Science.gov

Sample records for air particulate material

  1. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  2. Method and apparatus for preventing air pollution by the entrainment of particulate material

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.Z.

    1986-05-06

    A particulate material handling system is described which is capable of reducing the pollution of air by the entrainment of particulate solids. The system consists of: a covered elevated conveyor means from which the particulate material can be deposited to form a pile of that material in a designated area or to add to such a pile and air diversion means which is adapted to so cooperate with the conveyor as to prevent wind from entraining fines in the particulate material as it is dumped onto the pile or into the area and to prevent wind from stripping and entraining material from the pile by diverting the wind upwardly over the top of the elevated conveyor means and creating an eddy in the air on the leeward side of the pile of particulate material. Particulate material entrained in the air diverted over the elevated conveyor means will drop out of the air currents in the region where the eddy currents are formed and be deposited on the leeward side of the pile, the air diversion means being vertically oriented and adapted to extend lengthwise along at least the initial segment of the pile and essentially along the longitudinal centerline. The air diversion means have a lower edge which is adapted to be proximate to, in contact with, or buried in the pile depending on the height of the pile, and the conveyor being so constructed that it is capable of depositing particulate material on both sides of the air diversion means.

  3. HUMAL ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE RESPONSES TO AIR POLLUTION PARTICULATES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INSOLUBLE OCMPONENTS OF COARSE MATERIAL, INCLUDING PARTICULATE ENDOTOXIN

    EPA Science Inventory


    Inhalation of particulate matter in the ambient air has been shown to cause pulmonary morbidity and exacerbate asthma. Alveolar macrophage (AM) are essential for effective removal of inhaled particles and microbes in the lower airways. While some particles minimally effect AM...

  4. Determination of selected oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) in diesel and air particulate matter standard reference materials (SRMs).

    PubMed

    Nocun, Margarete S; Schantz, Michele M

    2013-06-01

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) have recently received much attention in discussions regarding the negative impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. The National Institute of Standards and Technology provides several environmental matrix standard reference materials (SRMs) with certified and reference values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs. In this study, the concentrations of oxygenated PAHs are determined in three air PM SRMs (1649b, 1648a, and 2786) and three diesel PM SRMs (1650b, 2975, and 1975) using two independent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Concentrations of oxy-PAHs were at the milligrams per kilogram level with higher overall concentrations in diesel PM (up to 50 mg/kg for 9,10-anthraquinone). One of the highest oxy-PAH concentrations (up to 5 mg/kg) measured in the air particulate SRMs was for 7,12-benz[a]anthracenquinone. These results suggest that oxygenated PAHs should not be neglected in the analysis of PM as their concentrations can be as high as those of some PAHs and are one to two orders of magnitude higher than those for nitro-PAHs.

  5. Inhibition of progesterone receptor activity in recombinant yeast by soot from fossil fuel combustion emissions and air particulate materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingxian; Xie, Ping; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2005-10-15

    Numerous environmental pollutants have been detected for estrogenic activity by interacting with the estrogen receptor, but little information is available about their interactions with the progesterone receptor. In this study, emission samples generated by fossil fuel combustion (FFC) and air particulate material (APM) collected from an urban location near a traffic line in a big city of China were evaluated to interact with the human progesterone receptor (hPR) signaling pathway by examining their ability to interact with the activity of hPR expressed in yeast. The results showed that the soot of a petroleum-fired vehicle possessed the most potent anti-progesteronic activity, that of coal-fired stove and diesel fired agrimotor emissions took the second place, and soot samples of coal-fired heating work and electric power station had lesser progesterone inhibition activity. The anti-progesteronic activity of APM was between that of soot from petroleum-fired vehicle and soot from coal-fired establishments and diesel fired agrimotor. Since there was no other large pollution source near the APM sampling sites, the endocrine disrupters were most likely from vehicle emissions, tire attrition and house heating sources. The correlation analysis showed that a strong relationship existed between estrogenic activity and anti-progesteronic activity in emissions of fossil fuel combustion. The discoveries that some environmental pollutants with estrogenic activity can also inhibit hPR activity indicate that further studies are required to investigate potential mechanisms for the reported estrogenic activities of these pollutants.

  6. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  7. Transporting particulate material

    DOEpatents

    Aldred, Derek Leslie; Rader, Jeffrey A.; Saunders, Timothy W.

    2011-08-30

    A material transporting system comprises a material transporting apparatus (100) including a material transporting apparatus hopper structure (200, 202), which comprises at least one rotary transporting apparatus; a stationary hub structure (900) constraining and assisting the at least one rotary transporting apparatus; an outlet duct configuration (700) configured to permit material to exit therefrom and comprising at least one diverging portion (702, 702'); an outlet abutment configuration (800) configured to direct material to the outlet duct configuration; an outlet valve assembly from the material transporting system venting the material transporting system; and a moving wall configuration in the material transporting apparatus capable of assisting the material transporting apparatus in transporting material in the material transporting system. Material can be moved from the material transporting apparatus hopper structure to the outlet duct configuration through the at least one rotary transporting apparatus, the outlet abutment configuration, and the outlet valve assembly.

  8. Pressurized liquid extraction of diesel and air particulate standard reference materials: effect of extraction temperature and pressure.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; McGaw, Elizabeth; Wise, Stephen A

    2012-10-02

    Four particulate matter Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were used to evaluate the effect of solvent, number of static cycles and static times, pressure, and temperature when using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated-PAHs. The four materials used in the study were SRM 1648a Urban Particulate Matter, SRM 1649b Urban Dust, SRM 1650b Diesel Particulate Matter, and SRM 2975 Diesel Particulate Matter (Industrial Forklift). The results from the study indicate that the choice of solvent, dichloromethane compared to toluene and toluene/methanol mixtures, had little effect on the extraction efficiency. With three to five extraction cycles, increasing the extraction time for each cycle from 5 to 30 min had no significant effect on the extraction efficiency. The differences in extraction efficiency were not significant (with over 95% of the differences being <10%) when the pressure was increased from 13.8 to 20.7 MPa. The largest increase in extraction efficiency occurred for selected PAHs when the temperature of extraction was increased from 100 to 200 °C. At 200 °C naphthalene, biphenyl, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, and anthracene show substantially higher mass fractions (>30%) than when extracted at 100 °C in all the SRMs studied. For SRM 2975, large increases (>100%) are also observed for some other PAHs including benz[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and benzo[b]chrysene when extracted at the higher temperatures; however, similar trends were not observed for the other diesel particulate sample, SRM 1650b. The results are discussed in relation to the use of the SRMs for evaluating analytical methods.

  9. Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  10. The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been interpreted to imply that tens of thousands of Americans are killed annually by small daily increments in PM. These epidemiology studies and their interpretations have been challenged, although it is accepted that high concentrations of air pollutants have claimed many lives in the past. Although reproducible and statistically significant, the relative risks associated with modern PM are very small and confounded by many factors. Neither toxicology studies nor human clinical investigations have identified the components and/or characteristics of PM that might be causing the health-effect associations. Currently, a massive worldwide research effort is under way in an attempt to identify whom might be harmed and by what substances and mechanisms. Finding the answers is important, because control measures have the potential not only to be costly but also to limit the availability of goods and services that are important to public health. PMID:19330148

  11. Methods for Coating Particulate Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  12. Material Instabilities in Particulate Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Following is a brief summary of a theoretical investigation of material (or constitutive) instability associated with shear induced particle migration in dense particulate suspensions or granular media. It is shown that one can obtain a fairly general linear-stability analysis, including the effects of shear-induced anisotropy in the base flow as well as Reynolds dilatancy. A criterion is presented here for simple shearing instability in the absence of inertia and dilatancy.

  13. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

  14. PRODUCTION OF SHEET FROM PARTICULATE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Blainey, A.

    1959-05-12

    A process is presented for forming coherent sheet material from particulate material such as granular or powdered metal, granular or powdered oxide, slurries, pastes, and plastic mixes which cohere under pressure. The primary object is to avoid the use of expensive and/ or short lived pressing tools, that is, dies and specially profiled rolls, and so to reduce the cost of the product and to prcvide in a simple manner for the making of the product in a variety of shapes or sizes. The sheet material is formed when the particulate material is laterally confined in a boundary material deformable in all lateral directions under axial pressure and then axially compressing the layer of particulate material together with the boundary material.

  15. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  16. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material

    DOEpatents

    Utz, Bruce R.; Cugini, Anthony V.

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  17. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Hirth, John P.

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  18. Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

    1995-01-01

    Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution. Images Figure 1. PMID:7656877

  19. Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  20. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that contain adequate oxygen to support life. (b) Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators are... includes oil-based liquid particulates. (c) Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...

  1. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (Final Report, 2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has completed the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic revi...

  2. Epidemiologic evidence of cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Dockery, D W

    2001-01-01

    In the past decade researchers have developed a body of epidemiologic evidence showing increased daily cardiovascular mortality and morbidity associated with acute exposures to particulate air pollution. Associations have been found not only with cardiovascular deaths reported on death certificates but also with myocardial infarctions and ventricular fibrillation. Particulate air pollution exposure has been associated with indicators of autonomic function of the heart including increased heart rate, decreased heart rate variability, and increased cardiac arrhythmias. Several markers of increased risk for sudden cardiac death have also been associated with such exposures. These epidemiologic studies provide early guidance to possible pathways of particulate air pollution health effects, which can only be addressed fully in toxicologic and physiologic studies. PMID:11544151

  3. Particulate Air Pollution in Lanzhou China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Pollution and Control in Lanzhou (APCL), supported jointly by Gansu Province and the Chinese Academy of Sciences and carried out from 1999 to 2001 (Chu et...capital of Gansu Province, Lanzhou suffers greatly from the dust storms (Wang et al., 1999; Ding et al., 2001). The particulate pollution in Lanzhou has...31, 2000 to January 1, 2001, dusts float in the sky for 7 days (January 1–5, 2001) (Ding et Table 13 Dust storm statistics in Gansu Province from

  4. Handbook on Air Cleaning Particulate Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-09-01

    34orifice diameter 1220 3.4 (7) Hard, close grained shale dust containing 29% free silica; pro- duced in a drilling operation in a hard heading in a coal...Filter Equipped CFM. (American Air Filter Co.) with Motor Driven Vibrators (American Air Filter Co.) 34 HANDBOOK ON AIR CLEANING but efficiency is...Dry filters which are cleaned automati- P • " INLETcally are also available. They are vibrated , rather than shaken, at intervals to dis- lodge the dust

  5. Determination of PAHs in particulate air by micellar liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Kayali, M.N.; Rubio-Barroso, S.; Polo-Diez, L.M. . Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

    1994-01-01

    An acetonitrile/0.20M SDS mobile phase was used to determine PAHs by HPLC with fluorimetric detection. Because the peak area is greater the method is more sensitive than using an acetonitrile/water mobile phase. The method was applied to determine PAHs in particulate air samples and the results are in good agreement with those found by GC.

  6. Genotoxicity to human cells induced by air particulates isolated during the Kuwait oil fires

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.; Xia, F.; Christiani, D.C.; Liber, H.L.; Spengler, J.D.; Dockery, D.W. ); Bodell, W.J. )

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to examine the potential of exposure to soot from the 1991 oil fires in the Kuwait desert for inducing genetic effects we studied the in vitro genotoxicity of this materials. Air particulates isolated near the Kuwait oil fires were studied using three assays. Dose-dependent increases were observed for both sister chromatid exchanges in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and mutation at the hprt locus in the metabolically competent human lymphoblast cell line AHH-1. Similar magnitudes of response were seen using these two assays when testing a standard air particulate sample which had been isolated from the Washington, DC, area. Using the [sup 32]P-postlabeling assay, no increase in DNA adduct formation was observed in AHH-1 cells treated with particulates isolated from sampling in Kuwait. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  7. 78 FR 23492 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) promulgated by EPA in 2006, and removes the annual coarse...

  8. AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

    1999-07-01

    This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

  9. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    sulfate aerosol exposure (both domestically and on downwind continents), while presenting a new metric to quantify the impact of distance on health-relevant exposure: the 'influence potential'. Extending the scope of aerosol impacts from health to climate, Bond outlines the barriers to including aerosols in climate agreements, and proposes solutions to facilitate the integration of this key climate species in a policy context. Together, the articles scope out the state-of-the-science with respect to key issues in international air pollution. All four studies advance understanding the human health implications of air pollution, by drawing from worldwide data sources and considering a global perspective on key processes and impacts. To extend exposure estimates, like those of van Vliet and Kinney or Liu and Mauzerall, and to evaluate the induced physiological response of PM exposure, typically existing dose response relationships are applied. Unfortunately, the common practice of applying health response estimates from one location to another is problematic. In addition to potential differences in the chemical composition of particles, the underlying populations may differ with respect to their baseline health status, occupational exposures, age and gender distribution, and behavioral factors such as nutrition and smoking habits. Health response to a given stressor is affected by the quality of and access to health care, which varies widely, and can be almost non-existent in some regions of developing countries. Further, exposure to ambient PM is affected by the relative fraction of time spent in different settings (e.g., work, home, outside, in transit), the activities that affect ventilation rate (e.g., exercising heavily versus sitting still), and housing characteristics that alter the penetration of outdoor particles into indoor environments (e.g., housing materials, windows, air conditioning). To make the most of exposure estimates, the 'missing link' is the

  10. Particulate air pollution in Lanzhou China.

    PubMed

    Chu, Peter C; Chen, Yuchun; Lu, Shihua; Li, Zhenchao; Lu, Yaqiong

    2008-07-01

    Concentrations of total suspended particles (TSP) and PM(10) in Lanzhou China have been kept high for the past two decades. Data collected during the intensive observational period from October 1999 to April 2001 show high TSP and PM(10) concentrations. Starting from November, the PM(10) pollution intensifies, and reaches mid to high alert level of air pollution, continues until April next year, and is at low alert level in the summer. In the winter and spring, the TSP concentration is 2-10 times higher than the third-level criterion of air quality (severe pollution). Effects of intrinsic factors (sources of pollution) and remote preconditions (propagation of dust storms) for severe PM(10) and TSP pollution in Lanzhou are analyzed.

  11. Method of feeding particulate material to a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Borio, Richard W.; Goodstine, Stephen L.

    1984-01-01

    A centrifugal spreader type feeder that supplies a mixture of particulate limestone and coal to the top of a fluidized bed reactor having a flow of air upward therethrough. Large particles of particulate matter are distributed over the upper surface of the bed to utilize the natural mixing within the bed, while fine particles are adapted to utilize an independent feeder that separates them from the large particles and injects them into the bed.

  12. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  13. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

  14. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOEpatents

    Even, Jr., William R.; Guthrie, Stephen E.; Raber, Thomas N.; Wally, Karl; Whinnery, LeRoy L.; Zifer, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

  15. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOEpatents

    Even, W.R. Jr.; Guthrie, S.E.; Raber, T.N.; Wally, K.; Whinnery, L.L.; Zifer, T.

    1999-02-02

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a packed bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that (a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, (b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, (c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, (d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and (e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of an individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport. 4 figs.

  16. High Diversity of Fungi in Air Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Despres, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Fungal spores account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, hardly known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (< 3 µm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. References: Després, V.R., J.F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M.O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes, Biogeosciences, 4, 1127-1141, 2007. Elbert, W., P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4569-4588, 2007. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J. Despres, V.R., Pöschl, U.: High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, submitted, 2008.

  17. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  18. Thia-arenes as source apportionment tracers for urban air particulate

    SciTech Connect

    McCarry, B.E.; Allan, L.M.; Mehta, S.; Marvin, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    Over sixty respirable air particulate samples were selected from a large number of filters collected in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Depending on the wind direction these sites were either predominantly upwind or predominantly downwind of the industrial sources. The sixty filters were extracted and analyzed using GC-MS for a range of PAH and sulfur-containing PAH (thia-arenes). Various reference standards (coal tar, diesel exhaust, urban air particulate) and source samples (coke oven condensate) were analyzed as well. A set of air particulate samples collected in another city alongside a highway provided an urban vehicular air sample. Unique thia-arene profiles were noted in the reference and source samples which provided the basis for this source apportionment work; two main approaches were used: (1) analysis of alkylated derivatives of thia-arenes with a molecular mass of 184 amu and (2) analysis of 234 amu isomers. The diesel exhaust and urban vehicular samples gave identical profiles while the coal tar and coke oven samples also had identical profiles but in different respects. The air samples collected at samplers located upwind of the coke ovens showed thia-arene profiles which were similar to the profile observed with a diesel exhaust reference material. However, air samples collected downwind of the coke ovens were heavily loaded samples and resembled the coal tar coke and oven condensate samples.

  19. 75 FR 65567 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate... requirements. The particulate matter (PM) standards contain the particulate emission control requirements that have been necessary to attain and maintain the 2006 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)...

  20. STATISTICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF AIR POLLUTION INVOLVING AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological research in the early 1990s focusing on health effects of airborne particulate matter pointed to a statistical association between increases in concentration of particulate in ambient air and increases in daily nonaccidental mortality, particularly among the eld...

  1. COPPER-DEPENDENT INFLAMMATION AND NUCLEAR FACTOR-KB ACTIVATION BY PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical determinants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in ...

  2. High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A.; Després, Viviane R.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 μm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. PMID:19617562

  3. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material and product thereof

    DOEpatents

    Utz, Bruce R.; Cugini, Anthony V.

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  4. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 52, 53, and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed...

  5. 78 FR 3085 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 10..., 51, 52, 53 and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Based on its review of the air...

  6. Fluidizable particulate materials and methods of making same

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P.

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides fluidizable, substantially spherical particulate material of improved attrition resistance having an average particle size from about 100 to about 400 microns useful as sorbents, catalysts, catalytic supports, specialty ceramics or the like. The particles are prepared by spray drying a slurry comprising inorganic starting materials and an organic binder. Exemplary inorganic starting materials include mixtures of zinc oxide with titanium dioxide, or with iron oxide, alumina or the like. Exemplary organic binders include polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxypropylemethyl cellulose, polyvinyl acetate and the like. The spray dried particles are heat treated at a first temperature wherein organic binder material is removed to thereby provide a porous structure to the particles, and thereafter the particles are calcined at a higher temperature to cause reaction of the inorganic starting materials and to thereby form the final inorganic particulate material.

  7. Health effects of particulate air pollution and airborne desert dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Pozzer, A.; Giannadaki, D.; Fnais, M.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has increased strongly with industrialization and urbanization. In the past decades this increase has taken place at a particularly high pace in South and East Asia. We estimate the premature mortality and the years of human life lost (YLL) caused by anthropogenic PM2.5 and airborne desert dust (DU2.5) on regional and national scales (Giannadaki et al., 2013; Lelieveld et al., 2013). This is based on high-resolution global model calculations that resolve urban and industrial regions in relatively great detail. We apply an epidemiological health impact function and find that especially in large countries with extensive suburban and rural populations, air pollution-induced mortality rates have been underestimated given that previous studies largely focused on the urban environment. We calculate a global premature mortality by anthropogenic aerosols of 2.2 million/year (YLL ≈ 16 million/year) due to lung cancer and cardiopulmonary disease. High mortality rates by PM2.5 are found in China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Indonesia. Desert dust DU2.5 aerosols add about 0.4 million/year (YLL ≈ 3.6 million/year). Particularly significant mortality rates by DU2.5 occur in Pakistan, China and India. The estimated global mean per capita mortality caused by airborne particulates is about 0.1%/year (about two thirds of that caused by tobacco smoking). We show that the highest premature mortality rates are found in the Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions (about 25% and 46% of the global rate, respectively) where more than a dozen of the most highly polluted megacities are located. References: Giannadaki, D., A. Pozzer, and J. Lelieveld, Modeled global effects of airborne desert dust on air quality and premature mortality, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (submitted), 2013. Lelieveld, J., C. Barlas, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, Model calculated global, regional and megacity premature mortality due to air pollution by ozone

  8. Particulate air pollution in transport micro-environments.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian

    2009-06-01

    To understand the dynamics of particulate matter inside train coaches and public cars, an investigation was carried out during 2004-2006. For air-conditioned rail coaches, during peak journey times, the mean concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 were 44 microg m(-3), 14 microg m(-3) and 12 microg m(-3), respectively. The levels fell by more than half (21 microg m(-3), 6 microg m(-3), and 4 microg m(-3)) for the same size fractions, on the same route, during the off-peak journeys. On the other hand, in non-air-conditioned coaches, the PM10 concentrations of up to 95 microg m(-3) were observed during both peak and off-peak journeys. However the concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1 were 30 microg m(-3) and 12 microg m(-3) in peak journeys in comparison to 14 microg m(-3) and 6 microg m(-3) during off-peak journeys. Over a period of four months the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in car journeys were generally similar during both morning and evening journeys with average values of 21 microg m(-3) for PM10, 9 microg m(-3) for PM2.5 and 6 microg m(-3) for PM1. However during October the average concentration of PM10 was 31 microg m(-3). An analysis of nearby fixed monitoring sites for both PM10 and PM2.5 revealed an episode of high particulate pollution over southern England during one week of October. There was no statistically significant difference between particulate matter levels for morning and evening car journeys. A statistically significant correlation was found between morning and evening PM10 (0.45), PM2.5 (0.39) and PM1 (0.46). In train journeys, a statistically significant difference was observed for peak and off-peak levels of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in air-conditioned coaches. On the other hand, in non air-conditioned coaches a significant difference was documented only for PM2.5 and PM1.

  9. Microwave Moisture Meter for Granular and Particulate Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low-cost microwave moisture meter operating at a single frequency for instantaneous and nondestructive determination of moisture content of granular and particulate materials was developed, calibrated and tested with different kinds of grain and seed. The meter operates at a single microwave freq...

  10. Measuring Concentrations of Particulate 140La in the Air

    DOE PAGES

    Okada, Colin E.; Kernan, Warnick; Keillor, Martin; ...

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses deployment of air-samplers to measure the concentration of radioactive material in the air during the Full-Scale Radiological Dispersal Device experiments. Positioned 100-600 meters downwind of the release point, the filters were collected immediately and analyzed in a field laboratory. The article discusses quantities for total activity collected on the air filters as well as additional information to compute the average or integrated air concentrations. In the case of a public emergency, this type of information would be important for decision makers and responders.

  11. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

  12. HIGH VOLUME INJECTION FOR GCMS ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC SPECIES IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of organic species in ambient particulate matter typically requires large air sample volumes, frequently achieved by grouping samples into monthly composites. Decreasing the volume of air sample required would allow shorter collection times and more convenient sample c...

  13. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL FLY ASH AND RELEVANCE TO AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle bur...

  14. Air Pollution Particulate Matter Alters Antimycobacterial Respiratory Epithelium Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Santiago, César E.; Sarkar, Srijata; Cantarella, Pasquale; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Meng, Qingyu; Kirn, Thomas J.; Ohman Strickland, Pamela; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Torres, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation exposure to indoor air pollutants and cigarette smoke increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Whether exposure to ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) alters protective human host immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been little studied. Here, we examined the effect of PM from Iztapalapa, a municipality of Mexico City, with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 10 μm (PM10) on innate antimycobacterial immune responses in human alveolar type II epithelial cells of the A549 cell line. Exposure to PM2.5 or PM10 deregulated the ability of the A549 cells to express the antimicrobial peptides human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and HBD-3 upon infection with M. tuberculosis and increased intracellular M. tuberculosis growth (as measured by CFU count). The observed modulation of antibacterial responsiveness by PM exposure was associated with the induction of senescence in PM-exposed A549 cells and was unrelated to PM-mediated loss of cell viability. Thus, the induction of senescence and downregulation of HBD-2 and HBD-3 expression in respiratory PM-exposed epithelial cells leading to enhanced M. tuberculosis growth represent mechanisms by which exposure to air pollution PM may increase the risk of M. tuberculosis infection and the development of TB. PMID:25847963

  15. Air pollution particulate matter alters antimycobacterial respiratory epithelium innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Santiago, César E; Sarkar, Srijata; Cantarella, Pasquale; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Meng, Qingyu; Kirn, Thomas J; Ohman Strickland, Pamela; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Torres, Martha; Schwander, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Inhalation exposure to indoor air pollutants and cigarette smoke increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Whether exposure to ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) alters protective human host immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been little studied. Here, we examined the effect of PM from Iztapalapa, a municipality of Mexico City, with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 10 μm (PM10) on innate antimycobacterial immune responses in human alveolar type II epithelial cells of the A549 cell line. Exposure to PM2.5 or PM10 deregulated the ability of the A549 cells to express the antimicrobial peptides human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and HBD-3 upon infection with M. tuberculosis and increased intracellular M. tuberculosis growth (as measured by CFU count). The observed modulation of antibacterial responsiveness by PM exposure was associated with the induction of senescence in PM-exposed A549 cells and was unrelated to PM-mediated loss of cell viability. Thus, the induction of senescence and downregulation of HBD-2 and HBD-3 expression in respiratory PM-exposed epithelial cells leading to enhanced M. tuberculosis growth represent mechanisms by which exposure to air pollution PM may increase the risk of M. tuberculosis infection and the development of TB.

  16. Using Satellite Aerosol Retrievals to Monitor Surface Particulate Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chu, D. Allen; Mattoo, Shana; Holben, Brent N.; Schafer, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    The MODIS and MISR aerosol products were designed nearly two decades ago for the purpose of climate applications. Since launch of Terra in 1999, these two sensors have provided global, quantitative information about column-integrated aerosol properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) and relative aerosol type parameters (such as Angstrom exponent). Although primarily designed for climate, the air quality (AQ) community quickly recognized that passive satellite products could be used for particulate air quality monitoring and forecasting. However, AOD and particulate matter (PM) concentrations have different units, and represent aerosol conditions in different layers of the atmosphere. Also, due to low visible contrast over brighter surface conditions, satellite-derived aerosol retrievals tend to have larger uncertainty in urban or populated regions. Nonetheless, the AQ community has made significant progress in relating column-integrated AOD at ambient relative humidity (RH) to surface PM concentrations at dried RH. Knowledge of aerosol optical and microphysical properties, ambient meteorological conditions, and especially vertical profile, are critical for physically relating AOD and PM. To make urban-scale maps of PM, we also must account for spatial variability. Since surface PM may vary on a finer spatial scale than the resolution of standard MODIS (10 km) and MISR (17km) products, we test higher-resolution versions of MODIS (3km) and MISR (1km research mode) retrievals. The recent (July 2011) DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the mid-Atlantic offers a comprehensive network of sun photometers (DRAGON) and other data that we use for validating the higher resolution satellite data. In the future, we expect that the wealth of aircraft and ground-based measurements, collected during DISCOVER-AQ, will help us quantitatively link remote sensed and ground-based measurements in the urban region.

  17. Particulate Air Pollution and Clinical Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Shanley, Ryan P; Hayes, Richard B; Cromar, Kevin R; Ito, Kazuhiko; Gordon, Terry; Ahn, Jiyoung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the impact of PM on clinical risk factors for CVD in healthy subjects is unclear. We examined the relationship of PM with levels of circulating lipids and blood pressure in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a large nationally-representative US survey. METHODS This study was based on 11,623 adult participants of NHANES III (1988–1994; median age 41.0). Serum lipids and blood pressure were measured during the NHANES III examination. Average exposure for 1988–1994 to particulate matter <10µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) at the residences of participants was estimated based on measurements from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency monitors. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the associations of PM10 with lipids and blood pressure. RESULTS An interquartile range width (IQRw) increase in PM10 exposure (11.1 µg/m3) in the study population was associated with 2.42 percent greater serum triglycerides (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–3.76); multivariate adjusted means of triglycerides according to increasing quartiles of PM10 were 137.6, 142.5, 142.6, and 148.9 mg/dL, respectively. An IQRw increase in PM10 was associated with 1.43 percent greater total cholesterol (95% CI: 1.21–1.66). These relationships with triglycerides and total cholesterol did not differ by age or region. Associations of PM10 with blood pressure were modest. CONCLUSIONS Findings from this large diverse study indicate that greater long-term PM10 exposure is associated with elevated serum triglycerides and total cholesterol, potentially mediating air pollution-related effects on CVD. PMID:26605815

  18. Analysis of solid particulate matter suspended in the air of Córdoba, southwestern Spain.

    PubMed

    Cariñanos, Paloma; Galán, Carmen; Alcázar, Purificación; Domínguez, Eugenio

    2007-01-01

    An analysis was made of solid particulate matter suspended in the air in the city of Cordoba. Particles greater than 10 micra were collected using volumetric particle samplers (Lanzoni VPPS 2000, Bologna, Italy), and analysed by means of aerobiological methods enabling identification of the source of biological particulate material (BPM). Particles smaller than 10 micra were collected using automatic high-volume air samplers. Subsequent analysis showed that traffic, and particularly diesel engine exhaust emissions, were the main source of non-biological particulate matter (nBPM). The dynamics of airborne BPM and nBPM were also studied over one year: although distribution patterns differed--BPM displaying marked seasonality and non-BPM exhibiting dependence on human activity--the curves ran parallel at certain times of the year. Statistical results point to the possible presence of plant residues on smaller particles. The occurrence of simultaneous peaks in airborne pollen-grain and PM10 counts suggests potential coadjuvant activity, which may lead to high-risk situations for people with respiratory disease.

  19. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2008-08-22

    Since the mid-1980s the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as a correction factor for the self absorption of activity of particulate radioactive air samples. More recently, an effort was made to evaluate the current particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000) used at PNNL for self absorption effects. There were two methods used in the study, 1) to compare the radioactivity concentration by direct gas-flow proportional counting of the filter to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection and 2) to evaluate sample filters by high resolution visual/infrared microscopy to determine the depth of material loading on or in the filter fiber material. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion in the first method and about 30 samples were selected for high resolution visual/infrared microscopy. Mass loading effects were also considered. From the sample filter analysis, large error is associated with the average self absorption factor, however, when the data is compared directly one-to-one, statistically, there appears to be good correlation between the two analytical methods. The mass loading of filters evaluated was <0.2 mg cm-2 and was also compared against other published results. The microscopy analysis shows the sample material remains on the top of the filter paper and does not imbed into the filter media. Results of the microscopy evaluation lead to the conclusion that there is not a mechanism for significant self absorption. The overall conclusion is that self-absorption is not a significant factor in the analysis of filters used at PNNL for radioactive air stack sampling of radionuclide particulates and that an applied correction factor is conservative in determining overall sample activity. A new self absorption factor of 1.0 is recommended.

  20. The distribution of particulate material on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Philip R.

    1991-01-01

    The surface materials on Mars were extensively studied using a variety of spacecraft and Earth-based remote sensing observations. These measurements include: (1) diurnal thermal measurements, used to determine average particle size, rock abundance, and the presence of crusts; (2) radar observations, used to estimate the surface slope distributions, wavelength scale roughness, and density; (3) radio emission observations, used to estimate subsurface density; (4) broadband albedo measurements, used to study the time variation of surface brightness and dust deposition and removal; and (5) color observations, used to infer composition, mixing, and the presence of crusts. Remote sensing observations generally require some degree of modeling to interpret, making them more difficult to interpret than direct observations from the surface. They do, however, provide a means for examining the surface properties over the entire planet and a means of sampling varying depths within the regolith. Albedo and color observations only indicate the properties of the upper-most few microns, but are very sensitive to thin, sometimes emphemeral dust coatings. Thermal observations sample the upper skin depth, generally 2 to 10 cm. Rock abundance measurements give an indirect indication of surface mantling, where the absence of rocks suggests mantles of several meters. Finally, radar and radio emission data can penetrate several meters into the surface, providing an estimate of subsurface density and roughness.

  1. Toward Obtaining Reliable Particulate Air Quality Information from Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawa, A. W.; Chatfield, R. B.; Legg, M.; Esswein, R.; Justice, E.

    2009-12-01

    Air quality agencies use ground sites to monitor air quality, providing accurate information at particular points. Using measurements from satellite imagery has the potential to provide air quality information in a timely manner with better spatial resolution and at a lower cost that can also useful for model validation. While previous studies show acceptable correlations between Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) derived from MODIS and surface Particulate Matter (PM) measurements on the eastern US, the data do not correlate well in the western US (Al-Saadi et al., 2005; Engle-Cox et al., 2004) . This paper seeks to improve the AOD-PM correlations by using advanced statistical analysis techniques. Our study area is the San Joaquin Valley in California because air quality in this region has failed to meet state and federal attainment standards for PM for the past several years. A previous investigation found good correlation of the AOD values between MODIS, MISR and AERONET, but poor correlations (R2 ~ 0.02) between satellite-based AOD and surface PM2.5 measurements. PM2.5 measurements correlated somewhat better (R2 ~ 0.18) with MODIS-derived AOD using the Deep Blue surface reflectance algorithm (Hsu et al., 2006) rather than the standard MODIS algorithm. This level of correlation is not adequate for reliable air quality measurements. Pelletier et al. (2007) used generalized additive models (GAMs) and meteorological data to improve the correlation between PM and AERONET AOD in western Europe. Additive models are more flexible than linear models and the functional relationships can be plotted to give a sense of the relationship between the predictor and the response. In this paper we use GAMs to improve surface PM2.5 to MODIS-AOD correlations. For example, we achieve an R2 ~ 0.44 using a GAM that includes the Deep Blue AOD, and day of year as parameters. Including NOx observations, improves the R2 ~ 0.64. Surprisingly Ångström exponent did not prove to be a significant

  2. [The investigation of air ion and particulates condition in Tianzhu Mountain].

    PubMed

    Xiu, Y L

    1990-05-01

    In order to monitor the distribution of atmospheric air ion and particulates in Tianzhu Mountain region, two observation points were established in Tianzhu Mountain in April, 1989. The results showed that the average concentration of air anode ion was 680/cm3, cathode ion 650/cm3. the range of single electrode coefficient is comfortable feeling, air quality index is 0.71 up to standard B grade (clean air), Total average concentration of suspended particulates was 0.242 mg/m3, average concentration of inhalation particulates was 0.168 mg/m3. Seventy percent particulates had diameters less than 10 microns, and thirty percent greater than 10 microns in total suspended particulates.

  3. Correlation of mutagenic assessment of Houston air particulate extracts in relation to lung cancer mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.D.; Connor, T.H.; MacDonald, E.J.; Trieff, N.M.; Legator, M.S.; MacKenzie, K.W. Jr.; Dobbins, J.G.

    1982-08-01

    Air particulate extracts from a series of solvents were tested in the Ames mutagen detection system and were found to be mutagenic in varying degrees as a function of the particulate collection site in Houston, Texas. The mutagenicity level at seven sites was compared with age-adjusted mortality rates in the same areas. Significant correlation was found with the lung cancer mortality rates but not with mortality rates for other causes. These findings support the hypothesis of a contribution of urban air particulate to the lung cancer rates. Furthermore, these findings suggest that an index of the mutagenicity of air particulate is a more powerful measure of the human health hazard of air pollution than the traditional indices of particulate concentration.

  4. Peat fires and air quality: volatile organic compounds and particulates.

    PubMed

    Blake, D; Hinwood, A L; Horwitz, P

    2009-07-01

    There are numerous localized peat deposits on the Swan Coastal Plain, an urban and rural bioregion otherwise dominated by wetland ecosystems in southwestern Australia. Hydrological change is significant in the bioregion: urban development encroaches on wetlands, groundwater extraction provides the city population with most of its water, and rainfall declines will not recharge aquifers in the future. The wetland processes which contribute to the formation of these peat deposits have therefore changed and are becoming vulnerable to fire events with residents increasingly exposed to peat smoke. There is an imperative to characterise this peat smoke to determine if exposures are harmful or toxic, and opportunities to do so in this setting arise due to the absence of bushfire smoke which has confounded other international studies. We have measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate concentrations from an opportunistic assessment of two peat fires. SUMMA canister grab samples and a portable GCMS were used to determine the VOCs with high 1h benzene concentrations of 16 and 30 ppm v/v. PM10 and PM2.5 particulate data were collected using an Osiris continuous analyser with 24h concentrations recorded at varying time periods (within a 5 months timeframe) ranging from 1h maximums of between 23-37 microgm(-3) for PM10 and 50.5-106 microgm(-3) for PM2.5. While the 24h averages were generally below national air quality standards, elevated 1h concentrations were observed on numerous occasions and on most days. Given the proximity of residential development to many peat deposits, a drying climate and the increased risk of arson in peri-urban environments, the health impacts of exposure to peat smoke need to be determined and if necessary measures developed to prevent exposure (which would include maintaining wetland sediment integrity so as to reduce its vulnerability to fire).

  5. Determination of microwave complex permittivity of particulate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mingzhong; Yao, Xi; Zhai, Jiwei; Zhang, Liangying

    2001-11-01

    A practical method for determining the broadband microwave complex permittivity of particulate materials is described. In this method, particulate materials are dispersed randomly in paraffin wax; thin disc samples are prepared for measurement from the particle-wax mixtures. During measurements, the samples are backed by a conducting plane, and an open-ended coaxial probe is used to determine the permittivity of the samples. A mixture equation is used to calculate the permittivity of the particulate materials from the permittivity of the samples. The validity of six well known mixture equations is examined. The experimental results indicate that only the QCA-CP and Bruggeman mixture equations can accurately describe the microwave permittivity of the particle-wax mixtures over the wide particle concentration range. To validate this described method, the complex permittivities of PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 particles are determined over a frequency range of 0.2 to 6 GHz. The determined results are found to be in agreement with the coaxial transmission/reflection measurement results. The advantages and limitations of this method are also discussed in this paper.

  6. 78 FR 23524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... under the Clean Air Act. This submission contains the 24-hour fine particle National Ambient Air...

  7. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality on Utah's Wasatch Front.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A; Hill, R W; Villegas, G M

    1999-01-01

    Reviews of daily time-series mortality studies from many cities throughout the world suggest that daily mortality counts are associated with short-term changes in particulate matter (PM) air pollution. One U.S. city, however, with conspicuously weak PM-mortality associations was Salt Lake City, Utah; however, relatively robust PM-mortality associations have been observed in a neighboring metropolitan area (Provo/Orem, Utah). The present study explored this apparent discrepancy by collecting, comparing, and analyzing mortality, pollution, and weather data for all three metropolitan areas on Utah's Wasatch Front region of the Wasatch Mountain Range (Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo/Orem) for approximately 10 years (1985-1995). Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used to estimate PM-mortality associations while controlling for seasonality, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Salt Lake City experienced substantially more episodes of high PM that were dominated by windblown dust. When the data were screened to exclude obvious windblown dust episodes and when PM data from multiple monitors were used to construct an estimate of mean exposure for the area, comparable PM-mortality effects were estimated. After screening and by using constructed mean PM [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) data, the estimated percent change in mortality associated with a 10-mg/m3 increase in PM10 (and 95% confidence intervals) for the three Wasatch Front metropolitan areas equaled approximately 1. 6% (0.3-2.9), 0.8% (0.3-1.3), and 1.0% (0.2-1.8) for the Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo/Orem areas, respectively. We conclude that stagnant air pollution episodes with higher concentrations of primary and secondary combustion-source particles were more associated with elevated mortality than windblown dust episodes with relatively higher concentrations of coarse crustal-derived particles. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10379003

  8. Effects of travel mode on exposures to particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David J; de Hoogh, Kees; Morris, Chloe; Gulliver, John

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring was carried out of particulate concentrations whilst simultaneously walking and driving 48 routes in London, UK. Monitoring was undertaken during May and June 2005. Route lengths ranged from 601 to 1351 m, and most routes were travelled in both directions. Individual journey times ranged from 1.5 to 15 min by car (average 3.7 min) and 7.3 to 30 min (average 12.8 min) whilst walking; car trips were therefore repeated up to 5 times for each single walking trip and the results averaged for the route. Car trips were made with windows closed and the ventilation system on a moderate setting. Results show that mean exposures while walking are greatly in excess of those while driving, by a factor 4.7 for the coarse particle mass (PM10-PM2.5), 2.2 for the fine particle mass (PM2.5-PM1), 1.9 for the very fine particle mass (air pollution present in the street. When account is also taken of the additional travel time involved in walking, these excesses are further increased: to factors of 15.6, 7.4, 6.5 and 4.4, respectively. Individuals who change their travel mode from car to walking in response to policies aimed at encouraging a modal shift in travel behavior are thus likely to experience considerably increased journey-time personal exposures to traffic-related air pollution. More effort is consequently needed to increase separation between road vehicles and pedestrians if negative effects of these policies are to be avoided.

  9. 78 FR 19164 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate... proposing to convert a conditional approval of specified provisions of the Ohio state implementation plan (SIP) to a full approval. Ohio submitted a request to approve a section of its particulate matter...

  10. Separation of 26 toxaphene congeners and measurement in air particulate matter SRMs compared to technical toxaphene SRM 3067.

    PubMed

    Vander Pol, Stacy S; Kucklick, John R; Leigh, Stefan D; Porter, Barbara J; Schantz, Michele M

    2010-05-01

    Toxaphene is a complex technical mixture that has been found ubiquitously in the environment but has caused issues for analysis, especially of individual congeners. This paper reports the elution order of 26 major toxaphene congeners on three gas chromatographic columns. The three different stationary phases generally had similar elution orders for the toxaphene congeners, but fewer co-elutions occurred on a low-bleed, low-polarity column. These congeners (except for two that co-eluted and were not added to the calibration mixture) were examined in air particulate matter standard reference materials (SRMs), 1648a, 1649a, and 1649b as well as SRM 3067 toxaphene in methanol for assignment of reference values. SRM 3067 had mass fractions an order of magnitude greater than the air particulate SRMs, which ranged from 0.568 +/- 0.018 ng g(-1) dry mass (B9-2006 in SRM 1648a) to 12.9 +/- 0.20 ng g(-1) dry mass (B9-715 (P 58) in SRM 1649a). The three air particulate SRMs all had different mass fractions and proportions of congeners relative to the sum of the toxaphene congeners. SRM 3067 may be useful as a technical mixture toxaphene congener calibrant. SRMs 1648a and 1649b will serve as reference materials for the analysis of 21 (three congeners were not included due to values below the detection limit or a potential polychlorinated biphenyl co-elution) toxaphene congeners in atmospheric particulate samples.

  11. Distributor means for charging particulate material into receptacles

    DOEpatents

    Greaves, Melvin J.

    1977-06-14

    Disclosed are receptacles, such as shaft furnaces illustrated by a blast furnace and an upright oil shale retort, embodying rotatable charge distributor means for distributing particulate charge material in the furnace, which charge distributor means can provide a high uniformity of distribution of various sizes of particles and also can provide and maintain a stock line of desired contour and heighth in the receptacle. The distributor means includes a hopper having rigidly fixed to it a plurality of downwardly extending chutes with lower discharge portions that discharge in concentric circular zones at the stock line. The distributor means includes a segmented portion at the juncture of the hopper and the chutes that divides the charge material discharged into the hopper in proportion to the area of the circular zone at the stock line that is fed by the chute. The distributor means embodies means for providing mass flow of the particulate charge material through the chutes to the stock line and for avoiding segregation between larger and smaller particles of charge material deposited at the stock line.

  12. Airborne particulate soiling of terrestrial photovoltaic modules and cover materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Maag, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for the first phase of a photovoltaic-module soiling study that was carried out with NASA participation to investigate the problem of the electrical performance degradation of flat-plate photovoltaic modules exposed at outdoor sites that is due to the accumulation of airborne particulates on sensitive optical surfaces. The results were obtained in both field and laboratory soiling experiments, as well as in materials field experiments using candidate encapsulants and top covers. It is concluded that: (1) the electrical performance degradation shows a significant time and site dependence, ranging from 2% to 60% power loss; (2) the rate of particulate accumulation appears to be largely material independent when natural removal processes do not dominate; (3) the effectiveness of natural removal processes, especially rain, is strongly material dependent; (4) top-cover materials of glass and plexiglass retain fewer particles than silicone rubber; and (5) high module voltages relative to ground do not appear to affect the rate of dirt accumulation on modules.

  13. BIOAVAILABLE AIR PARTICULATE POLLUTION CONSTITUENTS DIRECTLY ALTER CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION EX VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between particulate air pollution exposure and cardiovascular (CV) effects within susceptible individuals. Particle characteristics and biological mechanisms responsible for these observations are not known. We examined whether s...

  14. AIR PARTICULATE POLLUTION CARDIOVASCULAR TOXICITY: HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND MECHANISMS OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory


    The overall weight of evidence from epidemiological studies has shown statistical associations between air particulate pollution exposure and mortality\\morbidity particularly within individuals with cardiovascular disease (1-4). Identification of causal particle properties ...

  15. Air Emissions Inventory Guidance for Implementation of Ozone and Particulate Matter NAAQS and Regional Haze Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance document on how to develop emission inventories to meet State Implementation Plan requirements for complying with the 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS), the revised particulate matter (PM) NAAQS, and the regional haze reg

  16. AGE AND STRAIN INFLUENCES ON LUNG RESPONSES TO CONCENTRATED AIR PARTICULATES (CAPS) IN RODENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asthma, an inflammatory airways disease, is an urgent health problem. Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated positive associations between ambient air particulate matter concentrations and daily respiratory morbidity ? including exacerbations of asthma. Of note, elderly i...

  17. Severe particulate pollution from deposition practices of primary materials of cement plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Rapsomanikis, Spyridon; Zerefos, Christos; Georgoulias, Aristeidis; Pavlidou, Eleni

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of ambient particulates sampled at a residential area near a cement manufacturing plant in Greece, showed total aerosol mass in the sampled air 1.3-30.4 mg/m3 and PM10 concentrations 0.04-3 mg/m3. These concentrations are very high and seriously exceed air quality standards. Morphological examination and elemental analysis of air samples and primary materials with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) showed that ambient particulates shared appearance features and had similar elemental synthesis to clinker and fly ash, showing heavy impacts on the ambient aerosol load from the cement plant practice of open deposition of primary materials. Satellite-derived AOD over the area during the period 2000-2010 shows extended spatial impact, while satellite overpass data indicate a 33% decrease in AOD over this period, possibly due to changing production and primary material deposition practices. Although the sampling was performed more than one decade ago in Greece, environmental legislation and its reinforcement practices at that time in Greece are similar to current ones in many parts of the world. The global increase in cement production, especially in south-east Asia, make these measurements particularly relevant.

  18. A photometric function for diffuse reflection by particulate materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, W. E.; Weaver, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    A photometric function is proposed to describe the diffuse reflection of radiation by particulate materials. Both multiple scattering and the dominant effects of particle shadowing are included and the function is verified by comparisons with the photometries of laboratory surfaces. Brightness measurements of planetary and other diffusely scattering surfaces can be used to calculate the brightness for geometries other than those used in the measurements and for which the Minnaert function does not apply. The measurements also can be directly related to such surface characteristics as particle size, single-particle albedo, and compactness.

  19. Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials. [Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    The major emphasis this quarter has been in two areas. The first is to continue working the bugs out of the new particle pressure transducer. The second was to try and measure the particle pressures generated in a bed of FCC catalyst that is undergoing particulate fluidization. The results indicate that the stabilization of fluidized beds in that regime cannot be explained in terms of particle pressure generation. Instead, consistent with other recent observations,the observations can be explained by a material is that not completely fluidized but, instead, retains much of the properties of a solid and, in particular, can transmit particle pressure like a solid. 2 figs.

  20. Total Particulate Matter Air Sampling Data (TEOM) from Los Alamos National Laboratory

    DOE Data Explorer

    LANL measures the total particulate mass concentration in the air on a routine basis as well as during incidents that may affect ambient air. The collected data is added to the Air Quality Index (AQI). AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern for you. The AQI focuses on health effects you may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air. EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act.

  1. Particulate air pollution and cardiovascular disease--it is time to take it seriously.

    PubMed

    Jalaludin, Bin; Cowie, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, there were over 3 million deaths attributable to exposure to excessive levels of particulate air pollution in 2010. This is similar to the number of deaths attributable to high blood sugar (3.4 million) but less than the number of deaths attributed to smoking (5.7 million) and excessive alcohol consumption (5.0 million). Globally, ambient particulate air pollution was the ninth leading cause of premature deaths, and most of the disease attributable to exposure to ambient particulate air pollution is cardiovascular disease. Short-term and long-term exposures to outdoor particulate matter pollution are associated with a range of adverse cardiovascular health effects such as heart rate variability, development of atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, stroke, and deaths. Despite this, there is not the same recognition of particulate air pollution as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality compared to the more established risk factors such as cigarette smoking and hypertension. It is now time to reevaluate the contribution of particulate air pollution to cardiovascular disease.

  2. Ambient Air Quality Assessment with Particular Reference to Particulates in Jharia Coalfield, Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdeep; Roy, Debananda; Sinha, Sweta

    2014-01-01

    Jharia Coalfield is the critically polluted area with the intense mining and associated industrial activities. There has been widespread concern of particulate pollution with the alarming levels of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Particulate Matter (PM10 & PM2.5). Coke oven plants, coal washing, thermal power stations and associated activities coupled with the transportation activities, give rise to critical air pollution levels in the region. This study envisages the assessment of air pollution of the region with particular reference to SPM, PM10 and PM2.5. Eighteen monitoring stations were selected considering various sources of pollution such as mining, industrial, commercial and residential areas apart from siting criteria as per IS: 5182 Part XIV. Air quality monitoring was carried out following standard methodologies and protocols as per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/ National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) norms using Respirable Dust Samplers (RDS) and Fine Particulate Samplers (PM2.5 Samplers). This study reveals considerable load of particulates (SPM, PM10, PM 2.5) which exceed not only the NAAQS but also the coal mining areas standards of Jharia coalfield, thus falling under the category of critically polluted area. Air Quality Indexing has also been developed which provides a clear map of the deterioration of air quality and also presenting comparative ranking of all the monitoring locations with respect to air quality status in the study area.

  3. Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, B.; Birmili, W.; Ditas, F.; Wu, Z.; Hu, M.; Liu, X.; Mao, J.; Sugimoto, N.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2008-10-01

    The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

  4. Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, B.; Birmili, W.; Ditas, F.; Wu, Z.; Hu, M.; Liu, X.; Mao, J.; Sugimoto, N.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2008-06-01

    The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration (PM1 and PM10) by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

  5. Thermal conductivity measurements of particulate materials under Martian conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presley, M. A.; Christensen, P. R.

    1993-01-01

    The mean particle diameter of surficial units on Mars has been approximated by applying thermal inertia determinations from the Mariner 9 Infrared Radiometer and the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data together with thermal conductivity measurement. Several studies have used this approximation to characterize surficial units and infer their nature and possible origin. Such interpretations are possible because previous measurements of the thermal conductivity of particulate materials have shown that particle size significantly affects thermal conductivity under martian atmospheric pressures. The transfer of thermal energy due to collisions of gas molecules is the predominant mechanism of thermal conductivity in porous systems for gas pressures above about 0.01 torr. At martian atmospheric pressures the mean free path of the gas molecules becomes greater than the effective distance over which conduction takes place between the particles. Gas particles are then more likely to collide with the solid particles than they are with each other. The average heat transfer distance between particles, which is related to particle size, shape and packing, thus determines how fast heat will flow through a particulate material.The derived one-to-one correspondence of thermal inertia to mean particle diameter implies a certain homogeneity in the materials analyzed. Yet the samples used were often characterized by fairly wide ranges of particle sizes with little information about the possible distribution of sizes within those ranges. Interpretation of thermal inertia data is further limited by the lack of data on other effects on the interparticle spacing relative to particle size, such as particle shape, bimodal or polymodal mixtures of grain sizes and formation of salt cements between grains. To address these limitations and to provide a more comprehensive set of thermal conductivities vs. particle size a linear heat source apparatus, similar to that of Cremers, was assembled to

  6. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate... revise the Ohio State Implementation Plan under the Clean Air Act. The State has submitted revisions to... approving only a portion of Rule 7, while not acting on the portion providing a partial exemption...

  7. Monitor of the concentration of particles of dense radioactive materials in a stream of air

    DOEpatents

    Yule, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    A monitor of the concentration of particles of radioactive materials such as plutonium oxide in diameters as small as 1/2 micron includes in combination a first stage comprising a plurality of virtual impactors, a second stage comprising a further plurality of virtual impactors, a collector for concentrating particulate material, a radiation detector disposed near the collector to respond to radiation from collected material and means for moving a stream of air, possibly containing particulate contaminants, through the apparatus.

  8. Copper-dependent inflammation and nuclear factor-kappaB activation by particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, T; Ghio, A J; Reed, W; Samet, J; Zagorski, J; Quay, J; Carter, J; Dailey, L; Hoidal, J R; Devlin, R B

    1998-09-01

    Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical determinants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in respiratory symptoms in relation to levels of particulate pollution has been well documented. Provo particulates caused cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-dependent inflammation of rat lungs. Provo particulates stimulated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 production, increased IL-8 messenger RNA (mRNA) and enhanced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in cultured BEAS-2B cells, and stimulated IL-8 secretion in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelium. Cytokine secretion was preceded by activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and was reduced by treatment of cultures with superoxide dismutase, deferoxamine, or N-acetylcysteine. These biologic effects were replicated by culturing BEAS cells with quantities of Cu2+ found in Provo extract. IL-8 secretion by BEAS cells could be modified by addition of normal constituents of airway lining fluid to the culture medium. Mucin significantly reduced IL-8 secretion, and ceruloplasmin significantly increased IL-8 secretion and activation of NF-kappaB. These findings suggest that copper ions may cause some of the biologic effects of inhaled particulate air pollution in the Provo region of the United States, and may provide an explanation for the sensitivity of asthmatic individuals to Provo particulates that has been observed in epidemiologic studies.

  9. Severe particulate pollution from the deposition practices of the primary materials of a cement plant.

    PubMed

    Kourtidis, K; Rapsomanikis, S; Zerefos, C; Georgoulias, A K; Pavlidou, E

    2014-01-01

    Global cement production has increased twofold during the last decade. This increase has been accompanied by the installation of many new plants, especially in Southeast Asia. Although various aspects of pollution related to cement production have been reported, the impact of primary material deposition practices on ambient air quality has not yet been studied. In this study, we show that deposition practices can have a very serious impact on levels of ambient aerosols, far larger than other cement production-related impacts. Analyses of ambient particulates sampled near a cement plant show 1.3-30.4 mg/m(3) total suspended particulates in the air and concentrations of particles with a diameter of 10 μm or less at 0.04-3 mg/m(3). These concentrations are very high and seriously exceed air quality standards. We unequivocally attribute these levels to outdoor deposition of cement primary materials, especially clinker, using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We also used satellite-derived aerosol optical depth maps over the area of study to estimate the extent of the spatial impact. The satellite data indicate a 33% decrease in aerosol optical depth during a 10-year period, possibly due to changing primary material deposition practices. Although the in situ sampling was performed in one location, primary materials used in cement production are common in all parts of the world and have not changed significantly over the last decades. Hence, the results reported here demonstrate the dominant impact of deposition practices on aerosol levels near cement plants.

  10. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-02-17

    Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R^2) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify self

  11. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    DOEpatents

    Pinson, P.A.

    1998-02-24

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs.

  12. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    DOEpatents

    Pinson, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated in barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention.

  13. [Form of the particulate matter ambient air standards in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Ding, Jun-Nan; Wang, Rui-Bin; Li, Jian-Jun; Meng, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Bin; Lin, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Based on the principles from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States, an analysis was conducted to study the form of 24-hour standard of particulate matter in China by methods of statistical regression, proportional rollback and controlling contrast maps, using the monitoring data of inhalable particulate matter (PM10) from 120 cities in China during year 2005 to 2012. It was found that for cities in China, when the annual arithmetic mean of PM10 was equal to the national standard, the non-exceedance rates of daily average PM10 in most cities were higher than 95.0% , and the average rate for all cities was 97.1%. The average non-exceedance rate was 96.3% for cities in North China and Northwest China, 96.6% for Northeast China, 97.2% for East China and Central South China, and 98.1% for Southwest China. When the 97th percentile was chosen as the form of 24-hour standard of particulate matter for China, the 24-hour standard had an equal controlling strength with the annual standard. The 24-hour standard will become the controlling standard when larger percentiles were chosen, otherwise the contrary. By considering together the statistical characteristics of PM10 level in China, the robustness of the percentiles and protection of human health, the 95th percentile was suitable as the preferred form of the 24-hour standard of PM10 and PM2.5 in China.

  14. High-Fidelity Micromechanics Model Enhanced for Multiphase Particulate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    This 3-year effort involves the development of a comprehensive micromechanics model and a related computer code, capable of accurately estimating both the average response and the local stress and strain fields in the individual phases, assuming both elastic and inelastic behavior. During the first year (fiscal year 2001) of the investigation, a version of the model called the High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells (HFGMC) was successfully completed for the thermo-inelastic response of continuously reinforced multiphased materials with arbitrary periodic microstructures (refs. 1 and 2). The model s excellent predictive capability for both the macroscopic response and the microlevel stress and strain fields was demonstrated through comparison with exact analytical and finite element solutions. This year, HFGMC was further extended in two technologically significant ways. The first enhancement entailed the incorporation of fiber/matrix debonding capability into the two-dimensional version of HFGMC for modeling the response of unidirectionally reinforced composites such as titanium matrix composites, which exhibit poor fiber/matrix bond. Comparison with experimental data validated the model s predictive capability. The second enhancement entailed further generalization of HFGMC to three dimensions to enable modeling the response of particulate-reinforced (discontinuous) composites in the elastic material behavior domain. Next year, the three-dimensional version will be generalized to encompass inelastic effects due to plasticity, viscoplasticity, and damage, as well as coupled electromagnetothermomechanical (including piezoelectric) effects.

  15. Understanding bulk behavior of particulate materials from particle scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaoliang

    Particulate materials play an increasingly significant role in various industries, such as pharmaceutical manufacturing, food, mining, and civil engineering. The objective of this research is to better understand bulk behaviors of particulate materials from particle scale simulations. Packing properties of assembly of particles are investigated first, focusing on the effects of particle size, surface energy, and aspect ratio on the coordination number, porosity, and packing structures. The simulation results show that particle sizes, surface energy, and aspect ratio all influence the porosity of packing to various degrees. The heterogeneous force networks within particle assembly under external compressive loading are investigated as well. The results show that coarse-coarse contacts dominate the strong network and coarse-fine contacts dominate the total network. Next, DEM models are developed to simulate the particle dynamics inside a conical screen mill (comil) and magnetically assisted impaction mixer (MAIM), both are important particle processing devices. For comil, the mean residence time (MRT), spatial distribution of particles, along with the collision dynamics between particles as well as particle and vessel geometries are examined as a function of the various operating parameters such as impeller speed, screen hole size, open area, and feed rate. The simulation results can help better understand dry coating experimental results using comil. For MAIM system, the magnetic force is incorporated into the contact model, allowing to describe the interactions between magnets. The simulation results reveal the connections between homogeneity of mixture and particle scale variables such as size of magnets and surface energy of non-magnets. In particular, at the fixed mass ratio of magnets to non-magnets and surface energy the smaller magnets lead to better homogeneity of mixing, which is in good agreement with previously published experimental results. Last but not

  16. Exposure of organic extracts of air particulates to sunlight leads to metabolic activation independence for mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    al-Khodairy, F; Hannan, M A

    1997-06-13

    Air particulates were collected on Whatman, GFA glass fibre filters using a RADECO constant-flow air sampler from a car-parking basement and an open roadside adjacent to the basement. While the basement was not exposed to sunlight, the roadside from where air samples were collected was exposed to regular daylight in the month of July (peak summer month). The filters were soaked and sonicated in acetone to dislodge the particulates and then a residue was obtained after evaporation of acetone. The residues were either held in dark or exposed to natural sunlight or germicidal UV light before being tested for mutagenicity using the Salmonella tester strain TA98 with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). The results showed that the addition of S9 mix resulted in only a slight increase in the frequency of histidine revertants/plate in the case of daylight-exposed roadside air samples. On the other hand, a considerable increase in mutagenicity was observed in the case of the basement air samples, particularly at higher concentrations of the organic extracts when S9 mix was added. However, a pre-exposure of the organic extract of air from the basement to sunlight abrogated the need for S9 mix for showing mutagenic activity. A pre-exposure of the same extracts to germicidal UV light failed to produce a similar effect. These results suggested that long wavelengths of natural sunlight could be responsible for the conversion of certain promutagens in air particulates into direct-acting mutagens. The environmental impact of solar radiation as a modifier of air particulate mutagens in high-sun countries like Saudi Arabia needs to be carefully considered for assessment of air pollution-related health risks.

  17. Fugitive particulate air emissions from off-road vehicle maneuvers at military training lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Military training lands used for off-road vehicle maneuvers may be subject to severe soil loss and air quality degradation as a result of severe wind erosion. The objective of this study was to measure suspended particulate matter resulting from various different vehicle training scenarios. Soil s...

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF EMERGING SUB-POPULATIONS SUSCEPTIBLE TO ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH AIR PARTICULATE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall weight of evidence from panel, clinical, and toxicological studies has demonstrated the ability of ambient air particulate matter (PM) exposure to induce a variety of extra-pulmonary effects ranging from alterations in hematological parameters to cardiac function. Alt...

  19. 78 FR 19128 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate... is taking direct final action to convert a conditional approval of specified provisions of the Ohio state implementation plan (SIP) to a full approval. Ohio submitted a request to approve...

  20. AIR PARTICULATE POLLUTION EXPOSURE INDUCES SYSTEMIC OXIDATIVE STRESS IN HEALTHY MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air particulate pollution exposure induces systemic oxidative stress in healthy mice

    Elizabeth S Roberts1 and Kevin L Dreher2. 1 College or Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC , 2US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTP, NC

    Epidemiological s...

  1. STATUS OF RESEARCH ON AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER. (R827649)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Quality Conference reviewed the state of science and policy on the pollutants mercury, trace elements, and particulate matter (PM) in the environment. Critical issues dealing with impacts on health and ecosystems, emission prevention and control, measurement methods, a...

  2. DAILY VARIATION OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION AND POOR CARDIAC AUTONOMIC CONTROL IN THE ELDERLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter air pollution (PM) has been related to cardiovascular disease mortality in a number of recent studies. The pathophysiologic mechanisms for this association are under study. Low heart rate variability, a marker of poor cardiac autonomic control, is associated wi...

  3. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III, (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, 1995)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is no abstract available for these documents.

    If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed above.

    • Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I, Extern...

    • EXPOSURE TO URBAN AIR PARTICULATES ALTERS THE MACROPHAGE- MEDIATED INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE TO RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTION

      EPA Science Inventory

      Epidemiology studies associate increased pulmonary morbidity with episodes of high particulate air pollution (size range 0.1-10 microm diameter, PM10). Pneumonia, often viral in origin, is increased following episodes of high PM10 pollution. Therefore, this study was undertaken t...

    • Thermal conductivity of particulate materials: A summary of measurements taken at the Marshall Space Flight Center

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Fountain, J. A.

      1973-01-01

      Thermal conductivity measurements of particulate materials in vacuum are presented in summary. Particulate basalt and soda lime glass beads of various size ranges were used as samples. The differentiated line heat source method was used for the measurements. A comprehensive table is shown giving all pertinent experimental conditions. Least-squares curve fits to the data are presented.

    • The concentrations of culturable microorganisms in relation to particulate matter in urban air

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Haas, D.; Galler, H.; Luxner, J.; Zarfel, G.; Buzina, W.; Friedl, H.; Marth, E.; Habib, J.; Reinthaler, F. F.

      2013-02-01

      The ambient air consists not only of gases but also of bioaerosols and particulate matter. The concentrations of particulate matter in relation to the culturable microorganisms in the urban ambient air and their dependence on air temperature and relative humidity were investigated. The seasonal distribution of particles sizes, the concentrations of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and xerophilic fungi in the air were evaluated. Moreover, the identification of the fungal genera Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were conducted. Within one year at 177 days particle and microorganism concentrations in the ambient air were recorded in the city centre of Graz/Austria. The results show that the concentrations of fine particles and coarse particles were the highest in winter and decreased continuously to a minimum in the summer months depending on temperature and air humidity. The concentrations of xerophilic fungi showed no correlation to the different particle concentrations. The spore concentrations of Cladosporium spp. showed the same results of xerophilic fungi whereas the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus increased with the increase of fine particles. The concentrations of mesophilic bacteria were positively correlated with all particle counts. The maximum mesophilic bacteria concentrations were found in the winter months. Further studies are required to evaluate the concentrations of specific microorganisms in the natural environment in relation to the particulate matter.

    • Evaluation of particulate air samplers for airborne aflatoxin B1

      SciTech Connect

      Silas, J.C.; Harrison, M.A.; Carpenter, J.A.

      1986-01-01

      Five air samplers (Millipore, all-glass impinger, centrifugal, Andersen, and absorbent cotton) were evaluated for their ability to collect airborne grain particles contaminated with aflatoxin B1. Corn dust containing 100 micrograms aflatoxin B1/g was aerosolized within a containment system. Each device sampled 100 I air, thus exchanging the air in the chamber two times. Aflatoxin B1 was extracted from all sampling matrices and was detected and quantitated with thin-layer chromatography and scanning fluorodensitometry. The highest efficiency was obtained with the Millipore sampler, while the efficiencies of the centrifugal and the cotton samplers were almost identical. Efficiency of an Andersen was less, with no toxin recovered from an all-glass impinger. Measurement of particle size was accomplished with the Andersen sampler.

    • Impact of fine particulate fluctuation and other variables on Beijing's air quality index.

      PubMed

      Chen, Bo; Lu, Shaowei; Li, Shaoning; Wang, Bing

      2015-04-01

      We analyzed fluctuation in Beijing's air quality over 328 days, based on air quality grades and air quality data from 35 atmospheric monitoring stations. Our results show the air over Beijing is subject to pollution 152 days of the year, or 46.34%. Among all pollutants, fine particulates, solid or liquid, 2.5 μm or less in size (PM2.5), appeared most frequently as the primary pollutant: 249 days, or 76% of the sample year (328 days). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and coarse particulates (PM10) cause the least pollution, appearing only 7 and 3 days, or 2 and 1% of the sample year, respectively. In Beijing, fine particulates like PM2.5 vary seasonally: 154.54 ± 18.60 in winter > 145.22 ± 18.61 in spring > 140.16 ± 20.76 in autumn > 122.37 ± 13.42 in summer. Air quality is best in August and worst in December, while various districts in Beijing experience different air quality. To be specific, from south to north and from west to east, air quality tends to improve. Meteorological elements have a constraining effect on air pollutants, which means there is a linear correlation between the air quality index and humidity, rainfall, wind speed, and temperature. Under a typical pollution scenario, the higher the air quality index (AQI) value, the lower the wind speed and the greater the relative humidity; the lower the AQI value, the higher the wind speed and lower the relative humidity. Analysis of influencing factors reveals that the air pollution is mainly particulate matter produced by burning coal, vehicle emissions, volatile oils and gas, fast development of food services, emissions from the surrounding region, and natural dust clouds formed in arid areas to the northwest. Topography affects the distribution of meteorological conditions, in turn varying air quality over the region from one location to another. Human activities also exercise impact on urban air quality with dual functions.

    • Respirable particulate monitoring with remote sensors. (Public health ecology: Air pollution)

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Severs, R. K.

      1974-01-01

      The feasibility of monitoring atmospheric aerosols in the respirable range from air or space platforms was studied. Secondary reflectance targets were located in the industrial area and near Galveston Bay. Multichannel remote sensor data were utilized to calculate the aerosol extinction coefficient and thus determine the aerosol size distribution. Houston Texas air sampling network high volume data were utilized to generate computer isopleth maps of suspended particulates and to establish the mass loading of the atmosphere. In addition, a five channel nephelometer and a multistage particulate air sampler were used to collect data. The extinction coefficient determined from remote sensor data proved more representative of wide areal phenomena than that calculated from on site measurements. It was also demonstrated that a significant reduction in the standard deviation of the extinction coefficient could be achieved by reducing the bandwidths used in remote sensor.

    • Determination of trace metals in air particulate matters by capillary electrophoresis with spectrophotometric detection

      SciTech Connect

      Fung, Y.S.; Tung, H.S.

      1998-12-31

      Chemical analysis of trace metals in air particulate matters are required for studies in the apportionment of major air pollution sources, occupational health protection, environmental monitoring of ambient and indoor air, and for atmospheric aerosol research purpose. The demand for the required analysis is towards more sensitive, cheaper and automated method, as well as capability of differentiating different chemical species present in the air particulate matters. The recent advance of capillary electrophoresis provides an alternative method for multi-element determination with capability of speciation of different chemical elements for both total and leachable metal determination. It also uses equipment available in many chemical laboratories with reasonable capital and low running cost. In the present paper, the application of CE for trace metal analysis in air particulate matters will be investigated in three areas. The first area is the development of sample pretreatment method. For total metal analysis, the microwave digestion method is chosen based on short digestion time and reduced contamination. The second area is the optimization of the CE buffers. The use of strong and weak complex system is compared using histidine and 4-methylbenzylamine for indirect UV detection and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid (HQS) for direct UV detection for CE separation of alkali and alkaline earth metals (ammonium, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, barium, strontium) with transition metals (cobalt, cadmium, nickel, zinc, lead and copper). The role of lactic acid, 18-crown-6 and other additives to effect satisfactory separation of closely co-migrated pairs and to achieve suitable separation of large amounts of alkali metals (ppm) from trace levels of transition metals (ppb) will be discussed for both leachable and total metals present in air particulate matters.

    • REFERENCE MATERIALS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER

      EPA Science Inventory

      One of the first environmental matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for determination of organic species was SRM 1649 Urban Dust, ambient total suspended particulate matter (PM) collected in Washington D...

    • Ships, ports and particulate air pollution - an analysis of recent studies

      PubMed Central

      2011-01-01

      The duration of use is usually significantly longer for marine vessels than for roadside vehicles. Therefore, these vessels are often powered by relatively old engines which may propagate air pollution. Also, the quality of fuel used for marine vessels is usually not comparable to the quality of fuels used in the automotive sector and therefore, port areas may exhibit a high degree of air pollution. In contrast to the multitude of studies that addressed outdoor air pollution due to road traffic, only little is known about ship-related air pollution. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address air pollution, i.e. particulate matter exposure, due to marine vessels. It can be stated that the data in this area of research is still largely limited. Especially, knowledge on the different air pollutions in different sea areas is needed. PMID:22141925

    • Photocatalytic materials and technologies for air purification.

      PubMed

      Ren, Hangjuan; Koshy, Pramod; Chen, Wen-Fan; Qi, Shaohua; Sorrell, Charles Christopher

      2017-03-05

      Since there is increasing concern for the impact of air quality on human health, the present work surveys the materials and technologies for air purification using photocatalytic materials. The coverage includes (1) current photocatalytic materials for the decomposition of chemical contaminants and disinfection of pathogens present in air and (2) photocatalytic air purification systems that are used currently and under development. The present work focuses on five main themes. First, the mechanisms of photodegradation and photodisinfection are explained. Second, system designs for photocatalytic air purification are surveyed. Third, the photocatalytic materials used for air purification and their characteristics are considered, including both conventional and more recently developed photocatalysts. Fourth, the methods used to fabricate these materials are discussed. Fifth, the most significant coverage is devoted to materials design strategies aimed at improving the performance of photocatalysts for air purification. The review concludes with a brief consideration of promising future directions for materials research in photocatalysis.

    • Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Bangkok

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Vajanapoom, Nitaya

      1999-10-01

      This study was designed to assess the association between PM10 and visibility, and to determine whether the variations in daily mortality were associated with fluctuations in daily PM10 and visibility levels, in Bangkok during 1992-1997. Mortality data were extracted from death certificates, provided by the Bureau of Registration Administration. PM10 data were obtained from three monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, and visibility data were obtained from two monitoring stations operated by the Department of Meteorology. PM10 was regressed on visibility using multiple regression. Inverse and significant association was found between PM10 and visibility, after controlling for relative humidity, minimum temperature, and winter indicator variable. Positive association was found between total mortality and PM10, in Poisson regression model while controlling for long-term trends, season, and variations in weather. Five-day moving average of PM10 was significantly and most strongly associated with total mortality from non-external causes; a 2.3% (95% CI = 1.3, 3.3) increase in mortality was estimated for one interquartile range (30 μg/m3) increase in PM10. When PM10 was replaced with visibility, a 1.3% (95% CI = 0.4, 2.3) increase in mortality was estimated for one interquartile range (1.5 km) decrease in visibility. Lagged effects up to three day lags prior to death with similar patterns were observed for both PM10 and visibility. The findings suggest the possibility of using visibility as a surrogate for fine particulate matter. This approach is feasible because visibility data are usually routinely recorded at airports throughout the world. On the other hand, given the large number of population living in Bangkok, the small but significant percent excess deaths attributable to airborne particle exposure is an important public health concern.

    • The INAA of air particulates from three sites in Lagos

      SciTech Connect

      Spyrou, N.M. ); Asubiojo, O.I.; Oluwole, A.F.; Oluyemi, E.A. ); Farooqi, A.S.; Akanle, O.A. )

      1993-01-01

      This work is part of an ongoing project on environmental monitoring and impact assessment carried out in Nigeria in a collaboration between the University of Surrey and the Obafemi Awolowo University and funded by the Commission of the European Communities under the Lorme III agreement. Lagos is the biggest industrial city in Nigeria and shares [approximately]38% of the total manufacturing industries. These are associated in the main with the manufacture of cement, glass, plastics, pharmaceutical, cars, textiles, and paints. In the early 1970s, 80% of the air pollution was reported to be due to vehicular exhaust in Nigeria. The speed of motorcars plays an important role in causing pollution through exhaust, and in Lagos, the operating speed of vehicles has been reported to be very low, <10 km/h, for most of the roads in the city. However, domestic waste generation in Lagos city is estimated as >5 x 10[sup 5] tonne/yr and is another source of air pollution because roughly half is combustible. The selection of three sampling sites in the northeastern part of the city of Lagos provided an opportunity to study air pollution in an industrial area and a nearby residential area.

    • Particulate air pollution and mortality in 38 of China's largest cities: time series analysis.

      PubMed

      Yin, Peng; He, Guojun; Fan, Maoyong; Chiu, Kowk Yan; Fan, Maorong; Liu, Chang; Xue, An; Liu, Tong; Pan, Yuhang; Mu, Quan; Zhou, Maigeng

      2017-03-14

      Objectives To estimate the short term effect of particulate air pollution (particle diameter <10 μm, or PM10) on mortality and explore the heterogeneity of particulate air pollution effects in major cities in China.Design Generalised linear models with different lag structures using time series data.Setting 38 of the largest cities in 27 provinces of China (combined population >200 million).Participants 350 638 deaths (200 912 in males, 149 726 in females) recorded in 38 city districts by the Disease Surveillance Point System of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention from 1 January 2010 to 29 June 2013.Main outcome measure Daily numbers of deaths from all causes, cardiorespiratory diseases, and non-cardiorespiratory diseases and among different demographic groups were used to estimate the associations between particulate air pollution and mortality.Results A 10 µg/m(3) change in concurrent day PM10 concentrations was associated with a 0.44% (95% confidence interval 0.30% to 0.58%) increase in daily number of deaths. Previous day and two day lagged PM10 levels decreased in magnitude by one third and two thirds but remained statistically significantly associated with increased mortality. The estimate for the effect of PM10 on deaths from cardiorespiratory diseases was 0.62% (0.43% to 0.81%) per 10 µg/m(3) compared with 0.26% (0.09% to 0.42%) for other cause mortality. Exposure to PM10 had a greater impact on females than on males. Adults aged 60 and over were more vulnerable to particulate air pollution at high levels than those aged less than 60. The PM10 effect varied across different cities and marginally decreased in cities with higher PM10 concentrations.Conclusion Particulate air pollution has a greater impact on deaths from cardiorespiratory diseases than it does on other cause mortality. People aged 60 or more have a higher risk of death from particulate air pollution than people aged less than 60. The estimates of the effect

    • Ambient particulate air pollution from vehicles promotes lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in rat lung.

      PubMed

      Pereira, C E L; Heck, T G; Saldiva, P H N; Rhoden, C R

      2007-10-01

      Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of particle-dependent lung injury. Ambient particle levels from vehicles have not been previously shown to cause oxidative stress to the lungs. The present study was conducted to a) determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of particulate air pollution from vehicles elicits inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation in rat lungs, and b) determine if intermittent short-term exposures (every 4 days) induce some degree of tolerance. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ambient particulate matter (PM) from vehicles (N = 30) for 6 or 20 continuous hours, or for intermittent (5 h) periods during 20 h for 4 consecutive days or to filtered air (PM <10 microm; N = 30). Rats continuously breathing polluted air for 20 h (P-20) showed a significant increase in the total number of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to control (C-20: 2.61 x 105 +/- 0.51;P-20: 5.01 x 105 +/- 0.81; P < 0.05) and in lipid peroxidation ([MDA] nmol/mg protein: C-20: 0.148 +/- 0.01; P-20: 0.226 +/- 0.02; P < 0.05). Shorter exposure (6 h) and intermittent 5-h exposures over a period of 4 days did not cause significant changes in leukocytes. Lipid damage resulting from 20-h exposure to particulate air pollution did not cause a significant increase in lung water content. These data suggest oxidative stress as one of the mechanisms responsible for the acute adverse respiratory effects of particles, and suggest that short-term inhalation of ambient particulate air pollution from street with high automobile traffic represents a biological hazard.

    • Particulate air pollution from bushfires: human exposure and possible health effects.

      PubMed

      Karthikeyan, Sathrugnan; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Iouri, Kostetski

      2006-11-01

      Toxicological studies have implicated trace metals adsorbed onto airborne particles as possible contributors to respiratory and/or cardiovascular inflammation. In particular, the water-soluble metal content is considered to be a harmful component of airborne particulate matter. In this work, the trace metal characteristics of airborne particulate matter, PM2.5, collected in Singapore from February to March 2005 were investigated with specific reference to their bioavailability. PM2.5 mass concentrations varied between 20.9 mug/m3 and 46.3 microg/m3 with an average mass of 32.8 microg/m3. During the sampling period, there were several bushfires in Singapore that contributed to sporadic increases in the particulate air pollution, accompanied by an acrid smell and asthma-related allergies. The aerosol samples were subjected to analysis of trace elements for determining their total concentrations as well as their water soluble fractions. Our results showed an increase in concentration of several water-soluble trace metals during bushfires compared to their urban background levels in Singapore. In order to measure the human exposure to particulate air pollution, the daily respiratory uptake (DRU) of several trace metals was calculated and compared between haze and nonhaze periods. The DRU values were significantly higher for several metals, including Zn, Cu, and Fe, during bushfires. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements showed that the particulate samples collected during bush fires generate more toxic hydroxyl radicals (OH.) than those in the background air, due to the presence of more soluble iron ions.

    • Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter in Venice air.

      PubMed

      Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Morabito, Elisa; Toscano, Giuseppa; Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea

      2016-04-01

      Harbours are important hubs for economic growth in both tourism and commercial activities. They are also an environmental burden being a source of atmospheric pollution often localized near cities and industrial complexes. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbour activities to atmospheric pollutant concentration in the Venice lagoon. The impact of ship traffic was quantified on various pollutants that are not directly included in the current European legislation for shipping emission reduction: (i) gaseous and particulate PAHs; (ii) metals in PM10; and (iii) PM10 and PM2.5. All contributions were correlated with the tonnage of ships during the sampling periods and results were used to evaluate the impact of the European Directive 2005/33/EC on air quality in Venice comparing measurements taken before and after the application of the Directive (year 2010). The outcomes suggest that legislation on ship traffic, which focused on the issue of the emissions of sulphur oxides, could be an efficient method also to reduce the impact of shipping on primary particulate matter concentration; on the other hand, we did not observe a significant reduction in the contribution of ship traffic and harbour activities to particulate PAHs and metals. Graphical abstract Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter and evaluation of the effect of an European Directive on air quality in Venice.

    • High-efficiency particulate air filter test stand and aerosol generator for particle loading studies.

      PubMed

      Arunkumar, R; Hogancamp, Kristina U; Parsons, Michael S; Rogers, Donna M; Norton, Olin P; Nagel, Brian A; Alderman, Steven L; Waggoner, Charles A

      2007-08-01

      This manuscript describes the design, characterization, and operational range of a test stand and high-output aerosol generator developed to evaluate the performance of 30 x 30 x 29 cm(3) nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under variable, highly controlled conditions. The test stand system is operable at volumetric flow rates ranging from 1.5 to 12 standard m(3)/min. Relative humidity levels are controllable from 5%-90% and the temperature of the aerosol stream is variable from ambient to 150 degrees C. Test aerosols are produced through spray drying source material solutions that are introduced into a heated stainless steel evaporation chamber through an air-atomizing nozzle. Regulation of the particle size distribution of the aerosol challenge is achieved by varying source solution concentrations and through the use of a postgeneration cyclone. The aerosol generation system is unique in that it facilitates the testing of standard HEPA filters at and beyond rated media velocities by consistently providing, into a nominal flow of 7 standard m(3)/min, high mass concentrations (approximately 25 mg/m(3)) of dry aerosol streams having count mean diameters centered near the most penetrating particle size for HEPA filters (120-160 nm). Aerosol streams that have been generated and characterized include those derived from various concentrations of KCl, NaCl, and sucrose solutions. Additionally, a water insoluble aerosol stream in which the solid component is predominantly iron (III) has been produced. Multiple ports are available on the test stand for making simultaneous aerosol measurements upstream and downstream of the test filter. Types of filter performance related studies that can be performed using this test stand system include filter lifetime studies, filtering efficiency testing, media velocity testing, evaluations under high mass loading and high humidity conditions, and determination of the downstream particle size distributions.

  1. Viral Penetration of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    threatened deployment of biological 34 agents to produce casualties or disease in man or animals and damage to plants or 35 material. It is...viral weapons is not clearly defined. From a weapons standpoint, it 88 would be advantageous to create smaller particles, because they would remain...studies that 107 used an animal model (Burmester 1972, Hopkins1971) to assay the protection provided 108 by HEPA filters. The turn of the 21st

  2. 2010 Lead (Pb) Air Monitoring Requirements & 2013 Method for Determination of Lead (Pb) in Total Suspended Particulate Matter Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a variety of fact sheets and other documents that are supplementary to the 2010 final revisions to lead (Pb) ambient air monitoring requirements and the 2013 final method for determination of Pb in total suspended particulate matter.

  3. DETECTION AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION INDUCED CARDIOPULMONARY OXIDATIVE STRESS USING A TRANSGENIC MOUSE MODEL AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Identification of particle characteristics and biological mechanism(s) responsible for the adverse pulmonary and cardiovascular responses associated with particulate air pollution exposure remains a critical research activity. We have employed an oxidative stress sensitive an...

  4. Fine Ambient Air Particulate Matter Exposure Induces Molecular Alterations Indicative of Cardiovascular Disease Progression in Atherosclerotic Susceptible Mice -- B

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Epidemiology studies have reported associations between increased mortality and morbidity with exposure to particulate air pollution, particularly within individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clinical and toxicological studies have provided evide...

  5. Method and apparatus for drying a moisture-containing particulate material

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.

    1980-07-01

    An apparatus is described for drying moisture-containing particulates comprising; a cylindrical vessel with two closed ends and having a vapor outlet near the top end thereof, a liquid outlet near the bottom end thereof, and an inlet for a particulate material, an inlet for a hot hydrocarbon liquid having a carbon liquid, all of the inlets being intermediate the vapor outlet and the liquid outlet, and a plurality of agitator means mounted on a cylindrical shaft which is connected to a rotary driving means, one of the agitator means being mounted in the top portion of the vessel and above the particulate feed.

  6. Air particulate matter and cardiovascular disease: the epidemiological, biomedical and clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yixing; Xu, Xiaohan; Chu, Ming; Guo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is now becoming an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Numerous epidemiological, biomedical and clinical studies indicate that ambient particulate matter (PM) in air pollution is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular disease such as myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac arrhythmias, ischemic stroke, vascular dysfunction, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The molecular mechanisms for PM-caused cardiovascular disease include directly toxicity to cardiovascular system or indirectly injury by inducing systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in peripheral circulation. Here, we review the linking between PM exposure and the occurrence of cardiovascular disease and discussed the possible underlying mechanisms for the observed PM induced increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26904258

  7. 76 FR 5270 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... particulates can cause heart and lung disease. Particulate matter also aggravates asthma. Airborne particulate... more for fine particulates. WPC states that it would be difficult for sources to limit PM 2.5...

  8. ALTERNATE HIGH EFFICIENCY PARTICULATE AIR (HEPA) FILTRATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bishop; Robert Goldsmith; Karsten Nielsen; Phillip Paquette

    2002-08-16

    In Phase IIA of this project, CeraMem has further developed and scaled up ceramic HEPA filters that are appropriate for use on filtration of vent gas from HLW tanks at DOE sites around the country. This work included procuring recrystallized SiC monoliths, developing membrane and cement materials, and defining a manufacturing process for the production of prototype full sizes HEPA filters. CeraMem has demonstrated that prototype full size filters can be manufactured by producing 9 full size filters that passed DOP aerosol testing at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. One of these filters was supplied to the Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) for process tests using simulated HLW tank waste. SRTC has reported that the filter was regenerable (with some increase in pressure drop) and that the filter retained its HEPA retention capability. CeraMem has also developed a Regenerable HEPA Filter System (RHFS) design and acceptance test plan that was reviewed by DOE personnel. The design and acceptance test plan form the basis of the system proposal for follow-on work in Phase IIB of this project.

  9. Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.S.; Wang, D.G.; Rahman, K.

    1991-11-01

    The original goal of this study was to try and understand the relationship between the thermal and mechanical properties of particulate flows. Two situations were examined. The first is a study of the effects of simple shear flows, as a embryonic flow type on the apparent thermal conductivity and apparent viscosity of a dry granular flow. The second study involved fluidized beds. The original idea was to try and relate the heat transfer behavior of a fluidized bed to the ``particle pressure,`` the forces by only the particle phase of the two-phase mixture. (VC)

  10. Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.S.; Wang, D.G.; Rahman, K.

    1991-11-01

    The original goal of this study was to try and understand the relationship between the thermal and mechanical properties of particulate flows. Two situations were examined. The first is a study of the effects of simple shear flows, as a embryonic flow type on the apparent thermal conductivity and apparent viscosity of a dry granular flow. The second study involved fluidized beds. The original idea was to try and relate the heat transfer behavior of a fluidized bed to the particle pressure,'' the forces by only the particle phase of the two-phase mixture. (VC)

  11. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... centrifugation and filtration through a 0.45 micron filter. The suspended particulate phase is the supernatant as obtained above prior to centrifugation and filtration. The solid phase includes all material settling to... interact with ocean water to form insoluble matter or new toxic compounds, or materials which may...

  12. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... centrifugation and filtration through a 0.45 micron filter. The suspended particulate phase is the supernatant as obtained above prior to centrifugation and filtration. The solid phase includes all material settling to... interact with ocean water to form insoluble matter or new toxic compounds, or materials which may...

  13. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... centrifugation and filtration through a 0.45 micron filter. The suspended particulate phase is the supernatant as obtained above prior to centrifugation and filtration. The solid phase includes all material settling to... interact with ocean water to form insoluble matter or new toxic compounds, or materials which may...

  14. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... centrifugation and filtration through a 0.45 micron filter. The suspended particulate phase is the supernatant as obtained above prior to centrifugation and filtration. The solid phase includes all material settling to... interact with ocean water to form insoluble matter or new toxic compounds, or materials which may...

  15. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... centrifugation and filtration through a 0.45 micron filter. The suspended particulate phase is the supernatant as obtained above prior to centrifugation and filtration. The solid phase includes all material settling to... interact with ocean water to form insoluble matter or new toxic compounds, or materials which may...

  16. Indoor air quality in urban nurseries at Porto city: Particulate matter assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, P. T. B. S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Martins, F. G.; Sousa, S. I. V.

    2014-02-01

    Indoor air quality in nurseries is an interesting case of study mainly due to children's high vulnerability to exposure to air pollution (with special attention to younger ones), and because nursery is the public environment where young children spend most of their time. Particulate matter (PM) constitutes one of the air pollutants with greater interest. In fact, it can cause acute effects on children's health, as well as may contribute to the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases like asthma. Thus, the main objectives of this study were: i) to evaluate indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and PMTotal) on different indoor microenvironments in urban nurseries of Porto city; and ii) to analyse those concentrations according to guidelines and references for indoor air quality and children's health. Indoor PM measurements were performed in several class and lunch rooms in three nurseries on weekdays and weekends. Outdoor PM10 concentrations were also obtained to determine I/O ratios. PM concentrations were often found high in the studied classrooms, especially for the finer fractions, reaching maxima hourly mean concentrations of 145 μg m-3 for PM1 and 158 μg m-3 PM2.5, being often above the limits recommended by WHO, reaching 80% of exceedances for PM2.5, which is concerning in terms of exposure effects on children's health. Mean I/O ratios were always above 1 and most times above 2 showing that indoor sources (re-suspension phenomena due to children's activities, cleaning and cooking) were clearly the main contributors to indoor PM concentrations when compared with the outdoor influence. Though, poor ventilation to outdoors in classrooms affected indoor air quality by increasing the PM accumulation. So, enhancing air renovation rate and performing cleaning activities after the occupancy period could be good practices to reduce PM indoor air concentrations in nurseries and, consequently, to improve children's health and welfare.

  17. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings.

  18. Speciation of volatile organic compound emissions for regional air quality modeling of particulate matter and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, P. A.; Moran, M. D.; Scholtz, M. T.; Taylor, A.

    2003-01-01

    A new classification scheme for the speciation of organic compound emissions for use in air quality models is described. The scheme uses 81 organic compound classes to preserve both net gas-phase reactivity and particulate matter (PM) formation potential. Chemical structure, vapor pressure, hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity, freezing point/boiling point, and solubility data were used to create the 81 compound classes. Volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile organic compounds are included. The new classification scheme has been used in conjunction with the Canadian Emissions Processing System (CEPS) to process 1990 gas-phase and particle-phase organic compound emissions data for summer and winter conditions for a domain covering much of eastern North America. A simple postprocessing model was used to analyze the speciated organic emissions in terms of both gas-phase reactivity and potential to form organic PM. Previously unresolved compound classes that may have a significant impact on ozone formation include biogenic high-reactivity esters and internal C6-8 alkene-alcohols and anthropogenic ethanol and propanol. Organic radical production associated with anthropogenic organic compound emissions may be 1 or more orders of magnitude more important than biogenic-associated production in northern United States and Canadian cities, and a factor of 3 more important in southern U.S. cities. Previously unresolved organic compound classes such as low vapour pressure PAHs, anthropogenic diacids, dialkyl phthalates, and high carbon number alkanes may have a significant impact on organic particle formation. Primary organic particles (poorly characterized in national emissions databases) dominate total organic particle concentrations, followed by secondary formation and primary gas-particle partitioning. The influence of the assumed initial aerosol water concentration on subsequent thermodynamic calculations suggests that hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds may form external

  19. Sampling technologies and air pollution control devices for gaseous and particulate arsenic: a review.

    PubMed

    Helsen, Lieve

    2005-09-01

    Direct measurement of arsenic release requires a good sampling and analysis procedure in order to capture and detect the total amount of metals emitted. The literature is extensively reviewed in order to evaluate the efficiency of full field-scale and laboratory scale techniques for capturing particulate and gaseous emissions of arsenic from the thermo-chemical treatment of different sources of arsenic. Furthermore, trace arsenic concentrations in ambient air, national standard sampling methods and arsenic analysis methods are considered. Besides sampling techniques, the use of sorbents is also reviewed with respect to both approaches (1) to prevent the metals from exiting with the flue gas and (2) to react or combine with the metals in order to be collected in air pollution control systems. The most important conclusion is that submicron arsenic fumes are difficult to control in conventional air pollution control devices. Complete capture of the arsenic species requires a combination of particle control and vapour control devices.

  20. Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude cities.

    PubMed

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P; Krupa, S

    2013-02-01

    The Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude urban areas in different countries, must consider the pressure and temperature due to the effect that these parameters have on the breath volume. This paper shows the importance to correct Air Quality Standards for PM considering pressure and temperature at different altitudes. Specific factors were suggested to convert the information concerning PM, from local to standard conditions, and adjust the Air Quality Standards for different high altitudes cities. The correction factors ranged from: 1.03 for Santiago de Chile to 1.47 for El Alto Bolivia. Other cities in this study include: Mexico City, México; La Paz, Bolivia; Bogota, Cali and Medellin, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador and Cuzco, Peru. If these corrections are not considered, the atmospheric concentrations will be underestimated.

  1. A device for sampling and determination of total particulate mercury in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Lu, J Y; Schroeder, W H; Berg, T; Munthe, J; Schneeberger, D; Schaedlich, F

    1998-06-01

    A miniaturized device, which serves as both particulate trap and pyrolyzer for airborne particulate mercury species, is described. It has been used in combination with amalgamation/thermal desorption/cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection for the determination of total particulate mercury (TPM) associated with atmospheric aerosols. A standard reference material (SRM 1633b, NIST) has been used for validating of the pyrolysis technique, and a relative error smaller than 3% has been obtained. Contrary to most methods currently employed, this new technique does not require any sample preparation (e.g., extraction/digestion), no manual sample transfer or sample handling, and no addition of chemicals or reagents. Hence the risk of contamination is low. The time for complete analysis is less than 10 min per sample. The concentrations of TPM determined in metropolitan Toronto ranged from 3 to 91 pg m(-)(3) with standard deviations of <±2 pg m(-)(3) for simultaneous sets of four samples. These atmospheric TPM concentration values fall within the range reported in the literature. Good agreement was obtained by the three methods compared in a field study at Ny-Ålesund (78°54'N, 11°53'E), Svalbard. The elevated values of TPM concentrations obtained using the method developed in this work may arise from the Arctic springtime conversion of atmospheric mercury from gas-phase to particulate-phase Hg species.

  2. Determination of coal dust in airborne particulate materials by automated optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    McQuaker, N.R.; Sandberg, D.K.

    1984-11-01

    An automated optical technique for the determination of coal in airborne particulate materials is described. The technique may be used over the interval 1-5% (wt) coal when the sample is uniformly deposited as a monolayer on a cellulose acetate filter. The analytical precision is found to be acceptable. The accuracy for reference samples is shown to be either +/- 0.5% (by weight) or +/- 10% over the analytical range. The application of the method to authentic samples of airborne particulate materials is also discussed.

  3. 2006 critical review - health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect

    SciTech Connect

    C. Arden Pope III; Douglas W. Dockery

    2006-06-15

    Efforts to understand and mitigate the health effects of particulate matter (PM) air pollution have a rich and interesting history. This review focuses on six substantial lines of research that have been pursued since 1997 that have helped elucidate our understanding about the effects of PM on human health. There has been substantial progress in the evaluation of PM health effects at different time-scales of exposure and in the exploration of the shape of the concentration-response function. There has also been emerging evidence of PM-related cardiovascular health effects and growing knowledge regarding interconnected general pathophysiological pathways that link PM exposure with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Despite important gaps in scientific knowledge and continued reasons for some skepticism, a comprehensive evaluation of the research findings provides persuasive evidence that exposure to fine particulate air pollution has adverse effects on cardiopulmonary health. Although much of this research has been motivated by environmental public health policy, these results have important scientific, medical, and public health implications that are broader than debates over legally mandated air quality standards. 502 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Particulate air pollution in six Asian cities: Spatial and temporal distributions, and associated sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim Oanh, N. T.; Upadhyay, N.; Zhuang, Y.-H.; Hao, Z.-P.; Murthy, D. V. S.; Lestari, P.; Villarin, J. T.; Chengchua, K.; Co, H. X.; Dung, N. T.; Lindgren, E. S.

    A monitoring program for particulate matter pollution was designed and implemented in six Asian cities/metropolitan regions including Bandung, Bangkok, Beijing, Chennai, Manila, and Hanoi, within the framework of the Asian regional air pollution research network (AIRPET), coordinated by the Asian Institute of Technology. As uniform the methodologies as possible were intended with an established QA/QC procedure in order to produce reliable and comparable data by the network. The monsoon effects and seasonal changes in the sources/activities require long-term monitoring to understand the nature of air pollution in the cities. During phase 1 (2001-2004) of the AIRPET around 3000 fine and coarse particulate matter samples were collected from characteristic urban sites, which provide insight into temporal and spatial variations of PM in the cities. In all six cities, the levels of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found high, especially during the dry season, which frequently exceeded the corresponding 24 h US EPA standards at a number of sites. The average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in the cities ranged, respectively, 44-168 and 54-262 μg m -3 in the dry season, and 18-104 and 33-180 μg m -3 in the wet season. Spatial and temporal distribution of PM in each city, the ratios of PM 2.5 to PM 10, and the reconstructed mass were presented which provide useful information on possible PM sources in the cities. The findings help to understand the nature of particulate matter air pollution problems in the selected cities/metropolitan regions.

  5. Nickel and vanadium in air particulates at Dhahran (Saudi Arabia) during and after the Kuwait oil fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, M.; Mian, A. A.

    Air particulates, both the total suspended (TSP) and inhalable (PM 10, smaller than 10 microns in size), were collected during and after the Kuwait oil fires (from March 1991 to July 1992) using Hi-Vol samplers. These samples were wet-digested at 120°C in an aqua regia and perchloric acids mixture for 3 h. Air particulate samples collected in 1982 at the same location were prepared similarly. Concentrations of nickel and vanadium were determined in the aliquot samples using an inductively coupled argon plasma analyser (ICAP). The monthly mean concentrations of nickel and vanadium, on volume basis, increased rapidly from March to June and decreased sharply during July-August in 1991. The minimum mean concentrations of these elements were found in the particulate samples collected in December 1991 which gradually increased through May 1992. Like 1991, nickel and vanadium concentrations in the air particulates spiked in June and decreased again in July 1992. This distribution pattern of nickel and vanadium concentrations was similar to that of the predominant wind from the north (Kuwait). In general, concentrations of these elements were higher in the air particulates collected during April-July 1991 as compared with those collected in 1992 during the same period. The TSPs contained higher concentrations of nickel and vanadium than those found in the PM 10 samples. However, this trend was reversed when concentrations of nickel and vanadium, on were expressed on particulate weight basis. The monthly mean concentrations of nickel and vanadium, on weight basis, decreased gradually through 1991 and increased slightly from March to July 1992. Concentrations of these elements were significantly higher in the air particulate samples collected in 1991 than those samples collected during 1982 at the same location. The data of this study suggest a contribution of the Kuwait oil fires in elevating nickel and vanadium concentrations in the air particulates at Dhahran during

  6. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Waste Composition and High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter Loading

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, B.D.

    2000-12-11

    This analysis evaluates the effect of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) waste isotopic composition on Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) accidents involving high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter failure in Double-Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs). The HEPA Filter Failure--Exposure to High Temperature or Pressure, and Steam Intrusion From Interfacing Systems accidents are considered. The analysis concludes that dose consequences based on the PFP waste isotopic composition are bounded by previous FSAR analyses. This supports USQD TF-00-0768.

  7. Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution and mortality due to ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Torén, Kjell; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Nilsson, Tohr; Järvholm, Bengt

    2007-01-01

    Objectives A growing number of epidemiological studies are showing that ambient exposure to particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, whether occupational exposure increases this risk is not clear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether occupational exposure to particulate air pollution increases the risk for ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Methods The study population was a cohort of 176 309 occupationally exposed Swedish male construction workers and 71 778 unexposed male construction workers. The definition of exposure to inorganic dust (asbestos, man‐made mineral fibres, dust from cement, concrete and quartz), wood dust, fumes (metal fumes, asphalt fumes and diesel exhaust) and gases and irritants (organic solvents and reactive chemicals) was based on a job‐exposure matrix with focus on exposure in the mid‐1970s. The cohort was followed from 1971 to 2002 with regard to mortality to ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RR) were obtained by the person‐years method and from Poisson regression models adjusting for baseline values of blood pressure, body mass index, age and smoking habits. Results Any occupational particulate air pollution was associated with an increased risk for ischemic heart disease (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19), but there was no increased risk for cerebrovascular disease (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.07). There was an increased risk for ischaemic heart disease and exposure to inorganic dust (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) and exposure to fumes (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.10), especially diesel exhaust (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.24). There was no significantly increased risk for cerebrovascular disease and exposure to inorganic dust, fumes or wood dust. Conclusions Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution, especially diesel exhaust, among construction workers increases the risk for ischaemic heart disease. PMID

  8. ARE CARS OR TREES MORE IMPORTANT TO PARTICULATE MATTER AIR POLUTION? WHAT RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS HAVE TO SAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution in the form of particulate matter (PM) originates from both human activities and "natural" phenomena. Setting and achieving National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM has to take into account the latter since they are in general less controllable than th...

  9. GUIDANCE FOR THE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEMS FOR PARTICULATE MATTER AND VISIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM) and the federal regional haze regulations place some emphasis on the assessment of fine particle (PM; 5) concentrations. Current air quality models need to be improved and evaluated against observations to a...

  10. 75 FR 17865 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ...; Particulate Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY... updates were made to the particulate matter standards by adding fine particulate standards and revoking the state's course particulate standards. EPA revised its particulate matter standards in October...

  11. Epidemiology of fine particulate air pollution and human health: biologic mechanisms and who's at risk?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A

    2000-01-01

    This article briefly summarizes the epidemiology of the health effects of fine particulate air pollution, provides an early, somewhat speculative, discussion of the contribution of epidemiology to evaluating biologic mechanisms, and evaluates who's at risk or is susceptible to adverse health effects. Based on preliminary epidemiologic evidence, it is speculated that a systemic response to fine particle-induced pulmonary inflammation, including cytokine release and altered cardiac autonomic function, may be part of the pathophysiologic mechanisms or pathways linking particulate pollution with cardiopulmonary disease. The elderly, infants, and persons with chronic cardiopulmonary disease, influenza, or asthma are most susceptible to mortality and serious morbidity effects from short-term acutely elevated exposures. Others are susceptible to less serious health effects such as transient increases in respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, or other physiologic changes. Chronic exposure studies suggest relatively broad susceptibility to cumulative effects of long-term repeated exposure to fine particulate pollution, resulting in substantive estimates of population average loss of life expectancy in highly polluted environments. Additional knowledge is needed about the specific pollutants or mix of pollutants responsible for the adverse health effects and the biologic mechanisms involved. PMID:10931790

  12. Vascular function and short-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Pope, C Arden; Hansen, Jaron C; Kuprov, Roman; Sanders, Matthew D; Anderson, Michael N; Eatough, Delbert J

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to fine particulate air pollution has been implicated as a risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease and mortality. Proposed biological pathways imply that particle-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation play a role in activating the vascular endothelium and altering vascular function. Potential effects of fine particulate pollution on vascular function are explored using controlled chamber exposure and uncontrolled ambient exposure. Research subjects included four panels with a total of 26 healthy nonsmoking young adults. On two study visits, at least 7 days apart, subjects spent 3 hr in a controlled-exposure chamber exposed to 150-200 microg/m3 of fine particles generated from coal or wood combustion and 3 hr in a clean room, with exposure and nonexposure periods alternated between visits. Baseline, postexposure, and post-clean room reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) was conducted. A microvascular responsiveness index, defined as the log of the RH-PAT ratio, was calculated. There was no contemporaneous vascular response to the few hours of controlled exposure. Declines in vascular response were associated with elevated ambient exposures for the previous 2 days, especially for female subjects. Cumulative exposure to real-life fine particulate pollution may affect vascular function. More research is needed to determine the roles of age and gender, the effect of pollution sources, the importance of cumulative exposure over a few days versus a few hours, and the lag time between exposure and response.

  13. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2010-09-01

    Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

  14. Satellite remote sensing of particulate matter and air quality assessment over global cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pawan; Christopher, Sundar A.; Wang, Jun; Gehrig, Robert; Lee, Yc; Kumar, Naresh

    Using 1 year of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrievals from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellite along with ground measurements of PM 2.5 mass concentration, we assess particulate matter air quality over different locations across the global urban areas spread over 26 locations in Sydney, Delhi, Hong Kong, New York City and Switzerland. An empirical relationship between AOT and PM 2.5 mass is obtained and results show that there is an excellent correlation between the bin-averaged daily mean satellite and ground-based values with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.96. Using meteorological and other ancillary datasets, we assess the effects of wind speed, cloud cover, and mixing height (MH) on particulate matter (PM) air quality and conclude that these data are necessary to further apply satellite data for air quality research. Our study clearly demonstrates that satellite-derived AOT is a good surrogate for monitoring PM air quality over the earth. However, our analysis shows that the PM 2.5-AOT relationship strongly depends on aerosol concentrations, ambient relative humidity (RH), fractional cloud cover and height of the mixing layer. Highest correlation between MODIS AOT and PM 2.5 mass is found under clear sky conditions with less than 40-50% RH and when atmospheric MH ranges from 100 to 200 m. Future remote sensing sensors such as Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) that have the capability to provide vertical distribution of aerosols will further enhance our ability to monitor and forecast air pollution. This study is among the first to examine the relationship between satellite and ground measurements over several global locations.

  15. Effect of the particle interactions on the structuration and mechanical strength of particulate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Pauchard, L.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the effect of the particles interaction on the mechanical strength of particulate materials. Starting from a dispersion of charged particles, the interparticle force can be modulated by the addition of ionic species. The structuration of the medium is then governed by the competition between drying and gelation processes. Rheological measurements show that addition of ionic species boosts the aggregation dynamics into a solid state and changes the structural properties of the final material. This last point is highlighted by precise measurements of i) the mechanical properties of particulate materials through crack pattern quantification, supported by indentation testing, and ii) the permeation properties during the drying process in a controlled geometry. In particular, these results show a decrease of the drained elastic modulus and an increase in the pore size when the ionic species content in the particulate material is increased. Hence, we show that the solid structure behaves mechanically as a network whose pore size increases when the electrostatic repulsion between particles is decreased. These results are consistent with the fact that the way particulate materials are structured determines their mechanical properties.

  16. Magnesium, Iron and Aluminum in LLNL Air Particulate and Rain Samples with Reference to Magnesium in Industrial Storm Water

    SciTech Connect

    Esser, Bradley K.; Bibby, Richard K.; Fish, Craig

    2016-08-25

    Storm water runoff from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL’s) main site and Site 300 periodically exceeds the Discharge Permit Numeric Action Level (NAL) for Magnesium (Mg) under the Industrial General Permit (IGP) Order No. 2014-0057-DWQ. Of particular interest is the source of magnesium in storm water runoff from the site. This special study compares new metals data from air particulate and precipitation samples from the LLNL main site and Site 300 to previous metals data for storm water from the main site and Site 300 and alluvial sediment from the main site to investigate the potential source of elevated Mg in storm water runoff. Data for three metals (Mg, Iron {Fe}, and Aluminum {Al}) were available from all media; data for additional metals, such as Europium (Eu), were available from rain, air particulates, and alluvial sediment. To attribute source, this study compared metals concentration data (for Mg, Al, and Fe) in storm water and rain; metal-metal correlations (Mg with Fe, Mg with Al, Al with Fe, Mg with Eu, Eu with Fe, and Eu with Al) in storm water, rain, air particulates, and sediments; and metal-metal ratios ((Mg/Fe, Mg/Al, Al/Fe, Mg/Eu, Eu/Fe, and Eu/Al) in storm water, rain, air particulates and sediments. The results presented in this study are consistent with a simple conceptual model where the source of Mg in storm water runoff is air particulate matter that has dry-deposited on impervious surfaces and subsequently entrained in runoff during precipitation events. Such a conceptual model is consistent with 1) higher concentrations of metals in storm water runoff than in precipitation, 2) the strong correlation of Mg with Aluminum (Al) and Iron (Fe) in both storm water and air particulates, and 3) the similarity in metal mass ratios between storm water and air particulates in contrast to the dissimilarity of metal mass ratios between storm water and precipitation or alluvial sediment. The strong correlation of Mg with Fe and Al

  17. Biomass burning contribution to ambient air particulate levels at Navrongo in the Savannah zone of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ofosu, Francis G; Hopke, Philip K; Aboh, Innocent J K; Bamford, Samuel A

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in Navrongo, a town in the Sahel Savannah Zone of Ghana, have been measured and the major sources have been identified. This area is prone to frequent particulate pollution episodes due to Harmattan dust and biomass burning, mostly from annual bushfires. The contribution of combustion emissions, particularly from biomass and fossil fuel, to ambient air particulate loadings was assessed. Sampling was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 in Navrongo. Two Gent samplers were equipped to collect PM10 in two size fractions, coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5). Coarse particles are collected on a coated, 8-microm-pore Nuclepore filter. Fine particle samples were sampled with 47-mm-diameter Nuclepore and quartz filters. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were determined from the quartz filters using thermal optical reflectance (IMPROVE/TOR) methods. Elements were measured on the fine-particle Nuclepore filters using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence. The average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained at Navrongo was 32.3 microg/m. High carbonaceous concentrations were obtained from November to March, the period of Harmattan dust and severe bush fires. Total carbon was found to contribute approximately 40% of the PM2.5 particulate mass. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) suggested six major sources contributing to the PM2.5 mass. They are two stroke engines, gasoline emissions, soil dust, diesel emissions, biomass burning, and resuspended soil dust. Biomass combustion (16.0%) was identified as second most important source next to soil dust at Navrongo.

  18. 75 FR 30710 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter Standards; Withdrawal of Direct Final Rule AGENCY... matter standards by adding fine particulate standards and revoking the state's course particulate standards. The State of Wisconsin submitted this revision as a modification to the State Implementation...

  19. Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-1 by Insoluble Particulate Material and Association with Asthma.

    PubMed

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Shapiro, Darien; Romero, Erin G; Stockmann, Chris; Bevans, Tatjana S; Phan, Quang M; Stone, Bryan L; Fassl, Bernhard; Nkoy, Flory; Uchida, Derek A; Ward, Robert M; Veranth, John M; Reilly, Christopher A

    2015-12-01

    Inhaled irritants activate transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), resulting in cough, bronchoconstriction, and inflammation/edema. TRPA1 is also implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. Our hypothesis was that particulate materials activate TRPA1 via a mechanism distinct from chemical agonists and that, in a cohort of children with asthma living in a location prone to high levels of air pollution, expression of uniquely sensitive forms of TRPA1 may correlate with reduced asthma control. Variant forms of TRPA1 were constructed by mutating residues in known functional elements and corresponding to single-nucleotide polymorphisms in functional domains. TRPA1 activity was studied in transfected HEK-293 cells using allyl-isothiocynate, a model soluble electrophilic agonist; 3,5-ditert butylphenol, a soluble nonelectrophilic agonist and a component of diesel exhaust particles; and insoluble coal fly ash (CFA) particles. The N-terminal variants R3C and R58T exhibited greater, but not additive, activity with all three agonists. The ankyrin repeat domain-4 single nucleotide polymorphisms E179K and K186N exhibited decreased response to CFA. The predicted N-linked glycosylation site residues N747A and N753A exhibited decreased responses to CFA, which were not attributable to differences in cellular localization. The pore-loop residue R919Q was comparable to wild-type, whereas N954T was inactive to soluble agonists but not CFA. These data identify roles for ankyrin domain-4, cell surface N-linked glycans, and selected pore-loop domain residues in the activation of TRPA1 by insoluble particles. Furthermore, the R3C and R58T polymorphisms correlated with reduced asthma control for some children, which suggest that TRPA1 activity may modulate asthma, particularly among individuals living in locations prone to high levels of air pollution.

  20. In vitro effects of pollutants from particulate and volatile fractions of air samples-day and night variability.

    PubMed

    Novák, Jiří; Giesy, John P; Klánová, Jana; Hilscherová, Klára

    2013-09-01

    Chemicals in air were characterized for potential interference with signaling of estrogen, androgen, and arylhydrocarbon (AhR) receptors, which are known to play an important role in endocrine-disruptive changes in vivo. Previously, effects of this type have been studied mainly in particulate matter in the ambient air from various localities. In this study, both volatile and particulate fractions of air from three sites in Banja Luka region (Bosnia and Herzegovina) were investigated to describe the distribution of endocrine-disrupting contaminants on a small spatial scale. Circadian variability of air pollution was investigated by collecting samples during both day and night. Air samples collected from urban localities at night were more potent in producing the AhR-mediated effects than those collected during daytime. This trend was not observed at the reference rural location. None of the samples showed significant estrogenic or androgenic activity. On the other hand, anti-androgenicity was detected in both particulate and vapor phases, while anti-estrogenicity was detected only in the particulate fraction of air from all localities. The AhR-mediated potencies of samples were associated primarily with non-persistent compounds. Based on the concentrations of 28 individual compounds, PAHs accounted for approximately 30 % of the AhR-mediated potency determined by the bioassay. The results show that there can be a significant difference between levels of bioactive compounds in air between daytime and nighttime.

  1. Chemical compositions responsible for inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung by coarse and fine particulate samples from contrasting air pollution in Europe.

    PubMed

    Happo, Mikko S; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Halinen, Arja I; Jalava, Pasi I; Pennanen, Arto S; Sillanpaa, Markus; Hillamo, Risto; Salonen, Raimo O

    2008-11-01

    Inflammation is regarded as an important mechanism in mortality and morbidity associated with exposures of cardiorespiratory patients to urban air particulate matter. We investigated the association of the chemical composition and sources of urban air fine (PM(2.5-0.2)) and coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate samples with the inflammatory activity in the mouse lung. The particulate samples were collected during selected seasons in six European cities using a high-volume cascade impactor. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose (10 mg/kg) of the particulate samples. At 4, 12, and 24 h after the exposure, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation and tissue damage: cell number, total protein, and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, interleukin [IL]-6, and KC). Dicarboxylic acids and transition metals, especially Ni and V, in PM(2.5-0.2) correlated positively and some secondary inorganic ions (NO3(-), NH4(+)) negatively with the inflammatory activity. Total organic matter and SO4(2-) had no consistent correlations. In addition, the soil-derived constituents (Ca2+, Al, Fe, Si) showed positive correlations with the PM(2.5-0.2)-induced inflammatory activity, but their role in PM(10-2.5) remained obscure, possibly due to largely undefined biogenic material. Markers of poor biomass and coal combustion, i.e., monosaccharide anhydrides and As, were associated with elevated PAH contents in PM(2.5-0.2) and a consistent immunosuppressive effect. Overall, our results support epidemiological findings that the local sources of incomplete combustion and resuspended road dust are important in urban air particulate pollution-related health effects.

  2. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Lotte; Buczynska, Anna; Walgraeve, Christophe; Delcloo, Andy; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Van Grieken, Rene; Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Backer, Hugo; Nemery, Benoit; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2012-08-15

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 {mu}m) mass concentration was measured. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) on outdoor PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 {mu}m) were measured. Each interquartile range increase of 20.8 {mu}g/m Superscript-Three in 24-h mean outdoor PM{sub 2.5} was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM{sub 2.5} were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  3. A review of the impact of fireworks on particulate matter in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Chi

    2016-12-01

    To determine the impact of fireworks (FW) and firecrackers (FC) on particulate matter (PM) in ambient air, we reviewed evidence related to ambient PM during FW/FC periods; specifically, PM concentration, size, morphology, chemical components, including water-soluble ions and trace metals, and associated human health risks caused by exposure to FW/FC PM were reviewed. A large body of research suggests that outdoor ambient PM levels increase significantly during FW/FC displays. Furthermore, FW/FC PM remains suspended in the air, contributing to high PM concentrations for a long period. Increased PM from burning FW and FC mainly comprises fine and ultrafine spherical particles. Elevated levels of various trace metals, ions, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and organics in PM are present during FW/FC periods.

  4. Novel particulate production processes to create unique security materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampden-Smith, Mark; Kodas, Toivo; Haubrich, Scott; Oljaca, Miki; Einhorn, Rich; Williams, Darryl

    2006-02-01

    Particles are frequently used to impart security features to high value items. These particles are typically produced by traditional methods, and therefore the security must be derived from the chemical composition of the particles rather than the particle production process. Here, we present new and difficult-to-reproduce particle production processes based on spray pyrolysis that can produce unique particles and features that are dependent on the use of these new-to-the-world processes and process trade secrets. Specifically two examples of functional materials are described, luminescent materials and electrocatalytic materials.

  5. Medication use modifies the health effects of particulate sulfate air pollution in children with asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, A; Dockery, D W; Heinrich, J; Wichmann, H E

    1997-01-01

    Previous controlled studies have indicated that asthma medication modifies the adverse effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on lung function and asthma symptoms. The present report analyzed the role of medication use in a panel study of children with mild asthma. Children from Sokolov (n = 82) recorded daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements, symptoms, and medication use in a diary. Linear and logistic regression analyses estimated the impact of concentrations of sulfate particles with diameters less than 2.5 microns, adjusting for linear trend, mean temperature, weekend (versus weekday), and prevalence of fever in the sample. Fifty-one children took no asthma medication, and only 31 were current medication users. Most children were treated with theophylline; only nine used sprays containing beta-agonist. For the nonmedicated children, weak associations between a 5-day mean of sulfates and respiratory symptoms were observed. Medicated children, in contrast, increased their beta-agonist use in direct association with an increase in 5-day mean of sulfates, but medication use did not prevent decreases in PEF and increases in the prevalence of cough attributable to particulate air pollution. Medication use was not a confounder but attenuated the associations between particulate air pollution and health outcomes. Images Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B PMID:9189709

  6. Apparatus for handling micron size range particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Roy, N. L. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    An apparatus for handling, transporting, or size classifying comminuted material was described in detail. Electrostatic acceleration techniques for classifying particles as to size in the particle range from 0.1 to about 100 microns diameter were employed.

  7. Particulate matter concentrations in residences: an intervention study evaluating stand-alone filters and air conditioners

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, S.; Du, L.; Mentz, G.; Mukherjee, B.; Parker, E.; Godwin, C.; Chin, J.-Y.; O'Toole, A.; Robins, T.; Rowe, Z.; Lewis, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study, a randomized controlled trial, evaluated the effectiveness of free-standing air filters and window air conditioners (ACs) in 126 low-income households of children with asthma. Households were randomized into a control group, a group receiving a free-standing HEPA filter placed in the child's sleeping area, and a group receiving the filter and a window-mounted AC. Indoor air quality (IAQ) was monitored for week-long periods over three to four seasons. High concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbon dioxide were frequently seen. When IAQ was monitored, filters reduced PM levels in the child's bedroom by an average of 50%. Filter use varied greatly among households and declined over time, for example, during weeks when pollutants were monitored, filter use was initially high, averaging 84 ± 27%, but dropped to 63 ± 33% in subsequent seasons. In months when households were not visited, use averaged only 34 ± 30%. Filter effectiveness did not vary in homes with central or room ACs. The study shows that measurements over multiple seasons are needed to characterize air quality and filter performance. The effectiveness of interventions using free-standing air filters depends on occupant behavior, and strategies to ensure filter use should be an integral part of interventions. PMID:22145709

  8. Microbial counts and particulate matter levels in roadside air samples under skytrain stations, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kongtip, Pornpimol

    2010-05-01

    In conditions with heavy traffic and crowds of people on roadside areas under skytrain stations in Bangkok, the natural air ventilation may be insufficient and air quality may be poor. A study of 350 air samples collected from the roadside, under skytrain stations in Bangkok, was carried out to assess microbial counts (210 air samples) and particulate matter (PM10) levels (140 samples). The results reveal the mean +/- standard deviation bacterial counts and fungal counts were 406.8 +/- 302.7 cfu/m3 and 128.9 +/- 89.7 cfu/m3, respectively. The PM10 level was 186.1 +/- 188.1 microg/m3. When compared to recommended levels, 4.8% of air samples (10/210 samples) had bacterial counts more than recommended levels (> 1,000 cfu/ m3) and 27.1% (38/140 samples) had PM10 levels more than recommended levels (> 120 microg/m3). These may affect human health, especially of street venders who spend most of their working time in these areas.

  9. Biomass fuel use and the exposure of children to particulate air pollution in southern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Semple, S.; Osrin, D.; Yadav, S.K.; Kurmi, O.P.; Saville, N.M.; Shrestha, B.; Manandhar, D.S.; Costello, A.; Ayres, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of children to air pollution in low resource settings is believed to be high because of the common use of biomass fuels for cooking. We used microenvironment sampling to estimate the respirable fraction of air pollution (particles with median diameter less than 4 μm) to which 7–9 year old children in southern Nepal were exposed. Sampling was conducted for a total 2649 h in 55 households, 8 schools and 8 outdoor locations of rural Dhanusha. We conducted gravimetric and photometric sampling in a subsample of the children in our study in the locations in which they usually resided (bedroom/living room, kitchen, veranda, in school and outdoors), repeated three times over one year. Using time activity information, a 24-hour time weighted average was modeled for all the children in the study. Approximately two-thirds of homes used biomass fuels, with the remainder mostly using gas. The exposure of children to air pollution was very high. The 24-hour time weighted average over the whole year was 168 μg/m3. The non-kitchen related samples tended to show approximately double the concentration in winter than spring/autumn, and four times that of the monsoon season. There was no difference between the exposure of boys and girls. Air pollution in rural households was much higher than the World Health Organization and the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nepal recommendations for particulate exposure. PMID:24533994

  10. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    In 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the US Department of Energy (DOE), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR)). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero. Three tests, Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat; the fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. DOE is working to clean up and close all four sites. Substantial cleaned up has been accomplished at Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1. Cleanup of Clean Slate 2 and 3 is on the DOE planning horizon for some time in the next several years. The Desert Research Institute installed two monitoring stations, number 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories Range Operations Center and number 401 at Clean Slate 3, in 2008 and a third monitoring station, number 402 at Clean Slate 1, in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The primary objectives of the data collection and analysis effort are to (1) monitor the concentration of radiological parameters in dust particles suspended in air, (2) determine whether winds are re-distributing radionuclides or contaminated soil material, (3) evaluate the controlling meteorological conditions if wind transport is occurring, and (4) measure ancillary radiological, meteorological, and environmental parameters that might provide insight to the above assessments. The following observations are based on data collected during CY2012. The mean annual concentration of gross alpha and gross beta is highest at Station 400 and lowest at Station

  11. Metal contents of phytoplankton and labile particulate material in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Benjamin S.; Rauschenberg, Sara; Morton, Peter L.; Vogt, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Phytoplankton contribute significantly to global C cycling and serve as the base of ocean food webs. Phytoplankton require trace metals for growth and also mediate the vertical distributions of many metals in the ocean. We collected bulk particulate material and individual phytoplankton cells from the upper water column (<150 m) of the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic Zonal Transect cruise (GEOTRACES GA03). Particulate material was first leached to extract biogenic and potentially-bioavailable elements, and the remaining refractory material was digested in strong acids. The cruise track spanned several ocean biomes and geochemical regions. Particulate concentrations of metals associated primarily with lithogenic phases (Fe, Al, Ti) were elevated in surface waters nearest North America, Africa and Europe, and elements associated primarily with biogenic material (P, Cd, Zn, Ni) were also found at higher concentrations near the coasts. However metal/P ratios of labile particulate material were also elevated in the middle of the transect for Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, and V. P-normalized cellular metal quotas measured with synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) were generally comparable to ratios in bulk labile particles but did not show mid-basin increases. Manganese and Fe ratios and cell quotas were higher in the western part of the section, nearest North America, and both elements were more enriched in bulk particles, relative to P, than in cells, suggesting the presence of labile oxyhydroxide particulate phases. Cellular Fe quotas thus did not increase in step with aeolian dust inputs, which are highest near Africa; these data suggest that the dust inputs have low bioavailability. Copper and Ni cell quotas were notably higher nearest the continental margins. Overall mean cellular metal quotas were similar to those measured in the Pacific and Southern Oceans except for Fe, which was approximately 3-fold higher in North Atlantic cells. Cellular Fe

  12. Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using unmodified carbon dioxide has been explored as an alternative method for the extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters provide the final stage of containment on many exhaust systems in US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities by preventing the escape of chemical and radioactive materials entrained in the exhausted air. The efficiency of the filters is tested by the manufacturer and DOE using dioctylphthalate (DOP), a substance regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Therefore, the filters must be analyzed for semivolatile organics before disposal. Ninety-eight acid, base, and neutral semivolatile organics were spiked onto blank HEPA material and extracted using SFE, Soxhlet, automated Soxhlet, and sonication techniques. The SFE conditions were optimized using a Dionex SFE-703 instrument. Average recoveries for the 98 semivolatile compounds are 82.7% for Soxhlet, 74.0% for sonication, 70.2% for SFE, and 62.9% for Soxtec. Supercritical fluid extraction reduces the extraction solvent volume to 10--15 mL, a factor of 20--30 less than Soxhlet and more than 5 times less than Soxtec and sonication. Extraction times of 30--45 min are used compared to 16--18 h for Soxhlet extraction.

  13. Particulate matter air quality assessment over southeast United States using satellite and ground measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pawan

    Fine particles (PM2.5, particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mum) can penetrate deep inside the human lungs and recent scientific studies have shown thousands of deaths occur each year around the world, prematurely, due to a high concentration of particulate matter. Therefore, monitoring and forecasting of surface level fine particulate matter air quality is very important. Typically air quality measurements are made from ground stations. In recent years, linear regression relationships between satellite derived aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and surface measured PM2.5 mass concentration are formed and used to estimate PM2.5 in the areas where surface measurements are not available. This type of simple linear relationships varies with regions and seasons, and does not provide accurate enough estimation of surface level pollution and many studies have shown that AOT alone is not sufficient for PM2.5 mass concentration estimations. Furthermore, AOT represents aerosol loading in the entire column of the atmosphere whereas PM2.5 is measured at the surface; hence, the knowledge of vertical distribution of aerosols coupled with meteorology becomes critical in PM2.5 estimations. In this dissertation I used three years (2004-2006) of coincident hourly PM2.5, MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived AOT, and Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) analyzed meteorological fields to assess PM2.5 air quality in the Southeast United States. I explored the use of two-variate (TVM), multi-variate (MVM) and artificial neural network (ANN) methods for estimating PM2.5 over 85 stations in the region. First, satellite data were analyzed for sampling biases, quality, and impact of clouds. Results show that MODIS-Terra AOT data was available only about 50% of the days in any given month due to cloud over and unfavorable surface conditions, but this produced a sampling bias of less than 2 mugm-3. Results indicate that there is up to three fold improvements in the

  14. Numerical Investigation for the Microstructural Effects on the Crack Growth Behavior of Particulate Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-26

    When the damage constitutive law is adopted in an analysis, we perform an incremental analysis, just like the case of elastoplasticity (see Okada...isotropic elastoplasticity . 2.4 Some other issues associated with the damage constitutive law-initiation of nonlinear deformation Material...ABSTRACT In present investigation, analyses for the damage evolution behavior of particulate composite materials by using the finite element method

  15. Instrumentation for Nano-porous, Nano-particulate Geopolymeric Materials Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-04

    nano-sized high surface area ceramic powders in geopolymers and geopolymeric composites. On the other hand, the Thinky ARE-250 mixer was purchased to...DATES COVERED (From - To) 6/15/07 - 6/14/08 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Instrumentation for Nano-porous, Nano-particulate Geopolymeric Materials... Geopolymers are a new class of ceramic materials which are best understood as rigid inorganic, aluminosilicate, hydrated gels, charge-balanced by cations

  16. Aerodynamic size distribution of suspended particulate matter in the ambient air in the city of Cleveland, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    The City of Cleveland Division of Air Pollution Control and NASA jointly investigated the chemical and physical characteristics of the suspended particulate matter in Cleveland, and as part of the program, measurements of the particle size distribution of ambient air samples at five urban locations during August and September 1972 were made using high-volume cascade impactions. The distributions were evaluated for lognormality, and the mass median diameters were compared between locations and as a function of resultant wind direction. Junge-type distributions were consistent with dirty continental aerosols. About two-thirds of the suspended particulate matter observed in Cleveland is less than 7 microns in diameter.

  17. Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution in Mpererwe District, Kampala, Uganda: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwander, Stephan; Okello, Clement D.; Freers, Juergen; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Corry, Melody; Meng, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, has deteriorated significantly in the past two decades. We made spot measurements in Mpererwe district for airborne particulate matter PM2.5 (fine particles) and coarse particles. PM was collected on Teflon-membrane filters and analyzed for mass, 51 elements, 3 anions, and 5 cations. Both fine and coarse particle concentrations were above 100 µg/m3 in all the samples collected. Markers for crustal/soil (e.g., Si and Al) were the most abundant in the PM2.5 fraction, followed by primary combustion products from biomass burning and incinerator emissions (e.g., K and Cl). Over 90% of the measured PM2.5 mass can be explained by crustal species (41% and 59%) and carbonaceous aerosol (33%–55%). Crustal elements dominated the coarse particles collected from Kampala. The results of this pilot study are indicative of unhealthy air and suggest that exposure to ambient air in Kampala may increase the burden of environmentally induced cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory diseases including infections. Greater awareness and more extensive research are required to confirm our findings, to identify personal exposure and pollution sources, and to develop air quality management plans and policies to protect public health. PMID:24693293

  18. Spatial variations of particulate matter and air toxics in communities adjacent to the Port of Oakland.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Arnott, W Patrick; Lau, Virginia; Martien, Philip T

    2013-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) sponsored the West Oakland Monitoring Study (WOMS) to provide supplemental air quality monitoring that will be used by the BAAQMD to evaluate local-scale dispersion modeling of diesel emissions and other toxic air contaminants for the area within and around the Port of Oakland. The WOMS was conducted during two seasonal periods of 4 weeks in summer 2009 and winter 2009/2010. Monitoring data showed spatial patterns of pollutant concentrations that were generally consistent with proximity to vehicle traffic. Concentrations of directly emitted pollutants were highest on heavily traveled roads with consistently lower concentrations away from the roadways. Pollutants that have higher emission rates from diesel trucks (nitric oxide, black carbon) tended to exhibit sharper gradients than pollutants that are largely associated with gasoline vehicles, such as carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). BTEX concentrations in West Oakland were similar to those measured at the three air toxics monitoring network sites in the Bay Area (San Francisco, Fremont, and San Jose). Aldehyde levels were higher in Fremont and San Jose than in West Oakland, reflecting greater contributions from photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons downwind of the Bay Area. A 2005 modeling-based health risk assessment of diesel particulate matter concentrations is consistent with aerosol carbon concentrations measured during the WOMS after adjusting for recent mitigation measures and improved estimates of heavy-duty truck traffic volumes.

  19. Health impacts due to particulate air pollution in Volos City, Greece.

    PubMed

    Moustris, Konstantinos P; Proias, George T; Larissi, Ioanna K; Nastos, Panagiotis T; Koukouletsos, Konstantinos V; Paliatsos, Athanasios G

    2016-01-01

    There is great consensus among the scientific community that suspended particulate matter is considered as one of the most harmful pollutants, particularly the inhalable particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) causing respiratory health problems and heart disorders. Average daily concentrations exceeding established standard values appear, among other cases, to be the main cause of such episodes, especially during Saharan dust episodes, a natural phenomenon that degrades air quality in the urban area of Volos. In this study the AirQ2.2.3 model, developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) European Center for Environment and Health, was used to evaluate adverse health effects by PM10 pollution in the city of Volos during a 5-year period (2007-2011). Volos is a coastal medium size city in the Thessaly region. The city is located on the northern side of the Gulf of Pagassitikos, on the east coast of Central Greece. Air pollution data were obtained by a fully automated monitoring station, which was established by the Municipal Water Supply and Sewage Department in the Greater Area of Volos, located in the centre of the city. The results of the current study indicate that when the mean annual PM10 concentration exceeds the corresponding European Union (EU) threshold value, the number of hospital admissions for respiratory disease (HARD) is increased by 25% on average. There is also an estimated increase of about 2.5% in HARD compared to the expected annual HARD cases for Volos. Finally, a strong correlation was found between the number of days exceeding the EU daily threshold concentration ([PM10] ≥ 50 μg m(-3)) and the annual HARD cases.

  20. Measuring Concentrations of Particulate 140La in the Air

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Colin E.; Kernan, Warnick; Keillor, Martin; Kirkham, Randy; Sorom, Rich D.; Van Etten, Don M.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses deployment of air-samplers to measure the concentration of radioactive material in the air during the Full-Scale Radiological Dispersal Device experiments. Positioned 100-600 meters downwind of the release point, the filters were collected immediately and analyzed in a field laboratory. The article discusses quantities for total activity collected on the air filters as well as additional information to compute the average or integrated air concentrations. In the case of a public emergency, this type of information would be important for decision makers and responders.

  1. Simultaneous determination of aliphatic and aromatic amines in ambient air and airborne particulate matters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyüz, Mehmet

    2008-05-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method has been proposed for the simultaneous determination of aliphatic and aromatic amines in ambient air and airborne particulate matters (PMs). The method includes collection of the particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) using dichotomous Partisol 2025 sampler followed by extraction of the compounds into acidic solution, and pre-concentration of the compounds by percolating the air samples through the acidic solution, then ion-pair extraction of amines with bis-2-ethylhexylphosphate and derivatisation with isobutyl chloroformate prior to their GC-MS analysis in both electron impact and positive and negative ion chemical ionisation mode as their isobutyloxycarbonyl (isoBOC) derivatives. In the present study, ambient air and airborne particulate samples collected in Zonguldak province during summer and winter times of 2006-2007 were analysed for aliphatic and aromatic amines by the proposed method and the method was shown to be suitable for the simultaneous determination of these compounds at the levels of pg m-3 in air and airborne particulate samples. The seasonal distributions of bioactive amines in concentrations in ambient air and airborne PMs were evaluated as they are significant for the estimation of their effects on the environment and human health. The concentration levels of water soluble amines fluctuate significantly within a year with higher means and peak concentrations, probably due to the increased emissions from coal-fired domestic and central heating, in the winter times compared to the summer times. The results indicated that the relative amine content in particulates modulates with molecular mass and time of the year and the relative amine content especially in fine fractions of inhalable airborne particulates increases with the molecular mass of species but decreases with temperature.

  2. Fine particulate air pollution and total mortality among elderly Californians, 1973-2002.

    PubMed

    Enstrom, James E

    2005-12-15

    Fine particulate air pollution has been associated with increases in long-term mortality in selected cohort studies, and this association has been influential in the establishment of air quality regulations for fine particles (PM(2.5)). However, this epidemiologic evidence has been questioned because of methodological issues, conflicting findings, and lack of an accepted causal mechanism. To further evaluate this association, the long-term relation between fine particulate air pollution and total mortality was examined in a cohort of 49, 975 elderly Californians, with a mean age of 65 yr as of 1973. These subjects, who resided in 25 California counties, were enrolled in 1959, recontacted in 1972, and followed from 1973 through 2002; 39, 846 deaths were identified. Proportional hazards regression models were used to determine their relative risk of death (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) during 1973-2002 by county of residence. The models adjusted for age, sex, cigarette smoking, race, education, marital status, body mass index, occupational exposure, exercise, and a dietary factor. For the 35, 789 subjects residing in 11 of these counties, county-wide exposure to fine particles was estimated from outdoor ambient concentrations measured during 1979-1983 and RRs were calculated as a function of these PM(2.5) levels (mean of 23.4 microg/m(3)). For the initial period, 1973-1982, a small positive risk was found: RR was 1.04 (1.01-1.07) for a 10-microg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5). For the subsequent period, 1983-2002, this risk was no longer present: RR was 1.00 (0.98-1.02). For the entire follow-up period, RR was 1.01 (0.99-1.03). The RRs varied somewhat among major subgroups defined by sex, age, education level, smoking status, and health status. None of the subgroups that had significantly elevated RRs during 1973-1982 had significantly elevated RRs during 1983-2002. The RRs showed no substantial variation by county of residence during any of the three follow

  3. Relationship between vehicle count and particulate air pollution in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alnawaiseh, Nedal Awad; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Isa, Zaleha Md

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional comparative study is to observe the relationship between traffic-related air pollutants, particularly particulate matter (PM) of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM of size 10 µm (PM10), and vehicle traffic in Amman, Jordan. Two study areas were chosen randomly as a high-polluted area (HPA) and low-polluted area (LPA). The findings indicate that TSP and PM10 were still significantly correlated with traffic count even after controlling for confounding factors (temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed): TSP, r = 0.726, P < .001; PM10, r = 0.719, P < .001). There was a significant positive relationship between traffic count and PM level: TSP, P < .001; PM10, P < .001. Moreover, there was a significant negative relationship between temperature and PM10 level (P = .018). Traffic volume contributed greatly to high concentrations of TSP and PM10 in areas with high traffic count, in addition to the effect of temperature.

  4. Health and respirable particulate (PM10) air pollution: a causal or statistical association?

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, J F; Lewis, R J

    1996-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported weak but statistically significant acute health effects of particulate air pollution. The associations are observed at levels below the current U.S. standard of 150 micrograms/m3 (24 hr). Health effects include acute increased mortality from cardiopulmonary conditions and acute morbidity such as hospital admissions for related diseases. We reviewed recent epidemiology studies to evaluate whether criteria for causality are met, and we conclude that they are not. The weak associations are as likely to be due to confounding by weather, copollutants, or exposure misclassification as by ambient particulate matter (PM). The results from the same metropolitan areas are inconsistent, and PM explains such a small amount of the variability in mortality/morbidity that the association has little practical significance. Finally, experimental chamber studies of susceptible individuals exposed to PM concentrations well above 150 micrograms/m3 provide no evidence to support the morbidity/mortality findings. None of the criteria for establishing causality of the PM/mortality hypothesis are clearly met at ambient concentrations common in many U.S. cities. Images p838-a Figure 1. PMID:8875158

  5. An association of particulate air pollution and traffic exposure with mortality after lung transplantation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ruttens, David; Verleden, Stijn E; Bijnens, Esmée M; Winckelmans, Ellen; Gottlieb, Jens; Warnecke, Gregor; Meloni, Federica; Morosini, Monica; Van Der Bij, Wim; Verschuuren, Erik A; Sommerwerck, Urte; Weinreich, Gerhard; Kamler, Markus; Roman, Antonio; Gomez-Olles, Susana; Berastegui, Cristina; Benden, Christian; Holm, Are Martin; Iversen, Martin; Schultz, Hans Henrik; Luijk, Bart; Oudijk, Erik-Jan; Kwakkel-van Erp, Johanna M; Jaksch, Peter; Klepetko, Walter; Kneidinger, Nikolaus; Neurohr, Claus; Corris, Paul; Fisher, Andrew J; Lordan, James; Meachery, Gerard; Piloni, Davide; Vandermeulen, Elly; Bellon, Hannelore; Hoffmann, Barbara; Vienneau, Danielle; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; Nemery, Benoit; Verleden, Geert M; Vos, Robin; Nawrot, Tim S; Vanaudenaerde, Bart M

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution from road traffic is a serious health risk, especially for susceptible individuals. Single-centre studies showed an association with chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and survival after lung transplantation, but there are no large studies.13 lung transplant centres in 10 European countries created a cohort of 5707 patients. For each patient, we quantified residential particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10) by land use regression models, and the traffic exposure by quantifying total road length within buffer zones around the home addresses of patients and distance to a major road or freeway.After correction for macrolide use, we found associations between air pollution variables and CLAD/mortality. Given the important interaction with macrolides, we stratified according to macrolide use. No associations were observed in 2151 patients taking macrolides. However, in 3556 patients not taking macrolides, mortality was associated with PM10 (hazard ratio 1.081, 95% CI 1.000-1.167); similarly, CLAD and mortality were associated with road lengths in buffers of 200-1000 and 100-500 m, respectively (hazard ratio 1.085- 1.130). Sensitivity analyses for various possible confounders confirmed the robustness of these associations.Long-term residential air pollution and traffic exposure were associated with CLAD and survival after lung transplantation, but only in patients not taking macrolides.

  6. Ambient air particulates and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) concentrations: dry deposition study over a Traffic, Airport, Park (T.A.P.) areas during years of 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Lin, Yen-Heng; Zheng, Yu-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor ambient air particles and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) in total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations and dry deposition at the Hung Kuang (Traffic), Taichung airport and Westing Park sampling sites during the daytime and nighttime, from 2011 to 2012. In addition, the calculated/measured dry deposition flux ratios of ambient air particles and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) were also studied with Baklanov & Sorensen and the Williams models. For a particle size of 10 μm, the Baklanov & Sorensen model yielded better predictions of dry deposition of ambient air particulates and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) at the Hung Kuang (Traffic), Taichung airport and Westing Park sampling site during the daytime and nighttime sampling periods. However, for particulates with sizes 20-23 μm, the results obtained in the study reveal that the Williams model provided better prediction results for ambient air particulates and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) at all sampling sites in this study.

  7. Acute Effects of Particulate Air Pollution on Ischemic Heart Disease Hospitalizations in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Anyang; Mu, Zhe; Jiang, Bo; Wang, Wei; Yu, Han; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Jue

    2017-01-01

    Background: Air pollution has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases worldwide. This study examines the relationship between the exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) and patient hospitalizations as a result of ischemic heart disease (IHD) during 2013–2014 in Shanghai, China. Methods: Daily IHD hospitalization data were acquired from the Shanghai Health Insurance Bureau (SHIB) from 1 January 2013 to 21 December 2014. Daily average concentrations of air pollution as well as meteorological data were obtained from the database of Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center (SEMC) during the same time period, and all data were analyzed using standard epidemiological methodology. Generalized linear model (GLM) adjusted for time trends, weather conditions, and medical insurance policy was used to estimate the immediate and delayed effects of PMs on IHD hospitalizations, and the effects of PMs were also examined based on gender, age group and seasonal variation. Results: A total of 188,198 IHD hospitalizations were recorded during 2013–2014 in Shanghai, China. During this period, the average concentrations of the fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of <10 μm (PM10) and ≤2.5 (PM2.5) were 76 µg/m3 and 56.3 µg/m3, respectively. The effect of PMs was strongest on days when a 10 μg/m3 increment increase of PM2.5 and PM10, which coincided with an increase in IHD hospitalizations by 0.25% (95% CI: 0.10%, 0.39%) and 0.57% (95% CI: 0.46%, 0.68%), respectively. Furthermore, the effect of PMs was significantly greater in males and people between 41 and 65 years old. Conclusions: Hospitalizations of IHD was strongly associated with short-term exposure to high levels of PM10 and PM2.5 during 2013–2014 in Shanghai, China. PMID:28208759

  8. Systematic evaluation of dissolved lead sorption losses to particulate syringe filter materials.

    PubMed

    Minning, Thomas; Lytle, Darren A; Pham, Maily; Kelty, Keith

    2015-06-01

    Distinguishing between soluble and particulate lead in drinking water is useful in understanding the mechanism of lead release and identifying remedial action. Typically, particulate lead is defined as the amount of lead removed by a 0.45-μm filter. Unfortunately, there is little guidance regarding selection of filter membrane material and little consideration to the possibility of the sorption of dissolved lead to the filter. The objective of this work was to examine the tendency of 0.45-μm syringe filter materials to adsorb lead. Tests were performed with water containing 40 and 24 μg/L soluble lead at pH 7 buffered with 50 mg C/L dissolved inorganic concentration (DIC). The amounts of lead sorbed greatly varied by filter, and only two filter types, polypropylene and mixed cellulose esters, performed well and are recommended. Great care must be taken in choosing a filter when filtering soluble lead and interpreting filter results.

  9. IN VITRO EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER ON AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS ISOLATED FROM CONCENTRATED AIR PARTICLES-EXPOSED SPONTANEOUS HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro effects of particulate matter on airway epithelial cells isolated from concentrated air particles-exposed spontaneous hypertensive rats

    Ines Pagan, Urmila Kodavanti, Paul Evansky, Daniel L Costa and Janice A Dye. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, National...

  10. Evaluation of Methods for Analysis of Lead in Air Particulates: An Intra-Laboratory and Inter-Laboratory Comparison

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2008, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) set a new National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for lead (Pb) in total suspended particulate matter (Pb-TSP) which called for significant decreases in the allowable limits. The Federal Reference Method (FR...

  11. Microfabricated Air-Microfluidic Sensor for Personal Monitoring of Airborne Particulate Matter: Design, Fabrication, and Experimental Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present the design and fabrication of a micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) air-microfluidic particulate matter (PM) sensor, and show experimental results obtained from exposing the sensor to concentrations of tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust, two commonly occurring P...

  12. SPECIAL ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL OF THE AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION ON THE PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article is the preface or editors note to the dedicated issue of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association for a selection of scientific papers from the specialty conference entitled, "Particulate Matter Supersites Program and Related Studies," that was...

  13. Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuzzi, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Carslaw, K.; Decesari, S.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Facchini, M. C.; Fowler, D.; Koren, I.; Langford, B.; Lohmann, U.; Nemitz, E.; Pandis, S.; Riipinen, I.; Rudich, Y.; Schaap, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Spracklen, D. V.; Vignati, E.; Wild, M.; Williams, M.; Gilardoni, S.

    2015-07-01

    The literature on atmospheric particulate matter (PM), or atmospheric aerosol, has increased enormously over the last 2 decades and amounts now to some 1500-2000 papers per year in the refereed literature. This is in part due to the enormous advances in measurement technologies, which have allowed for an increasingly accurate understanding of the chemical composition and of the physical properties of atmospheric particles and of their processes in the atmosphere. The growing scientific interest in atmospheric aerosol particles is due to their high importance for environmental policy. In fact, particulate matter constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and for climate change policies. In this context, this paper reviews the most recent results within the atmospheric aerosol sciences and the policy needs, which have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last 2 decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-aerosol interactions and effects of PM on human health and the environment. However, while airborne particulate matter is responsible for globally important influences on premature human mortality, we still do not know the relative importance of the different chemical components of PM for these effects. Likewise, the magnitude of the overall effects of PM on climate remains highly uncertain. Despite the uncertainty there are many things that could be done to mitigate local and global problems of atmospheric PM. Recent analyses have shown that reducing black carbon (BC) emissions, using known control measures, would reduce global warming and delay the time when anthropogenic effects on global temperature would exceed 2 °C. Likewise, cost-effective control measures on ammonia, an important agricultural precursor gas for secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), would reduce regional eutrophication and PM concentrations in large areas of Europe, China

  14. Instrumentation for Nano-porous, Nano-particulate Geopolymeric Materials Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-04

    surface area ceramic powders in geopolymers and geopolymeric composites. On the other hand, the Thinky ARE-250 mixer was purchased to assist with...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 6/15/07 – 6/14/08 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Instrumentation for Nano-porous, Nano-particulate Geopolymeric ...STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT -- Geopolymers are a new class of ceramic materials which are best understood as rigid

  15. Conduction and Narrow Escape in Dense, Disordered, Particulate-based Heterogeneous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechman, Jeremy

    For optimal and reliable performance, many technological devices rely on complex, disordered heterogeneous or composite materials and their associated manufacturing processes. Examples include many powder and particulate-based materials found in phyrotechnic devices for car airbags, electrodes in energy storage devices, and various advanced composite materials. Due to their technological importance and complex structure, these materials have been the subject of much research in a number of fields. Moreover, the advent of new manufacturing techniques based on powder bed and particulate process routes, the potential of functional nano-structured materials, and the additional recognition of persistent shortcomings in predicting reliable performance of high consequence applications; leading to ballooning costs of fielding and maintaining advanced technologies, should motivate renewed efforts in understanding, predicting and controlling these materials' fabrication and behavior. Our particular effort seeks to understand the link between the top-down control presented in specific non-equilibrium processes routes (i.e., manufacturing processes) and the variability and uncertainty of the end product performance. Our ultimate aim is to quantify the variability inherent in these constrained dynamical or random processes and to use it to optimize and predict resulting material properties/performance and to inform component design with precise margins. In fact, this raises a set of deep and broad-ranging issues that have been recognized and as touching the core of a major research challenge at Sandia National Laboratories. In this talk, we will give an overview of recent efforts to address aspects of this vision. In particular the case of conductive properties of packed particulate materials will be highlighted. Combining a number of existing approaches we will discuss new insights and potential directions for further development toward the stated goal. Sandia National

  16. On the design of novel multifunctional materials by using particulate additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunnigan, Ross Daniel

    This thesis has been organized into five chapters. The main focus of this thesis is to design novel multifunctional materials by using particulate additives. Chapter 1 is devoted to reviewing recent studies in additive manufacturing (AM) and other background information. In Chapter 2, the synthesis and characterization of novel Ti3SiC2-reinforced Zn-matrix composites is reported. During this study, all the Zn composites were hot pressed at 500°C for 5 min at a uniaxial pressure of ~150 MPa. Microstructure analysis by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and phase analysis by XRD (X-ray Diffraction) confirmed that there was minimal interfacial reaction between Ti3SiC 2 particles and the Zn matrix. The addition of Ti3SiC 2 improved the tribological performance of these composites against alumina substrates but did not have any beneficial effect on the mechanical performance. The addition of Ti3SiC2 particulates to metal and polymer matrices show interesting properties. Chapter 3 will focus on additive manufacturing of Ti3SiC2 particulates in a polymer matrix. Waste materials are a big problem in the world. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on recycling materials. The mechanical and tribological properties of the Resin-Nylon and ResinPolyester composites are reported, respectively.

  17. [Leaf micro-morphology and features in adsorbing air suspended particulate matter and accumulating heavy metals in seven trees species].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Fang, Yan-Ming; Wang, Shun-Chang; Xie, Ying; Yang, Dan-Dan

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between tree leaf micro-morphology and features in adsorbing air suspended particulate matter and accumulating heavy metals. Seven tree species, including Ginkgo biloba, at heavy traffic density site in Huainan were selected to analyze the frequency of air particulate matter retained by leaves, the particle amount of different sizes per unit leaf area retained by leaves and its related micro-morphology structure, and the relationship between particle amount of different sizes per unit leaf area retained by leaves and its related accumulation of heavy metals. We found that the species characterized by small leaf area, special epidemis with abundant fax, and highly uneven cell wall, as well as big and dense stomata and without trichomes mainly absorbed fine particulate matter; while those species with many trichomes mainly retained coarse particulate matter. Accumulation of heavy metals in leaves of the seven species was significantly different except for Ph. Tree species with high capacities in heavy metal accumulation were Ginkgo biloba, Ligustrum lucidum, and Cinnamomum camphora. Accumulation of Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu and total heavy metal concentration for seven tree species was positively related to the amount of particulate matter absorbed. Correlation coefficients of d10 vs d2.5, d10 vs d1.0, d2.5 vs d1.0 were 0.987, 0.971, 0.996, respective, and the correlate level was significant. The ratios of d2.5/d10, d1.0/d10, d1.0/d2.5 were 0.844, 0.763, 0.822, indicating that the particulate matter from traffic was mainly fine particulates.

  18. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Elementary School Absences and Fine Particulate Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Hales, Nicholas M; Barton, Caleb C; Ransom, Michael R; Allen, Ryan T; Pope, C Arden

    2016-03-01

    Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) has been associated with many adverse health outcomes including school absences. Specifically, a previous study in the Utah Valley area, conducted during a time with relatively high air pollution exposure, found significant positive correlations between school absences and air pollution. We examined the hypothesis that ambient PM2.5 exposures are associated with elementary school absences using a quasi-natural experiment to help control for observed and unobserved structural factors that influence school absences. The Alpine, Provo, and Salt Lake City school districts are located in valleys subject to daily mean PM2.5 concentrations almost twice as high as those in the Park City School District. We used seminonparametric generalized additive Poisson regression models to evaluate associations between absences and daily PM2.5 levels in the 3 districts that were exposed to the most pollution while using Park City absences as a quasi-control. The study covered 3 school years (2011/12-2013/14). School absences were most strongly associated with observed structural factors such as seasonal trends across school years, day-of-week effects, holiday effects, weather, etc. However, after controlling for these structural factors directly and using a control district, a 10 μg/m increase in PM2.5 was associated with an approximately 1.7% increase in daily elementary school absences. Exposure to ambient air pollution can contribute to elementary school absences, although this effect is difficult to disentangle from various other factors.

  19. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Elementary School Absences and Fine Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Nicholas M.; Barton, Caleb C.; Ransom, Michael R.; Allen, Ryan T.; Pope, C. Arden

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) has been associated with many adverse health outcomes including school absences. Specifically, a previous study in the Utah Valley area, conducted during a time with relatively high air pollution exposure, found significant positive correlations between school absences and air pollution. We examined the hypothesis that ambient PM2.5 exposures are associated with elementary school absences using a quasi-natural experiment to help control for observed and unobserved structural factors that influence school absences. The Alpine, Provo, and Salt Lake City school districts are located in valleys subject to daily mean PM2.5 concentrations almost twice as high as those in the Park City School District. We used seminonparametric generalized additive Poisson regression models to evaluate associations between absences and daily PM2.5 levels in the 3 districts that were exposed to the most pollution while using Park City absences as a quasi-control. The study covered 3 school years (2011/12-2013/14). School absences were most strongly associated with observed structural factors such as seasonal trends across school years, day-of-week effects, holiday effects, weather, etc. However, after controlling for these structural factors directly and using a control district, a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with an approximately 1.7% increase in daily elementary school absences. Exposure to ambient air pollution can contribute to elementary school absences, although this effect is difficult to disentangle from various other factors. PMID:26945391

  20. Building materials and indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Levin, H

    1989-01-01

    New building materials, products, and furnishings are known to emit a large number of organic chemicals into indoor air. The author addresses the effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on building occupants, including building materials evaluation and strategies to reduce airborne concentrations. A major problem is that little is known about the specific health effects of most VOCs at the low concentrations usually found in indoor environments.

  1. 75 FR 17894 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ...; Particulate Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... September 11, 2009. EPA revised its particulate matter standards in October 2006 by strengthening the 24... particulate matter. DATES: Comments must be received on or before May 10, 2010. ADDRESSES: Submit...

  2. Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution Causes Vascular Insulin Resistance by Inducing Pulmonary Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Haberzettl, Petra; O’Toole, Timothy E.; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Conklin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to ambient air fine particulate matter (PM2.5) increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects of PM2.5 remain unclear. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that PM2.5 exposure decreases vascular insulin sensitivity by inducing pulmonary oxidative stress. Methods: Mice fed control (10–13% kcal fat) and high-fat (60% kcal fat, HFD) diets, treated with 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL) or mice overexpressing lung-specific extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) were exposed to HEPA-filtered air or to concentrated PM2.5 (CAP) for 9 or 30 days, and changes in systemic and organ-specific insulin sensitivity and inflammation were measured. Results: In control diet–fed mice, exposure to CAP for 30 days decreased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in lung, heart, and aorta but not in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver and did not affect adiposity or systemic glucose tolerance. In HFD-fed mice, 30-day CAP exposure suppressed insulin-stimulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and increased adipose tissue inflammation and systemic glucose intolerance. In control diet–fed mice, a 9-day CAP exposure was sufficient to suppress insulin-stimulated Akt and eNOS phosphorylation and to decrease IκBα (inhibitor of the transcription factor NF-κB levels in the aorta. Treatment with the antioxidant TEMPOL or lung-specific overexpression of ecSOD prevented CAP-induced vascular insulin resistance and inflammation. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to PM2.5 induces vascular insulin resistance and inflammation triggered by a mechanism involving pulmonary oxidative stress. Suppression of vascular insulin signaling by PM2.5 may accelerate the progression to systemic insulin resistance, particularly in the context of diet-induced obesity. Citation: Haberzettl P, O

  3. Ambient air particles: effects on cellular oxidant radical generation in relation to particulate elemental chemistry.

    PubMed

    Prahalad, A K; Soukup, J M; Inmon, J; Willis, R; Ghio, A J; Becker, S; Gallagher, J E

    1999-07-15

    Epidemiologic studies have reported causal relationships between exposures to high concentrations of ambient air particles (AAP) and increased morbidity in individuals with underlying respiratory problems. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are frequently present in the airways of individuals exposed to particles. Upon particulate stimulation the PMN may release reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can result in tissue damage and injury. In this study a wide range of AAP samples from divergent sources (1, natural dust; 2, oil fly ash; 2, coal fly ash; 5, ambient air; and 1, carbon black) were analyzed for elemental content and solubility in relation to their ability to generate ROS. Elemental analyses were carried out in AAP and dH(2)O-washed AAP using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Percent of sample mass accounted for by XRF-detectable elements was 1.2% (carbon black); 22-29% (natural dust and ambient air particles); 13-22% (oil fly ash particles); 28-49% (coal fly ash particles). The major proportion of elements in most of these particles were aluminosilicates and insoluble iron, except oil-derived fly ash particles in which soluble vanadium and nickel were in highest concentrations, consistent with particle acidity as measured in the supernatants. Human blood-derived monocytes and PMN were exposed to AAP and dH(2)O-washed particles, and generation of ROS was determined using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LCL) assay. All the particles induced chemiluminescence response in the cells, except carbon black. The oxidant response of monocytes induced by AAP (with the exception of oil fly ash particles) was less than the response elicited by PMN. The LCL response of PMN in general increased with all washed particles, with oil fly ash (OFA) and one urban air particle showing statistically significant (p < 0. 05) differences between dH(2)O-washed and unwashed particles. The LCL activity in PMN induced by both particles and dH(2)O-washed particles was

  4. Diagnostic air quality model evaluation of source-specific primary and secondary fine particulate carbon.

    PubMed

    Napelenok, Sergey L; Simon, Heather; Bhave, Prakash V; Pye, Havala O T; Pouliot, George A; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J

    2014-01-01

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004-February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate the results of a numerical air quality model. Previous analyses of these measurements demonstrated excellent mass closure for the variety of contributing sources. In this study, a carbon-apportionment version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was used to track primary organic and elemental carbon emissions from 15 independent sources such as mobile sources and biomass burning in addition to four precursor-specific classes of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) originating from isoprene, terpenes, aromatics, and sesquiterpenes. Conversion of the source-resolved model output into organic tracer concentrations yielded a total of 2416 data pairs for comparison with observations. While emission source contributions to the total model bias varied by season and measurement location, the largest absolute bias of -0.55 μgC/m(3) was attributed to insufficient isoprene SOA in the summertime CMAQ simulation. Biomass combustion was responsible for the second largest summertime model bias (-0.46 μgC/m(3) on average). Several instances of compensating errors were also evident; model underpredictions in some sectors were masked by overpredictions in others.

  5. JV Task 94 - Air Quality V: Mercury, Trace Elements, SO3, and Particulate Matter Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas A. Erickson

    2007-01-31

    This final report summarizes the planning, preparation, facilitation and production, and summary of the conference entitled 'Air Quality V: Mercury, Trace Elements, SO{sub 3}, and Particulate Matter,' held September 18-21, 2005, in Arlington, Virginia. The goal of the conference was to build on the discussions of the first four Air Quality Conferences, providing further opportunity for leading representatives of industry, government, research institutions, academia, and environmental organizations to discuss the key interrelationships between policy and science shaping near-term regulations and controls and to assist in moving forward on emerging issues that will lead to acceptable programs and policies to protect human health, the environment, and economic growth. The conference was extremely timely, as it was the last large conference prior to publication of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's final regulations for mercury control from coal-fired utilities, and provided a forum to realistically assess the status of mercury controls in relation to the new regulations.

  6. Sources of fine particulate species in ambient air over Lake Champlain Basin, VT

    SciTech Connect

    Ning Gao; Amy E. Gildemeister; Kira Krumhansl; Katherine Lafferty; Philip K. Hopke; Eugene Kim; Richard L. Poirot

    2006-11-15

    This study is a part of an ongoing investigation of the types and locations of emission sources that contribute fine particulate air contaminants to Underhill, VT. The air quality monitoring data used for this study are from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network for the period of 2001-2003 for the Underhill site. The main source-receptor modeling techniques used are the positive matrix factorization (PMF) and potential source contribution function (PSCF). This new study is intended as a comparison to a previous study of the 1988-1995 Underhill data that successfully revealed a total of 11 types of emission sources with significant contributions to this rural site. This new study has identified a total of nine sources: nitrate-rich secondary aerosol, wood smoke, East Coast oil combustion, automobile emission, metal working, soil/dust, sulfur-rich aerosol type I, sulfur-rich aerosol type II, and sea salt/road salt. Furthermore, the mass contributions from the PMF identified sources that correspond with sampling days with either good or poor visibility were analyzed to seek possible correlations. It has been shown that sulfur-rich aerosol type I, nitrate aerosol, and automobile emission are the most important contributors to visibility degradation. Soil/dust and sea salt/road salt also have an added effect. 38 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Involvement of TLR2 and TLR4 in inflammatory immune responses induced by fine and coarse ambient air particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Shoenfelt, Joanna; Mitkus, Robert J.; Zeisler, Rolf; Spatz, Rabia O.; Powell, Jan; Fenton, Matthew J.; Squibb, Katherine A.; Medvedev, Andrei E.

    2009-01-01

    Induction of proinflammatory mediators by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient air particulate matter has been suggested to be a key factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and allergic diseases in the lungs. However, receptors and mechanisms underlying these responses have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether TLR2, TLR4, and the key adaptor protein, MyD88, mediate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to fine and coarse PM. TLR2 deficiency blunted macrophage TNF-α and IL-6 expression in response to fine (PM2.5), while not affecting cytokine-inducing ability of coarse NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM 1648) particles. In contrast, TLR4−/− macrophages showed inhibited cytokine expression upon stimulation with NIST SRM 1648 but exhibited normal responses to PM2.5. Preincubation with polymyxin B markedly suppressed the capacity of NIST SRM 1648 to elicit TNF-α and IL-6, indicating endotoxin as a principal inducer of cytokine responses. Overexpression of TLR2 in TLR2/4-deficient human embryonic kidney 293 cells imparted PM2.5 sensitivity, as judged by IL-8 gene expression, whereas NIST SRM 1648, but not PM2.5 elicited IL-8 expression in 293/TLR4/MD-2 transfectants. Engagement of TLR4 by NIST SRM 1648 induced MyD88-independent expression of the chemokine RANTES, while TLR2-reactive NIST IRM PM2.5 failed to up-regulate this response. Consistent with the shared use of MyD88 by TLR2 and TLR4, cytokine responses of MyD88−/− macrophages to both types of air PM were significantly reduced. These data indicate differential utilization of TLR2 and TLR4 but shared use of MyD88 by fine and coarse air pollution particles. PMID:19406832

  8. Particulate air pollution and panel studies in children: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ward, D; Ayres, J

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To systematically review the results of such studies in children, estimate summary measures of effect, and investigate potential sources of heterogeneity. Methods: Studies were identified by searching electronic databases to June 2002, including those where outcomes and particulate level measurements were made at least daily for ⩾8 weeks, and analysed using an appropriate regression model. Study results were compared using forest plots, and fixed and random effects summary effect estimates obtained. Publication bias was considered using a funnel plot. Results: Twenty two studies were identified, all except two reporting PM10 (24 hour mean) >50 µg.m-3. Reported effects of PM10 on PEF were widely spread and smaller than those for PM2.5 (fixed effects summary: -0.012 v -0.063 l.min-1 per µg.m-3 rise). A similar pattern was evident for symptoms. Random effects models produced larger estimates. Overall, in between-study comparisons, panels of children with diagnosed asthma or pre-existing respiratory symptoms appeared less affected by PM10 levels than those without, and effect estimates were larger where studies were conducted in higher ozone conditions. Larger PM10 effect estimates were obtained from studies using generalised estimating equations to model autocorrelation and where results were derived by pooling subject specific regression coefficients. A funnel plot of PM10 results for PEF was markedly asymmetrical. Conclusions: The majority of identified studies indicate an adverse effect of particulate air pollution that is greater for PM2.5 than PM10. However, results show considerable heterogeneity and there is evidence consistent with publication bias, so limited confidence may be placed on summary estimates of effect. The possibility of interaction between particle and ozone effects merits further investigation, as does variability due to analytical differences that alter the interpretation of final estimates. PMID:15031404

  9. Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuzzi, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Carslaw, K.; Decesari, S.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Facchini, M. C.; Fowler, D.; Koren, I.; Langford, B.; Lohmann, U.; Nemitz, E.; Pandis, S.; Riipinen, I.; Rudich, Y.; Schaap, M.; Slowik, J.; Spracklen, D. V.; Vignati, E.; Wild, M.; Williams, M.; Gilardoni, S.

    2015-01-01

    The literature on atmospheric particulate matter (PM), or atmospheric aerosol, has increased enormously over the last two decades and amounts now to some 1500-2000 papers per year in the refereed literature. This is in part due to the enormous advances in measurement technologies, which has allowed for an increasingly accurate understanding of the chemical composition and of the physical properties of atmospheric particles and of their processes in the atmosphere. The growing scientific interest in atmospheric aerosol particles is due to their high importance for environmental policy. In fact, particulate matter constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and climate change policies. In this context, this paper reviews the most recent results within the atmospheric aerosol science, and the policy needs, which have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last two decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-aerosol interactions and effects of PM on human health and the environment. But, while airborne particulate matter is responsible for globally important effects on premature human mortality, we still do not know the relative importance of different chemical components of PM for these effects. Likewise, the magnitude of the overall effects of PM on climate remains highly uncertain. Despite the uncertainty there are many things that could be done to mitigate local and global problems of atmospheric PM. Recent analyses have shown that reducing BC emissions, using known control measures would reduce global warming and delay the time when anthropogenic effects on global temperature would exceed 2 °C. Likewise, cost effective control measures on ammonia, an important agricultural precursor gas for secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), would reduce regional eutrophication and PM concentrations in large areas of Europe, China, and the USA. Thus there is

  10. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.; Andriulli, John B.; Strain, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    A method for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector.

  11. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.; Andriulli, J.B.; Strain, P.D.

    1998-09-08

    A method is described for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector. 1 fig.

  12. Trends in Concentrations of Atmospheric Gaseous and Particulate Species at the Look Rock, TN NCORE Air Quality Station and Their Relation to Primary Emissions Reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, R. L.; Mueller, S. F.; Bairai, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Air quality parameters, measured at Look Rock, TN, since 1980, were expanded by National Park Service (NPS) as an IMPROVE network station and again in 1999-2007 by Tennessee Valley Authority as part of efforts to determine the effects of reductions in EGU emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides on air quality at the site. Designated as a non-urban, NCORE-equivalent station in 2010, routine continuous monitoring of aerosol mass, sulfate, and black carbon, and primary and secondary gases at the site as well as additional measurements during a series of intensive research studies at the site have produced an extensive body to air quality data on background levels of species relevant to air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone and fine particulate matter which is unique comprehensive for a high-altitude site in the southeastern U.S.A. Analysis of the temporal trends in these data (1999-present)is being conducted in conjunction with and support of 2013 Southern Atmosphere Studies at Look Rock and other southeastern U.S. locations. Key findings from analysis of temporal trends at Look Rock include the observation that primary pollutant levels have consistently tracked the emissions reductions from EGUs and other primary sources in the region, but reductions in secondary pollutants such as particulate sulfate and ozone have been less than proportional. Organic carbonaceous material (OM) remains a major contributor to fine particulate mass at the site, and a large portion (65-85%) of OM derives from modern carbon, based on 14C measurements. Important parameters affecting fine mass and ozone levels also include the specific diurnal meteorology at this ridge-top site, its location in a largely mixed-deciduous forest, and the presence of primary sources of precursors at distances of 50-500 km from the site in all directions.

  13. Summary of efficiency testing of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters subjected to simulated tornado depressurization and explosive shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.

    1985-04-01

    Pressure transients in nuclear facility air cleaning systems can originate from natural phenomena such as tornadoes or from accident-induced explosive blast waves. This study was concerned with the effective efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters during pressure surges resulting from simulated tornado and explosion transients. The primary objective of the study was to examine filter efficiencies at pressure levels below the point of structural failure. Both standard and high-capacity 0.61-m by 0.61-m HEPA filters were evaluated, as were several 0.2-m by 0.2-m HEPA filters. For a particular manufacturer, the material release when subjected to tornado transients is the same (per unit area) for both the 0.2-m by 0.2-m and the 0.61-m by 0.61-m filters. For tornado transients, the material release was on the order of micrograms per square meter. When subjecting clean HEPA filters to simulated tornado transients with aerosol entrained in the pressure pulse, all filters tested showed a degradation of filter efficiency. For explosive transients, the material release from preloaded high-capacity filters was as much as 340 g. When preloaded high-capacity filters were subjected to shock waves approximately 50% of the structural limit level, 1 to 2 mg of particulate was released.

  14. Indoor Air Quality Investigations on Particulate Matter, Carbonyls, and Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Sarah E.

    Americans spend upwards of 90% of their time indoors, hence indoor air quality (IAQ) and the impact of IAQ on human health is a major public health concern. IAQ can be negatively impacted by outdoor pollution infiltrating indoors, the emission of indoor pollutants, indoor atmospheric chemistry and poor ventilation. Energy saving measures like retrofits to seal the building envelope to prevent the leakage of heated or cooled air will impact IAQ. However, existing studies have been inconclusive as to whether increased energy efficiency is leading to detrimental IAQ. In this work, field campaigns were conducted in apartment homes in Phoenix, Arizona to evaluate IAQ as it relates to particulate matter (PM), carbonyls, and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA). To investigate the impacts of an energy efficiency retrofit on IAQ, indoor and outdoor air quality sampling was carried out at Sunnyslope Manor, a city-subsidized senior living apartment complex. Measured indoor formaldehyde levels before the building retrofit exceeded reference exposure limits, but in the long term follow-up sampling, indoor formaldehyde decreased for the entire study population by a statistically significant margin. Indoor PM levels were dominated by fine particles and showed a statistically significant decrease in the long term follow-up sampling within certain resident subpopulations (i.e. residents who reported smoking and residents who had lived longer at the apartment complex). Additionally, indoor glyoxal and methylglyoxal exceeded outdoor concentrations, with methylglyoxal being more prevalent pre-retrofit than glyoxal, suggesting different chemical pathways are involved. Indoor concentrations reported are larger than previous studies. TSNAs, specifically N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 4-(methyl-nitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanal (NNA) and 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) were evaluated post-retrofit at Sunnyslope Manor. Of the units tested, 86% of the smoking units and

  15. Disrupted Nitric Oxide Metabolism from Type II Diabetes and Acute Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Ashley P; Kipen, Howard; Laumbach, Robert; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Kelly-McNeill, Kathleen; Cepeda, Clarimel; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Amorosa, Louis; Lubitz, Sara; Schneider, Stephen; Gow, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type II diabetes is an established cause of vascular impairment. Particulate air pollution is known to exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, particularly in susceptible populations. This study set out to determine the impact of exposure to traffic pollution, with and without particle filtration, on vascular endothelial function in Type II diabetes. Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) has previously been linked to vascular health. Reactive hyperemia induces a significant increase in plasma nitrite, the proximal metabolite of NO, in healthy subjects, while diabetics have a lower and more variable level of response. Twenty type II diabetics and 20 controls (ages 46-70 years) were taken on a 1.5 hr roadway traffic air pollution exposure as passengers. We analyzed plasma nitrite, as a measure of vascular function, using forearm ischemia to elicit a reactive hyperemic response before and after exposure to one ride with and one without filtration of the particle components of pollution. Control subjects displayed a significant increase in plasma nitrite levels during reactive hyperemia. This response was no longer present following exposure to traffic air pollution, but did not vary with whether or not the particle phase was filtered out. Diabetics did not display an increase in nitrite levels following reactive hyperemia. This response was not altered following pollution exposure. These data suggest that components of acute traffic pollution exposure diminish vascular reactivity in non-diabetic individuals. It also confirms that type II diabetics have a preexisting diminished ability to appropriately respond to a vascular challenge, and that traffic pollution exposure does not cause a further measureable acute change in plasma nitrite levels in Type II diabetics.

  16. Association of Systemic Inflammation with Marked Changes in Particulate Air Pollution in Beijing in 2008

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohua; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao; Lv, Peng; Zhong, Mianhua; Liu, Cuiqing; Wang, Aixia; Tzan, Kevin; Jiang, Silis Y.; Lippmann, Morton; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Qu, Qingshan; Chen, Lung-Chi; Sun, Qinghua

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have linked ambient fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) air pollution to increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases in the general population, but the biologic mechanisms of these associations are yet to be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between daily variations in exposure to PM2.5 and inflammatory responses in mice during and for 2 months after the Beijing Olympic Games. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to Beijing PM2.5 or filtered air (FA) in 2008 during the 2 months of Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games, and for 2 months after the end of the Games. During the Games, circulating monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and interleukin 6 were increased significantly in the PM2.5 exposure group, when compared with the FA control group, although there were no significant inter-group differences in tumor necrosis factor α or interferon γ, or in macrophages, neutrophils or lymphocytes in the spleen or thymus between these 2 groups. However, macrophages were significantly increased in the lung and visceral fat with increasing PM2.5. After the Olympic Games, there were no significant PM2.5-associated differences for macrophages, neutrophils or lymphocytes in the thymus, but macrophages were significantly elevated in the lung, spleen, subcutaneous and visceral fat with increasing PM2.5, and the numbers of macrophages were even higher after than those during the Games. Moreover, the number of neutrophils was markedly higher in the spleen for the PM2.5-exposed- than the FA-group. These data suggest that short-term increases in exposure to ambient PM2.5 leads to increased systemic inflammatory responses, primarily macrophages and neutrophils in the lung, spleen, and visceral adipose tissue. Short-term air quality improvements were significantly associated with reduced overall inflammatory responses. PMID:22617750

  17. Disrupted Nitric Oxide Metabolism from Type II Diabetes and Acute Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Ashley P.; Kipen, Howard; Laumbach, Robert; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Kelly-McNeill, Kathleen; Cepeda, Clarimel; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Amorosa, Louis; Lubitz, Sara; Schneider, Stephen; Gow, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type II diabetes is an established cause of vascular impairment. Particulate air pollution is known to exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, particularly in susceptible populations. This study set out to determine the impact of exposure to traffic pollution, with and without particle filtration, on vascular endothelial function in Type II diabetes. Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) has previously been linked to vascular health. Reactive hyperemia induces a significant increase in plasma nitrite, the proximal metabolite of NO, in healthy subjects, while diabetics have a lower and more variable level of response. Twenty type II diabetics and 20 controls (ages 46–70 years) were taken on a 1.5hr roadway traffic air pollution exposure as passengers. We analyzed plasma nitrite, as a measure of vascular function, using forearm ischemia to elicit a reactive hyperemic response before and after exposure to one ride with and one without filtration of the particle components of pollution. Control subjects displayed a significant increase in plasma nitrite levels during reactive hyperemia. This response was no longer present following exposure to traffic air pollution, but did not vary with whether or not the particle phase was filtered out. Diabetics did not display an increase in nitrite levels following reactive hyperemia. This response was not altered following pollution exposure. These data suggest that components of acute traffic pollution exposure diminish vascular reactivity in non-diabetic individuals. It also confirms that type II diabetics have a preexisting diminished ability to appropriately respond to a vascular challenge, and that traffic pollution exposure does not cause a further measureable acute change in plasma nitrite levels in Type II diabetics. PMID:26656561

  18. Impact of the 2002 Canadian forest fires on particulate matter air quality in Baltimore city.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Amir; Symons, J Morel; Kleissl, Jan; Wang, Lu; Parlange, Marc B; Ondov, John; Breysse, Patrick N; Diette, Gregory B; Eggleston, Peyton A; Buckley, Timothy J

    2005-01-01

    With increasing evidence of adverse health effects associated with particulate matter (PM), the exposure impact of natural sources, such as forest fires, has substantial public health relevance. In addition to the threat to nearby communities, pollutants released from forest fires can travel thousands of kilometers to heavily populated urban areas. There was a dramatic increase in forest fire activity in the province of Quebec, Canada, during July 2002. The transport of PM released from these forest fires was examined using a combination of a moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer satellite image, back-trajectories using a hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory, and local light detection and ranging measurements. Time- and size-resolved PM was evaluated at three ambient and four indoor measurement sites using a combination of direct reading instruments (laser, time-of-flight aerosol spectrometer, nephelometer, and an oscillating microbalance). The transport and monitoring results consistently identified a forest fire related PM episode in Baltimore that occurred the first weekend of July 2002 and resulted in as much as a 30-fold increase in ambientfine PM. On the basis of tapered element oscillating microbalance measurements, the 24 h PM25 concentration reached 86 microg/m3 on July 7, 2002, exceeding the 24 h national ambient air quality standard. The episode was primarily comprised of particles less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter, highlighting the preferential transport of the fraction of PM that is of greatest health concern. Penetration of the ambient episode indoors was efficient (median indoor-to-outdoor ratio 0.91) such that the high ambient levels were similarly experienced indoors. These results are significant in demonstrating the impact of a natural source thousands of kilometers away on ambient levels of and potential exposures to air pollution within an urban center. This research highlights the significance of

  19. Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Cognitive Decline in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Weuve, Jennifer; Puett, Robin C.; Schwartz, Joel; Yanosky, Jeff D.; Laden, Francine; Grodstein, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to particulate air pollution may accelerate cognitive decline in older adults, although data on this association are limited. Our objective was to examine long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution, both coarse ([PM 2.5–10 μm in diameter [PM2.5-10]) and fine (PM <2.5 μm in diameter [PM2.5]), in relation to cognitive decline. Methods The study population comprised the Nurses’ Health Study Cognitive Cohort, which included 19 409 US women aged 70 to 81 years. We used geographic information system–based spatiotemporal smoothing models to estimate recent (1 month) and long-term (7–14 years) exposures to PM2.5-10, and PM2.5 preceding base-line cognitive testing (1995–2001) of participants residing in the contiguous United States. We used generalized estimating equation regression to estimate differences in the rate of cognitive decline across levels of PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 exposures. The main outcome measure was cognition, via validated telephone assessments, administered 3 times at approximately 2-year intervals, including tests of general cognition, verbal memory, category fluency, working memory, and attention. Results Higher levels of long-term exposure to both PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 were associated with significantly faster cognitive decline. Two-year decline on a global score was 0.020 (95% CI, −0.032 to −0.008) standard units worse per 10 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5-10 exposure and 0.018 (95% CI, −0.035 to −0.002) units worse per 10 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 exposure. These differences in cognitive trajectory were similar to those between women in our cohort who were approximately 2 years apart in age, indicating that the effect of a 10-μg/m3 increment in long-term PM exposure is cognitively equivalent to aging by approximately 2 years. Conclusion Long-term exposure to PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 at levels typically experienced by many individuals in the United States is associated with significantly worse cognitive

  20. Particulate matter concentration in ambient air and its effects on lung functions among residents in the National Capital Region, India.

    PubMed

    Kesavachandran, C; Pangtey, B S; Bihari, V; Fareed, M; Pathak, M K; Srivastava, A K; Mathur, N

    2013-02-01

    The World Health Organization has estimated that air pollution is responsible for 1.4 % of all deaths and 0.8 % of disability-adjusted life years. NOIDA, located at the National Capital Region, India, was declared as one of the critically air-polluted areas by the Central Pollution Control Board of the Government of India. Studies on the relationship of reduction in lung functions of residents living in areas with higher concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air were inconclusive since the subjects of most of the studies are hospital admission cases. Very few studies, including one from India, have shown the relationship of PM concentration and its effects of lung functions in the same location. Hence, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to study the effect of particulate matter concentration in ambient air on the lung functions of residents living in a critically air-polluted area in India. PM concentrations in ambient air (PM(1,) PM(2.5)) were monitored at residential locations and identified locations with higher (NOIDA) and lower concentrations (Gurgaon). Lung function tests (FEV(1), PEFR) were conducted using a spirometer in 757 residents. Both air monitoring and lung function tests were conducted on the same day. Significant negative linear relationship exists between higher concentrations of PM(1) with reduced FEV(1) and increased concentrations of PM(2.5) with reduced PEFR and FEV(1). The study shows that reductions in lung functions (PEFR and FEV(1)) can be attributed to higher particulate matter concentrations in ambient air. Decline in airflow obstruction in subjects exposed to high PM concentrations can be attributed to the fibrogenic response and associated airway wall remodeling. The study suggests the intervention of policy makers and stake holders to take necessary steps to reduce the emissions of PM concentrations, especially PM(1,) PM(2.5), which can lead to serious respiratory health concerns in residents.

  1. Ambient Fine Particulate (PM2.5) Air Pollution Attributable to Household Cooking Fuel in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafe, Z.; Mehta, S.; Smith, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    Using the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model, hosted by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), we estimate the proportion of fine particulate ambient air pollution (PM2.5) attributable to household fuel use for cooking in Asia. This analysis considers primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions in two years: 1990 and 2005. Only emissions from household cooking fuels-not heating or lighting-are considered. Due to data availability, this analysis focuses solely on Asian countries, notably India and China which are home to about half of the households using solid fuel use worldwide. Forest and grassland fires, dust, and other "natural" particle sources were omitted from this analysis. The impact of emission sources on secondary particles from aerosol precursors was not determined. In China, the proportion of total primary anthropogenic PM2.5 attributable to household cooking decreased from 44% to 31% between 1990 and 2005. In India, the percent of primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions attributable to household cooking decreased from 55% to 49% between 1990 and 2005. Total mass change in primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions was much more variable by state in India, between 1990 and 2005, than by province in China (where there was a general downward trend in the total mass emitted). Similarly, growth in industrial emissions was much more variable at the sub-national level, between 1990 and 2005, in India than in China. Energy production played a more prominent role in the growth of primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions in India than it did in China. Forward-looking GAINS scenarios show that the contribution of household cooking to total primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions is much greater than that from on-road transport in India and China between 1990 and 2030. On-road cars, trucks, and other transport vehicles are, however, the cause of important pollutants other than PM2.5 (as are as cooking stoves that do

  2. Evaluation of near surface ozone and particulate matter in air quality simulations driven by dynamically downscaled historical meteorological fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltzer, Karl M.; Nolte, Christopher G.; Spero, Tanya L.; Appel, K. Wyat; Xing, Jia

    2016-08-01

    In this study, techniques typically used for future air quality projections are applied to a historical 11-year period to assess the performance of the modeling system when the driving meteorological conditions are obtained using dynamical downscaling of coarse-scale fields without correcting toward higher-resolution observations. The Weather Research and Forecasting model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model are used to simulate regional climate and air quality over the contiguous United States for 2000-2010. The air quality simulations for that historical period are then compared to observations from four national networks. Comparisons are drawn between defined performance metrics and other published modeling results for predicted ozone, fine particulate matter, and speciated fine particulate matter. The results indicate that the historical air quality simulations driven by dynamically downscaled meteorology are typically within defined modeling performance benchmarks and are consistent with results from other published modeling studies using finer-resolution meteorology. This indicates that the regional climate and air quality modeling framework utilized here does not introduce substantial bias, which provides confidence in the method's use for future air quality projections.

  3. Ultra High Efficiency ESP for Fine Particulate and Air Toxics Control

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasachar, Srivats; Pease, Benjamin R.; Porle, Kjell; Mauritzson, Christer; Haythornthwaite, Sheila

    1997-07-01

    Nearly ninety percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Cost effective retrofittable ESP technologies are the only means to accomplish Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants. Particles in the size range of 0.1 to 5 {micro}m typically escape ESPs. Metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, molybdenum and antimony, concentrate on these particles. This is the main driver for improved fine particulate control. Vapor phase emissions of mercury, selenium and arsenic are also of major concern. Current dry ESPs, which operate at temperatures greater than 280 F, provide little control for vapor phase toxics. The need for inherent improvement to ESPs has to be considered keeping in perspective the current trend towards the use of low sulfur coals. Switching to low sulfur coals is the dominant approach for SO{sub 2} emission reduction in the utility industry. Low sulfur coals generate high resistivity ash, which can cause an undesirable phenomenon called ''back corona.'' Higher particulate emissions occur if there is back corona in the ESP. Results of the pilot-scale testing identified the ''low temperature ESP'' concept to have the biggest impact for the two low sulfur coals investigated. Lowering the flue gas temperature to 220 F provided the maximum impact in terms of decreased emissions. Intermediate operating temperatures (reduction from 340 to 270 F) also gave significant ESP performance improvement. A significant reduction in particulate emissions was also noted when the flue gas humidity was increased (temperature held constant) from the baseline condition for these moderately high resistivity ash coals. Independent control of flue gas humidity and temperature was an important and a notable element in this project. Mercury emissions were also measured as a function of flue gas temperature. Mercury emissions decreased as the flue

  4. Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas. 1: Particulate air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess human mortality. The regression model proposed by Oezkaynak and Thurston, which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for population change, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included din the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model, and between TS and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened. Scatter plots and quintile analyses suggested a TSP threshold for COPD mortality at around 65 ug/m{sup 3} (annual average). SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, Mn, PM{sup 15}, and PM{sub 2.5} were not significantly associated with mortality using the new models.

  5. Chemical and morphological properties of particulate matter (PM 10, PM 2.5) in school classrooms and outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, H.; Diemer, J.; Dietrich, S.; Cyrys, J.; Heinrich, J.; Lang, W.; Kiranoglu, M.; Twardella, D.

    Studies have shown high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in schools. Further insights into the sources and the composition of these particles are needed. During school hours for a period of 6 weeks, outdoor air and the air in two classrooms were sampled. PM was measured gravimetrically, and PM filters were used for the determination of the elemental and organic carbon, light absorbance, and 10 water-soluble ions. Some filters were further analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive microanalysis (EDX). The median PM 10 concentrations were 118.2 μg m -3 indoors and 24.2 μg m -3 outdoors; corresponding results for PM 2.5 were 37.4 μg m -3 indoors and 17.0 μg m -3 outdoors. Using PM 10 and PM 2.5 data, we calculated the following indoor/outdoor ratios: 0.3 and 0.4 (sulfate), 0.1 and 0.2 (nitrate), 0.1 and 0.3 (ammonium), and 1.4 and 1.6 (calcium). Using the measured sulfate content on PM filters as an indicator for ambient PM sources, we estimated that 43% of PM 2.5 and 24% of PM 10, respectively, were of ambient origin. The composition of the classrooms' PM (e.g., high calcium concentrations) and the findings from SEM/EDX suggest that the indoor PM consists mainly of earth crustal materials, detrition of the building materials and chalk. Physical activity of the pupils leads to resuspension of mainly indoor coarse particles and greatly contributes to increased PM 10 in classrooms. The concentration of fine particles caused by combustion processes indoors and outdoors is comparable. We conclude that PM measured in classrooms has major sources other than outdoor particles. Assuming that combustion-related particles and crustal materials vary in toxicity, our results support the hypothesis that indoor-generated PM may be less toxic compared to PM in ambient air.

  6. A health-based assessment of particulate air pollution in urban areas of Beijing in 2000-2004.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minsi; Song, Yu; Cai, Xuhui

    2007-04-15

    Particulate air pollution is a serious problem in Beijing. The annual concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM(10)), ranging from 141 to 166 microg m(-3) in 2000-2004, could be very harmful to human health. In this paper, we presented the mortality and morbidity effects of PM(10) pollution based on statistical data and the epidemiological exposure-response function. The economic costs to health during the 5 years were estimated to lie between US$1670 and $3655 million annually, accounting for about 6.55% of Beijing's gross domestic product each year. The total costs were apportioned into two parts caused by: the local emissions and long-range transported pollution. The contribution from local emissions dominated the total costs, accounting on average for 3.60% of GDP. However, the contributions from transported pollution cannot be neglected, and the relative percentage to the total costs from the other regions could account for about 45%. An energy policy and effective measures should be proposed to reduce particulate matter, especially PM(2.5) pollution in Beijing to protect public health. The Beijing government also needs to cooperate with the other local governments to reduce high background level of particulate air pollution.

  7. The persistence of pesticides in atmospheric particulate phase: An emerging air quality issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, Joanna; Durand, Amandine; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Gligorovski, Sasho; Wortham, Henri; Quivet, Etienne

    2016-09-01

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to their physicochemical properties can be widely spread all over the globe; as such they represent a serious threat to both humans and wildlife. According to Stockholm convention out of 24 officially recognized POPs, 16 are pesticides. The atmospheric life times of pesticides, up to now were estimated based on their gas-phase reactivity. It has been only speculated that sorption to aerosol particles may increase significantly the half-lives of pesticides in the atmosphere. The results presented here challenge the current view of the half-lives of pesticides in the lower boundary layer of the atmosphere and their impact on air quality and human health. We demonstrate that semivolatile pesticides which are mostly adsorbed on atmospheric aerosol particles are very persistent with respect to the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) that is the self-cleaning agent of the atmosphere. The half-lives in particulate phase of difenoconazole, tetraconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, deltamethrin, cyprodinil, permethrin, and pendimethalin are in order of several days and even higher than one month, implying that these pesticides can be transported over long distances, reaching the remote regions all over the world; hence these pesticides shall be further evaluated prior to be confirmed as POPs.

  8. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2015 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Chapman, Jenny; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve

    2016-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). The operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Radionuclide assessment of airborne particulates in 2015 found the gross alpha and gross beta values of dust collected from the filters at the monitoring stations are consistent with background conditions. The meteorological and particle monitoring indicate that conditions for wind-borne contaminant movement exist at the Clean Slate sites and that, although the transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil by suspension has not been detected, movement by saltation is occurring.

  9. The persistence of pesticides in atmospheric particulate phase: An emerging air quality issue

    PubMed Central

    Socorro, Joanna; Durand, Amandine; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Gligorovski, Sasho; Wortham, Henri; Quivet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to their physicochemical properties can be widely spread all over the globe; as such they represent a serious threat to both humans and wildlife. According to Stockholm convention out of 24 officially recognized POPs, 16 are pesticides. The atmospheric life times of pesticides, up to now were estimated based on their gas-phase reactivity. It has been only speculated that sorption to aerosol particles may increase significantly the half‐lives of pesticides in the atmosphere. The results presented here challenge the current view of the half-lives of pesticides in the lower boundary layer of the atmosphere and their impact on air quality and human health. We demonstrate that semivolatile pesticides which are mostly adsorbed on atmospheric aerosol particles are very persistent with respect to the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) that is the self-cleaning agent of the atmosphere. The half-lives in particulate phase of difenoconazole, tetraconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, deltamethrin, cyprodinil, permethrin, and pendimethalin are in order of several days and even higher than one month, implying that these pesticides can be transported over long distances, reaching the remote regions all over the world; hence these pesticides shall be further evaluated prior to be confirmed as POPs. PMID:27628441

  10. Chemical characterization of particulate air pollutants Case studies on indoor air quality, cultural heritage and the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horemans, Benjamin

    When attempting to discuss the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM), it is important to address both physical and chemical aspects of this pollutant. This work reports on the results of three separate case studies, each approaching a specific problem of air pollution by evaluating the chemical composition of PM. 1. In the US and Europe, office workers often complain about work-related health symptoms. These symptoms are collectively referred as the 'sick building syndrome'. This work could be considered as one of the largest data collections on particulate pollutants in Belgian offices. It helps to understand the sources as well as the behavior and fate of PM at our workplace environments. Especially the chemical information on PM makes the results unique, since it enables a better evaluation of the health risks connected to office dust. 2. The Alhambra and Generalife bring every year more than 3 million people to Granada in Southern Spain. Recently, the increasing urbanization of Granada and the immense pressure of mass tourism form a threat for this heritage. Despite the fact that atmospheric pollutants are known to he potentially aggressive for our cultural patrimony. this case study is the first to assess the effects of environmental aerosols on the Alhambra monument. The results of this study could help decision-makers at the Alhambra and the city of Granada with the formulation of preventive conservation measures. They show how local vehicular traffic is the main source for atmospheric pollution in and around the Alhambra monument. Targeted strategies are necessary in order to maximally preserve these monuments and their UNESCO world cultural heritage label. 3. Excessive input of nitrogen-containing atmospheric nutrients via dry and wet deposition can cause entrophication of marine regions, which is also a common, seasonal phenomenon along the coasts of the North Sea. This study is the first to give a complete quantitative description of the

  11. Particulate matter air pollution causes oxidant-mediated increase in gut permeability in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution may be an important environmental factor leading to exacerbations of inflammatory illnesses in the GI tract. PM can gain access to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract via swallowing of air or secretions from the upper airways or mucociliary clearance of inhaled particles. Methods We measured PM-induced cell death and mitochondrial ROS generation in Caco-2 cells stably expressing oxidant sensitive GFP localized to mitochondria in the absence or presence of an antioxidant. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a very high dose of urban PM from Washington, DC (200 μg/mouse) or saline via gastric gavage and small bowel and colonic tissue were harvested for histologic evaluation, and RNA isolation up to 48 hours. Permeability to 4kD dextran was measured at 48 hours. Results PM induced mitochondrial ROS generation and cell death in Caco-2 cells. PM also caused oxidant-dependent NF-κB activation, disruption of tight junctions and increased permeability of Caco-2 monolayers. Mice exposed to PM had increased intestinal permeability compared with PBS treated mice. In the small bowel, colocalization of the tight junction protein, ZO-1 was lower in the PM treated animals. In the small bowel and colon, PM exposed mice had higher levels of IL-6 mRNA and reduced levels of ZO-1 mRNA. Increased apoptosis was observed in the colon of PM exposed mice. Conclusions Exposure to high doses of urban PM causes oxidant dependent GI epithelial cell death, disruption of tight junction proteins, inflammation and increased permeability in the gut in vitro and in vivo. These PM-induced changes may contribute to exacerbations of inflammatory disorders of the gut. PMID:21658250

  12. HBCD and TBBPA in particulate phase of indoor air in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hong-Gang; Zeng, Hui

    2013-08-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers (α, β, and γ-HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were investigated in air conditioning filter dust (designated as particulate phase of indoor air, PPIA) collected from an office building in Shenzhen, China in 2009. Concentrations of ΣHBCD (sum of α-, β-, and γ-HBCD) ranged from 652 to 122, 973 ng/g in PPIA. Generally, γ-HBCD was the most abundant diastereomer. Concentrations of TBBPA ranged from 30 to 59, 140 ng/g in PPIA. According to our results, approximate 61.9 pg/kg body weight/day (pg/kg/d) PM2.5 bound ΣHBCD can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 31.3 pg/kg/d PM10 bound ΣHBCD tends to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system, and those values of TBBPA were 28.7 pg/kg/d and 14.5 pg/kg/d for the lower and upper respiratory tracts, respectively. The average intakes of ΣHBCD via dust inhalation and ingestion were 37.92 pg/kg/d and 2, 079 pg/kg/d for adults, and those data of TBBPA were 17.62 pg/kg/d and 966.2 pg/kg/d, respectively. Our research found that exposure via indoor dust inhalation and ingestion contributed more than dietary pathway. Sensitivity analysis result suggests that the concentration of HBCD and TBBPA is the most significant parameter governing estimated results, and the other parameters, such as body weight and inhalation rate, do not affect the outcome much.

  13. Placental DNA hypomethylation in association with particulate air pollution in early life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence that altered DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism in prenatal programming and that developmental periods are sensitive to environmental stressors. We hypothesized that exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) during pregnancy could influence DNA methylation patterns of the placenta. Methods In the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, levels of 5’-methyl-deoxycytidine (5-mdC) and deoxycytidine (dC) were quantified in placental DNA from 240 newborns. Multiple regression models were used to study placental global DNA methylation and in utero exposure to PM2.5 over various time windows during pregnancy. Results PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy averaged (25th-75th percentile) 17.4 (15.4-19.3) μg/m3. Placental global DNA methylation was inversely associated with PM2.5 exposures during whole pregnancy and relatively decreased by 2.19% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.65, -0.73%, p = 0.004) for each 5 μg/m3 increase in exposure to PM2.5. In a multi-lag model in which all three trimester exposures were fitted as independent variables in the same regression model, only exposure to PM2.5 during trimester 1 was significantly associated with lower global DNA methylation (-2.13% per 5 μg/m3 increase, 95% CI: -3.71, -0.54%, p = 0.009). When we analyzed shorter time windows of exposure within trimester 1, we observed a lower placental DNA methylation at birth during all implantation stages but exposure during the implantation range (6-21d) was strongest associated (-1.08% per 5 μg/m3 increase, 95% CI: -1.80, -0.36%, p = 0.004). Conclusions We observed a lower degree of placental global DNA methylation in association with exposure to particulate air pollution in early pregnancy, including the critical stages of implantation. Future studies should elucidate genome-wide and gene-specific methylation patterns in placental tissue that could link particulate exposure during in utero life and early epigenetic modulations. PMID:23742113

  14. The shared pathoetiological effects of particulate air pollution and the social environment on fetal-placental development.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Anders C; Arbour, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to particulate air pollution and socioeconomic risk factors are shown to be independently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, their confounding relationship is an epidemiological challenge that requires understanding of their shared etiologic pathways affecting fetal-placental development. The purpose of this paper is to explore the etiological mechanisms associated with exposure to particulate air pollution in contributing to adverse pregnancy outcomes and how these mechanisms intersect with those related to socioeconomic status. Here we review the role of oxidative stress, inflammation and endocrine modification in the pathoetiology of deficient deep placentation and detail how the physical and social environments can act alone and collectively to mediate the established pathology linked to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We review the experimental and epidemiological literature showing that diet/nutrition, smoking, and psychosocial stress share similar pathways with that of particulate air pollution exposure to potentially exasperate the negative effects of either insult alone. Therefore, socially patterned risk factors often treated as nuisance parameters should be explored as potential effect modifiers that may operate at multiple levels of social geography. The degree to which deleterious exposures can be ameliorated or exacerbated via community-level social and environmental characteristics needs further exploration.

  15. The Shared Pathoetiological Effects of Particulate Air Pollution and the Social Environment on Fetal-Placental Development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to particulate air pollution and socioeconomic risk factors are shown to be independently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, their confounding relationship is an epidemiological challenge that requires understanding of their shared etiologic pathways affecting fetal-placental development. The purpose of this paper is to explore the etiological mechanisms associated with exposure to particulate air pollution in contributing to adverse pregnancy outcomes and how these mechanisms intersect with those related to socioeconomic status. Here we review the role of oxidative stress, inflammation and endocrine modification in the pathoetiology of deficient deep placentation and detail how the physical and social environments can act alone and collectively to mediate the established pathology linked to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We review the experimental and epidemiological literature showing that diet/nutrition, smoking, and psychosocial stress share similar pathways with that of particulate air pollution exposure to potentially exasperate the negative effects of either insult alone. Therefore, socially patterned risk factors often treated as nuisance parameters should be explored as potential effect modifiers that may operate at multiple levels of social geography. The degree to which deleterious exposures can be ameliorated or exacerbated via community-level social and environmental characteristics needs further exploration. PMID:25574176

  16. EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER AIR POLLUTION ON CARDIOPULMONARY AND THERMOREGULATORY PARAMETERS IN HEALTH AND COMPROMISED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER AIR POLLUTION ON CARDIOPULMONARY AND THERMOREGULATORY PARAMETERS IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RATS. Watkinson, WP, Campen, MJ, Wichers, LB, Nolan, JP, Kodavanti, UP, Schladweiler, MCJ, Evansky, PA, Lappi, ER,...

  17. Statistical summary of air quality data for metropolitian Cleveland, Ohio, 1967 - 1972: Total suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Neustadter, H. E.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C., Jr.; Cornett, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Air-quality data for metropolitan Cleveland, Ohio, from 1967 through 1972 were collated and statistically analyzed. Total suspended particulates (TSP) departed from lognormal distribution in 1972. Nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, departed significantly from lognormal distributions in 1972. In Cleveland the Ohio standards were not met. However, the data indicate a general improvement in air quality. Unusually high precipitation (43% above the average in 1972) may be responsible in lowering these values from the 1971 levels. The mean values of TSP, NO2, and SO2 are 104, 191, and 83 microgram/cu m respectively.

  18. Particulate matter in the indoor air of classrooms—exploratory results from Munich and surrounding area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, H.; Twardella, D.; Dietrich, S.; Heitmann, D.; Schierl, R.; Liebl, B.; Rüden, H.

    in humidity by 10%, by 0.5 μg m -3 per increase in CO 2 indoor concentration by 100 ppm, and a decrease by 2.8 μg m -3 in 5-7th grade classes and by 7.3 μg m -3 in class 8-11 compared to 1-4th class. During the winter period, the associations were stronger regarding class level, reverse regarding humidity (a decrease by 6.4 μg m -3 per increase in 10% humidity) and absent regarding CO 2 indoor concentration. The median PNC measured in 36 classrooms ranged between 2622 and 12,145 particles cm -3 (median: 5660 particles cm -3). The results clearly show that exposure to particulate matter in school is high. The increased PM concentrations in winter and their correlation with high CO 2 concentrations indicate that inadequate ventilation plays a major role in the establishment of poor indoor air quality. Additionally, the increased PM concentration in low level classes and in rooms with high number of pupils suggest that the physical activity of pupils, which is assumed to be more pronounced in younger children, contributes to a constant process of resuspension of sedimented particles. Further investigations are necessary to increase knowledge on predictors of PM concentration, to assess the toxic potential of indoor particles and to develop and test strategies how to ensure improved indoor air quality in schools.

  19. Effects of particulate materials and osmoprotectants on very-high-gravity ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, K C; Hynes, S H; Ingledew, W M

    1994-01-01

    The effects of osmoprotectants (such as glycine betaine and proline) and particulate materials on the fermentation of very high concentrations of glucose by the brewing strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae (uvarum) NCYC 1324 were studied. The yeast growing at 20 degrees C consumed only 15 g of the sugar per 100 ml from a minimal medium which initially contained 35% (wt/vol) glucose. Supplementing the medium with a mixture of glycine betaine, glycine, and proline increased the amount of sugar fermented to 30.5 g/100 ml. With such supplementation, the viability of the yeast cells was maintained above 80% throughout the fermentation, while it dropped to less than 12% in the unsupplemented controls. Among single additives, glycine was more effective than proline or glycine betaine. On incubating the cultures for 10 days, the viability decreased to only 55% with glycine, while it dropped to 36 and 27%, respectively, with glycine betaine and proline. It is suggested that glycine and proline, known to be poor nitrogen sources for growth, may serve directly or indirectly as osmoprotectants. Nutrients such as tryptone, yeast extract, and a mixture of purine and pyrimidine bases increased the sugar uptake and ethanol production but did not allow the population to maintain the high level of cell viability. While only 43% of the sugar was fermented in unsupplemented medium, the presence of particulate materials such as wheat bran, wheat mash insolubles, alumina, and soy flour increased sugar utilization to 68, 75, 81, and 82%, respectively. PMID:8017934

  20. Effects of particulate materials and osmoprotectants on very-high-gravity ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K C; Hynes, S H; Ingledew, W M

    1994-05-01

    The effects of osmoprotectants (such as glycine betaine and proline) and particulate materials on the fermentation of very high concentrations of glucose by the brewing strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae (uvarum) NCYC 1324 were studied. The yeast growing at 20 degrees C consumed only 15 g of the sugar per 100 ml from a minimal medium which initially contained 35% (wt/vol) glucose. Supplementing the medium with a mixture of glycine betaine, glycine, and proline increased the amount of sugar fermented to 30.5 g/100 ml. With such supplementation, the viability of the yeast cells was maintained above 80% throughout the fermentation, while it dropped to less than 12% in the unsupplemented controls. Among single additives, glycine was more effective than proline or glycine betaine. On incubating the cultures for 10 days, the viability decreased to only 55% with glycine, while it dropped to 36 and 27%, respectively, with glycine betaine and proline. It is suggested that glycine and proline, known to be poor nitrogen sources for growth, may serve directly or indirectly as osmoprotectants. Nutrients such as tryptone, yeast extract, and a mixture of purine and pyrimidine bases increased the sugar uptake and ethanol production but did not allow the population to maintain the high level of cell viability. While only 43% of the sugar was fermented in unsupplemented medium, the presence of particulate materials such as wheat bran, wheat mash insolubles, alumina, and soy flour increased sugar utilization to 68, 75, 81, and 82%, respectively.

  1. A summary of the 2006 critical review - health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect

    SciTech Connect

    C. Arden Pope; Douglas Dockery

    2006-06-15

    In spite of continued gaps in knowledge, several important lines of research explored in the 2006 Critical Review in the Journal of the Air Waste Management Association, June 2006, pp 709-742 have substantially helped elucidate our understanding about human health effects of particulate air pollution. A comprehensive evaluation of the literature provides a compelling evidence that continued reductions in exposure to combustion-related fine particulate air pollution as indicated by PM 2.5 will result in improvements in cardiopulmonary health. Although research on the health effects of PM has been motivated largely by environmental health policy, in this review the progress of the science has been of more interest than debates over legally mandated standards. There has been substantial progress in the evaluation of the health effects of PM at different time-scales of exposure and in the exploration of the shape of the concentration-response function. The emerging evidence of PM-related cardiovascular health effects and the growing knowledge regarding inter connected general pahtophysiological pathways that link PM exposure with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality are fascinating results. These results have important scientific, medical, and public health implications that are much broader than debates over air quality Standard. Unsolved scientific issues dealing with the health effects of PM air pollution need not serve as sources of division, but as opportunities for cooperation and increased collaboration between epidemiology, toxicology, exposure assessment, and related disciplines. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  2. The UK particulate matter air pollution episode of March-April 2014: more than Saharan dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieno, M.; Heal, M. R.; Twigg, M. M.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Braban, C. F.; Lingard, J. J. N.; Ritchie, S.; Beck, R. C.; Móring, A.; Ots, R.; Di Marco, C. F.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.; Reis, S.

    2016-04-01

    A period of elevated surface concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in the UK in spring 2014 was widely associated in the UK media with a Saharan dust plume. This might have led to over-emphasis on a natural phenomenon and consequently to a missed opportunity to inform the public and provide robust evidence for policy-makers about the observed characteristics and causes of this pollution event. In this work, the EMEP4UK regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (ACTM) was used in conjunction with speciated PM measurements to investigate the sources and long-range transport (including vertical) processes contributing to the chemical components of the elevated surface PM. It is shown that the elevated PM during this period was mainly driven by ammonium nitrate, much of which was derived from emissions outside the UK. In the early part of the episode, Saharan dust remained aloft above the UK; we show that a significant contribution of Saharan dust at surface level was restricted only to the latter part of the elevated PM period and to a relatively small geographic area in the southern part of the UK. The analyses presented in this paper illustrate the capability of advanced ACTMs, corroborated with chemically-speciated measurements, to identify the underlying causes of complex PM air pollution episodes. Specifically, the analyses highlight the substantial contribution of secondary inorganic ammonium nitrate PM, with agricultural ammonia emissions in continental Europe presenting a major driver. The findings suggest that more emphasis on reducing emissions in Europe would have marked benefits in reducing episodic PM2.5 concentrations in the UK.

  3. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Nikoloch, George; Shadel, Craig; Chapman, Jenny; Mizell, Steve A.; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J.

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  4. Air particulate matter exacerbates lung response on Sjögren's Syndrome animals.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, S; Orona, N; Villalón, L; Saldiva, P H N; Tasat, D R; Berra, A

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated air particulate matter (PM) inhalation with a decline in lung function and increased morbo-mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases, particularly in susceptible populations. Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by cellular infiltration in exocrine glands and extraglandular tissue, being the respiratory tract an important target. We evaluated the effect of PM on the airways of NOD mice, which develop SS and BALB/c mice. BALB/c or NOD mice (2-3 months) were randomized in two groups and exposed to intranasal instillation either with saline (control) or ROFA solution (1mg/kg body weight). After 24h, mice were euthanized in order to perform lung histology, or measure total cell number (TCN), differential cell count (DCC) and superoxide anion generation in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. BALB/c mice showed normal histoarchitecture, while NOD mice showed lymphocytic peribronchial infiltrates. ROFA exposure affected the respiratory tract from both BALB/c and NOD mice, with a significant increase in the TCN (p<0.05) and generation of O2(-) (p<0.05), as well as an imbalance in the DCC (p<0.05). All histological observations correlated with the cellular parameters evaluated. Lesions in NOD mice were more severe than those of BALB/c, showing cellular infiltration in the alveoli and leading to a greater decrease in the alveolar space. We have proved that in this experimental Sjögren's Syndrome animal model (NOD mice); airborne pollution exacerbates pre-existing pulmonary lesions. These findings show experimental evidence on the harmful effects of airborne pollution on the airways of patients with Sjögren's Syndrome.

  5. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  6. Satellite Remote Sensing of Particulate Matter Air Quality: Progress, Potential and Pitfalls (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Satellite Remote Sensing of Particulate Matter Air Quality: Progress, Potential and Pitfalls Abstract. Fine or respirable particles with particle aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) affect visibility, change cloud properties, reflect and absorb incoming solar radiation, affect human health and are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. These particles are injected into the atmosphere either as primary emissions or form into the atmosphere by gas to particle conversion. There are various sources of PM2.5 including emissions from automobiles, industrial exhaust, and agricultural fires. In 2006, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) made the standards stringent by changing the 24-hr averaged PM2.5 mass values from 65µgm-3 to 35µgm-3. This was primarily based on epidemiological studies that showed the long term health benefits of making the PM2.5 standards stringent. Typically PM2.5 mass concentration is measured from surface monitors and in the United States there are nearly 1000 such filter based daily and 600 contiguous stations managed by federal, state, local, and tribal agencies. Worldwide, there are few PM2.5 ground monitors since they are expensive to purchase, maintain and operate. Satellite remote sensing therefore provides a viable method for monitoring PM2.5 from space. Although, there are several hundred satellites currently in orbit and not all of them are suited for PM2.5 air quality assessments. Typically multi-spectral reflected solar radiation measurements from space-borne sensors are converted to aerosol optical depth (AOD) which is a measure of the column (surface to top of atmosphere) integrated extinction (absorption plus scattering). This column AOD (usually at 550 nm) is often converted to PM2.5 mass near the ground using various techniques. In this presentation we discuss the progress over the last decade on assessing PM2.5 from satellites; outline the potential and discuss the various pitfalls that one encounters. We

  7. Sieveless particle size distribution analysis of particulate materials through computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Igathinathane, C.; Pordesimo, L. O.; Columbus, Eugene P; Batchelor, William D; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-05-01

    This paper explores the inconsistency of length-based separation by mechanical sieving of particulate materials with standard sieves, which is the standard method of particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. We observed inconsistencies of length-based separation of particles using standard sieves with manual measurements, which showed deviations of 17 22 times. In addition, we have demonstrated the falling through effect of particles cannot be avoided irrespective of the wall thickness of the sieve. We proposed and utilized a computer vision with image processing as an alternative approach; wherein a user-coded Java ImageJ plugin was developed to evaluate PSD based on length of particles. A regular flatbed scanner acquired digital images of particulate material. The plugin determines particles lengths from Feret's diameter and width from pixel-march method, or minor axis, or the minimum dimension of bounding rectangle utilizing the digital images after assessing the particles area and shape (convex or nonconvex). The plugin also included the determination of several significant dimensions and PSD parameters. Test samples utilized were ground biomass obtained from the first thinning and mature stand of southern pine forest residues, oak hard wood, switchgrass, elephant grass, giant miscanthus, wheat straw, as well as Basmati rice. A sieveless PSD analysis method utilized the true separation of all particles into groups based on their distinct length (419 639 particles based on samples studied), with each group truly represented by their exact length. This approach ensured length-based separation without the inconsistencies observed with mechanical sieving. Image based sieve simulation (developed separately) indicated a significant effect (P < 0.05) on number of sieves used in PSD analysis, especially with non-uniform material such as ground biomass, and more than 50 equally spaced sieves were required to match the sieveless all distinct particles PSD analysis

  8. An experimental approach to efficiency calibration for gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of large air particulate filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarchio, Elio

    2013-04-01

    A full-energy-peak efficiency (FEPE) calibration procedure for gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of air particulate samples collected on large filters is described herein. The experimental results are obtained for an unconventional measurement geometry, termed a "packet-sample". The sample is obtained from a large cellulose filter (45 cm×45 cm) used to collect air particulate samples that is resized to dimensions suitable for spectrometric measurements (6 cm×6 cm×0.7 cm). To determine the FEPEs, many standards were created, i.e., some filters containing a small amount of ThO2 and others containing a known amount of KCl. Efficiency curves obtained through best fits to experimental data for three high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, one of them for X-ray measurement, cover the energy range from 40 keV to 2600 keV. To validate the efficiency calibration procedure two experimental tests with the use of calibrated sources were conducted and, as application example, airborne concentrations of 131I (particulate matter), 134Cs and 137Cs at Palermo (Italy) in the days following the Fukushima accident in Japan were evaluated.

  9. Risk of human health by particulate matter as a source of air pollution--comparison with tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Makoto; Tierney, William J; Nozaki, Kohsuke

    2008-08-01

    Increased air pollution, containing carcinogenic particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microm (PM(2.5)), has gained particular attention in recent years as a causative factor in the increased incidence of respiratory diseases, including lung cancer. Extensive carcinogenicity studies conducted recently under Good Laboratory Practice conditions by National Toxicology Program in the USA, Ramazzini Foundation in Italy or Contract Research Organizations on numerous chemical compounds have demonstrated the importance of considering dose levels, times and duration of exposure in the safety evaluation of carcinogenic as well as classical toxic agents. Data on exposure levels to chemical carcinogens that produce tumor development have contributed to the evaluation of human carcinogens from extrapolation of animal data. A popular held misconception is that the risk from smoking is the result of inhaling assorted particulate matter and by products from burning tobacco rather than the very low ng levels of carcinogens present in smoke. Consider the fact that a piece of toasted bread contains ng levels of the carcinogen urethane (ethyl carbamate). Yet, no one has considered toast to be a human carcinogen. Future human carcinogenic risk assessment should emphasize consideration of inhalation exposure to higher levels of benzo (a) pyrene and other possible carcinogens and particulate matter present in polluted air derived from automobile exhaust, pitch and coal tar on paved roads and asbestos, in addition to other environmental contaminant exposure via the food and drinking water.

  10. THE IMPACT OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTROL ON THE CONTROL OF OTHER MWC AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 20, 1989, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed revised new source performance standards for new municipal waste combustion (MWC) units and guidelines for existing sources. The proposed national regulations require tighter particulate matter control and a...

  11. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate...

  12. Comparative microarray analysis and pulmonary changes in Brown Norway rats exposed to ovalbumin and concentrated air particulates.

    PubMed

    Heidenfelder, Brooke L; Reif, David M; Harkema, Jack R; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; Hudgens, Edward E; Bramble, Lori A; Wagner, James G; Morishita, Masako; Keeler, Gerald J; Edwards, Stephen W; Gallagher, Jane E

    2009-03-01

    The interaction between air particulates and genetic susceptibility has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. The overall objective of this study was to determine the effects of inhalation exposure to environmentally relevant concentrated air particulates (CAPs) on the lungs of ovalbumin (ova) sensitized and challenged Brown Norway rats. Changes in gene expression were compared with lung tissue histopathology, morphometry, and biochemical and cellular parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Ova challenge was responsible for the preponderance of gene expression changes, related largely to inflammation. CAPs exposure alone resulted in no significant gene expression changes, but CAPs and ova-exposed rodents exhibited an enhanced effect relative to ova alone with differentially expressed genes primarily related to inflammation and airway remodeling. Gene expression data was consistent with the biochemical and cellular analyses of the BALF, the pulmonary pathology, and morphometric changes when comparing the CAPs-ova group to the air-saline or CAPs-saline group. However, the gene expression data were more sensitive than the BALF cell type and number for assessing the effects of CAPs and ova versus the ova challenge alone. In addition, the gene expression results provided some additional insight into the TGF-beta-mediated molecular processes underlying these changes. The broad-based histopathology and functional genomic analyses demonstrate that exposure to CAPs exacerbates rodents with allergic inflammation induced by an allergen and suggests that asthmatics may be at increased risk for air pollution effects.

  13. Analysis of semi-volatile materials (SVM) in fine particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Christian Mark; Chou, Charles C.-K.

    2014-10-01

    The mass fraction of semi-volatile materials (SVM) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated at a subtropical urban aerosol observatory (TARO, 25.0 °N, 121.5 °E) in Taipei, Taiwan during August 2013. In particular, an integrated Denuder-FDMS-TEOM system was employed to study the effectiveness of the coupling of FDMS and TEOM instruments. The charcoal and MgO denuders used in this study performed a removal efficiency of 89 and 95% for positive interferences in OC and nitrate measurements, respectively, and did not induce a significant particle loss during the field campaign, suggesting that denuders should be considered as a standard device in PM2.5 instrumentation. Analysis on the mass concentration and speciation data found that, as a result of SVM loss, FRM-based measurement underestimated PM2.5 by 21% in our case. Coupling FDMS to TEOM significantly improved the bias in PM2.5 mass concentration from -25% to -14%. The negative bias in FDMS-TEOM was attributed to the failure of FDMS in recovering the mass of lost SVOMs in PM2.5. The results of this study highlight the significance of SVM in a subtropical urban environment, give a warning of underestimated health risk relevant to PM2.5 exposure, and necessitate further development of instrument and/or technique to provide accurate ambient levels of fine particulate matters.

  14. Thermal conductivity measurements of particulate materials: 5. Effect of bulk density and particle shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presley, Marsha A.; Christensen, Philip R.

    2010-07-01

    Thermal conductivities were measured with a line-heat source for three particulate materials with different particle shapes under low pressures of a carbon dioxide atmosphere and various bulk densities. Less than 2 μm kaolinite exhibited a general decrease in thermal conductivity with increasing bulk density. For the range of atmospheric pressures appropriate for Mars, a reduction in porosity of 24% decreased the thermal conductivity by 24%. Kaolinite manifests considerable anisotropy with respect to thermal conductivity. As the particles align the bulk thermal conductivity measured increasingly reflects the thermal conductivity of the short axis. When kyanite is crushed, it forms blady particles that will also tend to align with increasing bulk density. Without any intrinsic anisotropy, however, kyanite particles, like other particulates exhibit an increase in thermal conductivity with increasing bulk density. Under Martian atmospheric pressures, a reduction in porosity of 30% produces a 30% increase in thermal conductivity. Diatomaceous earth maintains a very low bulk density due to the highly irregular shape of the individual particles. A decrease in porosity of 17% produces an increase in thermal conductivity of 27%. The trends in thermal conductivity with bulk density, whether increasing or decreasing, are often not smooth. Whether oscillations in the trends presented in this paper and elsewhere have any physical significance or whether they are merely artifacts of the precision error is unclear. Clarification of this question may not be possible without higher-precision measurements from future laboratories and further development of theoretical modeling.

  15. Air filtration in the free molecular flow regime: a review of high-efficiency particulate air filters based on carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wang, Chunya; Zhang, Yingying; Wei, Fei

    2014-11-01

    Air filtration in the free molecular flow (FMF) regime is important and challenging because a higher filtration efficiency and lower pressure drop are obtained when the fiber diameter is smaller than the gas mean free path in the FMF regime. In previous studies, FMF conditions have been obtained by increasing the gas mean free path through reducing the pressure and increasing the temperature. In the case of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with nanoscale diameters, it is possible to filtrate in the FMF regime under normal conditions. This paper reviews recent progress in theoretical and experimental studies of air filtration in the FMF regime. Typical structure models of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters based on CNTs are introduced. The pressure drop in air filters operated in the FMF regime is less than that predicted by the conventional air filtration theory. The thinnest HEPA filters fabricated from single-walled CNT films have an extremely low pressure drop. CNT air filters with a gradient nanostructure are shown to give a much better filtration performance in dynamic filtration. CNT air filters with a hierarchical structure and an agglomerated CNT fluidized bed air filter are also introduced. Finally, the challenges and opportunities for the application of CNTs in air filtration are discussed.

  16. Modification and calibration of a passive air sampler for monitoring vapor and particulate phase brominated flame retardants in indoor air: application to car interiors.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Harrad, Stuart

    2010-04-15

    A passive air sampler was modified to monitor both vapor and particulate phase brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor air using polyurethane foam disks and glass fiber filters (GFF). Significant correlation (p < 0.01) was observed between passive (ng day(-1)) and active sampler (ng m(-3)) derived BFR concentrations in an office microenvironment (r = 0.94 and 0.89 for vapor and particulate phase BFRs, respectively). A calibration experiment was performed where concentrations of target BFRs were obtained for an office using a low volume active sampler operated over a 50 day period alongside passive samplers. The passive uptake rates of each studied BFR ranged between (0.558-1.509 ng day(-1)) and (0.448-0.579 ng day(-1)) for vapor and particulate phases, respectively. The passive entrapment of particles by the GFF was investigated using environmental scanning electron microscopy which revealed gravitational deposition of particles as the main mechanism involved. The developed sampler was applied to monitor BFR concentrations in 21 cars. Average concentrations of SigmaHBCDs, TBBP-A, and Sigmatetra-deca BDEs were 400, 3, and 2200 pg m(-3) in cabins and 400, 1, and 1600 pg m(-3) in trunks. No significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between levels of SigmaHBCDs and Sigmatrito hexa- BDEs in cabins and trunks. However, TBBP-A, BDE-209, and SigmaPBDEs concentrations were significantly higher in vehicle cabins.

  17. Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, S. L.

    1982-05-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

  18. Particle size analysis of sediments, soils and related particulate materials for forensic purposes using laser granulometry.

    PubMed

    Pye, Kenneth; Blott, Simon J

    2004-08-11

    Particle size is a fundamental property of any sediment, soil or dust deposit which can provide important clues to nature and provenance. For forensic work, the particle size distribution of sometimes very small samples requires precise determination using a rapid and reliable method with a high resolution. The Coulter trade mark LS230 laser granulometer offers rapid and accurate sizing of particles in the range 0.04-2000 microm for a variety of sample types, including soils, unconsolidated sediments, dusts, powders and other particulate materials. Reliable results are possible for sample weights of just 50 mg. Discrimination between samples is performed on the basis of the shape of the particle size curves and statistical measures of the size distributions. In routine forensic work laser granulometry data can rarely be used in isolation and should be considered in combination with results from other techniques to reach an overall conclusion.

  19. Association of particulate air pollution and acute mortality: involvement of ultrafine particles?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberdorster, G.; Gelein, R. M.; Ferin, J.; Weiss, B.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies show an association between particulate air pollution and acute mortality and morbidity down to ambient particle concentrations below 100 micrograms/m3. Whether this association also implies a causality between acute health effects and particle exposure at these low levels is unclear at this time; no mechanism is known that would explain such dramatic effects of low ambient particle concentrations. Based on results of our past and most recent inhalation studies with ultrafine particles in rats, we propose that such particles, that is, particles below approximately 50 nm in diameter, may contribute to the observed increased mortality and morbidity In the past we demonstrated that inhalation of highly insoluble particles of low intrinsic toxicity, such as TiO2, results in significantly increased pulmonary inflammatory responses when their size is in the ultrafine particle range, approximately 20 nm in diameter. However, these effects were not of an acute nature and occurred only after prolonged inhalation exposure of the aggregated ultrafine particles at concentrations in the milligrams per cubic meter range. In contrast, in the course of our most recent studies with thermodegradation products of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) we found that freshly generated PTFE fumes containing singlet ultrafine particles (median diameter 26 nm) were highly toxic to rats at inhaled concentrations of 0.7-1.0 x 10(6) particles/cm3, resulting in acute hemorrhagic pulmonary inflammation and death after 10-30 min of exposure. We also found that work performance of the rats in a running wheel was severely affected by PTFE fume exposure. These results confirm reports from other laboratories of the highly toxic nature of PTFE fumes, which cannot be attributed to gas-phase components of these fumes such as HF, carbonylfluoride, or perfluoroisobutylene, or to reactive radicals. The calculated mass concentration of the inhaled ultrafine PTFE particles in our

  20. Short-term effects of particulate air pollution on cardiovascular diseases in eight European cities

    PubMed Central

    Le Tertre, A; Medina, S; Samoli, E; Forsberg, B; Michelozzi, P; Boumghar, A; Vonk, J; Bellini, A; Atkinson, R; Ayres, J; Sunyer, J; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: As part of the APHEA project this study examined the association between airborne particles and hospital admissions for cardiac causes (ICD9 390–429) in eight European cities (Barcelona, Birmingham, London, Milan, the Netherlands, Paris, Rome, and Stockholm). All admissions were studied, as well as admissions stratified by age. The association for ischaemic heart disease (ICD9 410–413) and stroke (ICD9 430–438) was also studied, also stratified by age. Design: Autoregressive Poisson models were used that controlled for long term trend, season, influenza epidemics, and meteorology to assess the short-term effects of particles in each city. The study also examined confounding by other pollutants. City specific results were pooled in a second stage regression to obtain more stable estimates and examine the sources of heterogeneity. Main results: The pooled percentage increases associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 and black smoke were respectively 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2 to 0.8) and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.4 to 1.8) for cardiac admissions of all ages, 0.7% (95% CI: 0.4 to 1.0) and 1.3% (95% CI: 0.4 to 2.2) for cardiac admissions over 65 years, and, 0.8% (95% CI: 0.3 to 1.2) and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.7 to 1.5) for ischaemic heart disease over 65 years. The effect of PM10 was little changed by control for ozone or SO2, but was substantially reduced (CO) or eliminated (NO2) by control for other traffic related pollutants. The effect of black smoke remained practically unchanged controlling for CO and only somewhat reduced controlling for NO2. Conclusions: These effects of particulate air pollution on cardiac admissions suggest the primary effect is likely to be mainly attributable to diesel exhaust. Results for ischaemic heart disease below 65 years and for stroke over 65 years were inconclusive. PMID:12239204

  1. Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials. [Measure of particle pressure generated in a bed of FCC catalyst that is undergoing particulate fluidization

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    The major emphasis this quarter has been in two areas. The first is to continue working the bugs out of the new particle pressure transducer. The second was to try and measure the particle pressures generated in a bed of FCC catalyst that is undergoing particulate fluidization. The results indicate that the stabilization of fluidized beds in that regime cannot be explained in terms of particle pressure generation. Instead, consistent with other recent observations,the observations can be explained by a material is that not completely fluidized but, instead, retains much of the properties of a solid and, in particular, can transmit particle pressure like a solid. 2 figs.

  2. Evaluation of elemental content in air-borne particulate matter in low-level atmosphere of Bratislava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merešová, J.; Florek, M.; Holý, K.; Ješkovský, M.; Sýkora, I.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Bujdoš, M.

    A one-year study on total air-borne particulate matter has been undertaken in the framework of air pollution project in Bratislava. The 16 filter samples were collected in 2004 in order to evaluate the level of pollution and assess the potential environmental hazards in Bratislava. As a result of two irradiations with neutrons and four gamma-spectrometric measurements the concentrations of 30 chemical elements (Na, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Dy, Tm, W, Au, Hg, Th, U) were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Additionally the concentrations of other six elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The comparison with other European cities was carried out. Crustal enrichment factors were calculated in order to distinguish the possible sources of air-borne particulate matter. For some elements elevated concentrations were observed for the summer months. The other concentrations were relatively stable over the year.

  3. In-place HEPA (high efficiency, particulate air) filter testing at Hanford: Operating experiences, calibrations, and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, D.S.; Decelis, D.G.

    1989-10-01

    High Efficiency, Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters provide a minimum of 99.97% removal efficiency for particles greater than or equal to .3 microns in diameter. Each HEPA filter installation at Hanford is, at specified intervals, functionally tested for leaks. The test procedure involves a dioctylphthalate (DOP) smoke generator and a calibrated airborne particle detector. The DOP generator produces smoke of a known quantitative particle size distribution upstream of the filter. The airborne particle detector is first placed upstream, and then downstream of the filter to determine percent penetration. The smoke generator is characterized using a calibrated laser spectrometer, and the particle detector is calibrated using a calibrated picoammeter. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Indoor air quality in a middle school, Part II: Development of emission factors for particulate matter and bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Scheff, P A; Paulius, V K; Curtis, L; Conroy, L M

    2000-11-01

    A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, Illinois, with no known air quality problems, was selected for a baseline indoor air quality survey. The study was designed to measure and evaluate air quality at the middle school with the objective of providing a benchmark for comparisons with measurements in schools with potential air quality problems. The focus of this article is on the development of emission factors for particulate matter and bioaerosols. The school was characterized as having no health complaints and good maintenance schedules. Four indoor locations including the cafeteria, a science classroom, an art classroom, the lobby outside the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February 1997. Integrated samples (eight-hour sampling time) for respirable and total particulate matter, and short-term measurements (two-minute samples, three times per day) for bioaerosols were collected on three consecutive days at each of the sampling sites. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide were logged at all locations for five days. Continuous measurements of respirable particulate matter were also collected in the lobby area. A linear relationship between occupancy and corresponding carbon dioxide and particle concentrations was seen. A completely mixed space, one compartment mass balance model with estimated CO2 generation rates and actual CO2 and particulate matter concentrations was used to model ventilation and pollutant emission rates. Emission factors for occupancy were represented by the slope of emission rate versus occupancy scatter plots. The following particle and bioaerosol emission factors were derived from the indoor measurements: total particles: 1.28 mg/hr/person-hr; respirable particles: 0.154 g/hr/person-hr; total fungi: 167 CFU/hr/person-min; thermophilic fungi: 35.8 CFU/hr/person-min; mesophilic fungi: 119 CFU/hr/person-min; total

  5. Evidence of political interference / EPA air pollution decision threatens public health: science disregarded, misrepresented on particulate matter standard.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Political interference with federal agency science threatens our health, safety, and environment. The Environmental Protection Agency's recent air pollution rules on fine particulate matter (PM) are particularly egregious assaults on public health and the integrity of science in federal policy making. The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) has been actively monitoring and documenting cases of such interference and mobilizing scientists and citizens alike to push for reforms. Information on the PM case, and many others, are available on the UCS website (http://www.ucsusa.org).

  6. Climate change and the meteorological drivers of PM air pollution: Understanding U.S. particulate matter concentrations in a changing climate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a serious public health issue for the United States. While there is a growing body of evidence that climate change will partially counter the effectiveness of future precursor emission reductions to reduce ozone (O3) air pollution, the lin...

  7. A multi-residue method for characterization of endocrine disruptors in gaseous and particulate phases of ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alliot, Fabrice; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Bourges, Catherine; Desportes, Annie; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc

    2014-08-01

    A number of semi-volatile compounds occur in indoor air most of them being considered as potent endocrine disruptors and thus, exerting a possible impact upon health. To assess their concentration levels in indoor air, we developed and validated a method for sampling and multi-residue analysis of 58 compounds including phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybromodiphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in gaseous and particulate phases of air. We validated each step of procedures from extraction until analysis. Matrice spiking were performed at extraction, fractionation and purification stages. The more volatile compounds were analyzed with a gas chromatography system coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS) or with a tandem mass spectrometer (GC/MS/MS). The less volatile compounds were analyzed with a liquid chromatography system coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC/MS/MS). Labeled internal standard method was used ensuring high quantification accuracy. The instrumental detection limits were under 1 pg for all compounds and therefore, a limit of quantification averaging 1 pg m-3 for the gaseous and the particulate phases and a volume of 150 m3, except for phthalates, phenol compounds and BDE-209. Satisfactory recoveries were found except for phenol compounds. That method was successfully applied to several indoor air samples (office, apartment and day nursery) and most of the targeted compounds were quantified, mainly occurring in the gaseous phase. The most abundant were phthalates (up to 918 ng m-3 in total air), followed by PCBs > parabens > BPA > PAHs > PBDEs.

  8. COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE. P. Singh1, C.A.J. Dick2, J. Richards3, M.J. Daniels3, and M.I. Gilmour3. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC, 2UNC, Chapel Hill, NC and 3 USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, (ETD,...

  9. Thermal desorption GC-MS as a tool to provide PAH certified standard reference material on particulate matter quartz filters.

    PubMed

    Grandesso, Emanuela; Pérez Ballesta, Pascual; Kowalewski, Konrad

    2013-02-15

    Reference materials for particulate matter (PM) on filter media are not available for the quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. This is due to the difficulty of obtaining reference material that has a homogeneous distribution on a filter surface that is large enough for characterization and distribution. High volume sample filters from different locations and seasons were considered to validate the feasibility of the use of quartz filters as reference material for PAH concentrations. A rapid thermal desorption (TD) technique coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was applied to characterise the material for the content of fifteen different PAHs. TD technique allowed for rapid and accurate analysis of small sections of filter (5mm diameter), leaving enough material for the production of twenty sub-filter cuts (42 mm diameter) that could be used for distribution and control. Stability and homogeneity tests required for material certification were performed as indicated by the ISO guide 34:2009 and ISO 35:2006. The contribution of the heterogeneous distribution of PAHs on the filter surface resulted generally lower than 10% and higher for more volatile PAHs. One year of storage at -18°C indicated no significant variation in PAH concentrations. Nevertheless, a methodology for shipping and storing of the filter material at ambient temperature in especially designed plastic envelopes, was also shown to allow for stabile concentrations within twenty days. The method accuracy was confirmed by the analysis of NIST SRM 1649a (urban dust) and PAH concentrations were validated against the reference values obtained from an inter-laboratory exercise. In the case of benzo[a]pyrene for masses quantified between 100 pg and 10 ng the TD method provided expanded uncertainties of circa 10%, while the inter-laboratory reference value uncertainties ranged between 15 and 20%. The evaluation of these results supports the use of the presented

  10. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2013-02-25

    A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

  11. Supercritical fluid extraction of particulate and adsorbent materials. Part 2. Final report, February 1985-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.W.; Smith, R.D.

    1987-12-01

    The physical properties of supercritical fluids allow similar solvent strengths as liquids, but with higher diffusion coefficients, lower viscosities, and an extended temperature range that provides the potential for more-rapid and efficient extraction rates than possible with liquids. The report describes expanded studies conducted to evaluate the applicability and efficiency of analytical supercritical fluid extraction and related methodologies. These studies included the development of quantitative off-line supercritical fluid extraction methodology and a comparison to traditional Soxhlet extraction, the development and evaluation of on-line supercritical fluid extraction-gas chromatography for combined sample preparation and analysis, and direct supercritical fluid extraction-mass spectrometry for the monitoring of specific extraction profiles as a function of time. The sample matrices included an air particulate sample and XAD-2 resin, polyurethane foam, and Spherocarb adsorbents that were spiked with various model compounds. Carbon dioxide, isobutane, and methanol modified (20 mole %) carbon dioxide were utilized as supercritical fluid systems. Related studies on the evaluation of the quantitative analysis capability of a fluorescence detection supercritical fluid chromatography method and the development of viable solute focusing methods for capillary supercritical fluid chromatography were also conducted.

  12. 42 CFR 84.181 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter efficiency level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sodium chloride or equivalent solid aerosol at 25 ±5 °C and relative humidity of 30 ±10 percent that has... further decrease in efficiency. (g) The sodium chloride test aerosol shall have a particle size...-purifying particulate respirator model shall be tested for filter efficiency against: (1) A solid...

  13. 42 CFR 84.181 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter efficiency level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sodium chloride or equivalent solid aerosol at 25 ±5 °C and relative humidity of 30 ±10 percent that has... further decrease in efficiency. (g) The sodium chloride test aerosol shall have a particle size...-purifying particulate respirator model shall be tested for filter efficiency against: (1) A solid...

  14. 42 CFR 84.181 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter efficiency level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sodium chloride or equivalent solid aerosol at 25 ±5 °C and relative humidity of 30 ±10 percent that has... further decrease in efficiency. (g) The sodium chloride test aerosol shall have a particle size...-purifying particulate respirator model shall be tested for filter efficiency against: (1) A solid...

  15. 42 CFR 84.181 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter efficiency level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sodium chloride or equivalent solid aerosol at 25 ±5 °C and relative humidity of 30 ±10 percent that has... further decrease in efficiency. (g) The sodium chloride test aerosol shall have a particle size...-purifying particulate respirator model shall be tested for filter efficiency against: (1) A solid...

  16. Ambient Air Pollution and Increases in Blood Pressure: Role for biological constituents of particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets made up of a number of components including elemental carbon, organic chemicals, metals, acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), and soil and dust particles. Epidemiological studies con...

  17. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of air-borne particulate extracts in salmonella typhimurium strains

    SciTech Connect

    Sideropoulus, A.S.; Specht, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The presence of mutagens among crude airborne particulate extracts, by the Ames bioassay, has been recorded in a variety of geographic loci. However, the role such complex mixtures play in producing synergistic or antagonistic effects on mutagenesis has not been adequately investigated. To establish mutagenic interaction patterns of these agents samples of acetone extracts of crude and size-classified particulates were tested for mutagenicity by the Ames bioassay with tester strains TA100 and TA98. A dose-response mutagenicity was visible in the crude and size-classified particulate extracts. Both direct and indirect acting frameshift and base-substitution mutagens were detected. Analysis of the data with respect to synergism and antagonism indicate that the mutagenic activity of benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) (2ug/plate) and 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) (1.5 ug/plate) is antagonized significantly by mutagenic and non-mutagenic crude particulate extracts (400ug/plate). The same concentration of crude extracts markedly increased cell survival to BAP and 2AA. Size-fractionation demonstrated that the antimutagenic potency over the crude extract increased appreciably as the particle size decreased, with particles of less than 1.5 um showing the greatest antigenotoxic effect.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HVAC SYSTEM OPERATION, AIR EXCHANGE RATE, AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER RATIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of duty cycle , the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in each participant's home during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study. A miniature temperature sensor/data logger combination placed on the ...

  19. Relative humidity-dependent viscosity of secondary organic material from toluene photo-oxidation and possible implications for organic particulate matter over megacities

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mijung; Liu, Pengfei F.; Hanna, Sarah J.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Potter, Katie; You, Yuan; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2016-01-01

    To improve predictions of air quality, visibility, and climate change, knowledge of the viscosities and diffusion rates within organic particulate matter consisting of secondary organic material (SOM) is required. Most qualitative and quantitative measurements of viscosity and diffusion rates within organic particulate matter have focused on SOM particles generated from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as α-pinene and isoprene. In this study, we quantify the relative humidity (RH)-dependent viscosities at 295±1K of SOM produced by photo-oxidation of toluene, an anthropogenic VOC. The viscosities of toluene-derived SOM were 2 × 10₋1 to ~6 ×106Pa s from 30 to 90%RH, and greater than ~2 × 108 Pa s (similar to or greater than the viscosity of tar pitch) for RH ≤ 17%. These viscosities correspond to Stokes–Einstein-equivalent diffusion coefficients for large organic molecules of ~2 ×10₋15cm2s₋1 for 30 % RH, and lower than ~3 × 10₋17cm2s₋1 for RH ≤ 17 %. Based on these estimated diffusion coefficients, the mixing time of large organic molecules within 200 nm toluene-derived SOM particles is 0.1–5 h for 30% RH, and higher than ~100 h for RH ≤ 17%. As a starting point for understanding the mixing times of large organic molecules in organic particulate matter over cities, we applied the mixing times determined for toluene-derived SOM particles to the world's top 15 most populous megacities. If the organic particulate matter in these megacities is similar to the toluene-derived SOM in this study, in Istanbul, Tokyo, Shanghai, and São Paulo, mixing times in organic particulate matter during certain periods of the year may be very short, and the particles may be well-mixed. On the other hand, the mixing times of large organic molecules in organic particulate matter in Beijing, Mexico City, Cairo, and Karachi may be long and the

  20. Relative humidity-dependent viscosity of secondary organic material from toluene photo-oxidation and possible implications for organic particulate matter over megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mijung; Liu, Pengfei F.; Hanna, Sarah J.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Potter, Katie; You, Yuan; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2016-07-01

    To improve predictions of air quality, visibility, and climate change, knowledge of the viscosities and diffusion rates within organic particulate matter consisting of secondary organic material (SOM) is required. Most qualitative and quantitative measurements of viscosity and diffusion rates within organic particulate matter have focused on SOM particles generated from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as α-pinene and isoprene. In this study, we quantify the relative humidity (RH)-dependent viscosities at 295 ± 1 K of SOM produced by photo-oxidation of toluene, an anthropogenic VOC. The viscosities of toluene-derived SOM were 2 × 10-1 to ˜ 6 × 106 Pa s from 30 to 90 % RH, and greater than ˜ 2 × 108 Pa s (similar to or greater than the viscosity of tar pitch) for RH ≤ 17 %. These viscosities correspond to Stokes-Einstein-equivalent diffusion coefficients for large organic molecules of ˜ 2 × 10-15 cm2 s-1 for 30 % RH, and lower than ˜ 3 × 10-17 cm2 s-1 for RH ≤ 17 %. Based on these estimated diffusion coefficients, the mixing time of large organic molecules within 200 nm toluene-derived SOM particles is 0.1-5 h for 30 % RH, and higher than ˜ 100 h for RH ≤ 17 %. As a starting point for understanding the mixing times of large organic molecules in organic particulate matter over cities, we applied the mixing times determined for toluene-derived SOM particles to the world's top 15 most populous megacities. If the organic particulate matter in these megacities is similar to the toluene-derived SOM in this study, in Istanbul, Tokyo, Shanghai, and São Paulo, mixing times in organic particulate matter during certain periods of the year may be very short, and the particles may be well-mixed. On the other hand, the mixing times of large organic molecules in organic particulate matter in Beijing, Mexico City, Cairo, and Karachi may be long and the particles may not be well-mixed in the afternoon (15:00-17:00 LT) during certain times of the

  1. The characteristics of coarse particulate matter air pollution associated with alterations in blood pressure and heart rate during controlled exposures

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Masako; Bard, Robert L.; Wang, Lu; Das, Ritabrata; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Spino, Catherine; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Sun, Qinghua; Harkema, Jack R.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Brook, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Although fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution <2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, the potential health effects of coarse PM (2.5–10 μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM10–2.5) remain less clearly understood. We aimed to elucidate the components within coarse PM most likely responsible for mediating these hemodynamic alterations. Thirty-two healthy adults (25.9 ± 6.6 years) were exposed to concentrated ambient coarse PM (CAP) (76.2 ± 51.5 μg/m3) and filtered air (FA) for 2 h in a rural location in a randomized double-blind crossover study. The particle constituents (24 individual elements, organic and elemental carbon) were analyzed from filter samples and associated with the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) changes occurring throughout CAP and FA exposures in mixed model analyses. Total coarse PM mass along with most of the measured elements were positively associated with similar degrees of elevations in both systolic BP and HR. Conversely, total PM mass was unrelated, whereas only two elements (Cu and Mo) were positively associated with and Zn was inversely related to diastolic BP changes during exposures. Inhalation of coarse PM from a rural location rapidly elevates systolic BP and HR in a concentration-responsive manner, whereas the particulate composition does not appear to be an important determinant of these responses. Conversely, exposure to certain PM elements may be necessary to trigger a concomitant increase in diastolic BP. These findings suggest that particulate mass may be an adequate metric of exposure to predict some, but not all, hemodynamic alterations induced by coarse PM mass. PMID:25227729

  2. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  3. Assessment of personal exposure to particulate air pollution during commuting in European cities--recommendations and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Karanasiou, Angeliki; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Moreno, Teresa; de Leeuw, Frank

    2014-08-15

    Commuting is considered as one of the high-exposure periods among various daily activities, especially in high vehicle-density metropolitan areas. There is a growing awareness of the need to change our transportation habits by reducing our use of cars and shifting instead to active transport, i.e. walking or cycling. A review was undertaken using the ISI web of knowledge database with the objective to better understand personal exposure during commuting by different modes of transport, and to suggest potential strategies to minimise exposure. The air pollutants studied include particulate matter, PM black carbon, BC and particle number concentration. We focused only in European studies in order to have comparable situation in terms of vehicle fleet and policy regulations applied. Studies on personal exposure to air pollutants during car commuting are more numerous than those dealing with other types of transport, and typically conclude by emphasising that travelling by car involves exposure to relatively high particulate matter, PM exposure concentrations. Thus, compared to other transport methods, travelling by car has been shown to involve exposure both to higher PM and BC as compared with cycling. Widespread dependence on private car transport has produced a significant daily health threat to the urban commuter. However, a forward-looking, integrated transport policy, involving the phased renovation of existing public vehicles and the withdrawal of the more polluting private vehicles, combined with incentives to use public transport and the encouragement of commuter physical exercise, would reduce commuters' exposure.

  4. Particulate Air Pollution and the Rate of Hospitalization for Congestive Heart Failure among Medicare Beneficiaries in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed Central

    Wellenius, Gregory A.; Bateson, Thomas F.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Schwartz., Joel

    2006-01-01

    We used a case-crossover approach to evaluate the association between ambient air pollution and the rate of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (CHF) among Medicare recipients (age ≥ 65) residing in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh area), PA, during 1987–1999. We also explored effect modification by age, gender, and specific secondary diagnoses. During follow-up, there were 55,019 admissions with a primary diagnosis of CHF. We found that particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide – but not ozone – were positively and significantly associated with the rate of admission on the same day in single-pollutant models. The strongest associations were observed with CO, NO2 and PM10. The associations with CO and NO2 were the most robust in two-pollutant models, remaining statistically significant even after adjusting for other pollutants. Patients with a recent myocardial infarction were at greater risk of particulate-related admission, but there was otherwise no significant effect modification by age, gender, or other secondary diagnoses. These results suggest that short-term elevations in air pollution from traffic-related sources may trigger acute cardiac decompensation of heart failure patients and that those with certain comorbid conditions may be more susceptible to these effects. PMID:15901623

  5. Indoor Air Quality in Urban and Rural Preschools in Upper Silesia, Poland: Particulate Matter and Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Mainka, Anna; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira

    2015-07-08

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in preschools is an important public health challenge. Particular attention should be paid to younger children, because they are more vulnerable to air pollution than higher grade children and because they spend more time indoors. Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is of the greatest interest mainly due to its acute and chronic effects on children's health. In addition, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels indicate ventilation conditions. In this paper, we present the concentrations of PM (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and total-TSP) and CO2 monitored in four naturally ventilated nursery schools located in the area of Gliwice, Poland. The nursery schools were selected to characterize areas with different degrees of urbanization and traffic densities during the winter season. The results indicate the problem of elevated concentrations of PM inside the examined classrooms, as well as that of high levels of CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm in relation to outdoor air. The characteristics of IAQ were significantly different, both in terms of classroom occupation (younger or older children) and of localization (urban or rural). To evaluate the children's exposure to poor IAQ, indicators based on air quality guidelines were proposed to rank classrooms according to their hazard on the health of children.

  6. Indoor Air Quality in Urban and Rural Preschools in Upper Silesia, Poland: Particulate Matter and Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Mainka, Anna; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in preschools is an important public health challenge. Particular attention should be paid to younger children, because they are more vulnerable to air pollution than higher grade children and because they spend more time indoors. Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is of the greatest interest mainly due to its acute and chronic effects on children’s health. In addition, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels indicate ventilation conditions. In this paper, we present the concentrations of PM (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and total—TSP) and CO2 monitored in four naturally ventilated nursery schools located in the area of Gliwice, Poland. The nursery schools were selected to characterize areas with different degrees of urbanization and traffic densities during the winter season. The results indicate the problem of elevated concentrations of PM inside the examined classrooms, as well as that of high levels of CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm in relation to outdoor air. The characteristics of IAQ were significantly different, both in terms of classroom occupation (younger or older children) and of localization (urban or rural). To evaluate the children’s exposure to poor IAQ, indicators based on air quality guidelines were proposed to rank classrooms according to their hazard on the health of children. PMID:26184249

  7. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  8. Kupffer Cell Activation by Ambient Air Particulate Matter Exposure May Exacerbate Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Hui; Fiel, M. Isabel; Sun, Qinghua; Guo, Jinsheng; Gordon, Ronald E.; Chen, Lung-Chi; Friedman, Scott L.; Odin, Joseph A.; Allina, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Due to increased obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most prevalent liver disease in the United States. NAFLD is considered a component of metabolic syndrome, a cluster of disorders that also includes diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. Exposure to ambient air particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is a risk factor for arteriosclerosis as well as lung disease, but its effect on NAFLD is unknown. PM2.5 induces pulmonary dysfunction via toll-like receptor activation on alveolar macrophages. Toll-like receptor activation of Kupffer cells, resident hepatic macrophages, and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine production have been shown to play a key role in NAFLD progression. We hypothesized that PM2.5 exposure is a significant risk factor for progression of NAFLD. Thus, following exposure of male C57BL/6 mice fed high fat chow to concentrated air particulate matter (CAPs) or filtered air for 6 wk, progression of NAFLD was evaluated by standardized histological assessment of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. In mice fed high fat chow, the hepatic inflammatory grade (3.00 ± 0.00 vs. 1.50 ± 0.71, p < 0.001) and fibrosis stage (1.00 ± 0.00 vs. 0.60 ± 0.52, p = 0.023) were both significantly higher in mice exposed to CAPs versus filtered air, respectively. Increased numbers of Kupffer cells contained PM in CAPs-exposed mice (2.00 ± 0.94 vs. 0.20 ± 0.42, respectively, p < 0.001). PM exposure increased IL-6 secretion up to seven fold in a dose-dependent manner by isolated wild-type but not TLR4−/− Kupffer cells (p < 0.050). Conclusion: Ambient PM2.5 exposure may be a significant risk factor for NAFLD progression. PMID:19908945

  9. Systematic Evaluation of Dissolved Lead Sorption Losses to Particulate Syringe Filter Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distinguishing between soluble and particulate lead in drinking water is useful in understanding the mechanism of lead release and identifying remedial action. Typically, particulate lead is defined as the amount of lead removed by a 0.45 µm filter. Unfortunately, there is little...

  10. Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollutants on the Inflammatory Response and Respiratory Symptoms: A Panel Study in Schoolchildren from Rural Areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Hantan, Degejirihu; Ueki, Masaru; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-09-30

    The relationship between particulate air pollutants and respiratory symptoms in children has not been consistent among studies, potentially owing to differences in the inflammatory response to different particulate air pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the effect of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms and the inflammatory response in schoolchildren. Three hundred-and-sixty children were included in the study. The children recorded daily respiratory symptom scores for October 2015. In addition, the daily amount of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production was assessed in THP1 cells stimulated with suspended particulate matter (SPM), which was collected every day during the study period. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations among respiratory symptoms and the daily levels of SPM, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Daily SPM levels were not associated with respiratory symptoms or the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. Conversely, there was a significant association between respiratory symptoms and the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. These results suggested that the effects of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren might depend more on the pro-inflammatory response to them than on their mass concentration.

  11. Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollutants on the Inflammatory Response and Respiratory Symptoms: A Panel Study in Schoolchildren from Rural Areas of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Hantan, Degejirihu; Ueki, Masaru; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between particulate air pollutants and respiratory symptoms in children has not been consistent among studies, potentially owing to differences in the inflammatory response to different particulate air pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the effect of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms and the inflammatory response in schoolchildren. Three hundred-and-sixty children were included in the study. The children recorded daily respiratory symptom scores for October 2015. In addition, the daily amount of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production was assessed in THP1 cells stimulated with suspended particulate matter (SPM), which was collected every day during the study period. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations among respiratory symptoms and the daily levels of SPM, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Daily SPM levels were not associated with respiratory symptoms or the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. Conversely, there was a significant association between respiratory symptoms and the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. These results suggested that the effects of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren might depend more on the pro-inflammatory response to them than on their mass concentration. PMID:27706066

  12. Use of constant wavelength synchronous spectrofluorimetry for identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air particulate samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Homdutt; Jain, V. K.; Khan, Zahid H.

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a simple, rapid, inexpensive method for the identification of fluoranthene (Flan), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), pyrene (Pyr), benz(ghi)perylene (BghiP) in suspended particulate matter in an urban environment of Delhi. Suspended particulate matter samples of 24 h duration were collected on glass fiber filter papers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from the filter papers using dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane with ultrasonication method. Comparison of the characteristic emission of spectra of PAHs with standard spectra indicated the degree of condensation of aromatic compounds present in investigated mixtures. It was also possible to identify some individual compounds. However, this identification could be more effective with the use of the respective values of Δλ parameter for each particular component of the mixture.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS ON ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION IN ANIMAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution has long been associated with detrimental health risks in susceptible populations including asthmatics. Experimental evidence in rodents indicates that inhaled or instilled air pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), residual oil fly ash or its constitu...

  14. Mutagens and carcinogens in size-classified air particulates of a northern Italian town.

    PubMed

    Monarca, S; Crebelli, R; Feretti, D; Zanardini, A; Fuselli, S; Filini, L; Resola, S; Bonardelli, P G; Nardi, G

    1997-10-20

    This research was designed to examine the presence of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds in urban airborne particulate matter in relation to particles aerodynamic size. Inhalable (< 10 microns) airborne particulate (PM-10) was collected at a low traffic site in an industrialized Northern Italian town, using a high volume sampler equipped with a cascade impactor for particles fractionation. The organic extracts of different fractions were examined for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA98/1,8-DNP6 using the microsuspension procedure, and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content by gas chromatography. Size fractionated particles were also analysed for heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, V) using plasma spectrophotometry. The results of mutagenicity and chemical analyses indicate that, at the site investigated, inhalable particulate was largely made of fine (< 0.5 micron) particles, which accounted for most of PAHs and mutagenicity. A similar pattern of distribution was found for heavy metals, which were relatively more abundant in small (< 1.5 microns) particles compared to coarser ones.

  15. 77 FR 44551 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Arizona; Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... instructions for submitting comments. 2. Email: vagenas.ginger@epa.gov . 3. Fax: 415-942-3964. 4. Mail or deliver: Ginger Vagenas (AIR-2), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region IX, 75 Hawthorne Street, San... CONTACT section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ginger Vagenas, Air Planning Office (AIR-2),...

  16. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  17. Persistent activation of DNA damage signaling in response to complex mixtures of PAHs in air particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, Ian W.H.; Bergvall, Christoffer; Bottai, Matteo; Westerholm, Roger; Stenius, Ulla; Dreij, Kristian

    2013-02-01

    Complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in air particulate matter (PM) and have been associated with many adverse human health effects including cancer and respiratory disease. However, due to their complexity, the risk of exposure to mixtures is difficult to estimate. In the present study the effects of binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and complex mixtures of PAHs in urban air PM extracts on DNA damage signaling was investigated. Applying a statistical model to the data we observed a more than additive response for binary mixtures of BP and DBP on activation of DNA damage signaling. Persistent activation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) was observed at significantly lower BP equivalent concentrations in air PM extracts than BP alone. Activation of DNA damage signaling was also more persistent in air PM fractions containing PAHs with more than four aromatic rings suggesting larger PAHs contribute a greater risk to human health. Altogether our data suggests that human health risk assessment based on additivity such as toxicity equivalency factor scales may significantly underestimate the risk of exposure to complex mixtures of PAHs. The data confirms our previous findings with PAH-contaminated soil (Niziolek-Kierecka et al., 2012) and suggests a possible role for Chk1 Ser317 phosphorylation as a biological marker for future analyses of complex mixtures of PAHs. -- Highlights: ► Benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and air PM PAH extracts were compared. ► Binary mixture of BP and DBP induced a more than additive DNA damage response. ► Air PM PAH extracts were more potent than toxicity equivalency factor estimates. ► Larger PAHs (> 4 rings) contribute more to the genotoxicity of PAHs in air PM. ► Chk1 is a sensitive marker for persistent activation of DNA damage signaling from PAH mixtures.

  18. Exposure information in environmental health research: current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed

    McKone, Thomas E; Ryan, P Barry; Ozkaynak, Halûk

    2009-01-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health effect studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking, and accountability assessments are examples of health effect studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factor data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges, and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used case studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air-pollutant exposure to evaluate health effects for air pollution. One of the overarching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health effect studies requires both goal setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities for meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another overarching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure-assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media monitoring, and/or personal

  19. Neutral carbohydrate geochemistry of particulate material in the central equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernes, Peter J.; Hedges, John I.; Peterson, Michael L.; Wakeham, Stuart G.; Lee, Cindy

    Neutral carbohydrate compositions were determined for particulate samples from plankton net tows, shallow floating sediment traps, mid-depth and deep moored sediment traps, and sediment cores collected along a north-south transect in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during the U.S. JGOFS EqPac program. Total neutral carbohydrate depth profiles and patterns along the transect follow essentially the same trends as bulk and organic carbon (OC) fluxes—attenuating with depth, high near the equator and decreasing poleward. OC-normalized total aldose (TCH 2,O) yields along the transect and with depth do not show any consitent patterns. Relative to a planktonic source, neutral carbohydrate compositions in sediment trap and sediment core samples reflect preferential loss of ribose and storage carbohydrates rich in glucose, and preferential preservation of structural carbohydrates rich in rhamnose, xylose, fucose, and mannose. There is also evidence for an intermediately labile component rich in galactose. It appears that compositional signatures of neutral carbohydrates in sediments are more dependent upon their planktonic source than on any particular diagenetic pathway. Relative to other types of organic matter, neutral carbohydrates are better preserved in calcareous oozes from 12°S to 5°N than in red clays at 9°N based on OC-normalized TCH 2O yields, due to either differing sources or sorption characteristics. Weight per cent glucose generally decreases with increased degradation of organic material in the central equatorial Pacific region. Based on weight per cent glucose, comparisons of samples between Survey I (El Niõn) and Survey II (non-El Niño) indicate that during Survey I, organic material in the epipelagic zone in the northern hemisphere may have undergone more degradation than organic material in the southern hemisphere.

  20. Particulate emissions from combustion of biomass in conventional combustion (air) and oxy-combustion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruscio, Amanda Deanne

    Oxy-fuel combustion is a viable technology for new and existing coal-fired power plants, as it facilitates carbon capture and thereby, can reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The use of biomass as an energy source is another popular strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions as they are considered nearly carbon dioxide neutral. If the use of biomass is combined with oxy-fuel combustion, negative net emissions of carbon dioxide are possible. This work examined the particulate emissions from combustion of pulverized biomass residues burning in either conventional or oxy-fuel environments. Combustion of three biomasses (olive residue, corn residue, and torrefied pine sawdust) occurred in a laboratory-scale laminar-flow drop tube furnace (DTF) heated to 1400 K. The O2 mole fraction was increased from 20% to 60% in N2 environments while a range of 30% to 60% O2 mole fractions were used in CO2 environments to represent plausible dry oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Submicron particulate matter (PM1) emission yields of all three fuels were typically lower in O2/CO2 environments than in O2/N2 environments. When the oxygen mole fraction was increased, the PM1 yields typically increased. The mass fractions of submicron particulate matter (PM1/PM18) collected from biomass combustion were higher than those of coal combustion. PM 1 constituted approximately 50 wt% of the collected ash particles in PM18 in each environment, whereas the corresponding submicron emissions from coal constituted approximately 20 wt%. Changing the background gas had little effect on the chemical composition of the PM1 particles. Unlike the submicron particles collected from coal which contained high amounts of silicon and aluminum, high amounts of alkalis (potassium, calcium, and sodium) and chlorine were the major elements observed in PM1 from the biomasses. In addition, phosphorous and sulfur also existed in high amounts in PM1 of corn residue. Super-micron particles (PM1-18) yields exhibited no clear

  1. Accuracy and reliability of Chile's National Air Quality Information System for measuring particulate matter: Beta attenuation monitoring issue.

    PubMed

    Toro A, Richard; Campos, Claudia; Molina, Carolina; Morales S, Raul G E; Leiva-Guzmán, Manuel A

    2015-09-01

    A critical analysis of Chile's National Air Quality Information System (NAQIS) is presented, focusing on particulate matter (PM) measurement. This paper examines the complexity, availability and reliability of monitoring station information, the implementation of control systems, the quality assurance protocols of the monitoring station data and the reliability of the measurement systems in areas highly polluted by particulate matter. From information available on the NAQIS website, it is possible to confirm that the PM2.5 (PM10) data available on the site correspond to 30.8% (69.2%) of the total information available from the monitoring stations. There is a lack of information regarding the measurement systems used to quantify air pollutants, most of the available data registers contain gaps, almost all of the information is categorized as "preliminary information" and neither standard operating procedures (operational and validation) nor assurance audits or quality control of the measurements are reported. In contrast, events that cause saturation of the monitoring detectors located in northern and southern Chile have been observed using beta attenuation monitoring. In these cases, it can only be concluded that the PM content is equal to or greater than the saturation concentration registered by the monitors and that the air quality indexes obtained from these measurements are underestimated. This occurrence has been observed in 12 (20) public and private stations where PM2.5 (PM10) is measured. The shortcomings of the NAQIS data have important repercussions for the conclusions obtained from the data and for how the data are used. However, these issues represent opportunities for improving the system to widen its use, incorporate comparison protocols between equipment, install new stations and standardize the control system and quality assurance.

  2. Fractionation and composition of colloidal and suspended particulate materials in rivers.

    PubMed

    Ran, Y; Fu, J M; Sheng, G Y; Beckett, R; Hart, B T

    2000-07-01

    The association of pollutants (nutrients, heavy metals and organic compounds) with colloidal and suspended particle matter (SPM) plays a dominant role in determining their transport, fate, biogeochemistry, bioavailability and toxicity in natural waters. A scheme for the fractionation and composition of colloidal and SPM from river waters has been tested. All four separation methods, i.e. sieving, continuous flow centrifugation, tangential flow filtration, sedimentation field-flow fractionation, were for the first time used to separate five size particulate fractions from river. Significant (gram) amounts of colloidal material (<1 microm) in three size ranges, nominally 1-0.2, 0.2-0.006 and 0.006-0.003 microm were obtained. The separation scheme was able to process large samples (100 l), within reasonable times (1 day) and the apparatus was portable. The aquatic colloid size was also characterized with high resolution by using sedimentation field-flow fractionation technique. The mass-based particle size distribution for the water sample showed a broad size distribution between 0.05 and 0.4 microm with the maximum around 0.14 microm. There was a systematic increase in the content of organic carbon (estimated by loss on ignition), Mg, Ca, Na, Cu and Zn with decreasing particle size, highlighting the importance of the colloidal (<1 microm) fraction. It was concluded that the colloidal Cu and Zn concentrations in rivers might be much higher than those reported before.

  3. Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials (for July 1991)

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    The major emphasis this quarter has been in two areas. The first is to continue working the bugs out of the new particle pressure transducer. The second was to try and measure the particle pressures generated in a bed catalyst that is undergoing particulate fluidization. The results indicate that the stabilization of fluidized beds in that regime cannot be explained in terms of particle pressure generation. Instead, consistent with other recent observations, the observations can be explained by a material is that not completely fluidized but, instead, retains much of the properties of a solid and, in particular, can transmit particle pressure like a solid. Also, in this quarter, one of the author's students, David Wang, successfully defended his PhD thesis; his research was sponsored by this grant and concerned both the thermal conductivity measurements and the early work on particle pressures in fluidized beds. The particle pressure work was also presented at the ITEM Symposium on the Mechanics of Fluidized Beds, held at Stanford in the early part of this month.

  4. Chemical characteristics of particulate, colloidal, and dissolved organic material in Loch Vale Watershed, Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Harnish, R.; Wershaw, R. L.; Baron, J.S.; Schiff, S.

    1997-01-01

    The chemical relationships among particulate and colloidal organic material and dissolved fulvic acid were examined in an alpine and subalpine lake and two streams in Loch Vale Watershed, Rocky Mountain National Park. The alpine lake, Sky Pond, had the lowest dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (0.37 mgC/L), the highest particulate carbon (POC) (0.13 mgC/L), and high algal biomass. The watershed of Sky Pond is primarily talus slope, and DOC and POC may be autochthonous. Both Andrews Creek and Icy Brook gain DOC as they flow through wet sedge meadows. The subalpine lake, The Loch, receives additional organic material from the surrounding forest and had a higher DOC (0.66 mgC/L). Elemental analysis, stable carbon isotopic compositon, and 13C-NMR characterization showed that: 1) particulate material had relatively high inorganic contents and was heterogeneous in compositon, 2) colloidal material was primarily carbohydrate material with a low inorganic content at all sites; and 3) dissolved fulvic acid varied in compositon among sites. The low concentration and carbohydrate-rich character of the colloidal material suggests that this fraction is labile to microbial degradation and may be turning over more rapidly than particulate fractions or dissolved fulvic acid. Fulvic acid from Andrews Creek had the lowest N content and aromaticity, whereas Sky Pond fulvic acid had a higher N content and lower aromaticity than fulvic acid from The Loch. The UV-visible spectra of the fulvic acids demonstrate that variation in characteristics with sources of organic carbon can explain to some extent the observed nonlinear relationship between UV-B extinction coefficients and DOC concentrations in lakes.

  5. 33 CFR 183.222 - Flotation material and air chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flotation material and air... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.222 Flotation material and air...

  6. 33 CFR 183.222 - Flotation material and air chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flotation material and air... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.222 Flotation material and air...

  7. 33 CFR 183.222 - Flotation material and air chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flotation material and air... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.222 Flotation material and air...

  8. 33 CFR 183.112 - Flotation material and air chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flotation material and air... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Inboard Boats, Inboard/Outdrive Boats, and Airboats § 183.112 Flotation material and air chambers. (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 183.222 - Flotation material and air chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flotation material and air... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.222 Flotation material and air...

  10. 33 CFR 183.112 - Flotation material and air chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flotation material and air... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Inboard Boats, Inboard/Outdrive Boats, and Airboats § 183.112 Flotation material and air chambers. (a)...

  11. 33 CFR 183.222 - Flotation material and air chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flotation material and air chambers. 183.222 Section 183.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.222 Flotation material and air...

  12. Small for gestational age and exposure to particulate air pollution in the early-life environment of twins.

    PubMed

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Derom, Catherine; Gielen, Marij; Winckelmans, Ellen; Fierens, Frans; Vlietinck, Robert; Zeegers, Maurice P; Nawrot, Tim S

    2016-07-01

    Several studies in singletons have shown that maternal exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with restricted fetal growth. About half of twins have low birth weight compared with six percent in singletons. So far, no studies have investigated maternal air pollution exposure in association with birth weight and small for gestational age in twins. We examined 4760 twins of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Survey (2002-2013), to study the association between in utero exposure to air pollution with birth weight and small for gestational age. Maternal particulate air pollution (PM10) and nitric dioxide (NO2) exposure was estimated using a spatial temporal interpolation method over various time windows during pregnancy. In the total group of twins, we observed that higher PM10 and NO2 exposure during the third trimester was significantly associated with a lower birth weight and higher risk of small for gestational age. However, the association was driven by moderate to late preterm twins (32-36 weeks of gestation). In these twins born between 32 and 36 weeks of gestation, birth weight decreased by 40.2g (95% CI: -69.0 to -11.3; p=0.006) and by 27.3g (95% CI: -52.9 to -1.7; p=0.04) in association for each 10µg/m³ increment in PM10 and NO2 concentration during the third trimester. The corresponding odds ratio for small for gestational age were 1.68 (95% CI: 1.27-2.33; p=0.0003) and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.18-1.95; p=0.001) for PM10 or NO2, respectively. No associations between air pollution and birth weight or small for gestational age were observed among term born twins. Finally, in all twins, we found that for each 10µg/m³ increase in PM10 during the last month of pregnancy the within-pair birth weight difference increased by 19.6g (95% CI: 3.7-35.4; p=0.02). Assuming causality, an achievement of a 10µg/m³ decrease of particulate air pollution may account for a reduction by 40% in small for gestational age, in twins born moderate to late preterm.

  13. Determination and analysis of trace metals and surfactant in air particulate matter during biomass burning haze episode in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Manan; Guo, Xinxin; Zhao, Xing-Min

    2016-09-01

    Trace metal species and surface active agent (surfactant) emitted into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic source can cause various health related and environmental problems. Limited data exists for determinations of atmospheric particulate matter particularly trace metals and surfactant concentration in Malaysia during biomass burning haze episode. We used simple and validated effective methodology for the determination of trace metals and surfactant in atmospheric particulate matter (TSP & PM2.5) collected during the biomass burning haze episode in Kampar, Malaysia from end of August to October 2015. Colorimetric method of analysis was undertaken to determine the concentration of anionic surfactant as methylene blue active substance (MBAS) and cationic surfactant as disulphine blue active substance (DBAS) using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Particulate samples were also analyzed for trace metals with inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) followed by extraction from glass microfiber filters with close vessel microwave acid digestion. The result showed that the concentrations of surfactant in both samples (TSP & PM2.5) were dominated by MBAS (0.147-4.626 mmol/m3) rather than DBAS (0.111-0.671 mmol/m3) and higher than the other researcher found. Iron (147.31-1381.19 μg/m3) was recorded leading trace metal in PM followed by Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and others. During the haze period the highest mass concentration of TSP 313.34 μg/m3 and 191.07 μg/m3 for PM2.5 were recorded. Furthermore, the backward air trajectories from Kampar in north of peninsular Malaysia confirmed that nearly all the winds paths originate from Sumatera and Kalimantan, Indonesia.

  14. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) is a mediator of lung toxicity for coal fly ash particulate material.

    PubMed

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Johansen, Mark E; Roberts, Jessica K; Thomas, Karen C; Romero, Erin G; Lee, Jeewoo; Yost, Garold S; Veranth, John M; Reilly, Christopher A

    2012-03-01

    Environmental particulate matter (PM) pollutants adversely affect human health, but the molecular basis is poorly understood. The ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has been implicated as a sensor for environmental PM and a mediator of adverse events in the respiratory tract. The objectives of this study were to determine whether TRPV1 can distinguish chemically and physically unique PM that represents important sources of air pollution; to elucidate the molecular basis of TRPV1 activation by PM; and to ascertain the contributions of TRPV1 to human lung cell and mouse lung tissue responses exposed to an insoluble PM agonist, coal fly ash (CFA1). The major findings of this study are that TRPV1 is activated by some, but not all of the prototype PM materials evaluated, with rank-ordered responses of CFA1 > diesel exhaust PM > crystalline silica; TRP melastatin-8 is also robustly activated by CFA1, whereas other TRP channels expressed by airway sensory neurons and lung epithelial cells that may also be activated by CFA1, including TRPs ankyrin 1 (A1), canonical 4α (C4α), M2, V2, V3, and V4, were either slightly (TRPA1) or not activated by CFA1; activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 occurs via cell surface interactions between the solid components of CFA1 and specific amino acid residues of TRPV1 that are localized in the putative pore-loop region; and activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 is not exclusive in mouse lungs but represents a pathway by which CFA1 affects the expression of selected genes in lung epithelial cells and airway tissue.

  15. The Association between Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Lung Cancer Incidence: Results from the AHSMOG-2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Gharibvand, Lida; Shavlik, David; Ghamsary, Mark; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Soret, Samuel; Knutsen, Raymond; Knutsen, Synnove F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a positive association between ambient fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and incidence and mortality of lung cancer (LC), but few studies have assessed the relationship between ambient PM2.5 and LC among never smokers. Objectives: We assessed the association between PM2.5 and risk of LC using the Adventist Health and Smog Study-2 (AHSMOG-2), a cohort of health conscious nonsmokers where 81% have never smoked. Methods: A total of 80,285 AHSMOG-2 participants were followed for an average of 7.5 years with respect to incident LC identified through linkage with U.S. state cancer registries. Estimates of ambient air pollution levels at participants’ residences were obtained for 2000 and 2001, the years immediately prior to the start of the study. Results: A total of 250 incident LC cases occurred during 598,927 person-years of follow-up. For each 10-μg/m3 increment in PM2.5, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for LC incidence was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.84) in the two-pollutant multivariable model with ozone. Among those who spent > 1 hr/day outdoors or who had lived 5 or more years at their enrollment address, the HR was 1.68 (95% CI: 1.28, 2.22) and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.04), respectively. Conclusion: Increased risk estimates of LC were observed for each 10-μg/m3 increment in ambient PM2.5 concentration. The estimate was higher among those with longer residence at enrollment address and those who spent > 1 hr/day outdoors. Citation: Gharibvand L, Shavlik D, Ghamsary M, Beeson WL, Soret S, Knutsen R, Knutsen SF. 2017. The association between ambient fine particulate air pollution and lung cancer incidence: results from the AHSMOG-2 study. Environ Health Perspect 125:378–384; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP124Citation: Gharibvand L, Shavlik D, Ghamsary M, Beeson WL, Soret S, Knutsen R, Knutsen SF. 2017. The association between ambient fine particulate air pollution and lung cancer

  16. Assessment of potential long-range transport of particulate air pollution using trajectory modeling and monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongkiatkul, Prapat; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    2007-07-01

    Quantification of the long-range transport (LRT) contribution to ambient air pollution levels at a location is a challenging task and is normally done with a high uncertainty. In the lack of accurate emission data over the large regional domain for dispersion modeling, this study attempts to use both trajectory analysis and monitoring data to assess the potential contribution of LRT to particulate air pollution (PM) in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). The 10-day backward trajectories of air masses arriving at BMR from January 2002 to December 2004 were determined using Hybrid Single-Particle Langrangian Integrated Trajectory model version 4 (HYSPLIT4) and were categorized by k-means clustering into 6 clusters. Subsequently, PM levels in the BMR associated with each air mass cluster during this period were analyzed. Clusters 1 and 6 were observed with the highest and 2nd highest average PM 10 and PM 2.5 levels in the BMR, respectively, which commonly have a longer air mass pathway over populated South East Asia (SEA). The third highest PM levels were associated with air masses from the east (clusters 2 and 5), which enter the BMR via the Gulf of Thailand without passing the SEA regions. The other two clusters (3 and 4) are characterized with a long pathway of air masses over the Indian Ocean and the lowest PM levels. High PM days, which are defined based on the spatial coverage of high PM levels in the BMR, were identified and analyzed for the possibility of long-range transport contribution of PM. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) and air mass trajectories show that on high PM day, the air masses commonly originated and passed over populated regions before arriving at the BMR, which suggests a possible LRT contribution. Considerations are made for surface ozone, SO 42-/SO 2 and average SO 2, PM 2.5/PM 10, and weekday-weekend traffic emission within each air mass trajectory cluster to reveal the possible LRT contribution.

  17. Vapor-phase and particulate-associated pesticides and PCB concentrations in eastern North Dakota air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.; Louie, P.K.K.

    1996-05-01

    Vapor-phase and suspended particulate (<50 {mu}m) samples were collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) and quartz fiber filters in rural North Dakota to determine the air concentrations of pesticides in an area where agriculture is a primary source of semivolatile pollutants. Samples were collected at two sites from 1992 to 1994 that were at least 0.4 km from the nearest farmed fields and known application of pesticides, and analyzed for 22 different organochlorine, triazine, and acid herbicide pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were found above the detection limits (typically <1 pg/m{sup 3}). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were much lower (<50 pg/m{sup 3} in all cases) than many of the pesticides. These results demonstrate that pesticides are among the most prevalent chlorinated semivolatile pollutants present in rural North Dakota, that significant transport of pesticides occurs both in the vapor-phase and on suspended particulate matter, and that blown soil may be a significant mechanism for introducing pesticides into surface and ground waters. 32 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Effect of humidity and particle hygroscopicity on the mass loading capacity of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.; Biswas, P. ); Monson, P.R. ); Novick, V.J. )

    1993-07-01

    The effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity, and size on the mass loading capacity of glass fiber high efficiency particulate air filters was studied. Above the deliquescent point, the pressure drop across the filter increased nonlinearly with areal loading density (mass collected/filtration area) of a NaCl aerosol, thus significantly reducing the mass loading capacity of the filter compared to dry hygroscopic or nonhygroscopic particle mass loadings. The specific cake resistance K[sub 2] was computed for different test conditions and used as a measure of the mass loading capacity. K[sub 2] was found to decrease with increasing humidity for nonhygroscopic aluminum oxide particles and for hygroscopic NaCl particles (at humidities below the deliquescent point). It is postulated that an increase in humidity leads to the formation of a more open particulate cake which lowers the pressure drop for a given mass loading. A formula for predicting K[sub 2] for lognormally distributed aerosols (parameters obtained from impactor data) was derived. The resistance factor, R, calculated using this formula was compared to the theoretical R calculated using the Rudnick-Happel expression. For the nonhygroscopic aluminum oxide, the agreement was good but for the hygroscopic sodium chloride, due to large variation in the cake porosity estimates, the agreement was poor. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Ozone-cyclohexene reaction in air: quantitative analysis of particulate products and the reaction mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakeyama, S.; Tanonaka, T.; Weng, J.; Bandow, H.; Takagi, H.; Akimot, H.

    1985-10-01

    Both gaseous and particulate products of the cyclohexene-ozone reaction were analyzed. Major gaseous products were aldehydes that consist of adipaldehyde (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/CHO), glutaraldehyde (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/CHO), and pentanal (CH/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/CHO). The sum of the primary yields of aldehydes reaches as high as 50%. In addition to aldehydes, formic acid, CO, and CO/sub 2/ were produced, but formaldehyde was not detected. Main particulate products were adipaldehyde, 6-oxohexanoic acid (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/COOH), adipic acid (HOOC(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/COOH), glutaraldehyde, 5-oxopentanoic acid (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/COOH), and glutaric acid (HOOC(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/COOH). All these compounds were analyzed quantitatively, and the fraction of initial cyclohexene converted to aerosol organic carbon was estimated to be 13 +/- 3% as the value extrapolated to a ppm concentration range of reactants. Although the reaction mechanism is in general explainable in terms of the Criegee mechanism, the reaction pathway to form formic acid is quite unique in this reaction system. The entire mechanism was discussed on the basis of the quantitative product analysis data.

  20. Culture, nature and particulate matter - Hybrid reframings in air pollution scholarship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupples, Julie

    Air pollution is a thoroughly hybrid phenomenon. It is composed of inseparable physical, scientific, cultural, social, economic and political dimensions. It is both an object of environmental science and embedded in our everyday social and cultural worlds. Nevertheless, much air pollution scholarship focuses solely on the physical dimensions of air pollution which are expressed quantitatively and pays little or no regard to the identities, discourses, bodies and emotions which constitute and are constituted by air pollution as a physical reality. This article argues for a more reflexive and hybrid approach to air pollution research which bridges intellectually confining binaries. Drawing on the work of Bruno Latour and other actor-network theorists, it argues that if we can let go of a foundational nature, disrupt our humanism and take non-scientific knowledges seriously, we might develop a new respect for the atmospheric environment and begin the task of building a better common world.

  1. Ambient particulate air pollution and circulating antioxidant enzymes: A repeated-measure study in healthy adults in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Wang, Bin; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Li, Hongyu; Pan, Lu; Huang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Qin, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-01-01

    The association of systemic antioxidant activity with ambient air pollution has been unclear. A panel of 40 healthy college students underwent repeated blood collection for 12 occasions under three exposure scenarios before and after relocating from a suburban area to an urban area in Beijing, China in 2010-2011. We measured various air pollutants including fine particles (PM2.5) and determined circulating levels of antioxidant enzymes extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) in the laboratory. An interquartile range increase of 63.4 μg/m(3) at 3-d PM2.5 moving average was associated with a 6.3% (95% CI: 0.6, 12.4) increase in EC-SOD and a 5.5% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.8) increase in GPX1. Several PM2.5 chemical constituents, including negative ions (nitrate and chloride) and metals (e.g., iron and strontium), were consistently associated with increases in EC-SOD and GPX1. Our results support activation of circulating antioxidant enzymes following exposure to particulate air pollution.

  2. Particulate air pollutants, APOE alleles and their contributions to cognitive impairment in older women and to amyloidogenesis in experimental models

    PubMed Central

    Cacciottolo, M; Wang, X; Driscoll, I; Woodward, N; Saffari, A; Reyes, J; Serre, M L; Vizuete, W; Sioutas, C; Morgan, T E; Gatz, M; Chui, H C; Shumaker, S A; Resnick, S M; Espeland, M A; Finch, C E; Chen, J C

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air and its interactions with APOE alleles may contribute to the acceleration of brain aging and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurodegenerative effects of particulate air pollutants were examined in a US-wide cohort of older women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) and in experimental mouse models. Residing in places with fine PM exceeding EPA standards increased the risks for global cognitive decline and all-cause dementia respectively by 81 and 92%, with stronger adverse effects in APOE ɛ4/4 carriers. Female EFAD transgenic mice (5xFAD+/−/human APOE ɛ3 or ɛ4+/+) with 225 h exposure to urban nanosized PM (nPM) over 15 weeks showed increased cerebral β-amyloid by thioflavin S for fibrillary amyloid and by immunocytochemistry for Aβ deposits, both exacerbated by APOE ɛ4. Moreover, nPM exposure increased Aβ oligomers, caused selective atrophy of hippocampal CA1 neurites, and decreased the glutamate GluR1 subunit. Wildtype C57BL/6 female mice also showed nPM-induced CA1 atrophy and GluR1 decrease. In vitro nPM exposure of neuroblastoma cells (N2a-APP/swe) increased the pro-amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We suggest that airborne PM exposure promotes pathological brain aging in older women, with potentially a greater impact in ɛ4 carriers. The underlying mechanisms may involve increased cerebral Aβ production and selective changes in hippocampal CA1 neurons and glutamate receptor subunits. PMID:28140404

  3. Real-Time Cell-Electronic Sensing of Coal Fly Ash Particulate Matter for Toxicity-Based Air Quality Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Moe, Birget; Yuan, Chungang; Li, Jinhua; Du, Haiying; Gabos, Stephan; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2016-06-20

    The development of a unique bioassay for cytotoxicity analysis of coal fly ash (CFA) particulate matter (PM) and its potential application for air quality monitoring is described. Using human cell lines, A549 and SK-MES-1, as live probes on microelectrode-embedded 96-well sensors, impedance changes over time are measured as cells are treated with varying concentrations (1 μg/mL-20 mg/mL) of CFA samples. A dose-dependent impedance change is determined for each CFA sample, from which an IC50 histogram is obtained. The assay was successfully applied to examine CFA samples collected from three coal-fired power plants (CFPs) in China. The samples were separated into three size fractions: PM2.5 (<2.5 μm), PM10-2.5 (2.5 μm < x < 10 μm), and PM10 (>10 μm). Dynamic cell-response profiles and temporal IC50 histograms of all samples show that CFA cytotoxicity depends on concentration, exposure time (0-60 h), and cell-type (SK-MES-1 > A549). The IC50 values differentiate the cytotoxicity of CFA samples based on size fraction (PM2.5 ≈ PM10-2.5 ≫ PM10) and the sampling location (CFP2 > CFP1 ≈ CFP3). Differential cytotoxicity measurements of particulates in human cell lines using cell-electronic sensing provide a useful tool for toxicity-based air quality monitoring and risk assessment.

  4. Investigation into the use of satellite data in aiding characterization of particulate air quality in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Alston, Erica J; Sokolik, Irina N; Doddridge, Bruce G

    2011-02-01

    Poor air quality episodes occur often in metropolitan Atlanta, GA. The primary focus of this research is to assess the capability of satellites as a tool in characterizing air quality in Atlanta. Results indicate that intracity PM2.5 (particulate matter < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) concentrations show similar patterns as other U.S. urban areas, with the highest concentrations occurring within the city. PM2.5 and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aerosol optical depth (AOD) have higher values in the summer than spring, yet MODIS AOD doubles in the summer unlike PM2.5. Most (80%) of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aerosol index (AI) is below 0.5 with little differences between spring and summer. Using this value as a constraint of the carbonaceous aerosol signal in the urban area, aerosol transport events such as wildfire smoke associated with higher positive AI values can be identified. The results indicate that MODIS AOD is well correlated with PM2.5 on a yearly and seasonal basis with correlation coefficients as high as 0.8 for Terra and 0.7 for Aqua. A possible alternative view of the PM2.5 and AOD relationship is seen through the use of AOD thresholds. These probabilistic thresholds provide a means to describe the air quality index (AQI) through the use of multiyear AOD records for a specific area. The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are used to classify the AOD into different AQI codes and probabilistically determine thresholds of AOD that represent most of a specific AQI category. For example, 80% of cases of moderate AQI days have AOD values between 0.5 and 0.6. The development of AOD thresholds provides a useful tool for evaluating air quality from the use of satellites in regions where there are sparse ground-based measurements of PM2.5.

  5. Air sampling methodology for asphalt fume in asphalt production and asphalt roofing manufacturing facilities: total particulate sampler versus inhalable particulate sampler.

    PubMed

    Calzavara, Thomas S; Carter, Charles M; Axten, Charles

    2003-05-01

    In 2000, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(R)) changed its 1971 threshold limit value (TLV) for 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure to asphalt from 5 mg/m(3) total particulate (generally < or =40 micrometer [microm] diameter) to 0.5 mg/m(3) inhalable particulate (< or =100 microm aerodynamic diameter) as benzene-soluble aerosol. To date, no inhalable particulate sampling method has been standardized and validated for asphalt fume. Furthermore, much of the historical data were collected using total particulate samplers, and the comparability of total versus inhalable size fractions of asphalt fume is not known. Therefore, the present study compared results from two types of asphalt fume samplers: 1) a traditional total particulate sampler with a 37-mm filter in a closed-face cassette with a 4-mm orifice (NIOSH 5042) versus (2) an inhalable particulate sampler designed by the IOM with a 15-mm orifice. A total of 75 simultaneous pairs of samples were collected, including personal and area samples from 19 roofing and asphalt production facilities operated by 7 different manufacturers. Each sample was analyzed for total mass collected and for benzene-soluble mass. Data from the two sampling methods (total versus inhalable) were comparable for asphalt fumes up to an aerosol concentration of 10 mg/m(3). However, we conclude that the traditional total particulate method is preferable, for this reason: The vast majority of asphalt fume particles are <12.5 microm in diameter. The traditional sampler is designed to collect primarily particles < or =40 microm, while the IOM sampler is optimized for collecting particles < or =100 microm. Thus, the traditional sampler is less likely than the IOM sampler to collect the larger-size fraction of airborne particles, most of which are non-asphalt dust.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE CMB AND PMF MODELS USING ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN FINE PARTICULATE MATTER COLLECTED DURING THE PITTSBURGH AIR QUALITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research investigated different strategies for source apportionment of airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected as part of the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study. Two source receptor models were used, the EPA Chemical Mass Balance 8.2 (CMB) and EPA Positive Matrix Facto...

  7. Assessing the impact of the forthcoming decrease in diesel exhaust particulate matter emissions on air quality: implications for black carbon concentrations in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Y.; Rodríguez, S.; Cuevas, E.; Ramos, R.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Forthcoming regulations (e.g. EURO 5 and EURO 6) are planned to reduce particulate matter emissions (PM) in the exhaust of forthcoming vehicles. In this study we assess the impact of such reduction in the diesel PM exhaust emissions on the urban ambient air PM concentrations. This has been done by studying the relationship between black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) in urban ambient air and in the exhaust of current and forthcoming vehicles. The slope of the BC-vs-CO linear relationship is mainly affected by the percentage (%) of diesel automobiles in the urban vehicles fleet. This slope is a better indicator of the diesel PM emissions than bulk BC concentrations in urban ambient air. BC-vs-CO slopes within the range 1-3 and 7-14 ngBC/µgCO are typically observed in urban areas with low (<25%) and high (≥50%) proportions of diesel-fuel consumption for on road transportation, respectively. The entry into force of forthcoming regulations will decrease the BC-vs-CO slope in urban ambient air from about 10 to 5 ngBC/µgCO in the next decade, according to calculations based on the current data on diesel vehicles in urban fleets in Spanish cities. However, this will not necessary prompt a significant decrease in the urban BC concentrations if road traffic volume follows the increasing trend of the last decade. The results of this study shows that the analysis of the BC-vs-CO slope trend in ambient air is an useful tool for understanding the involvement "of the changes in the vehicle exhaust emissions rates" and "of the changes in the road traffic volume" in the BC and PMx trends in urban ambient air.

  8. Statistical summary and trend evaluation of air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio in 1967 to 1971: Total suspended particulate, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; Burr, J. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio, for the period of 1967 to 1971 were collated and subjected to statistical analysis. The total suspended particulate component is lognormally distributed; while sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are reasonably approximated by lognormal distributions. Only sulfur dioxide, in some residential neighborhoods, meets Ohio air quality standards. Air quality has definitely improved in the industrial valley, while in the rest of the city, only sulfur dioxide has shown consistent improvement. A pollution index is introduced which displays directly the degree to which the environmental air conforms to mandated standards.

  9. Acute Effects of Particulate Air Pollution on the Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaofang; Peng, Li; Kan, Haidong; Wang, Weibing; Geng, Fuhai; Mu, Zhe; Zhou, Ji; Yang, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Evidence based on ecological studies in China suggests that short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiovascular mortality. However, there is less evidence of PM-related morbidity for coronary heart disease (CHD) in China. This study aims to investigate the relationship between acute PM exposure and CHD incidence in people aged above 40 in Shanghai. Methods Daily CHD events during 2005–2012 were identified from outpatient and emergency department visits. Daily average concentrations for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns (PM10) were collected over the 8-year period. Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) were measured from 2009 to 2012. Analyses were performed using quasi-poisson regression models adjusting for confounders, including long-term trend, seasonality, day of the week, public holiday and meteorological factors. The effects were also examined by gender and age group (41–65 years, and >65 years). Results There were 619928 CHD outpatient and emergency department visits. The average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 81.7μg/m3 and 38.6μg/m3, respectively. Elevated exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 was related with increased risk of CHD outpatients and emergency department visits in a short time course. A 10 μg/m3 increase in the 2-day PM10 and PM2.5 was associated with increase of 0.23% (95% CI: 0.12%, 0.34%) and 0.74% (95% CI: 0.44%, 1.04%) in CHD morbidity, respectively. The associations appeared to be more evident in the male and the elderly. Conclusion Short-term exposure to high levels of PM10 and PM2.5 was associated with increased risk of CHD outpatient and emergency department visits. Season, gender and age were effect modifiers of their association. PMID:26942767

  10. Detection of particulate air pollution plumes from major point sources using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Pease, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) launched by NASA in July 1972 has been providing thousands of high resolution multispectral images of interest to geographers, cartographers, hydrologists, and agroculturists. It has been found possible to detect the long-range (over 50 km) transport of suspected particulate plumes from the Chicago-Gary steel mill complex over Lake Michigan. The observed plumes are readily related to known steel mills, a cement plant, refineries, and fossil-fuel power plants. This has important ramifications when discussing the interregional transport of atmospheric pollutants. Analysis reveals that the Multispectral Scanner Band 5 (0.6 to 0.7 micrometer) provides the best overall contrast between the smoke and the underlying water surface.

  11. Effect of microstructure (particulate size and volume fraction) and counterface material on the sliding wear resistance of particulate-reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpas, A. T.; Zhang, J.

    1994-05-01

    The effects of microstructure (namely, particulate volume fraction and particulate size) and the counterface materials on the dry-sliding wear resistance of the aluminum matrix composites 2014A1-SiC and 6061Al-Al2O3 were studied. Experiments were performed within a load range of 0.9 to 350 N at a constant sliding velocity of 0.2 ms-1. Two types of counterface materials, SAE 52100 bearing steel and mullite, were used. At low loads, where particles act as loadbearing constituents, the wear resistance of the 2014A1 reinforced with 15.8 µm diameter SiC was superior to that of the alloy with the same volume fraction of SiC but with 2.4 µm diameter. The wear rates of the composites worn against a steel slider were lower compared with those worn against a mullite slider because of the formation of iron-rich layers that act as in situ solid lubricants in the former case. With increasing the applied load, SiC and A12O3 particles fractured and the wear rates of the composites increased to levels comparable to those of unreinforced matrix alloys. The transition to this regime was delayed to higher loads in the composites with a higher volume percentage of particles. Concurrent with particle fracture, large strains and strain gradients were generated within the aluminum layers adjacent to contact surfaces. This led to the subsurface crack growth and delamination. Because the particles and interfaces provided preferential sites for subsurface crack initiation and growth and because of the propensity of the broken particles to act as third-body abrasive elements at the contact surfaces, no improvement of the wear resistance was observed in the composites in this regime relative to unreinforced aluminum alloys. A second transition, to severe wear, occurred at higher loads when the contact surface temperature exceeded a critical value. The transition loads (and temperatures) were higher in the composites. The alloys with higher volume fraction of reinforcement provided better

  12. Determination of oxygenated and native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban dust and diesel particulate matter standard reference materials using pressurized liquid extraction and LC-GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Trifa M; Bergvall, Christoffer; Åberg, Magnus; Westerholm, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel analytical chemistry method, comprised of a coupled high-performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system (LC-GC/MS) with low detection limits and high selectivity, for the identification and determination of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban air and diesel particulate matter. The linear range of the four OPAHs, which include 9,10-anthraquinone, 4H-cyclopenta[def]phenanthrene-4-one, benzanthrone, and 7,12-benz[a]anthraquinone, was 0.7 pg-43.3 ng with limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) on the order of 0.2-0.8 and 0.7-1.3 pg, respectively. The LODs in this study are generally lower than values reported in the literature, which can be explained by using large-volume injection. The recoveries of the OPAHs spiked onto glass fiber filters using two different pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods were in the ranges of 84-107 and 67-110 %, respectively. The analytical protocols were validated using the following National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference materials: SRM 1649a (Urban Dust), SRM 1650b (Diesel Particulate Matter), and SRM 2975 (Diesel Particulate Matter, Industrial Forklift). The measured mass fractions of the OPAHs in the standard reference materials (SRMs) in this present study are higher than the values from the literature, except for benzanthrone in SRM 1649a (Urban Dust). In addition to the OPAHs, 44 PAHs could be detected and quantified from the same particulate extract used in this protocol. Using data from the literature and applying a two-sided t test at the 5 % level using Bonferroni correction, significant differences were found between the tested PLE methods for individual PAHs. However, the measured mass fractions of the PAHs were comparable, similar to, or higher than those previously reported in the literature.

  13. An indoor air filtration study in homes of elderly: cardiovascular and respiratory effects of exposure to particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate air pollution increases respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly, possibly through inflammation and vascular dysfunction. Methods We examined potential beneficial effects of indoor air filtration in the homes of elderly, including people taking vasoactive drugs. Forty-eight nonsmoking subjects (51 to 81 years) in 27 homes were included in this randomized, double-blind, crossover intervention study with consecutive two-week periods with or without the inclusion of a high-efficiency particle air filter in re-circulating custom built units in their living room and bedroom. We measured blood pressure, microvascular and lung function and collected blood samples for hematological, inflammation, monocyte surface and lung cell damage markers before and at day 2, 7 and 14 during each exposure scenario. Results The particle filters reduced the median concentration of PM2.5 from approximately 8 to 4 μg/m3 and the particle number concentration from 7669 to 5352 particles/cm3. No statistically significant effects of filtration as category were observed on microvascular and lung function or the biomarkers of systemic inflammation among all subjects, or in the subgroups taking (n = 11) or not taking vasoactive drugs (n = 37). However, the filtration efficacy was variable and microvascular function was within 2 days significantly increased with the actual PM2.5 decrease in the bedroom, especially among 25 subjects not taking any drugs. Conclusion Substantial exposure contrasts in the bedroom and no confounding by drugs appear required for improved microvascular function by air filtration, whereas no other beneficial effect was found in this elderly population. PMID:24373585

  14. Exposures to Walkability and Particulate Air Pollution in a Nationwide Cohort of Women

    PubMed Central

    James, Peter; Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Background Features of neighborhoods associated with walkability (i.e., connectivity, accessibility, and density) may also be correlated with levels of ambient air pollution, which would attenuate the health benefits of walkability. Objectives We examined the relationship between neighborhood walkability and ambient air pollution in a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study spanning the entire United States using residence-level exposure assessment for ambient air pollution and the built environment. Methods Using data from the Nurses’ Health Study, we used linear regression to estimate the association between a neighborhood walkability index, combining neighborhood intersection count, business count, and population density (defined from Census data, infoUSA business data, and StreetMap USA data), and air pollution, defined from a GIS-based spatiotemporal PM2.5 model. Results After adjustment for Census tract median income, median home value, and percent with no high school education, the highest tertile of walkability index, intersection count, business count, and population density was associated with a with 1.58 (95% CI 1.54, 1.62), 1.20 (95% CI 1.16, 1.24), 1.31 (95% CI 1.27, 1.35), and 1.84 (95% CI 1.80, 1.88) μg/m3 higher level of PM2.5 respectively, compared to the lowest tertile. Results varied somewhat by neighborhood socioeconomic status and greatly by region. Conclusions This nationwide analysis showed a positive relationship between neighborhood walkability and modeled air pollution levels, which were consistent after adjustment for neighborhood-level socioeconomic status. Regional differences in the air pollution-walkability relationship demonstrate that there are factors that vary across region that allow for walkable neighborhoods with low levels of air pollution. PMID:26397775

  15. Concentrations of particulates in ambient air, gaseous elementary mercury (GEM), and particulate-bound mercury (Hg(p)) at a traffic sampling site: a study of dry deposition in daytime and nighttime.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Lin, Yen-Heng; Chang, Chia-Ying; Zheng, Yu-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    In this investigation, the concentrations of particles in ambient air, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), and particulate-bound mercury (Hg(p)) in total suspended particulates (TSP) as well as dry deposition at a (Traffic) sampling site at Hung-kuang were studied during the day and night in 2012. The results reveal that the mean concentrations of TSP in ambient air, GEM, and Hg(p) were 69.72 μg/m(3), 3.17, and 0.024 ng/m(3), respectively, at the Hung-kuang (Traffic) sampling site during daytime sampling periods. The results also reveal that the mean rates of dry deposition of particles from ambient air and Hg(p) were 145.20 μg/m(2) min and 0.022 ng/m(2) min, respectively, at the Hung-kuang (Traffic) sampling site during the daytime sampling period. The mean concentrations of TSP in ambient air, GEM, and Hg(p) were 60.56 μg/m(3), 2.74, and 0.018 ng/m(3), respectively, at the Hung-kuang (Traffic) sampling site during the nighttime sampling period. The mean rates of dry deposition of particles and Hg(p) from ambient air were 132.58 μg/m(2) min and 0.016 ng/m(2) min, respectively, at the Hung-kuang (Traffic) sampling site during the nighttime sampling period.

  16. Portable air pollution control equipment for the control of toxic particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Chaurushia, A.; Odabashian, S.; Busch, E.

    1997-12-31

    Chromium VI (Cr VI) has been identified by the environmental regulatory agencies as a potent carcinogen among eleven heavy metals. A threshold level of 0.0001 lb/year for Cr VI emissions has been established by the California Air Resources Board for reporting under Assembly Bill 2588. A need for an innovative control technology to reduce fugitive emissions of Cr VI was identified during the Air Toxic Emissions Reduction Program at Northrop Grumman Military Aircraft Systems Division (NGMASD). NGMASD operates an aircraft assembly facility in El Segundo, CA. Nearly all of the aircraft components are coated with a protective coating (primer) prior to assembly. The primer has Cr VI as a component for its excellent corrosion resistance property. The complex assembly process requires fasteners which also need primer coating. Therefore, NGMASD utilizes High Volume Low Pressure (HVLP) guns for the touch-up spray coating operations. During the touch-up spray coating operations, Cr VI particles are atomized and transferred to the aircraft surface. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) has determined that the HVLP gun transfers 65% of the paint particles onto the substrate and the remaining 35% are emitted as an overspray if air pollution controls are not applied. NGMASD has developed the Portable Air Pollution Control Equipment (PAPCE) to capture and control the overspray in order to reduce fugitive Cr VI emissions from the touch-up spray coating operations. A source test was performed per SCAQMD guidelines and the final report has been approved by the SCAQMD.

  17. Metal-air cell with ion exchange material

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2015-08-25

    Embodiments of the invention are related to anion exchange membranes used in electrochemical metal-air cells in which the membranes function as the electrolyte material, or are used in conjunction with electrolytes such as ionic liquid electrolytes.

  18. 33 CFR 183.112 - Flotation material and air chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Inboard Boats, Inboard/Outdrive Boats, and Airboats § 183.112 Flotation material and air chambers. (a)...

  19. 33 CFR 183.112 - Flotation material and air chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Inboard Boats, Inboard/Outdrive Boats, and Airboats § 183.112 Flotation material and air chambers. (a)...

  20. 33 CFR 183.112 - Flotation material and air chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Inboard Boats, Inboard/Outdrive Boats, and Airboats § 183.112 Flotation material and air chambers. (a)...

  1. Air quality at outdoor community events: findings from fine particulate (PM2.5) sampling at festivals in Edmonton, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Collins, Damian; Parsons, Marc; Zinyemba, Chaka

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with a broad range of health risks. This study assessed the impacts of cooking smoke and environmental tobacco smoke on air quality at outdoor community events in Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Data were collected at three festivals in July-August 2011 using a portable real-time airborne particle monitor. The pooled mean PM2.5 level was 12.41 μg/m(3). Peak readings varied from 52 to 1877 μg/m(3). Mean PM2.5 near food stalls was 35.42 μg/m(3), which exceeds the WHO limit for 24 h exposure. Mean PM2.5 levels with smokers present were 16.39 μg/m(3) (all points) and 9.64 μg/m(3) (excluding points near food stalls). Although some smokers withdrew from common spaces, on average 20 smokers/hour were observed within 3 m. Extending smoking bans would improve air quality and address related concerns. However, food preparation is a more pressing area for policy action to reduce PM2.5 exposure at these community events.

  2. Effects of particulate air pollution on the respiratory health of subjects who live in three areas in Kanpur, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh; Kumar, V Narendra; Katiyar, Subodh K; Sharma, Richa; Shukla, Bhanu P; Sengupta, Babu

    2004-07-01

    In this study, the authors assessed the relationship between daily changes in respiratory health and particulate levels with diameters of (a) less than 10 microm (PM10) and (b) less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in Kanpur, India. The subjects (N = 91) were recruited from 3 areas in Kanpur: (1) Indian Institute of Technology (Kanpur), which was a relatively clean area; (b) Vikas Nagar, a typical commercial area; and (c) finally, the residential area of Juhilal Colony. All subjects resided near to air quality monitoring sites. Air quality and peak expiratory flow rate samplings were conducted for 39 d. Once during the sampling period, lung-function tests (i.e., forced expiratory volume in 1 s, forced vital capacity) were performed on each subject. Subjects who resided at the clean site performed at predicted (i.e., acceptable) values more often than did subjects who lived at the remaining 2 sites. Subjects who lived at all 3 sites demonstrated a substantial average deficit in baseline forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s values. The authors used a statistical model to estimate that an increase of 100 microg/m3 of the pollutant PM10 could reduce the mean peak expiratory flow rate of an individual by approximately 3.2 l/min.

  3. Development of an empirical model to estimate real-world fine particulate matter emission factors: the traffic air quality model.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed S M; Jacko, Robert B; Palmer, George M

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify the impact of traffic conditions, such as free flow and congestion, on local air quality. The Borman Expressway (I-80/94) in Northwest Indiana is considered a test bed for this research because of the high volume of class 9 truck traffic traveling on it, as well as the existing and continuing installation of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) to improve traffic management along the highway stretch. An empirical traffic air quality (TAQ) model was developed to estimate the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emission factors (grams per kilometer) based solely on the measured traffic parameters, namely, average speed, average acceleration, and class 9 truck density. The TAQ model has shown better predictions that matched the measured emission factor values more than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-PART5 model. During congestion (defined as flow-speeds < 50 km/hr [30 mi/hr]), the TAQ model, on average, overpredicted the measured values only by a factor of 1.2, in comparison to a fourfold underprediction using the EPA-PART5 model. On the other hand, during free flow (defined as flow-speeds > 80 km/hr [50 mi/hr]), the TAQ model was conservative in that it overpredicted the measured values by 1.5-fold.

  4. Agreement of land use regression models with personal exposure measurements of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides air pollution.

    PubMed

    Montagne, Denise; Hoek, Gerard; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Lanki, Timo; Pennanen, Arto; Portella, Meritxell; Meliefste, Kees; Eeftens, Marloes; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Cirach, Marta; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-08-06

    Land use regression (LUR) models are often used to predict long-term average concentrations of air pollutants. Little is known how well LUR models predict personal exposure. In this study, the agreement of LUR models with measured personal exposure was assessed. The measured components were particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), soot (reflectance of PM2.5), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). In Helsinki, Utrecht, and Barcelona, 15 volunteers (from semiurban, urban background, and traffic sites) followed prescribed time activity patterns. Per participant, six 96 h outdoor, indoor, and personal measurements spread over three seasons were conducted. Soot LUR models were significantly correlated with measured average outdoor and personal soot concentrations. Soot LUR models explained 39%, 44%, and 20% of personal exposure variability (R(2)) in Helsinki, Utrecht, and Barcelona. NO2 LUR models significantly predicted outdoor concentrations and personal exposure in Utrecht and Helsinki, whereas NOx and PM2.5 LUR models did not predict personal exposure. PM2.5, NO2, and NOx models were correlated with personal soot, the component least affected by indoor sources. LUR modeled and measured outdoor, indoor, and personal concentrations were highly correlated for all pollutants when data from the three cities were combined. This study supports the use of intraurban LUR models for especially soot in air pollution epidemiology.

  5. Characterization of particulate and vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of primary schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krugly, Edvinas; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Sidaraviciute, Ruta; Ciuzas, Darius; Prasauskas, Tadas; Kauneliene, Violeta; Stasiulaitiene, Inga; Kliucininkas, Linas

    2014-01-01

    The indoor air of schools is considered as one of the most important factors affecting the health of children. The aim of the presented research was to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor and outdoor air of schools. The sampling campaign was conducted during the heating season of 2011/2012. Five primary schools from various urban settings in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. 150 daily samples of particulate and vapor phases were collected during the sampling period. The ultrasonic extractions followed by the gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GS/MS) analyses were used for the determination of PAHs. The concentration of total PAHs in the PM2.5 fraction ranged from 20.3 to 131.1 ng m-3, while total suspended particles (TSP) fraction contained from 19.9 to 80.3 ng m-3 of total PAHs. The vapor phase concentration of PAHs ranged from 67.2 to 372.5 ng m-3. The most abundant PAH in both phases was naphthalene. In order to define sources of indoor and outdoor PAHs several source apportionment methods were applied. The analysis revealed that emissions from motor vehicles and fuel burning for heating purposes were the major sources of PAHs in the city of Kaunas.

  6. Comparison of lead isotopes with source apportionment models, including SOM, for air particulates.

    PubMed

    Gulson, Brian; Korsch, Michael; Dickson, Bruce; Cohen, David; Mizon, Karen; Davis, J Michael

    2007-08-01

    We have measured high precision lead isotopes in PM(2.5) particulates from a highly-trafficked site (Mascot) and rural site (Richmond) in the Sydney Basin, New South Wales, Australia to compare with isotopic data from total suspended particulates (TSP) from other sites in the Sydney Basin and evaluate relationships with source fingerprints obtained from multi-element PM(2.5) data. The isotopic data for the period 1998 to 2004 show seasonal peaks and troughs that are more pronounced in the rural site for the PM(2.5).samples but are consistent with the TSP. The Self Organising Map (SOM) method has been applied to the multi-element PM(2.5) data to evaluate its use in obtaining fingerprints for comparison with standard statistical procedures (ANSTO model). As seasonal effects are also significant for the multi-element data, the SOM modelling is reported as site and season dependent. At the Mascot site, the ANSTO model exhibits decreasing (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratios with increasing contributions of fingerprints for "secondary smoke" (industry), "soil", "smoke" and "seaspray". Similar patterns were shown by SOM winter fingerprints for both sites. At the rural site, there are large isotopic variations but for the majority of samples these are not associated with increased contributions from the main sources with the ANSTO model. For two winter sampling times, there are increased contributions from "secondary industry", "smoke", "soil" and seaspray with one time having a source or sources of Pb similar to that of Mascot. The only positive relationship between increasing (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratio and source contributions is found at the rural site using the SOM summer fingerprints, both of which show a significant contribution from sulphur. Several of the fingerprints using either model have significant contributions from black carbon (BC) and/or sulphur (S) that probably derive from diesel fuels and industrial sources. Increased contributions from sources with the SOM summer

  7. Characteristics and popular topics of latest researches into the effects of air particulate matter on cardiovascular system by bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xinbiao; Li, Haicun; An, Xinying; Zhao, Yingguang

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, many epidemiological and toxicological studies have investigated the adverse effects of air particulate matter (PM) on the cardiovascular system. However, it is difficult for the researchers to have a timely and effective overall command of the latest characteristics and popular topics in such a wide field. Different from the previous reviews, in which the research characteristics and trends are empirically concluded by experts, we try to have a comprehensive evaluation of the above topics for the first time by bibliometric analysis, a quantitative tool in information exploration. This study aims to introduce the bibliometric method into the field of PM and cardiovascular system. The articles were selected by searching PubMed/MEDLINE (from 2007 to 2012) using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms "particulate matter" and "cardiovascular system". A total of 935 eligible articles and 1895 MeSH terms were retrieved and processed by the software Thomson Data Analyzer (TDA). The bibliographic information and the MeSH terms of these articles were classified and analyzed to summarize the research characteristics. The top 200 high-frequency MeSH terms (the cumulative frequency percentage was 74.2%) were clustered for popular-topic conclusion. We summarized the characteristics of published articles, of researcher collaborations and of the contents. Ten clusters of MeSH terms are presented. Six popular topics are concluded and elaborated for reference. Our study presents an overview of the characteristics and popular topics in the field of PM and cardiovascular system in the past five years by bibliometric tools, which may provide a new perspective for future researchers.

  8. Creating an integrated historical record of extreme particulate air pollution events in Australian cities from 1994 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Fay H; Hanigan, Ivan C; Henderson, Sarah B; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Portner, Talia; Williamson, Grant J; Bowman, David M J S

    2011-04-01

    Epidemiological studies of exposure to vegetation fire smoke are often limited by the availability of accurate exposure data. This paper describes a systematic framework for retrospectively identifying the cause of air pollution events to facilitate a long, multicenter analysis of the public health effects of vegetation fire smoke pollution in Australia. Pollution events were statistically defined as any day at or above the 95th percentile of the 24-hr average concentration of particulate matter (PM). These were identified for six cities from three distinct ecoclimatic regions of Australia. The dates of each event were then crosschecked against a range of information sources, including online newspaper archives, government and research agency records, satellite imagery, and aerosol optical thickness measures to identify the cause for the excess particulate pollution. Pollution events occurred most frequently during summer for cities in subtropical and arid regions and during winter for cities in temperate regions. A cause for high PM on 67% of days examined in the city of Sydney was found, and 94% of these could be attributed to landscape fire smoke. Results were similar for cities in other subtropical and arid locations. Identification of the cause of pollution events was much lower in colder temperate regions where fire activity is less frequent. Bushfires were the most frequent cause of extreme pollution events in cities located in subtropical and arid regions of Australia. Although identification of pollution episodes was greatly improved by the use of multiple sources of information, satellite imagery was the most useful tool for identifying bushfire smoke pollution events.

  9. Vegetation fires, particulate air pollution and asthma: a panel study in the Australian monsoon tropics.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Fay H; Webby, Rosalind J; Pilotto, Louis S; Bailie, Ross S; Parry, David L; Halpin, Stephen J

    2006-12-01

    We examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) <10 and <2.5 microns in diameter (PM10 and PM2.5) generated by vegetation fires and daily health outcomes in 251 adults and children with asthma over a 7-month period. Data were analysed using generalized estimating equations adjusted for potential environmental confounders, autocorrelation, weekends and holidays. PM10 ranged from 2.6 - 43.3 microg m-3and was significantly associated with onset of asthma symptoms, commencing oral steroid medication, the mean daily symptom count and the mean daily dose of reliever medication. Similar results were found for PM2.5. No associations were found with the more severe outcomes of asthma attacks, increased health care attendances or missed school/work days. These results help fill a gap in the evidence about the population health impacts of lower levels of pollution characteristic of deliberate landscape burning to control fuel loads versus the better documented risks of more intense and severely polluting wildfires.

  10. Air pollution by particulate matter in the industrialized city of Leoben, Austria.

    PubMed

    Wippel, R; Köck, M; Kosmus, W; Pichler-Semmelrock, F P; Marth, E

    1998-11-01

    At seven sites in Leoben, Austria, aerosol particles were sampled in two size fractions by a dichotomous sampler using virtual impaction: the fine fraction (alveolar aerosol) with an aerodynamic diameter dac < 2.5 microns (PM2.5), and the coarse fraction (tracheobronchial aerosol) with an dac between 2.5 and 10 microns. It is believed that these particles are able to reach the lower regions of the human respiratory tract, and thus be responsible for most of the adverse health effects associated with suspended particulate pollution. A second sampling procedure was made collecting the PM2.5 fraction and after leaching with nitric acid, lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, chromium and vanadium were determined with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). For one sample point a third sampling was carried out and both fractions were subsequently leached with water and dilute hydrochloric acid. Pb, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cd, Ni, Cu, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, Ba and Tl were determined by ICP-MS.

  11. Particulate air pollution and increased mortality: Biological plausibility for causal relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.

    1995-02-01

    Recently, a number of epidemiological studies have concluded that ambient particulate exposure is associated with increased mortality and morbidity at PM concentrations well below those previously thought to affect human health. These studies have been conducted in several different geographical locations and have involved a range of populations. While the consistency of the findings and the presence of an apparent concentration response relationship provide a strong argument for causality, epidemiological studies can only conclude this based upon inference from statistical associations. The biological plausibility of a causal relationship between low concentrations of PM and daily mortality and morbidity rates is neither intuitively obvious nor expected based on past experimental studies on the toxicity of inhaled particles. Chronic toxicity from inhaled, poorly soluble particles has been observed based on the slow accumulation of large lung burdens of particles, not on small daily fluctuations in PM levels. Acute toxicity from inhaled particles is associated mainly with acidic particles and is observed at much higher concentrations than those observed in the epidemiology studies reporting an association between PM concentrations and morbidity/mortality. To approach the difficult problem of determining if the association between PM concentrations and daily morbidity and mortality is biologically plausible and causal, one must consider (1) the chemical and physical characteristics of the particles in the inhaled atmospheres, (2) the characteristics of the morbidity/mortality observed and the people who are affected, and (3) potential mechanisms that might link the two.

  12. Comparative Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution Exposure from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, Danielle C.; Fuller, Gary W.; Toledano, Mireille B.; Font, Anna; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L.; de Hoogh, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Background. Research to date on health effects associated with incineration has found limited evidence of health risks, but many previous studies have been constrained by poor exposure assessment. This paper provides a comparative assessment of atmospheric dispersion modelling and distance from source (a commonly used proxy for exposure) as exposure assessment methods for pollutants released from incinerators. Methods. Distance from source and the atmospheric dispersion model ADMS-Urban were used to characterise ambient exposures to particulates from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in the UK. Additionally an exploration of the sensitivity of the dispersion model simulations to input parameters was performed. Results. The model output indicated extremely low ground level concentrations of PM10, with maximum concentrations of <0.01 μg/m3. Proximity and modelled PM10 concentrations for both MSWIs at postcode level were highly correlated when using continuous measures (Spearman correlation coefficients ~ 0.7) but showed poor agreement for categorical measures (deciles or quintiles, Cohen's kappa coefficients ≤ 0.5). Conclusion. To provide the most appropriate estimate of ambient exposure from MSWIs, it is essential that incinerator characteristics, magnitude of emissions, and surrounding meteorological and topographical conditions are considered. Reducing exposure misclassification is particularly important in environmental epidemiology to aid detection of low-level risks. PMID:23935644

  13. EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, AND OTHER AIR POLLUTANTS INSIDE PATROL CARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    People driving in a vehicle might receive an enhanced dose of mobile source pollutants that are considered a potential risk for cardiovascular diseases. The exposure to components of air pollution in highway patrol vehicles, at an ambient, and a roadside location was determined d...

  14. (CZ)BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of biomarkers in the Teplice Program, provided a key tool to relate health outcomes to individual personal exposures and to provide measures of confounding exposures. This research program on the health effects of air pollution studied a population living in the heavil...

  15. (PRAGUE)BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of biomarkers in the Teplice Program, provided a key tool to relate health outcomes to individual personal exposures and to provide measures of confounding exposures. This research program on the health effects of air pollution studied a population living in the heavil...

  16. Erosion of particulate organic material from an Andean river and its delivery to the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Kathryn; Hilton, Robert; West, A. Joshua; Robles Caceres, Arturo; Grocke, Darren; Marthews, Toby; Asner, Greg; New, Mark; Mahli, Yadvinder

    2016-04-01

    Organic carbon and nutrients discharged by mountainous rivers can play an important role in biogeochemical cycles from regional to global scales. The eastern Andes host productive forests on steep, rapidly eroding slopes, a combination that is primed to deliver sediment, carbon and nutrients to the lowland Amazon River. We quantify clastic sediment and particulate organic carbon (POC) discharge for the Kosñipata River, Peru, an Andean tributary of the Madre de Dios River, using suspended sediment samples and discharge measurements over one year at two gauging stations. Calculations of sediment yield on the basis of this data suggest that the Madre de Dios basin may have erosion rates ˜10 times greater than the Amazon Basin average. The total POC yield over the sampling period was up to five times higher than the yield in the lowland Amazon Basin, with most POC (70-80%) exported between December and March in the wet season. We use radiocarbon, stable C isotopes and C/N ratios to distinguish between the erosion and discharge of POC from sedimentary rocks (petrogenic POC) and POC eroded from the modern terrestrial biosphere, from vegetation and soil (biospheric POC). We find that biospheric POC discharge was significantly enhanced during flood events, over that of clastic sediment and petrogenic POC. The ultimate fate of the eroded POC may play a central role in the net carbon budget of Andean forest. In these forests, net productivity minus heterotrophic respiration is close to zero at the scale of forest plots, and the erosion of biospheric POC by this Andean river is sufficiently rapid that its fate downstream (sedimentary burial/preservation versus oxidation/degradation) may determine whether the mountain forest is a carbon sink or source to the atmosphere. In addition, the measured discharge of petrogenic POC suggests that fluxes from the Andes may be considerably higher than measured downstream in the Madeira River. If this petrogenic POC is oxidised rather

  17. Evaluation of thermal energy storage materials for advanced compressed air energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zaloudek, F.R.; Wheeler, K.R.; Marksberry, L.

    1983-03-01

    Advanced Compressed-Air Energy Storage (ACAS) plants have the near-term potential to reduce the fuel consumption of compressed-air plants from 33 to 100%, depending upon their design. Fuel is saved by storing some or all of the heat of compression as sensible heat which is subsequently used to reheat the compressed air prior to expansion in the turbine generator. The thermal storage media required for this application must be low cost and durable. The objective of this project was to screen thermal store materials based on their thermal cycle durability, particulate formation and corrosion resistant characteristics. The materials investigated were iron oxide pellets, Denstone pebbles, cast-iron balls, and Dresser basalt rock. The study specifically addressed the problems of particle formation and thermal ratcheting of the materials during thermal cycling and the chemical attack on the materials by the high temperature and moist environment in an ACAS heat storage bed. The results indicate that from the durability standpoint Denstone, cast iron containing 27% or more chromium, and crushed Dresser basalt would possibly stand up to ACAS conditions. If costs are considered in addition to durability and performance, the crushed Dresser basalt would probably be the most desirable heat storage material for adiabatic and hybrid ACAS plants, and more in-depth longer term thermal cycling and materials testing of Dresser basalt is recommended. Also recommended is the redesign and costing analysis of both the hybrid and adiabatic ACAS facilities based upon the use of Dresser basalt as the thermal store material.

  18. Mold Occurring on the Air Cleaner High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filters Used in the Houses of Child Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Ahn, Geum Ran; Son, Seung Yeol; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are the known sources of irritation associated with atopic diseases (e.g., asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema). To quantitatively estimate their presence in the indoor environment of atopic dermatitis-inflicted child patient's houses (ADCPHs), the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters installed inside the air cleaners of three different ADCPHs were investigated for the presence of mold. The air cleaner HEPA filters obtained from the three different ADCPHs were coded as HEPA-A, -B, and -C, respectively, and tested for the presence of mold. The colony forming units (CFUs) corresponding to the HEPA-A, -B, and -C filters were estimated to be 6.51 × 102 ± 1.50 × 102 CFU/cm2, 8.72 × 102 ± 1.69 × 102 CFU/cm2, and 9.71 × 102 ± 1.35 × 102 CFU/cm2, respectively. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, and other fungal groups were detected in the 2,494 isolates. The distribution of these fungal groups differed among the three filters. Cladosporium was the major fungal group in filters HEPA-A and -C, whereas Penicillium was the major fungal group in the filter HEPA-B. Nine fungal species, including some of the known allergenic species, were identified in these isolates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the most common mold among all the three filters. This is the first report on the presence of fungi in the air cleaner HEPA filters from ADCPHs in Korea. PMID:25346608

  19. Mold occurring on the air cleaner high-efficiency particulate air filters used in the houses of child patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Ahn, Geum Ran; Son, Seung Yeol; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Yun, Yeo Hong

    2014-09-01

    Fungi are the known sources of irritation associated with atopic diseases (e.g., asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema). To quantitatively estimate their presence in the indoor environment of atopic dermatitis-inflicted child patient's houses (ADCPHs), the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters installed inside the air cleaners of three different ADCPHs were investigated for the presence of mold. The air cleaner HEPA filters obtained from the three different ADCPHs were coded as HEPA-A, -B, and -C, respectively, and tested for the presence of mold. The colony forming units (CFUs) corresponding to the HEPA-A, -B, and -C filters were estimated to be 6.51 × 10(2) ± 1.50 × 10(2) CFU/cm(2), 8.72 × 10(2) ± 1.69 × 10(2) CFU/cm(2), and 9.71 × 10(2) ± 1.35 × 10(2) CFU/cm(2), respectively. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, and other fungal groups were detected in the 2,494 isolates. The distribution of these fungal groups differed among the three filters. Cladosporium was the major fungal group in filters HEPA-A and -C, whereas Penicillium was the major fungal group in the filter HEPA-B. Nine fungal species, including some of the known allergenic species, were identified in these isolates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the most common mold among all the three filters. This is the first report on the presence of fungi in the air cleaner HEPA filters from ADCPHs in Korea.

  20. Temperature modifies the association between particulate air pollution and mortality: A multi-city study in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Satbyul Estella; Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho

    2015-08-15

    Substantial epidemiologic literature has demonstrated the effects of air pollution and temperature on mortality. However, there is inconsistent evidence regarding the temperature modification effect on acute mortality due to air pollution. Herein, we investigated the effects of temperature on the relationship between air pollution and mortality due to non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory death in seven cities in South Korea. We applied stratified time-series models to the data sets in order to examine whether the effects of particulate matter <10 μm (PM10) on mortality were modified by temperature. The effect of PM10 on daily mortality was first quantified within different ranges of temperatures at each location using a time-series model, and then the estimates were pooled through a random-effects meta-analysis using the maximum likelihood method. From all the data sets, 828,787 non-accidental deaths were registered from 2000-2009. The highest overall risk between PM10 and non-accidental or cardiovascular mortality was observed on extremely hot days (daily mean temperature: >99th percentile) in individuals aged <65 years. In those aged ≥65 years, the highest overall risk between PM10 and non-accidental or cardiovascular mortality was observed on very hot days and not on extremely hot days (daily mean temperature: 95-99th percentile). There were strong harmful effects from PM10 on non-accidental mortality with the highest temperature range (>99th percentile) in men, with a very high temperature range (95-99th percentile) in women. Our findings showed that temperature can affect the relationship between the PM10 levels and cause-specific mortality. Moreover, the differences were apparent after considering the age and sex groups.

  1. Blood Pressure Changes and Chemical Constituents of Particulate Air Pollution: Results from the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation (HVNR) Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Huang, Jing; Wang, Hongyi; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Qin, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Hao, Yu; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling

    2012-01-01

    Background: Elevated blood pressure (BP) has been associated with particulate matter (PM) air pollution, but associations with PM chemical constituents are still uncertain. Objectives: We investigated associations of BP with various chemical constituents of fine PM (PM2.5) during 460 repeated visits among a panel of 39 university students. Methods: Resting BP was measured using standardized methods before and after the university students relocated from a suburban campus to an urban campus with different air pollution contents in Beijing, China. Air pollution data were obtained from central monitors close to student residences. We used mixed-effects models to estimate associations of various PM2.5 constituents with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and pulse pressure. Results: An interquartile range increase of 51.2 μg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with a 1.08-mmHg (95% CI: 0.17, 1.99) increase in SBP and a 0.96-mmHg (95% CI: 0.31, 1.61) increase in DBP on the following day. A subset of PM2.5 constituents, including carbonaceous fractions (organic carbon and elemental carbon), ions (chloride and fluoride), and metals/metalloid elements (nickel, zinc, magnesium, lead, and arsenic), were found to have robust positive associations with different BP variables, though robust negative associations of manganese, chromium, and molybdenum with SBP or DBP also were observed. Conclusions: Our results support relationships between specific PM2.5 constituents and BP. These findings have potential implications for the development of pollution abatement strategies that maximize public health benefits. PMID:23086577

  2. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    PubMed

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama.

  3. Concentrations and changes of chemical elements in aerosol particulate matter as indicators of air quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushdi, A. I.; Al-Mutlaq, K. F.; Simoneit, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    : Samples of air particulate matter (PM) were collected for the determination of chemical elements from June 2006 to May 2007. PM samples were taken in two size modes (PM2.5 and PM10) using MiniVolume air samplers on rooftops of various buildings (15-25 m above ground) in the city of Riyadh. The samples were subjected to XRF analysis to determine both major (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Si, P, S and Fe) and trace elements (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba). The results show that the concentrations of both were higher in PM10 compared to PM2.5 indicating that the major source of the atmospheric PM was local dust. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of high concentrations of PM was in the south and southeast of the city and the lowest was found in the center and north eastern part of the city. This spatial PM distribution was attributed different factors such as wind direction and velocity, existence of cement factories in the southeast of the city, the presence of buildings and trees, and paved streets in the city center that reduce the amount of dust resuspended into the atmosphere. The air quality of the city was found to range from moderate to highly unhealthy for PM2.5 and from good to highly unhealthy for PM10. The enrichment factors for the measured elements were examined and revealed two groups based on their regional distribution. The first group showed no significant spatial changes indicating it has a common source throughout the sampling grid. The second group (mainly S and Ni) showed significant changes as expected from anthropogenic inputs. The S is possibly a combination of a mineralogical (CaSO4) and fossil fuel combustion origin. The source of Ni is probably in emissions from fossil fuel combustion.

  4. A source apportionment of U.S. fine particulate matter air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, George D.; Ito, Kazuhiko; Lall, Ramona

    2011-08-01

    Using daily fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) composition data from the 2000-2005 U.S. EPA Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) for over 200 sites, we applied multivariate methods to identify and quantify the major fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) source components in the U.S. Novel aspects of this work were: (1) the application of factor analysis (FA) to multi-city daily data, drawing upon both spatial and temporal variations of chemical species; and, (2) the exclusion of secondary components (sulfates, nitrates and organic carbon) from the source identification FA to more clearly discern and apportion the PM 2.5 mass to primary emission source categories. For the quantification of source-related mass, we considered two approaches based upon the FA results: 1) using single key tracers for sources identified by FA in a mass regression; and, 2) applying Absolute Principal Component Analysis (APCA). In each case, we followed a two-stage mass regression approach, in which secondary components were first apportioned among the identified sources, and then mass was apportioned to the sources and to other secondary mass not explained by the individual sources. The major U.S. PM 2.5 source categories identified via FA (and their key tracers) were: Metals Industry (Pb, Zn); Crustal/Soil Particles (Ca, Si); Motor Vehicle Traffic (EC, NO 2); Steel Industry (Fe, Mn); Coal Combustion (As, Se); Oil Combustion (V, Ni); Salt Particles (Na, Cl) and Biomass Burning (K). Nationwide spatial plots of the source-related PM 2.5 impacts were confirmatory of the factor interpretations: ubiquitous sources, such as Traffic and Soil, were found to be spread across the nation, more unique sources (such as Steel and Metals Processing) being highest in select industrialized cities, Biomass Burning was highest in the U.S. Northwest, while Residual Oil combustion was highest in cities in the Northeastern U.S. and in cities with major seaports. The sum of these source contributions and the secondary PM

  5. Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in nine California counties: results from CALFINE.

    PubMed

    Ostro, Bart; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Shelley; Feng, Wen-Ying; Lipsett, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between daily counts of mortality and ambient particulate matter<10 microm in diameter (PM10). Relatively few studies, however, have investigated the relationship of mortality with fine particles [PM<2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5)], especially in a multicity setting. We examined associations between PM2.5 and daily mortality in nine heavily populated California counties using data from 1999 through 2002. We considered daily counts of all-cause mortality and several cause-specific subcategories (respiratory, cardiovascular, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes). We also examined these associations among several subpopulations, including the elderly (>65 years of age), males, females, non-high school graduates, whites, and Hispanics. We used Poisson multiple regression models incorporating natural or penalized splines to control for covariates that could affect daily counts of mortality, including time, seasonality, temperature, humidity, and day of the week. We used meta-analyses using random-effects models to pool the observations in all nine counties. The analysis revealed associations of PM2.5 levels with several mortality categories. Specifically, a 10-microg/m3 change in 2-day average PM2.5 concentration corresponded to a 0.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.2-1.0%) increase in all-cause mortality, with similar or greater effect estimates for several other subpopulations and mortality subcategories, including respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, age>65 years, females, deaths out of the hospital, and non-high school graduates. Results were generally insensitive to model specification and the type of spline model used. This analysis adds to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with daily mortality.

  6. Study on particulate matter air pollution in Beijing with MODIS aerosol level 2 products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jietai; Li, Chengcai; Lau, Alexis K.

    2004-09-01

    In the run-up to the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, Chinese government officials at both the central and municipal levels are keenly aware that they must transform Beijing into a world-class city. According to the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BJEPB) to improve its air quality some actions are adopting, including taking steps to increase the forested area surrounding the city preventing dust storms, reducing the automotive vehicles, moving polluting factories now inside the fourth ring road ringing the inner city to locations outside of the fourth ring road, and switching the fuel of public buses and taxis from diesel to natural gas, etc. Will they eliminate most serious environmental problems in Beijing? MODIS aerosol products are helping us to answer this kind of questions. A long-term validation has been finished by sun-photometer observations, and the results proved the relative error of MODIS level 2 products was slightly larger than the estimation of Chu et al. (2002) from the results in most AERONET sites. However, the comparison between the products and moisture-corrected air pollution index (API) data, which were daily released to public by EPB, showed a high correlation coefficient. An air pollution episode in 2003 was investigated by the usage of satellite products. Our conclusion for the air pollution control strategy in Beijing is that only reducing the pollution sources from inner city can't fully solve the pollution problems in Beijing and the regional transports from the nearby southern provinces are contributing a lot to the pollution situation in Beijing.

  7. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  8. Sophisticated Clean Air Strategies Required to Mitigate Against Particulate Organic Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigas, T.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; Moran, E.; McGovern, F. M.; Jennings, S. G.; O’Dowd, C.

    2017-03-01

    Since the 1980’s, measures mitigating the impact of transboundary air pollution have been implemented successfully as evidenced in the 1980–2014 record of atmospheric sulphur pollution over the NE-Atlantic, a key region for monitoring background northern-hemisphere pollution levels. The record reveals a 72–79% reduction in annual-average airborne sulphur pollution (SO4 and SO2, respectively) over the 35-year period. The NE-Atlantic, as observed from the Mace Head research station on the Irish coast, can be considered clean for 64% of the time during which sulphate dominates PM1 levels, contributing 42% of the mass, and for the remainder of the time, under polluted conditions, a carbonaceous (organic matter and Black Carbon) aerosol prevails, contributing 60% to 90% of the PM1 mass and exhibiting a trend whereby its contribution increases with increasing pollution levels. The carbonaceous aerosol is known to be diverse in source and nature and requires sophisticated air pollution policies underpinned by sophisticated characterisation and source apportionment capabilities to inform selective emissions-reduction strategies. Inauspiciously, however, this carbonaceous concoction is not measured in regulatory Air Quality networks.

  9. Sophisticated Clean Air Strategies Required to Mitigate Against Particulate Organic Pollution.

    PubMed

    Grigas, T; Ovadnevaite, J; Ceburnis, D; Moran, E; McGovern, F M; Jennings, S G; O'Dowd, C

    2017-03-17

    Since the 1980's, measures mitigating the impact of transboundary air pollution have been implemented successfully as evidenced in the 1980-2014 record of atmospheric sulphur pollution over the NE-Atlantic, a key region for monitoring background northern-hemisphere pollution levels. The record reveals a 72-79% reduction in annual-average airborne sulphur pollution (SO4 and SO2, respectively) over the 35-year period. The NE-Atlantic, as observed from the Mace Head research station on the Irish coast, can be considered clean for 64% of the time during which sulphate dominates PM1 levels, contributing 42% of the mass, and for the remainder of the time, under polluted conditions, a carbonaceous (organic matter and Black Carbon) aerosol prevails, contributing 60% to 90% of the PM1 mass and exhibiting a trend whereby its contribution increases with increasing pollution levels. The carbonaceous aerosol is known to be diverse in source and nature and requires sophisticated air pollution policies underpinned by sophisticated characterisation and source apportionment capabilities to inform selective emissions-reduction strategies. Inauspiciously, however, this carbonaceous concoction is not measured in regulatory Air Quality networks.

  10. Sophisticated Clean Air Strategies Required to Mitigate Against Particulate Organic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Grigas, T.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; Moran, E.; McGovern, F. M.; Jennings, S. G.; O’Dowd, C.

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1980’s, measures mitigating the impact of transboundary air pollution have been implemented successfully as evidenced in the 1980–2014 record of atmospheric sulphur pollution over the NE-Atlantic, a key region for monitoring background northern-hemisphere pollution levels. The record reveals a 72–79% reduction in annual-average airborne sulphur pollution (SO4 and SO2, respectively) over the 35-year period. The NE-Atlantic, as observed from the Mace Head research station on the Irish coast, can be considered clean for 64% of the time during which sulphate dominates PM1 levels, contributing 42% of the mass, and for the remainder of the time, under polluted conditions, a carbonaceous (organic matter and Black Carbon) aerosol prevails, contributing 60% to 90% of the PM1 mass and exhibiting a trend whereby its contribution increases with increasing pollution levels. The carbonaceous aerosol is known to be diverse in source and nature and requires sophisticated air pollution policies underpinned by sophisticated characterisation and source apportionment capabilities to inform selective emissions-reduction strategies. Inauspiciously, however, this carbonaceous concoction is not measured in regulatory Air Quality networks. PMID:28303958

  11. Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution Exposure and Mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, George D.; Ahn, Jiyoung; Cromar, Kevin R.; Shao, Yongzhao; Reynolds, Harmony R.; Jerrett, Michael; Lim, Chris C.; Shanley, Ryan; Park, Yikyung; Hayes, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Outdoor fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) has been identified as a global health threat, but the number of large U.S. prospective cohort studies with individual participant data remains limited, especially at lower recent exposures. Objectives: We aimed to test the relationship between long-term exposure PM2.5 and death risk from all nonaccidental causes, cardiovascular (CVD), and respiratory diseases in 517,041 men and women enrolled in the National Institutes of Health-AARP cohort. Methods: Individual participant data were linked with residence PM2.5 exposure estimates across the continental United States for a 2000–2009 follow-up period when matching census tract–level PM2.5 exposure data were available. Participants enrolled ranged from 50 to 71 years of age, residing in six U.S. states and two cities. Cox proportional hazard models yielded hazard ratio (HR) estimates per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 exposure. Results: PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with total mortality (HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05) and CVD mortality (HR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.15), but the association with respiratory mortality was not statistically significant (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.13). A significant association was found with respiratory mortality only among never smokers (HR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.56). Associations with 10-μg/m3 PM2.5 exposures in yearly participant residential annual mean, or in metropolitan area-wide mean, were consistent with baseline exposure model results. Associations with PM2.5 were similar when adjusted for ozone exposures. Analyses of California residents alone also yielded statistically significant PM2.5 mortality HRs for total and CVD mortality. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 air pollution was associated with an increased risk of total and CVD mortality, providing an independent test of the PM2.5–mortality relationship in a new large U.S. prospective cohort experiencing lower post-2000 PM2.5 exposure levels

  12. Germ-line mutations, DNA damage, and global hypermethylation in mice exposed to particulate air pollution in an urban/industrial location

    PubMed Central

    Yauk, Carole; Polyzos, Aris; Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; Somers, Christopher M.; Godschalk, Roger W.; Van Schooten, Frederik J.; Berndt, M. Lynn; Pogribny, Igor P.; Koturbash, Igor; Williams, Andrew; Douglas, George R.; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is widespread, yet we have little understanding of the long-term health implications associated with exposure. We investigated DNA damage, mutation, and methylation in gametes of male mice exposed to particulate air pollution in an industrial/urban environment. C57BL/CBA mice were exposed in situ to ambient air near two integrated steel mills and a major highway, alongside control mice breathing high-efficiency air particulate (HEPA) filtered ambient air. PCR analysis of an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus revealed a 1.6-fold increase in sperm mutation frequency in mice exposed to ambient air for 10 wks, followed by a 6-wk break, compared with HEPA-filtered air, indicating that mutations were induced in spermatogonial stem cells. DNA collected after 3 or 10 wks of exposure did not exhibit increased mutation frequency. Bulky DNA adducts were below the detection threshold in testes samples, suggesting that DNA reactive chemicals do not reach the germ line and cause ESTR mutation. In contrast, DNA strand breaks were elevated at 3 and 10 wks, possibly resulting from oxidative stress arising from exposure to particles and associated airborne pollutants. Sperm DNA was hypermethylated in mice breathing ambient relative to HEPA-filtered air and this change persisted following removal from the environmental exposure. Increased germ-line DNA mutation frequencies may cause population-level changes in genetic composition and disease. Changes in methylation can have widespread repercussions for chromatin structure, gene expression and genome stability. Potential health effects warrant extensive further investigation. PMID:18195365

  13. Evaluation of the effect of media velocity on filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filters.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Steven L; Parsons, Michael S; Hogancamp, Kristina U; Waggoner, Charles A

    2008-11-01

    High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are widely used to control particulate matter emissions from processes that involve management or treatment of radioactive materials. Section FC of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers AG-1 Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment currently restricts media velocity to a maximum of 2.5 cm/sec in any application where this standard is invoked. There is some desire to eliminate or increase this media velocity limit. A concern is that increasing media velocity will result in higher emissions of ultrafine particles; thus, it is unlikely that higher media velocities will be allowed without data to demonstrate the effect of media velocity on removal of ultrafine particles. In this study, the performance of nuclear grade HEPA filters, with respect to filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size, was evaluated as a function of media velocity. Deep-pleat nuclear grade HEPA filters (31 cm x 31 cm x 29 cm) were evaluated at media velocities ranging from 2.0 to 4.5 cm/sec using a potassium chloride aerosol challenge having a particle size distribution centered near the HEPA filter most penetrating particle size. Filters were challenged under two distinct mass loading rate regimes through the use of or exclusion of a 3 microm aerodynamic diameter cut point cyclone. Filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size measurements were made throughout the duration of filter testing. Filter efficiency measured at the onset of aerosol challenge was noted to decrease with increasing media velocity, with values ranging from 99.999 to 99.977%. The filter most penetrating particle size recorded at the onset of testing was noted to decrease slightly as media velocity was increased and was typically in the range of 110-130 nm. Although additional testing is needed, these findings indicate that filters operating at media velocities up to 4.5 cm/sec will meet or exceed current filter efficiency requirements. Additionally

  14. Direct micromechanics derivation and DEM confirmation of the elastic moduli of isotropic particulate materials:. Part II Particle rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischmann, J. A.; Drugan, W. J.; Plesha, M. E.

    2013-07-01

    In Part I, Fleischmann et al. (2013), we performed theoretical analyses of three cubic packings of uniform spheres (simple, body-centered, and face-centered) assuming no particle rotation, employed these results to derive the effective elastic moduli for a statistically isotropic particulate material, and assessed these results by performing numerical discrete element method (DEM) simulations with particle rotations prohibited. In this second part, we explore the effect that particle rotation has on the overall elastic moduli of a statistically isotropic particulate material. We do this both theoretically, by re-analyzing the elementary cells of the three cubic packings with particle rotation allowed, which leads to the introduction of an internal parameter to measure zero-energy rotations at the local level, and numerically via DEM simulations in which particle rotation is unrestrained. We find that the effects of particle rotation cannot be neglected. For unrestrained particle rotation, we find that the self-consistent homogenization assumption applied to the locally body-centered cubic packing incorporating particle rotation effects most accurately predicts the measured values of the overall elastic moduli obtained from the DEM simulations, in particular Poisson's ratio. Our new self-consistent results and theoretical modeling of particle rotation effects together lead to significantly better theoretical predictions of Poisson's ratio than all prior published results. Moreover, our results are based on a direct micromechanics analysis of specific geometrical packings of uniform spheres, in contrast to prior theoretical analyses based on hypotheses involving overall inter-particle contact distributions. Thus, our results permit a direct assessment of the reasons for the theory-experiment discrepancies noted in the literature with regard to previous theoretical derivations of the macroscopic elastic moduli for particulate materials, and our new theoretical results

  15. Seasonal variation in the acute effect of particulate air pollution on mortality in the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Renjie; Peng, Roger D.; Meng, Xia; Zhou, Zhijun; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological findings concerning the seasonal variation in the acute effect of particulate matter (PM) are inconsistent. We investigated the seasonality in the association between PM with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10) and daily mortality in 17 Chinese cities. We fitted the “main” time-series model after adjustment for time-varying confounders using smooth functions with natural splines. We established a “seasonal” model to obtain the season-specific effect estimates of PM10, and a “harmonic” model to show the seasonal pattern that allows PM10 effects to vary smoothly with the day in a year. At the national level, a 10 μg/m3 increase in the two-day moving average concentrations (lag 01) of PM10 was associated with 0.45% [95% posterior interval (PI), 0.15% to 0.76%], 0.17% (95% PI, −0.09% to 0.43%), 0.55% (95% PI, 0.15% to 0.96%) and 0.25% (95%PI, −0.05% to 0.56%) increases in total mortality for winter, spring, summer and fall, respectively. For the smoothly-varying plots of seasonality, we identified a two-peak pattern in winter and summer. The observed seasonal pattern was generally insensitive to model specifications. Our analyses suggest that the acute effect of particulate air pollution could vary by seasons with the largest effect in winter and summer in China. To our knowledge, this is the first multicity study in developing countries to analyze the seasonal variations of PM-related health effects. PMID:23500824

  16. Particulate matter air pollution in Europe in a +2 °C warming world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacressonnière, Gwendoline; Watson, Laura; Gauss, Michael; Engardt, Magnuz; Andersson, Camilla; Beekmann, Matthias; Colette, Augustin; Foret, Gilles; Josse, Béatrice; Marécal, Virginie; Nyiri, Agnes; Siour, Guillaume; Sobolowski, Stefan; Vautard, Robert

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of the IMPACT2C project, we have evaluated the future European particulate matter concentrations under the influence of climate change and anthropogenic emission reductions. To do so, 30-year simulations for present and future scenarios were performed with an ensemble of four regional Chemical Transport Models. +2 °C scenarios were issued from different regional climate simulations belonging to the CORDEX experiment (RCP4.5 scenario). Comparing present day simulations to observations shows that these simulations meet the requested quality criteria even if some biases do exist. Also, we showed that using regional climate models instead of meteorological reanalysis was not critical for the quality of our simulations. Present day as well as future scenarios show the large variability between models associated with different meteorology and process parameterizations. Future projections of PM concentrations show a large reduction of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in a +2 °C climate over the European continent (especially over Benelux), which can be mostly attributed to emission reduction policies. Under a current legislation scenario, annual PM10 could be reduced by between 1.8 and 2.9 μg m-3 (14.1-20.4%). If maximum technologically feasible emission reductions were implemented, further reductions of 1.4-1.9 μg m-3 (18.6-20.9%) are highlighted. Changes due to a +2 °C warming, in isolation from emission changes, are in general much weaker (-1.1 to +0.4 μg m-3,-0.3 to +5.1% for annual PM10 averaged over the European domain). Even if large differences exist between models, we have determined that the decrease of PM over Europe associated with emission reduction is a robust result. The patterns of PM changes resulting from climate change (for example the increase of PM over Spain and southern France and the decrease of PM10 over eastern Europe) are also robustly predicted even if its amplitude remains weak compared to changes associated with emission

  17. Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammatory Responses to Long-Term Particulate Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Schwartz, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Background Human data linking inflammation with long-term particulate matter (PM) exposure are still lacking. Emerging evidence suggests that people with metabolic syndrome (MS) may be a more susceptible population. Objectives Our goal was to examine potential inflammatory responses associated with long-term PM exposure and MS-dependent susceptibility. Methods We conducted secondary analyses of white blood cell (WBC) count and MS data from The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm) data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Aerometric Information Retrieval System. Estimated 1-year PM10 exposures were aggregated at the centroid of each residential census-block group, using distance-weighted averages from all monitors in the residing and adjoining counties. We restricted our analyses to adults (20–89 years of age) with normal WBC (4,000–11,000 × 106/L), no existing cardiovascular disease, complete PM10 and MS data, and living in current residences > 1 year (n = 2,978; age 48.5 ± 17.8 years). Mixed-effects models were constructed to account for autocorrelation and potential confounders. Results After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic factors, lifestyles, residential characteristics, and MS, we observed a statistically significant association between WBC count and estimated local PM10 levels (p = 0.035). Participants from the least polluted areas (1-year PM10 < 1st quartile cutoff: 27.8 μg/m3) had lower WBC counts than the others (difference = 145 × 106/L; 95% confidence interval, 10–281). We also noted a graded association between PM10 and WBC across subpopulations with increasing MS components, with 91 × 106/L difference in WBC for those with no MS versus 214, 338, and 461 × 106/L for those with 3, 4, and 5 metabolic abnormalities (trend-test p = 0.15). Conclusions Our study revealed a positive association between long-term PM exposure and hematological markers of

  18. Particulate air pollution induces arrhythmia via oxidative stress and calcium calmodulin kinase II activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin-Bae; Kim, Changsoo; Choi, Eunmi; Park, Sanghoon; Park, Hyelim; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Shin, Dong Chun; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Joung, Boyoung

    2012-02-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) can increase the incidence of arrhythmia. However, the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM is poorly understood. This study investigated the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM. In Sprague–Dawley rats, QT interval was increased from 115.0 ± 14.0 to 142.1 ± 18.4 ms (p = 0.02) after endotracheal exposure of DEP (200 μg/ml for 30 min, n = 5). Ventricular premature contractions were more frequently observed after DEP exposure (100%) than baseline (20%, p = 0.04). These effects were prevented by pretreatment of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 5 mmol/L, n = 3). In 12 Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, DEP infusion of 12.5 μg/ml for 20 min prolonged action potential duration (APD) at only left ventricular base increasing apicobasal repolarization gradients. Spontaneous early afterdepolarization (EAD) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) were observed in 8 (67%) and 6 (50%) hearts, respectively, versus no spontaneous triggered activity or VT in any hearts before DEP infusion. DEP-induced APD prolongation, EAD and VT were successfully prevented with NAC (5 mmol/L, n = 5), nifedipine (10 μmol/L, n = 5), and active Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) blockade, KN 93 (1 μmol/L, n = 5), but not by thapsigargin (200 nmol/L) plus ryanodine (10 μmol/L, n = 5) and inactive CaMKII blockade, KN 92 (1 μmol/L, n = 5). In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, DEP provoked ROS generation in dose dependant manner. DEP (12.5 μg/ml) induced apoptosis, and this effect was prevented by NAC and KN 93. Thus, this study shows that in vivo and vitro exposure of PM induced APD prolongation, EAD and ventricular arrhythmia. These effects might be caused by oxidative stress and CaMKII activation. -- Highlights: ► The ambient PM consistently prolonged repolarization. ► The ambient PM induced triggered activity and ventricular arrhythmia. ► These effects were prevented by antioxidants, I{sub CaL} blockade and CaMKII blockade. ► The ambient PM can induce

  19. Recycled Materials - Applications to Air Force Pavements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    an unlimited supply of natural materials. Since the embargo, the law of supply and demand had pushed the price of asphalt to $180 per ton* by early...are a number of reasons for planing the pae,.-%nt surface ( Lawing , 1976). The pavement surface over a bridge can be re- moved by planing before...Donald :. 979. "Recyc.in, Aschalt Pavements," Federal Highway Admistration Demonstration roject N-. 39, Sherburne, Vt., 38 pp. Ga-nnon, Charles R., et

  20. Effect of Particulate Contaminants on the Development of Biofilms at Air/Water Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhuan; Christopher, Gordon

    2016-03-22

    The development of biofilms at air/water or oil/water interfaces has important ramifications on several applications, but it has received less attention than biofilm formation on solid surfaces. A key difference between the growth of biofilms on solid surfaces versus liquid interfaces is the range of complicated boundary conditions the liquid interface can create that may affect bacteria, as they adsorb onto and grow on the interface. This situation is exacerbated by the existence of complex interfaces in which interfacially adsorbed components can even more greatly affect interfacial boundary conditions. In this work, we present evidence as to how particle-laden interfaces impact biofilm growth at an air/water interface. We find that particles can enhance the rate of growth and final strength of biofilms at liquid interfaces by providing sites of increased adhesive strength for bacteria. The increased adhesion stems from creating localized areas of hydrophobicity that protrude in the water phase and provide sites where bacteria preferentially adhere. This mechanism is found to be primarily controlled by particle composition, with particle size providing a secondary effect. This increased adhesion through interfacial conditions creates biofilms with properties similar to those observed when adhesion is increased through biological means. Because of the generally understood ubiquity of increased bacteria attachment to hydrophobic surfaces, this result has general applicability to pellicle formation for many pellicle-forming bacteria.

  1. Source-specific fine particulate air pollution and systemic inflammation in ischaemic heart disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Siponen, Taina; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Aurela, Minna; Dufva, Hilkka; Hillamo, Risto; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Huttunen, Kati; Pekkanen, Juha; Pennanen, Arto; Salonen, Iiris; Tiittanen, Pekka; Salonen, Raimo O; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare short-term effects of fine particles (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) from different sources on the blood levels of markers of systemic inflammation. Methods We followed a panel of 52 ischaemic heart disease patients from 15 November 2005 to 21 April 2006 with clinic visits in every second week in the city of Kotka, Finland, and determined nine inflammatory markers from blood samples. In addition, we monitored outdoor air pollution at a fixed site during the study period and conducted a source apportionment of PM2.5 using the Environmental Protection Agency's model EPA PMF 3.0. We then analysed associations between levels of source-specific PM2.5 and markers of systemic inflammation using linear mixed models. Results We identified five source categories: regional and long-range transport (LRT), traffic, biomass combustion, sea salt, and pulp industry. We found most evidence for the relation of air pollution and inflammation in LRT, traffic and biomass combustion; the most relevant inflammation markers were C-reactive protein, interleukin-12 and myeloperoxidase. Sea salt was not positively associated with any of the inflammatory markers. Conclusions Results suggest that PM2.5 from several sources, such as biomass combustion and traffic, are promoters of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25479755

  2. Response of SO2 and particulate air pollution to local and regional emission controls: A case study in Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hao; Vinnikov, Konstantin Y.; Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Jongeward, Andrew R.; Li, Zhanqing; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Hains, Jennifer C.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper addresses the questions of what effect local regulations can have on pollutants with different lifetimes and how surface observations and remotely sensed data can be used to determine the impacts. We investigated the decadal trends of tropospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) and aerosol pollution over Maryland and its surrounding states, using surface, aircraft, and satellite measurements. Aircraft measurements indicated fewer isolated SO2 plumes observed in summers, a ˜40% decrease of column SO2, and a ˜20% decrease of atmospheric optical depth (AOD) over Maryland after the implementation of local regulations on sulfur emissions from power plants (˜90% reduction from 2010). Surface observations of SO2 and particulate matter (PM) concentrations in Maryland show similar trends. OMI SO2 and MODIS AOD observations were used to investigate the column contents of air pollutants over the eastern U.S.; these indicate decreasing trends in column SO2 (˜60% decrease) and AOD (˜20% decrease). The decrease of upwind SO2 emissions also reduced aerosol loadings over the downwind Atlantic Ocean near the coast by ˜20%, while indiscernible changes of the SO2 column were observed. A step change of SO2 emissions in Maryland starting in 2009-2010 had an immediate and profound benefit in terms of local surface SO2 concentrations but a modest impact on aerosol pollution, indicating that short-lived pollutants are effectively controlled locally, while long-lived pollutants require regional measures.

  3. Carcinogens and mutagens in ambient-air particulate matter: sources and trends in Contra Costa County. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flessel, P.; Guirguis, G.; Chang, K.; Cheng, J.; Lecocq, J.

    1985-06-01

    The report describes a more-sensitive method for measuring aerosol mutagens, the identification of sources of mutagens and the analysis of trends in mutagen and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in particulate organic matter (POM). A highly sensitive version of the Ames Salmonella test, called the microsuspension test, was applied to measure the mutagenic activity in organic extracts of community aerosols. Application of the test made possible high resolution diurnal studies of mutagenicity in air samples of only 2 hours duration. The origins of mutagens in POM were investigated during seasonal pollution episodes. Samples were analyzed for mutagenic activity, PAH, NO/sub 3//sup -1/, pollutant gases and elemental source tracers. Industrial contributions to mutagenic aerosols were suggested by significant positive correlations between mutagens and S at stations near oil refineries and chemical plants. Mutagens and PAH were also positively correlated with tracers for motor vehicles, (Br, CO) and secondary aerosols NO/sub 3//sup -1/. Routine collection and analysis of 4-month seasonal composite filter samples was carried out between 1979-1984. Levels of most pollutants, including mutagens and PAH, were highest in the winter (Nov. - Feb.). Monitoring also revealed a positive trend in the concentration of mutagenic aerosols, despite decreasing or constant levels of other pollutants including PAH.

  4. Microanalysis of indoor aerosols and the impact of a compact high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter system.

    PubMed

    Abraham, M E

    1999-03-01

    Aerosol particles in municipal atmospheres are of increasing public health concern; however, since most of our time is spent indoors, indoor aerosols must be researched in counterpart. Compact High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter systems are commonly employed in residences to alleviate airborne dust concentrations. In this study, a detailed and original methodology was used to determine concentrations and types of submicrometer aerosols, as well as of large (> 4 microns) dust particles. Scanning electron microscopy was used to quantify and characterize ambient aerosols collected from filtered and non-filtered rooms. Particle concentrations were significantly lower in samples collected in the presence of the filter system (mean 23 to 8 coarse particles liter-1, 63% reduction; 13 to 3 inorganic submicron particles cm-3, 76% reduction; 85 to 33 total submicron particles cm-3, 62% reduction; all P < 0.05). This study provides a new methodology for analysis of indoor aerosols and new data on their physico-chemical characteristics. Since the filter systems are effective at reducing submicron aerosol concentrations, they may improve the health of individuals such as asthmatics, who experience health problems caused by anthropogenic fine particles.

  5. Source apportionment of airborne particulate matter in Southeast Texas using a source-oriented 3D air quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2010-09-01

    A nested version of the source-oriented externally mixed UCD/CIT model was developed to study the source contributions to airborne particulate matter (PM) during a two-week long air quality episode during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000). Contributions to primary PM and secondary ammonium sulfate in the Houston-Galveston Bay (HGB) and Beaumont-Port Arthur (BPA) areas were determined. The predicted 24-h elemental carbon (EC), organic compounds (OC), sulfate, ammonium ion and primary PM 2.5 mass are in good agreement with filter-based observations. Predicted concentrations of hourly sulfate, ammonium ion, and primary OC from diesel and gasoline engines and biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) at La Porte, Texas agree well with measurements from an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). The UCD/CIT model predicts that EC is mainly from diesel engines and majority of the primary OC is from internal combustion engines and industrial sources. Open burning contributes large fractions of EC, OC and primary PM 2.5 mass. Road dust, internal combustion engines and industries are the major sources of primary PM 2.5. Wildfire dominates the contributions to all primary PM components in areas near the fires. The predicted source contributions to primary PM are in general agreement with results from a chemical mass balance (CMB) model. Discrepancy between the two models suggests that further investigations on the industrial PM emissions are necessary. Secondary ammonium sulfate accounts for the majority of the secondary inorganic PM. Over 80% of the secondary sulfate in the 4 km domain is produced in upwind areas. Coal combustion is the largest source of sulfate. Ammonium ion is mainly from agriculture sources and contributions from gasoline vehicles are significant in urban areas.

  6. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Pope, C Arden; Brook, Jeffrey R; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Holguin, Fernando; Hong, Yuling; Luepker, Russell V; Mittleman, Murray A; Peters, Annette; Siscovick, David; Smith, Sidney C; Whitsel, Laurie; Kaufman, Joel D

    2010-06-01

    In 2004, the first American Heart Association scientific statement on "Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease" concluded that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the interim, numerous studies have expanded our understanding of this association and further elucidated the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved. The main objective of this updated American Heart Association scientific statement is to provide a comprehensive review of the new evidence linking PM exposure with cardiovascular disease, with a specific focus on highlighting the clinical implications for researchers and healthcare providers. The writing group also sought to provide expert consensus opinions on many aspects of the current state of science and updated suggestions for areas of future research. On the basis of the findings of this review, several new conclusions were reached, including the following: Exposure to PM <2.5 microm in diameter (PM(2.5)) over a few hours to weeks can trigger cardiovascular disease-related mortality and nonfatal events; longer-term exposure (eg, a few years) increases the risk for cardiovascular mortality to an even greater extent than exposures over a few days and reduces life expectancy within more highly exposed segments of the population by several months to a few years; reductions in PM levels are associated with decreases in cardiovascular mortality within a time frame as short as a few years; and many credible pathological mechanisms have been elucidated that lend biological plausibility to these findings. It is the opinion of the writing group that the overall evidence is consistent with a causal relationship between PM(2.5) exposure and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This body of evidence has grown and been strengthened substantially since the first American Heart Association scientific statement was published. Finally, PM(2.5) exposure is deemed a modifiable factor

  7. On-bicycle exposure to particulate air pollution: Particle number, black carbon, PM2.5, and particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D.

    2015-12-01

    Inhalation of air pollution during transport is an important exposure pathway, especially for certain modes of travel and types of particles. We measured concentrations of particulate air pollution (particle number [PN], black carbon [BC], fine particles [PM2.5], particle size) using a mobile, bicycle-based monitoring platform during morning and afternoon rush-hour to explore patterns of exposure while cycling (34 days between August 14 and October 16, 2012 in Minneapolis, MN). Measurements were geo-located at 1 ​s intervals along 3 prescribed monitoring routes totaling 85 h (1426 km) of monitoring. Mean morning [afternoon] on-road concentrations were 32,500 [16,600] pt cm-3, 2.5 [0.7] μg m-3 BC, 8.7 [8.3] μg m-3 PM2.5, and 42 [39] nm particle diameter. Concentrations were correlated with street functional class and declined within small distances from a major road (e.g., for PN and BC, mean concentration decreased ∼20% by moving 1 block away from major roads to adjacent local roads). We estimate the share of on-bicycle exposure attributable to near-traffic emissions (vs. regional pollution) is ∼50% for PN and BC; ∼25% for PM2.5. Regression models of instantaneous traffic volumes, derived from on-bicycle video recordings of nearby traffic, quantify the increase in particle-concentrations associated with each passing vehicle; for example, trucks were associated with acute, high concentration exposure events (average concentration-increase per truck: 31,000 pt cm-3, 1.0 μg m-3 PM2.5, 1.6 μg m-3 BC). Our findings could be used to inform design of low-exposure bicycle networks in urban areas.

  8. Behavior of particulate materials during iron fertilization experiments in the Western Subarctic Pacific (SEEDS and SEEDS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, Takafumi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Imai, Keiri

    2009-12-01

    During two mesoscale iron-enrichment studies in the northwestern subarctic Pacific (SEEDS in 2001 summer and SEEDS II in 2004 summer), particulate materials from the iron-induced phytoplankton bloom in the upper water column were monitored to analyze the export processes beneath the upper mixed layer, mainly with drifting sediment traps. We could not observe the total downward export process of the high accumulation of particulate organic carbon from the mixed layer induced by the large diatom bloom of SEEDS [e.g., Tsuda, A., Takeda, S., Saito, H., Nishioka, J., Nojiri, Y., Kudo, I., Kiyosawa, H., Shiomoto, A., Imai, K., Ono, T., Shimamoto, A., Tsumune, D., Yoshimura, T., Aono, T., Hinuma, A., Kinugasa, M., Suzuki, K., Sohrin, Y., Noiri, Y., Tani, H., Deguchi, Y., Tsurushima, N., Ogawa, H., Fukami, K., Kuma, K., Saino, T., 2003. A mesoscale iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific induces large centric diatom bloom. Science 300, 958-961] because the 2-week observation period was too short to examine the decline phase of the bloom. In contrast, in SEEDS II, the particulate organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen were accumulated 123 and 23 mmol m -2, respectively, in the mixed layer until day-15 (days from iron-enrichment), and then ca. 90% were removed from the mixed layer by day-25. The sediment traps at 40 m depth between day-15 and day-25 accounted for at least more than 35% of these particles. There was no large variation in chemical composition in settling particles above 100 m depth throughout the experimental periods both in SEEDS and SEEDS II. The content of biogenic opal remained more than 50% of all settling particles during SEEDS, while the content of biogenic calcium carbonate was relatively high, with a low biogenic opal content of consistently less than 30% during SEEDS II. These results suggest that high standing stock of seed population of diatoms before the iron fertilization, indicated by low C/Si ratio of particulate matter, is an

  9. Comparison of pressurized fluid extraction, Soxhlet extraction and sonication for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air and diesel exhaust particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Rynö, M; Rantanen, L; Papaioannou, E; Konstandopoulos, A G; Koskentalo, T; Savela, K

    2006-04-01

    In order to characterize and compare the chemical composition of diesel particulate matter and ambient air samples collected on filters, different extraction procedures were tested and their extraction efficiencies and recoveries determined. This study is an evaluation of extraction methods using the standard 16 EPA PAHs with HPLC fluorescence analysis. Including LC analysis also GC and MS methods for the determination of PAHs can be used. Soxhlet extraction was compared with ultrasonic agitation and pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) using three solvents to extract PAHs from diesel exhaust and urban air particulates. The selected PAH compounds of soluble organic fractions were analyzed by HPLC with a multiple wavelength shift fluorescence detector. The EPA standard mixture of 16 PAH compounds was used as a standard to identify and quantify diesel exhaust-derived PAHs. The most effective extraction method of those tested was pressurized fluid extraction using dichloromethane as a solvent.

  10. Air quality in an animal facility: particulates, ammonia, and volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kacergis, J B; Jones, R B; Reeb, C K; Turner, W A; Ohman, J L; Ardman, M R; Paigen, B

    1996-07-01

    Concentrations of ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particles, and mouse allergen were measured in an animal facility. Ammonia concentrations averaged less than 1 ppm, below any health-based standards. The concentrations of volatile organic compounds were in the 5-15 micrograms/m3 range. Among the volatile organic compounds found, only the terpenes a-pinene and a-terpinol (which may be derived from the pine shavings used as bedding) were consistently present in concentrations greater than outdoor air. The primary air contaminant present at concentrations high enough to be of known physiological significance was the mouse allergen, Mus ml. To determine which activities in an animal room generated the highest concentrations of airborne Mus ml, a monitor that counted particles continuously was used. The particle counts were correlated with allergen levels in the worker's breathing zone (r50.83,p,0.05). Thus, a particle counter can be used effectively in an animal facility to identify specific activities that generate high levels of both particles and allergen. Such activities included changing mice from soiled to clean cages, cleaning floors, and changing foam inserts in pressurized individually ventilated cages. To reduce exposure to allergen during cage changing, which is the major activity for an animal caretaker, a capture-type ventilated changing table was designed and tested. Use of such a table reduced exposure to allergen in the worker's breathing zone from 4.961.1 to 2.160.3 ng Mus ml/m3, a level comparable to background levels.

  11. Review of air-coupled ultrasonic materials characterization.

    PubMed

    Chimenti, D E

    2014-09-01

    This article presents a review of air-coupled ultrasonics employed in the characterization or nondestructive inspection of industrial materials. Developments in air-coupled transduction and electronics are briefly treated, although the emphasis here is on methods of characterization and inspection, and in overcoming limitations inherent in the use of such a tenuous sound coupling medium as air. The role of Lamb waves in plate characterization is covered, including the use of air-coupled acoustic beams to measure the elastic and/or viscoelastic properties of a material. Air-coupled acoustic detection, when other methods are employed to generate high-amplitude sound beams is also reviewed. Applications to civil engineering, acoustic tomography, and the characterization of both paper and wood are dealt with here. A brief summary of developments in air-coupled acoustic arrays and the application of air-coupled methods in nonlinear ultrasonics complete the review. In particular, the work of Professor Bernard Hosten and his collaborators at Bordeaux is carefully examined.

  12. Alpha B-crystallin prevents the arrhythmogenic effects of particulate matter isolated from ambient air by attenuating oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hyelim; Park, Sanghoon; Jeon, Hyunju; Song, Byeong-Wook; Kim, Jin-Bae; Kim, Chang-Soo; Pak, Hui-Nam; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Chung, Ji Hyung; Joung, Boyoung

    2013-01-15

    Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by particulate matter (PM) isolated from ambient air and linked to prolonged repolarization and cardiac arrhythmia. We evaluated whether alpha B-crystallin (CryAB), a heat shock protein, could prevent the arrhythmogenic effects of PM by preventing CaMKII activation. CryAB was delivered into cardiac cells using a TAT-protein transduction domain (TAT-CryAB). ECGs were measured before and after tracheal exposure of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and each intervention in adult Sprague–Dawley rats. After endotracheal exposure of DEP (200 μg/mL for 30 minutes, n = 11), QT intervals were prolonged from 115 ± 14 ms to 144 ± 20 ms (p = 0.03), and premature ventricular contractions were observed more frequently (0% vs. 44%) than control (n = 5) and TAT-Cry (n = 5). However, DEP-induced arrhythmia was not observed in TAT-CryAB (1 mg/kg) pretreated rats (n = 5). In optical mapping of Langendorff-perfused rat heats, compared with baseline, DEP infusion of 12.5 μg/mL (n = 12) increased apicobasal action potential duration (APD) differences from 2 ± 6 ms to 36 ± 15 ms (p < 0.001), APD restitution slope from 0.26 ± 0.07 to 1.19 ± 0.11 (p < 0.001) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) from 0% to 75% (p < 0.001). DEP infusion easily induced spatially discordant alternans. However, the effects of DEP were prevented by TAT-CryAB (1 mg/kg, n = 9). In rat myocytes, while DEP increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and phosphated CaMKII, TAT-CryAB prevented these effects. In conclusion, CryAB, a small heat shock protein, might prevent the arrhythmogenic effects of PM by attenuating ROS generation and CaMKII activation. -- Highlights: ► Particulate matter (PM) increases arrhythmia. ► PM induced arrhythmias are related with oxidative stress and CaMKII activation. ► Alpha B-crystallin (CryAB) could attenuate the arrhythmogenic effect of PM. ► CryAB decreases oxidative stress and CaMKII activation

  13. Air Pollution Particulate Matter Collected from an Appalachian Mountaintop Mining Site Induces Microvascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    KNUCKLES, TRAVIS L.; STAPLETON, PHOEBE A.; MINARCHICK, VALERIE C.; ESCH, LAURA; MCCAWLEY, MICHAEL; HENDRYX, MICHAEL; NURKIEWICZ, TIMOTHY R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Air pollution PM is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In Appalachia, PM from mining may represent a health burden to this sensitive population that leads the nation in cardiovascular disease, among others. Cardiovascular consequences following inhalation of PMMTM are unclear, but must be identified to establish causal effects. Methods PM was collected within 1 mile of an active MTM site in southern WV. The PM was extracted and was primarily <10μm in diameter (PM10), consisting largely of sulfur (38%) and silica (24%). Adult male rats were IT with 300 μg PMMTM. Twenty-four hours following exposure, rats were prepared for intravital microscopy, or isolated arteriole experiments. Results PMMTM exposure blunted endothelium-dependent dilation in mesenteric and coronary arterioles by 26%, and 25%, respectively, as well as endothelium-independent dilation. In vivo, PMMTM exposure inhibited endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation (60% reduction). α-adrenergic receptor blockade inhibited PVNS-induced vasoconstriction in exposed animals compared with sham. Conclusions These data suggest that PMMTM exposure impairs microvascular function in disparate microvascular beds, through alterations in NO-mediated dilation and sympathetic nerve influences. Microvascular dysfunction may contribute to cardiovascular disease in regions with MTM sites. PMID:22963349

  14. Source apportionment of size resolved particulate matter at a European air pollution hot spot.

    PubMed

    Pokorná, P; Hovorka, J; Klán, M; Hopke, P K

    2015-01-01

    Positive Matrix Factorization-PMF was applied to hourly resolved elemental composition of fine (PM0.15-1.15) and coarse (PM1.15-10) aerosol particles to apportion their sources in the airshed of residential district, Ostrava-Radvanice and Bartovice in winter 2012. Multiple-site measurement by PM2.5 monitors complements the source apportionment. As there were no statistical significant differences amongst the monitors, the source apportionment derived for the central site data is expected to apply to whole residential district. The apportioned sources of the fine aerosol particles were coal combustion (58.6%), sinter production-hot phase (22.9%), traffic (15%), raw iron production (3.5%), and desulfurization slag processing (<0.5%) whilst road dust (47.3%), sinter production-cold phase (27.7%), coal combustion (16.8%), and raw iron production (8.2%) were resolved being sources of the coarse aerosol particles. The shape and elemental composition of size-segregated aerosol airborne-sampled by an airship aloft presumed air pollution sources helped to interpret the PMF solution.

  15. Divergent effects of urban particulate air pollution on allergic airway responses in experimental asthma: a comparison of field exposure studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increases in ambient particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm (PM2.5) are associated with asthma morbidity and mortality. The overall objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that PM2.5 derived from two distinct urban U.S. communities would induce variable responses to aggravate airway symptoms during experimental asthma. Methods We used a mobile laboratory to conduct community-based inhalation exposures to laboratory rats with ovalbumin-induced allergic airways disease. In Grand Rapids exposures were conducted within 60 m of a major roadway, whereas the Detroit was located in an industrial area more than 400 m from roadways. Immediately after nasal allergen challenge, Brown Norway rats were exposed by whole body inhalation to either concentrated air particles (CAPs) or filtered air for 8 h (7:00 AM - 3:00 PM). Both ambient and concentrated PM2.5 was assessed for mass, size fractionation, and major component analyses, and trace element content. Sixteen hours after exposures, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung lobes were collected and evaluated for airway inflammatory and mucus responses. Results Similar CAPs mass concentrations were generated in Detroit (542 μg/m3) and Grand Rapids (519 μg/m3). Exposure to CAPs at either site had no effects in lungs of non-allergic rats. In contrast, asthmatic rats had 200% increases in airway mucus and had more BALF neutrophils (250% increase), eosinophils (90%), and total protein (300%) compared to controls. Exposure to Detroit CAPs enhanced all allergic inflammatory endpoints by 30-100%, whereas inhalation of Grand Rapids CAPs suppressed all allergic responses by 50%. Detroit CAPs were characterized by high sulfate, smaller sized particles and were derived from local combustion sources. Conversely Grand Rapids CAPs were derived primarily from motor vehicle sources. Conclusions Despite inhalation exposure to the same mass concentration of urban PM2.5, disparate health

  16. Extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society study linking particulate air pollution and mortality.

    PubMed

    Krewski, Daniel; Jerrett, Michael; Burnett, Richard T; Ma, Renjun; Hughes, Edward; Shi, Yuanli; Turner, Michelle C; Pope, C Arden; Thurston, George; Calle, Eugenia E; Thun, Michael J; Beckerman, Bernie; DeLuca, Pat; Finkelstein, Norm; Ito, Kaz; Moore, D K; Newbold, K Bruce; Ramsay, Tim; Ross, Zev; Shin, Hwashin; Tempalski, Barbara

    2009-05-01

    We conducted an extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society (ACS) Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) cohort in order to further examine associations between long-term exposure to particulate air pollution and mortality in large U.S. cities. The current study sought to clarify outstanding scientific issues that arose from our earlier HEI-sponsored Reanalysis of the original ACS study data (the Particle Epidemiology Reanalysis Project). Specifically, we examined (1) how ecologic covariates at the community and neighborhood levels might confound and modify the air pollution-mortality association; (2) how spatial autocorrelation and multiple levels of data (e.g., individual and neighborhood) can be taken into account within the random effects Cox model; (3) how using land-use regression to refine measurements of air pollution exposure to the within-city (or intra-urban) scale might affect the size and significance of health effects in the Los Angeles and New York City regions; and (4) what exposure time windows may be most critical to the air pollution-mortality association. The 18 years of follow-up (extended from 7 years in the original study [Pope et al. 1995]) included vital status data for the CPS-II cohort (approximately 1.2 million participants) with multiple cause-of-death codes through December 31, 2000 and more recent exposure data from air pollution monitoring sites for the metropolitan areas. In the Nationwide Analysis, the influence of ecologic covariate data (such as education attainment, housing characteristics, and level of income; data obtained from the 1980 U.S. Census; see Ecologic Covariates sidebar on page 14) on the air pollution-mortality association were examined at the Zip Code area (ZCA) scale, the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) scale, and by the difference between each ZCA value and the MSA value (DIFF). In contrast to previous analyses that did not directly include ecologic covariates at the ZCA scale, risk

  17. Implications of the Differential Toxicological Effects of III-V Ionic and Particulate Materials for Hazard Assessment of Semiconductor Slurries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Li, Ruibin; Pon, Nanetta; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2015-12-22

    Because of tunable band gaps, high carrier mobility, and low-energy consumption rates, III-V materials are attractive for use in semiconductor wafers. However, these wafers require chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) for polishing, which leads to the generation of large quantities of hazardous waste including particulate and ionic III-V debris. Although the toxic effects of micron-sized III-V materials have been studied in vivo, no comprehensive assessment has been undertaken to elucidate the hazardous effects of submicron particulates and released III-V ionic components. Since III-V materials may contribute disproportionately to the hazard of CMP slurries, we obtained GaP, InP, GaAs, and InAs as micron- (0.2-3 μm) and nanoscale (<100 nm) particles for comparative studies of their cytotoxic potential in macrophage (THP-1) and lung epithelial (BEAS-2B) cell lines. We found that nanosized III-V arsenides, including GaAs and InAs, could induce significantly more cytotoxicity over a 24-72 h observation period. In contrast, GaP and InP particulates of all sizes as well as ionic GaCl3 and InCl3 were substantially less hazardous. The principal mechanism of III-V arsenide nanoparticle toxicity is dissolution and shedding of toxic As(III) and, to a lesser extent, As(V) ions. GaAs dissolves in the cell culture medium as well as in acidifying intracellular compartments, while InAs dissolves (more slowly) inside cells. Chelation of released As by 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid interfered in GaAs toxicity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that III-V arsenides, GaAs and InAs nanoparticles, contribute in a major way to the toxicity of III-V materials that could appear in slurries. This finding is of importance for considering how to deal with the hazard potential of CMP slurries.

  18. Materials, design and processing of air encapsulated MEMS packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Nathan T.

    This work uses a three-dimensional air cavity technology to improve the fabrication, and functionality of microelectronics devices, performance of on-board transmission lines, and packaging of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). The air cavity process makes use of the decomposition of a patterned sacrificial polymer followed by the diffusion of its by-products through a curing polymer overcoat to obtain the embedded air structure. Applications and research of air cavities have focused on simple designs that concentrate on the size and functionality of the particular device. However, a lack of guidelines for fabrication, materials used, and structural design has led to mechanical stability issues and processing refinements. This work investigates improved air gap cavities for use in MEMS packaging processes, resulting in fewer fabrication flaws and lower cost. The identification of new materials, such as novel photo-definable organic/inorganic hybrid polymers, was studied for increased strength and rigidity due to their glass-like structure. A novel epoxy polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) material was investigated and characterized for use as a photodefineable, permanent dielectrics with improved mechanical properties. The POSS material improved the air gap fabrication because it served as a high-selectivity etch mask for patterning sacrificial materials as well as a cavity overcoat material with improved rigidity. An investigation of overcoat thickness and decomposition kinetics provided a fundamental understanding of the properties that impart mechanical stability to cavities of different shape and volume. Metallization of the cavities was investigated so as to provide hermetic sealing and improved cavity strength. The improved air cavity, wafer-level packages were tested using resonator-type devices and chip-level lead frame packaging. The air cavity package was molded under traditional lead frame molding pressures and tested for mechanical

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a complete classification of all materials used in the construction of, or brought inside, homes and office buildings. n the classification tables Presented in the report, shaded entries are potential Sources of indoor air emissions. he classification system is b...

  20. Trends of road dust emissions contributions on ambient air particulate levels at rural, urban and industrial sites in southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Pandolfi, M.; Lozano, A.; Contreras González, J.; Querol, X.

    2014-04-01

    The impact of road dust emissions on PM10 and PM2.5 (atmospheric particulate matter with diameteer < 10 μm and 2.5 μm mass concentrations recorded from 2003 to 2010 at 11 locations (rural, urban and industrial) in southern Spain was estimated based on the chemical characterization of PM and the use of a constrained Positive Matrix Factorization, where the chemical profile of local road dust samples is used as a priori knowledge. Results indicate that road dust increased PM10 levels on average by 21-35% at traffic sites, 29-34% at urban background sites heavily affected by road traffic emissions, 17-22% at urban-industrial sites and 9-22% at rural sites. Road dust contributions to ambient PM levels show a marked seasonality with maxima in summer and minima in winter, likely due to the rainfall frequency. Decreasing concentration trends over the sampling years were found at some traffic and urban sites but in most cases the decreases were less significant than for vehicle exhaust emissions, while concentrations increased at industrial sites, probably due to local peculiarities. Concerning PM2.5, road dust contributions were lower than in PM10, as expected but still important (21-31%, 11-31%, 6-16% and 7% for traffic, urban background, urban-industrial and rural sites, respectively). In addition the three main sources of road dust (carbonaceous particles, brake wear and road wear/mineral) were identified and their contributions to road dust mass loadings estimated, supporting the idea that air quality managers should drive measures aimed at preventing the build-up of road dust particles on roads.

  1. Associations between size-fractionated particulate air pollution and blood pressure in a panel of type II diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ang; Chen, Renjie; Wang, Cuicui; Zhao, Zhuohui; Yang, Changyuan; Lu, Jianxiong; Chen, Xuan; Kan, Haidong

    2015-07-01

    Little is known regarding how the size distribution of particulate matter (PM) air pollution influences its effect on blood pressure (BP), especially among patients with diabetes. The objective of this study was to explore the short-term associations between size-fractionated PM and BP among diabetes patients. We scheduled 6 repeated BP examinations every 2 weeks from 13 April 2013 to 30 June 2013 in a panel of 35 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients recruited from an urban community in Shanghai, China. We measured real-time PM concentrations in the size range of 0.25 to 10 μm. We used linear mixed-effect models to examine the short-term association of size-fractionated PM and BP after controlling for individual characteristics, mean temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, years with diabetes and use of antihypertensive medication. The association with systolic BP and pulse pressure strengthened with decreasing diameter. The size fractions with the strongest associations were 0.25 to 0.40 μm for number concentrations and ≤ 2.5 μm for mass concentrations. Furthermore, these effects occurred immediately even after 0-2h and lasted for up to 48 h following exposure. An interquartile range increase in 24-h average number concentrations of PM0.25-0.40 was associated with increases of 3.61 mmHg in systolic BP and 2.96 mmHg in pulse pressure. Females, patients younger than 65 years of age and patients without antihypertensive treatment were more susceptible to these effects. Our results revealed important size and temporal patterns of PM in elevating BP among diabetes patients in China.

  2. Seasonal cycle and temperature dependence of pinene oxidation products, dicarboxylic acids and nitrophenols in fine and coarse air particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Müller, L.; Winterhalter, R.; Moortgat, G. K.; Hoffmann, T.; Pöschl, U.

    2010-05-01

    Filter samples of fine and coarse air particulate matter (PM) collected over a period of one year in central Europe (Mainz, Germany) were analyzed for water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs), including the α- and β-pinene oxidation products pinic acid, pinonic acid and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA), as well as a variety of dicarboxylic acids and nitrophenols. Seasonal variations and other characteristic features in fine, coarse, and total PM (TSP) are discussed with regard to aerosol sources and sinks in comparison to data from other studies and regions. The ratios of adipic acid and phthalic acid to azelaic acid indicate that the investigated samples were mainly influenced by biogenic sources. A strong Arrhenius-type correlation was found between the 3-MBTCA concentration and inverse temperature (R2=0.79, n=52, Ea=126±10 kJ mol-1, temperature range 275-300 K). Model calculations suggest that the temperature dependence observed for 3-MBTCA can be explained by enhanced photochemical production due to an increase of hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration with increasing temperature, whereas the influence of gas-particle partitioning appears to play a minor role. The results indicate that the OH-initiated oxidation of pinonic acid is the rate-limiting step in the formation of 3-MBTCA, and that 3-MBTCA may be a suitable tracer for the chemical aging of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) by OH radicals. An Arrhenius-type temperature dependence was also observed for the concentration of pinic acid (R2=0.60, n=56, Ea=84±9 kJ mol-1); it can be tentatively explained by the temperature dependence of biogenic pinene emission as the rate-limiting step of pinic acid formation.

  3. Seasonal cycle and temperature dependence of pinene oxidation products, dicarboxylic acids and nitrophenols in fine and coarse air particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Y.; Müller, L.; Winterhalter, R.; Moortgat, G. K.; Hoffmann, T.; Pöschl, U.

    2010-08-01

    Filter samples of fine and coarse air particulate matter (PM) collected over a period of one year in central Europe (Mainz, Germany) were analyzed for water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs), including the α- and β-pinene oxidation products pinic acid, pinonic acid and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA), as well as a variety of dicarboxylic acids and nitrophenols. Seasonal variations and other characteristic features in fine, coarse, and total PM (TSP) are discussed with regard to aerosol sources and sinks in comparison to data from other studies and regions. The ratios of adipic acid and phthalic acid to azelaic acid indicate that the investigated aerosol samples were mainly influenced by biogenic sources. A strong Arrhenius-type correlation was found between the 3-MBTCA concentration and inverse temperature (R2 = 0.79, n = 52, Ea = 126 ± 10 kJ mol-1, temperature range 275-300 K). Model calculations suggest that the temperature dependence observed for 3-MBTCA can be explained by enhanced photochemical production due to an increase of hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration with increasing temperature, whereas the influence of gas-particle partitioning appears to play a minor role. The results indicate that the OH-initiated oxidation of pinonic acid is the rate-limiting step in the formation of 3-MBTCA, and that 3-MBTCA may be a suitable tracer for the chemical aging of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) by OH radicals. An Arrhenius-type temperature dependence was also observed for the concentration of pinic acid (R2 = 0.60, n = 56, Ea = 84 ± 9 kJ mol-1); it can be tentatively explained by the temperature dependence of biogenic pinene emission as the rate-limiting step of pinic acid formation.

  4. Cumulative health risk assessment of halogenated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particulate matters in urban air.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Lin; Jing, Xin; Chang, Wen-Jing; Chen, Zheng-Xia; Zeng, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPAHs) have been reported to occur widely in urban air. Nevertheless, knowledge about the human health risk associated with inhalation exposure to HPAHs is scarce so far. In the present study, nine HPAHs and 16 PAHs were determined in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) collected from Shenzhen, China to address this issue. Concentrations of Σ9HPAHs varied from 0.1 to 1.5 ng/m(3) and from 0.09 to 0.4 ng/m(3) in PM10 and PM2.5 samples, respectively. As for individuals, 9-bromoanthracene, 7-bromobenz(a)anthracene, and 9,10-dibromoanthracene were the dominant congeners. Levels of Σ16PAHs in PM10 and PM2.5 samples ranged from 3.2 to 81 ng/m(3) and from 2.8 to 85 ng/m(3), respectively. Among individual PAHs, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene were the main congeners. According to the season, concentrations of HPAHs and PAHs in atmospheric PM10/PM2.5 samples show a similar decreasing trend with an order: winter>autumn>spring>summer. The daily intake (DI) of PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs and PAHs were estimated. Our results indicated that children have the highest DI levels via inhalation exposure. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) induced by PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs and PAHs were calculated. The ILCR values showed a similar decreasing trend with an order: adults>children>seniors>adolescent. Overall, the ILCR values induced by HPAHs and PAHs were far below the priority risk level (10(-4)), indicating no obvious cancer risk. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the human health risk associated with inhalation exposure to PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs.

  5. Organic particulate material levels in the atmosphere: conditions favoring sensitivity to varying relative humidity and temperature.

    PubMed

    Pankow, James F

    2010-04-13

    This study examines the sensitivity in predicted levels of atmospheric organic particulate matter (M(o), microg m(-3)) as those levels may potentially be affected by changes in relative humidity and temperature. In a given system, for each partitioning compound, f(g) and f(p) represent the gaseous and particulate fractions (f(g) + f(p) = 1). Sensitivity in the M(o) levels becomes dampened as the compounds contributing significantly to M(o) are increasingly found in the particle phase (f(p) --> 1). Thus, although local maxima in sensitivity can be encountered as M(o) levels increase, because as M(o) increases each f(p) --> 1, then increasing M(o) levels generally tend to reduce sensitivity in M(o) levels to changes in relative humidity and temperature. Experiments designed to elucidate the potential magnitudes of the effects of relative humidity and temperature on M(o) levels must be carried out at M(o) levels that are relevant for the ambient atmosphere: The f(p) values for the important partitioning compounds must not be elevated above ambient-relevant values. Systems in which M(o) levels are low (e.g., 1-2 microg m(-3)) and/or composed of unaged secondary organic aerosol are the ones most likely to show sensitivity to changing relative humidity and temperature. Results from two published chamber studies are examined in the above regard: [Warren B, et al. (2009) Atmos Environ 43:1789-1795] and [Prisle NL, et al. (2010) Geophys Res Lett 37:L01802].

  6. Analysis of Particulate and Chemical Residue Resulting from Exposure to Burning and Abrading Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-31

    as these can potentially cause lung problems when inhaled , and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as many of these chemicals are known or...fabric samples. Of particular interest were carbon fiber fragments, as these can potentially cause lung problems when inhaled , and polycyclic aromatic...This involved a team from the Air Force Institute for Environmental Safety and Occupational Health Risk Analysis, AFRL, the Mississippi Air National

  7. Fine particulate matter national ambient air quality standards: public health impact on populations in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip R S; Graham, John J

    2005-09-01

    In this article we identify the magnitude of general and susceptible populations within the northeastern United States that would benefit from compliance with alternative U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) annual and 24-hr mass-based standards for particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Understanding the scale of susceptibility in relation to the stringency or protectiveness of PM standards is important to achieving the public health protection required by the Clean Air Act of 1970. Evaluative tools are therefore necessary to place into regulatory context available health and monitoring data appropriate to the current review of the PM National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Within the New England, New Jersey, and New York study area, 38% of the total population are < 18 or > or =65 years of age, 4-18% of adults have cardiopulmonary or diabetes health conditions, 12-15% of children have respiratory allergies or lifetime asthma, and 72% of all persons (across child, adult, and elderly age groups) live in densely populated urban areas with elevated PM2.5 concentrations likely creating heightened exposure scenarios. The analysis combined a number of data sets to show that compliance with a range of alternative annual and 24-hr PM2.5 standard groupings would affect a large fraction of the total population in the Northeast. This work finds that current PM2.5 standards in the eight-state study area affect only 16% of the general population, who live in counties that do not meet the existing annual/24-hr standard of 15/65 microg/m3. More protective PM2.5 standards recommended or enacted by California and Canada would protect 84-100% of the Northeast population. Standards falling within current ranges recommended by the U.S. EPA would protect 29-100% of the Northeast population. These considerations suggest that the size of general and susceptible populations affected by the stringency of alternative PM standards has

  8. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Disease in Urban Areas in Beijing, China, in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Wang, Chao; Huang, Fangfang; Gao, Qi; Wu, Lijuan; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Jin; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Background Heavy fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution occurs frequently in China. However, epidemiological research on the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 pollution and respiratory disease morbidity is still limited. This study aimed to explore the association between PM2.5 pollution and hospital emergency room visits (ERV) for total and cause-specific respiratory diseases in urban areas in Beijing. Methods Daily counts of respiratory ERV from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2013, were obtained from ten general hospitals located in urban areas in Beijing. Concurrently, data on PM2.5 were collected from the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau, including 17 ambient air quality monitoring stations. A generalized-additive model was used to explore the respiratory effects of PM2.5, after controlling for confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by age and gender. Results A total of 92,464 respiratory emergency visits were recorded during the study period. The mean daily PM2.5 concentration was 102.1±73.6 μg/m3. Every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration at lag0 was associated with an increase in ERV, as follows: 0.23% for total respiratory disease (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11%-0.34%), 0.19% for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (95%CI: 0.04%-0.35%), 0.34% for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) (95%CI: 0.14%-0.53%) and 1.46% for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) (95%CI: 0.13%-2.79%). The strongest association was identified between AECOPD and PM2.5 concentration at lag0-3 (3.15%, 95%CI: 1.39%-4.91%). The estimated effects were robust after adjusting for SO2, O3, CO and NO2. Females and people 60 years of age and older demonstrated a higher risk of respiratory disease after PM2.5 exposure. Conclusion PM2.5 was significantly associated with respiratory ERV, particularly for URTI, LRTI and AECOPD in Beijing. The susceptibility to PM2.5 pollution varied by gender and age. PMID

  9. Diesel particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsen, F.I. )

    1988-01-01

    Diesel particulates, because of their chemical composition and extremely small size, have raised health and welfare issues. Health experts have expressed concern that they contribute to or aggravate chronic lung diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema, and there is the lingering issue about the potential cancer risk from exposure to diesel particulate. Diesel particulates impair visibility, soil buildings, contribute to structural damage through corrosion and give off a pungent odor. Diesel trucks, buses and cars together are such a significant and growing source of particulate emissions. Such vehicles emit 30 to 70 times more particulate matter than gasoline vehicles equipped with catalytic converters. Diesel engines currently power the majority of larger trucks and buses. EPA predicted that, if left uncontrolled, diesel particulate from motor vehicles would increase significantly. Diesel particulate emissions from motor vehicles are particularly troublesome because they frequently are emitted directly into the breathing zone where we work and recreate. The U.S. Congress recognized the risks posed by diesel particulate and as part of the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments established specific, technology-forcing requirements for controlling these emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1980 established particulate standards for automobiles and light trucks and in 1985, heavy trucks and buses. California, concerned that EPA standards would not adequately protect its citizens, adopted its own set of standards for passenger cars and light trucks. This paper discusses emerging technologies proposed to address the problem.

  10. Comparison of conventional filtration and a denuder-based methodology for sampling of particulate-phase mercury in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Lu, J Y; Schroeder, W H

    1999-06-01

    This paper compares the results of total atmospheric particulate-phase mercury determinations using samples collected by two methods. The conventional filtration method (FM) collects airborne particulate matter first, whereas the denuder-based method (DM) removes gaseous-phase mercury prior to particulate matter collection. In each case, particulate-phase mercury (PM) is collected on a quartz fiber disc held in a miniaturized device and is analyzed using a pyrolysis/gold amalgamation/thermal desorption/cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS) technique. The results show that the concentrations of PM determined using the samples collected by DM are higher than those determined using the samples collected by FM. Evidence presented shows that the higher results are due to mercury-bearing gold particles flaking off from the gold-coated denuder surfaces in the denuder-based sampling system.

  11. THE ASSOCIATION OF EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS WITH SPECIFIC HEALTH EFFECTS IN HEALTHY HIGHWAY PATROL OFFICERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimated exposures to ambient respirable particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants have been statistically associated with mortality and morbidity in epidemiological studies conducted throughout the world. Although some subpopulations (e.g., asthmatics; elderly, pulmonar...

  12. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OUTDOOR, INDOOR, AND PERSONAL PARTICULATE AIR SAMPLES COLLECTED IN AND AROUND A RETIREMENT FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential, personal, indoor, and outdoor sampling of particulate matter was conducted at a retirement center in the Towson area of northern Baltimore County in 1998. Concurrent sampling was conducted at a central community site. Computer-controlled scanning electron microsco...

  13. Fact Sheets and Additional Information Regarding the 2006 Particulate Matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a fact sheet, a presentation providing an overview of the rule, and graphs and maps pertaining to the new standards that are supplementary to the October 2006 revision for the Particulate Matter (PM) NAAQS

  14. A Simplified and Rapid Screening Assay using Zebrafish to Assess Cardiac Effects of Air Pollution-derived Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative toxicity assessment of particulate matter (PM) from different sources will potentially inform the understanding of regional differences in PM-induced cardiac health effects by identifying PM sources linked to highest potency components. Conventional low-throughput in...

  15. Fact Sheets and Additional information Regarding the 2012 Particulate Matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find tools for particulate matter, maps of nonattainment areas, an overview of the proposal, and information on designations, monitoring and permitting requirements and a presentation on the 2012 PM NAAQS revision.

  16. Materials issues in solar detoxification of air and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Daniel M.; Magrini-Bair, Kim; Wolfrum, Edward; May, E. K.

    1997-10-01

    The technical feasibility of photocatalytic oxidation and reduction technology for the removal of hazardous chemicals or micro-organisms from contaminated water and air is well established. The heterogeneous process based on titanium dioxide photocatalysts is the most developed but homogeneous systems are also under development. Treatment equipment using fluorescent lamps as the photon source and supported heterogeneous photocatalysts are commercially available and one-sun and parabolic solar reactor designs have been demonstrated. Cost and performance of the solar processes have not yet reached levels that make them attractive relative to conventional alternatives. Cost reductions and increased performance require improvements in optical materials for reactors, reactor/collector design and materials of construction, durable catalyst materials and support structures, and significant improvement in the utilization of the solar spectrum in the photochemical processes. The current state of the art for solar reactors for treatment of contaminated air and water are presented and the opportunities for improvement are identified.

  17. Association of asthma symptoms with peak particulate air pollution and effect modification by anti-inflammatory medication use.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J; Zeiger, Robert S; Seltzer, James M; Street, Donald H; McLaren, Christine E

    2002-01-01

    Maxima of hourly data from outdoor monitors may capture adverse effects of outdoor particulate matter (PM) exposures in asthmatic children better than do 24-hr PM averages, which form the basis of current regulations in the United States. Also, asthmatic children on anti-inflammatory medications may be protected against the proinflammatory effects of air pollutants and aeroallergens. We examined strengths of pollutant associations with asthma symptoms between subgroups of asthmatic children who were on versus not on regularly scheduled anti-inflammatory medications, and tested associations for different particle averaging times. This is a daily panel study of 22 asthmatic children (9-19 years of age) followed March through April 1996 (1,248 person-days). They lived in nonsmoking households in a semirural area of Southern California within the air inversion mixing zone (range, 1,200-2,100 feet) with transported air pollution from urban areas of Southern California. The dependent variable derived from diary ordinal scores is episodes of asthma symptoms that interfered with daily activities. Minimum to 90th-percentile levels of exposures at the outdoor monitoring site were 12-63 microg/m(3) for 1-hr PM < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)); 8-46 microg/m(3) for 8-hr PM(10); 7-32 microg/m(3) for 24-hr PM(10); 45-88 ppb for 1-hr O(3); 6-26 ppb for 8-hr NO(2); 70-4,714 particles/m(3) for 12-hr daytime fungi; and 12-744 particles/m(3) for 24-hr pollen. Data were analyzed with generalized estimating equations controlling for autocorrelation. There was no confounding by weather, day of week, or linear time trend. Associations were notably stronger in 12 asthmatic children who were not taking anti-inflammatory medications versus 10 subjects who were. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for asthma episodes in relation to lag 0 minimum to 90th-percentile pollutant changes were, respectively, 1-hr maximum PM(10), 1.92 (1.22-3.02) versus 0.96 (0.25-3.69); 8-hr maximum

  18. Air Pollution Tests Using the "DEMA"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilt, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the making and calibrating of a DEMA (DEvice for Measuring Air) from readily available, inexpensive materials. Procedures for measuring atmospheric particulates, acids, and carbon monoxide are described. (PR)

  19. The EMECAM project: a multicentre study on air pollution and mortality in Spain: combined results for particulates and for sulfur dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, F; Saez, M; Perez-Hoyos, S; Iniguez, C; Gandarillas, A; Tobias, A; Bellido, J; Taracido, M; Arribas, F; Daponte, A; Alonso, E; Canada, A; Guillen-Grima, F; Cirera, L; Perez-Boillos, M; Saurina, C; Gomez, F; Tenias, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The EMECAM study is a collaborative effort to evaluate the impact of air pollution on mortality in Spain. In this paper the combined results are presented for the short term effects of particulates and sulfur dioxide on both daily mortality for all and for specific causes. Methods: The relation between daily mortality for all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases, and air pollution for particulates (daily concentrations) and SO2 (24 and 1 hour concentrations) was assessed in 13 Spanish cities for the period 1990–6. With a standardised method, magnitude of association in each city was estimated by Poisson regression in a generalised additive model. Local estimates were obtained from both single and two pollutant analyses. Lastly, combined estimates for each cause and pollutant were obtained. Results: For combined results, in single pollutant models a 10 µg/m3 increase in the concentration of the mean of the concurrent and one day lag for black smoke was associated with a 0.8% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.4 to 1.1%) increase in total mortality. The estimates for total suspended particles (TSPs) and particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10) and total mortality were slightly lower. The same increase in concentrations of SO2 was associated with a 0.5% increase in daily deaths. For groups of specific causes, higher estimations were found, specially for respiratory conditions. Peak concentrations of SO2 showed significant associations with the three groups of mortality. When two pollutant analyses were performed, estimates for particulates, specially for black smoke, did not substantially change. The estimates for daily concentrations of SO2 were greatly reduced, but, on the contrary, the association with peak concentrations of SO2 did not show any change. Conclusions: There is an association between mortality and pollution through particulates among city populations in Spain. Peak rather than daily concentrations

  20. Relation between sources of particulate air pollution and biological effect parameters in samples from four European cities: An exploratory study

    SciTech Connect

    Steerenberg, P.A.; van Amelsvoort, L.; Lovik, M.; Hetland, R.B.; Alberg, T.; Halatek, T.; Bloemen, H.J.T.; Rydzynski, K.; Swaen, G.; Schwarze, P.; Dybing, E.; Cassee, F.R.

    2006-05-15

    Given that there are widely different prevalence rates of respiratory allergies and asthma between the countries of Europe and that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is substantial in urban environments throughout Europe, an EU project entitled 'Respiratory Allergy and Inflammation Due to Ambient Particles' (RAIAP) was set up. The project focused on the role of physical and chemical composition of PM on release of cytokines of cells in vitro, on respiratory inflammation in vivo, and on adjuvant potency in allergy animal models. Coarse (2.5 - 10 {mu}m) and fine (0.15 - 2.5 {mu}m) particles were collected during the spring, summer and winter in Rome ( I), Oslo (N), Lodz (PL), and Amsterdam (NL). Markers within the same model were often well correlated. Markers of inflammation in the in vitro and in vivo models also showed a high degree of correlation. In contrast, correlation between parameters in the different allergy models and between allergy and inflammation markers was generally poor. This suggests that various bioassays are needed to assess the potential hazard of PM. The present study also showed that by clustering chemical constituents of PM based on the overall response pattern in the bioassays, five distinct groups could be identified. The clusters of traffic, industrial combustion and/or incinerators, and combustion of black and brown coal/wood smoke were associated primarily with adjuvant activity for respiratory allergy, whereas clusters of crustal of material and sea spray are predominantly associated with measures for inflammation and acute toxicity. The present study has shown that biological effect of PM can be linked to one or more PM emission sources and that this linkage requires a wide range of bioassays.

  1. Relation between sources of particulate air pollution and biological effect parameters in samples from four European cities: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Steerenberg, Peter A; van Amelsvoort, Ludo; Lovik, Martinus; Hetland, Ragna B; Alberg, Torunn; Halatek, Tadeusz; Bloemen, Henk J T; Rydzynski, Konrad; Swaen, Gerard; Schwarze, Per; Dybing, Erik; Cassee, Flemming R

    2006-05-01

    Given that there are widely different prevalence rates of respiratory allergies and asthma between the countries of Europe and that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is substantial in urban environments throughout Europe, an EU project entitled "Respiratory Allergy and Inflammation Due to Ambient Particles" (RAIAP) was set up. The project focused on the role of physical and chemical composition of PM on release of cytokines of cells in vitro, on respiratory inflammation in vivo, and on adjuvant potency in allergy animal models. Coarse (2.5-10 microm) and fine (0.15-2.5 microm) particles were collected during the spring, summer and winter in Rome (I), Oslo (N), Lodz (PL), and Amsterdam (NL). Markers within the same model were often well correlated. Markers of inflammation in the in vitro and in vivo models also showed a high degree of correlation. In contrast, correlation between parameters in the different allergy models and between allergy and inflammation markers was generally poor. This suggests that various bioassays are needed to assess the potential hazard of PM. The present study also showed that by clustering chemical constituents of PM based on the overall response pattern in the bioassays, five distinct groups could be identified. The clusters of traffic, industrial combustion and/or incinerators (TICI), and combustion of black and brown coal/wood smoke (BBCW) were associated primarily with adjuvant activity for respiratory allergy, whereas clusters of crustal of material (CM) and sea spray (SS) are predominantly associated with measures for inflammation and acute toxicity. The cluster of secondary inorganic aerosol and long-range transport aerosol (SIALT) was exclusive associated with systemic allergy. The present study has shown that biological effect of PM can be linked to one or more PM emission sources and that this linkage requires a wide range of bioassays.

  2. Air pollution particles mediated oxidative DNA base damage in a cell free system and in human airway epithelial cells in relation to particulate metal content and bioreactivity.

    PubMed

    Prahalad, A K; Inmon, J; Dailey, L A; Madden, M C; Ghio, A J; Gallagher, J E

    2001-07-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between increased human morbidity and mortality with exposure to air pollution particulate matter. We hypothesized that such effects may be associated with the ability of the particles to mediate generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), either directly, via interaction with ambient oxygen or indirectly through initiation of an oxidative burst in phagocytes. To test this hypothesis, we determined 8-oxo-dG formation as a measure of direct generation of ROS, in response to particulate exposures to 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG), free and in calf thymus DNA in aerated solutions as the target molecule and cell culture, to assess the relationship between induction of oxidative damage, particulate metal content and metal bioreactivity. The HPLC-ECD technique was employed for separation and quantification of 8-oxo-dG, the most widely recognized marker of DNA oxidation. Particles used in this study include: Arizona desert dust (AZDD), coal fly ash (CFA and ECFA), oil fly ash (OFA and ROFA), and ambient air [SRM 1649 and Dusseldorf (DUSS), Germany]. The major difference between these particles is the concentration of water-soluble metals. The fly ash particulates OFA and ROFA showed a significant dose-dependent increase in dG hydroxylation to 8-oxo-dG formation over the control dG (p < 0.05), with yields 0.03 and 1.25% at the highest particulate concentration (1 mg/mL). Metal ion chelators and DMSO, a hydroxyl radical scavenger, inhibited this hydroxylation. In contrast, desert dust, coal fly ash and urban air particles induced 8-oxo-dG with yields ranging from 0.003 to 0.006%, respectively, with levels unaffected by pretreatment of the particles with metal ion chelators or addition of DMSO to the incubation mixture. When calf thymus DNA was used as a substrate, all the particles induced 8-oxo-dG in a pattern similar to that observed for dG hydroxylation, but with relatively less yield. Treatment of the particles with metal ion

  3. Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition, and accumulation of amyloid beta-42 and alpha-synuclein in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Solt, Anna C; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Nuse, Bryan; Herritt, Lou; Villarreal-Calderón, Rafael; Osnaya, Norma; Stone, Ida; García, Raquel; Brooks, Diane M; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Reed, William

    2008-02-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. We investigated whether residency in cities with high air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration in healthy children and young adults who died suddenly. We measured mRNA cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1beta, and CD14 in target brain regions from low (n = 12) or highly exposed residents (n = 35) aged 25.1 +/- 1.5 years. Upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1beta, and CD14 in olfactory bulb, frontal cortex, substantia nigrae and vagus nerves; disruption of the blood-brain barrier; endothelial activation, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cell trafficking were seen in highly exposed subjects. Amyloid beta42 (Abeta42) immunoreactivity was observed in 58.8% of apolipoprotein E (APOE) 3/3 < 25 y, and 100% of the APOE 4 subjects, whereas alpha-synuclein was seen in 23.5% of < 25 y subjects. Particulate material (PM) was seen in olfactory bulb neurons, and PM < 100 nm were observed in intraluminal erythrocytes from lung, frontal, and trigeminal ganglia capillaries. Exposure to air pollution causes neuroinflammation, an altered brain innate immune response, and accumulation of Abeta42 and alpha-synuclein starting in childhood. Exposure to air pollution should be considered a risk factor for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, and carriers of the APOE 4 allele could have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease if they reside in a polluted environment.

  4. A new method to determine tissue specific tissue factor thrombomodulin activities: endotoxin and particulate air pollution induced disbalance

    PubMed Central

    Frederix, Kim; Kooter, Ingeborg M; van Oerle, René; Fens, Diane; Hamulyak, Karly; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; ten Cate, Hugo; Spronk, Henri MH

    2008-01-01

    Background Increase in tissue factor (TF) and loss in thrombomodulin (TM) antigen levels has been described in various inflammatory disorders. The functional consequences of such changes in antigen concentrations in the coagulation balance are, however, not known. This study was designed to assess the consequences of inflammation-driven organ specific functional properties of the procoagulant response. Methods Tissue specific procoagulant activity was assessed by adding tissue homogenate to normal human pool plasma and recording of the thrombin generation curve. The new technique was subsequently applied on two inflammation driven animal models: 1) mouse lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced endotoxemia and 2) spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to environmental air pollution (particulate matter (PM). Results Addition of lung tissue from untreated animals to human plasma suppressed the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) (175 ± 61 vs. 1437 ± 112 nM.min for control). This inhibitory effect was due to TM, because a) it was absent in protein C deficient plasma and b) lungs from TMpro/pro mice allowed full thrombin generation (ETP: 1686 ± 209 nM.min). The inhibitory effect of TM was lost after LPS administration to mice, which induced TF activity in lungs of C57Bl/6 mice as well as increased the ETP (941 ± 523 vs. 194 ± 159 nM.min for control). Another pro-inflammatory stimulus, PM dose-dependently increased TF in the lungs of spontaneously hypertensive rats at 4 and 48 hours after PM exposure. The ETP increased up to 48 hours at the highest concentration of PM (1441 ± 289 nM.min vs. saline: 164 ± 64 nM.min, p < 0.0001), suggesting a concentration- and time dependent reduction in TM activity. Conclusion Inflammation associated procoagulant effects in tissues are dependent on variations in activity of the TF-TM balance. The application of these novel organ specific functional assays is a useful tool to monitor inflammation-driven shifts in the coagulation balance

  5. Evaluating a Wood-strand Material for Wind Erosion Control and Air Quality Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fugitive dust from eroding land poses both environmental quality and human health problems in the western United States. Since the advent of the Clean Air Act in 1990, regulations have been imposed on particulate matter in the atmosphere. Agricultural straw has been widely used for erosion control...

  6. PAH and PCB in the Baltic -- A budget approach including fluxes, occurrence and concentration variability in air, suspended and settling particulates in water, surface sediments and river water

    SciTech Connect

    Broman, D.; Axelman, J.; Bandh, C.; Ishaq, R.; Naef, C.; Pettersen, H.; Zebuehr, Y.

    1995-12-31

    In order to study the fate and occurrence of two groups of hydrophobic compounds in the Baltic aquatic environment a large number of samples were collected from the southern Baltic proper to the northern Bothnian Bay for the analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The following sample matrices were collected; bottom surface sediments (0--1 cm, collected with gravity corer), settling particulate matter (collected with sediment traps), open water samples and over water samples (suspended particulates and dissolved fraction sampled by filtration) and air samples (aerosols and vapor phase sampled by filtration). All samples (except over water and air) were collected at open sea in the Baltic. The analyses results have been used to make a model approach on the whole Baltic and to elucidate different aspects of the behavior of PAHs and PCBs in the Baltic, such as the occurrence of the compounds in water and sediment, the total content as well as the concentration variabilities over such a large geographical area, Further, the data on settling particulate matter as well as the air concentration data were used to estimate the total fluxes of PAHs and PCBs to the bottoms of the Baltic and t o the total water area of the Baltic, respectively. Further, data on the PAH and PCB content in river water from four major rivers provides rough estimates of the riverine input to the Baltic. The dynamics of PAHs and PCBs within the water mass have also been studied in terms of settling velocities and residence times in the water mass for these type of compounds in the open Baltic.

  7. Annual and diurnal variations of gaseous and particulate pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities based on in situ air quality monitoring data from China National Environmental Monitoring Center.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun; Liu, Na; Qu, Jianjun; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term air quality data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are needed to understand some important processes affecting the air quality and corresponding environmental and health effects. The annual and diurnal variations of each criteria pollutant including PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively), CO (carbon monoxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and O3 (ozone) in 31 provincial capital cities between April 2014 and March 2015 were investigated by cluster analysis to evaluate current air pollution situations in China, and the cities were classified as severely, moderately, and slightly polluted cities according to the variations. The concentrations of air pollutants in winter months were significantly higher than those in other months with the exception of O3, and the cities with the highest CO and SO2 concentrations were located in northern China. The annual variation of PM2.5 concentrations in northern cities was bimodal with comparable peaks in October 2014 and January 2015, while that in southern China was unobvious with slightly high PM2.5 concentrations in winter months. The concentrations of particulate matter and trace gases from primary emissions (SO2 and CO) and NO2 were low in the afternoon (~16:00), while diurnal variation of O3 concentrations was opposite to that of other pollutants with the highest values in the afternoon. The most polluted cities were mainly located in North China Plain, while slightly polluted cities mostly focus on southern China and the cities with high altitude such as Lasa. This study provides a basis for the formulation of future urban air pollution control measures in China.

  8. Characterization of Graphite Composite Material Particulates from United States Air Force Aircraft Maintenance Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Sager and Castranova conducted a study to test whether surface area or mass is the proper metric to utilize for pulmonary toxicity studies. They...toxicity tests for nanoparticles with low solubility and low toxicity (Sager & Castranova, 2009). Maynard and Kuempel agree with other researchers...particles were not discovered in the epidermal tissue beneath the stratum corneum, but small concentrations were noticed in the lower part of the hair

  9. A Micromechanical Investigation of Instability in Particulate Materials and Higher Order Continuum Theory Assumptions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-31

    The micropolar theory (Eringen, 1966, 1968) is a continuum version of the structural theory of Cosserat (1909). It enriches the kinematics and...kinetics of continua by adding material rotations and couple stresses. Using a micropolar approach similar to Kanatani (1979), Muhlhaus and Vardoulakis...analysis and micropolar description, and investigated the structure of persistent shear bands in idealized granular media. They successfully

  10. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, J. Richard

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  11. Head-of-tide bottleneck of particulate material transport from watersheds to estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ensign, Scott H.; Noe, Gregory; Hupp, Cliff R.; Skalak, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    We measured rates of sediment, C, N, and P accumulation at four floodplain sites spanning the nontidal through oligohaline Choptank and Pocomoke Rivers, Maryland, USA. Ceramic tiles were used to collect sediment for a year and sediment cores were collected to derive decadal sedimentation rates using 137Cs. The results showed highest rates of short- and long-term sediment, C, N, and P accumulation occurred in tidal freshwater forests at the head of tide on the Choptank and the oligohaline marsh of the Pocomoke River, and lowest rates occurred in the downstream tidal freshwater forests in both rivers. Presumably, watershed material was mostly trapped at the head of tide, and estuarine material was trapped in oligohaline marshes. This hydrologic transport bottleneck at the head of tide stores most available watershed sediment, C, N, and P creating a sediment shadow in lower tidal freshwater forests potentially limiting their resilience to sea level rise.

  12. Head-of-tide bottleneck of particulate material transport from watersheds to estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Noe, Gregory B.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Skalak, Katherine J.

    2015-12-01

    We measured rates of sediment, C, N, and P accumulation at four floodplain sites spanning the nontidal through oligohaline Choptank and Pocomoke Rivers, Maryland, USA. Ceramic tiles were used to collect sediment for a year and sediment cores were collected to derive decadal sedimentation rates using 137Cs. The results showed highest rates of short- and long-term sediment, C, N, and P accumulation occurred in tidal freshwater forests at the head of tide on the Choptank and the oligohaline marsh of the Pocomoke River, and lowest rates occurred in the downstream tidal freshwater forests in both rivers. Presumably, watershed material was mostly trapped at the head of tide, and estuarine material was trapped in oligohaline marshes. This hydrologic transport bottleneck at the head of tide stores most available watershed sediment, C, N, and P creating a sediment shadow in lower tidal freshwater forests potentially limiting their resilience to sea level rise.

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction of particulate and adsorbent materials. Report for February 1984-January 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.W.; Smith, R.D.

    1986-03-01

    The report is a summary of work performed by PNL on the extraction of semivolatile organic materials (SVOCs), for example, polynuclear aromatic compounds, from various adsorbents and environmental matrices, using supercritical fluids (SCFs) as extractants. The results of the work show that supercritical fluids are effective extractants for many SVOCs, and are often competitive with conventional Soxhlet extraction. Advantages of SCFs over conventional methods include higher extraction efficiency, more rapid extraction, and reduced decomposition of thermally labile compounds.

  14. Summary of performance data for technologies to control gaseous, odor, and particulate emissions from livestock operations: Air management practices assessment tool (AMPAT)

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Harmon, Jay D.; Hoff, Steven J.; Rieck-Hinz, Angela M.; Andersen, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    The livestock and poultry production industry, regulatory agencies, and researchers lack a current, science-based guide and data base for evaluation of air quality mitigation technologies. Data collected from science-based review of mitigation technologies using practical, stakeholders-oriented evaluation criteria to identify knowledge gaps/needs and focuses for future research efforts on technologies and areas with the greatest impact potential is presented in the Literature Database tab on the air management practices tool (AMPAT). The AMPAT is web-based (available at www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat) and provides an objective overview of mitigation practices best suited to address odor, gaseous, and particulate matter (PM) emissions at livestock operations. The data was compiled into Excel spreadsheets from a literature review of 265 papers was performed to (1) evaluate mitigation technologies performance for emissions of odor, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), particulate matter (PM), and greenhouse gases (GHGs) and to (2) inform future research needs. PMID:27158660

  15. The assessment of particulate matter emitted from stone-crushing industry by correlating rock textures with particles generated after comminution and dispersed in air environment.

    PubMed

    Belardi, Girolamo; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Plescia, Paolo; Passeri, Luciano

    2013-07-01

    The generation and emission of particulate matter from abrasion industry are subjects of the pollution monitoring by multidisciplinary study involving earth sciences and engineering disciplines. This work investigates the correlation between textural properties of in situ rock with class size distribution and morphology of particles generated after rock comminution and particles emitted in the air. A special comminution-dust sampling architecture was realised. The combined use of scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser was considered in performing digital image analysis on both crushed products and airborne particles collected onto membrane filters. The results show that the size and morphology of crushed particles are linked to the petrographic rock properties. In particular, particles with fibrous morphology are prominent in rocks showing foliated textures where elongated minerals occurred, with implication for asbestos-bearing rocks. For what concerns the airborne particles, the results show that their aerodynamic diameters are independent of the crusher operating conditions. External parameters probably intervene in the distribution of the airborne particles emission, including the dynamic air fluxes, or environmental conditions. By applying mathematical models, the morphology and size range of airborne particles following the comminution processes can be predicted, and results has implication for pollutants contamination due to particulate matters emitted by crush stone industry.

  16. Summary of performance data for technologies to control gaseous, odor, and particulate emissions from livestock operations: Air management practices assessment tool (AMPAT).

    PubMed

    Maurer, Devin L; Koziel, Jacek A; Harmon, Jay D; Hoff, Steven J; Rieck-Hinz, Angela M; Andersen, Daniel S

    2016-06-01

    The livestock and poultry production industry, regulatory agencies, and researchers lack a current, science-based guide and data base for evaluation of air quality mitigation technologies. Data collected from science-based review of mitigation technologies using practical, stakeholders-oriented evaluation criteria to identify knowledge gaps/needs and focuses for future research efforts on technologies and areas with the greatest impact potential is presented in the Literature Database tab on the air management practices tool (AMPAT). The AMPAT is web-based (available at www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat) and provides an objective overview of mitigation practices best suited to address odor, gaseous, and particulate matter (PM) emissions at livestock operations. The data was compiled into Excel spreadsheets from a literature review of 265 papers was performed to (1) evaluate mitigation technologies performance for emissions of odor, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), particulate matter (PM), and greenhouse gases (GHGs) and to (2) inform future research needs.

  17. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209... External Exposure § 835.209 Concentrations of radioactive material in air. (a) The derived air... exposures to airborne radioactive material. (b) The estimation of internal dose shall be based on...

  18. Health effects of atmospheric particulates: a medical geology perspective.

    PubMed

    Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S

    2008-01-01

    In this review, atmospheric particulates as composite airborne earth materials often containing both natural and anthropogenic components were examined in the context of medical geology. Despite a vast number of both experimental and epidemiological studies confirming the direct and indirect links between atmospheric particulates and human health, the exact nature of mechanisms affecting the particulate-induced pathogenesis largely remains unexplored. Future in depth research on these areas would be most successful if potential mechanisms are examined with reference to the physical (e.g., size, shape and surface), chemical, mineralogical and source characteristics of particulate matters. The underlying goal of this review was to present the relevant terminology and processes proposed in the literature to explain the interfaces and interactions between atmospheric particles and human body within the framework of "atmospheric particle cycles." The complexities of the interactions were demonstrated through case studies focusing on particulate matter air pollution and malignant mesothelioma occurrences due to environmental exposure to erionite-a fibrous zeolite mineral. There is an urgent need for a standard protocol or speciation methods applicable to earth-materials to guide and streamline studies on etiology of mineral-induced diseases. This protocol or speciation methods should provide relevant procedures to determine the level and extent of physical, chemical and mineralogical heterogeneity of particulate matters as well as quantitative in-situ particulate characteristics.

  19. Free-space reflection method for measuring moisture content and bulk density of particulate materials at microwave frequency.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenxiao; Han, Bing; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    A measurement system based on free-space reflection method is designed for simultaneous and independent determination of moisture content and bulk density of particulate materials. The proposed system consists of microwave cavity oscillator, horn antenna, slide rail, sample holder, mixer, and digital meter. Sand and rice with different moisture contents and bulk densities are chosen as samples. Calibration models for moisture content and bulk density are proposed according to the measurement of the position of the minimum of the traveling-standing wave and the ratio of the maximum-to-minimum field strength of the traveling-standing wave at different temperatures. The moisture constant, ranging from 0% to 24.6%, is obtained with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) greater than 0.982 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) value of less than 0.695%. The bulk density, ranging from 0.501 g/cm(3) to 1.822 g/cm(3), is determined with a R(2) ≥ 0.961 and a SEP value ranging from 0.0144 g/cm(3) to 0.0382 g/cm(3) for different samples.

  20. Analysis of Phytosterols and N-Alkanols in Atmospheric Organic Particulate Matter Collected in Vancouver During the Pacific 2001 Air Quality Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leithead, A.; Li, S.

    2002-12-01

    As part of Pacific 2001, HiVol samples were collected from 5 sites in the Vancouver area. The samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ACE), concentrated with nitrogen blow down, and separated into fractions by silica gel chromatography. For this portion of the study, an aliquot of one of the polar fraction was derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The results for n-alkanols and phytosterols will be reported and discussed. Previous studies have shown that the biogenic components of particulate matter are major constituents of the total organic material in atmospheric samples. Phytosterols are present in wood smoke, epicuticular waxes of many plants and microbial sources. In addition, cholesterol has been proposed as a potential tracer for emissions from cooking. The most abundant phytosterols are cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. It has been hypothesized that the phytosterol signature may be useful in identifying particulate matter from different source areas. The phytosterol signature for these samples will be reported and compared. The n-alkanol CPI and Cmax will also be reported. N-alkanols in atmospheric samples generally show a strong even to odd predominance indicating that their main source in particulate matter is biogenic. The n-alkanol signature for each sampling site will be compared.

  1. Propagation of rarefaction pulses in particulate materials with strain-softening behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Herbold, E B; Nesterenko, V F

    2011-07-29

    We investigate rarefaction waves in nonlinear periodic systems with a 'softening' power-law relationship between force and displacement to understand the dynamic behavior of this class of materials. A closed form expression describing the shape of the strongly nonlinear rarefaction wave is exact for n = 1/2 and agrees well with the shape and width of the pulses resulting from discrete simulations. A chain of particles under impact was shown to propagate a rarefaction pulse as the leading pulse in initially compressive impulsive loading in the absence of dissipation. Compression pulses generated by impact quickly disintegrated into a leading rarefaction solitary wave followed by an oscillatory train. Such behavior is favorable for metamaterials design of shock absorption layers as well as tunable information transmission lines for scrambling of acoustic information.

  2. Development of a southern oceanic air standard reference material.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, George C; Kelley, Michael E; Miller, Walter R; Brailsford, Gordon; Possolo, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    In 2009, the United States Congress charged the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with supporting climate change research. As part of this effort, the Gas Sensing Metrology Group at NIST began developing new gas standard mixtures for greenhouse gas mixtures relevant to atmospheric measurements. Suites of gravimetrically prepared primary standard mixtures (PSMs) were prepared at ambient concentration levels for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in a dry-air balance. In parallel, 30 gas cylinders were filled, by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) in Wellington, New Zealand, to high pressure from pristine southern oceanic air at Baring Head, New Zealand, and shipped to NIST. Using spectroscopic instrumentation, NIST analyzed the 30 cylinder samples for mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and N2O. Certified values were assigned to these mixtures by calibrating the instrumentation with the PSM suites that were recently developed at NIST. These mixtures became NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1721 Southern Oceanic Air and are certified for ambient mole fraction, the first of their kind for NIST. The relative expanded uncertainties corresponding to coverage intervals with 95% probability are no larger than 0.06% of the certified values, representing the smallest uncertainties to date ever assigned to an NIST gas SRM.

  3. Evolution of dissolved and particulate chromophoric materials during the VAHINE mesocosm experiment in the New Caledonian coral lagoon (South West Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedetti, M.; Marie, L.; Röttgers, R.; Rodier, M.; Van Wambeke, F.; Helias, S.; Caffin, M.; Cornet-Barthaux, V.; Dupouy, C.

    2015-10-01

    In the framework of the VAHINE project, we investigated the spectral characteristics and the variability of dissolved and particulate chromophoric materials throughout a 23 day mesocosm experiment conducted in the South West Pacific at the exit of the New Caledonian coral lagoon (22°29.073 S-166°26.905 E) from 13 January to 4 February 2013. Samples were collected in a mesocosm fertilized with phosphorus at 1, 6 and 12 m depth and in the surrounding waters. Light absorption coefficients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) (ag(λ)), particulate matter (ap(λ)) and CDOM + particulate matter (ag+p(λ)) were measured using a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter (PSICAM), while fluorescent DOM (FDOM) components were determined from excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The evolutions of ag(λ), ap(λ) and ag+p(λ) in the mesocosm were similar to those of total chlorophyll a concentration, Synechococcus spp. and picoeukaryote abundances, bacterial production, particulate organic nitrogen and total organic carbon concentrations, with roughly a decrease from the beginning of the experiment to days 9-10, and an increase from days 9-10 to the end of the experiment. In the surrounding waters, the same trend was observed but the increase was much less pronounced, emphasizing the effect of the phosphorus fertilization on the mesocosm's plankton community. Correlations suggested that both Synechococcus cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria were strongly involved in the production of CDOM and absorption of particulate matter. The increase in phytoplankton activities during the second part of the experiment led to a higher contribution of particulate material in the absorption budget at 442 nm. The three FDOM components identified (tryptophan-, tyrosine- and UVC humic-like fluorophores) did not follow the evolution of CDOM and particulate matter, proving that these were driven by different production

  4. Sources of dissolved and particulate organic material in Loch Vale Watershed, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, J.; McKnight, D.; Denning, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The sources of both dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) to an alpine (Sky Pond) and a subalpine lake (The Loch) in Rocky Mountain National Park were explored for four years. The importance of both autochthonous and allochthonous sources of organic matter differ, not only between alpine and subalpine locations, but also seasonally. Overall, autochthonous sources dominate the organic carbon of the alpine lake, while allochthonous sources are a more significant source of organic carbon to the subalpine lake. In the alpine lake, Sky Pond, POC makes up greater than one third of the total organic matter content of the water column, and is related to phytoplankton abundance. Dissolved organic carbon is a product of within-lake activity in Sky Pond except during spring snowmelt and early summer (May-July), when stable carbon isotope ratios suggest a terrestrial source. In the subalpine lake, The Loch, DOC is a much more important constituent of water column organic material than POC, comprising greater than 90% of the spring snowmelt organic matter, and greater than 75% of the organic matter over the rest of the year. Stable carbon isotope ratios and a very strong relation of DOC with soluble Al(tot) indicate DOC concentrations are almost entirely related to flushing of soil water from the surrounding watershed during spring snowmelt. Stable carbon isotope ratios indicate that, for both lakes, phytoplankton is an important source of DOC in the winter, while terrestrial material of plant or microbial origin contributes DOC during snowmelt and summer. ?? 1991 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  5. Volatile organic compound and particulate emission studies of AF (Air Force) paint-booth facilities. Phase 1. Final report, February-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, J.; Wolbach, D.

    1988-07-01

    This study presents the results of volatile organic compound (VOC) and particulate emission surveys performed at three Air Force painting facilities. The three facilities -- one in McClellan AFB buildings 655 and two at Travis AFB in buildings 550 and 1014 -- did not meet local VOC emission standards. The possibility of reducing these emissions with recirculation modifications and various VOC reduction and control strategies is discussed. Although VOC emissions from paint spray booths can be controlled by add-on control systems, control is expensive for present air flow rates. The use of air recirculation within the spray booth can reduce the cost of VOC emission controls by reducing the quantity of air that requires processing. Recirculation systems were designed for two of the painting facilities included in this study. In designing the systems, various criteria such as paint booth VOC concentrations and health and safety standards were considered. Add-on VOC emission-control systems that can be used in conjunction with the recirculation system are evaluated. The devices of interest are a solvent incineration system and an activated-carbon adsorption bed. The VOC removal efficiency, initial capital investment and operating costs for both of these technologies are discussed.

  6. Analysis of long-range transport of particulate matters in connection with air circulation over Central and Eastern part of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, Sabina; Necula, Cristian; Georgescu, Florinela

    The aim of this paper is to establish a practical methodology for examining the long-range transport of particulate matters (PM), named TSP. The daily concentration values of TSP from years 2001 and 2002, for three sites, Baia Mare (RO), Vienna (AU), Aosta (IT), were analyzed. In order to connect the main air circulation types with the aerosol concentrations at the selected sites, the catalogues of Circulation and Weather type Classification (COST733) were used. Spectral analysis was made using spectrum software based on Lomb-Scargle periodograms, and multiresolution analysis (MRA) technique based on Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT) with Fejer-Korovkin in 22 points wavelet filter (waveslim package). Spectral analysis shows a dominant one-year periodicity for all the time series with a variance around 22% for each time series. In addition, several winters TSP pollution episodes from each city were analyzed using a back trajectory model (HYSPLIT4), in order to compare with the resulted air circulation types. Two important concluding remarks emerge: (i) the Eastern part of Europe shows a dominant easterly air circulation and central Europe is characterized by south-west air circulations, which drive the maxima of pollutant concentrations; (ii) the choice of the domain for analysis of the circulation types is very important.

  7. Sensitivity of air-sea CO2-exchange and calcite saturation depth to the remineralization depth of marine particulate organic and inorganic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, B.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.

    2009-04-01

    The present study addresses the question of what would happen to air-sea CO2 exchange and the depth of the calcite saturation horizon (CSH) if the remineralization depth of particulate organic and inorganic carbon (POC, PIC) was changing. Therefore, a biogeochemical ocean circulation model (PISCES) was run with four different parameterizations for vertical particle fluxes, starting from the same initial conditions. Particle fluxes undergo strong changes induced by a combination of the respective mechanistic formulation of the vertical particle flux and the resulting ecosystem response. Reorganizations in dissolved properties are caused by (i) changed fluxes of POC and PIC; (ii) advection; (iii) air-sea CO2 exchange (DIC). The results show that the more (less) efficient the vertical transport of POC (PIC) from the surface toward depth, the lower the surface ocean pCO2, the higher the air-sea CO2 flux, and the stronger the increase in the oceanic inventory of DIC, and vice versa. Consequently, in one experiment the ocean is turning into a CO2 source to the atmosphere, in two cases it becomes a weak sink and in one simulation it turns into a strong sink. Surprisingly, results for changes in the CSH are more similar among the simulations at larger scale with a general deepening in the North Pacific and a shoaling elsewhere. In most areas the readjustment of the CSH is controlled by DIC and alkalinity acting both towards the simulated CSH shifts, however, in some cases DIC (alkalinity) is overcompensating for an effect that would occur due to changes in alkalinity (DIC), alone. In detail, the differences found between the experiments can be well explained by the respective particle flux responses. The current study shows that reorganizations in the vertical flux of particulate matter in the ocean may have immediate and longer-term effects on the marine carbon cycle which could potentially feedback on the climate system.

  8. Characteristics of air quality and sources affecting fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels in the City of Red Deer, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2017-02-01

    With concern about levels and exceedances of Canadian and provincial standards and objectives for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in recent years, an investigation of air quality characteristics and potential local and long-range sources influencing PM2.5 concentrations was undertaken in the City of Red Deer, Alberta. The study covered the period May 2009 to December 2015. Comparatively higher concentrations of PM2.5 were observed in winter (mean: 11.6 μg/m(3), median: 10 μg/m(3)) than in summer (mean: 9.0 μg/m(3), median: 7.0 μg/m(3)). Exceedances of the 1 h Alberta Ambient Air Quality objective (3-31 times per year > 80 μg/m(3)) and the 24 h Canada-Wide Standard (2-11 times per year > 30 μg/m(3)) were found at the Red Deer Riverside air monitoring station, particularly in 2010, 2011 and 2015. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) followed by multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis identified a mixed industry/agriculture factor as the dominant contributor to PM2.5 (39.3%), followed by an O3-rich (biogenic) factor (26.4%), traffic (19.3%), biomass burning (10.5%) and a mixed urban factor (4.4%). In addition to local traffic, the mixed industry/agriculture factor - inferred as mostly upstream oil and gas emission sources surrounding Red Deer - was identified as another potentially important source contributing to wintertime high PM2.5 pollution days. These findings offer useful preliminary information about current PM2.5 sources and their potential contributions in Red Deer; and this information can support policy makers in the development of particulate matter control strategies if required.

  9. Analysis of microsize particulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Farlow, N. H.; Ferry, G. V.

    1972-01-01

    Unique methods for analyzing individual particles ranging in size from 0.01 to 1000 micrometers have been developed for investigation of nature of cosmic dust. Methods are applicable to particulate aerosols and contaminants characteristically encountered in studies of air pollution and in experiments designed to abate pollution.

  10. [Adsorption Capacity of the Air Particulate Matter in Urban Landscape Plants in Different Polluted Regions of Beijing].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-kang; Wang, Bing; Niu, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Urban landscape plants, as one of the important factors of the urban ecosystem, play an important role in stagnating airborne particulates and purifying urban atmospheric environment. In this article, six kinds of common garden plants were studied, and aerosol generator (QRJZFSQ-I) was used to measure the ability of their leaves to stagnate atmospheric particulates (TSP and PM2.5) in different polluted regions. Meanwhile, environmental scanning electron microscope was used to observe changes in the leaf structure of the tested tree species. The results showed: (1)Among the tested tree species, the ability of coniferous species to stagnate atmospheric particulates was higher than that of broad-leaved species per unit leaf area. Pinus tabuliformis stagnated the highest volume of (3. 89± 0. 026) µg . m-2, followed by Pinus bungeana of (2. 82 ± 0. 392) µg . cm-2, and Populus tomentosa stagnated the minimum of (2. 00 ± 0. 118) µg . cm-2; (2) Through observing the leaf microstructure morphology, coniferous species were found to have tightly packed stomas, stoma density and surface roughness higher than those of broad-leaved species, and they could also secrete oil; (3) In different polluted regions, the leaves of the same tree species showed significant difference in stagnating TSP. Per unit leaf area, the tree species leaves situated around the 5th Ring Road had higher ability to absorb TSP than the tree species leaves at Botanical Garden, while their abilities to absorb PM2.5 showed no significant difference; (4) In different polluted regions, significantly adaptive changes were found in leaf structure. Comparing to the region with light pollution, the outer epidermal cells of the plant leaves in region with heavy pollution shrank, and the roughness of the leaf skin textures as well as the stomatal frequency and villous length increased. In spite of the significant changes in plant leaves exposed to the heavy pollution, these plants could still maintain normal

  11. Reactions of ozone with. alpha. -pinene and. beta. -pinene in air: Yields of gaseous and particulate products

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakeyama, S.; Izumi, K.; Fukuyama, T.; Akimoto, H. )

    1989-09-20

    Reactions of ozone with {alpha}-prinene and {beta}-pinene were studied for the purpose of obtaining the quantitative yields of gaseous and particulate products. Major gaseous products from {alpha}-pinene were CO, CO{sub 2}, HCHO, and aldehydes mainly composed of pinonaldehyde and nor-pinonaldehyde, while those from {beta}-pinene were CO{sub 2}, HCHO, and 6,6-dimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)heptan-2-one. Average molar yields from {alpha}-pinene were CO; 9{plus minus}1%, CO{sub 2}; 30{plus minus}2%, HCHO; 22{plus minus}1%, and aldehydes; 51{plus minus}6%. Average molar yields from {beta}-pinene were CO{sub 2}; 27{plus minus}2%, HCHO; 76{plus minus}2%, and 6,6-dimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)heptan-2-one; 40{plus minus}2%. Particulate products were found to include pinonaldehyde, nor-pinonaldehyde, pinonic acid, and nor-pinonic acid from {alpha}-pinene. The yields of the particulate aldehydes decreased with the reaction time, whereas the yields of the acids increased. This observation suggests the sequential oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. From {beta}-pinene, only 6,6-dimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)heptan-2-one was identified as a particulate product. For {alpha}-pinene, most of the products are explainable in terms of the reaction mechanism similar to that for the cyclohexene/ozone reaction, whereas for {beta}-pinene the principal reaction path is that of the doubly substituted Criegee intermediate. The total yields of organic aerosols from both {alpha}- and {beta}-pinene were measured with their concentrations at a lower ppb level. The yields were found almost constant in a pinene concentration range from 10 up to 100 ppb, being 18.3{plus minus}1.1 and 13.8{plus minus}0.8% for {alpha}- and {beta}-pinene, respectively, which are much lower than the previously reported values. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1989

  12. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209... External Exposure § 835.209 Concentrations of radioactive material in air. (a) The derived air concentration (DAC) values given in appendices A and C of this part shall be used in the control of...

  13. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209... External Exposure § 835.209 Concentrations of radioactive material in air. (a) The derived air concentration (DAC) values given in appendices A and C of this part shall be used in the control of...

  14. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209... External Exposure § 835.209 Concentrations of radioactive material in air. (a) The derived air concentration (DAC) values given in appendices A and C of this part shall be used in the control of...

  15. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209... External Exposure § 835.209 Concentrations of radioactive material in air. (a) The derived air concentration (DAC) values given in appendices A and C of this part shall be used in the control of...

  16. Development of a Northern Continental Air Standard Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, George C; Kitzis, Duane R; Kelley, Michael E; Miller, Walter R; Hall, Bradley D; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Tans, Pieter P; Possolo, Antonio; Carney, Jennifer

    2016-03-15

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recently began to develop standard mixtures of greenhouse gases as part of a broad program mandated by the 2009 United States Congress to support research in climate change. To this end, NIST developed suites of gravimetrically assigned primary standard mixtures (PSMs) comprising carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in a dry-natural air balance at ambient mole fraction levels. In parallel, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Boulder, Colorado, charged 30 aluminum gas cylinders with northern hemisphere air at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. These mixtures, which constitute NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1720 Northern Continental Air, were certified by NIST for ambient mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and N2O relative to NIST PSMs. NOAA-assigned values are also provided as information in support of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Program for CO2, CH4, and N2O, since NOAA serves as the WMO Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) for CO2, CH4, and N2O. Relative expanded uncertainties at the 95% confidence interval are <±0.06% of the certified values for CO2 and N2O and <0.2% for CH4, which represents the smallest relative uncertainties specified to date for a gaseous SRM produced by NIST. Agreement between the NOAA (WMO/GAW) and NIST values based on their respective calibration standards suites is within 0.05%, 0.13%, and 0.06% for CO2, CH4, and N2O, respectively. This collaborative development effort also represents the first of its kind for a gaseous SRM developed by NIST.

  17. Evolution of dissolved and particulate chromophoric materials during the VAHINE mesocosm experiment in the New Caledonian coral lagoon (south-west Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedetti, Marc; Marie, Lauriane; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Rodier, Martine; Van Wambeke, France; Helias, Sandra; Caffin, Mathieu; Cornet-Barthaux, Véronique; Dupouy, Cécile

    2016-06-01

    In the framework of the VAHINE project, we investigated the spectral characteristics and the variability of dissolved and particulate chromophoric materials throughout a 23-day mesocosm experiment conducted in the south-west Pacific at the mouth of the New Caledonian coral lagoon (22°29.073 S-166°26.905 E) from 13 January to 4 February 2013. Samples were collected in a mesocosm fertilized with phosphate at depths of 1, 6 and 12 m and in the surrounding waters. Light absorption coefficients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) [ag(λ)] and particulate matter [ap(λ)] were determined using a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter (PSICAM), while fluorescent DOM (FDOM) components were determined from excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The evolutions of ag(λ) and ap(λ) in the mesocosm were similar to those of total chlorophyll a concentration, Synechococcus spp. and picoeukaryote abundances, bacterial production, particulate organic nitrogen and total organic carbon concentrations, with roughly a decrease from the beginning of the experiment to days 9-10, and an increase from days 9-10 to the end of the experiment. In the surrounding waters, the same trend was observed but the increase was much less pronounced, emphasizing the effect of the phosphate fertilization on the mesocosm's plankton community. Correlations suggested that both Synechococcus cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria were strongly involved in the production of CDOM and absorption of particulate matter. The increase in phytoplankton biomass during the second part of the experiment led to a higher contribution of particulate material in the absorption budget at 442 nm. The three FDOM components identified (tryptophan-, tyrosine- and ultraviolet C (UVC) humic-like fluorophores) did not follow the evolution of CDOM and particulate matter, suggesting they were driven by different production/degradation processes. Finally, the

  18. How Small Can We Go: Exploring the Limitations and Scaling laws of Air-Microfluidic Particulate Matter Sensors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air-microfluidics is a field that has the potential to dramatically reduce the size, cost, and power requirements of future air quality sensors. Microfabrication provides a suite of relatively new tools for the development of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) that can be ap...

  19. Estimation of exhaust and non-exhaust gaseous, particulate matter and air toxics emissions from on-road vehicles in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpure, Ajay Singh; Gurjar, B. R.; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of emissions from on-road vehicles in an Indian megacity, Delhi, have been performed by comparing exhaust emissions of gaseous, particulate matter and mobile source air toxics (MSATs), together with volatile organic compound (VOCs) and PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 μm) from non-exhaust vehicular sources, during the past (1991-2011) and future (2011-2020) scenarios. Results indicate that emissions of most of the pollutants from private vehicles (two wheelers and cars) have increased by 2- to 18-times in 2020 over the 1991 levels. Two wheelers found to be dominating the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO, 29-51%), hydrocarbons (HC, 45-73%), acetaldehyde (46-51%) and total poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 37-42%). Conversely, private cars were found to be responsible for the majority of the carbon dioxide (CO2, 24-42%), 1,3-butadiene (72-89%), benzene (60-82%), formaldehyde (23-44%) and total aldehyde (27-52%) between 1991 and 2011. The heavy-duty commercial vehicles (HCVs) shows their accountability for most of the nitrogen oxide (NOx, 18-41%) and PM10 (33-43%) emissions during the years 1991-2011. In terms of PM10 emissions, vehicular exhaust contributed by 21-55%, followed by road dust (42-73%) and brake wear (3-5%) between 1991 and 2011. After 2002, non-exhaust emissions (e.g. road dust, brake wear and tyre wear) together indicate higher accountability (66-86%) for PM10 emission than the exhaust emissions (14-34%). The temporal trend of emissions of NOx and CO show reasonable agreement with available ambient air concentrations that were monitored at locations, significantly influenced by vehicular activity. Encouraging results were emerged, showing a good correlation coefficient for CO (0.94) and NOx (0.68).

  20. Exploring relationships between outdoor air particulate-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and PM 2.5: A case study of benzo(a)pyrene in California metropolitan regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobscheid, Agnes B.; McKone, Thomas E.; Vallero, Daniel A.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulate matter (PM) are co-pollutants emitted as by-products of combustion processes. Convincing evidence exists for PAHs as a primary toxic component of fine PM (PM 2.5). Because PM 2.5 is listed by the US EPA as a "Criteria Pollutant", it is monitored regularly at sites nationwide. In contrast, very limited data is available on measured ambient air concentrations of PAHs. However, between 1999 and 2001, ambient air concentrations of PM 2.5 and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are available for California locations. We use multivariate linear regression models (MLRMs) to predict ambient air levels of BaP in four air basins based on reported PM 2.5 concentrations and spatial, temporal and meteorological variables as variates. We obtain an R2 ranging from 0.57 to 0.72 among these basins. Significant variables ( p<0.05) include the average daily PM 2.5 concentration, wind speed, temperature and relative humidity, and the coastal distance as well as season, and holiday or weekend. Combining the data from all sites and using only these variables to estimate ambient BaP levels, we obtain an R2 of 0.55. These R2-values, combined with analysis of the residual error and cross validation using the PRESS-statistic, demonstrate the potential of our method to estimate reported outdoor air PAH exposure levels in metropolitan regions. These MLRMs provide a first step towards relating outdoor ambient PM 2.5 and PAH concentrations for epidemiological studies when PAH measurements are unavailable, or limited in spatial coverage, based on publicly available meteorological and PM 2.5 data.

  1. Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982): Assessment of New Findings on Sulfur Dioxide and Acute Exposure Health Effects in Asthmatic Individuals (1994)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to the document Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982) focuses on evaluation of newly available controlled human exposure studies of acute (a\\1h) sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure effects on pulmonary ...

  2. Decision support system for the evaluation of urban air pollution control options: application for particulate pollution in Thessaloniki, Greece.

    PubMed

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Moussiopoulos, Nu; Hourdakis, E; Tsilingiridis, G; Ntziachristos, L; Banias, G; Stavrakakis, N; Sidiropoulos, C

    2009-11-15

    Development of strategies to control urban air pollution is a complex and multi-disciplinary process involving a wide range of scientists with different expertise and interests. This paper presents an integrated assessment methodological scheme for the evaluation of air pollution control measures that are put forward in order to reduce sufficiently air pollution levels in urban areas. Forming long-term, efficient air pollution control strategies requires knowledge of the costs associated with their implementation, the emission inventories and emission reductions to be achieved, as well as the concentration variations that represent air quality levels in the area examined. In contrast to the majority of the currently employed assessment approaches, the presented scheme enables the evaluation of any proposed air pollution control option in terms of its combined impact on air quality and social welfare, by correlating economic and health impact assessment issues. The approach presented in this paper brings together air quality modelling and mathematical programming techniques and provides a decision support system for the determination of optimal bundles of air pollution control options according to the particular features and needs of the areas examined. Both cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit approaches are taken into account in order to put the problem on the basis of economic efficiency from a societal perspective. The methodology is implemented for the case of Thessaloniki, Greece, which is selected on the grounds that the area is considered as one of the most polluted--if not the most polluted--cities within Europe, especially with respect to airborne particles.

  3. Increasing fine particulate air pollution in China and the potential use of exposure and biomarker data in disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Chris H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Lo, Charles; Hertz, Marshall; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2015-03-16

    Increased industrialization and urbanization have led to marked increases in air pollutants in China over the last decade. Pollutant levels in the north and eastern regions are often four times higher than current daily levels in the United States. Recent reports indicate a higher incidence of lung cancer and mortality in men and urban dwellers, but the contribution of air pollution to these findings remains unknown. Future studies that define individual exposures, combined with biomarkers linked to disease, will be essential to the understanding of risk posed by air pollution in China.

  4. Novel shielding materials for space and air travel.

    PubMed

    Vana, N; Hajek, M; Berger, T; Fugger, M; Hofmann, P

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of dose onboard spacecraft and aircraft by appropriate shielding measures plays an essential role in the future development of space exploration and air travel. The design of novel shielding strategies and materials may involve hydrogenous composites, as it is well known that liquid hydrogen is most effective in attenuating charged particle radiation. As precursor for a later flight experiment, the shielding properties of newly developed hydrogen-rich polymers and rare earth-doped high-density rubber were tested in various ground-based neutron and heavy ion fields and compared with aluminium and polyethylene as reference materials. Absorbed dose, average linear energy transfer and gamma-equivalent neutron absorbed dose were determined by means of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescence dosemeters and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. First results for samples of equal aerial density indicate that selected hydrogen-rich plastics and rare-earth-doped rubber may be more effective in attenuating cosmic rays by up to 10% compared with conventional aluminium shielding. The appropriate adaptation of shielding thicknesses may thus allow reducing the biologically relevant dose. Owing to the lower density of the plastic composites, mass savings shall result in a significant reduction of launch costs. The experiment was flown as part of the European Space Agency's Biopan-5 mission in May 2005.

  5. Size distribution of airborne particulate matter emitted by the front-end processing of municipal solid waste feed material for large-scale anaerobic digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Gerrish, H.P.; Narasimhan, R.; Daly, E.L. Jr.; Sengupta, S.; Nemerow, N.L.; Wong, K.V.

    1984-07-01

    A 100-ton/day proof-of-concept facility has been constructed in Pompano Beach, Florida, to examine the feasibility of producing methane-rich gas from the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. One of the possible environmental impacts is from the particulate matter emitted into the atmosphere by the secondary shredding and conveying of light fraction feed material to the digesters. It has been found that the amount of particulate matter emitted into the atmosphere by the front-end processing is an order of magnitude higher when the plant is operating compared to when it is not operating. It has been found that the particle size distribution is bimodal both when the plant is operating as well as when it is not operating. Particle concentrations of episodic nature were found in July 1981 which were four times the concentration found during normal plant operation.

  6. Seasonal variations and sources study by way of back trajectories and ANOVA for ambient air pollutants (particulates and metallic elements) within a mixed area at Longjing, central Taiwan: 1-year observation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Lo, Chaur-Tsuen; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie; Cho, Meng-Hsien; Huang, Chao-Yang; Xiao, You-Fu; Tsai, Kai-Hsiang

    2017-02-01

    This study measured the concentrations of particulates and metallic elements in ambient air by using PS-1 sampler (TSP) at Longjing area. And this study focuses on the collection of ambient air particulates, metallic elements, particulate-bound mercury Hg(p), concentrations. In addition, the sources of ambient pollutants by way of back trajectory analysis are found. Moreover, test mean concentration variance differences for metallic elements (PM, Hg(p), Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu, and Pb) among the four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) through ANOVA are calculated. The result indicates that the average highest particulate concentration occurred in winter season, and the order was winter > spring > autumn > summer, and the mostly highest average metallic element (Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu, Pb) concentrations occurred in autumn. Moreover, the mostly average lowest metallic element concentrations occurred in summer. In addition, the above results of backward trajectories that the major particulate pollutants parcel mainly come from northeastern Taiwan. Moreover, when comparing the results of the first half year to that of the second half year, the they indicated that all metallic elements displayed significant differences in concentrations except those of Hg(p), Mn, Fe, Zn. Finally, metallic element Hg(p) is the only one which showed no significant concentration difference from either seasonal variations or half-year observations.

  7. Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    This invention relates to a rechargeable battery or fuel cell. More particularly, this invention relates to a novel air electrode comprising a new carbon electrode support material and a method of making same. 3 figs.

  8. Long-term health effects of particulate and other ambient air pollution: research can progress faster if we want it to.

    PubMed Central

    Künzli, N; Tager, I B

    2000-01-01

    There is need for the assessment of long-term effects of outdoor air pollution. In fact, a considerable part of the large amount of U.S. research money that has been dedicated to investigate effects of ambient particulate pollution should be invested to address long-term effects. Studies that follow the health status of large numbers of subjects across long periods of time (i.e., cohort studies) should be considered the key research approach to address these questions. However, these studies are time consuming and expensive. We propose efficient strategies to address these questions in less time. Apart from long-term continuation of the few ongoing air pollution cohort studies in the United States, data from large cohorts that were established decades ago may be efficiently used to assess cardiorespiratory effects and to target research on detection of the most susceptible subgroups in the population, which may be related to genetic, molecular, behavioral, societal, and/or environmental factors. This approach will be efficient only if the available air pollution monitoring data will be used to spatially model long-term outdoor pollution concentrations across a given country for each year with available pollution data. Such concentration maps will allow researchers to impute outdoor air pollution levels at any residential location, independent of the location of monitors. Exposure imputation may be based on residential location(s) of participants in long-standing cardiorespiratory cohort studies, which can be matched to pollutant levels using geographic information systems. As shown in European impact assessment studies, such maps may be derived relatively quickly. PMID:11049809

  9. The Impact of Multi-pollutant Clusters on the Association between Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Microvascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Ljungman, Petter L.; Wilker, Elissa H.; Rice, Mary B.; Austin, Elena; Schwartz, Joel; Gold, Diane R.; Koutrakis, Petros; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Vita, Joseph A.; Mitchell, Gary F.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies including the Framingham Heart Study have suggested associations between single components of air pollution and vascular function; however, underlying mixtures of air pollution may have distinct associations with vascular function. Methods We used a k-means approach to construct five distinct pollution mixtures from elemental analyses of particle filters, air pollution monitoring data, and meteorology. Exposure was modeled as an interaction between fine particle mass (PM2.5), and concurrent pollution cluster. Outcome variables were two measures of microvascular function in the fingertip in the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts from 2003-2008. Results In 1,720 participants, associations between PM2.5 and baseline pulse amplitude tonometry differed by air pollution cluster (interaction p value 0.009). Higher PM2.5 on days with low mass concentrations but high proportion of ultrafine particles from traffic was associated with 18% (95% CI 4.6%; 33%) higher baseline pulse amplitude per 5 μg/m3 and days with high contributions of oil and wood combustion with 16% (95% CI 0.2%; 34%) higher baseline pulse amplitude. We observed no variation in associations of PM2.5 with hyperemic response to ischemia observed across air pollution clusters. Conclusions PM2.5 exposure from air pollution mixtures with large contributions of local ultrafine particles from traffic, heating oil and wood combustion was associated with higher baseline pulse amplitude but not PAT ratio. Our findings suggest little association between acute exposure to air pollution clusters reflective of select sources and hyperemic response to ischemia, but possible associations with excessive small artery pulsatility with potentially deleterious microvascular consequences. PMID:26562062

  10. Beneficial effects of air inclusions on the performance of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) mouthguard material

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, B; Stringfellow, P; Eccleston, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact characteristics of an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) mouthguard material with regulated air inclusions, which included various air cell volumes and wall thickness between air cells. In particular, the aim was to identify the magnitude and direction of forces within the impacts. Method: EVA mouthguard material, 4 mm thick and with and without air inclusions, was impacted with a constant force impact pendulum with an energy of 4.4 J and a velocity of 3 m/s. Transmitted forces through the EVA material were measured using an accelerometer, which also allowed the determination of force direction and magnitude within the impacts. Results: Statistically significant reductions in the transmitted forces were observed with all the air inclusion materials when compared with EVA without air inclusions. Maximum transmitted force through one air inclusion material was reduced by 32%. Force rebound was eliminated in one material, and reduced second force impulses were observed in all the air inclusion materials. Conclusion: The regulated air inclusions improved the impact characteristics of the EVA mouthguard material, the material most commonly used in mouthguards world wide. PMID:11867493

  11. Quantification of the sources and composition of particulate matter by field-deployable mass spectrometry: implications for air quality and public health.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Patrick L

    2017-02-27

    Airborne particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) negatively impacts air quality in cities throughout the world where it has been linked to increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality. For this reason PM2.5 standards have been established by many countries and the World Health Organization. However, these guidelines are regularly exceeded in North America, Europe and East Asia. While PM2.5 is often reported as a single atmospheric species, it is actually a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds. The organic fraction, termed organic aerosol (OA), contributes approximately 20-70% of the PM2.5 mass globally, and OA itself is a complex mixture of thousands of compounds. Characterizing the chemical properties of OA represents a major analytical challenge that has motivated the development of a range of new instruments. The focus of this perspective is the use of field-deployable mass spectrometers and in particular the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) for chemically characterizing submicron particles. Field measurements of the composition of PM2.5 are directly relevant to evaluating its health impact because reductions in life expectancy due to PM2.5 vary according to composition. In addition, AMS measurements are especially useful for characterizing OA. The sources of OA are not well understood as evidenced by the performance of many air quality models, including those run by government agencies, which lack accurate and well constrained parameterizations for simulating secondary OA concentrations in urban regions. Given that OA is an important component of the total PM2.5 mass, this uncertainty makes accurate evaluation of the impact of PM2.5 on public health difficult, especially when evaluating future mitigation strategies. The development of the AMS has been a critical step towards addressing this public health challenge in that it provides quantitative data regarding particulate matter and OA concentration and composition

  12. Exposure assessment of air pollutants: a review on spatial heterogeneity and indoor/outdoor/personal exposure to suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monn, Christian

    This review describes databases of small-scale spatial variations and indoor, outdoor and personal measurements of air pollutants with the main focus on suspended particulate matter, and to a lesser extent, nitrogen dioxide and photochemical pollutants. The basic definitions and concepts of an exposure measurement are introduced as well as some study design considerations and implications of imprecise exposure measurements. Suspended particulate matter is complex with respect to particle size distributions, the chemical composition and its sources. With respect to small-scale spatial variations in urban areas, largest variations occur in the ultrafine (<0.1 μm) and the coarse mode (PM 10-2.5, resuspended dust). Secondary aerosols which contribute to the accumulation mode (0.1-2 μm) show quite homogenous spatial distribution. In general, small-scale spatial variations of PM 2.5 were described to be smaller than the spatial variations of PM 10. Recent studies in outdoor air show that ultrafine particle number counts have large spatial variations and that they are not well correlated to mass data. Sources of indoor particles are from outdoors and some specific indoor sources such as smoking and cooking for fine particles or moving of people (resuspension of dust) for coarse particles. The relationships between indoor, outdoor and personal levels are complex. The finer the particle size, the better becomes the correlation between indoor, outdoor and personal levels. Furthermore, correlations between these parameters are better in longitudinal analyses than in cross-sectional analyses. For NO 2 and O 3, the air chemistry is important. Both have considerable small-scale spatial variations within urban areas. In the absence of indoor sources such as gas appliances, NO 2 indoor/outdoor relationships are strong. For ozone, indoor levels are quite small. The study hypothesis largely determines the choice of a specific concept in exposure assessment, i.e. whether personal

  13. Modeling of episodic particulate matter events using a 3-D air quality model with fine grid: Applications to a pair of cities in the US/Mexico border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Hyde, Peter; Fernando, H. J. S.

    High (episodic) particulate matter (PM) events over the sister cities of Douglas (AZ) and Agua Prieta (Sonora), located in the US-Mexico border, were simulated using the 3D Eulerian air quality model, MODELS-3/CMAQ. The best available input information was used for the simulations, with pollution inventory specified on a fine grid. In spite of inherent uncertainties associated with the emission inventory as well as the chemistry and meteorology of the air quality simulation tool, model evaluations showed acceptable PM predictions, while demonstrating the need for including the interaction between meteorology and emissions in an interactive mode in the model, a capability currently unavailable in MODELS-3/CMAQ when dealing with PM. Sensitivity studies on boundary influence indicate an insignificant regional (advection) contribution of PM to the study area. The contribution of secondary particles to the occurrence of high PM events was trivial. High PM episodes in the study area, therefore, are purely local events that largely depend on local meteorological conditions. The major PM emission sources were identified as vehicular activities on unpaved/paved roads and wind-blown dust. The results will be of immediate utility in devising PM mitigation strategies for the study area, which is one of the US EPA-designated non-attainment areas with respect to PM.

  14. Assessing the sensitivity of modeled air-sea CO2 exchange to the remineralization depth of particulate organic and inorganic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Birgit; Bopp, Laurent; Gehlen, Marion

    2008-09-01

    To assess the sensitivity of surface ocean pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes to changes in the remineralization depth of particulate organic and inorganic carbon (POC, PIC), a biogeochemical ocean circulation model (PISCES) was run with different parameterizations for vertical particle fluxes. On the basis of fluxes of POC and PIC, productivity, export, and the distributions of nitrogen (NO3), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and alkalinity, a number of indices defined to estimate the efficiency of carbon transport away from the atmosphere are applied. With differing success for the respective indices the results show that the more efficient the vertical transport of organic carbon toward depth, the lower the surface ocean pCO2, the higher the air-sea CO2 flux, and the stronger the increase in the oceanic inventory of DIC. Along with POC flux it is important to consider variations in PIC flux, as the net effect of particle flux reorganizations on surface ocean pCO2 is a combination of changes in DIC and alkalinity. The results demonstrate that changes in the mechanistic formulation of vertical particle fluxes have direct and indirect effects on surface ocean pCO2 and may thus interact with the atmospheric CO2 reservoir.

  15. Are the acute effects of particulate matter on mortality in the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study the result of inadequate control for weather and season? A sensitivity analysis using flexible distributed lag models.

    PubMed

    Welty, Leah J; Zeger, Scott L

    2005-07-01

    Time-series studies have linked daily variations in nonaccidental deaths with daily variations in ambient particulate matter air pollution, while controlling for qualitatively larger influences of weather and season. Although time-series analyses typically include nonlinear terms for weather and season, questions remain as to whether models to date have completely controlled for these important predictors. In this paper, the authors use two flexible versions of distributed lag models to control extensively for the confounding effects of weather and season. One version builds on the current approach to controlling for weather, while the other version offers a new approach. The authors conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the particulate matter-mortality relation by applying these methods to the recently updated National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study database that comprises air pollution, weather, and mortality time series from 1987 to 2000 for 100 US cities. They combine city-specific estimates of the short-term effects of particulate matter on mortality using a Bayesian hierarchical model. They conclude that, within the broad classes of models considered, national average estimates of particulate matter relative risk are consistent with previous estimates from this study and are robust to model specification for weather and seasonal confounding.

  16. Nanostructured carbon materials based electrothermal air pump actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing; Liu, Luqi; Kuang, Jun; Dai, Zhaohe; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid films as heating elements to transfer electrical stimulus into thermal energy, and finally convert it into mechanical energy. Both the actuation displacement and working temperature of the actuator films show the monotonically increasing trend with increasing driving voltage within the actuation process. Compared with common polymer nanocomposites based electrothermal actuators, our actuators exhibited better actuation performances with a low driving voltage (<10 V), large generated stress (tens of MPa), high gravimetric density (tens of J kg-1), and short response time (few hundreds of milliseconds). Besides that, the pump actuators exhibited excellent stability under cyclic actuation tests. Among these actuators, a relatively larger actuation strain was obtained for the r-GO film actuator due to the intrinsic gas-impermeability nature of graphene platelets. In addition, the high modulus of the r-GO and GO/SWCNT films also guaranteed the large generated stress and high work density. Specifically, the generated stress and gravimetric work density of the GO/SWCNT hybrid film actuator could reach up to more than 50 MPa and 30 J kg-1, respectively, under a driving voltage of 10 V. The resulting stress value is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of natural muscles (~0.4 MPa).Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid

  17. Nanostructured carbon materials based electrothermal air pump actuators.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Liu, Luqi; Kuang, Jun; Dai, Zhaohe; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-06-21

    Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid films as heating elements to transfer electrical stimulus into thermal energy, and finally convert it into mechanical energy. Both the actuation displacement and working temperature of the actuator films show the monotonically increasing trend with increasing driving voltage within the actuation process. Compared with common pol