilation behaviour such as air change rate, the determination of a good or bad mixing zone and transfer coefficient, or the determination of the decontamination factor for High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. Generally, these tests require specific aerosols in order to get rid of the atmospheric aerosol background. Until now the principle of fluorescent aerosol concentration measuring has only allowed an integral response with a time lag by means of sampling on filters and a fluorimetric analysis after specific conditioning of these filters. 5 refs., 13 figs.

  15. SEVAN CRO Particle Detector for Solar Physics and Space Weather research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roša, D.; Angelov, Ch.; Arakelyan, K.; Arsov, T.; Avakyan, K.; Chilingarian, A.; Chilingaryan, S.; Hovhanissyan, A.; Hovhannisyan, T.; Hovsepyan, G.; Sargsyan, D.; Hržina, D.; Kalapov, I.; Karapetyan, T.; Kozliner, L.; Mailyan, B.; Maričić, D.; Nishev, A.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Reymers, A.; Romštajn, I.; Stamenov, J.; Tchorbadjieff, A.; Vanyan, L.

    The installation of the SEVAN CRO particle detector at Zagreb Astronomical Observatory was finished at the end of 2008. The detector is a fully autonomous unit, with the capability to send data via the Internet, and it is a part of the SEVAN (Space Environmental Viewing and Analysis Network), which includes detectors located at middle to low latitudes. Till to now the SEVAN modules are installed at Aragats Space Environmental Centre in Armenia (3 units), Bulgaria (Moussala) and Croatia (Zagreb). SEVAN detectors are use for simultaneous measurements of flux of most species of secondary cosmic rays born in the atmospheric cascade caused by primary ions and solar neutrons. These devices can be used for exploration of solar modulation effects on galactic cosmic rays. The main scientific aim is to the improve research of solar particle acceleration in the vicinity of the Sun by detecting highest energy solar cosmic rays giving additional secondaries detected by surface particle detectors and to improve researches of the space environment conditions.

  16. Mineralogical, chemical and toxicological characterization of urban air particles.

    PubMed

    Čupr, Pavel; Flegrová, Zuzana; Franců, Juraj; Landlová, Linda; Klánová, Jana

    2013-04-01

    Systematic characterization of morphological, mineralogical, chemical and toxicological properties of various size fractions of the atmospheric particulate matter was a main focus of this study together with an assessment of the human health risks they pose. Even though near-ground atmospheric aerosols have been a subject of intensive research in recent years, data integrating chemical composition of particles and health risks are still scarce and the particle size aspect has not been properly addressed yet. Filling this gap, however, is necessary for reliable risk assessment. A high volume ambient air sampler equipped with a multi-stage cascade impactor was used for size specific particle collection, and all 6 fractions were a subject of detailed characterization of chemical (PAHs) and mineralogical composition of the particles, their mass size distribution and genotoxic potential of organic extracts. Finally, the risk level for inhalation exposure associated to the carcinogenic character of the studied PAHs has been assessed. The finest fraction (<0.45 μm) exhibited the highest mass, highest active surface, highest amount of associated PAHs and also highest direct and indirect genotoxic potentials in our model air sample. Risk assessment of inhalation scenario indicates the significant cancer risk values in PM 1.5 size fraction. This presented new approach proved to be a useful tool for human health risk assessment in the areas with significant levels of air dust concentration.

  17. Neutral particle background in cosmic ray telescopes composed of silicon solid state detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The energy loss-spectrum of secondary charged particles produced by the interaction of gamma-rays and energetic neutrons in silicon solid state detectors has been measured with a satellite-borne cosmic ray telescope. In the satellite measurements presented here two distinct neutral background effects are identified: secondary protons and alpha particles with energies of about 2 to 100 MeV produced by neutron interactions, and secondary electrons with energies of about 0.2 to 10 MeV produced by X-ray interactions. The implications of this neutral background for satellite measurements of low energy cosmic rays are discussed, and suggestions are given for applying these results to other detector systems in order to estimate background contamination and optimize detector system design.

  18. Single-sheet identification method of heavy charged particles using solid state nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, M. F.; Abdel-Naby, A.; Morsy, A. Ahmed

    2007-08-01

    The theoretical and experimental investigations of the penetration of charged particles in matter played a very important role in the development of modern physics. Solid state nuclear track detectors have become one of the most important tools for many branches of science and technology. An attempt has been made to examine the suitability of the single-sheet particle identification technique in CR-39 and CN-85 polycarbonate by plotting track cone length vs. residual range for different heavy ions in these detectors. So, the maximum etchable ranges of heavy ions such as ^{93}Nb, ^{86}Kr and ^{4}He in CR-39 and ^{4}He and ^{132}Xe in CN-85 polycarbonate have been determined. The ranges of these ions in these detectors have also been computed theoretically using the Henke-Benton program. A reasonably good agreement has been observed between the experimentally and theoretically computed values.

  19. High Tc SQUID Detector for Magnetic Metallic Particles in Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saburo; Akai, Tomonori; Hatsukade, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Shuichi

    High-Tc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is an ultra-sensitive magnetic sensor. After the discovery of the high-Tc superconducting materials, the performance of the high-Tc SQUID has been improved and stabilized. One strong candidate for application is a detection system of magnetic foreign matters in industrial products. There is a possibility that ultra-small metallic foreign matter has been accidentally mixed with industrial products such as lithium ion batteries. If this happens, the manufacturer of the product suffers a great loss recalling products. The outer dimension of metallic particles less than 100 micron cannot be detected using X-ray imaging, which is commonly used for the inspection. Therefore a highly sensitive system for small foreign matters is required. We developed detection systems based on high-Tc SQUID for industrial products. We could successfully detect small iron particles of less than 50 micron on a belt conveyer. These detection levels were hard to be achieved using conventional X-ray detection or other methods.

  20. Bulk GaN alpha-particle detector with large depletion region and improved energy resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Mulligan, Padhraic; Wang, Jinghui; Chuirazzi, William; Cao, Lei

    2017-03-01

    An alpha-particle detector was fabricated using a freestanding n-type bulk GaN wafer with a Au/Ni/GaN sandwich Schottky structure. Current-voltage measurements at room temperature revealed a Schottky contact with a leakage current of 7.53±0.3 nA at a reverse bias of 200 V. The detector had a large depletion depth that can capture much of the energy from 5.486 MeV alpha particles emitted from a 241Am source. The resolution of its alpha-particle energy spectrum was improved to 2.2±0.2% at 5.486 MeV under a bias of 550 V. This superior resolution was attributed to the shortening of the carrier transit time and the large energy deposition within the large depletion depth, i.e., 27 μm at -550 V, which all resulted in a more complete charge collection. A model developed using the ATLAS simulation framework from Silvaco Inc. was employed to study the charge collection process. The simulation results were found to agree closely with the experimental results. This detector will be beneficial for research at neutron scattering facilities, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, and the Large Hadron Collider, among other institutions, where the Si-based charged particle detectors could be quickly degraded in an intense radiation field.

  1. Evolution of Some Particle Detectors Based On the Discharge in Gases

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Charpak, G.

    1969-11-19

    Summary of the properties of some of the detectors that are commonly used in counter experiments to localize charged particles, and which are based on discharge in gases under the influence of electric fields and some basic facts of gaseous amplification in homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields.

  2. Radiation Hard Silicon Particle Detectors for Phase-II LHC Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oblakowska-Mucha, A.

    2017-02-01

    The major LHC upgrade is planned after ten years of accelerator operation. It is foreseen to significantly increase the luminosity of the current machine up to 1035 cm‑2s‑1 and operate as the upcoming High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) . The major detectors upgrade, called the Phase-II Upgrade, is also planned, a main reason being the aging processes caused by severe particle radiation. Within the RD50 Collaboration, a large Research and Development program has been underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance for HL-LHC trackers. In this summary, several results obtained during the testing of the devices after irradiation to HL-LHC levels are presented. Among the studied structures, one can find advanced sensors types like 3D silicon detectors, High-Voltage CMOS technologies, or sensors with intrinsic gain (LGAD). Based on these results, the RD50 Collaboration gives recommendation for the silicon detectors to be used in the detector upgrade.

  3. Pulsed particle beam vacuum-to-air interface

    DOEpatents

    Cruz, G.E.; Edwards, W.F.

    1987-06-18

    A vacuum-to-air interface is provided for a high-powered, pulsed particle beam accelerator. The interface comprises a pneumatic high speed gate valve, from which extends a vacuum-tight duct, that terminates in an aperture. Means are provided for periodically advancing a foil strip across the aperture at the repetition rate of the particle pulses. A pneumatically operated hollow sealing band urges foil strip, when stationary, against and into the aperture. Gas pressure means periodically lift off and separate foil strip from aperture, so that it may be readily advanced. 5 figs.

  4. Particle Detectors and Data Analysis for Cusp Transient Features Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, James R.

    1998-01-01

    On December 3, 1997, a rocket payload (36.152) was launched from Ny Alesund into the dark cusp at 0906:00 U (1206:00 LT) during an interval of southward B(sub Z), and positive B(sub y). Launch occurred during a time interval of northeastward moving auroral forms observed between 0845 and 0945 UT by ground-based meridian scanning photometers. Ground photometric measurements during the flight show that the payload passed over the poleward portion of the most intense 6300 A emissions of the dayside cusp/cleft region. Electrons of energy up to a few hundred eV were detected immediately upon instrument turn-on at an altitude of 205 km and throughout the flight until the payload reached an altitude of approximately 197 km on the downleg. Electron spectra were either quasithermal with peak energies approximately 100 eV or showed evidence of acceleration along the magnetic field line by potentials of 100-200 V. Precipitating ions were observed throughout much of the flight. Their spectra were broadly peaked in energy with the peak energy decreasing from approximately 500 eV to approximately 250 eV as the payload flew approximately westward over the dayside precipitationregion. Structure(spatial or temporal intensity variation) was observed between T + 180 s and T + approximately 400 s. At the rocket altitudes(less than 450km) the ions were observed to be precipitating. During the flight, the DMSPF-13 satellite passed through the all-sky imager field-of-view just poleward of the brightest dayside emissions enabling the identification of plasma sheet and boundary layer regions along the orbit. We thus conclude that particle fluxes detected by the rocket flight were either cusp plasma or boundary layer/mantle plasmajust poleward of the dayside cusp/cleft. Further investigation of the particle characteristics and their relationship to ionospheric convection patterns is continuing.

  5. Visualization of Air Particle Dynamics in an Engine Inertial Particle Separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Jason; Zhang, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are regularly deployed around the world in support of military, civilian and humanitarian efforts. Due to their unique mission profiles, these advanced UAVs utilize various internal combustion engines, which consume large quantities of air. Operating these UAVs in areas with high concentrations of sand and dust can be hazardous to the engines, especially during takeoff and landing. In such events, engine intake filters quickly become saturated and clogged with dust particles, causing a substantial decrease in the UAVs' engine performance and service life. Development of an Engine Air Particle Separator (EAPS) with high particle separation efficiency is necessary for maintaining satisfactory performance of the UAVs. Inertial Particle Separators (IPS) have been one common effective method but they experience complex internal particle-laden flows that are challenging to understand and model. This research employs an IPS test rig to simulate dust particle separation under different flow conditions. Soda lime glass spheres with a mean diameter of 35-45 microns are used in experiments as a surrogate for airborne particulates encountered during flight. We will present measurements of turbulent flow and particle dynamics using flow visualization techniques to understand the multiphase fluid dynamics in the IPS device. This knowledge can contribute to design better performing IPS systems for UAVs. Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, 44115.

  6. Charged-particle distributions in pp interactions at [Formula: see text] measured with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

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Soffer, A; Soh, D A; Sokhrannyi, G; Solans Sanchez, C A; Solar, M; Soldatov, E Yu; Soldevila, U; Solodkov, A A; Soloshenko, A; Solovyanov, O V; Solovyev, V; Sommer, P; Son, H; Song, H Y; Sood, A; Sopczak, A; Sopko, V; Sorin, V; Sosa, D; Sotiropoulou, C L; Soualah, R; Soukharev, A M; South, D; Sowden, B C; Spagnolo, S; Spalla, M; Spangenberg, M; Spanò, F; Sperlich, D; Spettel, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiller, L A; Spousta, M; Denis, R D St; Stabile, A; Staerz, S; Stahlman, J; Stamen, R; Stamm, S; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stanitzki, M M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, G H; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Staszewski, R; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoicea, G; Stolte, P; Stonjek, S; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Stramaglia, M E; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Stroynowski, R; Strubig, A; Stucci, S A; Stugu, B; Styles, N A; Su, D; Su, J; Subramaniam, R; Suchek, S; Sugaya, Y; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, S; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, S; Svatos, M; Swiatlowski, M; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Ta, D; Taccini, C; Tackmann, K; Taenzer, J; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A A; Tam, J Y C; Tan, K G; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tannenwald, B B; Tapia Araya, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tashiro, T; Tassi, E; Tavares Delgado, A; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, A C; Taylor, G N; Taylor, P T E; Taylor, W; Teischinger, F A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Temple, D; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Teoh, J J; Tepel, F; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terzo, S; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thomas, J P; Thomas-Wilsker, J; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, R J; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Tibbetts, M J; Ticse Torres, R E; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todome, K; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tolley, E; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tong, B; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Trofymov, A; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; Truong, L; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsui, K M; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turgeman, D; Turra, R; Turvey, A J; Tuts, P M; Tyndel, M; Ucchielli, G; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ughetto, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Unverdorben, C; Urban, J; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valderanis, C; Valdes Santurio, E; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vasquez, J G; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veloce, L M; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigani, L; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Vittori, C; Vivarelli, I; Vlachos, S; Vlasak, M; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, P; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wallangen, V; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, T; Wang, X; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Washbrook, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; Whallon, N L; Wharton, A M; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wildauer, A; Wilk, F; Wilkens, H G; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winston, O J; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wu, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yakabe, R; Yamaguchi, D; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yao, W-M; Yap, Y C; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yuen, S P Y; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zakharchuk, N; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zeng, J C; Zeng, Q; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, G; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, R; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, M; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zwalinski, L

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of distributions of charged particles which are produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of [Formula: see text] and recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. A special dataset recorded in 2012 with a small number of interactions per beam crossing (below 0.004) and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 160 [Formula: see text] was used. A minimum-bias trigger was utilised to select a data sample of more than 9 million collision events. The multiplicity, pseudorapidity, and transverse momentum distributions of charged particles are shown in different regions of kinematics and charged-particle multiplicity, including measurements of final states at high multiplicity. The results are corrected for detector effects and are compared to the predictions of various Monte Carlo event generator models which simulate the full hadronic final state.

  7. Mutagenicity and antimutigenicity studies of air borne particles from Guangzhou

    SciTech Connect

    Liming Qian; Ying He; Jieming Chen

    1997-10-01

    Guangzhou is a city of 6 million in south China. In the past decade, air pollution in Guangzhou become serious. The incidence of lung cancer increased, showing a significant correlation with the air pollution. The authors performed a series of studies of airborne particles from Guangzhou. We studied the mutagenicity of the airborne particles from the city, analysed the correlations between the mutagenicity of the organic extracts of air pollutants and meteorological condition and compared the antimutagenic effects of TP (tea polyphenols) and CHL (chlorophyllin) towards the extracts. The above studies are summarized as following: (1) the extracts of airborne particles showed very strong mutagenicity in E. Coli PQ37 and Salmonella typhimurium TA98, without S9 mix; (2) the mutagenicity of the extracts was correlated to the meteorological conditions; (3) the analysis of the effects of meteorological conditions on the mutagenicity resulted in different conclusions if different meteorological data (sampling time and periods) were used. It might be an explanation for those surprising different conclusions of the related studies appeared last few years. (4) there were no significant effect of pH (3.5-7.0) and temperature (100-200{degrees}C) on the antimutigenicity of TP and CHL, showing no deteriorate effects of the conditions of common use of the 2 antimutagens.

  8. A fast, self-recovering superconducting strip particle detector made with granular tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabutti, A.; Gray, K. E.; Pugh, G. M.; Tiberio, R.

    1992-02-01

    The ability of detectors to automatically recover (self-recovery) in a short period of time after sensing a particle is a very valuable advantage for their use as microvertex detectors at high energy particle colliders. Using a superconducting strip detector made of granular tungsten, we have observed such behavior with pulse amplitudes of few 100 μV and recovery times fo 10-50 ns. A 1.8 μm wide thin film was used to detect the superconducting-to-normal transitions induced by the absorption of 55Fe, 6 keV X-rays. For high bias currents the detector did not self-recover and a constant efficiency estimated to ˜65% was found, but with good indications that such a rate would persist in the self-recovery mode at lower bias currents. The threshold between self-recovering and propagating hotspots is discussed within the thermal propagation model, developed previously for normal regions which bridge the width of the strip. These results also confirm the potential applications of superconducting strips for high resolution X-rays detectors.

  9. Chronopixels: particle detector R&D for the ATLAS phase 2 upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Christian; Baker, Keith; Barker, Thomas; Baltay, Charles; Sinev, Nikolai; Brau, Jim; Strom, David; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The pixel detector comprises the innermost part of the ATLAS detector. Its proximity to the interaction point together with its micrometer resolution allow for impact parameter determination and vertex fitting. This proximity however exposes it also to the highest radiation fluences and particle densities. The latter poses a challenge in inferring particle tracks from hit pixels, while the former leads to progressive radiation damage of the pixel detector itself. These problems will worsen after the LHC's third long shutdown in 2025 when it will operate in high luminosity mode at about five times the current instantaneous luminosity. These conditions will require the pixel detector to be replaced by one staffed with pixel modules capable of enduring the harsher radiation environment, and with finer granularity to cope with the increased pileup. Several efforts in the community are on their way to produce such a pixel module. We are presenting here the current status of our R&D on such a pixel module: The Chronopixel for ATLAS phase 2, a fully monolithic active pixel sensor in CMOS technology. Sensing and readout electronics are included in each pixel here. As such it does not require expensive and labor intensive bump-bonding to a separate readout chip, reducing cost and material in the pixel detector. We gratefully acknowledge support by the Department of Energy, Office of High Energy Physics.

  10. Performance and costs of particle air filtration technologies.

    PubMed

    Fisk, W J; Faulkner, D; Palonen, J; Seppanen, O

    2002-12-01

    This paper predicts the reductions in the indoor mass concentrations of particles attainable from use of filters in building supply airstreams and also from use of stand-alone fan-filter units. Filters with a wide efficiency range are considered. Predicted concentration reductions are provided for indoor-generated particles containing dust-mite and cat allergen, for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particles, and for outdoor air fine-mode particles. Additionally, this paper uses a simple model and available data to estimate the energy and total costs of the filtration options. Predicted reductions in cat and dust-mite allergen concentrations range from 20 to 80%. To obtain substantial, e.g. 50%, reductions in indoor concentrations of these allergens, the rate of airflow through the filter must be at least a few indoor volumes per hour. Increasing filter efficiencies above approximately ASHRAE Dust Spot 65% does not significantly reduce predicted indoor concentrations of these allergens. For ETS particles and outdoor fine-mode particles, calculations indicate that relatively large, e.g. 80%, decreases in indoor concentrations are attainable with practical filter efficiencies and flow rates. Increasing the filter efficiency above ASHRAE 85% results in only modest predicted incremental decreases in indoor concentration. Energy costs and total costs can be similar for filtration using filters with a wide range of efficiency ratings. Total estimated filtration costs of approximately $0.70 to $1.80 per person per month are insignificant relative to salaries, rent, or health insurance costs.

  11. Particle Detectors and Data Analysis for Cusp Transient Features Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, James R.

    1999-01-01

    On December 3, 1997, a rocket payload (36.152) was launched from N(sub y) Alesund into the dark cusp at 0906:00 U (1206:00 LT) during an interval of southward B(sub z) and positive B(sub y). Launch occurred during a time interval of northeastward moving auroral forms observed between 0845 and 0945 UT by ground-based meridian scanning photometers. Ground photometric measurements during the flight show that the payload passed over the poleward portion of the most intense 6300 A emissions of the dayside cusp/cleft region. Electrons of energy up to a few hundred eV were detected immediately upon instrument turn-on at an altitude of 205 km and throughout the flight until the payload reached an altitude of -197 km on the downleg. Electron spectra were either quasithermal with peak energies -100 eV or showed evidence of acceleration along the magnetic field line by potentials of 100-200 V. Precipitating ions were observed throughout much of the flight. Their spectra were broadly peaked in energy with the peak energy decreasing from -500 eV to -250 eV as the payload flew approximately westward over the dayside precipitation region. Structure (spatial or temporal intensity variation) was observed between T + 180 s and T + -400 s. At the rocket altitudes (<450 km) the ions were observed to be precipitating. During the flight, the DMSP F-13 satellite passed through the all-sky imager field-of-view just poleward of the brightest dayside emissions enabling the identification of plasma sheet and boundary layer regions along the orbit. We thus conclude that particle fluxes detected by the rocket flight were either cusp plasma or boundary layer/mantle plasma just poleward of the dayside cusp/cleft. A paper describing the fields and plasmas observed during the flight is now being prepared for publication.

  12. The UCSD high energy X-ray timing experiment cosmic ray particle anticoincidence detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hink, P. L.; Rothschild, R. E.; Pelling, M. R.; Macdonald, D. R.; Gruber, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The HEXTE, part of the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), is designed to make high sensitivity temporal and spectral measurements of X-rays with energies between 15 and 250 keV using NaI/CsI phoswich scintillation counters. To achieve the required sensitivity it is necessary to provide anticoincidence of charged cosmic ray particles incident upon the instrument, some of which interact to produce background X-rays. The proposed cosmic ray particle anticoincidence shield detector for HEXTE uses a novel design based on plastic scintillators and wavelength-shifter bars. It consists of five segments, each with a 7 mm thick plastic scintillator, roughly 50 cm x 50 cm in size, coupled to two wavelength-shifter bars viewed by 1/2 inch photomultiplier tubes. These segments are configured into a five-sided, box-like structure around the main detector system. Results of laboratory testing of a model segment, and calculations of the expected performance of the flight segments and particle anticoincidence detector system are presented to demonstrate that the above anticoincidence detector system satisfies its scientific requirements.

  13. Monte Carlo Simulation of Spacecraft Particle Detectors to Assess the True Human Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.

    2002-01-01

    Particle detectors (DOSTEL, CPDS, and TEPC) measure the energy deposition spectrum inside earth orbiting - manned spacecraft (shuttle, space station). These instruments attempt to emulate the deposition of energy in human tissue to evaluate the health risk. However, the measurements are often difficult to relate to tissue equivalent because nuclear fragmentation (internuclear cascade/evaporation), energy-loss straggling, heavy ions, spacecraft shielding and detector geometry/orientation, and coincidence thresholds significantly affect the measured spectrum. 'A le have developed a high fidelity Monte Carlo model addressing each of these effects that significantly improves interpretation of these instruments and the resulting assessment of radiation risk to humans.

  14. Mercuric iodide (HgI/sub 2/) semiconductor devices as charged-particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Becchetti, F.D.; Raymond, R.S.; Ristinen, R.A.; Schnepple, W.F.; Ortale, C.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of HgI/sub 2/ semiconductor devices as charged particle detectors have been investigated. Nearly linear energy response with FWHM resolution of 5 to 15% is observed for /sup 1/ /sup 2/H and /sup 3/ /sup 4/He ions, E < 40 MeV. Fast proton damage is observed for > 10/sup 10/ protons/cm/sup 2/. However, based on measurements with two HgI/sub 2/ detectors, little fast neutron damage is apparent at fluences up to 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/. This suggests considerably greater resistance to radiation damage than is observed for Si and other solid state devices.

  15. Optical Wireless Communication system for particle detectors in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, W.; Corsini, R.; Ciaramella, E.; Dell`Orso, R.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.

    2016-07-01

    Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) system for particles detector can be a viable solution for reducing the complexity of the optical fibre network used to extract the data from the detector. In this work we present the initial study of the tolerance to misalignment for the OWC system under investigation. We observed that using collimators of beam waist from 0.35 mm to 3.5 mm we can obtain tolerance in range from ± 0.25 mm to ± 0.8 mm. We also observed using ray trace simulation that both transmitting power and tolerance can be improved by using optimized lens at the receiver having VCSEL as transmitting source.

  16. Measurements of identified particle spectra in diffractive pp collisions with the STAR detector at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulek, Łukasz

    2017-03-01

    We present the diffractive program with the STAR Roman Pot detectors at RHIC, focusing on the spectra of identified charged particles as pions, kaons and protons and their anti-particle counterparts in Single Diffraction (p + p → p + X) and Central Diffraction (p + p → p + X + p) processes. Moreover, the p ¯/p ratio as a function of rapidity is presented to study the baryon number transfer from forward to midrapidity in Single Diffraction. Similar effect has been studied in proton-proton and proton-photon interactions but it is the first measurement in proton-Pomeron interaction. The forward proton(s) were tagged in the STAR Roman Pot system while the identified charged particle tracks were reconstructed in the STAR Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Ionization energy loss and time-of-flight of charged particles were used for particle identification. In addition, the status and future prospects of the diffractive meaurements at RHIC is described.

  17. Particle identification with the TOP and ARICH detectors at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torassa, E.

    2016-07-01

    The SuperKEKB e+e- collider will provide 40 times higher instantaneous luminosity than the KEKB collider. The Belle II detector, located at the collision point, is the upgrade of the Belle detector. The particle identification will be improved by replacing the aerogel threshold counter with two new high performance Cherenkov detectors: the time-of-propagation (TOP) in the barrel region and the focusing aerogel (ARICH) in the forward region. The time-of-propagation sub-detector consists of quartz radiator bars and micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes. The Cherenkov photons are produced and propagated through the quartz radiator, and after multiple internal reflections they are detected by the photomultiplier tubes. Photons with different Cherenkov angles reach different photomultiplier channels and arrive at different times. The time and the position convolution is used for the reconstruction of the Cherenkov angle. The focusing aerogel consists of a double layer aerogel radiator, an expansion volume and a photon detector. The aerogel thickness and the refractive indices of the two layers are optimized to focus the two light cones at the detection surface. The key features of these two detectors, the performance studies, and the construction progress are presented.

  18. Measurement of SO2 in air using coated piezoelectric crystal detectors.

    PubMed

    Karmarkar, K H; Webber, L M; Guilbault, G G

    1975-01-01

    Use of hydrophobic membrane filters is shown to effectively reduce the interfering moisture level in the detection of SO2 in air at the parts per billion range. Quadrol is used as a sensitive coating on piezoelectric crystal detectors in a flow system.

  19. 30 CFR 75.320 - Air quality detectors and measurement devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... calibrated with a known methane-air mixture at least once every 31 days. (b) Tests for oxygen deficiency shall be made by a qualified person with MSHA approved oxygen detectors that are maintained in permissible and proper operating condition and that can detect 19.5 percent oxygen with an accuracy of...

  20. 30 CFR 75.320 - Air quality detectors and measurement devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... calibrated with a known methane-air mixture at least once every 31 days. (b) Tests for oxygen deficiency shall be made by a qualified person with MSHA approved oxygen detectors that are maintained in permissible and proper operating condition and that can detect 19.5 percent oxygen with an accuracy of...

  1. 30 CFR 75.320 - Air quality detectors and measurement devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... calibrated with a known methane-air mixture at least once every 31 days. (b) Tests for oxygen deficiency shall be made by a qualified person with MSHA approved oxygen detectors that are maintained in permissible and proper operating condition and that can detect 19.5 percent oxygen with an accuracy of...

  2. Re-evaluation of Galileo Energetic Particle Detector data - a correction model and comparison to semiconductor detector dead-layer sensitivity losses using SRIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Payne, Zoe Hannah

    2016-10-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector launched in 1989 on the Galileo satellite took data on the Jovian Particle environment for 8 years before its demise. Over the course of the mission the detectors in the Composition Measurement System (CMS) have visibly decayed with higher mass particles, specifically oxygen and sulphur, reading far lower energies at later epochs. By considering the non-steady accumulation of damage in the detector, as well as the operation of the priority channel data recording system in place on the EPD, an evolving correction can be made. The recalibration significance can be validated using a model of dead layer build-up in semiconductor detectors, based on SRIM results. The final aim is to assign an estimation dead-layer depth during the mission data recordings.

  3. Electronics for the Extensive Air Shower Detector Array at the University of Puebla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, E.; Conde, R.; Martínez, O.; Murrieta, T.; Salazar, H.; Villaseñor, L.

    2006-09-01

    In this paper we describe in detail the electronics cards that were designed to be the basis of the data acquisition system (DAS) of the extensive air shower detector array built in the Campus of the University of Puebla. The purpose of this observatory is to measure the energy and arrival direction of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1015 eV. The array consists of 18 liquid scintillator detectors (12 in the first stage) and 6 water Cherenkov detectors (one of 10 m2 cross section and five smaller ones of 1.86 m2 cross section), distributed in a square grid with a detector spacing of 20 m over an area of 4000 m2. The electronics described here uses analog to digital converters of 10 bits working at a sampling speed of 40 MS/s and field-programmable gate array (FPGA).

  4. Underground Prototype Water Cherenkov Muon Detector with the Tibet Air Shower Array

    SciTech Connect

    Amenomori, M.; Nanjo, H.; Bi, X. J.; Ding, L. K.; Feng, Zhaoyang; He, H. H.; Hu, H. B.; Lu, H.; Lu, S. L.; Ren, J. R.; Tan, Y. H.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Wu, H. R.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, D.; Kawata, K.

    2008-12-24

    We are planning to build a 10,000 m{sup 2} water-Cherenkov-type muon detector (MD) array under the Tibet air shower (AS) array. The Tibet AS+MD array will have the sensitivity to detect gamma rays in the 100 TeV region by an order of the magnitude better than any other previous existing detectors in the world. In the late fall of 2007, a prototype water Cherenkov muon detector of approximately 100 m{sup 2} was constructed under the existing Tibet AS array. The preliminary data analysis is in good agreement with our MC simulation. We are now ready for further expanding the underground water Cherenkov muon detector.

  5. Detectors

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Allander, Krag

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

  6. CsI-Silicon Particle detector for Heavy ions Orbiting in Storage rings (CsISiPHOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, M. A.; Dillmann, I.; Bosch, F.; Faestermann, T.; Gao, B.; Gernhäuser, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Litvinov, S. A.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Maier, L.; Nolden, F.; Popp, U.; Sanjari, M. S.; Spillmann, U.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Weick, H.

    2016-11-01

    A heavy-ion detector was developed for decay studies in the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. This detector serves as a prototype for the in-pocket particle detectors for future experiments with the Collector Ring (CR) at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). The detector includes a stack of six silicon pad sensors, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD), and a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector. It was used successfully in a recent experiment for the detection of the β+-decay of highly charged 142Pm60+ ions. Based on the ΔE / E technique for particle identification and an energy resolution of 0.9% for ΔE and 0.5% for E (Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM)), the detector is well-suited to distinguish neighbouring isobars in the region of interest.

  7. Correlation of Particle Traversals with Clonogenic Survival Using Cell-Fluorescent Ion Track Hybrid Detector.

    PubMed

    Dokic, Ivana; Niklas, Martin; Zimmermann, Ferdinand; Mairani, Andrea; Seidel, Philipp; Krunic, Damir; Jäkel, Oliver; Debus, Jürgen; Greilich, Steffen; Abdollahi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Development of novel approaches linking the physical characteristics of particles with biological responses are of high relevance for the field of particle therapy. In radiobiology, the clonogenic survival of cells is considered the gold standard assay for the assessment of cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Toward further development of next generation biodosimeters in particle therapy, cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-FIT-HD) was recently engineered by our group and successfully employed to study physical particle track information in correlation with irradiation-induced DNA damage in cell nuclei. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of Cell-FIT-HD as a tool to study the effects of clinical beams on cellular clonogenic survival. Tumor cells were grown on the fluorescent nuclear track detector as cell culture, mimicking the standard procedures for clonogenic assay. Cell-FIT-HD was used to detect the spatial distribution of particle tracks within colony-initiating cells. The physical data were associated with radiation-induced foci as surrogates for DNA double-strand breaks, the hallmark of radiation-induced cell lethality. Long-term cell fate was monitored to determine the ability of cells to form colonies. We report the first successful detection of particle traversal within colony-initiating cells at subcellular resolution using Cell-FIT-HD.

  8. Correlation of Particle Traversals with Clonogenic Survival Using Cell-Fluorescent Ion Track Hybrid Detector

    PubMed Central

    Dokic, Ivana; Niklas, Martin; Zimmermann, Ferdinand; Mairani, Andrea; Seidel, Philipp; Krunic, Damir; Jäkel, Oliver; Debus, Jürgen; Greilich, Steffen; Abdollahi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Development of novel approaches linking the physical characteristics of particles with biological responses are of high relevance for the field of particle therapy. In radiobiology, the clonogenic survival of cells is considered the gold standard assay for the assessment of cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Toward further development of next generation biodosimeters in particle therapy, cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-FIT-HD) was recently engineered by our group and successfully employed to study physical particle track information in correlation with irradiation-induced DNA damage in cell nuclei. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of Cell-FIT-HD as a tool to study the effects of clinical beams on cellular clonogenic survival. Tumor cells were grown on the fluorescent nuclear track detector as cell culture, mimicking the standard procedures for clonogenic assay. Cell-FIT-HD was used to detect the spatial distribution of particle tracks within colony-initiating cells. The physical data were associated with radiation-induced foci as surrogates for DNA double-strand breaks, the hallmark of radiation-induced cell lethality. Long-term cell fate was monitored to determine the ability of cells to form colonies. We report the first successful detection of particle traversal within colony-initiating cells at subcellular resolution using Cell-FIT-HD. PMID:26697410

  9. Investigation of charge multiplication in single crystalline CVD diamond particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muškinja, M.; Cindro, V.; Gorišek, A.; Kagan, H.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Phan, S.; Smith, D. S.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2017-01-01

    A special metallization pattern was created on a single crystalline diamond detector aimed at creating high enough electric field for impact ionization in the detector material. Electric field line focusing through electrode design and very high bias voltages were used to obtain high electric fields. Previous measurements and theoretical calculations indicated that drifting charge multiplication by impact ionization could take place. A large increase of induced charge was observed for the smallest dot electrode which points to charge multiplication while for the large dot and pad detector structure no such effect was observed. The evolution of induced currents was also monitored with the transient current technique. Induced current pulses with duration of order 1 μs were measured. The multiplication gain was found to depend on the particle rate.

  10. 18F-FDG positron autoradiography with a particle counting silicon pixel detector.

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Lauria, A; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Marotta, M; Aloj, L; Lastoria, S

    2008-11-07

    We report on tests of a room-temperature particle counting silicon pixel detector of the Medipix2 series as the detector unit of a positron autoradiography (AR) system, for samples labelled with (18)F-FDG radiopharmaceutical used in PET studies. The silicon detector (1.98 cm(2) sensitive area, 300 microm thick) has high intrinsic resolution (55 microm pitch) and works by counting all hits in a pixel above a certain energy threshold. The present work extends the detector characterization with (18)F-FDG of a previous paper. We analysed the system's linearity, dynamic range, sensitivity, background count rate, noise, and its imaging performance on biological samples. Tests have been performed in the laboratory with (18)F-FDG drops (37-37 000 Bq initial activity) and ex vivo in a rat injected with 88.8 MBq of (18)F-FDG. Particles interacting in the detector volume produced a hit in a cluster of pixels whose mean size was 4.3 pixels/event at 11 keV threshold and 2.2 pixels/event at 37 keV threshold. Results show a sensitivity for beta(+) of 0.377 cps Bq(-1), a dynamic range of at least five orders of magnitude and a lower detection limit of 0.0015 Bq mm(-2). Real-time (18)F-FDG positron AR images have been obtained in 500-1000 s exposure time of thin (10-20 microm) slices of a rat brain and compared with 20 h film autoradiography of adjacent slices. The analysis of the image contrast and signal-to-noise ratio in a rat brain slice indicated that Poisson noise-limited imaging can be approached in short (e.g. 100 s) exposures, with approximately 100 Bq slice activity, and that the silicon pixel detector produced a higher image quality than film-based AR.

  11. An efficient, movable single-particle detector for use in cryogenic ultra-high vacuum environments.

    PubMed

    Spruck, Kaija; Becker, Arno; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; von Hahn, Robert; Klinkhamer, Vincent; Novotný, Oldřich; Schippers, Stefan; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas; Krantz, Claude

    2015-02-01

    A compact, highly efficient single-particle counting detector for ions of keV/u kinetic energy, movable by a long-stroke mechanical translation stage, has been developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik (Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, MPIK). Both, detector and translation mechanics, can operate at ambient temperatures down to ∼10 K and consist fully of ultra-high vacuum compatible, high-temperature bakeable, and non-magnetic materials. The set-up is designed to meet the technical demands of MPIK's Cryogenic Storage Ring. We present a series of functional tests that demonstrate full suitability for this application and characterise the set-up with regard to its particle detection efficiency.

  12. Measuring lifetimes of long-lived charged massive particles stopped in LHC detectors.

    PubMed

    Asai, Shoji; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Shirai, Satoshi

    2009-10-02

    Long-lived charged massive particles (CHAMPs) appear in various particle physics models beyond the standard model. In this Letter, we discuss the prospects for studying the stopping and decaying events of such long-lived CHAMPs at the LHC detectors, and show that the lifetime measurement (and the study of decay products) is possible with the LHC detectors for a wide range of the lifetime O(0.1)-O(10(10)) sec, by using periods of no pp collision. Even a short lifetime of order 1 sec can be measured by (i) identifying the stopping event with the on-line event filter, (ii) immediately making a beam-dump signal which stops the pp collision of the LHC, and at the same time (iii) changing the trigger menu to optimize it for the detection of a CHAMP decay in the calorimeter. Other possibilities are also discussed.

  13. An efficient, movable single-particle detector for use in cryogenic ultra-high vacuum environments

    SciTech Connect

    Spruck, Kaija; Becker, Arno; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; Hahn, Robert von; Klinkhamer, Vincent; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas; Krantz, Claude; Novotný, Oldřich; Schippers, Stefan

    2015-02-15

    A compact, highly efficient single-particle counting detector for ions of keV/u kinetic energy, movable by a long-stroke mechanical translation stage, has been developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik (Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, MPIK). Both, detector and translation mechanics, can operate at ambient temperatures down to ∼10 K and consist fully of ultra-high vacuum compatible, high-temperature bakeable, and non-magnetic materials. The set-up is designed to meet the technical demands of MPIK’s Cryogenic Storage Ring. We present a series of functional tests that demonstrate full suitability for this application and characterise the set-up with regard to its particle detection efficiency.

  14. The High Energy Particle Detector on Board of the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparvoli, Roberta; Palma, Francesco; Panico, Beatrice; Sotgiu, Alessandro; Vitale, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    The study of the Van Allen belts temporal stability is among the main objectives of the China Seismo- Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) space mission, as well as the study of other electromagnetic disturbances with possible seismic origin. In parallel to this, the CSES mission will address issues of heliospheric and magnetospheric physics, by measuring the cosmic radiation around the Earth.The CSES satellite, developed by a Chinese-Italian collaboration, will be launched in the first half of 2017 and inserted into a circular Sun-synchronous orbit with 98° inclination and 500 km altitude. The expected lifetime is 5 years. CSES hosts several instruments on board: 2 magnetometers, an electric field detector, a plasma analyser, a Langmuir probe and a High-Energy Particle Detector (HEPD). The HEPD detector, responsibility of the Italian side of the CSES collaboration, will measure electrons (3 - 100 MeV) and protons (30 - 300 MeV) along CSES orbit. It consists of a segmented layer of plastic scintillators for the trigger and a calorimeter constituted by a tower of plastic scintillator counters and a LYSO plane. The direction of the incident particle is provided by two planes of double-side silicon micro-strip detectors placed in front of the trigger. Topic of this talk is the technical description of the HEPD and its main characteristics.

  15. New light weakly-coupled particle searches in a neutrino detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzikoutelis, A.; Kotelnikov, S.; Bambah, B. A.; Kasetti, S. P.

    2014-03-11

    Neutrino detectors at the accelerator machines of the Intensity Frontier in particle physics are becoming commonplace. As their capabilities are being understood, they seem to have the potential for studies beyond the neutrino oscillations measurements. Besides these primary neutrino physics goals, a number of exotic searches can be done with such detectors in general, and the NOvA detectors that we present here, as a particular example. Specifically, we focus on simulating signatures in NOvA experiment's Near-Detector (300 ton, 900 m from the NuMI target of Fermilab) that correspond to beam-generated new physics states from hidden sectors, dark sectors, axion-like particles, heavy or sterile neutrinos, and heavy photons. As there are no physics generators that can inherently include such states, along with the mainstream production branches, we present here the initial stages of an effort to incorporate these signatures manually in the overall simulation framework of the NOvA experiment. For this, we discuss examples and examine the potential and challenges for detecting such signatures.

  16. Measurement of Pressure Dependent Fluorescence Yield of Air: Calibration Factor for UHECR Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Belz, J.W.; Burt, G.W.; Cao, Z.; Chang, F.Y.; Chen, C.C.; Chen, C.W.; Chen, P.; Field, C.; Findlay, J.; Huntemeyer, Petra; Huang, M.A.; Hwang, W.-Y.P.; Iverson, R.; Jones, B.F.; Jui, C.C.H.; Kirn, M.; Lin, G.-L.; Loh, E.C.; Maestas, M.M.; Manago, N.; Martens, K.; /Montana U. /Utah U. /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC /Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2005-07-06

    In a test experiment at the Final Focus Test Beam of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the fluorescence yield of 28.5 GeV electrons in air and nitrogen was measured. The measured photon yields between 300 and 400 nm at 1 atm and 29 C are Y(760 Torr){sup air} = 4.42 {+-} 0.73 and Y(760 Torr){sup N{sub 2}} = 29.2 {+-} 4.8 photons per electron per meter. Assuming that the fluorescence yield is proportional to the energy deposition of a charged particle traveling through air, good agreement with measurements at lower particle energies is observed.

  17. Profiling Cesium Iodide Detectors and Using Pulse Shape Discrimination to Identify Alpha Particles, Neutrons, and Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Emily; Rogachev, Grigory; Hooker, Joshua; Salyer, Kaitlin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the properties of detectors that are to be used in future experiments. First, we investigated the properties of a cesium iodide detector. We placed a mask over the detector's face and used an alpha source to measure the detector's resolution on different areas of the detector. In the second part, we investigated the pulse shape discrimination capabilities of a plastic scintillator. We used the scintillator to detect alpha particles, neutrons, and gamma rays and applied various analysis techniques to identify the waveforms of each type. Texas A&M, NSF.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of a beta particle detector for food samples.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Takahashi, H; Yamada, T; Unno, Y; Yunoki, A

    2013-11-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011 released radionuclides into the environment. There is concern that (90)Sr will be concentrated in seafood. To measure the activities of (90)Sr in a short time without chemical processes, we have designed a new detector for measuring activity that obtains count rates using 10 layers of proportional counters that are separated by walls that absorb beta particles. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to confirm that its design is appropriate.

  19. A study of CR-39 plastic charged-particle detector replacement by consumer imaging sensors.

    PubMed

    Plaud-Ramos, K O; Freeman, M S; Wei, W; Guardincerri, E; Bacon, J D; Cowan, J; Durham, J M; Huang, D; Gao, J; Hoffbauer, M A; Morley, D J; Morris, C L; Poulson, D C; Wang, Zhehui

    2016-11-01

    Consumer imaging sensors (CIS) are examined for real-time charged-particle detection and CR-39 plastic detector replacement. Removing cover glass from CIS is hard if not impossible, in particular for the latest inexpensive webcam models. We show that $10-class CIS are sensitive to MeV and higher energy protons and α-particles by using a (90)Sr β-source with its cover glass in place. Indirect, real-time, high-resolution detection is also feasible when combining CIS with a ZnS:Ag phosphor screen and optics. Noise reduction in CIS is nevertheless important for the indirect approach.

  20. A study of CR-39 plastic charged-particle detector replacement by consumer imaging sensors

    DOE PAGES

    Plaud-Ramos, Kenie Omar; Freeman, Matthew Stouten; Wei, Wanchun; ...

    2016-08-03

    Consumer imaging sensors (CIS) are examined for real-time charged-particle detection and CR-39 plastic detector replacement. Removing cover glass from CIS is hard if not impossible, in particular for the latest inexpensive webcam models. We show that $10-class CIS are sensitive to MeV and higher energy protons and α-particles by using a 90Sr β-source with its cover glass in place. Indirect, real-time, high-resolution detection is also feasible when combining CIS with a ZnS:Ag phosphor screen and optics. Furthermore, noise reduction in CIS is nevertheless important for the indirect approach.

  1. A study of CR-39 plastic charged-particle detector replacement by consumer imaging sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Plaud-Ramos, Kenie Omar; Freeman, Matthew Stouten; Wei, Wanchun; Guardincerri, Elena; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Cowan, Joseph Sarno; Durham, J. Matthew; Huang, Di; Gao, Jun; Hoffbauer, Mark Arles; Morley, Deborah Jean; Morris, Christopher L.; Poulson, Daniel Cris; Wang, Zhehui

    2016-08-03

    Consumer imaging sensors (CIS) are examined for real-time charged-particle detection and CR-39 plastic detector replacement. Removing cover glass from CIS is hard if not impossible, in particular for the latest inexpensive webcam models. We show that $10-class CIS are sensitive to MeV and higher energy protons and α-particles by using a 90Sr β-source with its cover glass in place. Indirect, real-time, high-resolution detection is also feasible when combining CIS with a ZnS:Ag phosphor screen and optics. Furthermore, noise reduction in CIS is nevertheless important for the indirect approach.

  2. Alveolar macrophage cytokine response to air pollution particles: Oxidant mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, Amy; Ning Yaoyu; Lawrence, Joy; Coull, Brent; Gitin, Elena; Knutson, Mitchell; Kobzik, Lester . E-mail: lkobzik@hsph.harvard.edu

    2007-02-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) primed with LPS and treated with concentrated ambient air particles (CAPs) showed enhanced release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and provide an in vitro model for the amplified effects of air pollution particles seen in people with preexisting lung disease. To investigate the mechanism(s) by which CAPs mediate TNF release in primed rat AMs, we first tested the effect of a panel of antioxidants. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (20 mM), dimethyl thiourea (20 mM) and catalase (5 {mu}M) significantly inhibited TNF release by primed AMs incubated with CAPs. Conversely, when LPS-primed AMs were treated with CAPs in the presence of exogenous oxidants (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated by glucose oxidase, 10 {mu}M/h), TNF release and cell toxicity was significantly increased. The soluble fraction of CAPs suspensions caused most of the increased bioactivity in the presence of exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The metal chelator deferoxamine (DFO) strongly inhibited the interaction of the soluble fraction with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} but had no effect on the bioactivity of the insoluble CAPs fraction. We conclude that CAPs can mediate their effects in primed AMs by acting on oxidant-sensitive cytokine release in at least two distinct ways. In the primed cell, insoluble components of PM mediate enhanced TNF production that is H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-dependent (catalase-sensitive) yet independent of iron (DFO-insensitive). In the presence of exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} released by AMs, PMNs, or other lung cells within an inflamed alveolar milieu, soluble iron released from air particles can also mediate cytokine release and cell toxicity.

  3. Hybrid Extensive Air Shower Detector Array at the University of Puebla to Study Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, O.; Pérez, E.; Salazar, H.; Villaseñor, L.

    We describe the design of an extensive air shower detector array built in the Campus of the University of Puebla (located at 19°N, 90°W, 800 gcm -2) to measure the energy and arrival direction of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1015 eV. The array consists of 18 liquid scintillator detectors (12 in the first stage) and 6 water Cherenkov detectors (one of 10 m 2 cross section and five smaller ones of 1.86 m 2 cross section), distributed in a square grid with a detector spacing of 20 m over an area of 4000 m 2. In this paper we discuss the calibration and stability of the array, and discuss the capability of hybrid arrays, such as this one consisting of water Cherenkov and liquid scintillator detectors, to allow a separation of the electromagnetic and muon components of extensive air showers. This separation plays an important role in the determination of the mass and identity of the primary cosmic ray. This facility is also used to train students interested in the field of cosmic rays.

  4. Ultrafine particle air pollution inside diesel-propelled passenger trains.

    PubMed

    Abramesko, Victoria; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2017-04-05

    Locomotives with diesel engines are used worldwide and are an important source of air pollution. Pollutant emissions by locomotive engines affect the air quality inside passenger trains. This study is aimed at investigating ultrafine particle (UFP) air pollution inside passenger trains and providing a basis for assessing passenger exposure to this pollutant. The concentrations of UFPs inside the carriages of push-pull trains are dramatically higher when the train operates in pull mode. This clearly shows that locomotive engine emissions are a dominant factor in train passengers' exposure to UFPs. The highest levels of UFP air pollution are observed inside the carriages of pull trains close to the locomotive. In push mode, the UFP number concentrations were lower by factors of 2.6-43 (depending on the carriage type) compared to pull mode. The UFP concentrations are substantially lower in diesel multiple-unit trains than in trains operating in pull mode. A significant influence of the train movement regime on the UFP NC inside a carriage is observed.

  5. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-02-01

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as 12C and 16O . All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the 12C (α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  6. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-02-24

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O. All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the {sup 12}C(α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  7. Pulsed particle beam vacuum-to-air interface

    DOEpatents

    Cruz, Gilbert E.; Edwards, William F.

    1988-01-01

    A vacuum-to-air interface (10) is provided for a high-powered, pulsed particle beam accelerator. The interface comprises a pneumatic high speed gate valve (18), from which extends a vacuum-tight duct (26), that termintes in an aperture (28). Means (32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48) are provided for periodically advancing a foil strip (30) across the aperture (28) at the repetition rate of the particle pulses. A pneumatically operated hollow sealing band (62) urges foil strip (30), when stationary, against and into the aperture (28). Gas pressure means (68, 70) periodically lift off and separate foil strip (30) from aperture (28), so that it may be readily advanced.

  8. Keeping the Air Clean and Safe: An Anthrax Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at work in the Planetary Protection division at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) sterilize everything before blasting it to the Red Planet. They take great pains to ensure that all spacecraft are void of bacterial life, especially the microscopic bacteria that can live hundreds of years in their spore states. No one is quite sure what Earthly germs would do on Mars, but scientists agree that it is safest to keep the Martian terrain as undisturbed as possible. Errant Earth germs would also render useless the instruments placed on exploration rovers to look for signs of life, as the life that they registered would be life that came with them from Earth. A team at JPL, headed by Dr. Adrian Ponce, developed a bacterial spore-detection system that uses a simple and robust chemical reaction that visually alerts Planetary Protection crews. It is a simple air filter that traps micron-sized bacterial spores and then submits them to the chemical reaction. When the solution is then viewed under an ultraviolet light, the mixture will glow green if it is contaminated by bacteria. Scientists can then return to the scrubbing and cleaning stages of the sterilization process to remove these harmful bacteria. The detection system is the space-bound equivalent of having your hands checked for cleanliness before being allowed to the table; and although intended to keep terrestrial germs from space, this technology has awesome applications here on Mother Earth. The bacterial spore-detection unit can recognize anthrax and other harmful, spore-forming bacteria and alert people of the impending danger. As evidenced in the anthrax mailings of fall 2001 in the United States, the first sign of anthrax exposure was when people experienced flu-like symptoms, which unfortunately, can take as much as a week to develop after contamination. Anthrax cost 5 people their lives and infected 19 others; and the threat of bioterrorism became a routine concern, with new threats popping up

  9. Correlation between the Maryland and Rome gravitational-wave detectors and the Mont Blanc, Kamioka and IMB particle detectors during SN 1987A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietta, M.; Castellina, A.; Fulgione, W.; Trinchero, G.; Vernetto, S.; Astone, P.; Badino, G.; Bologna, G.; Bassan, M.; Coccia, E.; Modena, I.; Bonifazi, P.; Castellano, M. G.; Visco, M.; Castagnoli, C.; Galeotti, P.; Saavedra, O.; Cosmelli, C.; Frasca, S.; Pallottino, G. V.; Pizzella, G.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Majorana, E.; Gretz, D.; Weber, J.; Wilmot, G.

    1991-11-01

    Following a previously found correlation between the gravitational-wave detectors and the Mont Blanc particle detector, the authors have searched for a similar correlation between the data of the experiments mentioned in the title. They have found that both the Kamioka and the IMB data have a correlation with the gravitational-wave data that occurs with the same characteristics and at the same time of that already found with Mont Blanc. This correlation extends for a period of one or two hours centred at the hour 2:45 UT of 23 February 1987. It shows that the particle detector signals are delayed with respect to the gravitational-wave detector signals by (1.2±0.5)s. The probability that the additional correlation due to Kamioka and IMB is only accidental is estimated of the order of 10-3 or 10-4.

  10. Development of a Bioaerosol single particle detector (BIO IN) for the Fast Ice Nucleus CHamber FINCH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, U.; Reimann, B.; Nillius, B.; Jaenicke, R.; Bingemer, H.

    2010-02-01

    In this work we present the setup and first tests of our new BIO IN detector. This detector was constructed to classify atmospheric ice nuclei (IN) for their biological content. It is designed to be coupled to the Fast Ice Nucleus CHamber FINCH. If one particle acts as an ice nucleus, it will be at least partly covered with ice at the end of the development section of the FINCH chamber. The device combines an auto-fluorescence detector and a circular depolarization detector for simultaneous detection of biological material and discrimination between water droplets, ice crystals and non activated large aerosol particles. The excitation of biological material with UV light and analysis of auto-fluorescence is a common principle used for flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, spectroscopy and imaging. The detection of auto-fluorescence of airborne single particles demands some more experimental effort. However, expensive commercial sensors are available for special purposes, e.g. size distribution measurements. But these sensors will not fit the specifications needed for the FINCH IN counter (e.g. high sample flow of up 10 LPM). The newly developed -low cost- BIO IN sensor uses a single high-power UV LED for the electronic excitation instead of much more expensive UV lasers. Other key advantages of the new sensor are the low weight, compact size, and the little effect on the aerosol sample, which allows it to be coupled with other instruments for further analysis. The instrument will be flown on one of the first missions of the new German research aircraft "HALO" (High Altitude and LOng range).

  11. FITPix data preprocessing pipeline for the Timepix single particle pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, V.; Holik, M.; Jakubek, J.; Georgiev, V.

    2012-04-01

    The semiconductor pixel detector Timepix contains an array of 256 × 256 square pixels with a pitch of 55 μm. The single quantum counting detector Timepix can also provide information about the energy or arrival time of a particle from every single pixel. This device is a powerful tool for radiation imaging and ionizing particle tracking. The Timepix device can be read-out via a serial or parallel interface enabling speeds of 100 fps or 3200 fps, respectively. The device can be connected to a PC via the USB 2.0 based interface FITPix, which currently supports the serial output of Timepix reaching a speed of 90 fps. FITPix supports adjustable clock frequency and hardware triggering which is a useful tool for the synchronized operation of multiple devices. The FITPix interface can handle up to 16 detectors in daisy chain. The complete system including the FITPix interface and Timepix detector is controlled from the PC by the Pixelman software package. A pipeline structure is now implemented in the new version of the readout interface of FITPix. This version also supports parallel Timepix readout. The pipeline architecture brings the possibility of data preprocessing directly in the hardware. The first pipeline stage converts the raw Timepix data into the form of a matrix or stream of pixel values. Another stage performs further data processing such as event thresholding and data compression. Complex data processing currently performed by Pixelman in the PC is significantly reduced in this way. The described architecture together with the parallel readout increases data throughput reaching a higher frame-rate and reducing the dead time. Significant data compression is performed directly in the hardware especially for sparse data sets from particle tracking applications. The data frame size is typically compressed by factor of 10-100.

  12. Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh

    2013-10-30

    Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, Q, greater than that of the electron, e. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0 fb-1 and 18.8 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data collected at √s = 7 TeV and √s = 8 TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of- flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to 1e ≤ |Q| ≤ 8e. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724 GeV are excluded for |Q| = 1e, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e, 6e, 7e, and 8e, respectively.

  13. Photoluminescence detection of alpha particle using DAM-ADC nuclear detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Ayman M.; Harraz, Farid A.; Ali, Atif M.; Al-Sayari, S. A.; Al-Hajry, A.

    2016-09-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) and UV-vis spectral analysis of DAM-ADC (diallyl maleate: DAM, polyallyl diglycol carbonate: ADC) nuclear detector are demonstrated for the first time. The DAM-ADC surfaces were exposed to thin 241Am disk source that emits alpha particles with activity 333 kBq. It is found that the track density of the irradiated samples remarkably influences the PL characteristics of the DAM-ADC detector. The spectral peak heights and the integrated intensities under the peaks exhibit linear correlations with correlation coefficient R2=0.9636 and 0.9806, respectively for different alpha particle fluences ranging from 8.16-40.82×107 particles/cm2. Additionally, a correlation coefficient R2=0.9734 was achieved for the UV-vis spectral analysis. The linear fitting functions, along with the corresponding fitting parameters were evaluated in each case. Both the PL and the UV-vis data of the irradiated DAM-ADC samples showed considerable spectral differences, and hence they would be used to offer sensitive approaches for alpha particle detection.

  14. Localization and quantitation of tritiated compounds in tissue sections with a gaseous detector of beta particles: comparison with film autoradiography.

    PubMed Central

    Tribollet, E; Dreifuss, J J; Charpak, G; Dominik, W; Zaganidis, N

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of tritium polymer standards and of brain sections labeled with tritiated vasopressin was carried out by using a gaseous detector of beta particles designed for this purpose. The gaseous detector showed major advantages compared with film autoradiography: the linearity and the large dynamic range of intensity measurements as well as the short time needed for data acquisition. Images PMID:1996346

  15. Neutron detector based on Particles of 6Li glass scintillator dispersed in organic lightguide matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianakiev, K. D.; Hehlen, M. P.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Favalli, A.; Iliev, M. L.; Lin, T. C.; Bennett, B. L.; Barker, M. T.

    2015-06-01

    Most 3He replacement neutron detector technologies today have overlapping neutron-gamma pulse-height distributions, which limits their usefulness and performance. Different techniques are used to mitigate this shortcoming, including Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) or threshold settings that suppress all gammas as well as much of the neutrons. As a result, count rates are limited and dead times are high when PSD is used, and the detection efficiency for neutron events is reduced due to the high threshold. This is a problem in most applications where the neutron-gamma separation of 3He detectors had been essential. This challenge is especially severe for neutron coincidence and multiplicity measurements that have numerous conflicting requirements such as high detection efficiency, short die-away time, short dead time, and high stability. 6Li-glass scintillators have excellent light output and a single peak distribution, but they are difficult to implement because of their gamma sensitivity. The idea of reducing the gamma sensitivity of 6Li-glass scintillators by embedding small glass particles in an organic light-guide medium was first presented by L.M. Bollinger in the early 60s but, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reduced to practice. We present a proof of principle detector design and experimental data that develop this concept to a large-area neutron detector. This is achieved by using a multi-component optical medium (6Li glass particles attached to a glass supporting structure and a mineral oil light guide) which matches the indices of refraction and minimizes the absorption of the 395 nm scintillator light. The detector design comprises a 10 in. long tube with dual end readout with about 3% volume density of 6Li glass particles installed. The presented experimental data with various neutron and gamma sources show the desired wide gap between the neutron and gamma pulse height distributions, resulting in a true plateau in the counting

  16. Three-dimensional characterization of drug-encapsulating particles using STEM detector in FEG-SEM.

    PubMed

    Barkay, Zahava; Rivkin, Ilia; Margalit, Rimona

    2009-06-01

    New drug-encapsulating particles were investigated using bright field (BF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in a field emission gun (FEG) scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thickness characterization was done based on measuring the effective cross-section for interaction in our sample-detector configuration using calibration particles. A simplified analytical model, taking account of BF-STEM contrast and effective cross-section for interaction, was utilized for transforming projected two-dimensional BF-STEM images into three-dimensional thickness images. The three-dimensional characterization is demonstrated on a new family of biological materials composed of submicron to micron drug-free and drug-encapsulating particles. The importance of using BF-STEM in SEM, relative to other electron microscopy methods, is discussed as well as the lateral and depth resolution.

  17. The High-Energy Particle Detector on board of the CSES mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Vincenzo; Palma, Francesco; Sotgiu, Alessandro

    2017-03-01

    The High-Energy Particle Detector (HEPD) is a range-calorimeter for the near-Earth measurement of electrons, protons and light nuclei fluxes up to few hundreds of MeV. HEPD will fly on board of the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES), scheduled to be launched in July/August 2017. This mission will investigate possible correlations between geomagnetic properties (electromagnetic wave emissions, plasma properties and particle fluxes in the ionosphere and magnetosphere) and seismic events. The study of the solar-terrestrial environment, Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), Solar Energetic Particles (SEPS) events and low-energy cosmic rays are also within the scientific objectives of this mission. A detailed description of the HEPD and its characteristics will be reported.

  18. A computer controlled television detector for light, X-rays and particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalata, K.

    1981-01-01

    A versatile, high resolution, software configurable, two-dimensional intensified vidicon quantum detector system has been developed for multiple research applications. A thin phosphor convertor allows the detection of X-rays below 20 keV and non-relativistic particles in addition to visible light, and a thicker scintillator can be used to detect X-rays up to 100 keV and relativistic particles. Faceplates may be changed to allow any active area from 1 to 40 mm square, and active areas up to 200 mm square are possible. The image is integrated in a digital memory on any software specified array size up to 4000 x 4000. The array size is selected to match the spatial resolution, which ranges from 10 to 100 microns depending on the operating mode, the active area, and the photon or particle energy. All scan and data acquisition parameters are under software control to allow optimal data collection for each application.

  19. Development of the MICROMEGAS detector for measuring the energy spectrum of alpha particles by using a 241Am source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Yoon; Ham, Cheolmin; Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun; Hong, Seung-Woo; Andriamonje, Samuel; Kadi, Yacine; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    We have developed MICROMEGAS (MICRO MEsh GASeous) detectors for detecting a particles emitted from an 241Am standard source. The voltage applied to the ionization region of the detector is optimized for stable operation at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The energy of a particles from the 241Am source can be varied by changing the flight path of the a particle from the 241Am source. The channel numbers of the experimentally-measured pulse peak positions for different energies of the a particles are associated with the energies deposited by the alpha particles in the ionization region of the detector as calculated by using GEANT4 simulations; thus, the energy calibration of the MICROMEGAS detector for a particles is done. For the energy calibration, the thickness of the ionization region is adjusted so that a particles may completely stop in the ionization region and their kinetic energies are fully deposited in the region. The efficiency of our MICROMEGAS detector for a particles under the present conditions is found to be ~97.3%.

  20. A Novel Experiment to Investigate the Attenuation of Alpha Particles in Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, D. G. H.

    2008-01-01

    A simple student experiment investigating dependence on air pressure of the attenuation of alpha particles in air is described. An equation giving the pressure needed to absorb all alpha particles of a given energy is derived from the Bethe-Bloch formula. Results are presented for the attenuation of alpha particles from americium 241 and radium…

  1. SILICON DIODE AS AN ALPHA PARTICLE DETECTOR AND SPECTROMETER FOR DIRECT FIELD MEASUREMENTS.

    PubMed

    Ören, Ünal; Nilsson, Jonas; Herrnsdorf, Lars; Rääf, Christopher L; Mattsson, Sören

    2016-09-01

    A windowless silicon (Si) diode (4 mm(2)) was evaluated as alpha particle detector and spectrometer for field measurements. It was irradiated with alpha particles from a (241)Am (2.3 kBq) and a (210)Po (9 kBq) source at source-detector distances (SDD) of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.8 cm. The energy resolution in terms of full width at half maximum was 281, 148 and 113 keV for SDD of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.8 cm, respectively. The minimum detectable activity increased from 0.08 to 0.83 Bq when the SDD increased from 0.5 to 1.8 cm. The detector has the potential for several alpha spectrometric applications, such as monitoring for wound, skin and surface contamination at nuclear fuel facilities, nuclear power plants and facilities handling radioactive waste. Other areas are environmental surveys following releases of actinides at accidents in nuclear power plants and in connection with other radiological or nuclear scenarios.

  2. Characterization of GaAs:Cr-based Timepix detector using synchrotron radiation and charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyanskiy, P.; Chelkov, G.; Guskov, A.; Dedovich, D.; Kozhevnikov, D.; Kruchonak, U.; Leyva Fabelo, A.; Zhemchugov, A.

    2016-12-01

    The interest in the use of high resistivity gallium arsenide compensated by chromium (GaAs:Cr) for photon detection has been growing steadily due to its numerous advantages over silicon. At the same time, the prospects of this material as a sensor for pixel detectors in nuclear and high energy physics are much less studied. In this paper we report the results of characterization of the Timepix detectors hybridized with GaAs:Cr sensors of various thickness using synchrotron radiation and various charged particles, including alphas and heavy ions. The energy and spatial resolution have been determined. Interesting features of GaAs:Cr specific to the detector response to an extremely dense energy deposit by heavy ions have been observed for the first time. The long-term stability of the detector has been evaluated based on the measurements performed over one year. Possible limitation of GaAs:Cr as a sensor for high flux X-ray imaging is discussed.

  3. A likelihood method to cross-calibrate air-shower detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembinski, Hans Peter; Kégl, Balázs; Mariş, Ioana C.; Roth, Markus; Veberič, Darko

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed statistical treatment of the energy calibration of hybrid air-shower detectors, which combine a surface detector array and a fluorescence detector, to obtain an unbiased estimate of the calibration curve. The special features of calibration data from air showers prevent unbiased results, if a standard least-squares fit is applied to the problem. We develop a general maximum-likelihood approach, based on the detailed statistical model, to solve the problem. Our approach was developed for the Pierre Auger Observatory, but the applied principles are general and can be transferred to other air-shower experiments, even to the cross-calibration of other observables. Since our general likelihood function is expensive to compute, we derive two approximations with significantly smaller computational cost. In the recent years both have been used to calibrate data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We demonstrate that these approximations introduce negligible bias when they are applied to simulated toy experiments, which mimic realistic experimental conditions.

  4. In-Air X-Ray Detectors : A New Field of Simple and Powerful Beam Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Scheidt, Kees

    2006-11-20

    Crotch or beamport absorbers deal with the unused power of the synchrotron radiation generated by dipoles in electron storage rings. A tiny fraction of the very hard X-rays fully penetrate the absorber structure and enter the free air space behind it. Both at the ESRF (6GeV) and at ANKA (2.5GeV) it was shown that this tiny leakage power can be detected by a simple, compact and low-cost device consisting of a scintillator with optics and camera. Situated In-Air just behind the absorber it measures precisely the vertical electron beamsize. This imaging detector is also applied for 1 us, 5mA single shot measurements in the ESRF transfer-line. A 2nd detector type was developed, using the same leakage X-rays, that consists of a high-Z blade in combination with a small In-Air ionization volume. It generates a direct electric signal that is used for nanometer resolution measurements of vertical beam motion in a spectrum upto 1KHz. The concept and results of both types of detector used now in various applications are reported here that show their potential for simple and powerful beam diagnostics.

  5. Design and characterization of an SRAM-based neutron detector for particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ytre-Hauge, Kristian S.; Velure, Arild; Larsen, Eivind F.; Stokkevåg, Camilla H.; Röhrich, Dieter; Brekke, Njål; Odland, Odd Harald

    2015-12-01

    A neutron detector based on registration of radiation effects in Static Random Access Memories (SRAMs) has been developed at the University of Bergen for applications in particle therapy. Nine different SRAMs were tested and a 16 Mibit SRAM from Cypress was chosen for the final detector. The SRAMs were irradiated in beam lines at PTB Braunschweig, the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory, The Svedberg Laboratory, The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE, Kjeller) and the CERN-EU high-energy reference field. The results from the measurements demonstrate the feasibility of using the selected SRAMs for neutron detection. The results indicate low or no sensitivity to thermal neutrons while the cross section for fast neutrons increases with neutron energy before reaching a more stable level at energies of several tenths of MeV.

  6. Etching characteristic studies for the detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Samman, H.; Ashry, A. H.; Arafa, W.; Abou-leila, M.; Abdalla, A. M.; Tsuruta, T.

    2014-09-01

    This study reports the characteristic studies for the detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detector. Several important parameters that control the track formation such as, the bulk etch rate (VB), track etching rate (VT), dependence of VB and VT on etching concentration and temperature have been extensively studied. The activation energy (Eb) of the bulk etching rate for the DAM-ADC sheets has been calculated, the dependence of etching efficiency and sensitivity upon etchant concentrations and temperature has been investigated, registration efficiency of DAM-ADC detector etched at the optimum etching condition has been examined. The detailed studied results presented in this study provide various useful information about the mechanism of track formation in polymers.

  7. Track reconstruction and performance of DRIFT directional dark matter detectors using alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, S.; Forbes, J.; Ghag, C.; Gold, M.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lawson, T. B.; Loomba, D.; Majewski, P.; Muna, D.; Murphy, A. StJ.; Nicklin, G. G.; Paling, S. M.; Petkov, A.; Plank, S. J. S.; Robinson, M.; Sanghi, N.; Smith, N. J. T.; Snowden-Ifft, D. P.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Sumner, T. J.; Turk, J.; Tziaferi, E.

    2008-01-01

    First results are presented from an analysis of data from the DRIFT-IIa and DRIFT-IIb directional dark matter detectors at Boulby Mine in which alpha particle tracks were reconstructed and used to characterise detector performance—an important step towards optimising directional technology. The drift velocity in DRIFT-IIa was 59.3±0.2 (stat)±7.5 (sys) ms-1 based on an analysis of naturally occurring alpha-emitting background. The drift velocity in DRIFT-IIb was 57±1 (stat)±3 (sys) ms-1 determined by the analysis of alpha particle tracks from a 210Po source. Three-dimensional range reconstruction and range spectra were used to identify alpha particles from the decay of 222Rn, 218Po, 220Rn and 216Po. This study found that (22±2)% of 218Po progeny (from 222Rn decay) did not plate out and remained suspended in the 40 Torr CS 2 gas fill until they decayed. A likely explanation for this is that some of the polonium progeny are produced in an uncharged state. For 216Po progeny (from 220Rn decay) the undeposited fraction was apparently much higher at (100-35+0)% most likely due to a shorter lifetime, causing a larger fraction of the progeny to decay whilst drifting to the cathode plane. This explanation implies a much slower drift time for positively charged polonium progeny compared to CS2- ions.

  8. Ambient air pollution particles and the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation has repeatedly demonstrated an association between exposure to ambient air pollution particles and numerous indices of human morbidity and mortality. Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are among those with an increased sensitivity to air p...

  9. The TORCH time-of-flight detector for particle identification and photon vertex association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo García, L.; Brook, N.; Cussans, D.; Föhl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gao, R.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros García, A.; van Dijk, M.

    2017-02-01

    TORCH (Time Of internally Reflected CHerenkov light) is a novel time-of-flight detector, designed to provide π /K/p particle identification up to 0~ 1 GeV/c momentum and beyond. To achieve this, a time resolution of ~ 15 ps combining information from 0~ 3 detected photons is required over a 10 m flight path. Large areas can be covered with TORCH, nominally up to 30 m2. One such application is for the LHCb experiment, to complement the particle identification capabilities of its RICH detectors. TORCH has a DIRC-like construction with 10 mm-thick synthetic amorphous fused-silica plates as a radiator. Cherenkov photons propagate by total internal reflection to the plate edges and there are focussed onto an array of position-sensitive photodetectors. Custom-built micro-channel plate photo-multipliers (MCP-PMTs) are being developed in collaboration with industry to provide the lifetime, granularity and time resolution to meet the TORCH specifications. In the present paper, laboratory tests of the MCP-PMTs developed for TORCH and its readout electronics are presented. Test beam measurements of a prototype TORCH detector in a low-momentum mixed beam of pions and protons are highlighted. Time resolutions for individual photons approaching 100 ps is achieved, after correction for dispersion effects in the quartz medium. In addition to the particle identification capabilities, the high-precision timing information that TORCH provides could be used at the high-luminosity LHC to associate high-energy photons with the correct primary interaction vertex amongst the many expected.

  10. High rate particle tracking and ultra-fast timing with a thin hybrid silicon pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina Gil, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A.; Martin, E.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Perktold, L.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Statera, M.; Velghe, B.

    2013-08-01

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector designed for the NA62 experiment at CERN. The beam spectrometer, made of three GTK stations, has to sustain high and non-uniform particle rate (∼ 1 GHz in total) and measure momentum and angles of each beam track with a combined time resolution of 150 ps. In order to reduce multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles, the material budget of a single GTK station has been fixed to 0.5% X0. The expected fluence for 100 days of running is 2 ×1014 1 MeV neq /cm2, comparable to the one foreseen in the inner trackers of LHC detectors during 10 years of operation. To comply with these requirements, an efficient and very low-mass (< 0.15 %X0) cooling system is being constructed, using a novel microchannel cooling silicon plate. Two complementary read-out architectures have been produced as small-scale prototypes: one is based on a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other makes use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The read-out ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and will be thinned down to 100 μm or less. An overview of the Gigatracker detector system will be presented. Experimental results from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies will be described as well. These results show a time resolution of about 170 ps for single hits from minimum ionizing particles, using 200 μm thick silicon sensors.

  11. Testing a Prototype for a New Cosmic Ray Particle Detector at the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, R.; Rimsa, E.; Tharp, T.; Andeen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Cosmic ray research has grown rapidly in the past century, often using vacuum photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) to analyze the light produced by high-energy particles passing through scintillating material. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are now being recognized as a more efficient alternative to PMTs. Different types of photon events have been characterized using a SensL brand SiPM in combination with a QuarkNet Data Acquisition board. The goal of this study is to test the viability of the SiPM for a new generation surface detector at the South Pole.

  12. Detection and localization of particle-emitting sources with compound-eye inspired detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi

    2007-08-01

    We develop methods to detect and localize particle-emitting sources using detector arrays that are inspired by biological compound eyes. The sources of interest may be optical, nuclear, or cosmic; they emit particles such as visible photons, neutrons, protons, or charged particles. Our results may have wide applications to artificial vision, which can be important in robotics (robot vision) or medicine (e.g., artificial eyes for the blind); security, where the detection of nuclear materials is needed; or astronomy. This dissertation consists of three parts. First, we detect a far-field particle source using two directional detector arrays: cubic and spherical. We propose a mean-difference test (MDT) detector, analyze its statistical performance, and show that the MDT has a number of advantages over the generalized likelihood- ratio test (GLRT). Second, we localize the source by proposing a novel biologically inspired detector array, whose configuration generalizes the compound eye of insects. This array combines the advantages of compound eyes (e.g., large field-of-view) and human eyes (e.g., high angular resolution). Based on a statistical model of the array measurements, we analyze the array performance by computing the Cramérao bound (CRB) on the error in estimating the source direction. We also derive lower bounds on the mean-square angular error (MSAE) of the source localization and investigate the MSAE of two source- direction estimators. Numerical examples, including the optimal array design, are presented to further illustrate the array performance. Third, we derive a statistical angular resolution limit (ARL) on resolving two closely spaced point sources in a three-dimensional frame, which is applicable to various measurement models (e.g., radar, sonar, or astronomy). Using the asymptotic analysis of the GLRT, we derive the ARL with constraints on the probabilities of false alarm and detection. Our results give explicit analytical expression for the ARL

  13. COMPUTATIONS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF PARTICLE FILTERS AND ELECTRONIC AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses computations on the performance of particle filters and electronic air cleaners (EACs). The collection efficiency of particle filters and ACs is calculable if certain factors can be assumed or calibrated. For fibrous particulate filters, measurement of colle...

  14. Particle identification with the ALICE Time-Of-Flight detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alici, A.

    2014-12-01

    High performance Particle Identification system (PID) is a distinguishing characteristic of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Charged particles in the intermediate momentum range are identified in ALICE by the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) detector. The TOF exploits the Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) technology, capable of an intrinsic time resolution at the level of few tens of ps with an overall efficiency close to 100% and a large operation plateau. The full system is made of 1593 MRPC chambers with a total area of 141 m2, covering the pseudorapidity interval [-0.9,+0.9] and the full azimuthal angle. The ALICE TOF system has shown very stable operation during the first 3 years of collisions at the LHC. In this paper a summary of the system performance as well as main results with data from collisions will be reported.

  15. The MONDO project: A secondary neutron tracker detector for particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, S. M.; Battistoni, G.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Spiriti, E.; Marafini, M.

    2017-02-01

    During Particle Therapy treatments the patient irradiation produces, among different types of secondary radiation, an abundant flux of neutrons that can release a significant dose far away from the tumour region. A precise measurement of their flux, energy and angle distributions is eagerly needed in order to improve the Treatment Planning Systems software and to properly take into account the risk of late complications in the whole body. The technical challenges posed by a neutron detector aiming for high detection efficiency and good backtracking precision will be addressed within the MONDO project, whose main goal is to develop a tracking detector targeting fast and ultra-fast secondary neutrons. The neutron tracking principle is based on the reconstruction of two consequent elastic scattering interactions of a neutron with a target material. Reconstructing the recoiling protons it is hence possible to measure the energy and incoming direction of the neutron. Plastic scintillators will be used as scattering and detection media: the tracker is being developed as a matrix of squared scintillating fibres of 250 μm side. The light produced and collected in fibres will be amplified using a triple GEM-based image intensifier and acquired using CMOS Single Photon Avalanche Diode arrays. Using therapeutic beams, the principal detector goal will be the measurement of the neutron production yields, as a function of production angle and energy.

  16. The Indiana silicon sphere 4 π charged-particle detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, K.; Bracken, D. S.; Morley, K. B.; Brzychczyk, J.; Foxford, E. Renshaw; Komisarcik, K.; Viola, V. E.; Yoder, N. R.; Dorsett, J.; Poehlman, J.; Madden, N.; Ottarson, J.

    1995-02-01

    A low threshold charged particle detector array for the study of fragmentation processes in light-ion-induced reactions has been constructed and successfully implemented at the IUCF and Saturne II accelerators. The array consists of 162-triple-element detector telescopes mounted in a spherical geometry and covering 74% of 4π in solid angle. Telescope elements are composed of (1) an axial-field gas ionization chamber operated with C3F8 gas; (2) a 0.5 mm thick passivated silicon detector, and (3) a 2.8 cm thick CsI(TI) scintillation crystal with photodiode readout. Discrete element identification is obtained for ejectiles up to Z ~ 16 over the dynamic range 0.7 <= E/A <= 95 MeV/nucleon. Isotopes are also distinguished for H, He, Li and Be ejectiles with 8 <~ E/A <~ 95 MeV. Custom-designed electronics are employed for bias supplies and linear signal processing. Data are acquired via a CAMAC/VME/Ethernet system.

  17. Ice nucleating particles in the Saharan Air Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boose, Yvonne; Sierau, Berko; García, M. Isabel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Alastuey, Andrés; Linke, Claudia; Schnaiter, Martin; Kupiszewski, Piotr; Kanji, Zamin A.; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    This study aims at quantifying the ice nucleation properties of desert dust in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL), the warm, dry and dust-laden layer that expands from North Africa to the Americas. By measuring close to the dust's emission source, before aging processes during the transatlantic advection potentially modify the dust properties, the study fills a gap between in situ measurements of dust ice nucleating particles (INPs) far away from the Sahara and laboratory studies of ground-collected soil. Two months of online INP concentration measurements are presented, which were part of the two CALIMA campaigns at the Izaña observatory in Tenerife, Spain (2373 m a.s.l.), in the summers of 2013 and 2014. INP concentrations were measured in the deposition and condensation mode at temperatures between 233 and 253 K with the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC). Additional aerosol information such as bulk chemical composition, concentration of fluorescent biological particles as well as the particle size distribution was used to investigate observed variations in the INP concentration. The concentration of INPs was found to range between 0.2 std L-1 in the deposition mode and up to 2500 std L-1 in the condensation mode at 240 K. It correlates well with the abundance of aluminum, iron, magnesium and manganese (R: 0.43-0.67) and less with that of calcium, sodium or carbonate. These observations are consistent with earlier results from laboratory studies which showed a higher ice nucleation efficiency of certain feldspar and clay minerals compared to other types of mineral dust. We find that an increase of ammonium sulfate, linked to anthropogenic emissions in upwind distant anthropogenic sources, mixed with the desert dust has a small positive effect on the condensation mode INP per dust mass ratio but no effect on the deposition mode INP. Furthermore, the relative abundance of biological particles was found to be significantly higher in INPs compared to the ambient

  18. Search for bosonic superweakly interacting massive dark matter particles with the XMASS-I detector.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Hieda, K; Hiraide, K; Hirano, S; Kishimoto, Y; Ichimura, K; Kobayashi, K; Moriyama, S; Nakagawa, K; Nakahata, M; Ogawa, H; Oka, N; Sekiya, H; Shinozaki, A; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takachio, O; Umemoto, D; Yamashita, M; Yang, B S; Tasaka, S; Liu, J; Martens, K; Hosokawa, K; Miuchi, K; Murata, A; Onishi, Y; Otsuka, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, K B; Lee, M K; Lee, J S; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Masuda, K; Takiya, H; Uchida, H; Kim, N Y; Kim, Y D; Kusaba, F; Nishijima, K; Fujii, K; Murayama, I; Nakamura, S

    2014-09-19

    Bosonic superweakly interacting massive particles (super-WIMPs) are a candidate for warm dark matter. With the absorption of such a boson by a xenon atom, these dark matter candidates would deposit an energy equivalent to their rest mass in the detector. This is the first direct detection experiment exploring the vector super-WIMPs in the mass range between 40 and 120 keV. With the use of 165.9 day of data, no significant excess above background was observed in the fiducial mass of 41 kg. The present limit for the vector super-WIMPs excludes the possibility that such particles constitute all of dark matter. The absence of a signal also provides the most stringent direct constraint on the coupling constant of pseudoscalar super-WIMPs to electrons. The unprecedented sensitivity was achieved exploiting the low background at a level 10(-4)  kg-1 keVee-1 day-1 in the detector.

  19. An improved electrostatic integrating radon monitor with the CR-39 as alpha-particle detector.

    PubMed

    Fan, D; Zhuo, W; Chen, B; Zhao, C; Yi, Y; Zhang, Y

    2015-11-01

    In this study, based on the electrostatic integrating radon monitor (EIRM) developed by Iida et al., a new type of EIRM with the allyl glycol carbonate (CR-39) as alpha-particle detector was developed for outdoor radon measurements. Besides using the CR-39 to replace the cellulose nitrate film as alpha-particle detector, the electrode and the setting place of the CR-39 were also optimally designed based on the simulation results of the electric field and the detection efficiency. The calibration factor of the new EIRM was estimated to be 0.136±0.002 tracks cm(-2) (Bq m(-3) h)(-1), with the lower detection limit of 0.6 Bq m(-3) for a 2-month exposure. Furthermore, both the battery and the dry agent were also replaced to protect the environment. The results of intercomparison and field experiments showed that the performances of the new EIRM were much better than the original one. It suggests that the new type of ERIM is more suitable for large-scale and long-term outdoor radon surveys.

  20. Spin-off from particle detectors in the field of medicine and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoq, P.

    2007-10-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays by Roentgen in 1895 physicists have played a major role in the development of medical imaging instrumentation. More recently, the technological developments in several areas of applied physics, the new generation of particle physics detectors and the development of an information-based society all combine to enhance the performance of presently available imaging devices. This paper describes the critical parameters of modern medical imaging in the context of the spectacular development of in-vivo molecular imaging, which will soon allow to bridge post-genomics research activities with new diagnostics and therapeutic strategies for major diseases. In particular, the molecular profiling of tumors and gene expression open the way to tailored therapies and therapeutic monitoring of major diseases like cancer, degenerative and genetic disorders. Moreover, the repeatability of non-invasive approaches allows an evaluation of drug targeting and pharmacokinetics studies on small animals, as well as a precise screening and treatment follow-up of patients. The technical requirements on imaging devices are very challenging but are rather similar in many respects to the ones of modern particle detectors on high-luminosity accelerators. Examples will be given of active technology transfer areas from high-energy physics detectors, which can significantly improve the performance of future medical imaging devices. Special emphasis will be put on the need for a globalization of technology research and development as modern instrumentation in a vast range of applications has similar requirements and spin-off should be more and more understood as cross-fertilization between different disciplines.

  1. Large monolithic particle pixel-detector in high-voltage CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perić, I.; Takacs, C.

    2010-12-01

    A large monolithic particle pixel-detector implemented as system on a chip in a high-voltage 0.35 μm CMOS technology will be presented. The detector uses high-voltage n-well/p-substrate diodes as pixel-sensors. The diodes can be reversely biased with more than 60 V. In this way, depleted zones of about 10 μm thickness are formed, where the signal charges can be collected by drift. Due to fast charge collection in the strong electric-field zones, a higher radiation tolerance of the sensor is expected than in the case of the standard MAPS detectors. Simple pixel-readout electronics are implemented inside the n-wells. The readout is based on a source follower with one select- and two reset-transistors. Due to embedding of the pixel-readout electronics inside the collecting electrodes (n-wells) there are no insensitive zones within the pixel matrix. The detector chip contains a 128×128 matrix consisting of pixels of 21×21 μm2 -size. The diode voltages of one selected pixel-row are received at the bottom of the matrix by 128 eight-bit single-slope ADCs. All ADCs operate in parallel. The ADC codes are read out using eight LVDS 500 MBit/s output links. The readout electronics are designed to allow the readout of the whole pixel matrix in less than 50 μs. The total DC power consumption of the chip is 50 mW. All analog parts of the chip are implemented using radiation-hard layout techniques. Experimental results will be presented.

  2. Search for Charged Massive Long-Lived Particles Using the D0 Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yunhe

    2009-05-01

    A search for charged massive stable particles has been performed with the D0 detector using 1.1 fb-1 of data. The speed of the particle has been calculated based on the time-of-flight and position information in the muon system. The present research is limited to direct pair-production of the charged massive long-lived particles. We do not consider CMSPs that result from the cascade decays of heavier particles. In this analysis, the exact values of the model parameters of the entire supersymmetric particle mass spectrum, relevant for cascade decays, are not important. We found no evidence of the signal. 95% CL cross-section upper limits have been set on the pair-productions of the stable scaler tau lepton, the gaugino-like charginos, and the higgsino-like charginos. The upper cross section limits vary from 0.31 pb to 0.04 pb, for stau masses in the range between 60 GeV and 300 GeV. We use the nominal value of the theoretical cross section to set limits on the mass of the pair produced charginos. We exclude the pair-produced stable gaugino-like charginos with mass below 206 GeV, and higgsino-like charginos below 171 GeV, respectively. Although the present sensitivity is insufficient to test the model of the pair produced stable staus, we do set cross section limits which can be applied to the pair production of any charged massive stable particle candidates with similar kinematics. These are the most restrictive limits to the present on the cross sections for CMSPs and the first published from the Tevatron Collider Run II. The manuscript has been published by Physical Review Letters in April 2009 and is available at arXiv as.

  3. A multi-channel integrated readout circuit (MIROC) chip for solid state charged particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiang

    2011-12-01

    Various electronic amplifier systems have been developed during the past years for solid state detectors for energetic charged particle detection. Most of them were based on the design of discrete parts or high performance hybrid packaged chips. With rapid development of modern integrated circuit industry, there are more and more integrated systems built for such applications. This work describes a novel multi-channel integrated readout circuit (MIROC) mixed-signal ASIC for solid stage charged particle detectors. The chip contains nineteen analog amplifier channels including the test channel, three on-chip 8-bit ADCs, each equipped with a 8-bit parallel-to-serial shift register, three 19-input analog multiplexers, and other digital control logic modules. This was the first known integrated readout system with multiple channels and multiple ADCs, by the time the project started. The chip is designed with special interest in 1MeV electrons. It is a highly integrated system that only requires minimal external controls, which could significantly reduce cost, space, power and total mass of the readout system, and reduce the development cycle of new instruments. MIROC chip was fabricated with IBM 7WL 0.18microm SiGe BiCMOS technology through MOSIS MEP research license, and has been tested, with key components characterized. Measured only 4mmx4mm, this highly integrated readout system has a FWHM noise below 20keV. The four configurable conversion gain levels of the amplifier chains, measured to be 164mV/MeV, 378mV/MeV, 611mV/MeV and 950mV/MeV, make the chip capable of studying energetic charged particles over the range of 100keV up to 6MeV.

  4. The “Puck” energetic charged particle detector: Design, heritage, and advancements

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, I.; Westlake, J. H.; Andrews, G. B.; Brandt, P.; Gold, R. E.; Gkioulidou, M. A.; Hacala, R.; Haggerty, D.; Hill, M. E.; Ho, G. C.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Kollmann, P.; Mauk, B. H.; McNutt, R. L.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nelson, K. S.; Paranicas, C.; Paschalidis, N.; Schlemm, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low‐resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low‐resource but highly capable, mass‐species‐discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the “Puck” EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of ~10 keV to several MeV. This sensor makes simultaneous angular measurements of electron fluxes from the tens of keV to about 1 MeV. The same measurements can be extended down to approximately 1 keV/nucleon, with some composition ambiguity. These sensors have a proven flight heritage record that includes missions such as MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and New Horizons, with multiple sensors on each of Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Magnetospheric Multiscale. In this review paper we discuss the Puck EPD design, its heritage, unexpected results from these past missions and future advancements. We also discuss high‐voltage anomalies that are thought to be associated with the use of curved foils, which is a new foil manufacturing processes utilized on recent Puck EPD designs. Finally, we discuss the important role Puck EPDs can potentially play in upcoming missions. PMID:27867799

  5. Design and properties of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegrzecki, Maciej; Bar, Jan; Budzyński, Tadeusz; CieŻ, Michal; Grabiec, Piotr; Kozłowski, Roman; Kulawik, Jan; Panas, Andrzej; Sarnecki, Jerzy; Słysz, Wojciech; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Wegrzecka, Iwona; Wielunski, Marek; Witek, Krzysztof; Yakushev, Alexander; Zaborowski, Michał

    2013-07-01

    The paper discusses the design of charged-particle detectors commissioned and developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE) in collaboration with foreign partners, used in international research on transactinide elements and to build personal radiation protection devices in Germany. Properties of these detectors and the results obtained using the devices are also presented. The design of the following epiplanar detector structures is discussed: ♢ 64-element chromatographic arrays for the COMPACT (Cryo On-line Multidetector for Physics And Chemistry of Transactinides) detection system used at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt (GSI) for research on Hassium, Copernicium and Flerovium, as well as elements 119 and 120, ♢ 2-element flow detectors for the COLD (Cryo On-Line Detector) system used for research on Copernicium and Flerovium at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, ♢ detectors for a radon exposimeter and sensors for a neutron dosimeter developed at the Institut für Strahlenschutz, Helmholtz Zentrum München. The design of planar detectors - single-sided and double-sided strip detectors for the Focal Plane Detector Box used at GSI for research on Flerovium and elements 119 and 120 is also discussed.

  6. Impact of particles on the Planck HFI detectors: Ground-based measurements and physical interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, A.; Ade, P.; Atik, Y.; Benoit, A.; Bréele, E.; Bock, J. J.; Camus, P.; Chabot, M.; Charra, M.; Crill, B. P.; Coron, N.; Coulais, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Fauvet, L.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Guillaudin, O.; Holmes, W.; Jones, W. C.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Macías-Pérez, J.; Martinez, M.; Miniussi, A.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pelissier, A.; Piat, M.; Puget, J.-L.; Renault, C.; Rosset, C.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Spencer, L. D.; Sudiwala, R.

    2014-09-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) surveyed the sky continuously from August 2009 to January 2012. Its noise and sensitivity performance were excellent (from 11 to 40 aW Hz-1), but the rate of cosmic-ray impacts on the HFI detectors was unexpectedly higher than in other instruments. Furthermore, collisions of cosmic rays with the focal plane produced transient signals in the data (glitches) with a wide range of characteristics and a rate of about one glitch per second. A study of cosmic-ray impacts on the HFI detector modules has been undertaken to categorize and characterize the glitches, to correct the HFI time-ordered data, and understand the residual effects on Planck maps and data products. This paper evaluates the physical origins of glitches observed by the HFI detectors. To better understand the glitches observed by HFI in flight, several ground-based experiments were conducted with flight-spare HFI bolometer modules. The experiments were conducted between 2010 and 2013 with HFI test bolometers in different configurations using varying particles and impact energies. The bolometer modules were exposed to 23 MeV protons from the Orsay IPN Tandem accelerator, and to 241Am and 244Cm α-particle and 55Fe radioactive X-ray sources. The calibration data from the HFI ground-based preflight tests were used to further characterize the glitches and compare glitch rates with statistical expectations under laboratory conditions. Test results provide strong evidence that the dominant family of glitches observed in flight are due to cosmic-ray absorption by the silicon die substrate on which the HFI detectors reside. Glitch energy is propagated to the thermistor by ballistic phonons, while thermal diffusion also contributes. The average ratio between the energy absorbed, per glitch, in the silicon die and thatabsorbed in the bolometer is equal to 650. We discuss the implications of these results for future satellite missions, especially those in the far

  7. Ice Nuclei in Marine Air: Biogenic Particles or Dust?

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Hoose, C.; Poschl, U.; Lawrence, M.

    2013-01-11

    Ice nuclei impact clouds, but their sources and distribution in the atmosphere are still not well known. Particularly little attention has been paid to IN sources in marine environments, although evidence from field studies suggests that IN populations in remote marine regions may be dominated by primary biogenic particles associated with sea spray. In this exploratory model study, we aim to bring attention to this long-neglected topic and identify promising target regions for future field campaigns. We assess the likely global distribution of marine biogenic ice nuclei using a combination of historical observations, satellite data and model output. By comparing simulated marine biogenic immersion IN distributions and dust immersion IN distributions, we predict strong regional differences in the importance of marine biogenic IN relative to dust IN. Our analysis suggests that marine biogenic IN are most likely to play a dominant role in determining IN concentrations in near-surface-air over the Southern Ocean, so future field campaigns aimed at investigating marine biogenic IN should target that region. Climate related changes in the abundance and emission of biogenic marine IN could affect marine cloud properties, thereby introducing previously unconsidered feedbacks that influence the hydrological cycle and the Earth’s energy balance. Furthermore, marine biogenic IN may be an important aspect to consider in proposals for marine cloud brightening by artificial sea spray production.

  8. An experimental investigation of an air cooling scheme for removing environmentally imposed heat loads from the multiplicity and vertex detector`s main enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, R.; Bernardin, J.D.; Simon-Gillo, J.

    1997-11-01

    This report presents a summary of an experimental investigation of a closed loop air cooling system designed to control the temperature and humidity in the main enclosure of the multiplicity and vertex detector (MVD). Measurements of the cooling air flow rate, the humidity levels inside and outside of the MVD, and the cooling air temperatures were used to assess the performance of the system and to characterize the system limitations and potential assembly problems. The results of the study indicate that several design changes are needed in the final design to meet the temperature and humidity operating requirements. A thorough set of design change recommendations that satisfy these operating criteria completes this report.

  9. Charged particle production in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC with the ALICE detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floris, M.

    2013-08-01

    The ALICE collaboration measured charged particle production in √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC. We report on results on charged particle multiplicity and transverse momentum spectra. All the results are presented as a function of the centrality of the collision, estimated with a Glauber Monte Carlo fit to multiplicity distributions reconstructed in various detectors. The applicability of the Glauber model at LHC energies, the precision of the centrality determination and the related systematic uncertainties are discussed in detail. Particles are tracked in the pseudorapidity window | η | ≲ 0.9 with the silicon Inner Tracking System (ITS) and the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), over the range 0.15 particle multiplicity is measured in | η | < 0.5 to be dNch /d η = 1601 ± 60 in 5% most central Pb-Pb collisions, indicating an energy density a factor ∼ 3 higher than at RHIC. Its evolution with centrality shows a pattern strikingly similar to the one measured at RHIC. Intermediate (5 ≲pT ≲ 15 GeV / c) transverse momentum particles are found to be most strongly suppressed with respect to pp collisions, consistent with a large energy loss of hardscattered partons in the hot and dense medium. The results are presented in terms of the nuclear modification factor RAA and compared to theoretical expectations.

  10. The effects of intense gamma-irradiation on the alpha-particle response of silicon carbide semiconductor radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddy, Frank H.; Seidel, John G.

    2007-10-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) semiconductor radiation detectors are being developed for alpha-particle, X-ray and Gamma-ray, and fast-neutron energy spectrometry. SiC detectors have been operated at temperatures up to 306 °C and have also been found to be highly resistant to the radiation effects of fast-neutron and charged-particle bombardments. In the present work, the alpha-particle response of a SiC detector based on a Schottky diode design has been carefully monitored as a function of 137Cs gamma-ray exposure. The changes in response have been found to be negligible for gamma exposures up to and including 5.4 MGy, and irradiations to higher doses are in progress.

  11. Towards a high performance geometry library for particle-detector simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolakis, J.; Bandieramonte, M.; Bitzes, G.; Brun, R.; Canal, P.; Carminati, F.; Cosmo, G.; Licht, J. C. De Fine; Duhem, L.; Elvira, V. D.; Gheata, A.; Jun, S. Y.; Lima, G.; Nikitina, T.; Novak, M.; Sehgal, R.; Shadura, O.; Wenzel, S.

    2015-05-22

    Thread-parallelization and single-instruction multiple data (SIMD) ”vectorisation” of software components in HEP computing has become a necessity to fully benefit from current and future computing hardware. In this context, the Geant-Vector/GPU simulation project aims to re-engineer current software for the simulation of the passage of particles through detectors in order to increase the overall event throughput. As one of the core modules in this area, the geometry library plays a central role and vectorising its algorithms will be one of the cornerstones towards achieving good CPU performance. Here, we report on the progress made in vectorising the shape primitives, as well as in applying new C++ template based optimizations of existing code available in the Geant4, ROOT or USolids geometry libraries. We will focus on a presentation of our software development approach that aims to provide optimized code for all use cases of the library (e.g., single particle and many-particle APIs) and to support different architectures (CPU and GPU) while keeping the code base small, manageable and maintainable. We report on a generic and templated C++ geometry library as a continuation of the AIDA USolids project. As a result, the experience gained with these developments will be beneficial to other parts of the simulation software, such as for the optimization of the physics library, and possibly to other parts of the experiment software stack, such as reconstruction and analysis.

  12. Towards a high performance geometry library for particle-detector simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Apostolakis, J.; Bandieramonte, M.; Bitzes, G.; ...

    2015-05-22

    Thread-parallelization and single-instruction multiple data (SIMD) ”vectorisation” of software components in HEP computing has become a necessity to fully benefit from current and future computing hardware. In this context, the Geant-Vector/GPU simulation project aims to re-engineer current software for the simulation of the passage of particles through detectors in order to increase the overall event throughput. As one of the core modules in this area, the geometry library plays a central role and vectorising its algorithms will be one of the cornerstones towards achieving good CPU performance. Here, we report on the progress made in vectorising the shape primitives, asmore » well as in applying new C++ template based optimizations of existing code available in the Geant4, ROOT or USolids geometry libraries. We will focus on a presentation of our software development approach that aims to provide optimized code for all use cases of the library (e.g., single particle and many-particle APIs) and to support different architectures (CPU and GPU) while keeping the code base small, manageable and maintainable. We report on a generic and templated C++ geometry library as a continuation of the AIDA USolids project. As a result, the experience gained with these developments will be beneficial to other parts of the simulation software, such as for the optimization of the physics library, and possibly to other parts of the experiment software stack, such as reconstruction and analysis.« less

  13. Towards a high performance geometry library for particle-detector simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolakis, J.; Bandieramonte, M.; Bitzes, G.; Brun, R.; Canal, P.; Carminati, F.; Cosmo, G.; De Fine Licht, J. C.; Duhem, L.; Elvira, V. D.; Gheata, A.; Jun, S. Y.; Lima, G.; Nikitina, T.; Novak, M.; Sehgal, R.; Shadura, O.; Wenzel, S.

    2015-05-01

    Thread-parallelisation and single-instruction multiple data (SIMD) ”vectorisation” of software components in HEP computing has become a necessity to fully benefit from current and future computing hardware. In this context, the Geant-Vector/GPU simulation project aims to re-engineer current software for the simulation of the passage of particles through detectors in order to increase the overall event throughput. As one of the core modules in this area, the geometry library plays a central role and vectorising its algorithms will be one of the cornerstones towards achieving good CPU performance. Here, we report on the progress made in vectorising the shape primitives, as well as in applying new C++ template based optimisations of existing code available in the Geant4, ROOT or USolids geometry libraries. We will focus on a presentation of our software development approach that aims to provide optimised code for all use cases of the library (e.g., single particle and many-particle APIs) and to support different architectures (CPU and GPU) while keeping the code base small, manageable and maintainable. We report on a generic and templated C++ geometry library as a continuation of the AIDA USolids project. The experience gained with these developments will be beneficial to other parts of the simulation software, such as for the optimisation of the physics library, and possibly to other parts of the experiment software stack, such as reconstruction and analysis.

  14. A Study of Particle Production in Proton Induced Collisions Using the MIPP Detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, Sonam

    2015-01-01

    The Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment is a fixed target hadron production experiment at Fermilab. MIPP is a high acceptance spectrometer which provides excellent charged particle identification using Time Projection Chamber (TPC), Time of Flight (ToF), multicell Cherenkov (Ckov), ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors, and Calorimeter for neutrons. The MIPP experiment is designed to measure particle production in interactions of 120 GeV/c primary protons from the Main Injector and secondary beams of $\\pi^{\\pm}, \\rm{K}^{\\pm}$, p and $\\bar{\\rm{p}}$ from 5 to 90 GeV/c on nuclear targets which include H, Be, C, Bi and U, and a dedicated run with the NuMI target. The goal of the experiment is to measure hadron production cross sections or yields using these beams and targets. These hadronic interaction data can have a direct impact on the detailed understanding of the neutrino fluxes of several accelerator-based neutrino experiments like MINOS, MINER$\

  15. Mechanical Stability of Polystyrene and Janus Particle Monolayers at the Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Lenis, Jessica; Razavi, Sepideh; Cao, Kathleen D; Lin, Binhua; Lee, Ka Yee C; Tu, Raymond S; Kretzschmar, Ilona

    2015-12-16

    The compressional instability of particle-laden air/water interfaces is investigated with plain and surface-anisotropic (Janus) particles. We hypothesize that the amphiphilic nature of Janus particles leads to both anisotropic particle-particle and particle-interface interactions that can yield particle films with unique collapse mechanisms. Analysis of Langmuir isotherms and microstructural characterization of the homogeneous polystyrene particle films during compression reveal an interfacial buckling instability followed by folding, which is in good agreement with predictions from classical elasticity theory. In contrast, Janus particle films exhibit a different behavior during compression, where the collapse mode occurs through the subduction of the Janus particle film. Our results suggest that particle-laden films comprised of surface-anisotropic particles can be engineered to evolve new material properties.

  16. Kinetic analysis of competition between aerosol particle removal and generation by ionization air purifiers.

    PubMed

    Alshawa, Ahmad; Russell, Ashley R; Nizkorodov, Sergey A

    2007-04-01

    Ionization air purifiers are increasingly used to remove aerosol particles from indoor air. However, certain ionization air purifiers also emit ozone. Reactions between the emitted ozone and unsaturated volatile organic compounds (VOC) commonly found in indoor air produce additional respirable aerosol particles in the ultrafine (<0.1 microm) and fine (<2.5 microm) size domains. A simple kinetic model is used to analyze the competition between the removal and generation of particulate matter by ionization air purifiers under conditions of a typical residential building. This model predicts that certain widely used ionization air purifiers may actually increase the mass concentration of fine and ultrafine particulates in the presence of common unsaturated VOC, such as limonene contained in many household cleaning products. This prediction is supported by an explicit observation of ultrafine particle nucleation events caused by the addition of D-limonene to a ventilated office room equipped with a common ionization air purifier.

  17. Capillary forces between sediment particles and an air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Lapin, Sergey; Flury, Markus

    2012-04-17

    In the vadose zone, air-water interfaces play an important role in particle fate and transport, as particles can attach to the air-water interfaces by action of capillary forces. This attachment can either retard or enhance the movement of particles, depending on whether the air-water interfaces are stationary or mobile. Here we use three standard PTFE particles (sphere, circular cylinder, and tent) and seven natural mineral particles (basalt, granite, hematite, magnetite, mica, milky quartz, and clear quartz) to quantify the capillary forces between an air-water interface and the different particles. Capillary forces were determined experimentally using tensiometry, and theoretically assuming volume-equivalent spherical, ellipsoidal, and circular cylinder shapes. We experimentally distinguished between the maximum capillary force and the snap-off force when the air-water interface detaches from the particle. Theoretical and experimental values of capillary forces were of similar order of magnitude. The sphere gave the smallest theoretical capillary force, and the circular cylinder had the largest force due to pinning of the air-water interface. Pinning was less pronounced for natural particles when compared to the circular cylinder. Ellipsoids gave the best agreement with measured forces, suggesting that this shape can provide a reasonable estimation of capillary forces for many natural particles.

  18. Particle separation by a moving air-liquid interface in a microchannel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengkun; Chon, Chan Hee; Li, Dongqing

    2010-12-15

    Particle separation is an important topic in microfluidic field and has recently gained significant attention in sample preparations for biological and chemical studies. In this paper, a novel particle separation method was proposed. In this method, the particles were separated by the air-liquid interface in a microchannel. The motion of the air-liquid interface was controlled with a syringe pump. Depending on the air-liquid interface speed, the liquid film thickness and the viscous force on particles were changed and the particles were separated by sizes. We observed the separation of 1.01 μm particles from the larger particles when the air-liquid interface speed was less than 11 μm/s, and the separation of both 1.01 μm and 5.09 μm particles from the larger particles when the interface speed was between 11 μm/s and 120 μm/s. When the speed was higher than 120 μm/s, the drag force of the liquid flow generated by the advancing interface on particles was so strong that the flow removed all particles off from the bottom channel wall and there were no particles left behind the advancing interface.

  19. Search for long-lived charged massive particles with the D0 detector.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Devaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2009-04-24

    We search for long-lived charged massive particles using 1.1 fb;{-1} of data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp[over ] Collider. Time-of-flight information is used to search for pair produced long-lived tau sleptons, gauginolike charginos, and Higgsino-like charginos. We find no evidence of a signal and set 95% C.L. cross section upper limits for staus, which vary from 0.31 to 0.04 pb for stau masses between 60 and 300 GeV. We also set lower mass limits of 206 GeV (171 GeV) for pair produced charged gauginos (Higgsinos).

  20. Charged particle production in p+Pb collisions measured by the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulga, Evgeny; ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Per-event charged particle spectra and nuclear modification factors are measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in p+Pb interactions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV. Results are presented as a function of transverse momentum, rapidity, and in different intervals of collision centrality, which is characterised in p+Pb collisions by the total transverse energy measured over the pseudorapidity interval ‑3.2 < η < ‑4.9 in the direction of the lead beam. Three different calculations of the number of nucleons participating in p+Pb collisions have been performed, assuming the Glauber model and its Glauber-Gribov Colour Fluctuation extensions. The results using different models are compared with each other, as well as with other measurements made under the same conditions and also with centrality definition based on different rapidity intervals.

  1. Scalability, Scintillation Readout and Charge Drift in a Kilogram Scale Solid Xenon Particle Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, J.; Cease, H.; Jaskierny, W. F.; Markley, D.; Pahlka, R. B.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Saab, T.; Filipenko, M.

    2014-10-23

    We report a demonstration of the scalability of optically transparent xenon in the solid phase for use as a particle detector above a kilogram scale. We employ a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat combined with a xenon purification and chiller system to measure the scintillation light output and electron drift speed from both the solid and liquid phases of xenon. Scintillation light output from sealed radioactive sources is measured by a set of high quantum efficiency photomultiplier tubes suitable for cryogenic applications. We observed a reduced amount of photons in solid phase compared to that in liquid phase. We used a conventional time projection chamber system to measure the electron drift time in a kilogram of solid xenon and observed faster electron drift speed in the solid phase xenon compared to that in the liquid phase.

  2. Free-Space optical interconnects for cable-less readout in particle physics detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Chramowicz, John; Kwan, Simon; Moretti, Tony; Sugg, Alan; Prosser, Alan; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Particle physics detectors utilize readout data links requiring a complicated network of copper wires or optical fibers. These links are both massive and costly. Upgrades to such detectors may require additional bandwidth to be provisioned with limited space available to route new cables or fibers. In contrast, free-space optical interconnects will offer cable-less readout, thereby resulting in significant reductions of material and labor. A collaborative effort between Fermilab and Vega Wave Systems is pursuing the development of a unique free-space optical link design that utilizes the transparency of silicon at wavelengths including 1310 nm and multiple wavelengths used in standard telecommunications applications such as coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM). The first step in the pursuit of that design is a proof that the concept may be viable. To that end, experiments have been performed to characterize the bit error rate performance of a prototype link over a free-space optical path and through doped silicon at multi-gigabit rates. These experiments have demonstrated that operation within acceptable bit error rates is possible using single and multiple wavelength transmission arrangements.

  3. Novel fabrication techniques for low-mass composite structures in silicon particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Neal; Silber, Joseph; Anderssen, Eric; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gilchriese, Murdock; Johnson, Thomas; Cepeda, Mario

    2013-12-01

    The structural design of silicon-based particle detectors is governed by competing demands of reducing mass while maximizing stability and accuracy. These demands can only be met by fiber reinforced composite laminates (CFRP). As detecting sensors and electronics become lower mass, the motivation to reduce structure as a proportion of overall mass pushes modern detector structures to the lower limits of composite ply thickness, while demanding maximum stiffness. However, classical approaches to composite laminate design require symmetric laminates and flat structures, in order to minimize warping during fabrication. This constraint of symmetry in laminate design, and a “flat plate” approach to fabrication, results in more massive structures. This study presents an approach to fabricating stable and accurate, geometrically complex composite structures by bonding warped, asymmetric, but ultra-thin component laminates together in an accurate tool, achieving final overall precision normally associated with planar structures. This technique has been used to fabricate a prototype “I-beam” that supports two layers of detecting elements, while being up to 20 times stiffer and up to 30% lower mass than comparable, independent planar structures (typically known as “staves”).

  4. Dead layer on silicon p-i-n diode charged-particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, B. L.; Amsbaugh, John F.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H. C.; Bodine, L. I.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, Tom H.; Chaoui, Z.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, Peter J.; Enomoto, S.; Harms, F.; Harper, Gregory; Howe, M. A.; Martin, E. L.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, David; Petzold, Linda; Renschler, R.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wustling, S.; Wierman, K. J.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2014-04-21

    Abstract Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon p-i-n diode used in the KATRIN neutrinomass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the "dead" layer evidently escapes by discussion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer from which no charge is collected is strongly disfavored.

  5. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-01-29

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method used for cross-checks that indeed we reach nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a “beacon transmitter” which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.

  6. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    DOE PAGES

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-01-29

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independentmore » method used for cross-checks that indeed we reach nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a “beacon transmitter” which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.« less

  7. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a ``beacon transmitter'' which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.

  8. Thermal separation of soil particles from thermal conductivity measurement under various air pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Sen; Ren, Tusheng; Lu, Yili; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of dry soils is related closely to air pressure and the contact areas between solid particles. In this study, the thermal conductivity of two-phase soil systems was determined under reduced and increased air pressures. The thermal separation of soil particles, i.e., the characteristic dimension of the pore space (d), was then estimated based on the relationship between soil thermal conductivity and air pressure. Results showed that under both reduced and increased air pressures, d estimations were significantly larger than the geometrical mean separation of solid particles (D), which suggested that conductive heat transfer through solid particles dominated heat transfer in dry soils. The increased air pressure approach gave d values lower than that of the reduced air pressure method. With increasing air pressure, more collisions between gas molecules and solid surface occurred in micro-pores and intra-aggregate pores due to the reduction of mean free path of air molecules. Compared to the reduced air pressure approach, the increased air pressure approach expressed more micro-pore structure attributes in heat transfer. We concluded that measuring thermal conductivity under increased air pressure procedures gave better-quality d values, and improved soil micro-pore structure estimation.

  9. Thermal separation of soil particles from thermal conductivity measurement under various air pressures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sen; Ren, Tusheng; Lu, Yili; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong

    2017-01-05

    The thermal conductivity of dry soils is related closely to air pressure and the contact areas between solid particles. In this study, the thermal conductivity of two-phase soil systems was determined under reduced and increased air pressures. The thermal separation of soil particles, i.e., the characteristic dimension of the pore space (d), was then estimated based on the relationship between soil thermal conductivity and air pressure. Results showed that under both reduced and increased air pressures, d estimations were significantly larger than the geometrical mean separation of solid particles (D), which suggested that conductive heat transfer through solid particles dominated heat transfer in dry soils. The increased air pressure approach gave d values lower than that of the reduced air pressure method. With increasing air pressure, more collisions between gas molecules and solid surface occurred in micro-pores and intra-aggregate pores due to the reduction of mean free path of air molecules. Compared to the reduced air pressure approach, the increased air pressure approach expressed more micro-pore structure attributes in heat transfer. We concluded that measuring thermal conductivity under increased air pressure procedures gave better-quality d values, and improved soil micro-pore structure estimation.

  10. Thermal separation of soil particles from thermal conductivity measurement under various air pressures

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Sen; Ren, Tusheng; Lu, Yili; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of dry soils is related closely to air pressure and the contact areas between solid particles. In this study, the thermal conductivity of two-phase soil systems was determined under reduced and increased air pressures. The thermal separation of soil particles, i.e., the characteristic dimension of the pore space (d), was then estimated based on the relationship between soil thermal conductivity and air pressure. Results showed that under both reduced and increased air pressures, d estimations were significantly larger than the geometrical mean separation of solid particles (D), which suggested that conductive heat transfer through solid particles dominated heat transfer in dry soils. The increased air pressure approach gave d values lower than that of the reduced air pressure method. With increasing air pressure, more collisions between gas molecules and solid surface occurred in micro-pores and intra-aggregate pores due to the reduction of mean free path of air molecules. Compared to the reduced air pressure approach, the increased air pressure approach expressed more micro-pore structure attributes in heat transfer. We concluded that measuring thermal conductivity under increased air pressure procedures gave better-quality d values, and improved soil micro-pore structure estimation. PMID:28054663

  11. Results from prototypes of environmental and health alarm devices based on gaseous detectors operating in air in counting mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpak, G.; Benaben, P.; Breuil, P.; Martinengo, P.; Nappi, E.; Peskov, V.

    2011-02-01

    We have developed and successfully tested two prototypes of detectors of dangerous gases based on wire-type counters operating in air in avalanche mode: one is for radon (Rn) detection whereas the other one is for the detection of gases with an ionization potential less than the air components. Due to the operation in pulse counting mode these prototypes have sensitivities comparable to (in the case of the Rn detector) or much higher than (in the case of the detector for low ionization gases) the best commercial devices currently available on the market. We believe that due to their high sensitivity, simplicity and low cost such new detectors will find massive applications. One of them, discussed in this paper, could be the on-line monitoring of Rn for the prediction of earthquakes.

  12. Object tracking with adaptive HOG detector and adaptive Rao-Blackwellised particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Stefano; Paleari, Marco; Ariano, Paolo; Bona, Basilio

    2012-01-01

    Scenarios for a manned mission to the Moon or Mars call for astronaut teams to be accompanied by semiautonomous robots. A prerequisite for human-robot interaction is the capability of successfully tracking humans and objects in the environment. In this paper we present a system for real-time visual object tracking in 2D images for mobile robotic systems. The proposed algorithm is able to specialize to individual objects and to adapt to substantial changes in illumination and object appearance during tracking. The algorithm is composed by two main blocks: a detector based on Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) descriptors and linear Support Vector Machines (SVM), and a tracker which is implemented by an adaptive Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF). The SVM is re-trained online on new samples taken from previous predicted positions. We use the effective sample size to decide when the classifier needs to be re-trained. Position hypotheses for the tracked object are the result of a clustering procedure applied on the set of particles. The algorithm has been tested on challenging video sequences presenting strong changes in object appearance, illumination, and occlusion. Experimental tests show that the presented method is able to achieve near real-time performances with a precision of about 7 pixels on standard video sequences of dimensions 320 × 240.

  13. The eye (and brain) as ionizing particle detector? First results from the ALTEA - space experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narici, Livio

    The first part of ALTEA-Space experiments have been performed on the ISS (USLab) between August 2006 and July 2007. The ALTEA hardware features 6 particle telescopes each with 6 striped 8 x 16 cm2 silicon planes arranged alternately in the x and y direction. These detectors are hold by helmet shaped holder. ALTEA features also a light tight visual stimulation unit, a 32 channel EEG cap and electronics, a 3-buttons pushbutton. Two different experiment modalities were run: DOSI and CNSM. The former is the study of the radiation environment of the USLab, and results from these measurements are mostly covered by other papers in this conference; the latter is the study of the electrophysiological activity in coincidence with particle traveling through the eye/brain of the astronaut, with specific reference to the observed light flashes. In this paper we will present first results from these measurements and discuss, within this panorama, the amount of the measured radiation in the brain/eye. Seven CNSM sessions have been performed (on three astronauts), with a total of 20 light flashes perceived. Comparisons with previous measurements in Low Earth Orbit and during the flights to the Moon will be also shown

  14. Particle astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoulet, Bernard; Cronin, James; Aprile, Elena; Barish, Barry C.; Beier, Eugene W.; Brandenberger, Robert; Cabrera, Blas; Caldwell, David; Cassiday, George; Cline, David B.

    1991-01-01

    The following scientific areas are reviewed: (1) cosmology and particle physics (particle physics and the early universe, dark matter, and other relics); (2) stellar physics and particles (solar neutrinos, supernovae, and unconventional particle physics); (3) high energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy; (4) cosmic rays (space and ground observations). Highest scientific priorities for the next decade include implementation of the current program, new initiatives, and longer-term programs. Essential technological developments, such as cryogenic detectors of particles, new solar neutrino techniques, and new extensive air shower detectors, are discussed. Also a certain number of institutional issues (the funding of particle astrophysics, recommended funding mechanisms, recommended facilities, international collaborations, and education and technology) which will become critical in the coming decade are presented.

  15. Particle astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadoulet, Bernard; Cronin, James; Aprile, Elena; Barish, Barry C.; Beier, Eugene W.; Brandenberger, Robert; Cabrera, Blas; Caldwell, David; Cassiday, George; Cline, David B.

    The following scientific areas are reviewed: (1) cosmology and particle physics (particle physics and the early universe, dark matter, and other relics); (2) stellar physics and particles (solar neutrinos, supernovae, and unconventional particle physics); (3) high energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy; (4) cosmic rays (space and ground observations). Highest scientific priorities for the next decade include implementation of the current program, new initiatives, and longer-term programs. Essential technological developments, such as cryogenic detectors of particles, new solar neutrino techniques, and new extensive air shower detectors, are discussed. Also a certain number of institutional issues (the funding of particle astrophysics, recommended funding mechanisms, recommended facilities, international collaborations, and education and technology) which will become critical in the coming decade are presented.

  16. The joint NASA/Goddard-University of Maryland research program in charged particle and high energy photon detector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Progress made in the following areas is discussed: low energy ion and electron experiments; instrument design for current experiments; magnetospheric measurement of particles; ion measurement in the earth plasma sheet; abundance measurement; X-ray data acquisition; high energy physics; extragalactic astronomy; compact object astrophysics; planetology; and high energy photon detector technology.

  17. An experimental investigation of an air cooling scheme for the multichip modules of the multiplicity and vertex detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardin, J.D.; Bosze, E.; Boissevain, J.; Simon-Gillo, J.

    1997-07-01

    This report presents a summary of an experimental investigation of an electronics air cooling system for the multiplicity and vertex detector (MVD), a device used to determine and characterize the collision location of two accelerated heavy ions. Measurements of the flow rates of the cooling air and the temperatures of the air and electronic components were used to assess and optimize the performance of the proposed air cooling system, identify potential assembly problems and system limitations, and provide the necessary information for designing and sizing the final MVD cooling system components.

  18. Gallium Arsenide detectors for X-ray and electron (beta particle) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lioliou, G.; Barnett, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Results characterizing GaAs p+-i-n+ mesa photodiodes with a 10 μm i layer for their spectral response under illumination of X-rays and beta particles are presented. A total of 22 devices, having diameters of 200 μm and 400 μm, were electrically characterized at room temperature. All devices showed comparable characteristics with a measured leakage current ranging from 4 nA/cm2 to 67 nA/cm2 at an internal electric field of 50 kV/cm. Their unintentionally doped i layers were found to be almost fully depleted at 0 V due to their low doping density. 55Fe X-ray spectra were obtained using one 200 μm diameter device and one 400 μm diameter device. The best energy resolution (FWHM at 5.9 keV) achieved was 625 eV using the 200 μm and 740 eV using the 400 μm diameter device, respectively. Noise analysis showed that the limiting factor for the energy resolution of the system was the dielectric noise; if this noise was eliminated by better design of the front end of the readout electronics, the achievable resolution would be 250 eV. 63Ni beta particle spectra obtained using the 200 μm diameter device showed the potential utility of these detectors for electron and beta particle detection. The development of semiconductor electron spectrometers is important particularly for space plasma physics; such devices may find use in future space missions to study the plasma environment of Jupiter and Europa and the predicted electron impact excitation of water vapor plumes from Europa hypothesized as a result of recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV observations.

  19. Analysis and Quantification of Coupling Mechanisms of External Signal Perturbations on Silicon Detectors for Particle Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteche, F.; Rivetta, C.; Iglesias, M.; Echeverria, I.

    2016-05-01

    Silicon detectors have been used in astrophysics satellites and particle detectors for high energy physics (HEP) experiments. For HEP applications, EMC studies have been conducted in silicon detectors to characterize the impact of external noise on the system. They have shown that problems associated with the new generation of silicon detectors are related with interferences generated by the power supplies and auxiliary equipment connected to the device. Characterization of these interferences along with the coupling and their propagation into the susceptible front-end circuits is required for a successful integration of these systems. This paper presents the analysis of the sensitivity curves and coupling mechanisms between the noise and the front-end electronics that have been observed during the characterization of two silicon detector prototypes: the CMS-Silicon tracker detector (CMS-ST) and Silicon Vertex Detector (Belle II-SVD). As a result of these studies, it is possible to identify critical elements in prototypes to take corrective actions in the design and improve the front-end electronics performance.

  20. Control of respirable particles and radon progeny with portable air cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-02-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles and radon progeny. Following injection of cigarette smoke and radon in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particles and radon progeny concentrations were measured with and without air cleaner operation. Particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size. In tests with no air cleaner the natural decay rate for cigarette smoke was observed to be 0.2 hr/sup -1/. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filters, a residential ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. The electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters tested had significant particle removal rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in removing radon progeny. At low particle concentrations plateout of the unattached radon progeny is an important removal mechanism. Based on data from these tests, the plateout rate for unattached progeny was found to be 15 hr/sup -1/. The unattached fraction and the overall removal rate due to deposition of attached and unattached nuclides have been estimated for each radon decay product as a function of particle concentration. While air cleaning can be effective in reducing total radon progeny, concentrations of unattached radon progeny can increase with increasing air cleaning. 39 references, 26 figures, 9 tables.

  1. Biomarker as a Research Tool in Linking Exposure to Air Particles and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Some of the environmental toxicants from air pollution include particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and ultrafine particles (UFP). Both short- and long-term exposure could result in various degrees of respiratory health outcomes among exposed persons, which rely on the individuals' health status. Methods. In this paper, we highlight a review of the studies that have used biomarkers to understand the association between air particles exposure and the development of respiratory problems resulting from the damage in the respiratory system. Data from previous epidemiological studies relevant to the application of biomarkers in respiratory system damage reported from exposure to air particles are also summarized. Results. Based on these analyses, the findings agree with the hypothesis that biomarkers are relevant in linking harmful air particles concentrations to increased respiratory health effects. Biomarkers are used in epidemiological studies to provide an understanding of the mechanisms that follow airborne particles exposure in the airway. However, application of biomarkers in epidemiological studies of health effects caused by air particles in both environmental and occupational health is inchoate. Conclusion. Biomarkers unravel the complexity of the connection between exposure to air particles and respiratory health. PMID:25984536

  2. Laser Doppler spectrometer method of particle sizing. [for air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, F. N.

    1976-01-01

    A spectrometer for the detection of airborne particulate pollution in the submicron size range is described. In this device, airborne particles are accelerated through a supersonic nozzle, with different sizes achieving different velocities in the gas flow. Information about the velocities of the accelerated particles is obtained with a laser-heterodyne optical system through the Doppler shift of light scattered from the particles. Detection is accomplished by means of a photomultiplier. Nozzle design and signal processing techniques are also discussed.

  3. Cardiovascular Effects in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome Exposed to Concentrated Ultrafine Air Pollution Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    RATIONALE: Epidemiologic studies report associations between ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) and various indices of cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. A leading hypothesis contends that smaller ultrafine (UF) particles induce a greater physiologic response bec...

  4. Epitaxial silicon detectors for particle tracking—Radiation tolerance at extreme hadron fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindström, Gunnar; Dolenc, Irena; Fretwurst, Eckhart; Hönniger, Frank; Kramberger, Gregor; Moll, Michael; Nossarzewska, Elsbieta; Pintilie, Ioana; Röder, Ralf

    2006-11-01

    Diodes processed on n-type epitaxial silicon with a thickness of 25, 50 and 75 μm had been irradiated with reactor neutrons and high-energy protons (24 GeV/ c) up to integrated fluences of Φeq=10 16 cm -2. Systematic experiments on radiation-induced damage effects revealed the following results: in contrast to standard and oxygen-enriched float zone (FZ) silicon devices no space charge sign inversion was observed after irradiation. It is shown that the radiation-generated concentration of deep acceptors, dominating the behavior of n-type FZ diodes, is compensated by creation of shallow donors. Thus a positive space charge is maintained throughout the irradiation up to the highest fluence and even during prolonged elevated-temperature annealing cycles. Defect analysis studies using thermally stimulated current measurements attribute the effect to a damage-induced shallow donor at EC-0.23 eV. It is argued that, as in the case of thermal donors, oxygen dimers, out diffusing from the Cz substrate during the diode processing, are responsible precursers. Results from extensive annealing experiments at elevated temperatures are verified by comparison with prolonged room-temperature annealing. These results showed that in contrast to FZ detectors, which always have to be cooled, room-temperature storage during beam off periods of future elementary particle physics experiments would even be beneficial for n-type epi-silicon detectors. A dedicated experiment at CERN-PS had successfully proven this expectation. It was verified, that in such a scenario the depletion voltage for the epi-detector could always be kept at a moderate level throughout the full S-LHC operation (foreseen upgrade of the large hadron collider). Practically no difference with respect to FZ-silicon devices was found in the damage-induced bulk generation current. The charge trapping measured with 90Sr electrons (mip's) is also almost identical to what was expected. A charge collection efficiency of 60

  5. EPA Finalizes Initial Area Designations for the 2012 National Air Quality Standard for Fine Particles - Dec 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    After considering state and tribal recommendations, reviewing the most recent certified fine particle air quality data, and emissions that contribute fine particle pollution, EPA has completed initial designations for the 2012 annual fine particle standard

  6. Nanoparticle filtration performance of NIOSH-certified particulate air-purifying filtering facepiece respirators: evaluation by light scattering photometric and particle number-based test methods.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Samy; Eimer, Benjamin C

    2012-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) certification test methods employ charge neutralized NaCl or dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols to measure filter penetration levels of air-purifying particulate respirators photometrically using a TSI 8130 automated filter tester at 85 L/min. A previous study in our laboratory found that widely different filter penetration levels were measured for nanoparticles depending on whether a particle number (count)-based detector or a photometric detector was used. The purpose of this study was to better understand the influence of key test parameters, including filter media type, challenge aerosol size range, and detector system. Initial penetration levels for 17 models of NIOSH-approved N-, R-, and P-series filtering facepiece respirators were measured using the TSI 8130 photometric method and compared with the particle number-based penetration (obtained using two ultrafine condensation particle counters) for the same challenge aerosols generated by the TSI 8130. In general, the penetration obtained by the photometric method was less than the penetration obtained with the number-based method. Filter penetration was also measured for ambient room aerosols. Penetration measured by the TSI 8130 photometric method was lower than the number-based ambient aerosol penetration values. Number-based monodisperse NaCl aerosol penetration measurements showed that the most penetrating particle size was in the 50 nm range for all respirator models tested, with the exception of one model at ~200 nm size. Respirator models containing electrostatic filter media also showed lower penetration values with the TSI 8130 photometric method than the number-based penetration obtained for the most penetrating monodisperse particles. Results suggest that to provide a more challenging respirator filter test method than what is currently used for respirators containing electrostatic media, the test method should utilize a sufficient number

  7. Charged-particle distributions in pp interactions at √s=8TeV measured with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; ...

    2016-07-15

    This study presents measurements of distributions of charged particles which are produced in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s=8TeV and recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. A special dataset recorded in 2012 with a small number of interactions per beam crossing (below 0.004) and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 160 μb-1 was used. A minimum-bias trigger was utilised to select a data sample of more than 9 million collision events. The multiplicity, pseudorapidity, and transverse momentum distributions of charged particles are shown in different regions of kinematics and charged-particle multiplicity, including measurements of final statesmore » at high multiplicity. Finally, the results are corrected for detector effects and are compared to the predictions of various Monte Carlo event generator models which simulate the full hadronic final state.« less

  8. Charged-particle distributions in pp interactions at √{s}=8 { TeV} measured with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents measurements of distributions of charged particles which are produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √{s} = 8 TeV and recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. A special dataset recorded in 2012 with a small number of interactions per beam crossing (below 0.004) and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 160 μ b^{-1} was used. A minimum-bias trigger was utilised to select a data sample of more than 9 million collision events. The multiplicity, pseudorapidity, and transverse momentum distributions of charged particles are shown in different regions of kinematics and charged-particle multiplicity, including measurements of final states at high multiplicity. The results are corrected for detector effects and are compared to the predictions of various Monte Carlo event generator models which simulate the full hadronic final state.

  9. Charged-particle distributions in pp interactions at √s=8TeV measured with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. 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A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-07-15

    This study presents measurements of distributions of charged particles which are produced in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s=8TeV and recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. A special dataset recorded in 2012 with a small number of interactions per beam crossing (below 0.004) and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 160 μb-1 was used. A minimum-bias trigger was utilised to select a data sample of more than 9 million collision events. The multiplicity, pseudorapidity, and transverse momentum distributions of charged particles are shown in different regions of kinematics and charged-particle multiplicity, including measurements of final states at high multiplicity. Finally, the results are corrected for detector effects and are compared to the predictions of various Monte Carlo event generator models which simulate the full hadronic final state.

  10. Development of a custom on-line ultrasonic vapour analyzer and flow meter for the ATLAS inner detector, with application to Cherenkov and gaseous charged particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhroob, M.; Bates, R.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Bousson, N.; Boyd, G.; Bozza, G.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Degeorge, C.; Deterre, C.; DiGirolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Favre, G.; Godlewski, J.; Hallewell, G.; Hasib, A.; Katunin, S.; Langevin, N.; Lombard, D.; Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; O'Rourke, A.; Pearson, B.; Robinson, D.; Rossi, C.; Rozanov, A.; Strauss, M.; Vacek, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-03-01

    Precision sound velocity measurements can simultaneously determine binary gas composition and flow. We have developed an analyzer with custom microcontroller-based electronics, currently used in the ATLAS Detector Control System, with numerous potential applications. Three instruments monitor C3F8 and CO2 coolant leak rates into the nitrogen envelopes of the ATLAS silicon microstrip and Pixel detectors. Two further instruments will aid operation of the new thermosiphon coolant recirculator: one of these will monitor air leaks into the low pressure condenser while the other will measure return vapour flow along with C3F8/C2F6 blend composition, should blend operation be necessary to protect the ATLAS silicon tracker under increasing LHC luminosity. We describe these instruments and their electronics.

  11. A micro-gap, air-filled ionisation chamber as a detector for criticality accident dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Murawski, Ł; Zielczyński, M; Golnik, N; Gryziński, M A

    2014-10-01

    A micro-gap air-filled ionisation chamber was designed for criticality dosimetry. The special feature of the chamber is its very small gap between electrodes of only 0.3 mm. This prevents ion recombination at high dose rates and minimises the influence of gas on secondary particles spectrum. The electrodes are made of polypropylene because of higher content of hydrogen in this material, when compared with soft tissue. The difference between neutron and gamma sensitivity in such chamber becomes practically negligible. The chamber's envelope contains two specially connected capacitors, one for polarising the electrodes and the other for collecting the ionisation charge.

  12. Performance of a large size triple GEM detector at high particle rate for the CBM Experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Rama Prasad; Kumar, Ajit; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Das, Supriya; Raha, Sibaji; Samanta, Subhasis; Saini, Jogender

    2017-02-01

    In CBM Experiment at FAIR, dimuons will be detected by a Muon Chamber (MUCH) consisting of segmented absorbers of varying widths and tracking chambers sandwiched between the absorber-pairs. In this fixed target heavy-ion collision experiment, operating at highest interaction rate of 10 MHz for Au+Au collision, the inner region of the 1st detector will face a particle rate of 1 MHz/cm2. To operate at such a high particle density, GEM technology based detectors have been selected for the first two stations of MUCH. We have reported earlier the performance of several small-size GEM detector prototypes built at VECC for use in MUCH. In this work, we report on a large GEM prototype tested with proton beam of momentum 2.36 GeV/c at COSY-Jülich Germany. The detector was read out using nXYTER operated in self-triggering mode. An efficiency higher than 96% at ΔVGEM = 375.2 V was achieved. The variation of efficiency with the rate of incoming protons has been found to vary within 2% when tested up to a maximum rate of 2.8 MHz/cm2. The gain was found to be stable at high particle rate with a maximum variation of ∼9%.

  13. The path toward clean air: implementing new standards for ozone and fine particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lydia Wegman; Erika Sasser

    2005-04-01

    Many areas in the United States have air pollution that exceeds the levels allowed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under its revised National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone and fine particles. This article provides an overview of the steps EPA and states are taking to implement the new standards. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. EFFECTS OF METAL COMPONENTS IN CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR PARTICLES ON PULMONARY INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF METAL COMPONENTS IN CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR PARTICLES ON PULMONARY INJURY. Yuh-Chin Huang, Jackie Stonehuerner, Jackie Carter, Andrew J. Ghio, Robert B. Devlin. NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC.
    The mechanisms for cardiopulmonary morbidity associated with exposure to air po...

  15. Stabilisation of liquid-air surfaces by particles of low surface energy.

    PubMed

    Binks, Bernard P; Rocher, Anaïs

    2010-08-28

    We describe the stabilisation of liquid-air surfaces by microparticles of a low surface energy solid. By varying the surface tension of the liquid, various particle-stabilised materials from oil dispersions to air-in-oil foams to dry water can be prepared.

  16. Analytical solutions of minimum ionization particle induced current shapes of silicon detectors and simulation of charge collection properties

    SciTech Connect

    Eremin, V.; Chen, W.; Li, Z.

    1993-11-01

    A new analytical, one dimensional method to obtain the induced current shapes and simulation of chasrge shapes for p{sup +} {minus}n{minus}n{sup +} silicon detectors in the case of minimum ionization particle has been developed here. jExact solutions have been found for both electron and hole current shapes. Simulations of induced charge shapes of detectors have also been given. The results of this work are consistent with the earlier work where a semi-analytical method had been used.

  17. Combustion Of Porous Graphite Particles In Oxygen Enriched Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delisle, Andrew J.; Miller, Fletcher J.; Chelliah, Harsha K.

    2003-01-01

    Combustion of solid fuel particles has many important applications, including power generation and space propulsion systems. The current models available for describing the combustion process of these particles, especially porous solid particles, include various simplifying approximations. One of the most limiting approximations is the lumping of the physical properties of the porous fuel with the heterogeneous chemical reaction rate constants [1]. The primary objective of the present work is to develop a rigorous modeling approach that could decouple such physical and chemical effects from the global heterogeneous reaction rates. For the purpose of validating this model, experiments with porous graphite particles of varying sizes and porosity are being performed under normal and micro gravity.

  18. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY OF SYNTHETIC AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES CONTAINING METAL SULFATES COMPARED TO CARBON BLACK AND DIESEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PULMONARY TOXICITY OF SYNTHETIC AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES CONTAINING METAL SULFATES COMPARED TO CARBON BLACK AND DIESEL.

    M Daniels, A Ranade* & MJ Selgrade & MI Gilmour.
    Experimental Toxicology Division, ORD/NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC. * Particle Technology, College Par...

  19. CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR PARTICLES INDUCE PULMONARY INFLAMMATION IN HEALTHY HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    We tested the hypothesis that exposure of healthy volunteers to concentrated ambient particles (CAPS) is associated with an influx of inflammatory cells into the lower respiratory tract. Thirty-eight volunteers were exposed to either filtered air or particles concentrated fro...

  20. CORRELATIONS OF PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICLES WITH OUTDOOR AIR MEASUREMENT: A REVIEW OF RECENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have found a correlation between daily mortality and particle concentrations in outdoor air as measured at a central monitoring station. These studies have been the central reason for the U.S. EPA to propose new tighter particle standards. However, perso...

  1. Report of the HEPAP Subpanel on Major Detectors in Non-Accelerator Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-05-01

    The subpanel on Major Detectors in Non-Accelerator Particle Physics was formed in February 1989 as the result of a letter from Robert Hunter, Director, Office of Energy Research, to Francis Low, Chairman of HEPAP. A copy of the letter is included in the Appendix to this report. The letter referred to the previous report of HEPAP Subpanel on High Energy Gamma Ray and Neutrino Astronomy which had found that several groups of scientists were working on promising new ideas and proposals in non-accelerator high energy physics and astrophysics; this report recommended that panel be formed to evaluate large projects in these areas of science when specific proposals were received by the funding agencies. In concurring with the recommendation, the request to establish this new Subpanel included the following specific charge: Within the context of changing world wide high energy physics activities and opportunities, review as necessary and evaluate the following major research proposals which have been submitted to the Department of Energy and/or to the National Science foundation: DUMAND II, GRANDE, and the Fly's Eye Upgrade.

  2. Report of the HEPAP subpanel on major detectors in non-accelerator particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The subpanel on Major Detectors in Non-Accelerator Particle Physics was formed in February 1989 as the result of a letter from Robert Hunter, Director, Office of Energy Research, to Francis Low, Chairman of HEPAP. A copy of the letter is included in the Appendix to this report. The letter referred to the previous report of HEPAP Subpanel on High Energy Gamma Ray and Neutrino Astronomy which had found that several groups of scientists were working on promising new ideas and proposals in non-accelerator high energy physics and astrophysics; this report recommended that panel be formed to evaluate large projects in these areas of science when specific proposals were received by the funding agencies. In concurring with the recommendation, the request to establish this new Subpanel included the following specific charge: Within the context of changing world wide high energy physics activities and opportunities, review as necessary and evaluate the following major research proposals which have been submitted to the Department of Energy and/or to the National Science foundation: DUMAND II, GRANDE, and the Fly's Eye Upgrade.

  3. Direct high-resolution alpha spectrometry from nuclear fuel particles in an outdoor air sample.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, R; Siiskonen, T

    2008-01-01

    The potential use of direct high-resolution alpha spectrometry to identify the presence of transactinium elements in air samples is illustrated in the case when alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides are incorporated in nuclear fuel particles. Alpha particle energy spectra are generated through Monte Carlo simulations assuming a nuclide composition similar to RBMK (Chernobyl) nuclear fuel. The major alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides, in terms of activity, are 242Cm, 239Pu and 240Pu. The characteristics of the alpha peaks are determined by fuel particle properties as well as the type of the air filter. It is shown that direct alpha spectrometry can be readily applied to membrane filter samples containing nuclear fuel particles when rapid nuclide identification is of relevance. However, the development of a novel spectrum analysis code is a prerequisite for unfolding complex alpha spectra.

  4. A Study of the quality of CsI detectors and pulse-shape discrimination of scintillators for ?[U+0251]-particles, ?[U+0263]-particles, and neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salyer, Kaitlin; Rogachev, Grigory; Hooker, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    This project studied the capabilities of two different scintillators, Cesium Iodide (CsI) and p-Terphenyl. First, the resolution of a CsI detector was investigated by exposing only very small areas of its surface at a time to an alpha source. Second, the abilities of p-Terphenyl to detect alpha particles, gamma particles, and neutrons were analyzed through pulse shape discrimination. p-Terphenyl is of particular interest because it will be used in the Mitchell Institute Neutrino Experiment at Reactor (MINER) at Texas A&M University for measuring background data. The information learned from conducting these tests will be useful in understanding and expanding the limits of the experiments in which these detectors will ultimately be used.

  5. Desarrollo de un detector de rayos cósmicos de la colaboración LAGO en Buenos Aires - Aplicaciones en meteorología espacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, M.; Bezzecchi, F.; Gulisano, A. M.; Masías-Meza, J. J.; Areso, O.; Ramelli, M.; Dasso, S.; LAGO Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    The study of low energy cosmic particles allows to analyze several aspects of major interest for space weather. Ground detectors permit to observe secundary particles produced during the cascades developed in the atmosphere. The characterization of a prototype for a water Cherenkov radiation particles detector, in the frame of the LAGO collaboration (Latin American Giant Observatory), is presented in this work. The collaboration plans to install this detector at the LAGO antarctic site. The developed acquisition system and the method used to make the energy callibration of the detector are detailed here, as also corrections for atmospheric effects.

  6. Flow on Magnetizable Particles in Turbulent Air Streams. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davey, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    The flow of magnetizable particles in a turbulent air stream in the presence of an imposed magnetic field and the phenomenon of drag reduction produced by the introduction of particles in turbulent boundary layer are investigated. The nature of the particle magnetic force is discussed and the inherent difference between electric and magnetic precipitation is considered. The incorporation of turbulent diffusion theory with an imposed magnetic migration process both with and without inertia effects is examined.

  7. Charged-particle distributions in √{ s} = 13 TeVpp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.

    2016-07-01

    Charged-particle distributions are measured in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, using a data sample of nearly 9 million events, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 170 μb-1, recorded by the ATLAS detector during a special Large Hadron Collider fill. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the dependence of the mean transverse momentum on the charged-particle multiplicity are presented. The measurements are performed with charged particles with transverse momentum greater than 500 MeV and absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.5, in events with at least one charged particle satisfying these kinematic requirements. Additional measurements in a reduced phase space with absolute pseudorapidity less than 0.8 are also presented, in order to compare with other experiments. The results are corrected for detector effects, presented as particle-level distributions and are compared to the predictions of various Monte Carlo event generators.

  8. Influence of Air Humidity and Water Particles on Dust Control Using Ultrasonic Atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, Hirokazu; Nishi, Kentaro; Shindo, Dai; Kawamura, Youhei

    2012-07-01

    The influence of air humidity and water particles on dust control was examined using ultrasonic atomization at 2.4 MHz, an acrylic box (61 L), and four types of ore dust samples: green tuff (4 µm), green tuff (6 µm), kaolin, and silica. It was clearly demonstrated that ultrasonic atomization was effective in raising humidity rapidly. However, at high relative air humidity, the water particles remained stable in the box without changing to water vapor. Ultrasonic atomization was applied to suppress dust dispersion and 40-95% dust reduction was achieved at 83% relative air humidity. Dust dispersion was more effective with ultrasonic atomization than without.

  9. Particle size distribution and air pollution patterns in three urban environments in Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xinyi; Guinot, Benjamin; Cao, Junji; Xu, Hongmei; Sun, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Three urban environments, office, apartment and restaurant, were selected to investigate the indoor and outdoor air quality as an inter-comparison in which CO2, particulate matter (PM) concentration and particle size ranging were concerned. In this investigation, CO2 level in the apartment (623 ppm) was the highest among the indoor environments and indoor levels were always higher than outdoor levels. The PM10 (333 µg/m(3)), PM2.5 (213 µg/m(3)), PM1 (148 µg/m(3)) concentrations in the office were 10-50% higher than in the restaurant and apartment, and the three indoor PM10 levels all exceeded the China standard of 150 µg/m(3). Particles ranging from 0.3 to 0.4 µm, 0.4 to 0.5 µm and 0.5 to 0.65 µm make largest contribution to particle mass in indoor air, and fine particles number concentrations were much higher than outdoor levels. Outdoor air pollution is mainly affected by heavy traffic, while indoor air pollution has various sources. Particularly, office environment was mainly affected by outdoor sources like soil dust and traffic emission; apartment particles were mainly caused by human activities; restaurant indoor air quality was affected by multiple sources among which cooking-generated fine particles and the human steam are main factors.

  10. Particle dark matter and solar axion searches with a small germanium detector at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, A.; Avignone, F. T., III; Brodzinski, R. L.; Cebrián, S.; García, E.; González, D.; Irastorza, I. G.; Miley, H. S.; Morales, J.; de Solórzano, A. Ortiz; Puimedón, J.; Reeves, J. H.; Sarsa, M. L.; Scopel, S.; Villar, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    A small, natural abundance, germanium detector (COSME) has been operating recently at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Spanish Pyrenees) in improved conditions of shielding and overburden with respect to a previous operation of the same detector (Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 321 (1992) 410; Phys. Rev. D 51 (1995) 1458). An exposure of 72.7 kg day in these conditions has at present a background improvement of about one order of magnitude compared to the former operation of the detector. These new data have been applied to a direct search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) and solar axions. New WIMP exclusion plots improving the current bounds for low masses are reported. The paper also presents a limit on the axion-photon coupling obtained from the analysis of the data looking for a Primakoff axion-to-photon conversion and Bragg scattering inside the crystal.

  11. AIRBORNE PARTICLE SIZES AND SOURCES FOUND IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    As concern about indoor air quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, understanding indoor aerosols has become increasingly important so that control techniques may be implemented to reduce damaging health effects and soiling problems. This paper begins with a brief look at the me...

  12. Structural design of a high energy particle detector using liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Timothy John; /Minnesota U.

    1997-02-01

    This thesis presents a design for a 10,000 ton liquid scintillator neutrino detector being considered for the MINOS project at Fermilab. Details of designing, manufacturing, and assembling the active detector components are presented. The detector consists of 1080 magnetized steel absorber planes alternating with 1080 active detector planes. Each active plane is made up of plastic extrusions divided into nearly 400 cells for positional resolution. Life tests on the plastic extrusions determine their feasibility for containing the scintillator. The extrusions are sealed at the bottom, filled with liquid scintillator, and have an optical fiber running the entire length of each cell. The fibers terminate at the top of each extrusion in a manifold. An optical-fiber-light-guide connects the fibers in each manifold to a photo-detector. The photo-detector converts the light signals from the scintillator and optical fibers into electrical impulses for computer analysis.

  13. Search for decays of stopped, long-lived particles from 7 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G. A.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciba, K.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R. W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Silva, P. V. M.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Daly, C. H.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J. P.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J. W.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P. E.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Taille, C.; De la Torre, H.; De Lotto, B.; de Mora, L.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dean, S.; Debbe, R.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Dowell, J. D.; Doxiadis, A. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dubbs, T.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen, M.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C. A.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fazio, S.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Fellmann, D.; Felzmann, C. U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fischer, P.; Fisher, M. J.; Fisher, S. M.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Fopma, J.; Forbush, D. A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J. M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A. J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Frank, T.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; Freestone, J.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, Y. S.; Gapienko, V. A.; Gaponenko, A.; Garberson, F.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Garvey, J.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gayde, J.-C.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gershon, A.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilbert, L. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillberg, D.; Gillman, A. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giunta, M.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K. W.; Glonti, G. L.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goebel, M.; Göpfert, T.; Goeringer, C.; Gössling, C.; Göttfert, T.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golovnia, S. N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L. S.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; Gonidec, A.; Gonzalez, S.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Silva, M. L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodson, J. J.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Gorokhov, S. A.; Goryachev, V. N.; Gosdzik, B.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gough Eschrich, I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grah, C.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Grau, N.; Gray, H. M.; Gray, J. A.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Green, B.; Greenfield, D.; Greenshaw, T.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A. A.; Grinstein, S.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Groh, M.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Grybel, K.; Guarino, V. J.; Guest, D.; Guicheney, C.; Guida, A.; Guindon, S.; Guler, H.; Gunther, J.; Guo, B.; Guo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Y.; Gushchin, V. N.; Gutierrez, A.; Gutierrez, P.; Guttman, N.; Gutzwiller, O.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haas, S.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hadley, D. R.; Haefner, P.; Hahn, F.; Haider, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haller, J.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Han, H.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hance, M.; Handel, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hansson, P.; Hara, K.; Hare, G. A.; Harenberg, T.; Harkusha, S.; Harper, D.; Harrington, R. D.; Harris, O. M.; Harrison, K.; Hartert, J.; Hartjes, F.; Haruyama, T.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hassani, S.; Hatch, M.; Hauff, D.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawes, B. M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, D.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Hazen, E.; He, M.; Head, S. J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heinemann, B.; Heisterkamp, S.; Helary, L.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Hemperek, T.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henke, M.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hensel, C.; Henß, T.; Hernandez, C. M.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg, R.; Hershenhorn, A. D.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hessey, N. P.; Hidvegi, A.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, D.; Hill, J. C.; Hill, N.; Hiller, K. 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N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Potter, K. P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Prell, S.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Price, M. J.; Prichard, P. M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Pueschel, E.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Ramstedt, M.; Randle-Conde, A. S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reichold, A.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z. L.; Renaud, A.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R. R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J. G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodier, S.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y.; Roe, A.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romanov, V. M.; Romeo, G.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, A.; Rose, M.; Rosenbaum, G. A.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rossi, L.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubinskiy, I.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Rumiantsev, V.; Rumyantsev, L.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Rust, D. R.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B. H.; Sanchez, A.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, T.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Sauvan, J. B.; Savard, P.; Savine, A. Y.; Savinov, V.; Savu, D. O.; Savva, P.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scallon, O.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schamov, A. G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J. L.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, M.; Schöning, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schuh, S.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, J. W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shichi, H.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, HS.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teinturier, M.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Twomey, M. S.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villani, E. G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wright, M.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zinonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2012-04-01

    New metastable massive particles with electric and colour charge are features of many theories beyond the Standard Model. A search is performed for long-lived gluino-based R-hadrons with the ATLAS detector at the LHC using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 31 pb-1. We search for evidence of particles that have come to rest in the ATLAS detector and decay at some later time during the periods in the LHC bunch structure without proton-proton collisions. No significant deviations from the expected backgrounds are observed, and a cross-section limit is set. It can be interpreted as excluding gluino-based R-hadrons with masses less than 341 GeV at the 95 % C.L., for lifetimes from 10-5 to 103 seconds and a neutralino mass of 100 GeV.

  14. Forward-backward correlations and charged-particle azimuthal distributions in pp interactions using the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Kuutmann, E. Bergeaas; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman, de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.

    2012-07-01

    Using inelastic proton-proton interactions at sqrt {s} = 900 GeV and 7 TeV, recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC, measurements have been made of the correlations between forward and backward charged-particle multiplicities and, for the first time, between forward and backward charged-particle summed transverse momentum. In addition, jet-like structure in the events is studied by means of azimuthal distributions of charged particles relative to the charged particle with highest transverse momentum in a selected kinematic region of the event. The results are compared with predictions from tunes of the pythia and herwig++ Monte Carlo generators, which in most cases are found to provide a reasonable description of the data.

  15. Characterization of Airborne Particles Collected from Car Engine Air Filters Using SEM and EDX Techniques.

    PubMed

    Heredia Rivera, Birmania; Gerardo Rodriguez, Martín

    2016-10-01

    Particulate matter accumulated on car engine air-filters (CAFs) was examined in order to investigate the potential use of these devices as efficient samplers for collecting street level air that people are exposed to. The morphology, microstructure, and chemical composition of a variety of particles were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The particulate matter accumulated by the CAFs was studied in two categories; the first was of removed particles by friction, and the second consisted of particles retained on the filters. Larger particles with a diameter of 74-10 µm were observed in the first category. In the second one, the detected particles had a diameter between 16 and 0.7 µm. These particles exhibited different morphologies and composition, indicating mostly a soil origin. The elemental composition revealed the presence of three groups: mineral (clay and asphalt), metallic (mainly Fe), and biological particles (vegetal and animal debris). The palynological analysis showed the presence of pollen grains associated with urban plants. These results suggest that CAFs capture a mixture of atmospheric particles, which can be analyzed in order to monitor urban air. Thus, the continuous availability of large numbers of filters and the retroactivity associated to the car routes suggest that these CAFs are very useful for studying the high traffic zones within a city.

  16. Characterization of Airborne Particles Collected from Car Engine Air Filters Using SEM and EDX Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Heredia Rivera, Birmania; Gerardo Rodriguez, Martín

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter accumulated on car engine air-filters (CAFs) was examined in order to investigate the potential use of these devices as efficient samplers for collecting street level air that people are exposed to. The morphology, microstructure, and chemical composition of a variety of particles were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The particulate matter accumulated by the CAFs was studied in two categories; the first was of removed particles by friction, and the second consisted of particles retained on the filters. Larger particles with a diameter of 74–10 µm were observed in the first category. In the second one, the detected particles had a diameter between 16 and 0.7 µm. These particles exhibited different morphologies and composition, indicating mostly a soil origin. The elemental composition revealed the presence of three groups: mineral (clay and asphalt), metallic (mainly Fe), and biological particles (vegetal and animal debris). The palynological analysis showed the presence of pollen grains associated with urban plants. These results suggest that CAFs capture a mixture of atmospheric particles, which can be analyzed in order to monitor urban air. Thus, the continuous availability of large numbers of filters and the retroactivity associated to the car routes suggest that these CAFs are very useful for studying the high traffic zones within a city. PMID:27706087

  17. Dependence of charge transfer phenomena during solid-air two-phase flow on particle disperser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoue, Ken-ichiro; Suedomi, Yuuki; Honda, Hirotaka; Furutani, Satoshi; Nishimura, Tatsuo; Masuda, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    An experimental investigation of the tribo-electrification of particles has been conducted during solid-air two-phase turbulent flow. The current induced in a metal plate by the impact of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles in a high-speed air flow was measured for two different plate materials. The results indicated that the contact potential difference between the particles and a stainless steel plate was positive, while for a nickel plate it was negative. These results agreed with theoretical contact charge transfer even if not only the particle size but also the kind of metal plate was changed. The specific charge of the PMMA particles during solid-air two-phase flow using an ejector, a stainless steel branch pipe, and a stainless steel straight pipe was measured using a Faraday cage. Although the charge was negative in the ejector, the particles had a positive specific charge at the outlet of the branch pipe, and this positive charge increased in the straight pipe. The charge decay along the flow direction could be reproduced by the charging and relaxation theory. However, the proportional coefficients in the theory changed with the particle size and air velocity. Therefore, an unexpected charge transfer occurred between the ejector and the branch pipe, which could not be explained solely by the contact potential difference. In the ejector, an electrical current in air might have been produced by self-discharge of particles with excess charge between the nickel diffuser in the ejector and the stainless steel nozzle or the stainless steel pipe due to a reversal in the contact potential difference between the PMMA and the stainless steel. The sign of the current depended on the particle size, possibly because the position where the particles impacted depended on their size. When dual coaxial glass pipes were used as a particle disperser, the specific charge of the PMMA particles became more positive along the particle flow direction due to the contact

  18. Fabrication, characterization and simulation of 4H-SiC Schottky diode alpha particle detectors for pyroprocessing actinide monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Timothy Richard

    Pyroprocessing is a method of using high-temperature molten salts and electric fields to separate and collect fuel isotopes of used nuclear fuel. It has been has been tested in the U.S. at Idaho National Laboratory as a key step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. One technical problem with the pyroprocessing method is a lack of knowledge regarding the actinide concentrations in the salt bath during operation, since on-line techniques for measuring these concentrations are not presently available. 4H-SiC Schottky diode detectors can potentially fulfill this need. Such detectors would operate in contact with the molten salt, and measure concentrations via alpha-particle spectroscopy. This work seeks to fabricate and characterize 4H-SiC Schottky diode detectors at high temperature, model the alpha particle spectrum expected in a molten salt, and model the operation of the detectors to confirm the physics of operation is as expected. In this work, 4H-SiC Schottky diode detectors were fabricated at OSU Nanotech West. After fabrication, these detectors were characterized using both I-V curves and Am-241 alpha-particle energy spectra. All measurements were made as a function of temperature, from room temperature up to 500°C. The average energy required to create an electron-hole pair was observed to decrease with an increase of temperature, due to a decrease of both the 4H-SiC bandgap and non-linear energy loss terms. Furthermore, the FWHM of the spectra was observed to be dependent on the leakage current at a certain temperature, and not dependent on the temperature itself. Secondly, the alpha particle energy spectrum in the pyroprocessing environment was modeled using SRIM. The molten salt was modeled in 3 different geometries, with or without a protective cover material on top of the detector. Due to the loss of alpha-particle energy in the molten salt itself, a high-energy alpha emitter may completely cover the spectrum from a lower-energy alpha emitter. Each of the

  19. Polarization properties of aerosol particles over western Japan: classification, seasonal variation, and implications for air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaole; Uno, Itsushi; Hara, Yukari; Osada, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Wang, Zhe; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Wang, Zifa

    2016-08-01

    Ground-based observation of the polarization properties of aerosol particles using a polarization optical particle counter (POPC) was made from 27 October 2013, to 31 December 2015, at a suburban site in the Kyushu area of Japan. We found that the depolarization ratio (DR, the fraction of s-polarized signal in the total backward light scattering signal) of aerosol particles showed prominent seasonal variability, with peaks in spring (0.21-0.23) and winter (0.19-0.23), and a minimum value (0.09-0.14) in summer. The aerosol compositions in both fine mode (aerodynamic diameter of particle, Dp < 2.5 µm) and coarse mode (2.5 µm < Dp < 10 µm), and the size-dependent polarization characteristics were analyzed for long-range transport dust particles, sea salt, and anthropogenic pollution-dominant aerosols. The DR value increased with increasing particle size, and DR = 0.1 was a reliable threshold value to identify the sphericity of supermicron (Dp > 1 µm) particles. Occurrence of substandard air quality days in Kyushu was closely related with mixed type (coexistence of anthropogenic pollutants and dust particles in the atmosphere), especially in winter and spring, indicating that dust events in the Asian continent played a key role in the cross-boundary transport of continental pollution. Backward trajectory analysis demonstrated that air masses originating from the western Pacific contained large amounts of spherical particles due to the influence of sea salt, especially in summer; however, for air masses from the Asian continent, the dependence of number fraction of spherical particles on air relative humidity was insignificant, indicating the predominance of less-hygroscopic substances (e.g., mineral dust), although the mass concentrations of anthropogenic pollutants were elevated.

  20. An approach to mineral particle-air bubble interaction in turbulent flow of flotation cell

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.; Song, S.; Gou, J.; Pan, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The calculated potential energies of interaction between hydrophobic particle of three minerals (rhodochrosite, quartz and talc) and air bubble show that the energy of hydrophobic interaction is the dominant factor for their attachment. An attachment rate equation, integrating particle-bubble collision and adhesion by introducing a capture efficiency, has been put forward. It was found that the hydrophobic particle-bubble aggregates can not be disconnected in the bulk zone of flotation cell, whereas in the impeller zone the breakup may occur, particularly for the coarser particles captured by bubble. Finally, the flotation rate constant was estimated theoretically and verified by experiments.

  1. Improved particle impactor assembly for size selective high volume air sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, G.

    1987-03-23

    Air containing entrained particulate matter is directed through a plurality of parallel, narrow, vertically oriented apertures of an inlet element toward an adjacently located, relatively large, dust impaction surface preferably covered with an adhesive material. The air flow turns over the impaction surface, leaving behind, the relatively larger particles and passes through two elongate apertures defining the outer bounds of the impaction collection surface to pass through divergent passages which slow down and distribute the air flow, with entrained smaller particles, over a fine filter element that separates the fine particles from the air. By appropriate selection of dimensions and the number of inlet apertures air flow through the inlet element is provided a nonuniform velocity distribution with the lower velocities being obtained near the center of the inlet apertures, to separate out particles larger than a certain predetermined size on the impaction collection surface. The impaction collection surface, even in a moderately sized apparatus, is thus relatively large and permits the prolonged sampling of air for periods extending to four weeks. 6 figs.

  2. The Effect of Aerodynamic Heating on Air Penetration by Shaped Charge Jets and Their Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backofen, Joseph

    2009-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to present recent work modeling thermal coupling between shaped charge jets and their particles with air while it is being penetrated to form a crater that subsequently collapses back onto the jet. This work complements research published at International Symposia on Ballistics: 1) 1987 - Shaped Charge Jet Aerodynamics, Particulation and Blast Field Modeling; and 2) 2007 - Air Cratering by Eroding Shaped Charge Jets. The current work shows how and when a shaped charge jet's tip and jet particles are softened enough that they can erode in a hydrodynamic manner as modeled in these papers. This paper and its presentation includes models for heat transfer from shocked air as a function of jet velocity as well as heat flow within the jet or particle. The work is supported by an extensive bibliographic search including publications on meteors and ballistic missile re-entry vehicles. The modeling shows that a jet loses its strength to the depth required to justify hydrodynamic erosion when its velocity is above a specific velocity related to the shock properties of air and the jet material's properties. As a result, the portion of a jet's kinetic energy converted at the aerodynamic shock into heating transferred back onto the jet affects the energy deposited into the air through drag and ablation which in turn affect air crater expansion and subsequent collapse back onto the jet and its particles as shown in high-speed photography.

  3. Charged particle spectra measured during the transit to Mars with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD).

    PubMed

    Ehresmann, Bent; Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Appel, Jan K; Brinza, David E; Rafkin, Scot C R; Böttcher, Stephan I; Burmeister, Sönke; Lohf, Henning; Martin, Cesar; Böhm, Eckart; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2016-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) started its 253-day cruise to Mars on November 26, 2011. During cruise the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), situated on board the Curiosity rover, conducted measurements of the energetic-particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. This environment consists mainly of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), as well as secondary particles created by interactions of these GCRs with the spacecraft. The RAD measurements can serve as a proxy for the radiation environment a human crew would encounter during a transit to Mars, for a given part of the solar cycle, assuming that a crewed vehicle would have comparable shielding. The measurements of radiological quantities made by RAD are important in themselves, and, the same data set allow for detailed analysis of GCR-induced particle spectra inside the spacecraft. This provides important inputs for the evaluation of current transport models used to model the free-space (and spacecraft) radiation environment for different spacecraft shielding and different times in the solar cycle. Changes in these conditions can lead to significantly different radiation fields and, thus, potential health risks, emphasizing the need for validated transport codes. Here, we present the first measurements of charged particle fluxes inside a spacecraft during the transit from Earth to Mars. Using data obtained during the last two month of the cruise to Mars (June 11-July 14, 2012), we have derived detailed energy spectra for low-Z particles stopping in the instrument's detectors, as well as integral fluxes for penetrating particles with higher energies. Furthermore, we analyze the temporal changes in measured proton fluxes during quiet solar periods (i.e., when no solar energetic particle events occurred) over the duration of the transit (December 9, 2011-July 14, 2012) and correlate them with changing heliospheric conditions.

  4. Charged particle spectra measured during the transit to Mars with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehresmann, Bent; Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Appel, Jan K.; Brinza, David E.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Böttcher, Stephan I.; Burmeister, Sönke; Lohf, Henning; Martin, Cesar; Böhm, Eckart; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2016-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) started its 253-day cruise to Mars on November 26, 2011. During cruise the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), situated on board the Curiosity rover, conducted measurements of the energetic-particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. This environment consists mainly of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), as well as secondary particles created by interactions of these GCRs with the spacecraft. The RAD measurements can serve as a proxy for the radiation environment a human crew would encounter during a transit to Mars, for a given part of the solar cycle, assuming that a crewed vehicle would have comparable shielding. The measurements of radiological quantities made by RAD are important in themselves, and, the same data set allow for detailed analysis of GCR-induced particle spectra inside the spacecraft. This provides important inputs for the evaluation of current transport models used to model the free-space (and spacecraft) radiation environment for different spacecraft shielding and different times in the solar cycle. Changes in these conditions can lead to significantly different radiation fields and, thus, potential health risks, emphasizing the need for validated transport codes. Here, we present the first measurements of charged particle fluxes inside a spacecraft during the transit from Earth to Mars. Using data obtained during the last two month of the cruise to Mars (June 11-July 14, 2012), we have derived detailed energy spectra for low-Z particles stopping in the instrument's detectors, as well as integral fluxes for penetrating particles with higher energies. Furthermore, we analyze the temporal changes in measured proton fluxes during quiet solar periods (i.e., when no solar energetic particle events occurred) over the duration of the transit (December 9, 2011-July 14, 2012) and correlate them with changing heliospheric conditions.

  5. Study of muon bundles from extensive air showers with the ALICE detector at CERN LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtejer, K.

    2016-05-01

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. The large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber are exploited to study the muonic component of extensive air showers. We present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. The latest version of the QGSJET hadronic interaction model was used to simulate the development of the resulting air showers. High multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons were also studied. Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP without satisfactory explanations for the frequency of the highest multiplicity events. We demonstrate that the high muon-multiplicity events observed in ALICE stem from primary cosmic rays with energies above 1016 eV and that the frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic rays in this energy range.

  6. [Environment of high temperature or air particle matter pollution, and health promotion of exercise].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie-xiu; Xu, Min-xiao; Wu, Zhao-zhao

    2014-10-01

    It is important to keep human health in special environment, since the special environment has different effects on health. In this review, we focused on high temperature and air particle matter environment, and health promotion of exercise. Exercise and high temperature are the main non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions of insulin resistance (IR). PGC-1α is key regulatory factor in health promotion of exercise and high temperature. The novel hormone Irisin might be the important pathway through which heat and exercise could have positive function on IR. Air particle matter (PM) is associated with onset of many respiratory diseases and negative effects of exerciser performance. However, regular exercise plays an important role in improving health of respiratory system and lowering the risk induced by PM. Furthermore, free radicals and inflammatory pathways are included in the possible mechanisms of positive physiological effects induced by exercise in air particle matter environment.

  7. Search for lightly ionizing particles using CDMS-II data and fabrication of CDMS detectors with improved homogeneity in properties

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Kunj Bihari

    2013-12-01

    Fundamental particles are always observed to carry charges which are integral multiples of one-third charge of electron, e/3. While this is a well established experimental fact, the theoretical understanding for the charge quantization phenomenon is lacking. On the other hand, there exist numerous theoretical models that naturally allow for existence of particles with fractional electromagnetic charge. These particles, if existing, hint towards existence of physics beyond the standard model. Multiple high energy, optical, cosmological and astrophysical considerations restrict the allowable mass-charge parameter space for these fractional charges. Still, a huge unexplored region remains. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS-II), located at Soudan mines in northern Minnesota, employs germanium and silicon crystals to perform direct searches for a leading candidate to dark matter called Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). Alternately, the low detection threshold allows search for fractional electromagnetic-charged particles, or Lightly Ionizing Particles (LIPs), moving at relativistic speed. Background rejection is obtained by requiring that the magnitude and location of energy deposited in each detector be consistent with corresponding \\signatures" resulting from the passage of a fractionally charged particle. In this dissertation, the CDMS-II data is analyzed to search for LIPs, with an expected background of 0.078 0.078 events. No candidate events are observed, allowing exclusion of new parameter space for charges between e/6 and e/200.

  8. In-situ detection of noctilucent cloud particles by the Colorado Dust Detectors onboard the PHOCUS sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Z.; Robertson, S.; Dickson, S.; Gumbel, J.; Hedin, J.; Strelnikov, B.; Asmus, H.; Havnes, O.

    2014-10-01

    The Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer mesosphere (PHOCUS) sounding rocket campaign is a payload that carried multiple in-situ instruments for the detection of charged icy particles of noctilucent clouds (NLCs). The PHOCUS payload was launched on July 21st, 2011 and carried 18 scientific instruments. Three of these instruments were dedicated to the detection of the charged aerosol particles. All three instruments detected a narrow ice layer at around 81.5 km altitude. The Colorado Dust Detectors (CDDs) collected the net charge from the impact of aerosol particles on two graphite surfaces mounted flush with the payload skin. A combination of a small bias potential and permanent magnets were used to suppress the collection of plasma particles. The efficiency of the magnetic shielding improves with increasing altitude where there are fewer scattering collisions with neutrals. The data analysis shows that the net collected current can be decomposed into contributions from photoelectron emission, plasma electrons and ions, and the aerosol particles. The results show that the current corresponding to the collection of aerosol particles is positive, which is due to secondary charging effects.

  9. A 4 π charged-particle detector array for light-ion-induced nuclear fragmentation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, K.; Alexander, A.; Bracken, D. S.; Brzychczyk, J.; Dorsett, J.; Ensman, R.; Renshaw Foxford, E.; Hamilton, T.; Komisarcik, K.; McDonald, K. N.; Morley, K. B.; Poehlman, J.; Powell, C.; Viola, V. E.; Yoder, N. R.; Ottarson, J.; Madden, N.

    1994-12-01

    Operating characteristics of the Indiana Silicon Sphere 4 π detector array are outlined. The detector geometry is spherical, with 90 telescopes in the forward hemisphere and 72 at backward angles, covering a total solid angle of 74% of 4π. Each telescope consists of a simple gas-ion chamber, operated with C3F8 gas, followed by a 0.5 mm thick ion-implanted silicon detector and a 28 mm CsI(Tl) crystal, readout by a photodiode. Custom-built bias supplies and NIM preamp/shaper modules were used in conjunction with commercial CFD, TDC and ADC CAMAC units.

  10. Behavior of pH-sensitive core shell particles at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Mark D'Souza; Manga, Mohamed S; Hunter, Timothy N; Cayre, Olivier J; Biggs, Simon

    2012-03-20

    In this article, the adsorption of latex core-responsive polymer-shell nanoparticles at the air-water interface is investigated using a Langmuir trough. Phase transition isotherms are used to explore their responsive behavior at the interface as a function of changes in the pH of the subphase. By adjusting the pH of the water prior to particle deposition, we probe the effect of the stabilizing polymer wetting by the water subphase on the stability of these particles at the air-water interface. In addition, by initially compressing a stable film of adsorbed particles and then subsequently changing the pH of the subphase we study desorption of these particles into the water phase.

  11. On-bicycle exposure to particulate air pollution: Particle number, black carbon, PM2.5, and particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D.

    2015-12-01

    Inhalation of air pollution during transport is an important exposure pathway, especially for certain modes of travel and types of particles. We measured concentrations of particulate air pollution (particle number [PN], black carbon [BC], fine particles [PM2.5], particle size) using a mobile, bicycle-based monitoring platform during morning and afternoon rush-hour to explore patterns of exposure while cycling (34 days between August 14 and October 16, 2012 in Minneapolis, MN). Measurements were geo-located at 1 ​s intervals along 3 prescribed monitoring routes totaling 85 h (1426 km) of monitoring. Mean morning [afternoon] on-road concentrations were 32,500 [16,600] pt cm-3, 2.5 [0.7] μg m-3 BC, 8.7 [8.3] μg m-3 PM2.5, and 42 [39] nm particle diameter. Concentrations were correlated with street functional class and declined within small distances from a major road (e.g., for PN and BC, mean concentration decreased ∼20% by moving 1 block away from major roads to adjacent local roads). We estimate the share of on-bicycle exposure attributable to near-traffic emissions (vs. regional pollution) is ∼50% for PN and BC; ∼25% for PM2.5. Regression models of instantaneous traffic volumes, derived from on-bicycle video recordings of nearby traffic, quantify the increase in particle-concentrations associated with each passing vehicle; for example, trucks were associated with acute, high concentration exposure events (average concentration-increase per truck: 31,000 pt cm-3, 1.0 μg m-3 PM2.5, 1.6 μg m-3 BC). Our findings could be used to inform design of low-exposure bicycle networks in urban areas.

  12. Interaction of Charged Colloidal Particles at the Air-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Matheus; Dos Santos, Alexandre P; Levin, Yan

    2016-07-07

    We study, using Monte Carlo simulations, the interaction between charged colloidal particles confined to the air-water interface. The dependence of force on ionic strength and counterion valence is explored. For 1:1 electrolyte, we find that the electrostatic interaction at the interface is very close to the one observed in the bulk. On the other hand, for salts with multivalent counterions, an interface produces an enhanced attraction between like charged colloids. Finally, we explore the effect of induced surface charge at the air-water interface on the interaction between colloidal particles.

  13. Vanadium Inhalation in a Mouse Model for the Understanding of Air-Suspended Particle Systemic Repercussion

    PubMed Central

    Fortoul, T. I.; Rodriguez-Lara, V.; Gonzalez-Villalva, A.; Rojas-Lemus, M.; Cano-Gutierrez, G.; Ustarroz-Cano, M.; Colin-Barenque, L.; Montaño, L. F.; García-Pelez, I.; Bizarro-Nevares, P.; Lopez-Valdez, N.; Falcon-Rodriguez, C. I.; Jimenez-Martínez, R. S.; Ruiz-Guerrero, M. L.; López-Zepeda, L. S.; Morales-Rivero, A.; Muñiz-Rivera-Cambas, A.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased concern about the health effects that air-suspended particles have on human health which have been dissected in animal models. Using CD-1 mouse, we explore the effects that vanadium inhalation produce in different tissues and organs. Our findings support the systemic effects of air pollution. In this paper, we describe our findings in different organs in our conditions and contrast our results with the literature. PMID:21716674

  14. Dipole Moment of a Charged Particle Trapped at the Air-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Bossa, Guilherme Volpe; Bohinc, Klemen; Brown, Matthew A; May, Sylvio

    2016-07-07

    The interaction between two charged particles (such as nanoparticles or colloids) trapped at the air-water interface becomes dipolar at large separations. The corresponding dipole moment can be modeled by considering a single point charge located exactly at the interface, but this model fails to correctly predict the dipole moment's dependence on the salt concentration in the aqueous medium. We extend the single point charge model to two point charges that are separated by a fixed distance and are located at the air-water interface, with one charge being immersed in air and the other in the solvent. The two point charges represent the surface charges at the air-exposed and water-exposed regions of an interface-trapped particle. The two point charges also account for the spatial extension of the particle. On the basis of the Debye-Hückel model, we derive mathematical expressions for the interaction between two pairs of charges and discuss the salt concentration dependence of the dipolar moment at large separations. Our results reveal a residual dipole moment in the limit of large salt content that originates from the charge attached to the air-exposed region of the particle. We discuss nonlinear screening effects and compare the predicted dipolar moments with recent experimental results.

  15. Metals in air pollution particles decrease whole-blood coagulation time.

    PubMed

    Sangani, Rahul G; Soukup, Joleen M; Ghio, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    The mechanism underlying procoagulative effects of air pollution particle exposure is not known. The authors tested the postulate that (1) the water-soluble components of an air pollution particle could affect whole-blood coagulation time and (2) metals included in this fraction were responsible for this effect. Exposure to the water-soluble fraction of particulate matter (PM), at doses as low as 50 ng/ml original particle, significantly diminished the whole-blood coagulation time. Inclusion of deferoxamine prolonged coagulation time following the exposures to the water-soluble fraction, whereas equivalent doses of ferroxamine had no effect. Except for nickel, all metal sulfates shortened the whole-blood coagulation time. Iron and zinc were two metals with the greatest capacity to reduce the coagulation time, with an effect observed at 10 ng/ml. Finally, in contrast to the anticoagulants citrate and EDTA, their iron complexes were found to be procoagulative. The authors conclude that metals in the water-soluble fraction of air pollution particles decrease whole-blood coagulation time. These metals can potentially contribute to procoagulative effects observed following human exposures to air pollution particles.

  16. Application of a pulse-discharge helium detector to the determination of neon in air and water.

    PubMed

    Lasa, J; Mochalski, P; Lokas, E; Kedzior, L

    2002-08-30

    A pulse-discharge helium detector (Valco, PD-D2-I) is used to measure neon concentrations in air and water. The detection level is 0.5 x 10(-8) g/cm3 (0.2 ppm). Discharge gas doped with neon results in a linear response to the neon mass up to 10(-6) g. For measuring the neon concentration in water, a simple enrichment system is used.

  17. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, David K.; Tyree, William H.

    1989-04-11

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-pre The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP03533 between the Department of Energy and Rockwell International Corporation.

  18. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, D.K.; Tyree, W.H.

    1987-03-23

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-preamplifier combination. 2 figs.

  19. Characterizing the size, shape, and compactness of a polydisperse prolate ellipsoidal particle via quadruple-detector hydrodynamic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Amandaa K; Striegel, André M

    2011-02-07

    A detailed quantitative description of particle size, shape, and their distributions is essential for understanding and optimization of the solid-, solution-, and melt-state properties of materials. Here, we employ quadruple-detector hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) with multi-angle static light scattering, quasi-elastic light scattering, differential viscometry, and differential refractometry detection as a method for characterizing three important physical properties of materials, namely the molar mass, size, and shape of a polydisperse, non-spherical colloidal silica sample. These properties and their distributions were measured continuously across the HDC elution profile of the sample. By combining information from the various parameters determined, we were also able to obtain quantitative knowledge regarding the compactness or denseness of the sample. The applicability of multi-detector HDC to characterize polydisperse, non-spherical analytes was shown to be rapid, accurate, and precise. An advantage over traditional characterization methods is the ability of multi-detector HDC to determine particle size, shape, compactness, and their distributions simultaneously in a single analysis.

  20. Formation and growth of indoor air aerosol particles as a result of D-limonene oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartiainen, E.; Kulmala, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Taipale, R.; Rinne, J.; Vehkamäki, H.

    Oxidation of D-limonene, which is a common monoterpene, can lead to new aerosol particle formation in indoor environments. Thus, products containing D-limonene, such as citrus fruits, air refresheners, household cleaning agents, and waxes, can act as indoor air aerosol particle sources. We released D-limonene into the room air by peeling oranges and measured the concentration of aerosol particles of three different size ranges. In addition, we measured the concentration of D-limonene, the oxidant, and the concentration of ozone, the oxidizing gas. Based on the measurements we calculated the growth rate of the small aerosol particles, which were 3-10 nm in diameter, to be about 6300nmh-1, and the losses of the aerosol particles that were due to the coagulation and condensation processes. From these, we further approximated the concentration of the condensable vapour and its source rate and then calculated the formation rate of the small aerosol particles. For the final result, we calculated the nucleation rate and the maximum number of molecules in a critical cluster. The nucleation rate was in the order of 105cm-3s-1 and the number of molecules in a critical-sized cluster became 1.2. The results were in agreement with the activation theory.

  1. Electronics and data acquisition system of the extensive air shower detector array at the University of Puebla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, E.; Salazar, H.; Villasenor, L.; Martinez, O.; Conde, R.; Murrieta, T.

    Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are playing an increasing role in DAQ systems in cosmic ray experiments due to their high speed and integration and their low cost and low power comsumption. In this paper we describe in detail the new electronics and data acquisition system based on FPGA boards of the extensive air shower detector array built in the Campus of the University of Puebla. The purpose of this detector array is to measure the energy and arrival direction of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1015 eV. The array consists of 10 liquid scintillator detectors and 6 water Cherenkov detectors (of 1.86 m2 cross section), distributed in a square grid with a detector spacing of 20 m over an area of 4000 m2. The electronics described also makes use of analog to digital converters with a resolution of 10 bits and sampling speeds of 100 MS/s to digitize the PMT signals. We also discuss the advantages of discriminating the PMT signals inside the FPGAs with respect to the conventional use of dedicated discrimination circuits.

  2. A search for long-lived particles that stop in the CMS detector and decay to muons

    SciTech Connect

    Alimena, Juliette

    2016-05-01

    A search for long-lived particles that are produced in proton-proton collisions at the CERN LHC, come to rest in the CMS detector, and decay to muons is presented. The decays of the stopped particles could be observed during the intervals between LHC beam crossings, at times that are well separated from any proton-proton collisions. The analysis uses 19.7 1/fb of 8 TeV data collected by CMS in 2012, during a search interval of 293 hours of trigger livetime. Massive, long-lived particles do not exist in the Standard Model, and so any sign of them would be an indication of new physics. The results are interpreted with a model that predicts a long-lived particle that has a charge of twice the electron charge and that behaves like a lepton. Cross section limits are set for each long-lived particle mass as a function of lifetime, for lifetimes between 100 ns and 10 days. These are the first limits for long-lived stopped particles that decay to muons.

  3. Apparatuses and methods for detecting, identifying and quantitating radioactive nuclei and methods of distinguishing neutron stimulation of a radiation particle detector from gamma-ray stimulation of a detector

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Jerald D.; Drigert, Mark W.; Reber, Edward L.; Aryaeinejad, Rahmat

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of detecting radioactive decay, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radioactive material, the radioactive material generating decay particles; b)providing a plurality of detectors proximate the sample, the detectors comprising a first set and a second set, the first set of the detectors comprising liquid state detectors utilizing liquid scintillation material coupled with photo tubes to generate a first electrical signal in response to decay particles stimulating the liquid scintillation material, the second set of the detectors comprising solid state detectors utilizing a crystalline solid to generate a second electrical signal in response to decay particles stimulating the crystalline solid; c) stimulating at least one of the detectors to generate at least one of the first and second electrical signals, the at least one of the first and second electrical signals being indicative of radioactive decay in the sample. In another aspect, the invention encompasses an apparatus for identifying and quantitating radioactive nuclei of a sample comprising radioactive material that decays to generate neutrons and high-energy .gamma.-rays.

  4. Ambient air particles: effects on cellular oxidant radical generation in relation to particulate elemental chemistry.

    PubMed

    Prahalad, A K; Soukup, J M; Inmon, J; Willis, R; Ghio, A J; Becker, S; Gallagher, J E

    1999-07-15

    Epidemiologic studies have reported causal relationships between exposures to high concentrations of ambient air particles (AAP) and increased morbidity in individuals with underlying respiratory problems. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are frequently present in the airways of individuals exposed to particles. Upon particulate stimulation the PMN may release reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can result in tissue damage and injury. In this study a wide range of AAP samples from divergent sources (1, natural dust; 2, oil fly ash; 2, coal fly ash; 5, ambient air; and 1, carbon black) were analyzed for elemental content and solubility in relation to their ability to generate ROS. Elemental analyses were carried out in AAP and dH(2)O-washed AAP using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Percent of sample mass accounted for by XRF-detectable elements was 1.2% (carbon black); 22-29% (natural dust and ambient air particles); 13-22% (oil fly ash particles); 28-49% (coal fly ash particles). The major proportion of elements in most of these particles were aluminosilicates and insoluble iron, except oil-derived fly ash particles in which soluble vanadium and nickel were in highest concentrations, consistent with particle acidity as measured in the supernatants. Human blood-derived monocytes and PMN were exposed to AAP and dH(2)O-washed particles, and generation of ROS was determined using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LCL) assay. All the particles induced chemiluminescence response in the cells, except carbon black. The oxidant response of monocytes induced by AAP (with the exception of oil fly ash particles) was less than the response elicited by PMN. The LCL response of PMN in general increased with all washed particles, with oil fly ash (OFA) and one urban air particle showing statistically significant (p < 0. 05) differences between dH(2)O-washed and unwashed particles. The LCL activity in PMN induced by both particles and dH(2)O-washed particles was

  5. IN VITRO CARDIOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES: ROLE OF BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    IN VITRO CARDIOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES: ROLE OF BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION.

    T. L. Knuckles1 R. Jaskot2, J. Richards2, and K.Dreher2.
    1Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicin...

  6. Case report: Atrial fibrillation following exposure to ambient air pollution particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONTEXT: Exposure to air pollution can result in the onset of atrial fibrillation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 58 year old woman who volunteered to participate in a controlled exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Twenty minutes into the exposure, there...

  7. Exposure to concentrated coarse air pollution particles causes mild cardiopulmonary effects in young healthy adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: There is ample epidemiological and toxicological evidence that exposure to fme air pollution particles (PM2.5), which are primarily derived from combustion processes, can result in increased mortality and morbidity. There is less certainty as to the contribution of coa...

  8. IN VITRO CARDIAC CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE CONSTITUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Vitro Cardiac Cellular and Molecular Effects of Air Pollution Particle Constituents
    Travis L. Knuckles1, Richard Jaskot2, Judy Richards2, and Kevin L. Dreher2. 1North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC 27606, 2USEPA, Research Triangle Pa...

  9. Vascular Effects of a Subchronic Inhalation Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Air Particles in Atherosclerosis Susceptible Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous studies have reported the adverse effects of particulate air pollution on cardiovascular function and disease. The causal physiochemical properties of particles and their mechanisms of action/injury remain unknown. This study examined the vascular effects in 15 wk old ma...

  10. Characterization and modeling of relative luminescence efficiency of optically stimulated luminescence detectors exposed to heavy charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel Oliveira

    Scope and method of study. This work investigates the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) response of carbon-doped aluminum oxide Al2O3:C detectors exposed to heavy charged particles (HCPs) with energies relevant to radiation protection in space, and cancer therapy. This investigation includes ground-based experiments in accelerators and theoretical studies of the detector's response. These theoretical studies are based on the track structure model (TSM) and require information of the spatial pattern of energy deposition around the HCP path---the radial dose distribution (RDD). Thus, RDDs were obtained using six analytical models, and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the code GEANT4. In addition, we propose a modified analytical model to improve the agreement between calculated and experimental efficiency values. Findings and conclusions. Dose response experiments showed that beta rays and H 1000 MeV radiations produced similar responses in the detectors and we concluded that the H 1000 MeV and beta radiations deposit energy similarly. We observed a common trend of decreasing the relative luminescence efficiency (etaHCP,gamma ) as increasing the unrestricted linear energy transfer in water ( LH2Oinfinity ) for all the detectors. For Luxel(TM) detectors the eta HCP,gamma was close to unit for particles with LH2Oinfinity lower than 3 keV/mum. TSM using the RDD from Chatterjee and Schaefer, Butts and Katz, Waligorski et al., Fageeha et al., Kiefer and Straaten, and Geibeta et al. models failed to predict the etaHCP,gamma values. We proposed a modified version of the RDD from Butts and Katz model, which agreed within 20% with relative luminescence efficiency experimental data. This was the first time that such agreement was achieved for a wide range of HCPs of different energies. MC simulations with GEANT4 agreed within 35% with etaHCP,gamma experimental data. Finally, we suggested a correction method, based on the calculation of etaHCP,gamma using the TSM

  11. In-beam evaluation of a medium-size Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous particle detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moleri, L.; Amaro, F. D.; Arazi, L.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Breskin, A.; Coimbra, A. E. C.; Oliveri, E.; Pereira, F. A.; Shaked Renous, D.; Schaarschmidt, J.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Bressler, S.

    2016-09-01

    In-beam evaluation of a fully-equipped medium-size 30 × 30 cm2 Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector is presented. It consists here of a single element gas-avalanche multiplier with Semitron ESD225 resistive plate, 1 cm2 readout pads and APV25/SRS electronics. Similarly to previous results with small detector prototypes, stable operation at high detection efficiency (> 98%) and low average pad multiplicity (~ 1.2) were recorded with 150 GeV muon and high-rate pion beams, in Ne/(5%CH4), Ar/(5%CH4) and Ar/(7%CO2). This is an important step towards the realization of robust detectors suitable for applications requiring large-area coverage; among them Digital Hadron Calorimetry.

  12. Radiation hard silicon particle detectors for HL-LHC-RD50 status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzo, S.

    2017-02-01

    It is foreseen to significantly increase the luminosity of the LHC by upgrading towards the HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC). The Phase-II-Upgrade scheduled for 2024 will mean unprecedented radiation levels, way beyond the limits of the silicon trackers currently employed. All-silicon central trackers are being studied in ATLAS, CMS and LHCb, with extremely radiation hard silicon sensors to be employed on the innermost layers. Within the RD50 Collaboration, a massive R&D program is underway across experimental boundaries to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. We will present results of several detector technologies and silicon materials at radiation levels corresponding to HL-LHC fluences. Based on these results, we will give recommendations for the silicon detectors to be used at the different radii of tracking systems in the LHC detector upgrades. In order to complement the measurements, we also perform detailed simulation studies of the sensors.

  13. Characterization of minerals in air dust particles in the state of Tamilnadu, India through ftir spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Kumar, R.; Rajkumar, P.

    2013-08-01

    The abstract of this paper explains the presence of minerals in air which causes great concern regarding public health issues. The spectroscopic investigation of air dust particles of several samples in various locations in the state of Tamilnadu, India is reported. Qualitative analyses were carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in the samples based on the FTIR absorption peaks. This study also identified the minerals like quartz, asbestos, kaolinite, calcite, hematite, montmorillonite, nacrite and several other trace minerals in the air dust particles. The presents of quartz is mainly found in all the samples invariably. Hence the percentage of quartz and its crystalline nature were determined with the help of extinction co-efficient and crystallinity index respectively.

  14. Ion beam evaluation of silicon carbide membrane structures intended for particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallon, J.; Syväjärvi, M.; Wang, Q.; Yakimova, R.; Iakimov, T.; Elfman, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Nilsson, E. J. C.; Ros, L.

    2016-03-01

    Thin ion transmission detectors can be used as a part of a telescope detector for mass and energy identification but also as a pre-cell detector in a microbeam system for studies of biological effects from single ion hits on individual living cells. We investigated a structure of graphene on silicon carbide (SiC) with the purpose to explore a thin transmission detector with a very low noise level and having mechanical strength to act as a vacuum window. In order to reach very deep cavities in the SiC wafers for the preparation of the membrane in the detector, we have studied the Inductive Coupled Plasma technique to etch deep circular cavities in 325 μm prototype samples. By a special high temperature process the outermost layers of the etched SiC wafers were converted into a highly conductive graphitic layer. The produced cavities were characterized by electron microscopy, optical microscopy and proton energy loss measurements. The average membrane thickness was found to be less than 40 μm, however, with a slightly curved profile. Small spots representing much thinner membrane were also observed and might have an origin in crystal defects or impurities. Proton energy loss measurement (also called Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy, STIM) is a well suited technique for this thickness range. This work presents the first steps of fabricating a membrane structure of SiC and graphene which may be an attractive approach as a detector due to the combined properties of SiC and graphene in a monolithic materials structure.

  15. Bridging particle and wave sensitivity in a configurable detector of positive operator-valued measures.

    PubMed

    Puentes, Graciana; Lundeen, Jeff S; Branderhorst, Matthijs P A; Coldenstrodt-Ronge, Hendrik B; Smith, Brian J; Walmsley, Ian A

    2009-02-27

    We report an optical detector with tunable positive operator-valued measures. The device is based on a combination of weak-field homodyne techniques and photon-number-resolving detection. The resulting positive operator-valued measures can be continuously tuned from Fock-state projectors to a variety of phase-dependent quantum-state measurements by adjusting different system parameters such as local oscillator coupling, amplitude, and phase, allowing thus not only detection but also preparation of exotic quantum states. Experimental tomographic reconstructions of classical benchmark states are presented as a demonstration of the detector capabilities.

  16. Modeling of radiation damage recovery in particle detectors based on GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.

    2015-12-01

    The pulsed characteristics of the capacitor-type and PIN diode type detectors based on GaN have been simulated using the dynamic and drift-diffusion models. The drift-diffusion current simulations have been implemented by employing the commercial software package Synopsys TCAD Sentaurus. The bipolar drift regime has been analyzed. The possible internal gain in charge collection through carrier multiplication processes determined by impact ionization has been considered in order to compensate carrier lifetime reduction due to radiation defects introduced into GaN material of detector.

  17. Ultraviolet radiation detector to obtain the rate of particles at different heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, E.; Flores, E.; Conde, R.

    2016-10-01

    The nature and origin of cosmic rays remains one of the greatest puzzles of modern astrophysics after more than 50 years since their first registration. Several ground experiments have reported the rate registered at its height of operation. To continue with the study of cosmic rays, we propose obtain the rate at different heights in the Earth's atmosphere, developing a small and portable ultraviolet radiation detector, consisting of a scintillation plastic, a PMT, and a fast DAQ system. In this work we present the design and construction of the UV detector and the rate recorded in the Sierra Negra Volcano near Puebla, Mexico (4200 m.a.s.l).

  18. Detectors (5/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

  19. Detectors (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

  20. IN VIVO EVIDENCE OF FREE RADICAL FORMATION IN THE RAT LUNG AFTER EXPOSURE TO AN EMISSION SOURCE AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to air pollution particles can be associated with increased human morbidity and mortality. The mechanism(s) of lung injury remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that lung exposure to oil fly ash (an emission source air pollution particle) causes in vivo free radical ...

  1. Analysis of major air pollutants and submicron particles in New York City and Long Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, M.; Hopke, P. K.; Felton, H. D.; Frank, B. P.; Rattigan, O. V.; Wurth, M. J.; LaDuke, G. H.

    2017-01-01

    A year-long sampling campaign of major air pollutants and submicron particle number size distributions was conducted at two sites taken as representative of city-wide air quality in New York City and Long Island, respectively. A number of species were quantified with hourly time resolution, including particle number concentrations in 6 size ranges (20-30 nm, 30-50 nm, 50-70 nm, 70-100 nm, 100-200 nm, and >200 nm), nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, PM2.5 mass concentration and some PM major components (sulfate, organic and elemental carbon). Hourly concentrations of primary and secondary organic carbon were estimated using the EC tracer method. Data were matched with weather parameters and air parcel back-trajectories. A series of tools were thus applied to: (i) study the seasonal, weekly, diurnal cycles of pollutants; (ii) investigate the relationships amongst pollutants through correlation and lagged correlation analyses; (iii) depict the role of atmospheric photochemical processes; (iv) examine the location of the potential sources by mean of conditional bivariate probability function analysis and (v) investigate the role of regional transport of air masses to the concentrations of analyzed species. Results indicate that concentrations of NOx, SO2, CO, non-methane hydrocarbons, primary OC and EC are predominantly determined by local sources, but are also affected by regional transports of polluted air masses. On the contrary, the transport of continental polluted air masses has a main effect in raising the concentrations of secondary PM2.5 (sulfate and secondary organic carbon). By providing direct information on the concentrations and trends of key pollutants and submicron particle number concentrations, this study finally enables some general considerations about air quality status and atmospheric processes over the New York City metropolitan area.

  2. Computational Studies on Interaction between Air Bubbles and Hydrophobic Mineral Particles Covered by Nonpolar Oil.

    PubMed

    Song; Lopez-Valdivieso

    1999-04-01

    Computations based on the extended DLVO theory are carried out on the potential energies of interactions between air bubbles and talc particles covered by nonpolar oil. It is shown that the major role of nonpolar oil in this system is to greatly increase the depth of the primary energy valley, giving rise to a much stronger bubble-particle aggregate that can support greater aggregate-rupture force fields from turbulent flows. Also, due to nonpolar oil involvement, the energy barrier between bubbles and mineral particles sharply collapses down and further separates, indicative of a greater probability of attachment of mineral particles to air bubbles. A linear relationship is found between the primary energy valley and the contact angles of oil or bubbles, and thus a simple and approximate formula is presented to evaluate the depth of the primary energy valley. In addition, it is found that the primary energy valley and the energy barrier are directly proportional to the effective particle radius, but the barrier location is independent of the effective particle radius. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Measurement of inclusive two-particle angular correlations in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. 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M.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giunta, M.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K. W.; Glonti, G. L.; Goddard, J. R.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goebel, M.; Gopfert, T.; Goeringer, C.; Gossling, C.; Gottfert, T.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L. S.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; Gonidec, A.; Gonzalez, S.; Gonzalez de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez Silva, M. L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodson, J. J.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Gorokhov, S. A.; Goryachev, V. N.; Gosdzik, B.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M. I.; Eschrich, I. Gough; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Gozpinar, S.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafstrom, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Grau, N.; Gray, H. M.; Gray, J. 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A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Strohmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Styles, N. A.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, HS.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sanchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teinturier, M.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokar, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Boeriu, O. E. Vickey; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Volpini, G.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Milosavljevic, M. Vranjes; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, M.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zinonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.; Ohsugi, T.

    2012-05-01

    We present a measurement of two-particle angular correlations in proton- proton collisions at √{s} = 900 GeV and 7 TeV. The collision events were collected during 2009 and 2010 with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider using a single-arm minimum bias trigger. Correlations are measured for charged particles produced in the kinematic range of transverse momentum p T > 100 MeV and pseudorapidity | η| < 2.5. A complex structure in pseudorapidity and azimuth is observed at both collision energies. Results are compared to pythia 8 and herwig++ as well as to the AMBT2B, DW and Perugia 2011 tunes of pythia 6. The data are not satisfactorily described by any of these models.

  4. Single and double grid long-range alpha detectors

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.

    1993-03-16

    Alpha particle detectors capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a voltage is generated in a single electrically conductive grid while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across the conductive grid. The current in the conductive grid can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. Another embodiment builds on this concept and provides an additional grid so that air ions of both polarities can be detected. The detector can be used in many applications, such as for pipe or duct, tank, or soil sample monitoring.

  5. Single and double grid long-range alpha detectors

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.

    1993-01-01

    Alpha particle detectors capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a voltage is generated in a single electrically conductive grid while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across the conductive grid. The current in the conductive grid can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. Another embodiment builds on this concept and provides an additional grid so that air ions of both polarities can be detected. The detector can be used in many applications, such as for pipe or duct, tank, or soil sample monitoring.

  6. Evaluation of Melt-Grown, ZnO Single Crystals for Use as Alpha-Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, John S; Giles, N. C.; Yang, Xiaocheng; Wall, R. Andrew; Ucer, Burak; Williams, Richard T.; Wisniewski, Dariusz J; Boatner, Lynn A; Rengarajan, Varatharajan; Nause, Jeff E; Nemeth, Bell

    2008-01-01

    As part of an ongoing investigation of the scintillation properties of zinc-oxide-based scintillators, several melt-grown, ZnO single crystals have been characterized using -particle excitation, infrared reflectance, and room temperature photoluminescence. The crystals, grown by Cermet, Inc. using a pressurized melt growth process, were doped with Group 1 elements (Li), Group 2 elements (Mg), Group 3 elements (Ga, In) and Lanthanides (Gd, Er, Tm). The goals of these studies are to better understand the scintillation mechanisms associated with various members of the ZnO scintillator family and to then use this knowledge to improve the radiation detection capabilities of ZnO-based scintillators. One application for which ZnO is particularly well suited as a scintillator is as the associated particle detector in a deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron generator. Application requirements include the exclusion of organic materials, outstanding timing resolution, and high radiation resistance. ZnO(Ga) and ZnO(In) have demonstrated fast (sub-nanosecond) decay times with relatively low light yields, and ZnO(Ga) has been used in a powder form as the associated particle detector for a D-T neutron generator. Four promising candidate materials, ZnO, ZnO:Ga, ZnO:In,Li, and ZnO:Er,Li, were identified in this study. These four samples demonstrated sub-nanosecond decay times and alpha particle excited luminescence comparable to BC-400 fast plastic scintillator. The ZnO:Mg,Ga, ZnO:Gd, and ZnO:Li samples demonstrated appreciable slow (microsecond) decay components that would be incompatible with high-counting-rate applications.

  7. Equation of state and adsorption dynamics of soft microgel particles at an air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Omkar S; Maestro, Armando; Duits, Michel H G; van den Ende, Dirk; Stuart, Martien Cohen; Mugele, Frieder

    2014-09-28

    Understanding the adsorption dynamics of soft microgel particles is a key step in designing such particles for potential applications as stimuli-responsive Pickering stabilizers for foams or emulsions. In this study we experimentally determine an equation of state (EOS) for poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgel particles adsorbed onto an air-water interface using a Langmuir film balance. We detect a finite surface pressure at very low surface concentration of particles, for which standard theories based on hard disk models predict negligible pressures, implying that the particles must deform strongly upon adsorption to the interface. Furthermore, we study the evolution of the surface pressure due to the adsorption of PNIPAM particles as a function of time using pendant drop tensiometry. The equation of state determined in the equilibrium measurements allows us to extract the adsorbed amount as a function of time. We find a mixed-kinetic adsorption that is initially controlled by the diffusion of particles towards the interface. At later stages, a slow exponential relaxation indicates the presence of a coverage-dependent adsorption barrier related to crowding of particles at the interface.

  8. Bubbling behavior of a fluidized bed of fine particles caused by vibration-induced air inflow.

    PubMed

    Matsusaka, Shuji; Kobayakawa, Murino; Mizutani, Megumi; Imran, Mohd; Yasuda, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that a vibration-induced air inflow can cause vigorous bubbling in a bed of fine particles and report the mechanism by which this phenomenon occurs. When convective flow occurs in a powder bed as a result of vibrations, the upper powder layer with a high void ratio moves downward and is compressed. This process forces the air in the powder layer out, which leads to the formation of bubbles that rise and eventually burst at the top surface of the powder bed. A negative pressure is created below the rising bubbles. A narrow opening at the bottom allows the outside air to flow into the powder bed, which produces a vigorously bubbling fluidized bed that does not require the use of an external air supply system.

  9. Core-shell diode array for high performance particle detectors and imaging sensors: status of the development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, G.; Hübner, U.; Dellith, J.; Dellith, A.; Stolz, R.; Plentz, J.; Andrä, G.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a novel high performance radiation detector and imaging sensor by a ground-breaking core-shell diode array design. This novel core-shell diode array are expected to have superior performance respect to ultrahigh radiation hardness, high sensitivity, low power consumption, fast signal response and high spatial resolution simultaneously. These properties are highly desired in fundamental research such as high energy physics (HEP) at CERN, astronomy and future x-ray based protein crystallography at x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) etc.. This kind of detectors will provide solutions for these fundamental research fields currently limited by instrumentations. In this work, we report our progress on the development of core-shell diode array for the applications as high performance imaging sensors and particle detectors. We mainly present our results in the preparation of high aspect ratio regular silicon rods by metal assisted wet chemical etching technique. Nearly 200 μm deep and 2 μm width channels with high aspect ratio have been etched into silicon. This result will open many applications not only for the core-shell diode array, but also for a high density integration of 3D microelectronics devices.

  10. Handling missing data for the identification of charged particles in a multilayer detector: A comparison between different imputation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggi, S.; Riggi, D.; Riggi, F.

    2015-04-01

    Identification of charged particles in a multilayer detector by the energy loss technique may also be achieved by the use of a neural network. The performance of the network becomes worse when a large fraction of information is missing, for instance due to detector inefficiencies. Algorithms which provide a way to impute missing information have been developed over the past years. Among the various approaches, we focused on normal mixtures' models in comparison with standard mean imputation and multiple imputation methods. Further, to account for the intrinsic asymmetry of the energy loss data, we considered skew-normal mixture models and provided a closed form implementation in the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm framework to handle missing patterns. The method has been applied to a test case where the energy losses of pions, kaons and protons in a six-layers' Silicon detector are considered as input neurons to a neural network. Results are given in terms of reconstruction efficiency and purity of the various species in different momentum bins.

  11. Asian Dust particles impacts on air quality and radiative forcing over Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Noh, Y. M.; Song, C. H.; Yoon, S. C.; Han, J. S.

    2009-03-01

    Asian Dust particles originated from the deserts and loess areas of the Asian continent are often transported over Korea, Japan, and the North Pacific Ocean during spring season. Major air mass pathway of Asian dust storm to Korea is from either north-western Chinese desert regions or north-eastern Chinese sandy areas. The local atmospheric environment condition in Korea is greatly impacted by Asian dust particles transported by prevailing westerly wind. Since these Asian dust particles pass through heavily populated urban and industrial areas in China before it reach Korean peninsular, their physical, chemical and optical properties vary depending on the atmospheric conditions and air mass pathway characteristics. An integrated system approach has been adopted at the Advanced Environment Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute Science and Technology (GIST), Korea for effective monitoring of atmospheric aerosols utilizing various in-situ and optical remote sensing methods, which include a multi-channel Raman LIDAR system, sunphotometer, satellite, and in-situ instruments. Results from recent studies on impacts of Asian dust particles on local air quality and radiative forcing over Korea are summarized here.

  12. Interpretation of the cosmic-ray air shower signal in Askaryan radio detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Krijn D.; Buitink, Stijn; van Eijndhoven, Nick; Meures, Thomas; O'Murchadha, Aongus; Scholten, Olaf

    2017-03-01

    We discuss the radio emission from a cosmic-ray air shower propagating in air before it hits an air-ice boundary after which it completes its propagation inside the ice. The in-air emission, the in-ice emission, as well as the transition radiation from the shower crossing the boundary is considered. We discuss the interpretation of the radio signal observed by an in-ice observer.

  13. Comparative Investigation of the Performance of ZnO-Based Scintillators for Use as α-Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, John S; Boatner, Lynn A; Giles, N. C.; Halliburton, L. E.; Derenzo, S. E.; Bourret-Courchesne, E. D.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive investigation of the scintillation properties of zinc-oxide-based scintillators, four samples of gallium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) powders have been characterized by means of X-ray excitation, {alpha}-particle excitation, and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL). The ultimate goals of these studies are, first, to understand the scintillation mechanisms that are operative in various members of the ZnO family of scintillators, and, subsequently, to use this knowledge in order to improve the radiation-detection performance of ZnO. These samples have been considered for use in an {alpha}-detector for installation in a deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron generator. All of the samples demonstrated principal decay time components on the order of 1 ns. PL measurements of the four powder samples did not unequivocally support any of the discussed models. Excitonic and shallow acceptor models, however, share a common starting point for future investigations. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3518 sample was found to be the most promising candidate, in terms of fast light output, for replacing the Nuclear Enterprises Technology sample for use in a ZnO:Ga-based {alpha}-particle detector. While the nature of the luminescence center(s) or the energy transfer mechanisms actually responsible for scintillation are not yet clearly understood, ZnO:Ga remains a highly desirable candidate scintillator for use in an {alpha}-detector for installation in a D-T neutron generator and extended investigations of the fundamental mechanisms and scintillation parameters that are operative in ZnO:Ga scintillators are continuing.

  14. Air demand estimation in bottom outlets with the particle finite element method - Susqueda Dam case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Fernando; San-Mauro, Javier; Celigueta, Miguel Ángel; Oñate, Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    Dam bottom outlets play a vital role in dam operation and safety, as they allow controlling the water surface elevation below the spillway level. For partial openings, water flows under the gate lip at high velocity and drags the air downstream of the gate, which may cause damages due to cavitation and vibration. The convenience of installing air vents in dam bottom outlets is well known by practitioners. The design of this element depends basically on the maximum air flow through the air vent, which in turn is a function of the specific geometry and the boundary conditions. The intrinsic features of this phenomenon makes it hard to analyse either on site or in full scaled experimental facilities. As a consequence, empirical formulas are frequently employed, which offer a conservative estimate of the maximum air flow. In this work, the particle finite element method was used to model the air-water interaction in Susqueda Dam bottom outlet, with different gate openings. Specific enhancements of the formulation were developed to consider air-water interaction. The results were analysed as compared to the conventional design criteria and to information gathered on site during the gate operation tests. This analysis suggests that numerical modelling with the PFEM can be helpful for the design of this kind of hydraulic works.

  15. Low material budget microfabricated cooling devices for particle detectors and front-end electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapelli, A.; Catinaccio, A.; Daguin, J.; van Lintel, H.; Nuessle, G.; Petagna, P.; Renaud, P.

    2011-06-01

    Novel cooling systems with very low material budget are being fabricated and studied. They consist of silicon wafers in which microchannels are etched and closed by bonding another wafer. This cooling option is being considered for future HEP detectors of the sLHC and linear colliders. It is currently under investigation as an option for the cooling of the NA62 Gigatracker silicon pixel detector and its front-end electronics where the microfabricated cooling plate would stand directly in the beam. In this particular case, microchannel cooling meets both the very aggressive X 0 (0.15%) specifications and the anticipated 2 W/cm 2 power dissipation by the active electronics.

  16. A New Limb Movement Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Swing with a Gyration Air Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb swing with a gyration air mouse and a newly developed limb movement detection program (LMDP, i.e., a new software program that turns a gyration air mouse into a precise limb movement detector). The study was performed…

  17. Optical detector having a plurality of matrix layers with cobalt disilicide particles embedded therein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); Schowalter, Leo (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Silicon and metal are coevaporated onto a silicon substrate in a molecular beam epitaxy system with a larger than stoichiometric amount of silicon so as to epitaxially grow particles of metal silicide embedded in a matrix of single crystal epitaxially grown silicon. The particles interact with incident photons by resonant optical absorption at the surface plasmon resonance frequency. Controlling the substrate temperature and deposition rate and time allows the aspect ratio of the particles to be tailored to desired wavelength photons and polarizations. The plasmon energy may decay as excited charge carriers of phonons, either of which can be monitored to indicate the amount of incident radiation at the selected frequency and polarization.

  18. Plasma diagnostics in spherical tokamaks with silicon charged-particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netepenko, A.; Boeglin, W. U.; Darrow, D. S.; Ellis, R.; Sibilia, M. J.

    2016-11-01

    Detection of charged fusion products, such as protons and tritons resulting from D(d, p) t reactions, can be used to determine the position and time dependent fusion reaction rate profile in spherical tokamak plasmas with neutral beam heating. We have developed a prototype instrument consisting of 6 ion-implanted-silicon surface barrier detectors combined with collimators in such a way that each detector can accept 3 MeV protons and 1 MeV tritons and thus provides a curved view across the plasma cross section. The combination of the results from all six detectors will provide information on the spatial distribution of the fusion reaction rate. The expected time resolution of about 1 ms makes it possible to study changes in the reaction rate due to slow variations in the neutral beam density profile, as well as rapid changes resulting from MHD instabilities. Details of the new instrument, its data acquisition system, simulation results, and electrical noise testing results are discussed in this paper. First experimental data are expected to be taken during the current experimental campaign at NSTX-U.

  19. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-07-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface.

  20. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-01-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface. PMID:27445272

  1. The laser detector of bio-aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliszewski, Miron; Włodarski, Maksymilian; Młyńczak, Jarosław; Zawadzki, Zbigniew; Mularczyk-Oliwa, Monika; Bombalska, Aneta; Kopczyński, Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    In the paper we describe a new construction and preliminary laboratory tests of airborne particle flow detector. The device is designed for continuous monitoring of biological particles in ambient air. The scattering and fluorescence signals from each particle are detected simultaneously. The device uses 375 nm laser for fluorescence excitation. The luminescence is measured with three broad bands. Principal Component Analysis was applied for data analysis. It has been demonstrated proper classification between various biological aerosols.

  2. An experimental quantification of the NOX production efficiency of energetic alpha particles in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Cooray, Vernon; Possnert, Göran; Nyberg, Johan

    2006-07-01

    An experimental study on the production of NOX by alpha particles impact in air at atmospheric pressure is presented. A mixed radioactive source of 208Po and 209Po with an integrated activity of 9.6 MBq over a solid angle of 2π and an average alpha particle energy of 4.5 MeV was used for ionization of atmospheric air in an airtight chamber and the NOX production was measured by the chemiluminescence method. The NOX production rate is found to be about 1.2 NOX molecules per ion-pair. The NOX production efficiency per Joule of dissipated energy is calculated to be 20×1016 NOX molecules per Joule. This efficiency is comparable to that of hot laboratory sparks discharges.

  3. Association of particulate air pollution and acute mortality: involvement of ultrafine particles?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberdorster, G.; Gelein, R. M.; Ferin, J.; Weiss, B.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies show an association between particulate air pollution and acute mortality and morbidity down to ambient particle concentrations below 100 micrograms/m3. Whether this association also implies a causality between acute health effects and particle exposure at these low levels is unclear at this time; no mechanism is known that would explain such dramatic effects of low ambient particle concentrations. Based on results of our past and most recent inhalation studies with ultrafine particles in rats, we propose that such particles, that is, particles below approximately 50 nm in diameter, may contribute to the observed increased mortality and morbidity In the past we demonstrated that inhalation of highly insoluble particles of low intrinsic toxicity, such as TiO2, results in significantly increased pulmonary inflammatory responses when their size is in the ultrafine particle range, approximately 20 nm in diameter. However, these effects were not of an acute nature and occurred only after prolonged inhalation exposure of the aggregated ultrafine particles at concentrations in the milligrams per cubic meter range. In contrast, in the course of our most recent studies with thermodegradation products of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) we found that freshly generated PTFE fumes containing singlet ultrafine particles (median diameter 26 nm) were highly toxic to rats at inhaled concentrations of 0.7-1.0 x 10(6) particles/cm3, resulting in acute hemorrhagic pulmonary inflammation and death after 10-30 min of exposure. We also found that work performance of the rats in a running wheel was severely affected by PTFE fume exposure. These results confirm reports from other laboratories of the highly toxic nature of PTFE fumes, which cannot be attributed to gas-phase components of these fumes such as HF, carbonylfluoride, or perfluoroisobutylene, or to reactive radicals. The calculated mass concentration of the inhaled ultrafine PTFE particles in our

  4. Observation of alpha particle loss from JET plasmas during ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating using a thin foil Faraday cup detector array.

    PubMed

    Darrow, D S; Cecil, F E; Kiptily, V; Fullard, K; Horton, A; Murari, A

    2010-10-01

    The loss of MeV alpha particles from JET plasmas has been measured with a set of thin foil Faraday cup detectors during third harmonic heating of helium neutral beam ions. Tail temperatures of ∼ 2 MeV have been observed, with radial scrape off lengths of a few centimeters. Operational experience from this system indicates that such detectors are potentially feasible for future large tokamaks, but careful attention to screening rf and MHD induced noise is essential.

  5. Foam and cluster structure formation by latex particles at the air/water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Garcia, Jaime; Gámez-Corrales, Rogelio; Ivlev, Boris I.

    1997-02-01

    We report the formation of two-dimensional foam and cluster structures by spherical polystyrene particles trapped at the air/water interface. The colloidal foam is a transient structure that evolves to the formation of clusters, but clusters can also be formed after deposition of the sample. We also observed the formation of small aggregates, whose formation along with the cluster stabilization can be explained in terms of a balance between electrostatic repulsive and van der Waals attractive interactions.

  6. Evaluation of the particle infiltration efficiency of three passive samplers and the PS-1 active air sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Milos Z.; Prokop, Sebastian; Staebler, Ralf M.; Liggio, John; Harner, Tom

    2015-07-01

    The particle infiltration efficiencies (PIE) of three passive and one active air samplers were evaluated under field conditions. A wide-range particle spectrometer operating in the 250-4140 nm range was used to acquire highly temporally resolved particle-number and size distributions for the different samplers compared to ambient air. Overall, three of the four evaluated samplers were able to acquire a representative sample of ambient particles with PIEs of 91.5 ± 13.7% for the GAPS Network sampler, 103 ± 15.5% for the Lancaster University sampler, and 89.6 ± 13.4% for a conventional PS-1 high-volume active air sampler (Hi-Vol). Significantly (p = 0.05) lower PIE of 54 ± 8.0% was acquired for the passive sampler used under the MONET program. These findings inform the comparability and use of passive and active samplers for measuring particle-associated priority chemicals in air.

  7. Charge, energy and LET spectra of high LET primary and secondary particles in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors of the P0006 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csige, I.; Frigo, L. A.; Benton, E. V.; Oda, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the charge, energy and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of about 800 high LET (LET(sub infinity) H2O greater than 50 keV/micron) particles in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors in the P0006 experiment of LDEF. Primary particles with residual range at the reference surface greater than about 2 microns and secondary particles produced in the detector material with total range greater than about 4 microns were measured. We have used a multi-etch technique and an internal calibration to identify and measure the energy of the particles at the reference surface. The LET spectrum was obtained from the charge and energy distribution of the particles.

  8. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity inside jets from √{s}=8 {TeV} pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.

    2016-06-01

    The number of charged particles inside jets is a widely used discriminant for identifying the quark or gluon nature of the initiating parton and is sensitive to both the perturbative and non-perturbative components of fragmentation. This paper presents a measurement of the average number of charged particles with p_ {T}>500 {MeV} inside high-momentum jets in dijet events using 20.3 fb^{-1} of data recorded with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at √{s}=8 {TeV} collisions at the LHC. The jets considered have transverse momenta from 50 {GeV} up to and beyond 1.5 {TeV}. The reconstructed charged-particle track multiplicity distribution is unfolded to remove distortions from detector effects and the resulting charged-particle multiplicity is compared to several models. Furthermore, quark and gluon jet fractions are used to extract the average charged-particle multiplicity for quark and gluon jets separately.

  9. Very high Momentum Particle Identification detector for ALICE at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Edmundo

    2009-04-20

    The anomalies observed at RHIC for the baryon-meson ratios have prompted a number of theoretical works on the nature of the hadrochemistry in the hadronisation stage of the pp collisions and in the evolution of the dense system formed in heavy ion collisions. Although the predictions differ in the theoretical approach, generally a substantial increase in the baryon production is predicted in the range 10-30 GeV/c. This raises the problem of baryon identification to much higher momenta than originally planned in the LHC experiments. After a review of the present status of theoretical predictions we will present the possibilities of a gas ring imaging Cherenkov detector of limited acceptance which would be able to identify track-by-track protons until 26 GeV/c. The physics capabilities of such a detector in conjunction with the ALICE experiment will be contemplated as well as the triggering options to enrich the sample of interesting events with a dedicated trigger or/and using the ALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter. The use of the electromagnetic calorimeter opens interesting possibility to distinguish quark and gluon jets in gamma--jet events and subsequently the study of the probability of fragmentation in proton, kaon and pion or triggering on jets in the EMCAL. Such a detector would be identify pions until 14 GeV/c kaons from 9 till 14 GeV/c and protons from 18 till 24/GeV/c in a positive way and by absence of signal from 9-18 GeV/c.

  10. The fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bacher, A.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barbosa, H. J. M.; Barenthien, N.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bollmann, E.; Bolz, H.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Bracci, F.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Camin, D.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Castro, J.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordero, A.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J. W.; Cuautle, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daudo, F.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fonte, R.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Gibbs, K.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grassi, V.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Grygar, J.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guardone, N.; Guerard, C.; Guarino, F.; Gumbsheimer, R.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hofman, G.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovský, M.; Hucker, H.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kern, H.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kopmann, A.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Malek, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Marchetto, F.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martineau, O.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mucchi, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nerling, F.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nicotra, D.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Oßwald, B.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Peķala, J.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Pouryamout, J.; Prado, L., Jr.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Raia, G.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reis, H. C.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Roberts, M. D.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schleif, G.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Sequieros, G.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; SmiaŁkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Trapani, P.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Tusi, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vitali, G.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wild, N.; Wiebusch, C.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wörner, G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2010-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It combines a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level together with a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The fluorescence detector comprises 24 large telescopes specialized for measuring the nitrogen fluorescence caused by charged particles of cosmic ray air showers. In this paper we describe the components of the fluorescence detector including its optical system, the design of the camera, the electronics, and the systems for relative and absolute calibration. We also discuss the operation and the monitoring of the detector. Finally, we evaluate the detector performance and precision of shower reconstructions.

  11. The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation and the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Clemmons, J. H.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Schlemm, C. E.; Brown, L. E.; Cooper, S. A.; Craft, J. V.; Fennell, J. F.; Gurnee, R. S.; Hammock, C. M.; Hayes, J. R.; Hill, P. A.; Ho, G. C.; Hutcheson, J. C.; Jacques, A. D.; Kerem, S.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nelson, K. S.; Paschalidis, N. P.; Rossano, E.; Stokes, M. R.; Westlake, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation is one of 5 fields-and-particles investigations on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. MMS comprises 4 spacecraft flying in close formation in highly elliptical, near-Earth-equatorial orbits targeting understanding of the fundamental physics of the important physical process called magnetic reconnection using Earth's magnetosphere as a plasma laboratory. EPD comprises two sensor types, the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) with one instrument on each of the 4 spacecraft, and the Fly's Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) with 2 instruments on each of the 4 spacecraft. EIS measures energetic ion energy, angle and elemental compositional distributions from a required low energy limit of 20 keV for protons and 45 keV for oxygen ions, up to >0.5 MeV (with capabilities to measure up to >1 MeV). FEEPS measures instantaneous all sky images of energetic electrons from 25 keV to >0.5 MeV, and also measures total ion energy distributions from 45 keV to >0.5 MeV to be used in conjunction with EIS to measure all sky ion distributions. In this report we describe the EPD investigation and the details of the EIS sensor. Specifically we describe EPD-level science objectives, the science and measurement requirements, and the challenges that the EPD team had in meeting these requirements. Here we also describe the design and operation of the EIS instruments, their calibrated performances, and the EIS in-flight and ground operations. Blake et al. (The Flys Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) contribution to the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) investigation of the Magnetospheric Magnetoscale (MMS) Mission, this issue) describe the design and operation of the FEEPS instruments, their calibrated performances, and the FEEPS in-flight and ground operations. The MMS spacecraft will launch in early 2015, and over its 2-year mission will provide comprehensive measurements of magnetic reconnection at Earth

  12. Characterizing ultrafine particles and other air pollutants in and around school buses.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yifang; Zhang, Qunfang

    2014-03-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated toxic effects of ultrafine particles (UFP*, diameter < 100 nm). Children are particularly at risk because of their immature respiratory systems and higher breathing rates per body mass. This study aimed to characterize UFP, PM2.5 (particulate matter < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), and other vehicular-emitted pollutants in and around school buses. Four sub-studies were conducted, including: 1. On-road tests to measure in-cabin air pollutant levels while school buses were being driven; 2. Idling tests to determine the contributions of tailpipe emissions from idling school buses to air pollutant levels in and around school buses under different scenarios; 3. Retrofit tests to evaluate the performance of two retrofit systems, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) muffler and a crankcase filtration system (CFS), on reducing tailpipe emissions and in-cabin air pollutant concentrations under idling and driving conditions; and 4. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter air purifier tests to evaluate the effectiveness of in-cabin filtration. In total, 24 school buses were employed to cover a wide range of school buses commonly used in the United States. Real-time air quality measurements included particle number concentration (PNC), fine and UFP size distribution in the size range 7.6-289 nm, PM2.5 mass concentration, black carbon (BC) concentration, and carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. For in-cabin measurements, instruments were placed on a platform secured to the rear seats inside the school buses. For all other tests, a second set of instruments was deployed to simultaneously measure the ambient air pollutant levels. For tailpipe emission measurements, the exhaust was diluted and then measured by instruments identical to those used for the in-cabin measurements. The results show that when driving on roads, in-cabin PNC, fine and UFP size distribution, PM2.5, BC, and CO varied by engine age

  13. MRT letter: Auto-fluorescence by human alveolar macrophages after in vitro exposure to air pollution particles.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew J; Sangani, Rahul G; Brighton, Luisa E; Carson, John L

    2010-06-01

    Macrophages from smokers demonstrate an increased auto-fluorescence. Similarly, auto-fluorescence follows in vitro exposure of macrophages to cigarette smoke condensate (i.e., the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke). The composition of particles in cigarette smoke can be comparable to air pollution particles. We tested the postulate that macrophages exposed to air pollution particles could demonstrate auto-fluorescence. Healthy nonsmoking and healthy smoking volunteers (both 18-40 years of age) underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and alveolar macrophages isolated. Macrophages were incubated at 37 degrees C in 5% CO(2) with either PBS or 100 microg/mL particle for both 1 and 24 h. Particles included a residual oil fly ash, Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash, and ambient air particles collected from St. Louis, Missouri and Salt Lake City, Utah. At the end of incubation, 50 microL of the cell suspension was cytocentrifuged and examined at modes for viewing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and rhodamine fluorescence. Both emission source air pollution particles demonstrated FITC and rhodamine auto-fluorescence at 1 and 24 h, but the signal following incubation of the macrophages with oil fly ash appeared greater. Similarly, the ambient particles were associated with auto-fluorescence by the alveolar macrophages and this appeared to be dose-dependent. We conclude that exposure of macrophages to air pollution particles can be associated with auto-fluorescence in the FITC and rhodamine modes.

  14. Air shower simulation for WASAVIES: warning system for aviation exposure to solar energetic particles.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Kataoka, R; Yasuda, H; Yashiro, S; Kuwabara, T; Shiota, D; Kubo, Y

    2014-10-01

    WASAVIES, a warning system for aviation exposure to solar energetic particles (SEPs), is under development by collaboration between several institutes in Japan and the USA. It is designed to deterministically forecast the SEP fluxes incident on the atmosphere within 6 h after flare onset using the latest space weather research. To immediately estimate the aircrew doses from the obtained SEP fluxes, the response functions of the particle fluxes generated by the incidence of monoenergetic protons into the atmosphere were developed by performing air shower simulations using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code system. The accuracy of the simulation was well verified by calculating the increase count rates of a neutron monitor during a ground-level enhancement, combining the response function with the SEP fluxes measured by the PAMELA spectrometer. The response function will be implemented in WASAVIES and used to protect aircrews from additional SEP exposure.

  15. A two-dimensional position sensitive charged-particle detector for the magnetic spectrograph ``Big Karl'' of the Jülich Cyclotron ``Jülich''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, M.; Müller, K. D.; Stoff, H.; Teske, M.; Berg, G. P. A.; Hardt, A.; Martin, S.; Mayer-Böricke, C.; Meißburger, J.

    1980-09-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive detector with an area of 300 mm × 40 mm and a charged-particle spatial resolution of ΔX = ΔY ⩽ 0.5 mm is described. Some test results point out the detector properties. Results of the experiments 102Ru(d,p) 103Ru and 208Pb(p,p') 208Pb done at 45 MeV incident particle energy using the magnetic spectrograph BIG KARL are shown with sections of the proton spectra.

  16. The lasting effect of limonene-induced particle formation on air quality in a genuine indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Rösch, Carolin; Wissenbach, Dirk K; von Bergen, Martin; Franck, Ulrich; Wendisch, Manfred; Schlink, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric ozone-terpene reactions, which form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles, can affect indoor air quality when outdoor air mixes with indoor air during ventilation. This study, conducted in Leipzig, Germany, focused on limonene-induced particle formation in a genuine indoor environment (24 m(3)). Particle number, limonene and ozone concentrations were monitored during the whole experimental period. After manual ventilation for 30 min, during which indoor ozone levels reached up to 22.7 ppb, limonene was introduced into the room at concentrations of approximately 180 to 250 μg m(-3). We observed strong particle formation and growth within a diameter range of 9 to 50 nm under real-room conditions. Larger particles with diameters above 100 nm were less affected by limonene introduction. The total particle number concentrations (TPNCs) after limonene introduction clearly exceed outdoor values by a factor of 4.5 to 41 reaching maximum concentrations of up to 267,000 particles cm(-3). The formation strength was influenced by background particles, which attenuated the formation of new SOA with increasing concentration, and by ozone levels, an increase of which by 10 ppb will result in a six times higher TPNC. This study emphasizes indoor environments to be preferred locations for particle formation and growth after ventilation events. As a consequence, SOA formation can produce significantly higher amounts of particles than transported by ventilation into the indoor air.

  17. A zero dead-time multi-particle time and position sensitive detector based on correlation between brightness and amplitude.

    PubMed

    Urbain, X; Bech, D; Van Roy, J-P; Géléoc, M; Weber, S J; Huetz, A; Picard, Y J

    2015-02-01

    A new multi-particle time and position sensitive detector using only a set of microchannel plates, a waveform digitizer, a phosphor screen, and a CMOS camera is described. The assignment of the timing information, as taken from the microchannel plates by fast digitizing, to the positions, as recorded by the camera, is based on the COrrelation between the BRightness of the phosphor screen spots, defined as their integrated intensity and the Amplitude of the electrical signals (COBRA). Tests performed by observing the dissociation of HeH, the fragmentation of H3 into two or three fragments, and the photo-double-ionization of Xenon atoms are presented, which illustrate the performances of the COBRA detection scheme.

  18. A zero dead-time multi-particle time and position sensitive detector based on correlation between brightness and amplitude

    SciTech Connect

    Urbain, X. Bech, D.; Van Roy, J.-P.; Géléoc, M.; Weber, S. J.

    2015-02-15

    A new multi-particle time and position sensitive detector using only a set of microchannel plates, a waveform digitizer, a phosphor screen, and a CMOS camera is described. The assignment of the timing information, as taken from the microchannel plates by fast digitizing, to the positions, as recorded by the camera, is based on the COrrelation between the BRightness of the phosphor screen spots, defined as their integrated intensity and the Amplitude of the electrical signals (COBRA). Tests performed by observing the dissociation of HeH, the fragmentation of H{sub 3} into two or three fragments, and the photo-double-ionization of Xenon atoms are presented, which illustrate the performances of the COBRA detection scheme.

  19. Spatiotemporal variability of submicrometer particle number size distributions in an air quality management district.

    PubMed

    Young, Li-Hao; Wang, Yi-Ting; Hsu, Hung-Chieh; Lin, Ching-Hui; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Lai, Ying-Chung; Lin, Yun-Hua; Chang, Wei-Lun; Chiang, Hung-Lung; Cheng, Man-Ting

    2012-05-15

    First measurements of ambient 10-1000 nm particle number concentrations (N(TOT)) and size distributions were made at an urban, coastal, mountain and downwind site within the Central Taiwan Air Quality Management District during a cold and a warm period. The primary objectives were to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of the size-fractionated submicrometer particles and their relationships with copollutants and meteorological parameters. The results show that the ultrafine particles (<100 nm) are the major contributor to the N(TOT). The mean N(TOT) was highest at the urban site, whereas lower and comparable at the three other sites. Although the mean N(TOT) at each site showed insignificant differences between study periods, their diurnal patterns and size distribution modal characteristics were modestly to substantially different between study sites. Correlation analyses of time-resolved collocated aerosol, copollutants and meteorological data suggest that the observed variability is largely attributable to the local traffic and to a lesser extent photochemistry and SO(2) possibly from combustion sources or regional transport. Despite sharing a common traffic source, the ultrafine particles were poorly correlated with the accumulation particles (100-1000 nm), between which the latter showed strong positive correlation with the PM(2.5) and PM(10). Overall, the N(TOT) and size distributions show modest spatial heterogeneity and strong diurnal variability. In addition, the ultrafine particles have variable sources or meteorology-dependent formation processes within the study area. The results imply that single-site measurements of PM(2.5), PM(10) or N(TOT) alone and without discriminating particle sizes would be inadequate for exposure and impact assessment of submicrometer particle numbers in a region of diverse environments.

  20. Reducing ultrafine particle emissions using air injection in wood-burning cookstoves

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Vi H.; Caubel, Julien J.; Wilson, Daniel L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2016-06-27

    In order to address the health risks and climate impacts associated with pollution from cooking on biomass fires, researchers have focused on designing new cookstoves that improve cooking performance and reduce harmful emissions, specifically particulate matter (PM). One method for improving cooking performance and reducing emissions is using air injection to increase turbulence of unburned gases in the combustion zone. Although air injection reduces total PM mass emissions, the effect on PM size-distribution and number concentration has not been thoroughly investigated. Using two new wood-burning cookstove designs from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, this research explores the effect of air injection on cooking performance, PM and gaseous emissions, and PM size distribution and number concentration. Both cookstoves were created using the Berkeley-Darfur Stove as the base platform to isolate the effects of air injection. The thermal performance, gaseous emissions, PM mass emissions, and particle concentrations (ranging from 5 nm to 10 μm in diameter) of the cookstoves were measured during multiple high-power cooking tests. Finally, the results indicate that air injection improves cookstove performance and reduces total PM mass but increases total ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) PM concentration over the course of high-power cooking.

  1. Reducing ultrafine particle emissions using air injection in wood-burning cookstoves

    DOE PAGES

    Rapp, Vi H.; Caubel, Julien J.; Wilson, Daniel L.; ...

    2016-06-27

    In order to address the health risks and climate impacts associated with pollution from cooking on biomass fires, researchers have focused on designing new cookstoves that improve cooking performance and reduce harmful emissions, specifically particulate matter (PM). One method for improving cooking performance and reducing emissions is using air injection to increase turbulence of unburned gases in the combustion zone. Although air injection reduces total PM mass emissions, the effect on PM size-distribution and number concentration has not been thoroughly investigated. Using two new wood-burning cookstove designs from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, this research explores the effect of air injectionmore » on cooking performance, PM and gaseous emissions, and PM size distribution and number concentration. Both cookstoves were created using the Berkeley-Darfur Stove as the base platform to isolate the effects of air injection. The thermal performance, gaseous emissions, PM mass emissions, and particle concentrations (ranging from 5 nm to 10 μm in diameter) of the cookstoves were measured during multiple high-power cooking tests. Finally, the results indicate that air injection improves cookstove performance and reduces total PM mass but increases total ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) PM concentration over the course of high-power cooking.« less

  2. A Compact Particle Detector For The New Horizons Mission To Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Andrews, G. Bruce

    The New Horizons mission concept for a Pluto Kuiper Belt mission has recently been selected by NASA for Phase B study. One of the science goals is to characterize the interaction of the outflowing neutral atmosphere of Pluto with the solar wind. By mea- suring changes in both the solar wind near Pluto as well as the population of pickup ions produced by charge exchange between the atmosphere of the planet and the solar wind, constraints on the neutral atmospheric source strength can be derived. Combin- ing these measurements with remote UV measurements of the neutral atmosphere near the planet, we can estimate the atmospheric loss rate. As part of the payload to make these measurements, a time-of-flight particle instrument, the Pluto Energetic Parti- cle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI), has been included in the payload. PEPSSI measures the mass, energy spectra, and directional distributions of energetic particles accelerated by mass pickup and/or shock processes in the near-Pluto environ- ment both in the solar wind and in the likely Pluto-interaction region. Simultaneous low-resolution measurements of the solar wind are also made. PEPSSI originated with a NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development (PIDDP) grant focused on providing a low-mass, low-power instrument for the Pluto-Kuiper Express mission, then in formulation (McNutt et al., 1996; Andrews et al., 1998). This instrument also formed the basis for the Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS) that is the energetic particle part of the Energetic Particle and Plasma spectrometer (EPPS) (Gold et al., 2001) now in detailed design for NASA's MESSENGER Discovery mission to the planet Mercury (Solomon et al., 2001). While additional PIDDP work is also continu- ing, PEPSSI is planned as a near-twin of MESSENGER/EPS to take full advantage of the MESSENGER effort and thus minimize cost, cost risk, and schedule risk to New Horizons. PEPSSI is a 1.5 kg, 1.3 W instrument with six sectors arrayed in a

  3. Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner, R. Hensley, and A.L Roquemore

    2007-10-09

    Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 ν has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

  4. Initial evaluation of a direct detection device detector for single particle cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Cheng, Anchi; Moeller, Arne; Lyumkis, Dmitry; Jacovetty, Erica; Polukas, James; Ellisman, Mark H; Xuong, Nguyen-Huu; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S

    2011-12-01

    We report on initial results of using a new direct detection device (DDD) for single particle reconstruction of vitreous ice embedded specimens. Images were acquired on a Tecnai F20 at 200keV and a nominal magnification of 29,000×. This camera has a significantly improved signal to noise ratio and modulation transfer function (MTF) at 200keV compared to a standard CCD camera installed on the same microscope. Control of the DDD has been integrated into Leginon, an automated data collection system. Using GroEL as a test specimen, we obtained images of ∼30K particles with the CCD and the DDD from the same specimen sample using essentially identical imaging conditions. Comparison of the maps reconstructed from the CCD images and the DDD images demonstrates the improved performance of the DDD. We also obtained a 3D reconstruction from ∼70K GroEL particles acquired using the DDD; the quality of the density map demonstrates the potential of this new recording device for cryoEM data acquisition.

  5. Evaluation of ground-water flow by particle tracking, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, W.L.; Sheets, R.A.; Schalk, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) began a Basewide Monitoring Program (BMP) in 1992. The purpose of the BMP was to establish a long-term ground-water and surface- water sampling network in order to (1) characterize current ground-water and surface-water quality; (2) describe water-quality changes as water enters, flows across, and exits Base boundaries; (3) conduct statistical analyses of water quality; and (4) estimate the effect of WPAFB on regional water quality. As part of the BMP, the USGS conducted ground-water particle-tracking analyses based on a ground-water-flow model produced during a previous USGS study. This report briefly describes the previous USGS study, the inherent assumptions of particle-tracking analyses, and information on the regional ground-water-flow field as inferred from particle pathlines. Pathlines for particles placed at the Base boundary and particles placed within identified Installation Restoration Program sites are described.

  6. Fundamental Study of Direct Contact Cold Energy Release by Flowing Hot Air through Ice Particles Packed Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Sigeo; Inaba, Hideo

    This paper has dealt with the direct contact heat exchange characteristics between ice particles (average ice particle diameter : 3.10mm) packed in the rectangular cold energy storage vessel and flowing hot air as a heat transfer medium. The hot air bubbles ascended in the fluidized ice particles layer, and they were cooled down directly by melting ice particles. The temperature efficiency increased as Reynolds number Re increa