Science.gov

Sample records for air passenger transportation

  1. [Air transport biomechanical risk: reduced mobility passengers' handling].

    PubMed

    Draicchio, F; Campoli, G; Silvetti, A; Badellino, E; Forzano, F; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S; Campagna, G; Raffaele, G; Gismondi, M

    2012-01-01

    As the airport traffic increases there is a continuous increase of passengers with different motor disabilities. Disabled passenger's assistance causes a biomechanical overload in airport workers. Some disabled passengers are classified by IATA as WCHC (wheel chair in cabin or Charlie). Our study, was performed in one of the most important Italian airport on Charlie passengers (about 10% of all assistances). We identified four critical points: 1) wheelchair and baggage moving (unstable load), 2) inclined ramps with worker's backwards steps and braked wheelchair to prevent passenger tipping or falling, 3) transfer from standard wheelchair to bicycle wheelchair, specifically designed for the aisle; 4.) transfer from bicycle wheelchair to aircraft seat. The last two points required sometimes to lift passengers over the armrest and positioning them on a window side seat, causing a serious increase of biomechanical load. For each critical point we have proposed technical and organizational measures to reduce airport worker's biomechanical risk.

  2. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksenov, A. F.; Burnazyan, A. I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  3. The development of a model for predicting passenger acceptance of short-haul air transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1977-01-01

    Meaningful criteria and methodology for assessing, particularly in the area of ride quality, the potential acceptability to the traveling public of present and future transportation systems were investigated. Ride quality was found to be one of the important variables affecting the decision of users of air transportation, and to be influenced by several environmental factors, especially motion, noise, pressure, temperature, and seating. Models were developed to quantify the relationship of subjective comfort to all of these parameters and then were exercised for a variety of situations. Passenger satisfaction was found to be strongly related to ride quality and was so modeled. A computer program was developed to assess the comfort and satisfaction levels of passengers on aircraft subjected to arbitrary flight profiles over arbitrary terrain. A model was deduced of the manner in which passengers integrate isolated segments of a flight to obtain an overall trip comfort rating. A method was established for assessing the influence of other links (e.g., access, terminal conditions) in the overall passenger trip.

  4. Heterogeneity of passenger exposure to air pollutants in public transport microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fenhuan; Kaul, Daya; Wong, Ka Chun; Westerdahl, Dane; Sun, Li; Ho, Kin-fai; Tian, Linwei; Brimblecombe, Peter; Ning, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked human exposure to pollutants with adverse health effects. Passenger exposure in public transport systems contributes an important fraction of daily burden of air pollutants. While there is extensive literature reporting the concentrations of pollutants in public transport systems in different cities, there are few studies systematically addressing the heterogeneity of passenger exposure in different transit microenvironments, in cabins of different transit vehicles and in areas with different characteristics. The present study investigated PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm), black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP) and carbon monoxide (CO) pollutant concentrations in various public road transport systems in highly urbanized city of Hong Kong. Using a trolley case housing numerous portable air monitors, we conducted a total of 119 trips during the campaign. Transit microenvironments, classified as 1). busy and secondary roadside bus stops; 2). open and enclosed termini; 3). above- and under-ground Motor Rail Transport (MTR) platforms, were investigated and compared to identify the factors that may affect passenger exposures. The pollutants inside bus and MTR cabins were also investigated together with a comparison of time integrated exposure between the transit modes. Busy roadside and enclosed termini demonstrated the highest average particle concentrations while the lowest was found on the MTR platforms. Traffic-related pollutants BC, UFP and CO showed larger variations than PM2.5 across different microenvironments and areas confirming their heterogeneity in urban environments. In-cabin pollutant concentrations showed distinct patterns with BC and UFP high in diesel bus cabins and CO high in LPG bus cabins, suggesting possible self-pollution issues and/or penetration of on-road pollutants inside cabins during bus transit. The total passenger exposure along selected routes, showed bus

  5. The world's air transportation services : data as to passengers, mail, and goods carried by American and European transportation services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    This report presents detailed descriptions, statistics, and graphs on European and American air transport. The European countries listed are Belgium, Czecho-Slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, and Italy.

  6. Energy conservation and air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Air transportation demand and passenger energy demand are discussed, in relation to energy conservation. Alternatives to air travel are reviewed, along with airline advertising and ticket pricing. Cargo energy demand and airline systems efficiency are also examined, as well as fuel conservation techniques. Maximum efficiency of passenger aircraft, from B-747 to V/STOL to British Concorde, is compared.

  7. Techniques for Forecasting Air Passenger Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneja, N.

    1972-01-01

    The basic techniques of forecasting the air passenger traffic are outlined. These techniques can be broadly classified into four categories: judgmental, time-series analysis, market analysis and analytical. The differences between these methods exist, in part, due to the degree of formalization of the forecasting procedure. Emphasis is placed on describing the analytical method.

  8. Energy efficiency in passenger transportation: What the future may hold

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation very briefly projects future impacts of energy efficiency in passenger transportation. Continuing expansion of the U.S. transportation sector, with a corresponding increased dependency on imported oil, is noted. Freight trucks and air fleets are targeted as having the greatest potential for increased energy efficiency. The light duty vehicle is identified as the only technology option for major efficiency increases. 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. 49 CFR 175.25 - Notification at air passenger facilities of hazardous materials restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification at air passenger facilities of hazardous materials restrictions. 175.25 Section 175.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... passenger facilities of hazardous materials restrictions. Each person who engages in for-hire...

  10. Terrorist Watchlist Checks and Air Passenger Prescreening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-30

    U.S. port of entry or at airport security checkpoints prior U.S. air carrier flights. For these purposes, CBP administers the Automated Targeting...Passenger Screening at Airport Security Checkpoints ................................. 14 9/11 Commission Recommendations and CAPPS II...individuals at either international ports of entries upon arrival at a U.S. port of entry or at airport security checkpoints prior U.S. air carrier

  11. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given.

  12. Passenger ride quality in transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Richards, L. G.; Conner, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative relationships are presented which can be used to account for passenger ride quality in transport aircraft. These relations can be used to predict passenger comfort and satisfaction under a variety of flight conditions. Several applications are detailed, including evaluation of use of spoilers to attenuate trailing vortices, identifying key elements in a complex maneuver which leads to discomfort, determining noise/motion tradeoffs, evaluating changes in wing loading, and others. Variables included in the models presented are motion, noise, temperature, pressure, and seating.

  13. 19 CFR 4.80a - Coastwise transportation of passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coastwise transportation of passengers. 4.80a... transportation of passengers. (a) For the purposes of this section, the following terms will have the meaning set... to the prohibition in this section is the transportation of passengers between ports in Puerto...

  14. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  15. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  16. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  17. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  18. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  19. Integrated Intermodal Passenger Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klock, Ryan; Owens, David; Schwartz, Henry; Plencner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Modern transportation consists of many unique modes of travel. Each of these modes and their respective industries has evolved independently over time, forming a largely incoherent and inefficient overall transportation system. Travelers today are forced to spend unnecessary time and efforts planning a trip through varying modes of travel each with their own scheduling, pricing, and services; causing many travelers to simply rely on their relatively inefficient and expensive personal automobile. This paper presents a demonstration program system to not only collect and format many different sources of trip planning information, but also combine these independent modes of travel in order to form optimal routes and itineraries of travel. The results of this system show a mean decrease in inter-city travel time of 10 percent and a 25 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions over personal automobiles. Additionally, a 55 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is observed for intra-city travel. A conclusion is that current resources are available, if somewhat hidden, to drastically improve point to point transportation in terms of time spent traveling, the cost of travel, and the ecological impact of a trip. Finally, future concepts are considered which could dramatically improve the interoperability and efficiency of the transportation infrastructure.

  20. Short haul air passenger data sources in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Kazily, J.; Gosling, G.; Horonjeff, R.

    1977-01-01

    The sources and characteristics of existing data on short haul air passenger traffic in the United States domestic air market are described along with data availability, processing, and costs. Reference is made to data derived from aircraft operations since these data can be used to insure that no short haul operators are omitted during the process of assembling passenger data.

  1. Air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, F Handley

    1924-01-01

    I purpose (sic) in this paper to deal with the development in air transport which has taken place since civil aviation between England and the Continent first started at the end of August 1919. A great deal of attention has been paid in the press to air services of the future, to the detriment of the consideration of results obtained up to the present.

  2. Passenger aircraft cabin air quality: trends, effects, societal costs, proposals.

    PubMed

    Hocking, M B

    2000-08-01

    As aircraft operators have sought to substantially reduce propulsion fuel cost by flying at higher altitudes, the energy cost of providing adequate outside air for ventilation has increased. This has lead to a significant decrease in the amount of outside air provided to the passenger cabin, partly compensated for by recirculation of filtered cabin air. The purpose of this review paper is to assemble the available measured air quality data and some calculated estimates of the air quality for aircraft passenger cabins to highlight the trend of the last 25 years. The influence of filter efficiencies on air quality, and a few medically documented and anecdotal cases of illness transmission aboard aircraft are discussed. Cost information has been collected from the perspective of both the airlines and passengers. Suggestions for air quality improvement are given which should help to result in a net, multistakeholder savings and improved passenger comfort.

  3. Proceedings and findings of the 1976 Workshop on Ride Quality. [passenger acceptance of transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    The workshop was organized around the study of the three basic transfer functions required to evaluate and/or predict passenger acceptance of transportation systems: These are the vehicle, passenger, and value transfer functions. For the purpose of establishing working groups corresponding to the basic transfer functions, it was decided to split the vehicle transfer function into two distinct groups studying surface vehicles and air/marine vehicles, respectively.

  4. Simultaneous service approach for reducing air passenger queue time

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, C.A.; Sodeinde, T.

    2000-02-01

    Simultaneous service offers service-oriented organizations, such as the air passenger transportation industry, the opportunity to differentiate themselves by providing superior customer service. The concept of simultaneous service is analogous to the concept of simultaneous engineering. However, while simultaneous engineering strives to minimize product development time, simultaneous service strives to minimize customer processing time. Overall customer processing time is reduced by the identification and simultaneous alignment of previously sequentially executed customer service activities. A simultaneous service approach was applied to the international ticketing counter at a major international airport. This involved developing both equipment and operational policy alternatives to the normal sequencing of the ticketing and baggage check-in process. A total of five alternative simultaneous service approaches were investigated. Simulation analysis of these alternatives indicates that a 36% improvement in customer queue and servicing time was possible with this approach.

  5. Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Danyi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al. 1994). Btatu and Barnhart have shown that official government and airline on-time performance metrics (i.e. flight-centric measures of air transportation) fail to accurately reflect the passenger experience (Btatu and Barnhart, 2005). Flight-based metrics do not include the trip delays accrued by passengers who were re-booked due to cancelled flights or missed connections. Also, flight-based metrics do not quantify the magnitude of the delay (only the likelihood) and thus fails to provide the consumer with a useful assessment of the impact of a delay. Passenger-centric metrics have not been developed because of the unavailability of airline proprietary data, which is also protected by anti-trust collusion concerns and civil liberty privacy restrictions. Moveover, the growth of the ATS is trending out of the historical range. The objectives of this research were to (1) estimate ATS-wide passenger trip delay using publicly accessible flight data, and (2) investigate passenger trip dynamics out of the range of historical data by building a passenger flow simulation model to predict impact on passenger trip time given anticipated changes in the future. The first objective enables researchers to conduct historical analysis on passenger on-time performance without proprietary itinerary data, and the second objective enables researchers to conduct experiments outside the range of historic data. The estimated passenger trip delay was for 1,030 routes between the 35 busiest airports in the United States in 2006. The major findings of this research are listed as

  6. Development of an energy-absorbing passenger seat for a transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichelberger, C. P.; Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial air transport passenger safety and survivability, in the event of an impact-survivable crash, are subjects receiving increased technical focus/study by the aviation community. A B-720 aircraft, highly instrumented, and remotely controlled from the ground by a pilot in a simulated cockpit, was crashed on a specially prepared gravel covered impact site. The aircraft was impacted under controlled conditions in an air-to-ground gear-up mode, at a nominal speed of 150 knots and 4-1/2 deg glide slope. Data from a number of on board, crash worthiness experiments provided valuable information related to structural loads/failure modes, antimisting kerosene fuel, passenger and attendant restraint systems and energy absorbing seats. The development of an energy absorbing (EA) seat accomplished through innovative modification of a typical modern standard commercial aviation transport, three passenger seat is described.

  7. An open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for the global air network in 2010.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhuojie; Wu, Xiao; Garcia, Andres J; Fik, Timothy J; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The expanding global air network provides rapid and wide-reaching connections accelerating both domestic and international travel. To understand human movement patterns on the network and their socioeconomic, environmental and epidemiological implications, information on passenger flow is required. However, comprehensive data on global passenger flow remain difficult and expensive to obtain, prompting researchers to rely on scheduled flight seat capacity data or simple models of flow. This study describes the construction of an open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for all airports with a host city-population of more than 100,000 and within two transfers of air travel from various publicly available air travel datasets. Data on network characteristics, city population, and local area GDP amongst others are utilized as covariates in a spatial interaction framework to predict the air transportation flows between airports. Training datasets based on information from various transportation organizations in the United States, Canada and the European Union were assembled. A log-linear model controlling the random effects on origin, destination and the airport hierarchy was then built to predict passenger flows on the network, and compared to the results produced using previously published models. Validation analyses showed that the model presented here produced improved predictive power and accuracy compared to previously published models, yielding the highest successful prediction rate at the global scale. Based on this model, passenger flows between 1,491 airports on 644,406 unique routes were estimated in the prediction dataset. The airport node characteristics and estimated passenger flows are freely available as part of the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) project at: www.vbd-air.com/data.

  8. An Open-Access Modeled Passenger Flow Matrix for the Global Air Network in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhuojie; Wu, Xiao; Garcia, Andres J.; Fik, Timothy J.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The expanding global air network provides rapid and wide-reaching connections accelerating both domestic and international travel. To understand human movement patterns on the network and their socioeconomic, environmental and epidemiological implications, information on passenger flow is required. However, comprehensive data on global passenger flow remain difficult and expensive to obtain, prompting researchers to rely on scheduled flight seat capacity data or simple models of flow. This study describes the construction of an open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for all airports with a host city-population of more than 100,000 and within two transfers of air travel from various publicly available air travel datasets. Data on network characteristics, city population, and local area GDP amongst others are utilized as covariates in a spatial interaction framework to predict the air transportation flows between airports. Training datasets based on information from various transportation organizations in the United States, Canada and the European Union were assembled. A log-linear model controlling the random effects on origin, destination and the airport hierarchy was then built to predict passenger flows on the network, and compared to the results produced using previously published models. Validation analyses showed that the model presented here produced improved predictive power and accuracy compared to previously published models, yielding the highest successful prediction rate at the global scale. Based on this model, passenger flows between 1,491 airports on 644,406 unique routes were estimated in the prediction dataset. The airport node characteristics and estimated passenger flows are freely available as part of the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) project at: www.vbd-air.com/data. PMID:23691194

  9. Ultrafine particle air pollution inside diesel-propelled passenger trains.

    PubMed

    Abramesko, Victoria; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2017-04-05

    Locomotives with diesel engines are used worldwide and are an important source of air pollution. Pollutant emissions by locomotive engines affect the air quality inside passenger trains. This study is aimed at investigating ultrafine particle (UFP) air pollution inside passenger trains and providing a basis for assessing passenger exposure to this pollutant. The concentrations of UFPs inside the carriages of push-pull trains are dramatically higher when the train operates in pull mode. This clearly shows that locomotive engine emissions are a dominant factor in train passengers' exposure to UFPs. The highest levels of UFP air pollution are observed inside the carriages of pull trains close to the locomotive. In push mode, the UFP number concentrations were lower by factors of 2.6-43 (depending on the carriage type) compared to pull mode. The UFP concentrations are substantially lower in diesel multiple-unit trains than in trains operating in pull mode. A significant influence of the train movement regime on the UFP NC inside a carriage is observed.

  10. The technology assessment of LTA aircraft systems. [hybrid airships for passenger and cargo transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The advantages of conventional small and large airships over heavier than air aircraft are reviewed and the need for developing hybrid aircraft for passenger and heavy charge transport is assessed. Performance requirements and estimated operating costs are discussed for rota-ships to be used for short distance transportation near large cities as well as for airlifting civil engineering machinery and supplies for the construction of power stations, dams, tunnels, and roads in remote areas or on isolated islands.

  11. Indoor air quality: recommendations relevant to aircraft passenger cabins.

    PubMed

    Hocking, M B

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the human component of aircraft cabin air quality the effects of respiration of a resting adult on air quality in an enclosed space are estimated using standard equations. Results are illustrated for different air volumes per person, with zero air exchange, and with various air change rates. Calculated ventilation rates required to achieve a specified air quality for a wide range of conditions based on theory agree to within 2% of the requirements determined using a standard empirical formula. These calculations quantitatively confirm that the air changes per hour per person necessary for ventilation of an enclosed space vary inversely with the volume of the enclosed space. However, they also establish that the ventilation required to achieve a target carbon dioxide concentration in the air of an enclosed space with a resting adult remains the same regardless of the volume of the enclosed space. Concentration equilibria resulting from the interaction of the respiration of a resting adult with various ventilation conditions are compared with the rated air exchange rates of samples of current passenger aircraft, both with and without air recirculation capability. Aircraft cabin carbon dioxide concentrations calculated from the published ventilation ratings are found to be intermediate to these sets of results obtained by actual measurement. These findings are used to arrive at recommendations for aircraft builders and operators to help improve aircraft cabin air quality at minimum cost. Passenger responses are suggested to help improve their comfort and decrease their exposure to disease transmission, particularly on long flights.

  12. Passenger Transportation and Travel Curriculum Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lininger, Carol

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a course in passenger transportation and travel. The four-credit, competency-based program provides students with skills necessary to obtain employment in the aviation industry, travel agencies, hotel/motel management, and car rental agencies. An overview of vocational-technical education at the school…

  13. An analysis of long and medium-haul air passenger demand, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    A basic model was developed which is a two equation pair econometric system in which air passenger demand and airline level-of-service are the endogenous variables. The model aims to identify the relationship between each of these two variables and its determining factors, and to identify the interaction of demand and level-of-service with each other. The selected variable for the measure of air passenger traffic activity in a given pair market is defined as the number of passengers in a given time that originate in one region and fly to the other region for purposes other than to make a connection to a third region. For medium and long haul markets, the model seems to perform better for larger markets. This is due to a specification problem regarding the route structure variable. In larger markets, a greater percentage of nonlocal passengers are accounted for by this variable. Comparing the estimated fare elasticities of long and medium haul markets, it appears that air transportation demand is more price elastic in longer haul markets. Long haul markets demand will saturate with a fewer number of departures than will demand in medium haul markets.

  14. 49 CFR 175.25 - Notification at air passenger facilities of hazardous materials restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS... passengers in locations where the aircraft operator issues tickets, checks baggage, and maintains...

  15. [Index assessment of airborne VOCs pollution in automobile for transporting passengers].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Cheng, He-Ming; Luo, Hui-Long

    2013-12-01

    Car for transporting passenger is the most common means of transport and in-car airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) cause harm to health. In order to analyze the pollution levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene and TVOC, index evaluation method was used according to the domestic and international standards of indoor and in-car air quality (IAQ). For Chinese GB/T 18883-2002 IAQ Standard, GB/T 17729-2009 Hygienic Standard for the Air Quality inside Long Distance Coach, GB/T 27630-2011 Guideline for Air Quality Assessment of Passenger Car, IAQ standard of South Korea, Norway, Japan and Germany, the heaviest pollution of VOCs in passenger car was TVOC, TVOC, benzene, benzene, TVOC, toluene and TVOC, respectively, the average pollution grade of automotive IAQ was median pollution, median pollution, clean, light pollution, median pollution, clean and heavy pollution, respectively. Index evaluation can effectively analyze vehicular interior air quality, and the result has a significant difference with different standards; German standard is the most stringent, while Chinese GB/T 18883-2002 standard is the relatively stringent and GB/T 27630-2011 is the most relaxed.

  16. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit....

  17. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit....

  18. 49 CFR 1510.7 - Air transportation advertisements and solicitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air transportation advertisements and... PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.7 Air transportation advertisements and solicitations... part as “September 11th Security Fee” in all its advertisements and solicitations for...

  19. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... carrier that provides scheduled passenger air transportation shall, within 15 days of the end of the month... Consumer Protection Division a report on any incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an...

  20. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... carrier that provides scheduled passenger air transportation shall, within 15 days of the end of the month... Consumer Protection Division a report on any incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an...

  1. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... carrier that provides scheduled passenger air transportation shall, within 15 days of the end of the month... Consumer Protection Division a report on any incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an...

  2. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... carrier that provides scheduled passenger air transportation shall, within 15 days of the end of the month... Consumer Protection Division a report on any incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an...

  3. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... carrier that provides scheduled passenger air transportation shall, within 15 days of the end of the month... Consumer Protection Division a report on any incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an...

  4. 49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on....166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels. (a) Only the following Class 1 (explosive) materials may be transported as cargo on passenger vessels: (1) Division 1.4...

  5. The Employment of Airships for the Transport of Passengers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobile, Umberto

    1921-01-01

    It was a conclusion of this detailed study of the practicality of using airships for carrying passengers that, although slow, airships are capable of carrying useful loads over long distances. However, it is noted that there is a certain limit to the advantages of large cubature. Beyond a certain point, the maximum altitude of the airship goes on decreasing, in spite of the fact that the range of action in the horizontal plane and the useful load go on increasing. The possibility of rapid climb is an essential factor of security in aerial navigation in the case of storms, as is velocity. To rise above and run ahead of storms are ways of avoiding them. However, high altitude and high speed are antithetical. This investigation concluded that a maximum velocity of 120 km/h is as far as we ought to go. This figure can only be exceeded by excessive reduction of the altitude of ceiling, range of flight, and useful load. The essential requisites of a public transport service are discussed, as are flight security, regularity of service, competition with other forms of passenger transportation, and the choice between rigid and semi-rigid airships.

  6. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles....

  7. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles....

  8. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles....

  9. 75 FR 18255 - Passenger Facility Charge Database System for Air Carrier Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Passenger Facility Charge Database System for Air Carrier Reporting AGENCY... interested parties of the availability of the Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) database system to report PFC... public agency. The FAA has developed a national PFC database system in order to more easily track the...

  10. Conceptual design of a flying boom for air-to-air refueling of passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Ir. H. S.; La Rocca, ir. G., Dr.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the conceptual development of a flying boom for air-to-air refuelingof passenger aircraft. This operational concept is currently evaluated within the EC project RECREATE as a possible means to achieve significant increase in overall fuel efficiency. While in military aviation aerial refueling is performed with the tankerflyingahead and above the receiver aircraft, in case of passenger aircraft, safety, cost and comfort criteria suggest to invert the set up. This unconventional configuration would require a different refueling boom, able to extend from the tanker towards the cruiser, against wind and gravity. Amultidisciplinary design optimization framework was set up to size and compare various boom design solutions free of structural divergence and sufficientlycontrollable and with minimum values of weight and drag. Oneconcept, based on an innovative kinematic mechanism, was selected for its ability to meet all design constraints, with weight and drag values comparable to conventional boom designs.

  11. Transition to Low-GWP Alternatives in Passenger Vehicle Air Conditioners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides current information on low global warming potential (GWP) alternatives in newly manufactured passenger vehicle air conditioners (ACs), in lieu of high-GWP hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

  12. Certification and safety aspects relating to the transport of passengers on high altitude balloons in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenmaker, Annelie

    2014-07-01

    High-altitude balloons typically fly between 25 and 50 km in altitude, which, while below the Karman line of 100 km, is yet far above the altitudes typically flown by aircraft. For example, the highest-flying commercial aircraft - the Concorde - had a maximum cruising altitude of only 18 km. zero2infinity, a Spanish company, is currently developing a pressurized pod named “bloon” which will be capable of lifting six people, including two pilot crew members and four paying passengers, to an altitude of 36 km through the use of high-altitude balloons. The boundary between Airspace and Outer Space has never been legally defined, mostly because of the lack of activities taking place between the altitude where airplanes fly and the lowest orbiting spacecraft. High-altitude balloons do fly at these in-between altitudes and the prospect of commercializing access to these parts of the stratosphere poses some questions in a new light. Given the relatively low altitude at which they fly, it may well be that these types of balloons would be considered to operate exclusively within air space. However, given the technology involved in crewed high altitude balloon flights, which is more similar to spacecraft engineering than to traditional hot-air or gas ballooning, it is necessary to evaluate the various legal regimes, codes, and regulations that would apply to such flights, especially regarding licenses and liabilities. For high altitude balloon flights commencing in Europe, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) would very likely be the competent certification or licensing agency for these flights, although there would likely be input from various national aviation authorities as well. However, because the European Commission (EC) has not yet issued regulations regarding commercial spaceflight, particularly the use of high altitude balloons, new rules and regulations governing such flights may still need to be drafted and promulgated. With the development of

  13. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  14. 75 FR 38878 - Transportation for Individuals With Disabilities: Passenger Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...The Department is issuing a new Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) rule to ensure nondiscrimination on the basis of disability by passenger vessel operators (PVOs). This rulemaking concerns service and policy issues. Issues concerning physical accessibility standards will be addressed at a later time, in conjunction with proposed passenger vessel accessibility guidelines drafted by the......

  15. Medical liabilities of the French physician passenger during a commercial air flight.

    PubMed

    Dedouit, F; Tournel, G; Barguin, P; Becart-Robert, A; Hedouin, V; Gosset, D

    2007-01-01

    Nearly two billion passengers travel each year on commercial air flights. More elderly people and/or people with a pre-existing condition are taking to the air and with the anticipated growth of air travel, in-flight illnesses and injuries are expected to increase as well. Even if in-flight medical events and deaths are still uncommon, physician passengers are occasionally called upon to render assistance. Although no case law exists as yet in France, physicians who often travel on commercial flights should be aware of the risks they run if they do not respond to the well-known call, 'Is there a doctor on board?', or if they assist a sick passenger. This paper describes in-flight resources available to a physician who is called upon to treat an ill or injured passenger. Two questions concerning the French physician passenger are discussed: What are the liabilities of the physician who does not respond to the call of a medical event aboard an aircraft? What are the liabilities of the physician providing assistance to a sick passenger? The different liabilities and also the legal status of the French physician passenger are examined.

  16. Risk of injury to restrained children from passenger air bags.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael; Elliott, Michael; Cornejo, Rebecca A; Arbogast, Kristy B; Winston, Flaura K

    2003-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of children's exposure to passenger air bag (PAB) deployments and to determine the relative risk of both minor and more serious nonfatal injuries to restrained children exposed to PABs in frontal impact collisions. Data were collected from 1 December 1998 to 30 November 2001 from a large-scale, child-specific crash surveillance system based on insurance claims, a telephone survey, and on-site crash investigations. Vehicles qualifying for inclusion were State Farm-insured, model year 1990 or newer, and involved in a crash with at least one child occupant < or =15 years of age. Qualifying crashes were limited to those that occurred in 15 states and the District of Columbia. A stratified cluster sample was designed in order to select vehicles (the unit of sampling) for the conduction of a telephone survey with the driver. For cases in which child occupants were seriously injured or killed, in-depth crash investigations were performed. The prevalence of exposure to PABs was calculated as the number of children occupying the right front seat in a PAB deployment crash among all children occupying the right front seat in vehicles equipped with PABs. Complete interview data were obtained on 9,779 vehicles involving 15,341 children. Among PAB-exposed children, 175 (14%) suffered serious injuries versus 41 (7.5%) of those in the comparison group (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7). The overall risk of any injury (both minor and serious) was 86% among children exposed to PABs, compared to 55% among the comparison group (OR 5.3; 95% CI, 2.1-13.4). Exposure to PABs increased the risk of both minor injuries, including facial and chest abrasions, and more serious injuries, particularly upper extremity fractures.

  17. Life-cycle environmental inventory of passenger transportation modes in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail Vin

    To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with each mode. A life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas, and criteria air pollutant emissions inventory is created for the passenger transportation modes of automobiles, urban buses, heavy rail transit, light rail transit, and aircraft in the U.S. Each mode's inventory includes an assessment of vehicles, infrastructure, and fuel components. For each component, analysis is performed for material extraction through use and maintenance in both direct and indirect (supply chain) processes. For each mode's life-cycle components, energy inputs and emission outputs are determined. Energy inputs include electricity and petroleum-based fuels. Emission outputs include greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and criteria pollutants (CO, SO2, NOx , VOCs, and PM). The inputs and outputs are normalized by vehicle lifetime, vehicle mile traveled, and passenger mile traveled. A consistent system boundary is applied to all modal inventories which captures the entire life-cycle, except for end-of-life. For each modal life-cycle component, both direct and indirect processes are included if possible. A hybrid life-cycle assessment approach is used to estimate the components in the inventories. We find that life-cycle energy inputs and emission outputs increase significantly compared to the vehicle operational phase. Life-cycle energy consumption is 39-56% larger than vehicle operation for autos, 38% for buses, 93-160% for rail, and 19-24% for air systems per passenger mile traveled. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions are 47-65% larger than vehicle operation for autos, 43% for buses, 39-150% for rail, and 24-31% for air systems per passenger mile traveled. The energy and greenhouse gas increases are primarily due to vehicle manufacturing and maintenance, infrastructure construction, and fuel production. For criteria

  18. Driver and front seat passenger fatalities associated with air bag deployment. Part 1: A Canadian study.

    PubMed

    Shkrum, Michael J; McClafferty, Kevin J; Nowak, Edwin S; German, Alan

    2002-09-01

    Real world motor vehicle collision research of injuries due to deployment of "first-generation" air bags has been conducted by Transport Canada since 1993. Fifty-three fatal crashes (36 frontal impacts; 17 side collisions) involving 48 drivers and 10 right front passengers were reviewed. In the Canadian data, air bag deployment in five of nine low severity frontal crashes (delta-V (deltaV) < 25 km/h or 15 mph) was linked to five deaths, four of whom were autopsied (four adults with craniocervical (basal skull and C2 fracture with brainstem avulsion; "closed head injury"--no autopsy) or chest trauma (aortic or pulmonary artery tears); one child with atlanto-occipital dislocation). An occupant who is close ("out-of-position") to the air bag at the time of deployment is at risk for injury. In 27 high severity frontal impacts, unusual (e.g., pulmonary "blast" hemorrhage in one autopsied case) or isolated potentially survivable injuries (e.g., clinically documented ruptured right atrium; probable flail chest observed during the autopsy on a decomposed body) localized to the head, neck or chest in three possibly out-of-position drivers pointed to the deployed air bag as a source of injury. In one of 17 side collisions an out-of-position driver sustained a radiographically confirmed C1-C2 dislocation in a minimally intruded vehicle.

  19. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  20. The Cooperative Organization And Rural Passenger Transportation: An Approach to Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stommes, Eileen S.

    The need for passenger transportation is widely recognized by rural communities. Shrinking federal funding has led many communities and human service agencies to experiment with innovative approaches to provide transportation services. One such approach is the use of cooperative organizations to provide needed services. A study conducted by the…

  1. Multistep-Ahead Air Passengers Traffic Prediction with Hybrid ARIMA-SVMs Models

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Wei; Xiong, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid ARIMA-SVMs prediction models have been established recently, which take advantage of the unique strength of ARIMA and SVMs models in linear and nonlinear modeling, respectively. Built upon this hybrid ARIMA-SVMs models alike, this study goes further to extend them into the case of multistep-ahead prediction for air passengers traffic with the two most commonly used multistep-ahead prediction strategies, that is, iterated strategy and direct strategy. Additionally, the effectiveness of data preprocessing approaches, such as deseasonalization and detrending, is investigated and proofed along with the two strategies. Real data sets including four selected airlines' monthly series were collected to justify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Empirical results demonstrate that the direct strategy performs better than iterative one in long term prediction case while iterative one performs better in the case of short term prediction. Furthermore, both deseasonalization and detrending can significantly improve the prediction accuracy for both strategies, indicating the necessity of data preprocessing. As such, this study contributes as a full reference to the planners from air transportation industries on how to tackle multistep-ahead prediction tasks in the implementation of either prediction strategy. PMID:24723814

  2. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and... AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal... of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

  3. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and... AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal... of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

  4. 41 CFR 102-118.190 - When buying passenger transportation must my agency reference the applicable contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applicable contract on a GTR or passenger transportation document (e.g., ticket). ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When buying passenger transportation must my agency reference the applicable contract? 102-118.190 Section 102-118.190 Public...

  5. 41 CFR 102-118.190 - When buying passenger transportation must my agency reference the applicable contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... applicable contract on a GTR or passenger transportation document (e.g., ticket). ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When buying passenger transportation must my agency reference the applicable contract? 102-118.190 Section 102-118.190 Public...

  6. 41 CFR 102-118.190 - When buying passenger transportation must my agency reference the applicable contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... applicable contract on a GTR or passenger transportation document (e.g., ticket). ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When buying passenger transportation must my agency reference the applicable contract? 102-118.190 Section 102-118.190 Public...

  7. 41 CFR 102-118.190 - When buying passenger transportation must my agency reference the applicable contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable contract on a GTR or passenger transportation document (e.g., ticket). ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When buying passenger transportation must my agency reference the applicable contract? 102-118.190 Section 102-118.190 Public...

  8. 41 CFR 102-118.190 - When buying passenger transportation must my agency reference the applicable contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... applicable contract on a GTR or passenger transportation document (e.g., ticket). ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false When buying passenger transportation must my agency reference the applicable contract? 102-118.190 Section 102-118.190 Public...

  9. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  10. Hardware-software complex of informing passengers of forecasted route transport arrival at stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnoy, V. Yu; Pushkarev, M. I.; Fadeev, A. S.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the hardware-software complex of informing the passengers of the forecasted route transport arrival. A client-server architecture of the forecasting information system is represented and an electronic information board prototype is described. The scheme of information transfer and processing, starting with receiving navigating telemetric data from a transport vehicle and up to the time of passenger public transport arrival at the stop, as well as representation of the information on the electronic board is illustrated and described. Methods and algorithms of determination of the transport vehicle current location in the city route network are considered in detail. The description of the proposed forecasting model of transport vehicle arrival time at the stop is given. The obtained result is applied in Tomsk for forecasting and displaying the arrival time information at the stops.

  11. 76 FR 58227 - Passenger Vessel Operator Financial Responsibility Requirements for Nonperformance of Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ...The Federal Maritime Commission proposes to amend its rules regarding the establishment of passenger vessel financial responsibility for nonperformance of transportation. Currently the amount of coverage required for performance shall not exceed $15 million. The amendments would modify the current cap on required performance coverage from $15 million to $30 million over a two year period;......

  12. 78 FR 13268 - Passenger Vessel Operator Financial Responsibility Requirements for Nonperformance of Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...The Federal Maritime Commission amends its rules regarding the establishment of passenger vessel financial responsibility for nonperformance of transportation. The amount of coverage required for performance is modified to increase the cap on required performance coverage to $30 million over a two year period and thereafter adjust the cap every two years using the Consumer Price Index; adjust......

  13. Continuous Vocational Training in the Road Freight and Passenger Transport Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    Continuous vocational training (CVT) in the road freight and passenger transport sectors in the member states of the European Community (EC) was examined to identify exemplary and significant practices across the EC and determine the extent of the transferability of the identified exemplary training between and among the member states. In all,…

  14. Trends in cabin air quality of commercial aircraft: industry and passenger perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Martin B

    2002-01-01

    The small air space available per person in a fully occupied aircraft passenger cabin accentuates the human bioeffluent factor in the maintenance of air quality. The accumulation of carbon dioxide and other contributions to poor air quality that can occur with inadequate ventilation, even under normal circumstances, is related to the volume of available air space per person and various ventilation rates. This information is compared with established air quality guidelines to make specific recommendations with reference to aircraft passenger cabins under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. The effects of respiration on the air quality of any enclosed space from the respiration of a resting adult are estimated using standard equations. Results are given for different volumes of space per person, for zero air exchange, and for various air change rates. The required ventilation rates estimated in this way compared closely with results calculated using a standard empirical formula. The results confirm that the outside air ventilation required to achieve a target carbon dioxide concentration in the air of an occupied enclosed space remains the same regardless of the volume of that space. The outside air ventilation capability of older and more recent aircraft is then reviewed and compared with the actual measurements of cabin air quality for these periods. The correlation between calculated and measured aircraft cabin carbon dioxide concentrations from other studies was very good. Respiratory benefits and costs of returning to the 30% higher outside air ventilation rates and 8% higher cabin pressures of the 1960s and 1970s are outlined. Consideration is given to the occasional occurrence of certain types of aircraft malfunction that can introduce more serious contaminants to the aircraft cabin. Recommendations and suggestions for aircraft builders and operators are made that will help improve aircraft cabin air quality and the partial pressure of oxygen that

  15. Reducing Air Pollution from Passenger Cars and Trucks (Text Only)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is the text explanation of an infographic about reducing air pollution viaTier 3 Vehicles & fuel standards. Tier 3 vehicle and fuel standards will provide substantial pollution reduction at lower cost.

  16. Passenger transport and CO 2 emissions: What does the French transport survey tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Jean-Pierre; David, Damien

    The aim of this article is to analyse CO 2 emissions caused by passenger transport in France: which socio-demographic groups travel, for what kinds of journey (local or long distance), how and why? Research focusing on the analysis of individual travel can improve the understanding of CO 2 emissions by identifying upstream socio-economic factors, and also enable a better assessment of the potential social impact of measures introduced to limit greenhouse gases due to transport. Calculations are based on the latest French national transport survey (1994). Distances covered and CO 2 emissions were estimated for each journey and for each surveyed individual. A socio-demographic characteristic typology was built and results were obtained through this analysis. If equity and accessibility issues are to be taken into account, planned policies cannot be of the same type if linked to mobility segments. An environmental tax system to limit CO 2 emission increases appears appropriate for long-distance trips. Results are more varied for local journeys, which are often more of a necessity. Nevertheless, income brackets, and measures concerning urban planning or the growth of new car fleets, seem more pertinent.

  17. An analysis of short haul air passenger demand, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumer, T. P.; Swan, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    Several demand models for short haul air travel are proposed and calibrated on pooled data. The models are designed to predict demand and analyze some of the motivating phenomena behind demand generation. In particular, an attempt is made to include the effects of competing modes and of alternate destinations. The results support three conclusions: (1) the auto mode is the air mode's major competitor; (2) trip time is an overriding factor in intermodal competition, with air fare at its present level appearing unimportant to the typical short haul air traveler; and (3) distance appears to underly several demand generating phenomena, and therefore, must be considered very carefully to any intercity demand model. It may be the cause of the wide range of fare elasticities reported by researchers over the past 15 years. A behavioral demand model is proposed and calibrated. It combines the travel generating effects of income and population, the effects of modal split, the sensitivity of travel to price and time, and the effect of alternative destinations satisfying the trip purpose.

  18. [Air transport, aeronautic medicine, health].

    PubMed

    Cupa, Michel

    2009-10-01

    There were 3.2 billion airline passengers in 2006, compared to only 30 million in 1950. Intercontinental health disparities create a risk of pandemics such as SARS and so-called bird flu. Precautions are now being implemented both in airports and in aircraft, in addition to measures intended to prevent the spread of malaria and arboviral diseases, such as vector eradication, elimination of stagnant water, malaria prophylaxis, vaccination, and use of repellents. These measures are dealt with in international health regulations, which have existed since 1851 and were last updated on 15 June 2007. Flying on an airliner also carries a risk of hypobaria (cabin pressure at 2000 m), which can aggravate respiratory problems. Other problems include relative hypoxia, gas expansion, air dryness, ozone, cosmic rays, airsickness, jet lag, the effects of alcohol and tobacco, and, more recently, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), collectively known as "coach class syndrome". A new type of medicine has appeared, in the form of on-board medical assistance. The European Civil Aviation Committee has recommended first-aid training for cabin crews and onboard medical equipment such as first-aid kits and defibrillators. Airline statistics show that one in-flight medical incident occurs per 20 000 passengers, as well as one death per 5 million passengers and one medical reroute per 20 000 flights (40% of reroutes turn out to be unjustified). More than 80% of long-haul flights have a physician travelling on board. However, depending on his or her specialty, problems of competence and legal responsibility may arise. Ground-based medical centers can provide help via satellite telephone, but this implies the need for airline staff training. International cooperation is the only way to minimize the health risks associated with the growth in global air travel.

  19. Transportation for the Handicapped: Selected References.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TRANSPORTATION, *BIBLIOGRAPHIES, *HANDICAPPED PERSONS, AGING(PHYSIOLOGY), ACCESS, PHYSICAL FITNESS, PASSENGER VEHICLES, AIR TRANSPORTATION, BLINDNESS, MASS TRANSPORTATION, DRIVERS(PERSONNEL), PROSTHETICS.

  20. Network bipartivity and the transportation efficiency of European passenger airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of the structural organization of the interaction network of a complex system is central to understand its functioning. Here, we focus on the analysis of the bipartivity of graphs. We first introduce a mathematical approach to quantify bipartivity and show its implementation in general and random graphs. Then, we tackle the analysis of the transportation networks of European airlines from the point of view of their bipartivity and observe significant differences between traditional and low cost carriers. Bipartivity shows also that alliances and major mergers of traditional airlines provide a way to reduce bipartivity which, in its turn, is closely related to an increase of the transportation efficiency.

  1. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transportation systems. Volume 7: Study recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Research and analysis tasks to alleviate negative impacts, to augment positive impacts, or to better understand the impacts produced by the potential introduction of the alternate transportation technologies are identified. The project team's recommendations on research and analysis efforts which have resulted from the technology assessment are provided. Many of the recommendations apply to the future supply of intercity passenger transportation services, categorized by mode. Other recommendations pertain to broad issues in intercity transportation--e.g., finance, regulation, traveler values--that will affect all modes.

  2. 41 CFR 301-73.200 - Must we require our employees to use GSA's contract passenger transportation services program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.200... such services are available to your agency....

  3. 41 CFR 301-73.200 - Must we require our employees to use GSA's contract passenger transportation services program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.200... such services are available to your agency....

  4. 41 CFR 301-73.200 - Must we require our employees to use GSA's contract passenger transportation services program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.200... such services are available to your agency....

  5. 41 CFR 301-73.200 - Must we require our employees to use GSA's contract passenger transportation services program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.200... such services are available to your agency....

  6. 41 CFR 301-73.200 - Must we require our employees to use GSA's contract passenger transportation services program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.200... such services are available to your agency....

  7. The quality of service in passenger transport terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprea, C.; Roşca, E.; Popa, M.; Ilie, A.; Dinu, O.; Roşca, M.

    2016-11-01

    The quality of service in transport terminals is differently perceived by engineers, economists, transport operators and sociologists. The traveler's perception is nevertheless decisive. The quality of service is well connected with the inside design of terminals, with the facilities in terminals and with the provided service standards. In order to provide a high level of service, the activities taking place in the public transport terminal and the maximum travelers flow size must be carefully analyzed and dimensioned. The purpose of modelling is to find the best route for each traveler from origin (entrance) to destination (exit) through all the intermediate service points, taking into consideration the instant network conditions. In developing the model we consider the walking, the waiting and the serving time. Using a simulation program written in ARENA we determine the waiting time. For validation, the model is used to evaluate the performance level in Bucharest Basarab station. By comparing the total walking distance for the possible routes and the utility function that describes the utility of all activities from entrance to exit we can find the optimal route.

  8. Monitoring of Air Quality in Passenger Cabins of the Athens Metro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsairidi, Evangelia; Assimakopoulos, Vasiliki D.; Assimakopoulos, Margarita-Niki; Barbaresos, Nicolaos; Karagiannis, Athanassios

    2013-04-01

    The air pollution induced by various transportation means combines the emission of pollutants with the simultaneous presence of people. In this respect, the scientific community has focused its efforts in studying both the air quality within busy streets and inside cars, buses and the underground railway network in order to identify the pollutants' sources and levels as well as the human exposure. The impact of the air pollution on commuters of the underground may be more severe because it is a confined space, extended mostly under heavily trafficked urban streets, relies on mechanical ventilation for air renewal and gathers big numbers of passengers. The purpose of the present work is to monitor the air quality of the city of Athens Metro Network cabins and platforms during the unusually hot summer of 2012. For that cause particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1), carbon dioxide (CO2), the number of commuters along with temperature (T) and humidity (RH) were recorded inside the Athens Metro Blue Line trains (covering a route from the centre of Athens (Aigaleo) to the Athens International Airport) and on the platforms of a central (Syntagma) and a suburban-traffic (Doukissis Plakentias) station between June and August. The data collection included six different experiments that took place for 2 consecutive working days each, for a time period of 6 weeks from 6:30 am too 7:00 pm in order to account for different outdoor climatic conditions and for morning and evening rush hours respectively. Measurements were taken in the middle car of the moving trains and the platform end of the selected stations. The results show PM concentrations to be higher (approximately 2 to 5 times) inside the cabins and o the platforms of the underground network as compared to the outdoor levels monitored routinely by the Ministry of Environment. Moreover, PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 average concentrations recorded at the Syntagma Station Platform were almost constantly higher reaching 11 μg m-3 47

  9. Integrated analysis of hydrogen passenger vehicle transportation pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr.

    1998-08-01

    Hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles will reduce local air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and oil imports. Other alternative vehicles such as gasoline- or methanol-powered fuel cell vehicles, natural gas vehicles and various hybrid electric vehicles with internal combustion engines may also provide significant environmental and national security advantages. This report summarizes a two-year project to compare the direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with other alternatives in terms of estimated cost and estimated societal benefits, all relative to a conventional gasoline-powered internal combustion engine vehicle. The cost estimates used in this study involve ground-up, detailed analysis of the major components of a fuel cell vehicle system, assuming mass production in automotive quantities. The authors have also estimated the cost of both gasoline and methanol onboard fuel processors, as well as the cost of stationary hydrogen fueling system components including steam methane reformers, electrolyzers, compressors and stationary storage systems. Sixteen different vehicle types are compared with respect to mass production cost, local air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  11. Air transportation energy consumption - Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, A. C.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy consumption by aviation is reviewed and projections of its growth are discussed. Forecasts of domestic passenger demand are presented, and the effect of restricted fuel supply and increased fuel prices is considered. The most promising sources for aircraft fuels, their availability and cost, and possible alternative fuels are reviewed. The energy consumption by various air and surface transportation modes is identified and compared on typical portal-to-portal trips. A measure of the indirect energy consumed by ground and air modes is defined. Historical trends in aircraft energy intensities are presented and the potential fuel savings with new technologies are discussed.

  12. [Health status of urban passenger transportation conductors in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Tovalin Ahumada, H; Lazcano Ramírez, F

    1991-10-01

    Between 1985 and 1988, a two-phase epidemiological study was conducted at the "Ruta 100" company in Mexico City to examine the harmful effects of the working conditions on drivers of urban transport vehicles. In the first phase, five groups of nine drivers each were interviewed regarding their opinions about their working conditions and possible work-related disorders. On the basis of this information, an epidemiological survey was developed and applied using a polytypic sampling design to some 200 drivers plus two other groups of approximately the same size, one consisting of maintenance workers and the other of office workers, which served as controls. The driver group showed a high prevalence of respiratory and neuropsychiatric disorders, diarrhea, myopia, arterial hypertension, urinary disorders, hemorrhoids, hearing loss, back pain, varicose veins, peptic ulcers, diabetes, cardiopathies, abdominal hernias, and appendicitis. For arterial hypertension, hemorrhoids, nervous disorders, and psychiatric disorders the prevalence ratios of drivers/maintenance workers and drivers/administrative workers were statistically significant.

  13. Rotorcraft air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Intermodal relationships and the particular ways in which they affect public transportation applications of rotorcraft are addressed. Some aspects of integrated services and general comparisons with other transportation modes are reviewed. Two potential application scenarios are discussed: down-to-downtown rotorcraft service and urban public transport rotorcraft service. It is concluded that to integrate well with ground access modes community rotorcraft service should be limited stop service with published schedules, and operate on a few specific routes between a few specific destinations. For downtown-to-downtown service, time savings favorable to rotorcraft are benefits that reflect its more direct access, relatively higher line-haul travel speeds, and less circuitous travel. For the scenario of public transport within urban areas, first, improving cruise speeds has a limited potential due to allowing for a ""station spacing'' effect. Secondly, public acceptance of higher acceleration/deceleration rates may be just as effective as a technological innovation as achieving higher cruise speeds.

  14. Indoor to outdoor air quality associations with self-pollution implications inside passenger car cabins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abi-Esber, L.; El-Fadel, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, in-vehicle and out-vehicle concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) are measured to assess commuter's exposure in a commercial residential area and on a highway, under three popular ventilation modes namely, one window half opened, air conditioning on fresh air intake, and air conditioning on recirculation and examine its relationship to scarcely studied parameters including self pollution, out-vehicle sample intake location and meteorological gradients. Self pollution is the intrusion of a vehicle's own engine fumes into the passenger's compartment. For this purpose, six car makes with different ages were instrumented to concomitantly monitor in- and out-vehicle PM2.5 and CO concentrations as well as meteorological parameters. Air pollution levels were unexpectedly higher in new cars compared to old cars, with in-cabin air quality most correlated to that of out-vehicle air near the front windshield. Self-pollution was observed at variable rates in three of the six tested cars. Significant correlations were identified between indoor to outdoor pressure difference and PM2.5 and CO In/Out (IO) ratios under air recirculation and window half opened ventilation modes whereas temperature and humidity difference affected CO IO ratios only under the air recirculation ventilation mode.

  15. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  16. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Accomplishments & Successes View successes from ... reduce carbon pollution. Carbon pollution from transportation Other Air Pollution Learn about smog, soot, ozone, and other air ...

  17. Health effects associated with passenger vehicles: monetary values of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Mohamed; Madany, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is regarded as one of the highest priorities in environmental protection in both developed and developing countries. High levels of air pollution have adverse effects on human health that might cause premature death. This study presents the monetary value estimates for the adverse human health effects resulted from ambient air pollution. It aids decision makers to set priorities in the public health relevance of pollution abatement. The main driver of policymaker is the need to reduce the avoidable cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality from pollutant exposures. The monetary valuation involves 2 steps: (i) relate levels of pollutants to mortality and morbidity (concentration-response relationships) and (ii) apply unit economic values. Cost of air pollution associated with passenger vehicles running over a major traffic bridge (6th of October Elevated Highway) is presented as a case study to demonstrate the use of monetary value of air pollution. The study proves that the cost of air pollution is extremely high and should not be overlooked.

  18. Comparison of life-cycle energy and emissions footprints of passenger transportation in metropolitan regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail V.; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

    2010-03-01

    A comparative life-cycle energy and emissions (greenhouse gas, CO, NO X, SO 2, PM 10, and VOCs) inventory is created for three U.S. metropolitan regions (San Francisco, Chicago, and New York City). The inventory captures both vehicle operation (direct fuel or electricity consumption) and non-operation components (e.g., vehicle manufacturing, roadway maintenance, infrastructure operation, and material production among others). While urban transportation inventories have been continually improved, little information exists identifying the particular characteristics of metropolitan passenger transportation and why one region may differ from the next. Using travel surveys and recently developed transportation life-cycle inventories, metropolitan inventories are constructed and compared. Automobiles dominate total regional performance accounting for 86-96% of energy consumption and emissions. Comparing system-wide averages, New York City shows the lowest end-use energy and greenhouse gas footprint compared to San Francisco and Chicago and is influenced by the larger share of transit ridership. While automobile fuel combustion is a large component of emissions, diesel rail, electric rail, and ferry service can also have strong contributions. Additionally, the inclusion of life-cycle processes necessary for any transportation mode results in significant increases (as large as 20 times that of vehicle operation) for the region. In particular, emissions of CO 2 from cement production used in concrete throughout infrastructure, SO 2 from electricity generation in non-operational components (vehicle manufacturing, electricity for infrastructure materials, and fuel refining), PM 10 in fugitive dust releases in roadway construction, and VOCs from asphalt result in significant additional inventory. Private and public transportation are disaggregated as well as off-peak and peak travel times. Furthermore, emissions are joined with healthcare and greenhouse gas monetized

  19. Predicting the impacts of new technology aircraft on international air transportation demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    International air transportation to and from the United States was analyzed. Long term and short term effects and causes of travel are described. The applicability of econometric methods to forecast passenger travel is discussed. A nomograph is developed which shows the interaction of economic growth, airline yields, and quality of service in producing international traffic.

  20. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is determined by the flag registry of the aircraft. The term “U.S. flag air carrier” means one of a class of...

  1. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is determined by the flag registry of the aircraft. The term “U.S. flag air carrier” means one of a class of...

  2. Speed-dependent emission of air pollutants from gasoline-powered passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungwoon; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Jongchoon; Lyu, Youngsook; Park, Junhong

    2011-01-01

    In Korea emissions from motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities, and in Seoul a large proportion of the vehicle fleet is made up of gasoline-powered passenger cars. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) contained in the exhaust emissions from 76 gasoline-powered passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts has been assessed by vehicle speed, vehicle mileage and model year. The results show that CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions remained almost unchanged at higher speeds but decreased rapidly at lower speeds. While a reduction in CO, HC and NOx emissions was noticeable in vehicles of recent manufacture and lower mileage, CO2 emissions were found to be insensitive to vehicle mileage, but strongly dependent on gross vehicle weight. Lower emissions from more recent gasoline-powered vehicles arose mainly from improvements in three-way catalytic converter technology following strengthened emission regulations. The correlation between CO2 emission and fuel consumption has been investigated with a view to establishing national CO2 emission standards for Korea.

  3. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    PubMed

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Choi, Moo Young; Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare) bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized) "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  4. Weasel works SA-150: Design study of a 100 to 150 passenger transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkema, Kevin; Comeaux, Michael; Gilbert, Timothy; Para, Victor; Toepfer, George

    1993-01-01

    As the year 2000 rapidly approaches, the airlines are faced with an extremely competitive and environmentally restrictive marketplace. In order to survive, commercial air carriers will need to find new ways to lower their direct operating costs, increase load factors and comply with tightening federal and international constraints. The SA-150 has been designed to meet these demands by focusing on the areas of aerodynamic efficiency, an improved level of passenger comfort, and a limited application of advanced technology. The SA-150 has been optimized for a 500 nmi. mission to help the airlines meet the challenges of the short haul, quick turnaround flight. With a maximum capacity of 124 passengers, and full baggage, the SA-150 is also capable of covering a range of 1500 nmi. This additional range capability will provide the airlines with flexibility when scheduling their routes. The aircraft features a 'V' tail, fly-by-wire system and is powered by two turbofans mounted under a twelve aspect ratio wing. The SA-150 will have an initial production run of 800 units and have a purchase price of $37.7 million in 1993 dollars.

  5. Using Hybrid Simulation/Analytical Queueing Networks to Capacitate USAF Air Mobility Command Passenger Terminals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    researchers have taken many approaches to quantify the impact of increasing demand and changing policies in the aviation industry . Aviation professionals...higher quality service, and more robust processes. The US Air Force has analogous interests to those in the civilian air industry , and can equally benefit...terminals throughout AMC. 5 II. Review of Related Literature Air transportation industry planners have heavily invested in studies focused on how best

  6. Emerging Climate-data Needs in the Air Transport Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the nature of climate information needed within the air-transport sector. Air transport is not a single economic sector with uniform needs for climate data: airport, airline, and air-navigation services are the principal sub-sectors, each with their own particular climate-related decision contexts. For example, airports function as fixed infrastructure that is primarily affected by probabilities of extreme events that could hamper runway/taxiway operations, interfere with worker availability, or impede travel to and from the airport by passengers. Airlines, in contrast, are more concerned with changes in atmospheric conditions (upper-air turbulence, convective weather events, etc.) that might require consideration in long-term decisions related to flight-planning processes and aircraft equipage. Air-navigation service providers have needs that are primarily concerned with assurance of safe spatial separation of aircraft via sensor data and communications links. In addition to present-day commercial air transport, we discuss what climate data may be needed for new types of air transport that may emerge in the next couple of decades. These include, for example, small aircraft provided on-demand to non-pilot travelers, high-altitude supersonic business and commercial jets, and very large numbers of un-manned aircraft. Finally, we give examples relating to key technical challenges in providing decision-relevant climate data to the air-transport sector. These include: (1) identifying what types of climate data are most relevant the different decisions facing the several segments of this industry; (2) determining decision-appropriate time horizons for forecasts of this data; and (3) coupling the uncertainties inherent in these forecasts to the decision process.

  7. Development of the Air Transport Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneja, N.

    1972-01-01

    The major developments are outlined in the U.S. scheduled air transport industry both domestic and international, together with a brief history of the European air transport system. The role and formulation of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics Board, International Civil Aviation Organization, and International Air Transport Association are also covered.

  8. 36 CFR 13.1128 - Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus? 13.1128 Section 13.1128 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Bartlett Cove § 13.1128 Is a permit required to...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1128 - Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus? 13.1128 Section 13.1128 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Bartlett Cove § 13.1128 Is a permit required to...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1128 - Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus? 13.1128 Section 13.1128 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Bartlett Cove § 13.1128 Is a permit required to...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1128 - Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus? 13.1128 Section 13.1128 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Bartlett Cove § 13.1128 Is a permit required to...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1128 - Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Is a permit required to transport passengers between Bartlett Cove and Gustavus? 13.1128 Section 13.1128 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Bartlett Cove § 13.1128 Is a permit required to...

  13. Safety Education. A Guide To Help Prevent Accidents Associated with the Home, Student Transportation, Disasters, Pedestrians, Passengers, Fires, Consumerism, Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This teacher's guide presents 10 instructional units for one portion of the Texas-approved course in driver and safety education. The units cover the following topics: what is safety?; accident causation and prevention; home safety; student transportation safety; disasters; pedestrian safety; passenger safety; fire safety; consumer safety; and…

  14. 41 CFR 301-73.201 - What method of payment may be used for contract passenger transportation service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.201 What... contractor-issued travel charge card(s), or your agency centrally billed or other established account, or...

  15. 41 CFR 301-73.201 - What method of payment may be used for contract passenger transportation service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.201 What... contractor-issued travel charge card(s), or your agency centrally billed or other established account, or...

  16. 41 CFR 301-73.201 - What method of payment may be used for contract passenger transportation service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.201 What... contractor-issued travel charge card(s), or your agency centrally billed or other established account, or...

  17. 41 CFR 301-73.201 - What method of payment may be used for contract passenger transportation service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.201 What... contractor-issued travel charge card(s), or your agency centrally billed or other established account, or...

  18. 41 CFR 301-73.201 - What method of payment may be used for contract passenger transportation service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.201 What... contractor-issued travel charge card(s), or your agency centrally billed or other established account, or...

  19. Financing the Air Transportation Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd-Jones, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    The basic characteristics of the air transportation industry are outlined and it is shown how they affect financing requirements and patterns of production. The choice of financial timing is imperative in order to get the best interest rates available and to insure a fair return to investors. The fact that the industry cannot store its products has a fairly major effect on the amount of equipment to purchase, the amount of capital investment required, and the amount of return required to offset industry depriciation.

  20. Cost characteristics of tilt-rotor, conventional air and high speed rail short-haul intercity passenger service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoendorfer, David L.; Morlok, Edward K.

    1985-01-01

    The cost analysis done to support an assessment of the potential for a small tilt-rotor aircraft to operate in short-haul intercity passenger service is described in detail. Anticipated costs of tilt-rotor air service were compared to the costs of two alternatives: conventional air and high speed rail (HSR). Costs were developed for corridor service, varying key market characteristics including distance, passenger volumes, and minimum frequency standards. The resulting cost vs output information can then be used to compare modal costs for essentially identical service quality and passenger volume or for different service levels and volumes for each mode, as appropriate. Extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. The cost-output features of these technologies are compared. Tilt-rotor is very attractive compared to HSR in terms of costs over the entire range of volume. It also has costs not dramatically different from conventional air, but tilt-rotor costs are generally higher. Thus some of its other advantages, such as the VTOL capability, must offset the cost disadvantage for it to be a preferred or competitive mode in any given market. These issues are addressed in the companion report which considers strategies for tilt-rotor development in commercial air service.

  1. Study of the impact of cruise and passenger ships on a Mediterranean port city air quality - Study of future emission mitigation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liora, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Kontos, Serafim; Giannaros, Christos; Melas, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    An increase of the passenger ships traffic is expected in the Mediterranean Sea as targeted by the EU Blue Growth initiative. This increase is expected to impact the Mediterranean port-cities air quality considering not only the conventional atmospheric pollutants but also the toxic ones that are emitted by the ships (e.g. Nickel). The aim of this study is the estimation of the present and future time pollutant emissions from cruise and passenger maritime transport in the port area of Thessaloniki (Greece) as well as the impact of those emissions on the city air quality. Cruise and passenger ship emissions have been estimated for the year 2013 over a 100m spatial resolution grid which covers the greater port area of Thessaloniki. Emissions have been estimated for the following macro-pollutants; NOx, SO2, NMVOC, CO, CO2 and particulate matter (PM). In addition, the most important micro-pollutants studied in this work are As, Cd, Pb, Ni and Benzo(a)pyrene for which air quality limits have been set by the EU. Emissions have been estimated for three operation modes; cruising, maneuvering and hotelling. For the calculation of the present time maritime emissions, the activity data used were provided by the Thessaloniki Port Authority S.A. Moreover, future pollutant emissions are estimated using the future activity data provided by the Port Authority and the IMO legislation for shipping in the future. In addition, two mitigation emission scenarios are examined; the use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a fuel used by ships and the implementation of cold ironing which is the electrification of ships during hotelling mode leading to the elimination of the corresponding emissions. The impact of the present and future passenger ship emissions on the air quality of Thessaloniki is examined with the use of the model CALPUFF applied over the 100m spatial resolution grid using the meteorology of WRF. Simulations of the modeling system are performed for four different emission

  2. Study of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Low density air transport refers to air service to sparsely populated regions. There are two major objectives. The first is to examine those characteristics of sparsely populated areas which pertain to air transportation. This involves determination of geographical, commercial and population trends, as well as those traveler characteristics which affect the viability of air transport in the region. The second objective is to analyze the technical, economic and operational characteristics of low density air service. Two representative, but diverse arenas, West Virginia and Arizona, were selected for analysis: The results indicate that Arizona can support air service under certain assumptions whereas West Virginia cannot.

  3. 49 CFR 372.117 - Motor transportation of passengers incidental to transportation by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the zone within which motor transportation is incidental to transportation by aircraft, except as it may be individually determined as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, shall not exceed in size... or depart and by the boundaries of the commercial zones (as defined by the Secretary) of...

  4. 49 CFR 372.117 - Motor transportation of passengers incidental to transportation by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the zone within which motor transportation is incidental to transportation by aircraft, except as it may be individually determined as provided in section (c) herein, shall not exceed in size the area... the boundaries of the commercial zones (as defined by the Secretary) of any municipalities any part...

  5. 49 CFR 372.117 - Motor transportation of passengers incidental to transportation by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the zone within which motor transportation is incidental to transportation by aircraft, except as it may be individually determined as provided in section (c) herein, shall not exceed in size the area... the boundaries of the commercial zones (as defined by the Secretary) of any municipalities any part...

  6. 49 CFR 372.117 - Motor transportation of passengers incidental to transportation by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., near Baltimore, Md., is partially exempt from regulation under 49 U.S.C. 13506(a)(8)(A). (2) Savannah..., having an immediately prior or subsequent movement by air, between Savannah, Ga., Airport and all...

  7. The air transportation/energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The changing pattern of transportation is discussed, and the energy intensiveness of various modes of transportation is also analyzed. Sociopsychological data affecting why people travel by air are presented, along with governmental regulation and air transportation economics. The aviation user tax structure is shown in tabular form.

  8. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study.

  9. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  10. 49 CFR 372.117 - Motor transportation of passengers incidental to transportation by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 13506(a)(8)(A). (2) Savannah, Ga., Airport. The transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or... Savannah, Ga., Airport and all points on Hilton Head Island, SC, is partially exempt from regulation...

  11. Reducing Air Pollution from International Transportation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Because of their reliance on petroleum-based fuels and their dramatic growth rates in recent decades, air and sea transport are responsible for significant emissions of both traditional air pollutants and greenhouse gases.

  12. Wing Configuration Impact on Design Optimums for a Subsonic Passenger Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to compare four aircraft wing configurations at a conceptual level using a multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) process. The MDO framework used was created by Georgia Institute of Technology and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. They created a multi-disciplinary design and optimization environment that could capture the unique features of the truss-braced wing (TBW) configuration. The four wing configurations selected for the study were a low wing cantilever installation, a high wing cantilever, a strut-braced wing, and a single jury TBW. The mission that was used for this study was a 160 passenger transport aircraft with a design range of 2,875 nautical miles at the design payload, flown at a cruise Mach number of 0.78. This paper includes discussion and optimization results for multiple design objectives. Five design objectives were chosen to illustrate the impact of selected objective on the optimization result: minimum takeoff gross weight (TOGW), minimum operating empty weight, minimum block fuel weight, maximum start of cruise lift-to-drag ratio, and minimum start of cruise drag coefficient. The results show that the design objective selected will impact the characteristics of the optimized aircraft. Although minimum life cycle cost was not one of the objectives, TOGW is often used as a proxy for life cycle cost. The low wing cantilever had the lowest TOGW followed by the strut-braced wing.

  13. Tests and analyses applicable to passenger ride quality of large transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, R. B.; Brumaghin, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    A test program was undertaken to determine airline passenger reaction to vibration environments that might be encountered in a supersonic transport or other large commercial jet aircraft. The principal problem addressed was to determine accelerations of vertical and lateral vibration that people find objectionable. Further questions experimentally posed were: (1) what is the relationship between human reactions to vertical and lateral vibration, (2) to single- and combined-frequency vibration, and (3) to single- and combined-axis vibration? Interest was confined to reactions to vibration in the frequency range of 0.20 to 7.0 Hz, a range typical of the vibration environment of a large airplane. Results indicated an increasing sensitivity to vertical vibration as frequency was increased from 1.0 to 7.0 Hz. Subjects were found most sensitive to lateral vibration in the 1.0 to 3.0 Hz range. There was a nearly linear decrease in sensitivity as frequency of lateral vibration was increased from 3.0 to 7.0 Hz.

  14. Air ambulance medical transport advertising and marketing.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS), and the National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO) believe that patient care and outcomes are optimized by using air medical transport services that are licensed air ambulance providers with robust physician medical director oversight and ongoing quality assessment and review. Only air ambulance medical transport services with these credentials should advertise/market themselves as air ambulance services.

  15. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 9, No. 2. Volume 9, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Scarpellini, Nanette (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following articles from the "Journal of Air Transportation" were processed: Future Requirements and Concepts for Cabins of Blended Wing Body Configurations:A Scenario Approach; Future Scenarios for the European Airline Industry: A Marketing-Based Perspective; An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of the Air Transport System; Modeling the Effect of Enlarged Seating Room on Passenger Preferences of Domestic Airlines in Taiwan; Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Pricing; and Future Airport Capacity Utilization in Germany: Peaked Congestion and/or Idle Capacity).

  16. Compressed Air/Vacuum Transportation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Shyamal

    2011-03-01

    General theory of compressed air/vacuum transportation will be presented. In this transportation, a vehicle (such as an automobile or a rail car) is powered either by compressed air or by air at near vacuum pressure. Four version of such transportation is feasible. In all versions, a ``c-shaped'' plastic or ceramic pipe lies buried a few inches under the ground surface. This pipe carries compressed air or air at near vacuum pressure. In type I transportation, a vehicle draws compressed air (or vacuum) from this buried pipe. Using turbine or reciprocating air cylinder, mechanical power is generated from compressed air (or from vacuum). This mechanical power transferred to the wheels of an automobile (or a rail car) drives the vehicle. In type II-IV transportation techniques, a horizontal force is generated inside the plastic (or ceramic) pipe. A set of vertical and horizontal steel bars is used to transmit this force to the automobile on the road (or to a rail car on rail track). The proposed transportation system has following merits: virtually accident free; highly energy efficient; pollution free and it will not contribute to carbon dioxide emission. Some developmental work on this transportation will be needed before it can be used by the traveling public. The entire transportation system could be computer controlled.

  17. Efficient Aviation Security: Strengthening the Analytic Foundation for Making Air Transportation Security Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    occupy a seat that could otherwise be sold), but it does not affect passenger experience in a significant way. Another challenge of quantifying costs...procedure used by some airlines in which results of interviews with passengers are used to opti- mize the seating of federal air marshals. If a... passenger interview results in suspicions exceeding some threshold, the airline will seat a federal air marshal near that passenger to increase the

  18. Air travel and pregnancy outcomes: a review of pregnancy regulations and outcomes for passengers, flight attendants, and aviators.

    PubMed

    Magann, Everett F; Chauhan, Suneet P; Dahlke, Joshua D; McKelvey, Samantha S; Watson, Erin M; Morrison, John C

    2010-06-01

    To review flight regulations and gestational complications associated with air travel in pregnant passengers, flight attendants, and aviators. A literature search was undertaken on the relationship of air travel and spontaneous pregnancy losses, intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD), birth weight<10th percentile, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admissions. The literature search identified 128 abstracts, of which 9 evaluated air travel and pregnancy outcomes. The risk of a pregnancy loss (spontaneous abortion or IUFD) was greater in flight attendants than controls (odds ratio [OR]: 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29, 2.04). The risk of preterm birth<37 weeks was greater in passengers than controls (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.93). However, the risk of preeclampsia (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.27), neonatal intensive care unit admissions (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.82), or birth weight<10th percentile (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 0.62, 2.48) was not increased. Flight attendants did not have an increased risk of preterm birth compared to controls (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.22) or delivering infants with birth weight<10th percentile (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.68, 3.74). The risks of spontaneous abortions and other adverse pregnancy outcomes have been poorly studied in a limited number of investigations. An analysis of the available information suggests a greater risk of spontaneous abortions or IUFD in flight attendants, and a greater risk of preterm birth<37 weeks in air passengers. However, the literature on which these findings are based is generally not of high methodologic quality.

  19. Effects of burstiness on the air transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The effects of burstiness in complex networks have received considerable attention. In particular, the effects on temporal distance and delays in the air transportation system are significant owing to their huge impact on our society. Therefore, in this paper, the temporal distance of empirical U.S. flight schedule data is compared with that of regularized data without burstiness to analyze the effects of burstiness. The temporal distance is calculated by a graph analysis method considering flight delays, missed connections, flight cancellations, and congestion. In addition, we propose two temporal distance indexes based on passengers' behavior to quantify the effects. As a result, we find that burstiness reduces both the scheduled and the actual temporal distances for business travelers, while delays caused by missed connections and congestion are increased. We also find that the decrease of the scheduled temporal distance by burstiness is offset by an increase of the delays for leisure passengers. Moreover, we discover that the positive effect of burstiness is lost when flight schedules are overcrowded.

  20. The Market Demand for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneja, N.

    1972-01-01

    Although the presentation will touch upon the areas of market for air transportation, the theoretical foundations of the demand function, the demand models, and model selection and evaluation, the emphasis of the presentation will be on a qualitative description of the factors affecting the demand for air transportation. The presentation will rely heavily on the results of market surveys carried out by the Port of New York Authority, the University of Michigan, and Census of Transportation.

  1. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market was studied to determine the aircraft design and operational requirements. The impact of operational characteristics on the air travel system and the economic viability of the study aircraft were also evaluated. Medium density is defined in terms of numbers of people transported (20 to 500 passengers per day on round trip routes), and frequency of service ( a minumium of two and maximum of eight round trips per day) for 10 regional carriers. The operational characteristics of aircraft best suited to serve the medium density air transportation market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations could be conducted. The impact of selected aircraft on the medium density market, economics, and operations is ascertained. Research and technology objectives for future programs in medium density air transportation are identified and ranked.

  2. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension. Volume 1: Background and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    The framework for a model of travel demand which will be useful in predicting the total market for air travel between two cities is discussed. Variables to be used in determining the need for air transportation where none currently exists and the effect of changes in system characteristics on attracting latent demand are identified. Existing models are examined in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. Much of the existing behavioral research in travel demand is incorporated to allow the inclusion of non-economic factors, such as convenience. The model developed is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed.

  3. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Himanshu; Mehta, Yatin; Dubey, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Long distance air travel for medical needs is on the increase worldwide. The condition of some patients necessitates specially modified aircraft, and monitoring and interventions during transport by trained medical personnel. This article presents our experience in domestic and international interhospital air medical transportation from January 2010 to January 2014. Material and Methods: Hospital records of all air medical transportation undertaken to the institute during the period were analyzed for demographics, primary etiology, and events during transport. Results: 586 patients, 453 (77.3%) males and 133 (22.6%) females of ages 46.7 ± 12.6 years and 53.4 ± 9.7 years were transported by us to the institute. It took 3030 flying hours with an average of 474 ± 72 min for each mission. The most common indication for transport was cardiovascular diseases in 210 (35.8%) and central nervous system disease in 120 (20.4%) cases. The overall complication rate was 5.3% There was no transport related mortality. Conclusion: Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation. PMID:27625486

  4. Statewide air medical transports for Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Garthe, Elizabeth; Mango, Nicholas K; Prenney, Brad

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) established a process to centralize air medical transport information. This database is one of the first statewide, population-based sources for civilian rotary-wing air medical transports (U.S. Coast Guard, police, and military missions are not included). The purpose of this database is to facilitate MDPH review of air medical transport service utilization, with input from a multidisciplinary committee. This article discusses the challenges in producing uniform data from multiple service submissions and presents aggregate "baseline" utilization information for 1996. These data served as a starting point for later studies using data linkage. This indexed article is the first to report statewide, population-based data for all types of air medical helicopter transports. The only other indexed "statewide air medical transport" paper focused on scene transports to trauma centers in Pennsylvania. A previous article by the authors in the July-September 2000 Air Medical Journal provided an overview of air medical transports for fatal motor vehicle crashes for 1 region of the state.

  5. Phase 1: Definition of intercity transportation comparison framework. Volume 1: Summary. [operations research of passenger and freight transporatation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A unified framework for comparing intercity passenger and freight transportation systems is presented. Composite measures for cost, service/demand, energy, and environmental impact were determined. A set of 14 basic measures were articulated to form the foundation for computing the composite measures. A parameter dependency diagram, constructed to explicitly interrelate the composite and basic measures is discussed. Ground rules and methodology for developing the values of the basic measures are provided and the use of the framework with existing cost and service data is illustrated for various freight systems.

  6. Reliability of the Gas Supply in the Air Force Emergency Passenger Oxygen System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    to be intact. A hypodermic needle was attached to the sampling line of a mass spectrometer (Perkin-El- mer, Model MGA-1100). The needle was inserted...Emergency Passenger Oxygen System (EPOS; Fig. 1) was alleged to have significant numbers of inadequate oxygen cylinders. In theory , this could prevent the...hypothetical analysis demonstrates the disparity between a manufacturing specifi cation of a component and the overall performance of a device. This

  7. AVION: A detailed report on the preliminary design of a 79-passenger, high-efficiency, commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayfield, William; Perkins, Brett; Rogan, William; Schuessler, Randall; Stockert, Joe

    1990-01-01

    The Avion is the result of an investigation into the preliminary design for a high-efficiency commercial transport aircraft. The Avion is designed to carry 79 passengers and a crew of five through a range of 1,500 nm at 455 kts (M=0.78 at 32,000 ft). It has a gross take-off weight of 77,000 lb and an empty weight of 42,400 lb. Currently there are no American-built aircraft designed to fit the 60 to 90 passenger, short/medium range marketplace. The Avion gathers the premier engineering achievements of flight technology and integrates them into an aircraft which will challenge the current standards of flight efficiency, reliability, and performance. The Avion will increase flight efficiency through reduction of structural weight and the improvement of aerodynamic characteristics and propulsion systems. Its design departs from conventional aircraft design tradition with the incorporation of a three-lifting-surface (or tri-wing) configuration. Further aerodynamic improvements are obtained through modest main wing forward sweeping, variable incidence canards, aerodynamic coupling between the canard and main wing, leading edge extensions, winglets, an aerodynamic tailcone, and a T-tail empennage. The Avion is propelled by propfans, which are one of the most promising developments for raising propulsive efficiencies at high subsonic Mach numbers. Special attention is placed on overall configuration, fuselage layout, performance estimations, component weight estimations, and planform design. Leading U.S. technology promises highly efficient flight for the 21st century; the Avion will fulfill this promise to passenger transport aviation.

  8. A Seasonal Air Transport Climatology for Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H.; Piketh, S.; Helas, G.

    1998-01-01

    A climatology of air transport to and from Kenya has been developed using kinematic trajectory modeling. Significant months for trajectory analysis have been determined from a classification of synoptic circulation fields. Five-point back and forward trajectory clusters to and from Kenya reveal that the transport corridors to Kenya are clearly bounded and well defined. Air reaching the country originates mainly from the Saharan region and northwestern Indian Ocean of the Arabian Sea in the northern hemisphere and from the Madagascan region of the Indian Ocean in the southern hemisphere. Transport from each of these source regions show distinctive annual cycles related to the northeasterly Asian monsoon and the southeasterly trade wind maximum over Kenya in May. The Saharan transport in the lower troposphere is at a maximum when the subtropical high over northern Africa is strongly developed in the boreal winter. Air reaching Kenya between 700 and 500 hPa is mainly from Sahara and northwest India Ocean flows in the months of January and March, which gives way to southwest Indian Ocean flow in May and November. In contrast, air reaching Kenya at 400 hPa is mainly from southwest Indian Ocean in January and March, which is replaced by Saharan transport in May and November. Transport of air from Kenya is invariant, both spatially and temporally, in the tropical easterlies to the Congo Basin and Atlantic Ocean in comparison to the transport to the country. Recirculation of air has also been observed, but on a limited and often local scale and not to the extent reported in southern Africa.

  9. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  10. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Caviness, Michael L; Mann, Paul T

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  11. Recurrent sinusitis and impairment of eustachian tube function in air passengers and crew.

    PubMed

    Moser, M; Wolf, G

    1990-07-01

    Chronic and recurrent sinusitis, and thus impaired tubular function, are usually caused by isolated lesions of the ethmoid cells. Purulent nasal secretions are transported over the openings of the tubes into the epipharynx. Inflammation and swelling of the mucosa of the tube openings causes stenosis or blockage. Inflammatory foci, usually hidden in the anterior ethmoid cell system, are not always apparent in a plain film of the paranasal sinuses. They appear only in a computed-tomography scan or in a conventional tomogram. Once the diagnosis has been made, a simple, guided endoscopic procedure suffices to alleviate a stenosis, open inflamed ethmoid cells, and restitute ventilation of the nasal sinuses and, thus, tubal function. Radical procedures on the maxillary and frontal sinuses, and plastic operations on deviated nasal septa (which impair the function of the nose and the nasal sinuses only in extreme cases), are thus often unnecessary. Septum deviations are irrelevant to the fitness-to-fly of air personnel as long as the tube and the ventilation of the sinuses function freely. The Valsalva maneuver with otoscopic visualization of the excursion of the eardrum is the most reliable test of tubal function. Tympanometry is used mainly for documentation.

  12. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, E. F.; Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel saving potential and cost effectiveness of numerous operational and technical options proposed for reducing the fuel consumption of the U.S. commercial airline fleet was examined and compared. The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs and airline profits when implemented in the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets was determined. A forecast estimate was made of the potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system. Specifically, the means for reducing the jet fuel consumption of the U.S. scheduled airlines in domestic and international passenger operations were investigated. A design analysis was made of two turboprop aircraft as possible fuel conserving derivatives of the DC-9-30.

  13. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  14. Drivers' and conductors' views on the causes and ways of preventing workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace violence (WPV) is an occupational health hazard in both low and high income countries. To design WPV prevention programs, prior knowledge and understanding of conditions in the targeted population are essential. This study explores and describes the views of drivers and conductors on the causes of WPV and ways of preventing it in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique. Methods The design was qualitative. Participants were purposefully selected from among transport workers identified as victims of WPV in an earlier quantitative study, and with six or more years of experience in the transport sector. Data were collected in semi-structured interviews. Seven open questions covered individual views on causes of WPV and its prevention, based on the interviewees' experiences of violence while on duty. Thirty-two transport professionals were interviewed. The data were analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. Results The triggers and causes of violence included fare evasion, disputes over revenue owing to owners, alcohol abuse, overcrowded vehicles, and unfair competition for passengers. Failures to meet passenger expectations, e.g. by-passing parts of a bus route or missing stops, were also important. There was disrespect on the part of transport workers, e.g. being rude to passengers and jumping of queues at taxi ranks, and there were also robberies. Proposals for prevention included: training for workers on conflict resolution, and for employers on passenger-transport administration; and, promoting learning among passengers and workers on how to behave when traveling collectively. Regarding control and supervision, there were expressed needs for the recording of mileage, and for the sanctioning of workers who transgress queuing rules at taxi ranks. The police or supervisors should prevent drunken passengers from getting into vehicles, and drivers should refuse to go to dangerous, secluded neighborhoods. Finally

  15. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  16. Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.

  17. Risk of tuberculosis among air passengers estimated by interferon gamma release assay: survey of contact investigations, Japan, 2012 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Ota, Masaki; Kato, Seiya

    2017-03-23

    Although the World Health Organization recommends contact investigations around air travel-associated sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients, evidence suggests that the information thus obtained may have overestimated the risk of TB infection because it involved some contacts born in countries with high TB burden who were likely to have been infected with TB in the past, or because tuberculin skin tests were used, which are less specific than the interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) particularly in areas where Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination coverage is high. We conducted a questionnaire survey on air travel-associated TB contact investigations in local health offices of Japan from 2012 to 2015, focusing on IGRA positivity. Among 651 air travel-associated TB contacts, average positivity was 3.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.5-5.6) with a statistically significant increasing trend with older age (p < 0.0094). Positivity among 0-34 year-old contacts was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.12-3.5%), suggesting their risk of TB infection is as small as among Japanese young adults with low risk of TB infection (positivity: 0.85-0.90%). Limiting the contact investigation to fewer passengers (within two seats surrounding the index case, rather than two rows) seems reasonable in the case of aircraft with many seats per row.

  18. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 2: Market and economic analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs, and airline profits when implemented into the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets is assessed. The potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system over the forecast period, 1973-1990, are estimated.

  19. RF Coupling into the Fuel Tank of a Large Transport Aircraft from Intentionally Transmitting Peds in the Passenger Cabin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Scearce, Stephen A.; Ely, Jay J.; Richardson, Robert E.; Hatfield, Michael O.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was performed to study the potential for radio frequency (RF) power radiated from Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) to create an arcing/sparking event within the fuel tank of a large transport aircraft. This paper describes the experimental methods used for measuring RF coupling to the fuel tank and Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) wiring from PED sources located in the passenger cabin. To allow comparison of voltage/current data obtained in a laboratory chamber FQIS installation to an actual aircraft FQIS installation, aircraft fuel tank RF reverberation characteristics were also measured. Results from the measurements, along with a survey of threats from typical intentional transmitting PEDs are presented. The resulting worst-case power coupled onto fuel tank FQIS wiring is derived. The same approach can be applied to measure RF coupling into various other aircraft systems.

  20. Cost/benefit trade-offs for reducing the energy consumption of commercial air transportation (RECAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Dubin, A. P.

    1976-01-01

    A study has been performed to evaluate the opportunities for reducing the energy requirements of the U.S. domestic air passenger transport system through improved operational techniques, modified in-service aircraft, derivatives of current production models, or new aircraft using either current or advanced technology. Each of the fuel-conserving alternatives has been investigated individually to test its potential for fuel conservation relative to a hypothetical baseline case in which current, in-production aircraft types are assumed to operate, without modification and with current operational techniques, into the future out to the year 2000.

  1. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  2. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  3. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  4. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  5. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  6. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  7. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviations ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe, which are envisioned as being powered by Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems.

  8. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviation's ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  9. Evaluation of passenger health risk assessment of sustainable indoor air quality monitoring in metro systems based on a non-Gaussian dynamic sensor validation method.

    PubMed

    Kim, MinJeong; Liu, Hongbin; Kim, Jeong Tai; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2014-08-15

    Sensor faults in metro systems provide incorrect information to indoor air quality (IAQ) ventilation systems, resulting in the miss-operation of ventilation systems and adverse effects on passenger health. In this study, a new sensor validation method is proposed to (1) detect, identify and repair sensor faults and (2) evaluate the influence of sensor reliability on passenger health risk. To address the dynamic non-Gaussianity problem of IAQ data, dynamic independent component analysis (DICA) is used. To detect and identify sensor faults, the DICA-based squared prediction error and sensor validity index are used, respectively. To restore the faults to normal measurements, a DICA-based iterative reconstruction algorithm is proposed. The comprehensive indoor air-quality index (CIAI) that evaluates the influence of the current IAQ on passenger health is then compared using the faulty and reconstructed IAQ data sets. Experimental results from a metro station showed that the DICA-based method can produce an improved IAQ level in the metro station and reduce passenger health risk since it more accurately validates sensor faults than do conventional methods.

  10. Opportunities to Improve Air Quality through Transportation Pricing Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is intended to give state and local air quality and transportation planners,elected government officials, and other interested parties background information on transportation pricing programs.

  11. Cost/benefit trade-offs for reducing the energy consumption of commercial air transportation (RECAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Leshane, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The RECAT study evaluated the opportunities for reducing the energy requirements of the U.S. domestic air passenger transport system through improved operational techniques, modified in-service aircraft, derivatives of current production models, or new aircraft using either current or advanced technology. Each of these fuel-conserving alternatives was investigated individually to test its potential for fuel conservation relative to a hypothetical baseline case in which current, in-production aircraft types are assumed to operate, without modification and with current operational techniques, into the future out to the year 2000. Consequently, while the RECAT results lend insight into the directions in which technology can best be pursued for improved air transport fuel economy, no single option studied in the RECAT program is indicative of a realistic future scenario.

  12. Equivalent Air Spring Suspension Model for Quarter-Passive Model of Passenger Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Abid, Haider J; Chen, Jie; Nassar, Ameen A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the GENSIS air spring suspension system equivalence to a passive suspension system. The SIMULINK simulation together with the OptiY optimization is used to obtain the air spring suspension model equivalent to passive suspension system, where the car body response difference from both systems with the same road profile inputs is used as the objective function for optimization (OptiY program). The parameters of air spring system such as initial pressure, volume of bag, length of surge pipe, diameter of surge pipe, and volume of reservoir are obtained from optimization. The simulation results show that the air spring suspension equivalent system can produce responses very close to the passive suspension system.

  13. The Carrier's Liability for Damage Caused by Delay in International Air Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang Bin

    2003-01-01

    Delay in the air transport occurs when passengers, baggage or cargo do not arrive at their destination at the time indicated in the contract of carriage. The causes of delay in the carriage of passengers are booking errors or double booking, delayed departure of aircraft, incorrect information regarding the time of departure, failure to land at the scheduled destination and changes in flight schedule or addition of extra landing stops. Delay in the carriage of baggage or cargo may have different causes: no reservation, lack of space, failure to load the baggage or cargo at the right place, or to deliver the covering documents at the right place. The Montreal Convention of 1999 Article 19 provides that 'The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the carriage by air of passengers, baggage or cargo. Nevertheless, the carder shall not be liable for damage occasioned by delay if it proves that it and its servants and agents took all measures that could reasonably be required to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for it or them to take such measures'. The Montreal Convention Article 22 provides liability limits of the carrier in case of delay for passengers and their baggage and for cargo. In the carriage of persons, the liability of the carrier for each passenger is limited to 4,150 SDR. In the carriage of baggage, the liability of the carrier is limited to 1,000 SDR for each passenger unless a special declaration as to the value of the baggage has been made. In the carriage of cargo, the liability of the carrier is limited to 17 SDR per kilogram unless a special declaration as to the value of the cargo has been made. The Montreal Convention Article 19 has shortcomings: it is silent on the duration of the liability for carriage,andit does not make any distinction between persons and good. It does not give any indication concerning the circumstances to be taken into account in cases of delay, and about the length of delay. In conclusion, it is

  14. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  15. Prevalence of major foodborne pathogens in food confiscated from air passenger luggage.

    PubMed

    Schoder, Dagmar; Strauß, Anja; Szakmary-Brändle, Kati; Stessl, Beatrix; Schlager, Sabine; Wagner, Martin

    2015-09-16

    The EU has issued several directives and regulations pertaining to the importation of animals and products of animal origin (POAO) and veterinary controls on importation. Unfortunately, little information is available concerning associated risks and no attempts have been made to collect baseline data on the actual prevalence of zoonotic agents in POAO carried by travellers. To meet these challenges the EU recently introduced and financed a research project "PROMISE". Its main objectives were to assess the risks involved when foodborne pathogens are introduced to the EU via uncontrolled imports. With special permission of the Austrian health authorities, spot-checks were made of the luggage of 61,355 passengers from 240 flights from non-EU countries arriving at the Vienna International Airport (VIE airport). Over a period of eight months (August 2012 through March 2013) 1473 POAO items were confiscated. A total of 600 samples were suitable for Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., verotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes prevalence analysis. Foodborne pathogens could be detected in 5% (30/600) of all samples. The highest prevalence was attributed to L. monocytogenes, at 2.5%, followed by VTEC and Salmonella spp. at 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively. Campylobacter spp. was not present in any of the 600 samples. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of L. monocytogenes revealed that current sequence types (ST) corresponded to the worldwide most present clonal complexes 1, 2, 3, 5, 9, and 121. Generally, L. monocytogenes ST9 was the predominant allelic profile, which was mainly isolated from Turkish meat products.

  16. A design methodology for evolutionary air transportation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eunsuk

    The air transportation demand at large hubs in the U.S. is anticipated to double in the near future. Current runway construction plans at selected airports can relieve some capacity and delay problems, but many are doubtful that this solution is sufficient to accommodate the anticipated demand growth in the National Airspace System (NAS). With the worsening congestion problem, it is imperative to seek alternative solutions other than costly runway constructions. In this respect, many researchers and organizations have been building models and performing analyses of the NAS. However, the complexity and size of the problem results in an overwhelming task for transportation system modelers. This research seeks to compose an active design algorithm for an evolutionary airline network model so as to include network specific control properties. An airline network designer, referred to as a network architect, can use this tool to assess the possibilities of gaining more capacity by changing the network configuration. Since the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, the airline service network has evolved into a distinct Hub-and-Spoke (H&S) network. Enplanement demand on the H&S network is the sum of Origin-Destination (O-D) demand and transfer demand. Even though the flight or enplanement demand is a function of O-D demand and passenger routings on the airline network, the distinction between enplanement and O-D demand is not often made. Instead, many demand forecast practices in current days are based on scale-ups from the enplanements, which include the demand to and from transferring network hubs. Based on this research, it was found that the current demand prediction practice can be improved by dissecting enplanements further into smaller pieces of information. As a result, enplanement demand is decomposed into intrinsic and variable parts. The proposed intrinsic demand model is based on the concept of 'true' O-D demand which includes the direction of each round trip

  17. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transporation systems. Volume 2: Identification of issues affecting intercity transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers on major issues and trends that affect the future of intercity transportation are presented. Specific areas covered include: political, social, technological, institutional, and economic mechanisms, the workings of which determine how future intercity transporation technologies will evolve and be put into service; the major issues of intercity transportation from the point of view of reform, including candidate transporation technologies; and technical analysis of trends affecting the evolution of intercity transportation technologies.

  18. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transportation systems. Volume 6: Impact assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Consequences that might occur if certain technological developments take place in intercity transportation are described. These consequences are broad ranging, and include economic, environmental, social, institutional, energy-related, and transportation service implications. The possible consequences are traced through direct (primary) impacts to indirect (secondary, tertiary, etc.) impacts. Chains of consequences are traced, reaching as far beyond the original transportation cause as is necessary to identify all impacts felt to be influenced significantly by the technological development considered.

  19. Transportation container for Li/SO/sub 2/ batteries on passenger aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    A surplus USN 40 mm ammunition can was subjected to a variety of tests. Pressure tests were carried out with nitrogen gas, followed by the venting of actual Li/SO/sub 2/ cells and batteries inside the can. A fire test was also conducted on a can packed with 10 each 10-cell batteries surrounded by vermiculite. Test results indicate the US Navy (USN) 40-mm ammunition can is suitable as a shipping container for Li/SO/sub 2/ batteries on passenger aircraft. To provide a further measure of safety, a sulfur dioxide getter was incorporated into the can. Studies indicated a commercial material, ASC carbon, is suitable for this purpose. The granular material was packaged in porous paper desiccant bags and placed in the can with the batteries and vermiculite. The batteries were vented inside the sealed can and the internal pressure monitored. Pressure returned to normal within several minutes, indicating that this arrangement should prevent sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) gas from leaking into the airplane in the event of multiple battery ventings during flight.

  20. Dynamic Flow Management Problems in Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Sarah Stock

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, over six hundred thousand licensed pilots flew nearly thirty-five million flights into over eighteen thousand U.S. airports, logging more than 519 billion passenger miles. Since demand for air travel has increased by more than 50% in the last decade while capacity has stagnated, congestion is a problem of undeniable practical significance. In this thesis, we will develop optimization techniques that reduce the impact of congestion on the national airspace. We start by determining the optimal release times for flights into the airspace and the optimal speed adjustment while airborne taking into account the capacitated airspace. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Problem (TFMP). We address the complexity, showing that it is NP-hard. We build an integer programming formulation that is quite strong as some of the proposed inequalities are facet defining for the convex hull of solutions. For practical problems, the solutions of the LP relaxation of the TFMP are very often integral. In essence, we reduce the problem to efficiently solving large scale linear programming problems. Thus, the computation times are reasonably small for large scale, practical problems involving thousands of flights. Next, we address the problem of determining how to reroute aircraft in the airspace system when faced with dynamically changing weather conditions. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Rerouting Problem (TFMRP) We present an integrated mathematical programming approach for the TFMRP, which utilizes several methodologies, in order to minimize delay costs. In order to address the high dimensionality, we present an aggregate model, in which we formulate the TFMRP as a multicommodity, integer, dynamic network flow problem with certain side constraints. Using Lagrangian relaxation, we generate aggregate flows that are decomposed into a collection of flight paths using a randomized rounding heuristic. This collection of paths is used in a packing integer

  1. Transport and urban air pollution in India.

    PubMed

    Badami, Madhav G

    2005-08-01

    The rapid growth in motor vehicle activity in India and other rapidly industrializing low-income countries is contributing to high levels of urban air pollution, among other adverse socioeconomic, environmental, health, and welfare impacts. This paper first discusses the local, regional, and global impacts associated with air pollutant emissions resulting from motor vehicle activity, and the technological, behavioral, and institutional factors that have contributed to these emissions, in India. The paper then discusses some implementation issues related to various policy measures that have been undertaken, and the challenges of the policy context. Finally, the paper presents insights and lessons based on the recent Indian experience, for better understanding and more effectively addressing the transport air pollution problem in India and similar countries, in a way that is sensitive to their needs, capabilities, and constraints.

  2. 29 CFR 1202.12 - National Air Transport Adjustment Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 1202.12 National Air Transport Adjustment Board. Under section 205, title II, of the Railway Labor Act... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Air Transport Adjustment Board. 1202.12 Section... four representatives to constitute a Board known as the National Air Transport Adjustment Board....

  3. 29 CFR 1202.12 - National Air Transport Adjustment Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 1202.12 National Air Transport Adjustment Board. Under section 205, title II, of the Railway Labor Act... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Air Transport Adjustment Board. 1202.12 Section... four representatives to constitute a Board known as the National Air Transport Adjustment Board....

  4. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transportation systems. Volume 5: Workshop proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Proceedings of a workshop conducted to identify and debate issues and impacts related to future transporation alternatives are presented. Results of the technology assessment of intercity transportation are reviewed.

  5. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transportation systems. Volume 4: Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Four background scenarios that relate to alternative states of society in the next 25 to 50 years are described. The scenarios were developed for use in analyzing and evaluating alternative future intercity transportation technologies. The scenarios are based, in part, on discussions contained in the issue papers and, in part, on separate analysis of social and economic trends considered relevant for the evolution of intercity transportation.

  6. 49 CFR 175.10 - Exceptions for passengers, crewmembers, and air operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... carry-on baggage. (19) Fuel cells used to power portable electronic devices (e.g., cameras, cellular phones, laptop computers and camcorders) and spare fuel cell cartridges when transported personal use under the following conditions: (i) Fuel cells and fuel cell cartridges may contain only Division...

  7. 49 CFR 175.10 - Exceptions for passengers, crewmembers, and air operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... exceeding 160 Wh, may be carried per person as spare batteries in carry-on baggage. (19) Fuel cells used to... spare fuel cell cartridges when transported personal use under the following conditions: (i) Fuel cells and fuel cell cartridges may contain only Division 2.1 liquefied flammable gas, or hydrogen in a...

  8. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  9. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire § 177.870 Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles. (a) Vehicles transporting passengers and property... apply to vehicles transporting passengers and property. (b) No Class 1 (explosive) materials or...

  10. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  11. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  12. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  13. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  14. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  15. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  16. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  17. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  18. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  19. Air quality impacts of climate mitigation: UK policy and passenger vehicle choice.

    PubMed

    Mazzi, Eric A; Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2007-01-15

    In 2001-2002 the UK began taxing vehicles according to CO2 emission rates. Since then, there has been a significant increase in consumer choice of small cars and diesel engines. We estimate CO2 reductions and air quality impacts resulting from UK consumers switching from petrol to diesel cars from 2001 to 2020. Annual reductions of 0.4 megatons (Mt) of CO2 and 1 million barrels of oil are estimated from switching to diesels. However, diesels emit higher levels of particulate matter estimated to result in 90 deaths annually (range 20-300). We estimate 570, 460, and 0 additional deaths per Mt of CO2 abated, for Euro III, Euro IV, and post-Euro IV emission class vehicles, respectively. CO2 policies are suspected to have contributed substantially to diesel growth, but the magnitude of impact has yet to be quantified rigorously. To the extent that CO2 policies contribute to diesel growth, coordinating CO2 controls with tightening of emission standards would save lives. This research shows that climate policy, while reducing fuel use and CO2, does not always ensure ancillary health benefits. Lessons from the UK can help inform policies designed elsewhere which strive to balance near-term ambient air quality and health with long-term climate mitigation.

  20. Proceedings of the Air Transportation Management Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard (Editor); Tashker, Michael G. (Editor); Boyle, Angela M. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Air Transportation Management (ATM) Workshop was held 31 Jan. - 1 Feb. 1995 at NASA Ames Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to develop an initial understanding of user concerns and requirements for future ATM capabilities and to initiate discussions of alternative means and technologies for achieving more effective ATM capabilities. The topics for the sessions were as follows: viewpoints of future ATM capabilities, user requirements, lessons learned, and technologies for ATM. In addition, two panel sessions discussed priorities for ATM, and potential contributions of NASA to ATM. The proceedings contain transcriptions of all sessions.

  1. [Long-haul intensive care transports by air].

    PubMed

    Graf, Jürgen; Seiler, Olivier; Pump, Stefan; Günther, Marion; Albrecht, Roland

    2013-03-01

    The need for inter-hospital transports over long distances aboard air ambulances or airlines has increased in recent years, both in the civil as well as the military sector. More often severely ill intensive care patients with multiple organ failure and appropriate supportive care (e.g. mechanical ventilation, catecholamines, dialysis, cardiac assist devices) are transported by air. Despite the fact that long-haul intensive care transports by air ambulance and airlines via Patient Transport Compartment (PTC) are considered established modes of transport they always provide a number of challenges. Both modes of transport have distinct logistical and medical advantages and disadvantages. These-as well as the principal risks of an air-bound long-haul intensive care transport -have to be included in the risk assessment and selection of means of transport. Very often long-haul intensive care transports are a combination of air ambulance and scheduled airlines utilizing the PTC.

  2. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    Previous intercity travel demand models in terms of their ability to predict air travel in a useful way and the need for disaggregation in the approach to demand modelling are evaluated. The viability of incorporating non-conventional factors (i.e. non-econometric, such as time and cost) in travel demand forecasting models are determined. The investigation of existing models is carried out in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. The model is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed. In addition this volume contains two appendices which should prove useful to the non-specialist in the area.

  3. An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Peter F.; Adams, Milton B.; Allinger, Deborah F.; Rosch, Gene; Kuchar, James

    1998-01-01

    The continuing growth of air traffic will place demands on NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) system that cannot be accommodated without the creation of significant delays and economic impacts. To deal with this situation, work has begun to develop new approaches to providing a safe and economical air transportation infrastructure. Many of these emerging air transport technologies will represent radically new approaches to ATM, both for ground and air operations.

  4. 78 FR 38101 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...We, the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board), are proposing accessibility guidelines for the construction and alteration of passenger vessels covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to ensure that the vessels are readily accessible to and usable by passengers with disabilities. The guidelines would apply to passenger vessels, other than ferries......

  5. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Par 2; Analysis Using the Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation; the failure to increase capacity at the same rate as the growth in demand results in unreliable service and systemic delay. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making that affects geographic access, economic access, and airline finances, extending the analysis of these factors using historic data (from Part 1 of the report). The Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM) was used to evaluate how exogenous factors (passenger demand, airline operating costs, and airport capacity limits) affect geographic access (markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size), economic access (airfares), airline finances (profit), and air transportation efficiency (aircraft size). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of airport capacity limits, as well as the effect of increased hedged fuel prices, which serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed; also incorporated are demand elasticity curves based on historical data that provide information about how passenger demand is affected by airfare changes.

  6. Application of a high-efficiency cabin air filter for simultaneous mitigation of ultrafine particle and carbon dioxide exposures inside passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2014-02-18

    Modern passenger vehicles are commonly equipped with cabin air filters but their filtration efficiency for ultrafine particle (UFP) is rather low. Although setting the vehicle ventilation system to recirculation (RC) mode can reduce in-cabin UFPs by ∼ 90%, passenger-exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) can quickly accumulate inside the cabin. Using outdoor air (OA) mode instead can provide sufficient air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, but in-cabin UFP concentrations would increase. To overcome this dilemma, we developed a simultaneous mitigation method for UFP and CO2 using high-efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration in OA mode. Concentrations of UFP and other air pollutants were simultaneously monitored in and out of 12 different vehicles under 3 driving conditions: stationary, on local roadways, and on freeways. Under each experimental condition, data were collected with no filter, in-use original equipment manufacturer (OEM) filter, and two types of HECA filters. The HECA filters offered an average in-cabin UFP reduction of 93%, much higher than the OEM filters (∼ 50% on average). Throughout the measurements, the in-cabin CO2 concentration remained in the range of 620-930 ppm, significantly lower than the typical level of 2500-4000 ppm observed in the RC mode.

  7. 49 CFR 1544.223 - Transportation of Federal Air Marshals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transportation of Federal Air Marshals. 1544.223 Section 1544.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  8. 49 CFR 1544.223 - Transportation of Federal Air Marshals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transportation of Federal Air Marshals. 1544.223 Section 1544.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  9. 49 CFR 1544.223 - Transportation of Federal Air Marshals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transportation of Federal Air Marshals. 1544.223 Section 1544.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  10. 49 CFR 1544.223 - Transportation of Federal Air Marshals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transportation of Federal Air Marshals. 1544.223 Section 1544.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  11. 49 CFR 1544.223 - Transportation of Federal Air Marshals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of Federal Air Marshals. 1544.223 Section 1544.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  12. 14 CFR 136.7 - Passenger briefings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.7 Passenger briefings. (a)...

  13. 14 CFR 250.5 - Amount of denied boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or reduced rate air transportation in lieu of the cash due under paragraph (a) of this section, if (1) the value of the transportation benefit offered is equal to or greater than the cash payment otherwise... passengers denied boarding involuntarily from an oversold flight at the rate of 200 percent of the...

  14. Systems evaluation of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, R. W.; Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Methods were studied for improving air transportation to low-density population regions in the U.S. through the application of new aeronautical technology. The low-density air service concepts are developed for selected regions, and critical technologies that presently limit the effective application of low-density air transportation systems are identified.

  15. Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Sun, Chen-Yi; Huang, Ying-Che

    2010-05-01

    While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental results indicate that high air temperature, strong solar radiation, and low air movement explain why passengers feel thermally uncomfortable. The overall insulation of clothing worn by passengers and thermal adaptive behaviour in vehicles differ from those in their living and working spaces. Passengers in short-haul vehicles habitually adjust the air outlets to increase thermal comfort, while passengers in long-haul vehicles prefer to draw the drapes to reduce discomfort from extended exposure to solar radiation. The neutral temperatures for short- and long-haul vehicles are 26.2 degrees C and 27.4 degrees C, while the comfort zones are 22.4-28.9 degrees C and 22.4-30.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for practitioners involved in determining the adequate control and management of in-vehicle thermal environments, as well as facilitating design of buses and trains, ultimately contributing to efforts to achieve a balance between the thermal comfort satisfaction of passengers and energy conserving measures for air-conditioning in mass transportation vehicles.

  16. Ground-based and in-flight simulator studies of flight characteristics of a twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane during approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.; Neely, W. R., Jr.; Deal, P. L.; Yenni, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    Six-degree-of-freedom ground-based and in-flight simulator studies were conducted to evaluate the low-speed flight characteristics of a twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane and to compare these characteristics with those of a large, single-fuselage (reference) transport configuration similar to the Lockheed C-5A airplane. The primary piloting task was the approach and landing task. The results of this study indicated that the twin-fuselage transport concept had acceptable but unsatisfactory longitudinal and lateral-directional low-speed flight characteristics, and that stability and control augmentation would be required in order to improve the handling qualities. Through the use of rate-command/attitude-hold augmentation in the pitch and roll axes, and the use of several turn coordination features, the handling qualities of the simulated transport were improved appreciably. The in-flight test results showed excellent agreement with those of the six-degree-of-freedom ground-based simulator handling qualities tests. As a result of the in-flight simulation study, a roll-control-induced normal-acceleration criterion was developed. The handling qualities of the augmented twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane exhibited an improvement over the handling characteristics of the reference (single-fuselage) transport.

  17. Maximizing algebraic connectivity in air transportation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Peng

    In air transportation networks the robustness of a network regarding node and link failures is a key factor for its design. An experiment based on the real air transportation network is performed to show that the algebraic connectivity is a good measure for network robustness. Three optimization problems of algebraic connectivity maximization are then formulated in order to find the most robust network design under different constraints. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem with flight routes addition or deletion is first formulated. Three methods to optimize and analyze the network algebraic connectivity are proposed. The Modified Greedy Perturbation Algorithm (MGP) provides a sub-optimal solution in a fast iterative manner. The Weighted Tabu Search (WTS) is designed to offer a near optimal solution with longer running time. The relaxed semi-definite programming (SDP) is used to set a performance upper bound and three rounding techniques are discussed to find the feasible solution. The simulation results present the trade-off among the three methods. The case study on two air transportation networks of Virgin America and Southwest Airlines show that the developed methods can be applied in real world large scale networks. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem is extended by adding the leg number constraint, which considers the traveler's tolerance for the total connecting stops. The Binary Semi-Definite Programming (BSDP) with cutting plane method provides the optimal solution. The tabu search and 2-opt search heuristics can find the optimal solution in small scale networks and the near optimal solution in large scale networks. The third algebraic connectivity maximization problem with operating cost constraint is formulated. When the total operating cost budget is given, the number of the edges to be added is not fixed. Each edge weight needs to be calculated instead of being pre-determined. It is illustrated that the edge addition and the

  18. Air transportation energy efficiency - Alternatives and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Results from recent studies of air transportation energy efficiency alternatives are discussed, along with some of the implications of these alternatives. The fuel-saving alternatives considered include aircraft operation, aircraft modification, derivative aircraft, and new aircraft. In the near-term, energy efficiency improvements should be possible through small improvements in fuel-saving flight procedures, higher density seating, and higher load factors. Additional small near-term improvements could be obtained through aircraft modifications, such as the relatively inexpensive drag reduction modifications. Derivatives of existing aircraft could meet the requirements for new aircraft and provide energy improvements until advanced technology is available to justify the cost of a completely new design. In order to obtain significant improvements in energy efficiency, new aircraft must truly exploit advanced technology in such areas as aerodynamics, composite structures, active controls, and advanced propulsion.

  19. Space Weather affects on Air Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. B. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Dyer, C.; Shaw, A.

    In Europe, legislation requires the airline industry to monitor the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. However, there are other significant impacts of space weather phenomena on the technological systems used for day-to-day operations which need to be considered by the airlines. These were highlighted by the disruption caused to the industry by the period of significant solar activity in late October and early November 2003. Next generation aircraft will utilize increasingly complex avionics as well as expanding the performance envelopes. These and future generation platforms will require the development of a new air-space management infrastructure with improved position accuracy (for route navigation and landing in bad weather) and reduced separation minima in order to cope with the expected growth in air travel. Similarly, greater reliance will be placed upon satellites for command, control, communication and information (C3I) of the operation. However, to maximize effectiveness of this globally interoperable C3I and ensure seamless fusion of all components for a safe operation will require a greater understanding of the space weather affects, their risks with increasing technology, and the inclusion of space weather information into the operation. This paper will review space weather effects on air transport and the increasing risks for future operations cause by them. We will examine how well the effects can be predicted, some of the tools that can be used and the practicalities of using such predictions in an operational scenario. Initial results from the SOARS ESA Space Weather Pilot Project will also be discussed,

  20. 78 FR 49248 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers...

  1. UK airmisses involving commercial air transport, January-April 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the introduction the following are briefly discussed: origination of an airmiss; purpose of airmiss reports; investigation of airmiss reports; categorization of airmisses; involvement of commercial air transport aircraft; airmisses related to flying hours. Tabulated statistics of the following are presented: the number of incidents of commercial air transport airmisses; commercial air transport aircraft involved in airmisses; commercial air transport airmisses related to flying hours. Reports on the commercial air transport airmisses from Jan. - Apr. 1991 are presented. These contain summaries of: pilot reports, transcripts of relevant RT frequencies; radar video recordings, and reports from appropriate air traffic control and operating authorities. The working groups discussion is summarized, and the risk and cause assessed.

  2. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  3. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  4. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  5. [Robbers on board: exposure to violence, insecurity, and other health hazards among mass transportation workers and passengers in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Paes-Machado, Eduardo; Levenstein, Charles

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of violent crime on working conditions, health, and security for bus drivers and ticket takers in the mass transportation system in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The research included 195 interviews with workers, labor union officials, passengers, management, and police. In the last ten years there have been 20,572 robberies in a fleet of 2,400 buses operated by 10,151 workers, with 67 deaths and more than US$500,000 in company losses. Perpetrators are typically poor, unemployed youths, the majority of whom first offenders, seeking easy money primarily for leisure pursuits. The average "take" from such robberies is minimal. The authors observed a pattern of bus robberies as a psychological power game which, for bus workers, apart from physical injuries and fatalities, generates fear, identity conflicts, tense relations with passengers, and labor conflicts involving the recovery of stolen fares and worker and passenger security issues. The article also outlines and evaluates the efficiency of security measures including the use of lethal force by police.

  6. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy... Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any...

  7. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy... Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any...

  8. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy... Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any...

  9. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy... Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any...

  10. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy... Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any...

  11. 14 CFR 221.5 - Unauthorized air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized air transportation. 221.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.5 Unauthorized air transportation. Tariff publications shall not contain fares or charges, or their governing provisions, applicable to foreign...

  12. 14 CFR 221.5 - Unauthorized air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unauthorized air transportation. 221.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.5 Unauthorized air transportation. Tariff publications shall not contain fares or charges, or their governing provisions, applicable to foreign...

  13. 22 CFR 226.1003 - Air transportation. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 226.1003 Section 226.1003 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS USAID-Specific Requirements § 226.1003 Air transportation....

  14. Air Cargo Transportation Route Choice Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obashi, Hiroshi; Kim, Tae-Seung; Oum, Tae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    Using a unique feature of air cargo transshipment data in the Northeast Asian region, this paper identifies the critical factors that determine the transshipment route choice. Taking advantage of the variations in the transport characteristics in each origin-destination airports pair, the paper uses a discrete choice model to describe the transshipping route choice decision made by an agent (i.e., freight forwarder, consolidator, and large shipper). The analysis incorporates two major factors, monetary cost (such as line-haul cost and landing fee) and time cost (i.e., aircraft turnaround time, including loading and unloading time, custom clearance time, and expected scheduled delay), along with other controls. The estimation method considers the presence of unobserved attributes, and corrects for resulting endogeneity by use of appropriate instrumental variables. Estimation results find that transshipment volumes are more sensitive to time cost, and that the reduction in aircraft turnaround time by 1 hour would be worth the increase in airport charges by more than $1000. Simulation exercises measures the impacts of alternative policy scenarios for a Korean airport, which has recently declared their intention to be a future regional hub in the Northeast Asian region. The results suggest that reducing aircraft turnaround time at the airport be an effective strategy, rather than subsidizing to reduce airport charges.

  15. Impact of air pollutants from surface transport sources on human health: A modeling and epidemiological approach.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Preeti; Jain, Suresh

    2015-10-01

    This study adopted an integrated 'source-to-receptor' assessment paradigm in order to determine the effects of emissions from passenger transport on urban air quality and human health in the megacity, Delhi. The emission modeling was carried out for the base year 2007 and three alternate (ALT) policy scenarios along with a business as usual (BAU) scenario for the year 2021. An Activity-Structure-Emission Factor (ASF) framework was adapted for emission modeling, followed by a grid-wise air quality assessment using AERMOD and a health impact assessment using an epidemiological approach. It was observed that a 2021-ALT-III scenario resulted in a maximum concentration reduction of ~24%, ~42% and ~58% for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM), respectively, compared to a 2021-BAU scenario. Further, it results in significant reductions in respiratory and cardiovascular mortality, morbidity and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) by 41% and 58% on exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations when compared to the 2021-BAU scenario, respectively. In other words, a mix of proposed policy interventions namely the full-phased introduction of the Integrated Mass Transit System, fixed bus speed, stringent vehicle emission norms and a hike in parking fees for private vehicles would help in strengthening the capability of passenger transport to cater to a growing transport demand with a minimum health burden in the Delhi region. Further, the study estimated that the transport of goods would be responsible for ~5.5% additional VKT in the 2021-BAU scenario; however, it will contribute ~49% and ~55% additional NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations, respectively, in the Delhi region. Implementation of diesel particulate filters for goods vehicles in the 2021-ALT-IV-O scenario would help in the reduction of ~87% of PM2.5 concentration, compared to the 2021-BAU scenario; translating into a gain of 1267 and 505 DALY per million people from exposure to PM2.5 and NO

  16. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  17. Weather in the Cockpit: Priorities, Sources, Delivery, and Needs in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    discomfort. Extreme turbulence could cause physical injuries to pilot/ passengers who are not wearing seat belts. Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) CAT... passengers who are not wearing seat belts. Generally caused by wind shear in the atmosphere where no clouds are present. Mountain Waves Fast...ways in which our analyses could inform the design of information systems. NextGen, in its mature state, envisions pilots having control over

  18. The Bunny: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, David; Gallagher, Patrick; Grannan, William; Martin, Jennifer; Mastej, Nicole; Wujek, Brett

    1993-01-01

    The Bunny is a single-engine, 100 passenger commercial transport designed to serve the high density short-to-medium range markets in AEROWORLD. The aircraft's design range is 10,000 feet at a cruise velocity of 30 ft/s. The aircraft features a low wing which incorporates polyhedral for roll control. Yaw and pitch control are accomplished by a rudder and elevator, respectively. Propulsion is provided by a nose-mounted Astro 15 electric motor powered by thirteen 1.2 V, 1000 mah batteries with a Zinger 12-6 propeller. The aircraft is structurally designed with a safety factor of 1.5 and is constructed primarily of balsa, bass, and birch wood. Passenger seating is arranged on two levels, with three-abreast on the lower level and two-abreast on the upper level. The factors which had the most significant influence on the final design were the direct operating cost and the take-off distance. The primary strength of The Bunny is its ability to compete economically with the HB-40. At full capacity and mid-range fuel costs, the cost per seat per thousand feet (CPSK) of this aircraft is 25% less than the HB-40. Another principal strength is its ability to operate in all airports in AEROWORLD. Also, The Bunny's two-piece removable wing is an advantage from a transportability standpoint.

  19. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Issues around direct flights across Taiwan Strait are always one of the hottest topics in eastern Asia transport market. Although the direct links have not been connected yet, they are still highly concerned by different disciplines of politics, laws, and management. Airlines and related business also watch closely to these issues for policy changes will easily affect their interests in Chinese market which the future of the air transportation in eastern Asia is heavily depending on. In the past decades, Hong Kong was the most important hub in this market; it will still be an important one in the future. It is proved, however, traffic on the link between Hong Kong and Taiwan can be shifted to the link between Macau and Taiwan, so can it be shifted to the links across Taiwan Strait. Moreover, outgoing passengers from China transferred in Hong Kong can also find transit services in Taiwan. These movements will possibly cause a big change in eastern Asian air transport system for there are millions of passengers travelling in this area. The uncertainties of direct links across Taiwan Strait are still leaving, some problems unsolved. Whether the direct links will be defined as international routes or domestic' routes are not clear; the selection of hubs and airlines to provide direct services are not yet made; even the type of freedoms and bilateral agreements can also change the market and network quite a lot. A much bigger volume of passengers can also be found if further travelling deregulation for Chinese to travel across Taiwan Strait can be made. All these variables are making issues around direct flights worthy of continuous observant.

  20. 19 CFR 4.7b - Electronic passenger and crew arrival manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... miles apart and which is being used to transport only passengers and/or vehicles, or railroad cars, which are being used, or have been used, in transporting passengers or goods. Passenger. “Passenger.... “Commercial vessel” means any civilian vessel being used to transport persons or property for compensation...

  1. Cosmic radiation exposure in subsonic air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. W.; Sondhaus, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Data derived from 1973 statistics on 2.99 million intercity flights carrying 468 million seats were included in the calculations, yielding a total of 581 billion seat-kilometer. The average flight was 1,084 km in length, was flown at an altitude of 9.47 km, and lasted 1.41 h. The average dose rate was 0.20 mrem/h, resulting in an average passenger dose of 2.82 mrem/year and an average crewmember dose of 160 mrem/year. The average radiation dose to the total U.S. population was 0.47 mrem/person/year. These results are in good agreement with data from several experiments performed by us and others in aircraft at various altitudes and latitudes. The significance of these doses to the population is discussed.

  2. Air Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Moses, S.D.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Morenko, A.

    2007-07-01

    Sometimes the only feasible means of shipping research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) among countries is via air transport because of location or political conditions. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established a regulatory framework to certify air transport Type C casks. However, no such cask has been designed, built, tested, and certified. In lieu of an air transport cask, research reactor SNF has been transported using a Type B cask under an exemption with special arrangements for administrative and security controls. This work indicates that it may be feasible to transport commercial power reactor SNF assemblies via air, and that the cost is only about three times that of shipping it by railway. Optimization (i.e., reduction) of this cost factor has yet to be done. (authors)

  3. Determining Usability Versus Cost and Yields of a Regional Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gvozdenovic, Slobodan

    1999-01-01

    Regional transports are designed to operate on air networks having the basic characteristics of short trip distances and low density passengers/cargo, i.e. small numbers of passengers per flight. Regional transports passenger capacity is from 10 to 100 seats and operate on routes from 350 to 1000 nautical miles (nm). In order to meet passenger requirements providing low fares and high or required number of frequencies, airlines must constantly monitor operational costs and keep them low. It is obvious that costs of operating aircraft must be lower than yield obtained by transporting passengers and cargo. The requirement to achieve favorable yield/cost ratio must provide the answer to the question of which aircraft will best meet a specific air network (Simpson, 1972). An air network is defined by the number of services, the trip distance of each service, and the number of flights (frequencies) per day and week.

  4. Review of measured vibration and noise environments experienced by passengers in aircraft and in ground transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    Measured vibration and interior noise data are presented for a number of air and surface vehicles. Consideration is given to the importance of direction effects; of vehicle operations such as take-off, cruise, and landing; and of measurement location on the level and frequency of the measurements. Various physical measurement units or descriptors are used to quantify and compare the data. Results suggest the range of vibration and noise associated with a particular mode of transportation and illustrate the comparative levels in terms of each of the descriptors. Collectively, the results form a data base which may be useful in assessing the ride of existing or future systems relative to vehicles in current operation.

  5. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... passenger train service that results in serious injury or death to one or more persons and property damage... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements §...

  6. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... passenger train service that results in serious injury or death to one or more persons and property damage... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements §...

  7. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  8. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  9. Convenient Airports: Point of View of the Passengers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magri, Adival Aparecido, Jr.; Alves, Claudio Jorge Pinto

    2003-01-01

    The competition among airlines or among airports aiming at to increase the demand for its services has been more and more incited. Knowledge the perception of the users for the offered services means to meet the customer's needs and expectations in order either to keep the customer, and therefore keep a significant advantage over competitors. The passenger of the air transportation wants rapidity, security and convenience. Convenience can be translated by comfort that the passenger wants for the price that he can pay. In this paper had been identified. as a result of a survey achieved in six Brazilian airports during 2002, the best indicators in the passenger's perception. These indicators among any others were listed m the handbook of Airports Council International (ACI). Distinctive perceptions were observed among passengers with different travel motivations. This survey had been carried through in the airports of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador. Fortaleza, Curitiba and Bel6m. Considering this survey we can identified the most attractive airport among them. This work is a way to help improve quality of service, in particular, m these six airports of the Brazilian network. The results should be published and made available to all the parties concerned (airport authority, airlines and service providers) and should lead to corrective action when the passenger is not satisfied with the service.

  10. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP (NOW A TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  11. Methyl chloride as a tracer of tropical tropospheric air in the lowermost stratosphere inferred from IAGOS-CARIBIC passenger aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, T.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.; Oram, D. E.; Velthoven, P. F. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present variations of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS) obtained from air samples collected by the In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System-Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (IAGOS-CARIBIC) passenger aircraft observatory for the period 2008-2012. To correct for the temporal increase of atmospheric N2O, the CARIBIC N2O data are expressed as deviations from the long-term trend at the northern hemispheric baseline station Mauna Loa, Hawaii (ΔN2O). ΔN2O undergoes a pronounced seasonal variation in the LMS with a minimum in spring. The amplitude increases going deeper in the LMS (up to potential temperature of 40 K above the thermal tropopause), as a result of the seasonally varying subsidence of air from the stratospheric overworld. Seasonal variation of CH3Cl above the tropopause is similar in phase to that of ΔN2O. Significant correlations are found between CH3Cl and ΔN2O in the LMS from winter to early summer, both being affected by mixing between stratospheric air and upper tropospheric air. This correlation, however, disappears in late summer to autumn. The slope of the CH3Cl-ΔN2O correlation observed in the LMS allows us to determine the stratospheric lifetime of CH3Cl to be 35 ± 7 years. Finally, we examine the partitioning of stratospheric air and tropical/extratropical tropospheric air in the LMS based on a mass balance approach using ΔN2O and CH3Cl. This analysis clearly indicates efficient inflow of tropical tropospheric air into the LMS in summer and demonstrates the usefulness of CH3Cl as a tracer of tropical tropospheric air.

  12. Journal of Air Transportation; Volume 9, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  13. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Lucas, Sarah (Editor); Scarpellini-Metz, Nanette (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JA is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  14. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy

  15. An Airline-Based Multilevel Analysis of Airfare Elasticity for Passenger Demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Lorenzo; Ukovich, Walter; Pesenti, Raffaele

    2003-01-01

    Price elasticity of passenger demand for a specific airline is estimated. The main drivers affecting passenger demand for air transportation are identified. First, an Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis is performed. Then, a multilevel analysis-based methodology to investigate the pattern of variation of price elasticity of demand among the various routes of the airline under study is proposed. The experienced daily passenger demands on each fare-class are grouped for each considered route. 9 routes were studied for the months of February and May in years from 1999 to 2002, and two fare-classes were defined (business and economy). The analysis has revealed that the airfare elasticity of passenger demand significantly varies among the different routes of the airline.

  16. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  17. Agenda and Presentations from Circumpolar Workshop: Transport and Clean Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and its partners convened Transport and Clean Air, a Circumpolar Workshop held in December 2013. This seminar allowed leading experts to share best practices on reducing emissions of particulates and black carbon from diesel sources in the Arctic.

  18. Measuring the Air Quality and Transportation Impacts of Infill Development

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report summarizes three case studies. The analysis shows how standard forecasting tools can be modified to capture at least some of the transportation and air quality benefits of brownfield and infill development.

  19. Studies in the demand for short haul air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Gosling, G.; Taghavi, S.

    1975-01-01

    Demand is analyzed in a short haul air transportation corridor. Emphasis is placed on traveler selection from available routes. Model formulations, estimation techniques, and traffic data handling are included.

  20. American Airlines Propeller STOL Transport Economic Risk Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, B.

    1972-01-01

    A Monte Carlo risk analysis on the economics of STOL transports in air passenger traffic established the probability of making the expected internal rate of financial return, or better, in a hypothetical regular Washington/New York intercity operation.

  1. Community rotorcraft air transportation benefits and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, G. A.; Freund, D. J.; Winick, R. M.; Cafarelli, N. J.; Hodgkins, R. F.; Vickers, T. K.

    1981-01-01

    Information about rotorcraft that will assist community planners in assessing and planning for the use of rotorcraft transportation in their communities is provided. Information useful to helicopter researchers, manufacturers, and operators concerning helicopter opportunities and benefits is also given. Three primary topics are discussed: the current status and future projections of rotorcraft technology, and the comparison of that technology with other transportation vehicles; the community benefits of promising rotorcraft transportation opportunities; and the integration and interfacing considerations between rotorcraft and other transportation vehicles. Helicopter applications in a number of business and public service fields are examined in various geographical settings.

  2. The RTL-46: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Christian; Prette, John; Andersen, Gerald; Sprunck, Martin; Vogel, Christine; Rivera, Francisco

    1993-01-01

    The RTL-46 provides an aircraft which utilizes advanced technology within the fictional Aeroworld market to better service the air travel customers and airlines of Aeroworld. The RTL-46 is designed to serve the portion of the travel market which flies less than 10,000 feet per flight. The design cruise velocity for the aircraft is 35 ft/sec, which rapidly expedites travel through Aeroworld. The major focus of the endeavor was to design an aircraft which would serve the Aeroworld market better than the existing aircraft, the HB-40. This could have been done through targeting another portion of the Aeroworld market or through serving the current HB-40 market more effectively. Due to the fact that approximately 70 percent of the potential Aeroworld passengers desired flights of 10,000 ft or less, this range became the target market for the RTL-46.

  3. Peterson Air Force Base Transportation Plan Final Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Final Environmental Assessment Peterson Air Force Base Transportation Plan March 2013 FELSBURG H O L T & U L L E V I G Report Documentation Page Form...ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 PETERSON AIR...4-1 4.2 Off-Base Activities

  4. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Air transportation research being carried on at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, and Ohio University is discussed. Global Positioning System experiments, Loran-C monitoring, inertial navigation, the optimization of aircraft trajectories through severe microbursts, fault tolerant flight control systems, and expert systems for air traffic control are among the topics covered.

  5. Transportation by Air-On the Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A Rolair air flotation system is a spinoff of NASA/General Motors technology developed for the Apollo Program. It allows heavy loads to be moved easily by separating the load from the ground by a thin air cushion, virtually eliminating surface friction. Rolair Systems, Inc. was formed by former General Motors engineers and has successfully employed the system for both aerospace and nonaerospace industries.

  6. 49 CFR 39.31 - May PVOs limit access to transportation or use of a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a communicable disease? 39.31 Section 39.31... or use of a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a communicable disease? (a) You must not take any of the following actions on the basis that a passenger has a communicable disease or...

  7. 49 CFR 39.31 - May PVOs limit access to transportation or use of a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a communicable disease? 39.31 Section 39.31... or use of a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a communicable disease? (a) You must not take any of the following actions on the basis that a passenger has a communicable disease or...

  8. 49 CFR 39.31 - May PVOs limit access to transportation or use of a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a communicable disease? 39.31 Section 39.31... or use of a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a communicable disease? (a) You must not take any of the following actions on the basis that a passenger has a communicable disease or...

  9. 49 CFR 39.31 - May PVOs limit access to transportation or use of a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a communicable disease? 39.31 Section 39.31... or use of a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a communicable disease? (a) You must not take any of the following actions on the basis that a passenger has a communicable disease or...

  10. 49 CFR 39.31 - May PVOs limit access to transportation or use of a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a communicable disease? 39.31 Section 39.31... or use of a vessel on the basis that a passenger has a communicable disease? (a) You must not take any of the following actions on the basis that a passenger has a communicable disease or...

  11. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families.

  12. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Unal, Mehmet (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Mitigation Alternatives for Carbon Dioxide Emissions by the Air Transport Industry in Brazil; Air Transport Regulation Under Transformation: The Case of Switzerland; An Estimation of Aircraft Emissions at Turkish Airports; Guide to the Implementation of Iso 14401 at Airports; The Impact of Constrained Future Scenarios on Aviation and Emissions; The Immediate Financial Impact of Transportation Deregulation on the Stockholders of the Airline Industry; Aviation Related Airport Marketing in an Overlapping Metropolitan Catchment Area: The Case of Milan's Three Airports; and Airport Pricing Systems and Airport Deregulation Effects on Welfare.

  13. NASA technology program for future civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, H. T.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is undertaken of the development status of technology, applicable to future civil air transport design, which is currently undergoing conceptual study or testing at NASA facilities. The NASA civil air transport effort emphasizes advanced aerodynamic computational capabilities, fuel-efficient engines, advanced turboprops, composite primary structure materials, advanced aerodynamic concepts in boundary layer laminarization and aircraft configuration, refined control, guidance and flight management systems, and the integration of all these design elements into optimal systems. Attention is given to such novel transport aircraft design concepts as forward swept wings, twin fuselages, sandwich composite structures, and swept blade propfans.

  14. Environic implications of lighter than air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsbrugh, P.

    1975-01-01

    The advent of any new system of transportation must now be reviewed in the physical context and texture of the landscape. Henceforward, all transportation systems will be considered in respect of their effects upon the environment to ensure that they afford an environic asset as well as provide an economic benefit. The obligations which now confront the buoyancy engineers are emphasized so that they may respond to these ethical and environic urgencies simultaneously with routine technical development.

  15. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  16. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  17. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  18. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  19. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  20. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  1. 14 CFR 19-7 - Passenger origin-destination survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger origin-destination survey. Sec... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-7 Passenger origin-destination survey. (a... carriers) shall participate in a Passenger Origin-Destination (O & D) Survey covering domestic...

  2. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its 5th Annual conference at the City University of Hong Kong Campus in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. Titles that comprise Volume 2 include: Intelligent Airport Gate Assignment System; A Study on the Effects of the Personality Compatibility to the Job Performance; ITS/CVO Application for Air cargo Transportation in Korea; An Airport as a Logistics and Economic Hub: The Case of Incheon International Airport; The Impact Of Aviation Safety over the Consumer's Behavior; The Integration of China and Taiwan Air Networks for Direct Air Cargo Services; Quality perception and carrier choice in Civil Aviation; Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making; Cooperation Among German Airports in Europe; Inbound and Outbound Air Passenger Traffic Forecasting between the United States and Selected Asian countries; An Evaluation of Alternative Facilities for Airport Redevelopment using Fuzzy Linguistic Approach; Economic Analysis of Airline Alliances; The Aviation Cooperation between the two Koreas Preparing for the Reunification of the Peninsula; and A Study on the Air Transport Cooperation in Northeast Asia between China, Japan and Korea.

  3. Synchronizing production and air transportation scheduling using mathematical programming models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandieh, M.; Molla-Alizadeh-Zavardehi, S.

    2009-08-01

    Traditional scheduling problems assume that there are always infinitely many resources for delivering finished jobs to their destinations, and no time is needed for their transportation, so that finished products can be transported to customers without delay. So, for coordination of these two different activities in the implementation of a supply chain solution, we studied the problem of synchronizing production and air transportation scheduling using mathematical programming models. The overall problem is decomposed into two sub-problems, which consists of air transportation allocation problem and a single machine scheduling problem which they are considered together. We have taken into consideration different constraints and assumptions in our modeling such as special flights, delivery tardiness and no delivery tardiness. For these purposes, a variety of models have been proposed to minimize supply chain total cost which encompass transportation, makespan, delivery earliness tardiness and departure time earliness tardiness costs.

  4. 49 CFR 223.8 - Additional requirements for passenger equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional requirements for passenger equipment. 223.8 Section 223.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER...

  5. Air pollutant transport in a street canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Luke Chen; Hsu-Cheng Chang

    1996-12-31

    An air pollutant (CO) distribution in a typical street canyon is simulated to evaluate pedestrian exposure. In this study, we consider factors those may affect the pollutant distribution in a typical street canyon. The considered factors include aspect ratio of a street canyon, atmospheric stability, traffic load and turbulent buoyancy effect. A two-dimensional domain that includes suburban roughness and urban street canyon is considered. The factors such as atmospheric stability, traffic load and turbulent buoyancy are imposed through the associated boundary conditions. With numerical simulation, the critical aspect ration of a street canyon the includes two vortices and results in pollutant accumulation are found. The buoyant effect is found to raise the same pollutant concentration up to the position higher than the results come out from the case without buoyancy. The pedestrian exposure to the street air pollutant under various traffic loads and atmospheric stability are evaluated. This study conclude that the local building regulations that specify the building height/street width ratio will not cause significant pedestrian exposure to the street air pollution in most of traffic loads and atmospheric stability conditions.

  6. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... apply to vehicles transporting passengers and property. (b) No Class 1 (explosive) materials or other hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except...

  7. Pandemic influenza: a note on international planning to reduce the risk from air transport.

    PubMed

    Evans, Anthony; Finkelstein, Silvio; Singh, Jarnail; Thibeault, Claude

    2006-09-01

    The rapid and intercontinental spread of avian influenza in 2005 and the potential for human pandemic influenza caused preparedness plans for such an event to be highlighted. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a global influenza preparedness plan, but this document does not address in detail the contribution necessary by the aviation community. The International Civil Aviation Organization, with assistance from WHO, the Airports Council International, and the International Air Transport Association, and others, has developed preparedness guidelines that are in accord with those of WHO but which are focused on the aviation aspects. Effective communication between stakeholders is the single most important issue that is addressed in the preparedness guidelines. States are recommended to appoint a clear contact point at the national aviation level that has responsibility for ensuring that all stakeholders are adequately consulted in the development of an aviation preparedness plan and that the relevant communication links are established. It is also important that the aviation preparedness plan is incorporated into the State's general preparedness plan, which demands efficient collaboration between the departments of health and transport at the government level. Communication with passengers, and those considering traveling, is important so that individuals are made aware of the risks associated with travel to particular parts of the globe and of the risk-reduction measures they may experience, or can take themselves, at airports and on aircraft. The guidelines will be web-based and will evolve as more knowledge becomes available.

  8. Analysis of the Chinese provincial air transportation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wen-Bo; Liang, Bo-Yuan; Hong, Chen; Lordan, Oriol

    2017-01-01

    The air transportation system is of a great impact on the economy and globalization of a country. In this paper, we analyze the Chinese air transportation network (ATN) from a provincial perspective via the complex network framework, where all airports located in one province are abstracted as a single node and flights between two provinces are denoted by a link. The results show that the network exhibits small-world property, homogeneous structure and disassortative mixing. The variation of the flight flow within 24 h is investigated and an obvious tide phenomenon is found in the dynamics of Chinese provincial ATN for high output level of tertiary industry. Our work will offer a novel approach for understanding the characteristic of the Chinese air transportation network.

  9. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  10. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  11. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  12. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  13. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  14. Forecasting the demand potential for STOL air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, S.; Horonjeff, R.; Kanafani, A.; Mogharabi, A.

    1973-01-01

    A process for predicting the potential demand for STOL aircraft was investigated to provide a conceptual framework, and an analytical methodology for estimating the STOL air transportation market. It was found that: (1) schedule frequency has the strongest effect on the traveler's choice among available routes, (2) work related business constitutes approximately 50% of total travel volume, and (3) air travel demand follows economic trends.

  15. The accelerated growth of the worldwide air transportation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzam, Mark; Klingauf, Uwe; Zock, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Mobility by means of air transportation has a critical impact on the global economy. Especially against the backdrop of further growth and an aggravation of the energy crisis, it is crucial to design a sustainable air transportation system. Current approaches focus on air traffic management. Nevertheless, also the historically evolved network offers great potential for an optimized redesign. But the understanding of its complex structure and development is limited, although modern network science supplies a great set of new methods and tools. So far studies analyzing air transportation as a complex network are based on divers and poor data, which are either merely regional or strongly bounded time-wise. As a result, the current state of research is rather inconsistent regarding topological coefficients and incomplete regarding network evolution. Therefore, we use the historical, worldwide OAG flight schedules data between 1979 and 2007 for our study. Through analyzing by far the most comprehensive data base so far, a better understanding of the network, its evolution and further implications is being provided. To our knowledge we present the first study to determine that the degree distribution of the worldwide air transportation network is non-stationary and is subject to densification and accelerated growth, respectively.

  16. Evaluation of the impact of transportation changes on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titos, G.; Lyamani, H.; Drinovec, L.; Olmo, F. J.; Močnik, G.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2015-08-01

    Transport regulation at local level for the abatement of air pollution has gained significant traction in the EU. In this work, we analyze the effect of different transportation changes on air quality in two similarly sized cities: Granada (Spain) and Ljubljana (Slovenia). Several air pollutants were measured at both sites before and after the implementation of the changes. In Ljubljana, a 72% reduction of local black carbon (BC), from 5.6 to 1.6 μg/m3, was observed after the restriction was implemented. In Granada, statistically significant reductions of 1.3 μg/m3 (37%) in BC and of 15 μg/m3 (33%) in PM10 concentrations were observed after the public transportation re-organization. However, the improvement observed in air quality was very local since other areas of the cities did not improve significantly. We show that closing streets to private traffic, renewal of the bus fleet and re-organization of the public transportation significantly benefit air quality.

  17. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  18. Radiant heat test of Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP).

    SciTech Connect

    Gronewald, Patrick James; Oneto, Robert; Mould, John; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-08-01

    A conceptual design for a plutonium air transport package capable of surviving a 'worst case' airplane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A full-scale prototype, designated as the Perforated Metal Air Transport Package (PMATP) was thermally tested in the SNL Radiant Heat Test Facility. This testing, conducted on an undamaged package, simulated a regulation one-hour aviation fuel pool fire test. Finite element thermal predictions compared well with the test results. The package performed as designed, with peak containment package temperatures less than 80 C after exposure to a one-hour test in a 1000 C environment.

  19. The technical challenge of air transportation - A Government view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, L.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the research and technology that must be conducted, and the facility investments that must be made, in order to assure that the United States is adequately prepared to meet the challenges that air transportation will provide in the future. The technical focal points for the next decade are reviewed in the context of the emerging pattern of air transportation needs for the remainder of the Century and the prospects for satisfying these needs are discussed. Particular attention is given to the responsibility that the Government must assume in aviation R&T and to the relationship that must be encouraged between the Government, the Industry and the University Community.

  20. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton proceeded along four avenues: Guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear; Application of artificial intelligence in flight control systems; Computer aided control system design; and Effects of control saturation on closed loop stability and response of open loop unstable aircraft. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is a subject of prime concern.

  1. High temperature transport properties of air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, E.; Partridge, Harry; Stallcop, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A general computer code was developed to allow calculation of atom-atom and ion-atom transport collision integrals from accurate potential energy curves described by a set of discrete data points for a broad range of scattering conditions. This code is based upon semiclassical approximations that properly account for quantum mechanical behavior such as tunneling effects near a barrier maximum, resonance charge exchange, and nuclear symmetry effects. Transport collision integrals were determined for N-N, O-O, N(+)-N, and O(+)-O interactions from complete sets of accurate potential functions derived from combined experimental and ab initio structure calculations. For the O-O case, this includes results for excited states. The calculated values of the N(+)-N and O(+)-O resonance charge exchange cross section Q(ex) agree well with measurements from beam experiment that are available at high energies where the diffusion cross section Q(d) satisfies Q(d) approximately equal to 2Q(ex).

  2. 14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 91.535 Section 91.535 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES...

  3. Determining Usability Versus Cost and Yields of a Regional Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gvozdenovic, Slobodan

    1999-01-01

    Regional transports are designed to operate on air networks having the basic characteristics of short trip distances and low density passengers/cargo, i.e. small numbers of passengers per flight. Regional transports passenger capacity is from 10 to 100 seats and operate on routes from 350 to 1000 nautical miles (nm). An air network operated by regional transports has the following characteristics: (1) connecting regional centers; (2) operating on low density passengers/cargo flow services with minimum two frequencies per day; (3) operating on high density passengers/cargo flow with more than two frequencies per day; and (4) operating supplemental services whenever market demands in order to help bigger capacity aircraft already operating the same routes. In order to meet passenger requirements providing low fares and high or required number of frequencies, airlines must constantly monitor operational costs and keep them low. It is obvious that costs of operating aircraft must be lower than yield obtained by transporting passengers and cargo. The requirement to achieve favorable yield/cost ratio must provide the answer to the question of which aircraft will best meet a specific air network. An air network is defined by the number of services, the trip distance of each service, and the number of flights (frequencies) per day and week.

  4. Arrow 227: Air transport system design simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bontempi, Michael; Bose, Dave; Brophy, Georgeann; Cashin, Timothy; Kanarios, Michael; Ryan, Steve; Peterson, Timothy

    1992-01-01

    The Arrow 227 is a student-designed commercial transport for use in a overnight package delivery network. The major goal of the concept was to provide the delivery service with the greatest potential return on investment. The design objectives of the Arrow 227 were based on three parameters; production cost, payload weight, and aerodynamic efficiency. Low production cost helps to reduce initial investment. Increased payload weight allows for a decrease in flight cycles and, therefore, less fuel consumption than an aircraft carrying less payload weight and requiring more flight cycles. In addition, fewer flight cycles will allow a fleet to last longer. Finally, increased aerodynamic efficiency in the form of high L/D will decrease fuel consumption.

  5. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be excused from this requirement provided the total distance traveled does not exceed ten (10) miles... station wagons and transportation of seventy-five miles or less. 500.104 Section 500.104 Labor Regulations... AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and...

  7. Analyzing the evolutionary mechanisms of the Air Transportation System-of-Systems using network theory and machine learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya

    Complexity in the Air Transportation System (ATS) arises from the intermingling of many independent physical resources, operational paradigms, and stakeholder interests, as well as the dynamic variation of these interactions over time. Currently, trade-offs and cost benefit analyses of new ATS concepts are carried out on system-wide evaluation simulations driven by air traffic forecasts that assume fixed airline routes. However, this does not well reflect reality as airlines regularly add and remove routes. A airline service route network evolution model that projects route addition and removal was created and combined with state-of-the-art air traffic forecast methods to better reflect the dynamic properties of the ATS in system-wide simulations. Guided by a system-of-systems framework, network theory metrics and machine learning algorithms were applied to develop the route network evolution models based on patterns extracted from historical data. Constructing the route addition section of the model posed the greatest challenge due to the large pool of new link candidates compared to the actual number of routes historically added to the network. Of the models explored, algorithms based on logistic regression, random forests, and support vector machines showed best route addition and removal forecast accuracies at approximately 20% and 40%, respectively, when validated with historical data. The combination of network evolution models and a system-wide evaluation tool quantified the impact of airline route network evolution on air traffic delay. The expected delay minutes when considering network evolution increased approximately 5% for a forecasted schedule on 3/19/2020. Performance trade-off studies between several airline route network topologies from the perspectives of passenger travel efficiency, fuel burn, and robustness were also conducted to provide bounds that could serve as targets for ATS transformation efforts. The series of analysis revealed that high

  8. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University, a program emphasizing graduate and undergraduate student research, proceeded along six avenues during the past year: investigation of fuel use characteristics of general aviation aircraft, experimentation with an ultrasonic altimeter, single pilot instrument flight, application of fiber optics in flight control systems, voice recognition inputs for navigation/communication receiver tuning, and computer aided aircraft design.

  9. Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is information useful to applicants who are preparing for the Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test. The guide describes the basic aeronautical knowledge and associated requirements for certification, as well as information on source material, instructions for taking the official test, and questions that are…

  10. Contact Information for EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    You will find an EPA employee by name or by topic of interest, also, you will know who to contact if you want to find a specific transportation and air quality document, importing a vehicle to the US, and other frequently asked questions.

  11. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A summary of the research on air transportation is addressed including navigation; guidance, control and display concepts; and hardware, with special emphasis on applications to general aviation aircraft. Completed works and status reports are presented also included are annotated bibliographies of all published research sponsored on these grants since 1972.

  12. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be transported by passenger-carrying aircraft or rail car may be transported on a motor vehicle... be transported. (f) Division 6.1 (poisonous) or Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) materials on passenger... Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) material, or any paranitroaniline, in any amount, in or on any bus...

  13. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be transported by passenger-carrying aircraft or rail car may be transported on a motor vehicle... be transported. (f) Division 6.1 (poisonous) or Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) materials on passenger... Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) material, or any paranitroaniline, in any amount, in or on any bus...

  14. 48 CFR 47.403-2 - Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air transport agreements....-Flag Carriers 47.403-2 Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments... attend, the use of a foreign-flag air carrier that provides transportation under an air...

  15. 14 CFR Sec. 19-5 - Air transport traffic and capacity elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air transport traffic and capacity elements... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-5 Air transport traffic and capacity... reported as applicable to specified air transport traffic and capacity elements. (b) These reported...

  16. 14 CFR 19-5 - Air transport traffic and capacity elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air transport traffic and capacity elements... CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-5 Air transport traffic and capacity... reported as applicable to specified air transport traffic and capacity elements. (b) These reported...

  17. Acoustophoretic contactless transport and handling of matter in air.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Klingauf, Mirko; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-07-30

    Levitation and controlled motion of matter in air have a wealth of potential applications ranging from materials processing to biochemistry and pharmaceuticals. We present a unique acoustophoretic concept for the contactless transport and handling of matter in air. Spatiotemporal modulation of the levitation acoustic field allows continuous planar transport and processing of multiple objects, from near-spherical (volume of 0.1-10 μL) to wire-like, without being limited by the acoustic wavelength. The independence of the handling principle from special material properties (magnetic, optical, or electrical) is illustrated with a wide palette of application experiments, such as contactless droplet coalescence and mixing, solid-liquid encapsulation, absorption, dissolution, and DNA transfection. More than a century after the pioneering work of Lord Rayleigh on acoustic radiation pressure, a path-breaking concept is proposed to harvest the significant benefits of acoustic levitation in air.

  18. Acoustophoretic contactless transport and handling of matter in air

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Klingauf, Mirko; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-01-01

    Levitation and controlled motion of matter in air have a wealth of potential applications ranging from materials processing to biochemistry and pharmaceuticals. We present a unique acoustophoretic concept for the contactless transport and handling of matter in air. Spatiotemporal modulation of the levitation acoustic field allows continuous planar transport and processing of multiple objects, from near-spherical (volume of 0.1–10 μL) to wire-like, without being limited by the acoustic wavelength. The independence of the handling principle from special material properties (magnetic, optical, or electrical) is illustrated with a wide palette of application experiments, such as contactless droplet coalescence and mixing, solid–liquid encapsulation, absorption, dissolution, and DNA transfection. More than a century after the pioneering work of Lord Rayleigh on acoustic radiation pressure, a path-breaking concept is proposed to harvest the significant benefits of acoustic levitation in air. PMID:23858454

  19. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.117 Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may...

  20. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.117 Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may...

  1. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.117 Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may...

  2. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.117 Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may...

  3. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.117 Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may...

  4. The Gold Rush: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Amanda; Degiorgio, Chris; Galka, Edmund; Stumm, Albert; Valenta, Lisa; Winter, Tom

    1993-01-01

    The remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) GoldRush was designed to complete the mission of transporting passengers in AeroWorld at a lower cost per seat per thousand feet (CPSPK) than the competition, the HB-40. There were two major factors which were constant considerations in the design process. The cost of manufacturing was the most important. In light of this, the designs were kept as simple as possible while considering trade-offs in performance. For example, the wing was not tapered so that several ribs could be cut at one time. Also of major importance was the takeoff distance. In order to serve all the cities in AeroWorld it was necessary to maintain a takeoff distance requirement of 24 feet. The takeoff distance proved to be the number one force in driving the design process. The Astro 25 engine and 13 inch propellor, a large wing area, and the high lift Wortmann airfoil were all chosen in order to satisfy this objective.

  5. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall have an operable air or electric horn. (f) Mirrors. Mirrors shall provide the driver full vision... windows may not have cracks or opaque obstructions which obscure vision. Vehicles shall be equipped with windshield wipers that are operational to allow the operator full frontal vision in all weather...

  6. What should ``damaged`` mean in air transport of fissile packages

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, R.E.; Falci, F.P.; Blackman, D.

    1995-12-31

    It is likely that the ongoing process to produce the 1996 version of the IAEA Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, IAEA Safety Series 6(SS 6) will result in a more stringent package qualification standard for air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials (RAM) than is included in the 1990 version. During the process to define the scope of the new requirements there was extensive discussion of their impact on, and application to, fissile material package qualification criteria. Since fissile materials are shipped in a variety of packagings ranging from exempt to Type B, each packaging of each type must be evaluated for its ability to maintain subcriticality both alone and in arrays and in both damaged and undamaged condition. In the 1990 version of SS 6 ``damaged`` means the condition of a package after it had undergone the ``tests for demonstrating the ability to withstand accident conditions in transport,`` i.e., Type B qualification tests. These tests conditions are typical of severe accidents in surface modes, but are less severe than air mode qualification test environments to be applied to Type C packages. As a result, questions arose about the need for a corresponding change in the 1996 SS 6 to define ``damaged`` to include the Type C test regime for criticality evaluations of fissile packages in air transport.

  7. Vehicle expectations in air transportation for the year 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearth, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide an overview of the air transportation system for the year 2000 in terms of vehicle expectations. Emphasis is placed on civil air transportation with the time period approached from the standpoint of evolutionary changes for the near term and also with the assumption of more revolutionary changes for the far term. The view along the evolutionary path begins with a historical review of airline market growth and the impact that technologies have had on airplane designs. Projections of the life expectancy of existing, derivative, and new airplanes are examined in terms of their productivity and fuel efficiency in view of the present and projected fuel usage and availability. The factors influencing airline growth are outlined and some views on whether another new generation of subsonic airplanes are in the offing are given along with an assessment of the economic viability of an advanced commercial supersonic transport in terms of its higher speed, higher productivity, and higher fuel usage. With regard to revolutionary changes, major technology breakthroughs are assumed to occur at a specified date. As an example, the impact of a dramatic reduction in skin friction drag is examined in terms of its effect on the airplane configuration, its propulsion systems, it projected fuel usage, and the air transportation system in which it must operate.

  8. ASPS: American Suborbital Passenger System 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyczalek, Floyd A.

    1994-11-01

    With the evaporation of funding support for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), realization of a single stage to orbit flight system has been deferred. With the resource down sizing of the NASP management and technical team, development of the NASP concept appears to be delayed beyond the year 2030. To fill this gap for shorter flight times to remote destinations over 8,000 km, it is now proposed to convert the existing NASA shuttle to a passenger configuration and air launch horizontally from a Boeing 747 aircraft as the first stage carrier after climb to launch altitude. This US Shuttle concept may permit the transport of 100 passengers to destinations 10,000 km distant during a flight duration of 90 minutes, and during flight durations of about 120 minutes to any commercial destination on the planet Earth. This long distance system takes advantage of the existing shuttle and Boeing 747 airframe and propulsion technology, and can be implemented within the next decade.

  9. Applying basic principles of child passenger safety to improving transportation safety for children who travel while seated in wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Manary, Miriam A; Schneider, Lawrence W

    2011-01-01

    Occupant restraint systems are designed based on knowledge of crash dynamics and the application of proven occupant-protection principles. For ambulatory children or children who use wheelchairs but can transfer out of their wheelchair when traveling in motor vehicles, there is a range of child safety seats that comply with federal safety standards and that therefore offer high levels of crash protection. For children who remain seated in wheelchairs for travel, the use of wheelchairs and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORS) that comply with voluntary industry standards significantly enhances safety. Revisions to the initial versions of these standards will further improve safety for smaller children who travel seated in wheelchairs by requiring wheelchairs for children between 13 and 22 kg (18 and 50 lb) to provide a five-point, wheelchair-integrated crash-tested harness similar to that used in forward-facing child safety seats. While wheelchair and tiedown/restraint manufacturers, van modifiers, transportation personnel, clinicians, and others involved with children who use wheelchairs have clearly defined responsibilities relative to providing these children with safe transportation, parents and caregivers should be knowledgeable about best-practice in wheelchair transportation safety and should use this knowledge to advocate for the safest transportation possible.

  10. Transportation Costs as a Consideration in Air Force Contracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-10

    46556 _______________________ II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDR ESS 12. REPORT DATE .4 - . 79Mar 10 AIR _~~~~~~~~~~ ØJSIN~~S RESEARC~1 MANN3~ 4~NT...these costs be understood and controlled . Many transportation decisions are made by the con trac tor under F.O.B. destination contracts versus those...imperative therefore , that these costs be understood and controlled . Like many business organiza tions , the United States Air Force faces problems of

  11. Safety of high speed ground transportation systems. High speed passenger trains in freight railroad corridors: Operations and safety considerations. Final report, September 1993-April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ullman, K.B.; Bing, A.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of a study into some operations and technical issues likely to be encountered when planning for high-speed rail passenger service on corridors that presently carry freight or commuter traffic. The study starts with a review of corridors designated under Section 1010 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991, a potential future high-speed corridors. After a review of signal, train control and braking systems presently used in the United States and elsewhere, the study provides analyses of the safety and operations impacts of introducing high-speed rail service on the hypothetical corridor. The safety analysis established a safety performance target based on present intercity rail safety performance, and reviewed the need for and benefits from safety improvements for high speed operation. The operations analysis concentrated on the impacts on track capacity and train delays of introducing a high-speed rail service on three hypothetical existing corridors with different track layouts and signal systems.

  12. Investigations on the carcinogenic burden by air pollution in man. XIII. Assessment of the contribution of passenger cars to air pollution by carcinogenic polycylic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, G; Hildebrandt, A

    1975-10-01

    A total of 100 passenger cars were tested with regard to the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) emitted during the EUROPA-Test (E.-Test, simulate city driving; 4 times 195 s). As determined by frequency of registration, the 20 most common car models were chosen. Each model was represented by 5 cars. The total amount of selected 14 PAH emitted by all test vehicles during an E.-test is in the range of 1-16 mg. As can be seen from the average of fuel consumption (409.4 g/E.-test) and benzo(a)pyrene emission (41.6 mug/E.-test), 1000 kg of burned fuel yield 101 mg of benzo(a)pyrene. Based on the consumption of gasoline in 1973 in West Germany (18508200 tons), an annual amount of 1.85 tons of benzo(a)pyrene is produced by gas engine vehicles. However, the biological effect of the automobile exhaust is still larger because it contains additional carcinogenic PAH. - A statistical evaluation of the results shows that different car models can not be distinguish by their PAH emission. When evaluating individual vehicles after 5 repeated E.-tests, the margin of error for any single PAH is between 6.3-10.9% (variation coefficient) for this car. A larger margin of error is obtained by pooling 5 different vehicles of the same model.

  13. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University, a program emphasizing graduate and undergraduate student research, proceeded along four avenues during 1984: (1) guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear; (2) application of artificial intelligence in flight control systems; (3) effects of control saturation on closed loop stability; and (4) response of open loop unstable aircraft. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as to general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is a subject of principle concern. These areas of investigation are briefly discussed.

  14. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    A summary of the air transportation technology program is presented. The following topics were examined: (1) fuel use characteristics of general aviation aircraft; (2) dead-reckoning concept incorporating a fluidic rate sensor; (3) experimentation with an ultrasonic altimeter; (4) development of laser-based collision avoidance systems; (5) flight path reconstruction from sequential DME data; (6) application of fiber optics in flight control systems; and (7) voice recognition inputs for navigation/communication receiver tuning.

  15. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted during the academic year 1989-90 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation research is discussed. Completed works, status reports and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors, and expert systems concepts applied to airport operations. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  16. Investigation of air transportation technology at Ohio University, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard H.

    1987-01-01

    The operational development of Loran-C for enroute navigation and nonprecision approaches was studied, and is only one of the many projects funded by the Joint University Program for Air Transportation at Ohio University. Other projects included work on the DATAC data bus monitor, global positioning system test bed receiver development, fiber optic data bus application in general aviation aircraft, and advanced remote monitoring techniques.

  17. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The research conducted under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA and the FAA, one each with the Mass. Inst. of Tech., Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of activities is presented.

  18. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Analysis of System-wide Investment in the National Airspace System: A Portfolio Analytical Framework and an Example; Regional Air Transport in Europe: The Potential Role of the Civil Tiltrotor in Reducing Airside Congestion; The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub; Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation; The Competitive Effects of Airline Mergers and Acquisitions: More Capital Market Evidence; and The Competitive Position of Hub Airports in the Transatlantic Market.

  19. Development of an Air Transport Type A Fissile Package

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Ebert, K.

    2011-07-13

    This paper presents the summary of testing by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to support development of a light weight (<140 lbs) air transport qualified Type A Fissile Packaging. The package design incorporates features and materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight. The light weight package is being designed to provide confinement to the contents when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of an air transportable Type A Fissile radioactive material shipping package. The objective of these tests was to provide design input to the final design for the LORX Type A Fissile Air Transport Packaging when subjected to the performance requirements of the drop, crush and puncture probe test of 10CFR71. The post test evaluation of the prototype packages indicates that all of the tested designs would satisfactorily confine the content within the packaging. The differences in the performance of the prototypes varied significantly depending on the core materials and their relative densities. Information gathered from these tests is being used to develop the final design for the Department of Homeland Security.

  20. Intercontinental Transport of Aerosols: Implication for Regional Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ginoux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol particles, also known as PM2.5 (particle diameter less than 2.5 microns) and PM10 (particle diameter less than 10 microns), is one of the key atmospheric components that determine ambient air quality. Current US air quality standards for PM10 (particles with diameter < 10 microns) and PM2.5 (particles with diameter 2.5 microns) are 50 pg/cu m and 15 pg/cu m, respectively. While local and regional emission sources are the main cause of air pollution problems, aerosols can be transported on a hemispheric or global scale. In this study, we use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to quantify contributions of long-range transport vs. local/regional pollution sources and from natural vs. anthropogenic sources to PM concentrations different regions. In particular, we estimate the hemispheric impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols and dust from major source areas on other regions in the world. The GOCART model results are compared with satellite remote sensing and ground-based network measurements of aerosol optical depth and concentrations.

  1. Synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    A flight simulation experiment was performed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations. Flight deck data was first collected on scheduled air carrier operations to describe existing pilot-not-flying callout procedures in the flight context and to document the types and amounts of other auditory cockpit information during different types of air carrier operations. A flight simulation scenario for a wide-body jet transport airline training simulator was developed in collaboration with a major U.S. air carrier and flown by three-man crews of qualified line pilots as part of their normally scheduled recurrent training. Each crew flew half their approaches using the experimental synthesized voice approach callout system (SYNCALL) and the other half using the company pilot-not-flying approach callout procedures (PNF). Airspeed and sink rate performance was better with the SYNCALL system than with the PNF system for non-precision approaches. For the one-engine approach, for which SYNCALL made inappropriate deviation callouts, airspeed performance was worse with SYNCALL than with PNF. Reliability of normal altitude approach callouts was comparable for PNF on the line and in the simulator and for SYNCALL in the simulator.

  2. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  3. Transportation in the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.T.

    1991-01-01

    New energy-efficient and environmentally-sound magnetically levitated (maglev) transportation systems are being developed that have the potential to supplement and extend the intercity portion of our transportation system, and to alleviate part of the commuter congestion on our highways. Prototype passenger-carrying maglev vehicles are now operating in Japan and Germany. The capabilities of these systems, described in science fiction over two decades ago, are no longer speculative. They will be capable of transporting 100--150 passengers per vehicles or 1500 passengers per train at speeds of 250--350 mph. While performing many of the same functions of short-haul aircraft, these electrically powered vehicles: do not emit pollutants along the route; use about 1/3 the energy per passenger mile of modern aircraft; do not contact the guideway and therefore minimize maintenance; are silent except for the noise of air passing over the body. This paper assesses current maglev technology. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Transportation in the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.T.

    1991-12-01

    New energy-efficient and environmentally-sound magnetically levitated (maglev) transportation systems are being developed that have the potential to supplement and extend the intercity portion of our transportation system, and to alleviate part of the commuter congestion on our highways. Prototype passenger-carrying maglev vehicles are now operating in Japan and Germany. The capabilities of these systems, described in science fiction over two decades ago, are no longer speculative. They will be capable of transporting 100--150 passengers per vehicles or 1500 passengers per train at speeds of 250--350 mph. While performing many of the same functions of short-haul aircraft, these electrically powered vehicles: do not emit pollutants along the route; use about 1/3 the energy per passenger mile of modern aircraft; do not contact the guideway and therefore minimize maintenance; are silent except for the noise of air passing over the body. This paper assesses current maglev technology. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  5. 14 CFR 206.4 - Exemption of air carriers for military transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. 206.4 Section 206.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AUTHORIZATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS § 206.4 Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. Air...

  6. 14 CFR 206.4 - Exemption of air carriers for military transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. 206.4 Section 206.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AUTHORIZATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS § 206.4 Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. Air...

  7. 14 CFR 206.4 - Exemption of air carriers for military transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. 206.4 Section 206.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AUTHORIZATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS § 206.4 Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. Air...

  8. Air transport of infants in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. A.; Owers, J.; Horwood, P.

    1978-01-01

    Air transportation of 33 infants in small unpressurized aircraft over long distances is described. Twenty-six of the infants were transported more than 320 km in environmental temperatures varying from -35 to +21 degrees C. A commercially available incubator was used. Although more than half the infants had a rectal temperature within the normal range at the time of arrival at hospital, 12 infants had rectal temperatures above 37.5 degrees C as a result of efforts to diminish heat loss. Adequate oxygenation of infants at 3000 m in unpressurized aircraft can be difficult. Cold and vibration can affect equipment, and at high altitudes the readings from oxygen analysers may not be true. The use of an expanded transport team, which includes experienced nonmedical personnel, is particularly important in these cases. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 PMID:679112

  9. Passenger exposure to carbon monoxide -- as related to a portal-to-portal, inter-city, airplane trip

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, H.

    1998-12-31

    This paper surveys carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations under various conditions during four different modes of transportation during inter-city air travel. The analysis describes: (1) a mobile receptor measurement system to quantify the extent of the CO exposure, (2) the reason for the CO fluctuations during the ground transportation segment of the inter-city trip, and (3) a precise method for evaluating passenger health-effects.

  10. Model of aircraft passenger acceptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    A technique developed to evaluate the passenger response to a transportation system environment is described. Reactions to motion, noise, temperature, seating, ventilation, sudden jolts and descents are modeled. Statistics are presented for the age, sex, occupation, and income distributions of the candidates analyzed. Values are noted for the relative importance of system variables such as time savings, on-time arrival, convenience, comfort, safety, the ability to read and write, and onboard services.

  11. Analysis of Seasonal Risk for Importation of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), via Air Passenger Traffic Arriving in Florida and California.

    PubMed

    Szyniszewska, A M; Leppla, N C; Huang, Z; Tatem, A J

    2016-09-04

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is one of the most economically damaging pests in the world and has repeatedly invaded two major agricultural states in the United States, Florida and California, each time requiring costly eradication. The Mediterranean fruit fly gains entry primarily in infested fruit carried by airline passengers and, since Florida and California each receive about 13 million international passengers annually, the risk of Mediterranean fruit fly entering the United States is potentially very high. The risk of passengers bringing the pest into Florida or California from Mediterranean fruit fly-infested countries was determined with two novel models, one estimated seasonal variation in airline passenger number and the other defined the seasonal and spatial variability in Mediterranean fruit fly abundance. These models elucidated relationships among the risk factors for Mediterranean fruit fly introduction, such as amount of passenger traffic, routes traveled, season of travel, abundance of Mediterranean fruit fly in countries where flights departed, and risk of the pest arriving at destination airports. The risk of Mediterranean fruit fly being introduced into Florida was greatest from Colombia, Brazil, Panama, Venezuela, Argentina, and Ecuador during January-August, whereas primarily the risk to California was from Brazil, Panama, Colombia, and Italy in May-August. About three times more Mediterranean fruit flies were intercepted in passenger baggage at airports in Florida than California, although the data were compromised by a lack of systematic sampling and other limitations. Nevertheless, this study achieved the goal of analyzing available data on seasonal passenger flow and Mediterranean fruit fly population levels to determine when surveillance should be intensified at key airports in Florida and California.

  12. A portfolio evaluation framework for air transportation improvement projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Hyeoncheol

    This thesis explores the application of portfolio theory to the Air Transportation System (ATS) improvement. The ATS relies on complexly related resources and different stakeholder groups. Moreover, demand for air travel is significantly increasing relative to capacity of air transportation. In this environment, improving the ATS is challenging. Many projects, which are defined as technologies or initiatives, for improvement have been proposed and some have been demonstrated in practice. However, there is no clear understanding of how well these projects work in different conditions nor of how they interact with each other or with existing systems. These limitations make it difficult to develop good project combinations, or portfolios that maximize improvement. To help address this gap, a framework for identifying good portfolios is proposed. The framework can be applied to individual projects or portfolios of projects. Projects or portfolios are evaluated using four different groups of factors (effectiveness, time-to-implement, scope of applicability, and stakeholder impacts). Portfolios are also evaluated in terms of interaction-determining factors (prerequisites, co-requisites, limiting factors, and amplifying factors) because, while a given project might work well in isolation, interdependencies between projects or with existing systems could result in lower overall performance in combination. Ways to communicate a portfolio to decision makers are also introduced. The framework is unique because (1) it allows using a variety of available data, and (2) it covers diverse benefit metrics. For demonstrating the framework, an application to ground delay management projects serves as a case study. The portfolio evaluation approach introduced in this thesis can aid decision makers and researchers at universities and aviation agencies such as Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD), in

  13. 49 CFR 238.305 - Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... passenger cars. 238.305 Section 238.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger cars. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each passenger car shall receive an interior mechanical inspection at least once...

  14. 49 CFR 238.305 - Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... passenger cars. 238.305 Section 238.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger cars. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each passenger car shall receive an interior mechanical inspection at least once...

  15. 49 CFR 231.14 - Passenger-train cars without end platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger-train cars without end platforms. 231.14... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.14 Passenger-train cars without end platforms. (a) Handbrakes—(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be equipped with...

  16. 49 CFR 231.14 - Passenger-train cars without end platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger-train cars without end platforms. 231.14... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.14 Passenger-train cars without end platforms. (a) Handbrakes—(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be equipped with...

  17. 49 CFR 231.12 - Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules. 231.12... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.12 Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be equipped with...

  18. 49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cars and cabooses. 223.17 Section 223.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.17 Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. Each locomotive, passenger car and caboose that is fully equipped with...

  19. 49 CFR 231.14 - Passenger-train cars without end platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger-train cars without end platforms. 231.14... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.14 Passenger-train cars without end platforms. (a) Handbrakes—(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be equipped with...

  20. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... passenger cars. 571.129 Section 571.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-pneumatic tires for passenger cars. S1Scope. This standard specifies tire dimensions and laboratory test... applies to new temporary spare non-pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars. S3Definitions. Carcass...

  1. 49 CFR 231.12 - Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules. 231.12... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.12 Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be equipped with...

  2. 49 CFR 238.305 - Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... passenger cars. 238.305 Section 238.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger cars. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each passenger car shall receive an interior mechanical inspection at least once...

  3. 49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cars and cabooses. 223.17 Section 223.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.17 Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. Each locomotive, passenger car and caboose that is fully equipped with...

  4. 49 CFR 231.12 - Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules. 231.12... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.12 Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be equipped with...

  5. 49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cars and cabooses. 223.17 Section 223.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.17 Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. Each locomotive, passenger car and caboose that is fully equipped with...

  6. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... passenger cars. 571.129 Section 571.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-pneumatic tires for passenger cars. S1Scope. This standard specifies tire dimensions and laboratory test... applies to new temporary spare non-pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars. S3Definitions. Carcass...

  7. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... passenger cars. 571.129 Section 571.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-pneumatic tires for passenger cars. S1Scope. This standard specifies tire dimensions and laboratory test... applies to new temporary spare non-pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars. S3Definitions. Carcass...

  8. 49 CFR 238.305 - Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... passenger cars. 238.305 Section 238.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Interior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger cars. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each passenger car shall receive an interior mechanical inspection at least once...

  9. 49 CFR 231.14 - Passenger-train cars without end platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger-train cars without end platforms. 231.14... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.14 Passenger-train cars without end platforms. (a) Handbrakes—(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be equipped with...

  10. 49 CFR 231.12 - Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules. 231.12... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.12 Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be equipped with...

  11. 49 CFR 231.12 - Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules. 231.12... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.12 Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be equipped with...

  12. 49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cars and cabooses. 223.17 Section 223.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.17 Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. Each locomotive, passenger car and caboose that is fully equipped with...

  13. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... passenger cars. 571.129 Section 571.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-pneumatic tires for passenger cars. S1Scope. This standard specifies tire dimensions and laboratory test... applies to new temporary spare non-pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars. S3Definitions. Carcass...

  14. 49 CFR 231.14 - Passenger-train cars without end platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger-train cars without end platforms. 231.14... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.14 Passenger-train cars without end platforms. (a) Handbrakes—(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be equipped with...

  15. 14 CFR 382.27 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to provide advance notice in order to obtain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a...? 382.27 Section 382.27 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR...

  16. 14 CFR 382.27 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to provide advance notice in order to obtain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a...? 382.27 Section 382.27 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR...

  17. 14 CFR 382.27 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to provide advance notice in order to obtain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a...? 382.27 Section 382.27 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR...

  18. 14 CFR 382.27 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to provide advance notice in order to obtain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a...? 382.27 Section 382.27 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR...

  19. Implementation of Satellite Techniques in the Air Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellner, Andrzej; Jafernik, Henryk

    2016-06-01

    The article shows process of the implementation satellite systems in Polish aviation which contributed to accomplishment Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) concept. Since 1991 authors have introduced Satellite Navigation Equipment in Polish Air Forces. The studies and researches provide to the Polish Air Force alternative approaches, modernize their navigation and landing systems and achieve compatibility with systems of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Acquired experience, conducted military tests and obtained results enabled to take up work scientifically - research in the environment of the civil aviation. Therefore in 2008 there has been launched cooperation with Polish Air Navigation Services Agency (PANSA). Thanks to cooperation, there have been compiled and fulfilled three fundamental international projects: EGNOS APV MIELEC (EGNOS Introduction in European Eastern Region - APV Mielec), HEDGE (Helicopters Deploy GNSS in Europe), SHERPA (Support ad-Hoc to Eastern Region Pre-operational in GNSS). The successful completion of these projects enabled implementation 21 procedures of the RNAV GNSS final approach at Polish airports, contributing to the implementation of PBN in Poland as well as ICAO resolution A37-11. Results of conducted research which served for the implementation of satellite techniques in the air transport constitute the meaning of this material.

  20. Transport and transformation of air pollutants from Israel's coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luria, M.; Almog, H.; Peleg, M.

    The occasional high ozone levels measured in Jerusalem could not be attributed solely to local sources such as vehicular traffic or industry. A satellite monitoring station was set up outside the city limits to explore the possibility of transport and transformation of air pollutants from the highly populated and industrialized coastal area of Israel to the inland hilly region. This study revealed that the high ozone levels were always associated with a parallel increase of SO 2 and that power plants and/or vehicles operating in the coastal region are a major source for the nitrogen oxides which undergo photochemical transformation to form ozone during inland travel of the air parcel under conditions of intense sunlight.

  1. Air transportation in the California Corridor of 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, M.; Mahaffy, K.; Yanagi, G.; Lechmanski, L.; Riddle, T.; Howard, K.; Chan, C.; Gorman, M.; Bauer, B.

    1989-01-01

    The topic of the 1988-1989 NASA/USRA Advanced Design Project at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, was the development of an air transportation system to meet the needs of the California Corridor for the year 2010. As aircraft design is taught by two instructors having different philosophies about the teaching process, the two classes took different approaches to address the problem. The first part of this summary (California Air Transit System) represents the work done by the students of Professor A. E. Andreoli, who followed a systems approach, emphasizing the determination of the proper mission. The second part of the summary (Four Aircraft to Service the California Corridor) contains the four aircraft designed by Dr. D. R. Sandlin's class based on specifications determined from work done in previous years.

  2. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during the academic year 1991-1992 under the FAA/NASA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, June 18-19, 1992. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA Langley Research Center, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NGL-22-009-640), Ohio University (NGR-36-009-017), and Princeton University (NGL-31-001-252). Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, intelligent flight control, flight dynamics, human factors, and air traffic control processes. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  3. Transport of continental air to the subantarctic Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balkanski, Yves J.; Jacob, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence of high Rn-222 episodes (radonic storms) observed at three islands (Crozet, Kerguelen, and Amsterdam) in the subantarctic Indian Ocean is simulated using a three-dimensional chemical tracer model. The chemical tracer model is described and the simulated time series of Rn-222 concentrations at the three islands are compared to observations. The origin, seasonal frequencies, and periodicities of the storms are examined. It is found that the storms are due to fast boundary layer advection of air from South Africa, made possible by the conjunction of a subtropical high SE of Madagascar and a midlatitudes low off the southern tip of Africa. The implications of the results for the transport of continental air to the subantarctic Indian Ocean are discussed.

  4. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1984 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the schools is also presented.

  5. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1988-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The research conducted during 1988 to 1989 under the NASA/FAA-sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  6. SBIR Advanced Technologies in Aviation and Air Transportation System 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Kaszeta, Richard W.; Gold, Calman; Corke, Thomas C.; McGowan, Ryan; Matlis, Eric; Eichenlaub, Jesse; Davis, Joshua T.; Shah, Parthiv N.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to provide a broad knowledge of various topics associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), with particular interest on the NASA SBIR contracts awarded from 2011-2012 executed by small companies. The content of this report focuses on the high-quality, cutting-edge research that will lead to revolutionary concepts, technologies, and capabilities that enable radical change to both the airspace system and the aircraft that fly within it, facilitating a safer, more environmentally friendly, and more efficient air transportation system.

  7. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: The Effects of Safety Information on Aeronautical Decision Making; Design, Development, and Validation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats; Discovering the Regulatory Considerations of the Federal Aviation Administration: Interviewing the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; How to Control Airline Routes from the Supply Side: The Case of TAP; An Attempt to Measure the Traffic Impact of Airline Alliances; and Study Results on Knowledge Requirements for Entry-level Airport Operations and Management Personnel.

  8. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1983 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The material was presented at a conference held at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center, Altantic City, New Jersey, December 16, 1983. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control, and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the universities is also presented.

  9. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    The research conducted during 1987 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of 3 grants sponsored by NASA-Langley and the FAA, one each with the MIT, Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  10. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The program proceeded along five avenues during 1985. Guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear, application of artificial intelligence in flight control and air traffic control systems, the use of voice recognition in the cockpit, the effects of control saturation on closed-loop stability and response of open-loop unstable aircraft, and computer aided control system design are among the topics briefly considered. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is the subject of principal concern.

  11. High-Speed Civil Transport Will Revolutionize Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced technologies that will allow industry to build a high-speed civil transport that will revolutionize overseas air travel. The technology challenges include developing low-cost materials and structural concepts as well as supersonic engines that can meet stringent noise and emissions standards. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will reduce the travel time to the Far East by 50 percent within 25 years, and do so at today's subsonic ticket prices. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  12. TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGING FOR AIR TRANSPORT PROJECT OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, K.; Blanton, P.

    2013-10-11

    This paper presents the project status of the Model 9980, a new Type A fissile packaging for use in air transport. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed this new packaging to be a light weight (<150-lb), drum-style package and prepared a Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) for submission to the DOE/EM. The package design incorporates unique features and engineered materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight and to be in compliance with 10CFR71 requirements. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the design when subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). An overview of the design details, results of the regulatory testing, and lessons learned from the prototype fabrication for the 9980 will be presented.

  13. Tuberculosis in public ground transport - is there enough evidence to justify contact tracing?

    PubMed

    Mohr, Oliver; Schink, Susanne Barbara; Eckmanns, Tim; Krause, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Travel in public transport, especially in confined spaces, provides an opportunity for the transmission of tuberculosis (TB). In air travel, tracing of passengers to control the further spread of a pathogen is a more or less established approach in infectious disease control in many industrialized countries; however, literature reviews on the risk of TB transmission during public ground travel do not show robust evidence. On short trips, contact tracing (CT) of passengers may be unfeasible since passenger data are generally not collected. In long-distance ground travel, passenger data may not be collected routinely; incomplete data and limited or delayed access to passenger details may be further obstacles. The logistic hurdles and limited evidence suggest that CT in public ground transportation should not be a priority of TB control. However, under specific circumstances, CT in public ground transport might be considered on a case-by-case basis after an evidence-based risk assessment.

  14. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  15. Costs of mitigating CO2 emissions from passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Andreas W.; Evans, Antony D.; Reynolds, Tom G.; Dray, Lynnette

    2016-04-01

    In response to strong growth in air transportation CO2 emissions, governments and industry began to explore and implement mitigation measures and targets in the early 2000s. However, in the absence of rigorous analyses assessing the costs for mitigating CO2 emissions, these policies could be economically wasteful. Here we identify the cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reductions from narrow-body aircraft, the workhorse of passenger air transportation. We find that in the US, a combination of fuel burn reduction strategies could reduce the 2012 level of life cycle CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre by around 2% per year to mid-century. These intensity reductions would occur at zero marginal costs for oil prices between US$50-100 per barrel. Even larger reductions are possible, but could impose extra costs and require the adoption of biomass-based synthetic fuels. The extent to which these intensity reductions will translate into absolute emissions reductions will depend on fleet growth.

  16. Test Report for Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATO) Prototype.

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbe, Jeffery G.; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-06-01

    A prototype design for a plutonium air transport package capable of carrying 7.6 kg of plutonium oxide and surviving a ''worst-case'' plane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A series of impact tests were conducted on half-scale models of this design for side, end, and comer orientations at speeds close to 282 m/s onto a target designed to simulate weathered sandstone. These tests were designed to evaluate the performance of the overpack concept and impact-limiting materials in critical impact orientations. The impact tests of the Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP) prototypes were performed at SNL's 10,000-ft rocket sled track. This report describes test facilities calibration and environmental testing methods of the PMATP under specific test conditions. The tests were conducted according to the test plan and procedures that were written by the authors and approved by SNL management and quality assurance personnel. The result of these tests was that the half-scale PMATP survived the ''worst-case'' airplane crash conditions, and indicated that a full-scale PMATP, utilizing this overpack concept and these impact-limiting materials, would also survive these crash conditions.

  17. Thermal analysis of Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP) prototype.

    SciTech Connect

    Oneto, Robert; Levine, Howard; Mould, John; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has designed a crash-resistant container, the Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP), capable of surviving a worst-case plane crash, including both impact and subsequent fire, for the air transport of plutonium. This report presents thermal analyses of the full-scale PMATP in its undamaged (pre-test) condition and in bounding post-accident states. The goal of these thermal simulations was to evaluate the performance of the package in a worst-case post-crash fire. The full-scale package is approximately 1.6 m long by 0.8 m diameter. The thermal analyses were performed with the FLEX finite element code. This analysis clearly predicts that the PMATP provides acceptable thermal response characteristics, both for the post-accident fire of a one-hour duration and the after-fire heat-soak condition. All predicted temperatures for the primary containment vessel are well within design limits for safety.

  18. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN...

  19. 75 FR 12328 - Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc. for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc. for Commuter Authority AGENCY... it should not issue an order finding Charter Air Transport, Inc., fit, willing, and able,...

  20. Emissions of air pollutants from the road transport sector in Greece: year to year variation and present situation.

    PubMed

    Symeonidis, P; Ziomas, I; Proyou, A

    2003-06-01

    It is common knowledge that atmospheric emissions of various pollutants, from mobile and stationary sources, affect quality of life and public health. The impact of these emissions can be of a small (urban smog) or regional scale (acid deposition, troposheric ozone), as a result of the transportation of pollutants in the atmosphere. In terms of a local scale, road traffic is considered to be the most important pollutants source. In the present work, air pollutants emissions from road transport in Greece will be presented. The reference date for the calculations is the year 2000, but additionally, a year-to-year variation (from 1992 to 2000) of the emissions will be examined in order to clarify the impact of the vehicle fleet and the engine technology changes. To calculate emissions, a methodology developed for the European Commission in the framework of the CORINAIR project has been applied. This methodology was further improved and adjusted to the greek fleet characteristics taking into account the vehicle age, the level of the vehicle maintenance etc. Calculations have shown that, despite during the last years the amount of the emitted pollutants per vehicle has significantly decreased, the total pollutants emitted have increased as a result of the increase the number of circulating vehicles. More specifically, in heavy duty vehicles and passenger cars have the most important role for emitting NOx, whilst motorcycles are the most important polluters for non-methene article organic compounds.

  1. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft operator and passenger requirements. 1562... Certain Operations § 1562.23 Aircraft operator and passenger requirements. (a) General. To operate into or out of DCA, an aircraft operator must: (1) Designate a security coordinator responsible...

  2. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft operator and passenger requirements. 1562... Certain Operations § 1562.23 Aircraft operator and passenger requirements. (a) General. To operate into or out of DCA, an aircraft operator must: (1) Designate a security coordinator responsible...

  3. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft operator and passenger requirements. 1562... Certain Operations § 1562.23 Aircraft operator and passenger requirements. (a) General. To operate into or out of DCA, an aircraft operator must: (1) Designate a security coordinator responsible...

  4. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft operator and passenger requirements. 1562... Certain Operations § 1562.23 Aircraft operator and passenger requirements. (a) General. To operate into or out of DCA, an aircraft operator must: (1) Designate a security coordinator responsible...

  5. 14 CFR Sec. 19-7 - Passenger origin-destination survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger origin-destination survey. Sec... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-7 Passenger origin-destination survey. (a... carriers) shall participate in a Passenger Origin-Destination (O & D) Survey covering domestic...

  6. 14 CFR Sec. 19-7 - Passenger origin-destination survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger origin-destination survey. Sec... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-7 Passenger origin-destination survey. (a... carriers) shall participate in a Passenger Origin-Destination (O & D) Survey covering domestic...

  7. Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document for the 2015 Ozone NAAQS Preliminary Interstate Transport Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this technical support document (TSD) EPA describes the air quality modeling performed to support the 2015 ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) preliminary interstate transport assessment Notice of Data Availability (NODA).

  8. Health issues of air travel.

    PubMed

    DeHart, Roy L

    2003-01-01

    Every day in the United States the airline industry boards over 1.7 million passengers for a total of 600 million passengers per year. As these passengers enter the cabin of their aircraft few are aware of the artificial environment that will protect them from the hazards of flight. Passengers are exposed to reduced atmospheric pressure, reduced available oxygen, noise, vibration, and are subject to below zero temperatures that are only a quarter inch away-the thickness of the aircraft's skin. Over the past decade there have been both technical and lay articles written on the perception of poor cabin air quality. Studies have, in part, supported some of those concerns, but, in general, the air quality exceeds that found in most enclosed spaces on terra firma. Since the events of September 11th, passengers have not only been exposed to the physical stress of flight, but also to social and emotional stress preceding departure. There has been a significant increase in air rage on board aircraft, which poses a threat to flight safety and a fear of harm to passengers and crew. The phrase "economy class syndrome" has received popular press attention and refers to the possibility of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the tight confines of an aircraft cabin. Studies have been conducted that demonstrate DVT can occur in flight just as it occurs in other modes of transportation or with prolonged sitting. In part, because of the stress related to commercial flight it is not a mode of transportation for everyone. Certain cardiovascular, pulmonary, and neuropsychiatric conditions are best left on the ground. Although medical problems and death are rare in flight, they do occur, and one major airline reported 1.52 medical diversions per billion revenue passenger miles flown. To provide medical support at 36,000 ft (11,000 m) most airlines now carry on-board medical kits as well as automatic external defibrillators. A recent survey conducted by a major airline revealed that there was

  9. System and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M

    2016-09-27

    A system and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  10. Simplified curve fits for the transport properties of equilibrium air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Tannehill, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    New, improved curve fits for the transport properties of equilibruim air have been developed. The curve fits are for viscosity and Prandtl number as functions of temperature and density, and viscosity and thermal conductivity as functions of internal energy and density. The curve fits were constructed using grabau-type transition functions to model the tranport properties of Peng and Pindroh. The resulting curve fits are sufficiently accurate and self-contained so that they can be readily incorporated into new or existing computational fluid dynamics codes. The range of validity of the new curve fits are temperatures up to 15,000 K densities from 10 to the -5 to 10 amagats (rho/rho sub o).

  11. Fatigue and associated performance decrements in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, E. G.; Orlady, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    A study of safety reports was conducted to examine the hypothesis that fatigue and associated performance decrements occur in air transport operations, and that these are associated with some combination of factors: circadian desynchronosis, duty time; pre-duty activity; sleep; work scheduling; workload; and environmental deprivation. The findings are based on a selected sample of reported incidents in which the reporter associated fatigue with the occurrence. In comparing the fatigue reports with a control set, significant performance decrements were found to exist related to time-of-day, awareness and attention to duty, less significantly, final phases of flights. The majority of the fatigue incidents involved such unsafe events as altitude deviations, takeoffs and landing without clearance, and the like. Considerations of duty and sleep are the major factors in the reported fatigue conditions.

  12. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law interarrival time distribution with an exponent α =2.5 and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  13. The Economic Effect of Competition in the Air Transportation Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    The air transportation industry has been described as a highly-competitive, regulated oligopoly or as a price-regulated cartel with blocked entry, resulting in excessive service and low load factors. The current structure of the industry has been strongly influenced by the hypotheses that increased levels of competition are desirable per se, and that more competing carriers can be economically supported in larger markets, in longer haul markets, with lower unit costs, and with higher fare levels. An elementary application of competition/game theory casts doubt on the validity of these hypotheses, but rather emphasizes the critical importance of the short-term non-variable costs in determining economic levels of competition.

  14. A methodology for long-range prediction of air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayati, M. B.; English, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    A framework and methodology for long term projection of demand for aviation fuels is presented. The approach taken includes two basic components. The first was a new technique for establishing the socio-economic environment within which the future aviation industry is embedded. The concept utilized was a definition of an overall societal objective for the very long run future. Within a framework so defined, a set of scenarios by which the future will unfold are then written. These scenarios provide the determinants of the air transport industry operations and accordingly provide an assessment of future fuel requirements. The second part was the modeling of the industry in terms of an abstracted set of variables to represent the overall industry performance on a macro scale. The model was validated by testing the desired output variables from the model with historical data over the past decades.

  15. Survey of projected growth and problems facing air transportation, 1975 - 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.; Wilson, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a survey conducted to determine the current opinion of people working in air transportation demand forecasting on the future of air transportation over the next ten years. In particular, the survey included questions on future demand growth, load factor, fuel prices, introduction date for the next new aircraft, the priorities of problems facing air transportation, and the probability of a substantial change in air transportation regulation. The survey participants included: airlines, manufacturers, universities, government agencies, and other organizations (financial institutions, private research companies, etc.). The results are shown for the average responses within the organization represented as well as the overall averages.

  16. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  17. Proceedings of the Monterey Conference on Planning for Rotorcraft and Commuter Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockwell, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Planning and technological issues involved in rotorcraft and commuter fixed-wing air transportation are discussed. Subject areas include the future community environment, aircraft technology, community transportation planning, and regulatory perspectives.

  18. Short-haul CTOL aircraft research. [on reduced energy for commercial air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the reduced energy for commercial air transportation studies on air transportation energy efficiency improvement alternatives are reviewed along with subsequent design studies of advanced turboprop powered transport aircraft. The application of this research to short-haul transportation is discussed. The results of several recent turboprop aircraft design are included. The potential fuel savings and cost savings for advanced turboprop aircraft appear substantial, particularly at shorter ranges.

  19. A Program in Air Transportation Technology (Joint University Program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1996-01-01

    The Joint University Program on Air Transportation Technology was conducted at Princeton University from 1971 to 1995. Our vision was to further understanding of the design and operation of transport aircraft, of the effects of atmospheric environment on aircraft flight, and of the development and utilization of the National Airspace System. As an adjunct, the program emphasized the independent research of both graduate and undergraduate students. Recent principal goals were to develop and verify new methods for design and analysis of intelligent flight control systems, aircraft guidance logic for recovery from wake vortex encounter, and robust flight control systems. Our research scope subsumed problems associated with multidisciplinary aircraft design synthesis and analysis based on flight physics, providing a theoretical basis for developing innovative control concepts that enhance aircraft performance and safety. Our research focus was of direct interest not only to NASA but to manufacturers of aircraft and their associated systems. Our approach, metrics, and future directions described in the remainder of the report.

  20. Fixed Wing Project: Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Richard A.; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The presentation will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  1. 77 FR 17394 - Hazardous Materials: Approval and Communication Requirements for the Safe Transportation of Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... transportation of hazardous materials by highway, rail, vessel, and air. The scope of the HMR includes hazardous.... Congress expressly authorized DOT to issue variances in the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1975... include: The safety record for hazardous materials transported; transportation operations......

  2. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  3. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  4. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  5. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  6. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  7. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  8. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  9. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  10. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  11. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  12. 49 CFR 231.13 - Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms. 231... Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be...) Location. Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be safely operated while car is in motion....

  13. 49 CFR 231.13 - Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms. 231... Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be...) Location. Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be safely operated while car is in motion....

  14. 49 CFR 231.13 - Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms. 231... Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be...) Location. Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be safely operated while car is in motion....

  15. 49 CFR 231.13 - Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms. 231... Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be...) Location. Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be safely operated while car is in motion....

  16. 49 CFR 231.13 - Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms. 231... Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be...) Location. Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be safely operated while car is in motion....

  17. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests...

  18. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  19. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests...

  20. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  1. An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janic, Milan

    2003-01-01

    An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

  2. CFD Investigation on Long-Haul Passenger Bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Law, H. C.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Air flow distribution is one of the important factors that will influence the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel. Poor air flow distribution not only cause discomfort to the bus passenger but also influence their travel mode as well. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the air flow performance of the bus air-conditioning system through CFD simulation approach. A 3D CAD model of air ducts was drawn and hence analysed by using CFD software, namely ANSYS Fluent, to determine the airflow rate for every outlets of the air-conditioning system. The simulated result was then validated with experimental data obtained from prototype model of air duct. Based on the findings, new design concepts is proposed with the aim to meet the industry requirement as well as to improve the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel.

  3. 78 FR 39649 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines Correction In proposed rule document 2013-14367, appearing on pages 38102- 38159 in the issue...

  4. A Global Airport-Based Risk Model for the Spread of Dengue Infection via the Air Transport Network

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Lauren; Sarkar, Sahotra

    2013-01-01

    The number of travel-acquired dengue infections has seen a consistent global rise over the past decade. An increased volume of international passenger air traffic originating from regions with endemic dengue has contributed to a rise in the number of dengue cases in both areas of endemicity and elsewhere. This paper reports results from a network-based risk assessment model which uses international passenger travel volumes, travel routes, travel distances, regional populations, and predictive species distribution models (for the two vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) to quantify the relative risk posed by each airport in importing passengers with travel-acquired dengue infections. Two risk attributes are evaluated: (i) the risk posed by through traffic at each stopover airport and (ii) the risk posed by incoming travelers to each destination airport. The model results prioritize optimal locations (i.e., airports) for targeted dengue surveillance. The model is easily extendible to other vector-borne diseases. PMID:24009672

  5. Application of Advanced Technologies to Small, Short-haul Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, C.; Coverston, C.; Knapton, B.

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted of the application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft. A three abreast, 30 passenger design for flights of approximately 100 nautical miles was evaluated. Higher wing loading, active flight control, and a gust alleviation system results in improved ride quality. Substantial savings in fuel and direct operating cost are forecast. An aircraft of this configuration also has significant benefits in forms of reliability and operability which should enable it to sell a total of 450 units through 1990, of which 80% are for airline use.

  6. 76 FR 2744 - Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Office of the Secretary Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air... Department is publishing the following notice on the enforcement of its rules relating to disclosure of code... Transportation, Office of the Secretary, Washington, DC Guidance on Disclosure of Code-Share Service Under...

  7. Passenger well-being in airplanes.

    PubMed

    Hinninghofen, H; Enck, P

    2006-10-30

    Passenger well-being is influenced by cabin environmental conditions which interact with individual passenger characteristics like age and health conditions. Cabin environment is composed of different aspects, some of which have a direct influence on gastrointestinal functions and may directly generate nausea, such as cabin pressure, oxygen saturation, and motion or vibration. For example, it has been shown that available cabin pressure during normal flight altitude can significantly inhibit gastric emptying and induce dyspepsia-like symptoms when associated with a fibre-rich meal. Other aspects of the cabin environment such as space and variability of seating, air quality, and noise, also have been shown to modulate (reduce or increase) discomfort and nausea during flights. Individual passenger characteristics and health status also have been demonstrated to increase vulnerability to adverse health outcomes and discomfort.

  8. Smogbusters: Grassroots Action for Clean Air and Sustainable Transport in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manners, Eric; Wake, David; Carlisle, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Smogbusters was a national, community-based, government-funded community education program promoting clean air and sustainable transport in Australia from 1994 to 2002. Smogbusters aimed to improve air quality primarily by raising awareness about motor vehicle transport and its negative impacts on health, the environment and communities, and by…

  9. 14 CFR Sec. 19-5 - Air transport traffic and capacity elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air transport traffic and capacity elements... elements. (a) Within each of the service classifications prescribed in section -19-4, data shall be reported as applicable to specified air transport traffic and capacity elements. (b) These reported...

  10. 14 CFR Sec. 19-5 - Air transport traffic and capacity elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air transport traffic and capacity elements... elements. (a) Within each of the service classifications prescribed in section -19-4, data shall be reported as applicable to specified air transport traffic and capacity elements. (b) These reported...

  11. Aircraft Weather Mitigation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.

  12. Analysis of air quality management with emphasis on transportation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T. D.; Divita, E.; Lees, L.

    1980-01-01

    The current environment and practices of air quality management were examined for three regions: Denver, Phoenix, and the South Coast Air Basin of California. These regions were chosen because the majority of their air pollution emissions are related to mobile sources. The impact of auto exhaust on the air quality management process is characterized and assessed. An examination of the uncertainties in air pollutant measurements, emission inventories, meteorological parameters, atmospheric chemistry, and air quality simulation models is performed. The implications of these uncertainties to current air quality management practices is discussed. A set of corrective actions are recommended to reduce these uncertainties.

  13. The airplane: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauteuil, Mark; Geniesse, Pete; Hunniford, Michael; Lawler, Kathleen; Quirk, Elena; Tognarelli, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The 'Airplane' is a moderate-range, 70 passenger aircraft. It is designed to serve demands for flights up to 10,000 feet and it cruises at 32 ft/s. The major drivers for the design of the Airplane are economic competitiveness, takeoff performance, and weight minimization. The Airplane is propelled by a single Astro 15 electric motor and a Zinger 12-8 propeller. The wing section is a Spica airfoil which, because of its flat bottom, provides simplicity in manufacturing and thus helps to cut costs. The wing is constructed of a single load bearing mainspar and shape-holding ribs coated with Monokote skin, lending to a light weight structural makeup. The fuselage houses the motor, flight deck and passenger compartments as well as the fuel and control actuating systems. The wing will be attached to the top of the fuselage as will the fuel and control actuator systems for easy disassembly and maintenance. The aircraft is maneuvered about its pitch axis by means of an aft elevator on the flat plate horizontal tail. The twin vertical tail surfaces are also flat plates and each features a rudder for both directional and roll control. Along with wing dihedral, the rudders will be used to roll the aircraft. The Airplane is less costly to operate at its own maximum range and capacity as well as at its maximum range and the HB-40's maximum capacity than the HB-40.

  14. A Review of the Thermodynamic, Transport, and Chemical Reaction Rate Properties of High-temperature Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C Frederick; Heims, Steve P

    1958-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties of high temperature air, and the reaction rates for the important chemical processes which occur in air, are reviewed. Semiempirical, analytic expressions are presented for thermodynamic and transport properties of air. Examples are given illustrating the use of these properties to evaluate (1) equilibrium conditions following shock waves, (2) stagnation region heat flux to a blunt high-speed body, and (3) some chemical relaxation lengths in stagnation region flow.

  15. Air transport of the IABP patient. Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump.

    PubMed

    Hatlestad, Daniel C; Van Horn, Julie

    2002-01-01

    The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) has evolved into an easily transported, computer-driven device for invasively assisting circulation. This article reviews the use of the IABP during interfacility patient transport by air. Air transport of the IABP-dependent patient creates unique clinical, logistical, and technical challenges. We review the function and clinical application of IABP in various air transport conditions. We also identify the complications of intra-aortic balloon pumping, such as hemorrhage, loss of trigger signals, cardiac arrest, and atmospheric pressure changes, and offer solutions. The effective clinical use of IABP in the air transport environment involves more than familiarity with the device and implications for its use; rapid identification of problems and implementation of solutions are required for successful transport and patient outcomes.

  16. Identification of terms to define unconstrained air transportation demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhilhau, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    The factors involved in the evaluation of unconstrained air transportation systems were carefully analyzed. By definition an unconstrained system is taken to be one in which the design can employ innovative and advanced concepts no longer limited by present environmental, social, political or regulatory settings. Four principal evaluation criteria are involved: (1) service utilization, based on the operating performance characteristics as viewed by potential patrons; (2) community impacts, reflecting decisions based on the perceived impacts of the system; (3) technological feasibility, estimating what is required to reduce the system to practice; and (4) financial feasibility, predicting the ability of the concepts to attract financial support. For each of these criteria, a set of terms or descriptors was identified, which should be used in the evaluation to render it complete. It is also demonstrated that these descriptors have the following properties: (a) their interpretation may be made by different groups of evaluators; (b) their interpretations and the way they are used may depend on the stage of development of the system in which they are used; (c) in formulating the problem, all descriptors should be addressed independent of the evaluation technique selected.

  17. Some considerations for air transportation analysis to non-urban areas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, S. D.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the problems associated with air transportation to and from nonurban areas. While a significant proportion of public transportation needs of nonurban areas are met by aircraft, there are indications that improvement in air transportation service are called for and would be rewarded by increased patronage. However, subsidized local service carriers are attracted by large aircraft operation, and there is a tendency to discontinue service to low density areas. Prospects and potential means for reversing this trend are discussed.

  18. 49 CFR 1242.45 - Passenger and other revenue equipment (account XX-27-45).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger and other revenue equipment (account XX-27-45). 1242.45 Section 1242.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.45 Passenger and other revenue equipment (account...

  19. 77 FR 43416 - Application of Star Marianas Air, Inc. for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Star Marianas Air, Inc. for Commuter Authority AGENCY: Department... tentatively finding Star Marianas Air, Inc., fit, willing, and able to provide scheduled passenger service...

  20. 75 FR 50708 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ...; Transportation Conformity Consultation Requirement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct... ``Transportation Conformity.'' This approval will meet a requirement of the Clean Air Act (Act) and EPA's Transportation Conformity regulations. DATES: This direct final rule will be effective October 18, 2010,...

  1. DESCRIPTION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Key differences among many types of air quality models are the way atmospheric advection and turbulent diffusion processes are treated. Gaussian models use analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equations. Lagrangian models use a hypothetical air parcel concept effecti...

  2. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  3. Outlook for advanced concepts in transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Air transportation demand trends, air transportation system goals, and air transportation system trends well into the 21st century were examined in detail. The outlook is for continued growth in both air passenger travel and air freight movements. The present system, with some improvements, is expected to continue to the turn of the century and to utilize technologically upgraded, derivative versions of today's aircraft, plus possibly some new aircraft for supersonic long haul, short haul, and high density commuter service. Severe constraints of the system, expected by early in the 21st century, should lead to innovations at the airport, away from the airport, and in the air. The innovations are illustrated by descriptions of three candidate systems involving advanced aircraft concepts. Advanced technologies and vehicles expected to impact the airport are illustrated by descriptions of laminar flow control aircraft, very large air freighters and cryogenically fueled transports.

  4. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  5. Effects of the Air Traffic Control System on the Supersonic Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silsby, Norman S.; McLaughlin, Milton D.; Fischer, Michael C.

    1965-01-01

    A study of the problems anticipated with the introduction of the supersonic transport into the air traffic control system indicated that supersonic transport design allowances for time and fuel for maneuvering during climbouts may not be sufficient, that there is a greater communications-navigation work- load for the supersonic transport than for the subsonic jet transport during descent, and that use of a flight director to command pitch control guidance for the pilot would be helpful.

  6. Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jian

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve

  7. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James S; Jones, Byron W; Hosni, Mohammad H; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L; Dietrich, Watts L

    2013-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins.

  8. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James S.; Jones, Byron W.; Hosni, Mohammad H.; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L.; Dietrich, Watts L.

    2015-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins. PMID:26526769

  9. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air/water mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Subroutine WETAIR calculates properties at nearly 1,500 K and 4,500 atmospheres. Necessary inputs are assigned values of combinations of density, pressure, temperature, and entropy. Interpolation of property tables obtains dry air and water (steam) properties, and simple mixing laws calculate properties of air/water mixture. WETAIR is used to test gas turbine engines and components operating in relatively humid air. Program is written in SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  10. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2010-09-01

    Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

  11. 14 CFR 382.133 - What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic devices that assist passengers with respiration in the... that assist passengers with respiration in the cabin during flight? (a) Except for on-demand air...

  12. 14 CFR 382.133 - What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic devices that assist passengers with respiration in the... that assist passengers with respiration in the cabin during flight? (a) Except for on-demand air...

  13. 14 CFR 382.133 - What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic devices that assist passengers with respiration in the... that assist passengers with respiration in the cabin during flight? (a) Except for on-demand air...

  14. 14 CFR 382.133 - What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic devices that assist passengers with respiration in the... that assist passengers with respiration in the cabin during flight? (a) Except for on-demand air...

  15. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 2, No. 1. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a key focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  16. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 4, No. 2. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  17. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 2. Volume 5, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browen, Brent D.

    2000-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  18. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 3, No. 1. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  19. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone wall around patio. View facing east-southeast. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick and concrete paving of patio, and circular planters. View facing east. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Transport properties of high-temperature air in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, D.; Capitelli, M.; Catalfamo, C.; Giordano, D.

    2011-01-15

    Transport properties of equilibrium air plasmas in a magnetic field are calculated with the Chapman-Enskog method. The range considered for the temperature is [50-50 000] K and for the magnetic induction is [0-300] T.

  2. Combined Heat, Air, Moisture, and Pollutants Transport in Building Environmental Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianshun Jensen S.

    Combined heat, air, moisture and pollutants transport (CHAMP) exists across multi-scales of a building environmental system (BES): around the building, through the building shell/envelope, inside a multizone building, and in the micro-environments around occupants. This paper reviews previous work and presents a system model for simulating these transport processes and their impacts on indoor environmental quality. Components of the system model include a multizone network flow model for whole building, a room model for air and pollutant movement in ventilated spaces, a coupled heat, air, moisture, and pollutant transport model for building shell, an HVAC model for describing the dynamics of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, and shared databases of weather conditions, transport properties of building materials, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from building materials and furnishings. The interactions among the different components, and challenges in developing the CHAMP system model for intelligent control of BES are also discussed.

  3. Regional Air Transport in Europe: The Potential Role of the Civil Tiltrotor in Reducing Airside Congestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Correnti, Vincenzo; Ignaccolo, Matteo; Capri, Salvatore; Inturri, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    The volume of air traffic worldwide is still in constant growth despite unfair events that sometimes occur. The demand for regional air transport is also increasing, thanks in part to the use of new vehicles purposely designed for short range flights which make this means of transport more attractive than in the past. This paper studies the possibility of using aircraft capable of vertical or short takeoff or landing (V/STOL), in particular the tiltrotor, in the regional air transport market and the impact on airport capacity that the use of this craft would have. With this in mind the advantages and disadvantages of using this vehicle are identified, as well as the changes to be made to the air transport system in order to exploit its full potential.

  4. The Importance of Moving Air-Water Interfaces for Colloid Transport in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the vadose zone, or in unsaturated porous media in general, transport of colloids is usually less pronounced than in groundwater. An important retention mechanism for colloids in unsaturated porous media is attachment to air-water interfaces. However, air-water interfaces can also lead to colloid mobilization and enhanced transport if air-water interfaces are moving, such as during infiltration, imbibition, and drainage. Colloid attachment to air-water interfaces is caused by surface tension forces, and these forces usually exceed other interactions forces; therefore, surface tension forces play a dominant role for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media. In this presentation, experimental and theoretical evidence of surface tension forces acting on colloids will be presented, and the role of moving air-water interfaces will be discussed.

  5. Study of Tranexamic Acid During Air Medical Prehospital Transport Trial (STAAMP trial)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0080 TITLE: Study of Tranexamic Acid During Air Medical Prehospital Transport Trial (STAAMP trial) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Study of Tranexamic Acid During Air Medical Prehospital Transport Trial (STAAMP trial) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...IRB approval regarding changes to the protocol language. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prehospital; Tranexamic acid 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  6. Fuzzy Temporal Logic Based Railway Passenger Flow Forecast Model

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. PMID:25431586

  7. Fuzzy temporal logic based railway passenger flow forecast model.

    PubMed

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models.

  8. Transportation Systems Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanning, M. L.; Michelson, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A methodology for the analysis of transportation systems consisting of five major interacting elements is reported. The analysis begins with the causes of travel demand: geographic, economic, and demographic characteristics as well as attitudes toward travel. Through the analysis, the interaction of these factors with the physical and economic characteristics of the transportation system is determined. The result is an evaluation of the system from the point of view of both passenger and operator. The methodology is applicable to the intraurban transit systems as well as major airlines. Applications of the technique to analysis of a PRT system and a study of intraurban air travel are given. In the discussion several unique models or techniques are mentioned: i.e., passenger preference modeling, an integrated intraurban transit model, and a series of models to perform airline analysis.

  9. PTR-MS assessment of photocatalytic and sorption-based purification of recirculated cabin air during simulated 7-h flights with high passenger density.

    PubMed

    Wisthaler, Armin; Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Fang, Lei; Arnaud, Timothy J; Hansel, Armin; Märk, Tilmann D; Wyon, David P

    2007-01-01

    Four different air purification conditions were established in a simulated 3-row 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin: no air purifier; a photocatalytic oxidation unit with an adsorptive prefilter; a second photocatalytic unit with an adsorptive prefilter; and a two-stage sorption-based air filter (gas-phase absorption and adsorption). The air purifiers placed in the cabin air recirculation system were commercial prototypes developed for use in aircraft cabin systems. The four conditions were established in balanced order on 4 successive days of each of 4 successive weeks during simulated 7-h flights with 17 occupants. Proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry was used to assess organic gas-phase pollutants and the performance of each air purifier. The concentration of most organic pollutants present in aircraft cabin air was efficiently reduced by all three units. The photocatalytic units were found to incompletely oxidize ethanol released by the wet wipes commonly supplied with airline mealsto produce unacceptably high levels of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde.

  10. 49 CFR 231.23 - Unidirectional passenger-train cars adaptable to van-type semi-trailer use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unidirectional passenger-train cars adaptable to... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.23 Unidirectional passenger-train cars adaptable to van-type semi-trailer use. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Passenger-Train Cars Without End-Platforms.”...

  11. 49 CFR 231.23 - Unidirectional passenger-train cars adaptable to van-type semi-trailer use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unidirectional passenger-train cars adaptable to... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.23 Unidirectional passenger-train cars adaptable to van-type semi-trailer use. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Passenger-Train Cars Without End-Platforms.”...

  12. 14 CFR 382.35 - May carriers require passengers with a disability to sign waivers or releases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May carriers require passengers with a... require passengers with a disability to sign waivers or releases? (a) As a carrier, you must not require passengers with a disability to sign a release or waiver of liability in order to receive transportation...

  13. 14 CFR 382.35 - May carriers require passengers with a disability to sign waivers or releases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May carriers require passengers with a... require passengers with a disability to sign waivers or releases? (a) As a carrier, you must not require passengers with a disability to sign a release or waiver of liability in order to receive transportation...

  14. 14 CFR 382.35 - May carriers require passengers with a disability to sign waivers or releases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May carriers require passengers with a... require passengers with a disability to sign waivers or releases? (a) As a carrier, you must not require passengers with a disability to sign a release or waiver of liability in order to receive transportation...

  15. 14 CFR 382.35 - May carriers require passengers with a disability to sign waivers or releases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May carriers require passengers with a... require passengers with a disability to sign waivers or releases? (a) As a carrier, you must not require passengers with a disability to sign a release or waiver of liability in order to receive transportation...

  16. 49 CFR 231.23 - Unidirectional passenger-train cars adaptable to van-type semi-trailer use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unidirectional passenger-train cars adaptable to... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.23 Unidirectional passenger-train cars adaptable to van-type semi-trailer use. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Passenger-Train Cars Without End-Platforms.”...

  17. 49 CFR 231.23 - Unidirectional passenger-train cars adaptable to van-type semi-trailer use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unidirectional passenger-train cars adaptable to... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.23 Unidirectional passenger-train cars adaptable to van-type semi-trailer use. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Passenger-Train Cars Without End-Platforms.”...

  18. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Office of the Secretary On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY... public to electronically submit aviation service-related complaints against air carriers. DATES: Comments... U.S.C., Subtitle VII, to investigate and enforce consumer protection and civil rights laws...

  19. Impact of Clean Air Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated impacts of Clean Air Act (CAA) nitrogen emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) models were used. Two scenar...

  20. 14 CFR Sec. 19-5 - Air transport traffic and capacity elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-5 Air transport traffic and capacity elements. (a) Within each of the service classifications prescribed in section -19-4, data shall be... equipment. The number of days that aircraft owned or acquired through rental or lease (but not...