Science.gov

Sample records for air passing therethrough

  1. Catalytic reactor for promoting a chemical reaction on a fluid passing therethrough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, Subir (Inventor); Pfefferle, William C. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic reactor with an auxiliary heating structure for raising the temperature of a fluid passing therethrough whereby the catalytic reaction is promoted. The invention is a apparatus employing multiple electrical heating elements electrically isolated from one another by insulators that are an integral part of the flow path. The invention provides step heating of a fluid as the fluid passes through the reactor.

  2. Windage heating of air passing through labyrinth seals

    SciTech Connect

    Millward, J.A.; Edwards, M.F.

    1996-04-01

    The viscous drag on rotating components in gas turbine engines represents both a direct loss of power from the cycle and an input of heat into the secondary (cooling) air system. Hotter cooling air in turn means increased flow requirements. The effects of windage on performance are therefore compounded. To facilitate accurate temperature predictions of highly stressed components, information is needed on windage characteristics of all elements in the secondary cooling system. Much information is available in the literature for disks, cones, cylinders, bolts, etc., but little has been published on windage heating in high-speed seals. Results are presented for experiments carried out (at representative nondimensional conditions) on different designs of labyrinth seals. The results are compared with values calculated from the simple momentum balance theory suggested by McGreeham and Ko and with several values determined from CFD analysis.

  3. Analysis of parameters of air passing through the rain zone in a cross-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Lukáš; Čížek, Jan; Nožička, Jiří

    2015-05-01

    The research in the field of cooling towers shows that a rigorous determination of each parameter of air passing through areas with water drops is increasingly important. The transfer of heat, mass and momentum is represented, on the side of the air, as temperature and humidity increase and static pressure decrease due to the interaction between the flowing air and falling drops. The present article focuses on the description of the experimental setup allowing the measurement of these parameters on both the air and the water side, and possible ways to analyze measured values.

  4. Apparatus for supplying conditioned air at a substantially constant temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The apparatus includes a supply duct coupled to a source of supply air for carrying the supply air therethrough. A return duct is coupled to the supply duct for carrying return conditioned air therethrough. A temperature reducing device is coupled to the supply duct for decreasing the temperature of the supply and return conditioned air. A by-pass duct is coupled to the supply duct for selectively directing portions of the supply and return conditioned air around the temperature reducing device. Another by-pass duct is coupled to the return duct for selectively directing portions of the return conditioned air around the supply duct and the temperature reduction device. Controller devices selectively control the flow and amount of mixing of the supply and return conditioned air.

  5. Western Pacific Air-Sea Interaction Study (W-PASS), Introduction and Highlights (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, A.

    2010-12-01

    Western Pacific Air-Sea Interaction Study (W-PASS), Introduction and Highlights Atsushi Tsuda Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo In the western Pacific (WESTPAC) region, dust originating from Asian and Australian arid regions to the North and South Pacific, biomass burning emissions from the Southeast Asia to sub-tropical Pacific, and other anthropogenic substances are transported regionally and globally to affect cloud and rainfall patterns, air quality, and radiative budgets downwind. Deposition of these compounds into the Asian marginal seas and onto the Pacific Ocean influence surface primary productivity and species composition. In the WESTPAC region, subarctic, subtropical oceans and marginal seas are located relatively narrow latitudinal range and these areas are influenced by the dust and anthropogenic inputs. Moreover, anthropogenic emission areas are located between the arid region and the oceans. The W-PASS (Western Pacific Air-Sea interaction Study) project has been funded for 5 years as a part of SOLAS-Japan activity in the summer of 2006. We aim to resolve air-sea interaction through field observation studies mainly using research vessels and island observatories over the western Pacific. We have carried out 5 cruises to the western North Pacific focusing on air-sea interactions. Also, an intensive marine atmospheric observation including direct atmospheric deposition measurement was accomplished by a dozen W-PASS research groups at the NIES Atmospheric and Aerosol Monitoring Station of Cape Hedo in the northernmost tip of the Okinawa main Island facing the East China Sea in the spring 2008. A few weak Kosa (dust) events, anthropogenic air outflows, typical local air and occupation of marine background air were identified during the campaign period. The W-PASS has four research groups mainly focusing on VOC emissions, air-sea gas exchange processes, biogeochemical responses to dust depositions and its modeling. We also

  6. Effect of High-Pass Filtering on the Neonatal Auditory Brainstem Response to Air- and Bone-Conducted Clicks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Andrew; Yang, Edward Y.

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous 3- channel recorded auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were obtained from 20 neonates with various high-pass filter settings and low intensity levels. Results support the advocacy of less restrictive high-pass filtering for neonatal and infant ABR screening to air-conducted and bone-conducted clicks. (Author/JDD)

  7. Method and apparatus for monitoring characteristics of a flow path having solid components flowing therethrough

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Svoboda, John M.; Bauer, William F.; Elias, Gracy

    2008-05-06

    A method and apparatus is provided for monitoring a flow path having plurality of different solid components flowing therethrough. For example, in the harvesting of a plant material, many factors surrounding the threshing, separating or cleaning of the plant material and may lead to the inadvertent inclusion of the component being selectively harvested with residual plant materials being discharged or otherwise processed. In accordance with the present invention the detection of the selectively harvested component within residual materials may include the monitoring of a flow path of such residual materials by, for example, directing an excitation signal toward of flow path of material and then detecting a signal initiated by the presence of the selectively harvested component responsive to the excitation signal. The detected signal may be used to determine the presence or absence of a selected plant component within the flow path of residual materials.

  8. Liquid metal reactor air cooling baffle

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein

    1994-01-01

    A baffle is provided between a relatively hot containment vessel and a relatively cold silo for enhancing air cooling performance. The baffle includes a perforate inner wall positionable outside the containment vessel to define an inner flow riser therebetween, and an imperforate outer wall positionable outside the inner wall to define an outer flow riser therebetween. Apertures in the inner wall allow thermal radiation to pass laterally therethrough to the outer wall, with cooling air flowing upwardly through the inner and outer risers for removing heat.

  9. Filter for on-line air monitor unaffected by radon progeny and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Terrance D.; Edwards, Howard D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for testing air having contaminants and radon progeny therein. The apparatus includes a sampling box having an inlet for receiving the air and an outlet for discharging the air. The sampling box includes a filter made of a plate of sintered stainless steel. The filter traps the contaminants, yet allows at least a portion of the radon progeny to pass therethrough. A method of testing air having contaminants and radon progeny therein. The method includes providing a testing apparatus that has a sampling box with an inlet for receiving the air and an outlet for discharging the air, and has a sintered stainless steel filter disposed within said sampling box; drawing air from a source into the sampling box using a vacuum pump; passing the air through the filter; monitoring the contaminants trapped by the filter; and providing an alarm when a selected level of contaminants is reached. The filter traps the contaminants, yet allows at least a portion of the radon progeny to pass therethrough.

  10. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  11. Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS) Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, M; Springston, S; Koontz, A; Aiken, A

    2013-01-17

    The photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS) measures light absorption by aerosol particles. As the particles pass through a laser beam, the absorbed energy heats the particles and in turn the surrounding air, which sets off a pressure wave that can be detected by a microphone. The PASS instruments deployed by ARM can also simultaneously measure the scattered laser light at three wavelengths and therefore provide a direct measure of the single-scattering albedo. The Operator Manual for the PASS-3100 is included here with the permission of Droplet Measurement Technologies, the instrument’s manufacturer.

  12. Passing and Catching in Rugby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namudu, Mike M.

    This booklet contains the fundamentals for rugby at the primary school level. It deals primarily with passing and catching the ball. It contains instructions on (1) holding the ball for passing, (2) passing the ball to the left--standing, (3) passing the ball to the left--running, (4) making a switch pass, (5) the scrum half's normal pass, (6) the…

  13. No Pass, No Drive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses basis for Kentucky appellate court decision that state's no-pass, no-drive statute did not violate due-process and equal-protection clauses of the Kentucky and federal constitutions, but did violate the federal Family Education Rights and Privacy Act, but nevertheless did not invalidate the statute. Explains why the decision is…

  14. Air control system providing healthful enclosed environment

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.A.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes an environmentally controlled building. It comprises an outer wall defining an outer building perimeter and having at least one fenestration therethrough for passage of personnel; a roof supported by and cooperating with the outer wall to define a building exterior and interior; and an environmental control system for controlling the environment within the building interior, the environmental control system including a heating and air conditioning unit, having an air inlet, for controlling the temperature of air drawing into the air control system; a humidity control unit, having an inlet connected to the heating and air conditioning unit, for controlling the humidity of air within the air control system; an air blower for forcing air from the environmental control system into the building interior; and an air filtering system having an inlet connected to the humidity control unit and an outlet connected to the blower.

  15. Air purging unit for an optical pyrometer of a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.F.

    1981-12-22

    In order to measure the temperature of the mid-span first stage rotor blade of a gas turbine engine, an optical pyrometer is mounted in the inner casing of the gas turbine engine and includes an elongated sight tube extending from the optical lens of the pyrometer and through the wall of the engine separating the inner casing from the rotor. The sight tube includes an array of spaced apertures extending therethrough in the vicinity of the optical lens, with each aperture extending at an acute angle to the longitudinal axis of the sight tube away from the optical lens. Pressurized air within the inner casing passes through the array of apertures and effectively forms a conically-shaped fluid screen for preventing smoke, dust, fumes, or other contaminants from contaminating the optical lens. A second fluid screen may be provided by mounting the free end of the sight tube in an enlarged opening in the wall of the engine casing, whereby a secondary, generally cylindrical flow of air is developed for shielding the open end of the sight tube. The upstream edge of the sight tube may project into the flow path of the combustion gases flowing to the rotor stage whereby such combustion gases will be deflected and directed around the circumference of the sight tube to further inhibit contaminants from entering the sight tube and contaminating the optical lens.

  16. Message passing in PUMA

    SciTech Connect

    Maccabe, A.B. |; Wheat, S.R.

    1993-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the message passing primitives provided by PUMA (Performance-oriented, User-managed Messaging Architecture). Message passing in PUMA is based on the concept of a portal--an opening in the address space of an application process. Once an application process has established a portal, other processes can write values into the memory associated with the portal using a simple send operation. Because messages are written directly into the address space of the receiving process, there is not need to buffer messages in the PUMA kernel. This simplifies the design of the kernel, increasing its reliability and portability. Moreover, because messages are mapped directly into the address space of the application process, the application can manage the messages that it receives without needing direct support from the kernel.

  17. Multi-pass microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juffmann, Thomas; Klopfer, Brannon B.; Frankort, Timmo L. I.; Haslinger, Philipp; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2016-09-01

    Microscopy of biological specimens often requires low light levels to avoid damage. This yields images impaired by shot noise. An improved measurement accuracy at the Heisenberg limit can be achieved exploiting quantum correlations. If sample damage is the limiting resource, an equivalent limit can be reached by passing photons through a specimen multiple times sequentially. Here we use self-imaging cavities and employ a temporal post-selection scheme to present full-field multi-pass polarization and transmission micrographs with variance reductions of 4.4+/-0.8 dB (11.6+/-0.8 dB in a lossless setup) and 4.8+/-0.8 dB, respectively, compared with the single-pass shot-noise limit. If the accuracy is limited by the number of detected probe particles, our measurements show a variance reduction of 25.9+/-0.9 dB. The contrast enhancement capabilities in imaging and in diffraction studies are demonstrated with nanostructured samples and with embryonic kidney 293T cells. This approach to Heisenberg-limited microscopy does not rely on quantum state engineering.

  18. Multi-pass microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Juffmann, Thomas; Klopfer, Brannon B.; Frankort, Timmo L.I.; Haslinger, Philipp; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Microscopy of biological specimens often requires low light levels to avoid damage. This yields images impaired by shot noise. An improved measurement accuracy at the Heisenberg limit can be achieved exploiting quantum correlations. If sample damage is the limiting resource, an equivalent limit can be reached by passing photons through a specimen multiple times sequentially. Here we use self-imaging cavities and employ a temporal post-selection scheme to present full-field multi-pass polarization and transmission micrographs with variance reductions of 4.4±0.8 dB (11.6±0.8 dB in a lossless setup) and 4.8±0.8 dB, respectively, compared with the single-pass shot-noise limit. If the accuracy is limited by the number of detected probe particles, our measurements show a variance reduction of 25.9±0.9 dB. The contrast enhancement capabilities in imaging and in diffraction studies are demonstrated with nanostructured samples and with embryonic kidney 293T cells. This approach to Heisenberg-limited microscopy does not rely on quantum state engineering. PMID:27670525

  19. 78 FR 35625 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC; Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC; Sabine Pass Liquefaction... Environmental Assessment for the Planned Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion Project and Cheniere Creole Trail... Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC; Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; and Sabine Pass LNG,...

  20. Do Porins Pass CAPs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, C. B.; Pink, D. A.; Gill, T. A.; Beveridge, T. J.; Quinn, B. E.; Durrant, J. J.; Jericho, M. H.

    2008-03-01

    The cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAP) protamine is known to inhibit bacterial survival (Pink et al., Langmuir 19, 8852 (2003), and references therein), but the mechanism of attack is as yet undetermined. For Gram-negative bacteria, two pathways have been proposed: (a) self-promoted uptake, and (b) passage through porins. Here, we study the latter possibility, and model part of the outer membrane of a Gram-negative bacterium in an aqueous solution containing multivalent ions and CAPs. The intent is to determine whether CAPs could pass through porins and, if so, what aspects of external (e.g., ionic concentration) and internal (e.g., porin and O-sidechain characteristics) parameters affect their passage. This study is accomplished via Monte Carlo computer simulations of a ``minimal model'' of the outer membrane of a Gram-negative bacterium with an embedded porin.

  1. Congress passes space year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The year 1992 will mark the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' arrival in America and the 35th anniversary of both the International Geophysical Year and the launch of Sputnik. The U.S. Senate passed a joint resolution (S.J.Res. 177) on November 21 recommending that the President endorse an International Space Year (ISY) in 1992. A similar resolution introduced in the House of Representatives was incorporated into the conference report (House Report 99-379) accompanying the authorization bill for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and approved by both houses, also on November 21. As Eos went to press, the NASA authorization bill (H.R. 1714) awaited President Ronald Reagan's signature.

  2. Education Bill passes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    On March 2 the U.S. House of Representatives passed a bill authorizing $425 million for science and mathematics education in fiscal 1984; the authorization is $350 million more than President Ronald Reagan requested in his budget proposal (Eos, February 15, 1983, p. 65).H.R. 1310 allocates $295 million to the Department of Education not only to improve precollege instruction in science and math, but to beef up foreign language training to aid in improving international communication among scientists. The bill also allots $130 million to the National Science Foundation for a variety of programs, the lion's share of which aims to upgrade research equipment at colleges and universities. It is hoped that industry will match the $100 million targeted for this program.

  3. Symmetrical band-pass loudspeaker systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusiak, Grzegorz Piotr

    2001-12-01

    Loudspeaker systems are analyzed in a doctoral dissertation. The dissertation concerns loudspeaker systems, which are known as subwoofers or band-pass loudspeaker systems. Their advantages include: high- quality sound reproduction in the low-frequency range, small dimensions, small nonlinear distortions and the fact that they can be placed anywhere in a room or car. Band-pass loudspeaker systems are used widely in the so- called Home Theatre as well as to provide sound in cinema, theatre, concert, discotheque, opera, operetta, philharmonic and amphitheater halls, at open-air concerts, and so on. Various designs are mass-produced by a large number of manufacturers. The study covers an analysis of band-pass loudspeaker systems to which the frequency transformation, i.e. the reactance transformation, has been applied. Since this is a symmetrical transformation, amplitude frequency responses of the studied band-pass systems are also symmetrical (logarithmic scale of a frequency). As a result, the high-pass loudspeaker system design method, known as the Thiele-Small, Benson analysis, can be employed. The investigations include the formulation of band-pass system equations (fourth, sixth and eighth-order polynomials) and the subsequent derivation of relations for the calculation of system parameters. The obtained results enable the calculation of optimum designs for prescribed alignments, e.g. (Chebyshev) equal-ripple, (Butterworth) maximally flat, or quasi-maximally flat (QB). The analysis covers fourth, sixth and eighth-order symmetrical systems. Eighth-order systems have been divided into three kinds according to three ways of physical realization. The doctoral dissertation includes band-pass loudspeaker systems, which can be designed with active or passive filters or without the filter. Designed systems consist of a loudspeaker whose front of a diaphragm is loaded with a Helmholtz resonator, i.e. an enclosure with a vent, which radiates sound outwards. The back is

  4. Carburetor by-pass and fuel control system

    SciTech Connect

    Deboynton, W.L.

    1983-01-04

    A fuel-saving and emission reduction system for internal combustion engines includes electronic carburetor controlling circuitry and a carburetor by-pass system which stops fuel flow to the engine when power from combustion is not required. A normally open by-pass control butterfly valve in the fuel/air passage between the throttle valve and the engine intake manifold is operated by a motor, such as a solenoid or the like, under control of the controlling circuitry and is closed only upon release of the engine throttle and during the period that the vehicle has sufficient speed to assure restart upon reapplication of the fuel/air flow. A carburetor by-pass valve is held in a normally closed position by the combined effects of spring bias and the normal vacuum in the fuel/air passage. When the normally open by-pass control butterfly is closed, the fuel/air vacuum is reduced to permit the spring biased normally closed selfregulating carburetor by-pass valve to admit filtered air at a predetermined reduced vacuum to the engine manifold for continued operation of vacuum accessories and also for reducing the amount of oil drawn past combustion chamber seals and valve guides. Associated with the carburetor by-pass valve is a carburetor vent valve which is simultaneously opened to admit filtered air to the fuel/air passage between the throttle valve and the by-pass control butterfly to thereby eliminate all vacuum that will draw fuel from the carburetor. As a further feature, the electronic controlling circuitry operates to close the by-pass control butterfly for about one-half second upon the opening of the ignition switch to thereby eliminate self-ignition or dieseling and reduced hydrocarbon emissions.

  5. Message Passing on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the challenges in implementing a message passing interface usable on systems with data-parallel processors, and more specifically GPUs. As a case study, we design and implement the ``DCGN'' API on NVIDIA GPUs that is similar to MPI and allows full access to the underlying architecture. We introduce the notion of data-parallel thread-groups as a way to map resources to MPI ranks. We use a method that also allows the data-parallel processors to run autonomously from user-written CPU code. In order to facilitate communication, we use a sleep-based polling system to store and retrieve messages. Unlike previous systems, our method provides both performance and flexibility. By running a test suite of applications with different communication requirements, we find that a tolerable amount of overhead is incurred, somewhere between one and five percent depending on the application, and indicate the locations where this overhead accumulates. We conclude that with innovations in chipsets and drivers, this overhead will be mitigated and provide similar performance to typical CPU-based MPI implementations while providing fully-dynamic communication.

  6. Forced air heater

    SciTech Connect

    Livezey, D.J.

    1980-09-23

    An air heating chamber is supported to project into a stove through an opening provided in the rear wall of the stove by a mounting plate mounted to the exterior of the stove rear wall. The mounting plate which forms the exterior end wall of the heating chamber, includes laterally spaced heating chamber inlet and outlet openings. A blower is detachably mounted to the exterior of the mounting plate in registration with the heating chamber inlet opening to deliver cool forced air into the heating chamber. After circulating therethrough, the air exits the heating chamber through the outlet opening and flows into a hot air manifold, which is also detachably mounted to the exterior of the mounting plate. The manifold includes an upwardly extending inlet chamber with a hot air inlet at its lower end aligned with the heating chamber outlet opening. A horizontal outlet chamber is attached to the top end of the inlet chamber to extend laterally along the back of the stove. Hot air outlets are provided at each end of the manifold outlet chamber to discharge the heated air horizontally over the top and towards the front of the stove.

  7. Multiple pass laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.; Jorna, Siebe; Moncur, N. Kent

    1977-01-01

    A laser amplification method for increasing the energy extraction efficiency from laser amplifiers while reducing the energy flux that passes through a flux limited system which includes apparatus for decomposing a linearly polarized light beam into multiple components, passing the components through an amplifier in delayed time sequence and recombining the amplified components into an in phase linearly polarized beam.

  8. The ACL Message Passing Library

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, J.; McCormick, P.; Krogh, M.; Hansen, C.; Colin de Verdiere, G.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the ACL (Advanced Computing Lab) Message Passing Library. It is a high throughput, low latency communications library, based on Thinking Machines Corp.`s CMMD, upon which message passing applications can be built. The library has been implemented on the Cray T3D, Thinking Machines CM-5, SGI workstations, and on top of PVM.

  9. Message-passing multiprocessor simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.

    1986-05-01

    The structure and use of a message-passing multiprocessor simulator are described. The simulator provides a multitasking environment for the development of algorithms for parallel processors using either shared or local memories. The simulator may be used from C or FORTRAN and provides a library of subroutines for task control and message passing. The simulator produces a trace file that can be used for debugging, performance analysis, or graphical display. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  10. 78 FR 62344 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC, and... September 30, 2013, Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC, and Sabine Pass... proposed facilities, referred to as the Liquefaction Expansion Project (or Stage 3), would consist of...

  11. Formal Analysis of Message Passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Stephen F.; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    The message passing paradigm underlies many important families of programs - for instance programs in the area of high performance computing that support science and engineering research. Unfortunately, very few formal methods researchers are involved in developing formal analysis tools and techniques for message passing programs. This paper summarizes research being done in our groups in support of this area, specifically with respect to the Message Passing Interface. We emphasize the need for specialized varieties of many familiar notions such as deadlock detection, race analysis, symmetry analysis, partial order reduction, static analysis and symbolic reasoning support. Since these issues are harbingers of those being faced in multicore programming, the time is ripe to build a critical mass of researchers working in this area.

  12. Multi-pass light amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaessmann, Henry (Inventor); Grossman, William M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A multiple-pass laser amplifier that uses optical focusing between subsequent passes through a single gain medium so that a reproducibly stable beam size is achieved within the gain region. A confocal resonator or White Cell resonator is provided, including two or three curvilinearly shaped mirrors facing each other along a resonator axis and an optical gain medium positioned on the resonator axis between the mirrors (confocal resonator) or adjacent to one of the mirrors (White Cell). In a first embodiment, two mirrors, which may include adjacent lenses, are configured so that a light beam passing through the gain medium and incident on the first mirror is reflected by that mirror toward the second mirror in a direction approximately parallel to the resonator axis. A light beam translator, such as an optical flat of transparent material, is positioned to translate this light beam by a controllable amount toward or away from the resonator axis for each pass of the light beam through the translator. The optical gain medium may be solid-state, liquid or gaseous medium and may be pumped longitudinally or transversely. In a second embodiment, first and second mirrors face a third mirror in a White Cell configuration, and the optical gain medium is positioned at or adjacent to one of the mirrors. Defocusing means and optical gain medium cooling means are optionally provided with either embodiment, to controllably defocus the light beam, to cool the optical gain medium and to suppress thermal lensing in the gain medium.

  13. Method of and apparatus for preheating pressurized fluidized bed combustor and clean-up subsystem of a gas turbine power plant

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Rossa W.; Zoll, August H.

    1982-01-01

    In a gas turbine power plant having a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, gas turbine-air compressor subsystem and a gas clean-up subsystem interconnected for fluid flow therethrough, a pipe communicating the outlet of the compressor of the gas turbine-air compressor subsystem with the interior of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor and the gas clean-up subsystem to provide for flow of compressed air, heated by the heat of compression, therethrough. The pressurized fluidized bed combustor and gas clean-up subsystem are vented to atmosphere so that the heated compressed air flows therethrough and loses heat to the interior of those components before passing to the atmosphere.

  14. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  15. Multi-pass light amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaessmann, Henry (Inventor); Grossman, William M. (Inventor); Olson, Todd E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A multiple-pass laser amplifier that uses optical focusing between subsequent passes through a single gain medium so that a reproducibly stable beam size is achieved within the gain region. A resonator or a White Cell cavity is provided, including two or more mirrors (planar or curvilinearly shaped) facing each other along a resonator axis and an optical gain medium positioned on a resonator axis between the mirrors or adjacent to one of the mirrors. In a first embodiment, two curvilinear mirrors, which may include adjacent lenses, are configured so that a light beam passing through the gain medium and incident on the first mirror is reflected by that mirror toward the second mirror in a direction approximately parallel to the resonator axis. A light beam translator, such as an optical flat of transparent material, is positioned to translate this light beam by a controllable amount toward or away from the resonator axis for each pass of the light beam through the translator. A second embodiment uses two curvilinear mirrors and one planar mirror, with a gain medium positioned in the optical path between each curvilinear mirror and the planar mirror. A third embodiment uses two curvilinear mirrors and two planar mirrors, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to a planar mirror. A fourth embodiment uses a curvilinear mirror and three planar mirrors, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to a planar mirror. A fourth embodiment uses four planar mirrors and a focusing lens system, with a gain medium positioned between the four mirrors. A fifth embodiment uses first and second planar mirrors, a focusing lens system and a third mirror that may be planar or curvilinear, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to the third mirror. A sixth embodiment uses two planar mirrors and a curvilinear mirror and a fourth mirror that may be planar or curvilinear, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to the fourth mirror. In a seventh embodiment, first and second mirrors face a third

  16. Sealpot and method for controlling a solids flow rate therethrough

    DOEpatents

    Chiu, John H.; Teigen, Bard C.

    2015-10-20

    A sealpot for a combustion power plant includes a downcomer standpipe which receives solids of the combustion power plant, a bed including a first end and a second opposite end, the first end connected to the downcomer standpipe, a discharge standpipe disposed at the second opposite end of the bed, and an orifice plate disposed between the bed and the discharge standpipe separating the discharge standpipe from the bed. The orifice plate includes apertures disposed at a height above the bed which allow transport of fluidized solids and gas through the orifice plate.

  17. PASS spacecraft antenna technology assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, R. E.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose was to generate estimates of mechanical performance for the classes of spacecraft antenna under construction for application to the Personal Access Satellite System (PASS). These performance data are needed for the support of trade studies involving antenna system development. The classes of antenna considered included: (1) rigid non-deployable antenna structures; (2) mechanical deployable antenna concepts; (3) inflatable deployable antenna concepts; and (4) mesh deployable antenna concepts. The estimates of mechanical performance are presented in terms of structural weight and cost as a function of the reflector size. Estimates of aperture surface precision are presented for a few discrete antenna sizes. The range of reflector size is 1 to 4 meters for non-deployable structures and 2 to 8 meters for deployable structures. The range of reflector surface precision is lambda/30 to lambda/50 for 20 and 30 GHz, respectively.

  18. 27 CFR 9.88 - Pacheco Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.88 Pacheco Pass. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pacheco Pass.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Pacheco Pass viticultural area...

  19. 27 CFR 9.88 - Pacheco Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.88 Pacheco Pass. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pacheco Pass.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Pacheco Pass viticultural area...

  20. 27 CFR 9.88 - Pacheco Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.88 Pacheco Pass. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pacheco Pass.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Pacheco Pass viticultural area...

  1. 27 CFR 9.88 - Pacheco Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.88 Pacheco Pass. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pacheco Pass.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Pacheco Pass viticultural area...

  2. 27 CFR 9.88 - Pacheco Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.88 Pacheco Pass. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pacheco Pass.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Pacheco Pass viticultural area...

  3. Pass-transistor very large scale integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Gary K. (Inventor); Bhatia, Prakash R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Logic elements are provided that permit reductions in layout size and avoidance of hazards. Such logic elements may be included in libraries of logic cells. A logical function to be implemented by the logic element is decomposed about logical variables to identify factors corresponding to combinations of the logical variables and their complements. A pass transistor network is provided for implementing the pass network function in accordance with this decomposition. The pass transistor network includes ordered arrangements of pass transistors that correspond to the combinations of variables and complements resulting from the logical decomposition. The logic elements may act as selection circuits and be integrated with memory and buffer elements.

  4. Multifrequency, single pass free electron laser

    DOEpatents

    Szoke, Abraham; Prosnitz, Donald

    1985-01-01

    A method for simultaneous amplification of laser beams with a sequence of frequencies in a single pass, using a relativistic beam of electrons grouped in a sequence of energies corresponding to the sequence of laser beam frequencies. The method allows electrons to pass from one potential well or "bucket" to another adjacent bucket, thus increasing efficiency of trapping and energy conversion.

  5. On sampling band-pass signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, R.; Shahshahani, M.

    1989-01-01

    Four techniques for uniform sampling of band-bass signals are examined. The in-phase and quadrature components of the band-pass signal are computed in terms of the samples of the original band-pass signal. The relative implementation merits of these techniques are discussed with reference to the Deep Space Network (DSN).

  6. 33 CFR 117.311 - New Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Pass. 117.311 Section 117.311 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.311 New Pass. The drawspan for the State Road 789...

  7. 33 CFR 117.311 - New Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New Pass. 117.311 Section 117.311 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.311 New Pass. The drawspan for the State Road 789...

  8. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Arnold, Phillip A.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.

    1995-01-01

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  9. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  10. A New Look at Reweighted Message Passing.

    PubMed

    Kolmogorov, Vladimir

    2015-05-01

    We propose a new family of message passing techniques for MAP estimation in graphical models which we call Sequential Reweighted Message Passing (SRMP). Special cases include well-known techniques such as Min-Sum Diffusion (MSD) and a faster Sequential Tree-Reweighted Message Passing (TRW-S). Importantly, our derivation is simpler than the original derivation of TRW-S, and does not involve a decomposition into trees. This allows easy generalizations. The new family of algorithms can be viewed as a generalization of TRW-S from pairwise to higher-order graphical models. We test SRMP on several real-world problems with promising results.

  11. Message passing for quantified Boolean formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zdeborová, Lenka; Zecchina, Riccardo

    2012-05-01

    We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis-Putnam-Logemann-Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers.

  12. Hurricane Sandy -- Pass 1, Oct. 29, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hurricane Sandy was viewed Monday morning from the International Space Station as it orbited 260 miles above the Atlantic Ocean. Sandy had sustained winds of 90 miles an hour as the station passed ...

  13. Hurricane Sandy -- Pass 2, Oct. 29, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hurricane Sandy was viewed Monday morning from the International Space Station as it orbited 260 miles above the Atlantic Ocean. Sandy had sustained winds of 90 miles an hour as the station passed ...

  14. Air supply distributor for fireplaces

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, H.A.

    1984-09-18

    An air supply distributor for fireplaces having an opening in the hearth for the supply of relatively cold air is used in combination with means, such as a log holder or grate, for supporting combustible products and comprises a pair of side walls and a top cover. The distributor is adapted to be positioned under the log holder or grate to overlie the hearth opening so that relatively cold air passing through the hearth opening is directed toward the front opening of the fireplace from which it passes to the fire for supporting combustion thereof thereby minimizing the amount of air drawn from the room.

  15. 33 CFR 117.487 - Pierre Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pierre Pass. 117.487 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.487 Pierre Pass. The draw of the S70 bridge, mile 1.0 at Pierre Part, shall open on signal; except that, from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m., the draw shall...

  16. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeez, M.; Asghar, S.; Malik, U. A.; Rehman, A.; Riaz, N.

    2011-12-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  17. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  18. House passes RCRA fix by wide margin

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-07

    The House of Representatives has passed a bill to prevent expensive, court-ordered tightening of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act`s (RCRA) land-disposal rules. The measure was initiated last March as part of the Clinton Administration`s {open_quotes}reinventing environmental regulation{close_quotes} initiative and was championed by House Republicans. It passed, 402 to 19, drawing overwhelming support from Democrats. CMA president and CEO Fred Webber hailed the bipartisan approach as the right way to legislate. {open_quotes}We hope this bill can serve as a model for Superfund and other pieces of unfinished business,{close_quotes} he says.

  19. 77 FR 277 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P; Notice of Availability of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project The staff of the...) for the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project (Project), proposed by Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC...

  20. 78 FR 66909 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application to Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application... Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street... authorizations granted on April 16, 2012 in Docket No. CP11-72-000 (Liquefaction Project), as amended in...

  1. 77 FR 65546 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Petition To... Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street, Suite... authorizations granted on April 16, 2012 in Docket No. CP11-72-000 (Liquefaction Project) in order to...

  2. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Approval of Independently Administered...

  3. Generalizing Galileo's passé-dix game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hombas, Vassilios

    2012-07-01

    This article shows a generalization of Galileo's 'passé-dix' game. The game was born following one of Galileo's [G. Galileo, Sopra le Scoperte dei Dadi (Galileo, Opere, Firenze, Barbera, Vol. 8). Translated by E.H. Thorne, 1898, pp. 591-594] explanations on a paradox that occurred in the experiment of tossing three fair 'six-sided' dice.

  4. 33 CFR 117.484 - Pass Manchac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pass Manchac. 117.484 Section 117.484 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE... circuit TV (CCTV) cameras. (c) Activation of the warning broadcasts also activates a marine radio...

  5. 33 CFR 117.484 - Pass Manchac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pass Manchac. 117.484 Section 117.484 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE... circuit TV (CCTV) cameras. (c) Activation of the warning broadcasts also activates a marine radio...

  6. 33 CFR 117.484 - Pass Manchac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pass Manchac. 117.484 Section 117.484 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE... circuit TV (CCTV) cameras. (c) Activation of the warning broadcasts also activates a marine radio...

  7. 33 CFR 117.484 - Pass Manchac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pass Manchac. 117.484 Section 117.484 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE... circuit TV (CCTV) cameras. (c) Activation of the warning broadcasts also activates a marine radio...

  8. 33 CFR 117.484 - Pass Manchac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pass Manchac. 117.484 Section 117.484 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE... circuit TV (CCTV) cameras. (c) Activation of the warning broadcasts also activates a marine radio...

  9. The PASS Model Project: Administrative Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Peabody Coll. for Teachers, Nashville, TN.

    Described is the PASS (Psychoeducational Agency-School System) Project, a collaborative effort between the Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools and the Child Study Center of George Peabody College for Teachers to demonstrate how agency and school system resources may be combined in an integrated service delivery system for learning disabled (LD)…

  10. Message-passing performance of various computers

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.; Dunigan, T.H.

    1996-02-01

    This report compares the performance of different computer systems message passing. Latency and bandwidth are measured on Convex, Cray, IBM, Intel, KSR, Meiko, nCUBE, NEC, SGI, and TMC multiprocessors. Communication performance is contrasted with the computational power of each system. The comparison includes both shared a memory computers as well as networked workstation cluster.

  11. Message passing with parallel queue traversal

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Keith D.; Brightwell, Ronald B.; Hemmert, K. Scott

    2012-05-01

    In message passing implementations, associative matching structures are used to permit list entries to be searched in parallel fashion, thereby avoiding the delay of linear list traversal. List management capabilities are provided to support list entry turnover semantics and priority ordering semantics.

  12. Passing the Bond Issue (with Related Video)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    When a bond referendum comes around for a school district, it often is the culmination of years of planning, strategizing and communicating to the public. Especially in these economic times, passing a building referendum is challenging. Complete transparency among the superintendent, school board and community is essential to communicate the…

  13. Generalizing Galileo's Passe-Dix Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hombas, Vassilios

    2012-01-01

    This article shows a generalization of Galileo's "passe-dix" game. The game was born following one of Galileo's [G. Galileo, "Sopra le Scoperte dei Dadi" (Galileo, Opere, Firenze, Barbera, Vol. 8). Translated by E.H. Thorne, 1898, pp. 591-594] explanations on a paradox that occurred in the experiment of tossing three fair "six-sided" dice.…

  14. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  15. The Physics of "String Passing through Ice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2011-01-01

    One of the oldest yet interesting experiments related to heat and thermodynamics is placing a string on a block of ice and hanging two masses from the ends of the string. Sometime later, it is discovered that the string has passed through the ice without cutting it in half. A simple explanation of this effect is that the pressure caused by the…

  16. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  17. Convective heat transfer for fluids passing through aluminum foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyga, Roman; Troniewski, Leon

    2015-03-01

    This paper analyses the experimental findings within heat transfer when heating up air, water and oil streams which are passed through a duct with internal structural packing elements in the form of metal foams. Three types of aluminum foams with different cell sizes, porosity specifications and thermal conductivities were used in the study. The test data were collected and they made it possible to establish the effect of the foam geometry, properties of fluids and flow hydrodynamic conditions on the convective heat transfer process from the heating surface to the fluid flowing by (wetting) that surface. The foam was found to be involved in heat transfer to a limited extent only. Heat is predominantly transferred directly from the duct wall to a fluid, and intensity of convective heat transfer is controlled by the wall effects. The influence of foam structural parameters, like cell size and/or porosity, becomes more clearly apparent under laminar flow conditions.

  18. Regenerable device for scrubbing breathable air of CO2 and moisture without special heat exchanger equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tepper, E. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The device concerns the circulation of cabin air through canisters which absorb and adsorb carbon dioxide, together with excess moisture, and return the scrubbed air to the cabin for recirculation. A coating on an inert substrate in granular form absorbs and adsorbs the impurities at standard temperatures and pressures, but desorbs such impurities at low pressures (vacuum) and standard temperatures. This fact is exploited by making the device in a stack of cells consisting of layers or cells which are isolated from one another flow-wise and are connected to separate manifolds and valving systems into two separate subsets. A first subset may be connected for the flow breathable air therethrough until the polyethyleneimine of its cells is saturated with CO2 and H2O. During the same period the second subset of cells is manifolded to a vacuum source.

  19. Pass-Fail: How Is It Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Clinton I.; And Others

    This study investigates the pass/fail (P/F) grading system. A sample of 154 Indiana University students was interviewed. Half of the group, 77 students, had not taken any P/F courses. Of the remaining 77 students, 42% had taken only one P/F course and most of the rest from two to five courses. Results of the student interview questionnaire…

  20. Battery Cell By-Pass Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evers, Jeffrey (Inventor); Gelger, Ronald V. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a circuit and method of limiting the charging current voltage from a power supply net work applied to an individual cell of a plurality of cells making up a battery being charged in series. It is particularly designed for use with batteries that can be damaged by overcharging, such as Lithium-ion type batteries. In detail. the method includes the following steps: 1) sensing the actual voltage level of the individual cell; 2) comparing the actual voltage level of the individual cell with a reference value and providing an error signal representative thereof; and 3) by-passing the charging current around individual cell necessary to keep the individual cell voltage level generally equal a specific voltage level while continuing to charge the remaining cells. Preferably this is accomplished by by-passing the charging current around the individual cell if said actual voltage level is above the specific voltage level and allowing the charging current to the individual cell if the actual voltage level is equal or less than the specific voltage level. In the step of bypassing the charging current, the by-passed current is transferred at a proper voltage level to the power supply. The by-pass circuit a voltage comparison circuit is used to compare the actual voltage level of the individual cell with a reference value and to provide an error signal representative thereof. A third circuit, designed to be responsive to the error signal, is provided for maintaining the individual cell voltage level generally equal to the specific voltage level. Circuitry is provided in the third circuit for bypassing charging current around the individual cell if the actual voltage level is above the specific voltage level and transfers the excess charging current to the power supply net work. The circuitry also allows charging of the individual cell if the actual voltage level is equal or less than the specific voltage level.

  1. TE and TM pass integrated optic polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madaan, Divya; Kaur, Davinder; Sharma, V. K.; Kapoor, A.

    2016-05-01

    A four layer integrated optical waveguide is studied, in which a high index buffer is used along with the metal cladding. The structure can act both as TE and TM pass polarizer. We have designed it for λ=1.55 µm which corresponds to telecommunication wavelength. TiO2 is used as a buffer layer with Au as metal cladding. When metal clad optical waveguides with a high index buffer layer are used there is periodic coupling between lossless modes of waveguide and the lossy modes supported by high index buffer layer with metal clad. We present theoretical results of the effect of buffer thickness on the mode index and the losses. The TM Pass polarizer with TE and TM losses, 1029.19dB/cm and 59.67dB/cm respectively are obtained. Also, TE Pass polarizer with TM and TE losses 1444.74dB/cm and 238.51dB/cm respectively are obtained.

  2. Apparatus and method for treating air from a turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.O.

    1987-11-24

    This patent describes an apparatus for cooling and removing moisture from compressed air passing from a turbocharger and the like to an intake of an engine comprising: an air duct connecting the turbocharger to the intake of the engine; heat pipes extending across the air duct for receiving heat from the compressed air passing through the air duct; a portion of the heat pipes extending from the air duct into a zone of ambient air external to the air duct for transferring heat received from the compressed air to the ambient air thus cooling the compressed air; and a lower extension of the air duct forming a coalescer zone receiving the compressed air after cooling by the heat pipes extending across the air duct for removing moisture therefrom.

  3. Effect of Ball Mass on Dribble, Pass, and Pass Reception in 9-11-Year-Old Boys' Basketball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Jose L.; Argudo, Francisco M.; Alonso, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of ball mass on dribble, pass, and pass reception in real game situations in 9-11-year-old boys' basketball. Participants were 54 boys identified from six federated teams. The independent variable was ball mass, and dependent variables were number of dribbles, passes, and pass receptions. Three…

  4. 78 FR 1851 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Sabine Pass Liquefaction Modification Project and... impacts of the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Modification Project (Project) involving the modification...

  5. 76 FR 9573 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 31, 2011, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P... the Commission's Regulations, to site, construct, and operate liquefaction and export...

  6. 75 FR 68347 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project and Request for... impacts of the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project (Project) involving construction and operation...

  7. 78 FR 25432 - Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project Modification The... assessment (EA) for the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project Modification (Modification Project), proposed...

  8. Fireplace having outside air supply

    SciTech Connect

    Hempel, R.A.

    1981-07-28

    An outside air system and combustion chamber closure assembly for use with a fireplace which provides means for supplying sufficient amounts of cooling air between the burning fuel and the closure assembly is disclosed. The closure assembly includes a frame surrounding the combustion chamber opening and at least one door operably mounted thereto. A grille is formed in the bottom rail of the frame for introduction of air into the combustion chamber. The outside air system includes an outside air duct which is coupled to a chamber defining an air plenum formed below the hearth of the fireplace and air cap assembly. The air cap assembly is positioned against the bottom rail of the frame and extends across the combustion chamber opening. The assembly includes a duct which communicates with the chamber defining the air plenum formed below the hearth and an air discharge housing positioned adjacent the bottom rail. A damper means is operably mounted in the air discharge housing and is adjustable between an outside air mode or a room air mode so that when said at least one door is closed, only outside air or room air will pass into the combustion chamber at hearth level in sufficient volume for fuel combustion as well as providing an excess of air to prevent overheating of the fireplace assembly and said at least one door.

  9. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging (OKC, OK)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  10. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  11. Probabilistic Algorithm for Sampler Siting (PASS)

    2007-05-29

    PASS (Probabilistic Approach to Sampler Siting) optimizes the placement of samplers in buildings. The program exhaustively checks every sampler-network that can be formed, evaluating against user-supplied simulations of the possible release scenarios. The program identifies the networks that maximize the probablity of detecting a release from among the suite of user-supllied scenarios. The user may specify how many networks to report, in order to provide a number of choices in cases where many networks havemore » very similar behavior.« less

  12. Quantum three-pass cryptography protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Wu, Ling-An; Liu, Songhao

    2002-09-01

    We present a new kind of quantum cryptography protocol based on Shamir's three-pass protocol of classical cryptography, which allows the transmission of qubits directly and secretly via the aid of an unjammable classical channel. In this protocol we implement the encryption and decryption transformations via rotations on the Poincare sphere of the photons polarization parameters. The key technique is that Bob's encryption rotation must be commutative with Alice s decryption rotation; this means that the axes of these two rotations must be parallel. We also present a security analysis of the protocol under a man-in-the-middle attack.

  13. Senate passes energy, water appropriations bill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    The 21.98 billion energy and water appropriations bill (HR 2427) was passed by the full Senate on July 10, representing an increase of about 1 billion over FY 1991 funding. With a 96-3 vote, HR 2427 was one of the first of 13 spending bills to be approved by the Senate. (See "DOE Funding Up in FY 1991," Eos, July 16.)The Senate appropriated 509 million to begin construction of the controversial Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) in Waxahachie, Texas. Earlier this year, the House voted 434 million for the project, which was $100 million less than requested by the administration.

  14. Gene-network inference by message passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, A.; Pagnani, A.; Weigt, M.; Zecchina, R.

    2008-01-01

    The inference of gene-regulatory processes from gene-expression data belongs to the major challenges of computational systems biology. Here we address the problem from a statistical-physics perspective and develop a message-passing algorithm which is able to infer sparse, directed and combinatorial regulatory mechanisms. Using the replica technique, the algorithmic performance can be characterized analytically for artificially generated data. The algorithm is applied to genome-wide expression data of baker's yeast under various environmental conditions. We find clear cases of combinatorial control, and enrichment in common functional annotations of regulated genes and their regulators.

  15. ABM Drag_Pass Report Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladden, Roy; Khanampornpan, Teerapat

    2008-01-01

    dragREPORT software was developed in parallel with abmREPORT, which is described in the preceding article. Both programs were built on the capabilities created during that process. This tool generates a drag_pass report that summarizes vital information from the MRO aerobreaking drag_pass build process to facilitate both sequence reviews and provide a high-level summarization of the sequence for mission management. The script extracts information from the ENV, SSF, FRF, SCMFmax, and OPTG files, presenting them in a single, easy-to-check report providing the majority of parameters needed for cross check and verification as part of the sequence review process. Prior to dragReport, all the needed information was spread across a number of different files, each in a different format. This software is a Perl script that extracts vital summarization information and build-process details from a number of source files into a single, concise report format used to aid the MPST sequence review process and to provide a high-level summarization of the sequence for mission management reference. This software could be adapted for future aerobraking missions to provide similar reports, review and summarization information.

  16. Cassini RADARs Penultimate Passes by Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Stephen D.; Cassini RADAR Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The Cassini spacecraft will be in its final year of operation as you read this abstract. The RADAR instrument will observe Titan on passes that occur (or occurred) June 27 (T120), July 25 (T121) and April 22, 2017 (T126), all including SAR imaging. T120 SAR, the only pass received at this writing, has revealed what is arguably the best example of Labrynthic terrain, a unit previously identified on about 2% of the observed surface of Titan (Lopes et al., 2016); extended our observations of "cookie cutter lakes" seen in SAR the very dark area described by Griffith et al (2012), and given added context to the equatorial wind-streak features (Malaska, 2016). The T121 SAR swath promises similar exciting data as it observes Hotei Regio, an area previously thought to be a candidate cryovolcano; Tui Regio (Barnes et al., 2006); and a last look at Xanadu's eastern flanks. We will review all new findings on T120 and T121 and also preview T126 SAR, where we will get a last look at the northern seas, including Titan's "Magic Island" (Hofgartner et al., 2015).This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Insititue of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Bathymetric survey of the nearshore from Belle Pass to Caminada Pass, Louisiana: methods and data report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Hansen, Mark; Kulp, Mark; Reynolds, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the University of New Orleans (UNO) and the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (LDNR), conducted a high-resolution, single-beam bathymetric survey along the Louisiana southern coastal zone from Belle Pass to Caminada Pass. The survey consisted of 483 line kilometers of data acquired in July and August of 2005. This report outlines the methodology and provides the data from the survey. Analysis of the data and comparison to a similar bathymetric survey completed in 1989 show significant loss of seafloor and shoreline retreat, which is consistent with previously published estimates of shoreline change in the study area.

  18. Optimizing spacecraft formations for single-pass IFSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rego, Paul J.; Jamshidi, Mohammad

    2003-11-01

    Formation structure and relative spacecraft velocities for a multiple baseline single pass IFSAR system are investigated to optimize a composite interferometric observation over several subapertures. Two major system models are developed: (1) relative spacecraft motion, and (2) pixel height measurement variance. Analysis demonstrates that a generalized Keplerian trajectory model with an equal gravity gradient assumption provides sufficient accuracy over typical IFSAR flyby aperture lengths. A pixel height variance model is developed to address issues unique to single pass multiple baseline space-based systems. A bistatic spotlight mode IFSAR system is assumed. Bistatic operation is not necessary, but the reduced future costs of deploying high performance sensor arrays of smaller receiver spacecraft drive the development of this important technology. Modeled noises for the multiple baseline system include internal sensor noise, spatial decorrelation noise, non-parallel ground track (grid rotation) decorrelation noise, and system parameter uncertainties. With expected observation ranges in excess of 500 kilometers, large baselines are required to maximize IFSAR height sensitivity. An analysis of optimal correlation is presented that extends the work of Rodriguez & Martin (1992) to include model uncertainties. Four IFSAR formation scenarios have been investigated. The system trajectory mimics the planned flyby of the Kilauea volcano by the Air Force TechSat 21 multiple spacecraft demonstration. Supposed formations include (1) a free-fall cluster formation, (2) an optimal formation assuming adequate thrust, and (3) a free-fall flyby after optimal initial formation. Results demonstrate pixel height errors at the spotlight aim point to range from 1 to 4 meters over the several 1-second subaperture lengths, and 0.2 to 0.5 meters over the 47-second full aperture length. A fourth scenario investigates performance over a hyperbolic flyby trajectory.

  19. A novel band-pass filter based on a periodically drilled SIW structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coves, A.; Torregrosa-Penalva, G.; San-Blas, A. A.; Sánchez-Soriano, M. A.; Martellosio, A.; Bronchalo, E.; Bozzi, M.

    2016-04-01

    The design and fabrication of a band-pass step impedance filter based on high and low dielectric constant sections has been realized on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology. The overall process includes the design of the ideal band-pass prototype filter, where the implementation of the impedance inverters has been carried out by means of waveguide sections of lower permittivity. This can be practically achieved by implementing arrays of air holes along the waveguide. Several SIW structures with and without arrays of air holes have been simulated and fabricated in order to experimentally evaluate their relative permittivity. Additionally, the equivalent filter in SIW technology has been designed and optimized. Finally, a prototype of the designed filter has been fabricated and measured, showing a good agreement between measurements and simulations, which demonstrates the validity of the proposed design approach.

  20. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  1. Zika May Be Passed on Through Tears, Sweat: Report

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161204.html Zika May Be Passed on Through Tears, Sweat: Report ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, Sept. 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus might be able to pass from person ...

  2. Two antenna, two pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Ana; Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2005-06-28

    A multi-antenna, multi-pass IFSAR mode utilizing data driven alignment of multiple independent passes can combine the scaling accuracy of a two-antenna, one-pass IFSAR mode with the height-noise performance of a one-antenna, two-pass IFSAR mode. A two-antenna, two-pass IFSAR mode can accurately estimate the larger antenna baseline from the data itself and reduce height-noise, allowing for more accurate information about target ground position locations and heights. The two-antenna, two-pass IFSAR mode can use coarser IFSAR data to estimate the larger antenna baseline. Multi-pass IFSAR can be extended to more than two (2) passes, thereby allowing true three-dimensional radar imaging from stand-off aircraft and satellite platforms.

  3. Down syndrome passed from mother to child.

    PubMed

    Pachajoa, Harry; Riascos, Antonio José; Castro, Diego; Isaza, Carolina; Quintero, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome is the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability; it is characterized by mental retardation associated to physical growth delay and certain physical traits or features. It is caused by the presence of a third copy of chromosome 21, being this trisomy the most common chromosomal aneuploidy. Women with Down syndrome are less fertile, and pregnancy in these women is rare, although the information on exact statistics of reproduction in these patients is very limited, and they often have difficulties with miscarriage, premature birth, and difficult labor. We report the case of a preterm newborn with Down syndrome passed from her mother; this pregnancy was a result of sexual assault, which is an event that can and should be prevented in this population. PMID:25504119

  4. The Physics After School Special (PASS) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James; Dunham, Hardin; Sauncy, Toni

    2012-10-01

    The Physics After School Special program, or PASS program, funded by the Marsh White award, was a collaborative enrichment program between Angelo State University's SPS chapter and the local YMCA. The overall goal of this program was to educate young children in physical concepts, educate through hands on activities, to build a mentor-mentee relationship between the children and our SPS volunteers, and to encourage interest in scientific fields. Originally planned to for second to fifth grade students the program was implemented with kindergarten to fourth grade students. This proved to challenge the curriculum but adjustments were made to become more suitable to the age group. We present the program specifics and share results of this outreach program.

  5. Dilution in single pass arc welds

    SciTech Connect

    DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1996-06-01

    A study was conducted on dilution of single pass arc welds of type 308 stainless steel filler metal deposited onto A36 carbon steel by the plasma arc welding (PAW), gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), gas metal arc welding (GMAW), and submerged arc welding (SAW) processes. Knowledge of the arc and melting efficiency was used in a simple energy balance to develop an expression for dilution as a function of welding variables and thermophysical properties of the filler metal and substrate. Comparison of calculated and experimentally determined dilution values shows the approach provides reasonable predictions of dilution when the melting efficiency can be accurately predicted. The conditions under which such accuracy is obtained are discussed. A diagram is developed from the dilution equation which readily reveals the effect of processing parameters on dilution to aid in parameter optimization.

  6. 36 CFR 72.37 - Pass-through funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pass-through funding. 72.37... and Innovation § 72.37 Pass-through funding. Section 1006(a)(1) of the Act states that at the... funding assistance on a pass-through basis must work with an applicant jurisdiction in the preparation...

  7. 36 CFR 72.37 - Pass-through funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pass-through funding. 72.37... and Innovation § 72.37 Pass-through funding. Section 1006(a)(1) of the Act states that at the... funding assistance on a pass-through basis must work with an applicant jurisdiction in the preparation...

  8. 33 CFR 401.42 - Passing hand lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Passing hand lines. 401.42... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.42 Passing hand lines. (a) At locks, hand lines shall be secured to the mooring lines and passed as follows: (1)...

  9. 33 CFR 401.42 - Passing hand lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Passing hand lines. 401.42... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.42 Passing hand lines. (a) At locks, hand lines shall be secured to the mooring lines and passed as follows: (1)...

  10. Astor Pass Seismic Surveys Preliminary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, John; Pullammanappallil, Satish; Faulds, James; Eisses, Amy; Kell, Annie; Frary, Roxanna; Kent, Graham

    2011-08-05

    In collaboration with the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) and Optim re-processed, or collected and processed, over 24 miles of 2d seismic-reflection data near the northwest corner of Pyramid Lake, Nevada. The network of 2d land surveys achieved a near-3d density at the Astor Pass geothermal prospect that the PLPT drilled during Nov. 2010 to Feb. 2011. The Bureau of Indian Affairs funded additional seismic work around the Lake, and an extensive, detailed single-channel marine survey producing more than 300 miles of section, imaging more than 120 ft below the Lake bottom. Optim’s land data collection utilized multiple heavy vibrators and recorded over 200 channels live, providing a state-of-the-art reflection-refraction data set. After advanced seismic analysis including first-arrival velocity optimization and prestack depth migration, the 2d sections show clear fault-plane reflections, in some areas as deep as 4000 ft, tying to distinct terminations of the mostly volcanic stratigraphy. Some lines achieved velocity control to 3000 ft depth; all lines show reflections and terminations to 5000 ft depth. Three separate sets of normal faults appear in an initial interpretation of fault reflections and stratigraphic terminations, after loading the data into the OpendTect 3d seismic visualization system. Each preliminary fault set includes a continuous trace more than 3000 ft long, and a swarm of short fault strands. The three preliminary normal-fault sets strike northerly with westward dip, northwesterly with northeast dip, and easterly with north dip. An intersection of all three fault systems documented in the seismic sections at the end of Phase I helped to locate the APS-2 and APS-3 slimholes. The seismic sections do not show the faults connected to the Astor Pass tufa spire, suggesting that we have imaged mostly Tertiary-aged faults. We hypothesize that the Recent, active faults that produced the tufa through hotspring

  11. Multi-Pass Quadrupole Mass Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the composition of planetary atmospheres is one of the most important and fundamental measurements in planetary robotic exploration. Quadrupole mass analyzers (QMAs) are the primary tool used to execute these investigations, but reductions in size of these instruments has sacrificed mass resolving power so that the best present-day QMA devices are still large, expensive, and do not deliver performance of laboratory instruments. An ultra-high-resolution QMA was developed to resolve N2 +/CO+ by trapping ions in a linear trap quadrupole filter. Because N2 and CO are resolved, gas chromatography columns used to separate species before analysis are eliminated, greatly simplifying gas analysis instrumentation. For highest performance, the ion trap mode is used. High-resolution (or narrow-band) mass selection is carried out in the central region, but near the DC electrodes at each end, RF/DC field settings are adjusted to allow broadband ion passage. This is to prevent ion loss during ion reflection at each end. Ions are created inside the trap so that low-energy particles are selected by low-voltage settings on the end electrodes. This is beneficial to good mass resolution since low-energy particles traverse many cycles of the RF filtering fields. Through Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that ions are reflected at each end many tens of times, each time being sent back through the central section of the quadrupole where ultrahigh mass filtering is carried out. An analyzer was produced with electrical length orders of magnitude longer than its physical length. Since the selector fields are sized as in conventional devices, the loss of sensitivity inherent in miniaturizing quadrupole instruments is avoided. The no-loss, multi-pass QMA architecture will improve mass resolution of planetary QMA instruments while reducing demands on the RF electronics for high-voltage/high-frequency production since ion transit time is no longer limited to a single pass. The

  12. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  13. Iterative pass optimization of sequence data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Ward C.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of determining the minimum-cost hypothetical ancestral sequences for a given cladogram is known to be NP-complete. This "tree alignment" problem has motivated the considerable effort placed in multiple sequence alignment procedures. Wheeler in 1996 proposed a heuristic method, direct optimization, to calculate cladogram costs without the intervention of multiple sequence alignment. This method, though more efficient in time and more effective in cladogram length than many alignment-based procedures, greedily optimizes nodes based on descendent information only. In their proposal of an exact multiple alignment solution, Sankoff et al. in 1976 described a heuristic procedure--the iterative improvement method--to create alignments at internal nodes by solving a series of median problems. The combination of a three-sequence direct optimization with iterative improvement and a branch-length-based cladogram cost procedure, provides an algorithm that frequently results in superior (i.e., lower) cladogram costs. This iterative pass optimization is both computation and memory intensive, but economies can be made to reduce this burden. An example in arthropod systematics is discussed. c2003 The Willi Hennig Society. Published by Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  14. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael Z; Dunn, Alan M; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2013-12-31

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider's desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users' desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly "re-anonymize" their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user. PMID:24504081

  15. How My Program Passed the Turing Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrys, Mark

    In 1989, the author put an ELIZA-like chatbot on the Internet. The conversations this program had can be seen - depending on how one defines the rules (and how seriously one takes the idea of the test itself) - as a passing of the Turing Test. This is the first time this event has been properly written. This chatbot succeeded due to profanity, relentless aggression, prurient queries about the user, and implying that they were a liar when they responded. The element of surprise was also crucial. Most chatbots exist in an environment where people expectto find some bots among the humans. Not this one. What was also novel was the onlineelement. This was certainly one of the first AI programs online. It seems to have been the first (a) AI real-time chat program, which (b) had the element of surprise, and (c) was on the Internet. We conclude with some speculation that the future of all of AI is on the Internet, and a description of the "World- Wide-Mind" project that aims to bring this about.

  16. Cambodia passes new limits on abortion.

    PubMed

    1997-10-17

    According to international news sources, Cambodia's parliament approved a law limiting the circumstances under which abortions can be performed on October 6 [1997]. Members of parliament say the new law, the first ever passed regulating abortion in Cambodia, is intended to reduce maternal morality rates from abortions performed by unlicensed health practitioners under unsanitary conditions. Local news outlets report that the Cambodian Health Ministry estimates the maternal mortality at 4.7 deaths per 1000 live births. The rate in the US is 0.12 deaths per 1000 live births. The law requires that abortions be performed by licensed health professionals in hospitals and certified clinics within the first trimester of pregnancy, and that women under the age of 18 must obtain parental consent. The new law also sets harsh penalties for those who harm women during illegal procedures--up to 5 years in prison if a woman is injured and up to 10 years if she dies. Opponents of the law say they fear that the new restrictions will push abortion even further underground, as the hospital system cannot handle the current demand for abortion. PMID:12292784

  17. Operator pencil passing through a given operator

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, A. E-mail: adam.biggs@student.manchester.ac.uk; Khudaverdian, H. M. E-mail: adam.biggs@student.manchester.ac.uk

    2013-12-15

    Let Δ be a linear differential operator acting on the space of densities of a given weight λ{sub 0} on a manifold M. One can consider a pencil of operators Π-circumflex(Δ)=(Δ{sub λ}) passing through the operator Δ such that any Δ{sub λ} is a linear differential operator acting on densities of weight λ. This pencil can be identified with a linear differential operator Δ-circumflex acting on the algebra of densities of all weights. The existence of an invariant scalar product in the algebra of densities implies a natural decomposition of operators, i.e., pencils of self-adjoint and anti-self-adjoint operators. We study lifting maps that are on one hand equivariant with respect to divergenceless vector fields, and, on the other hand, with values in self-adjoint or anti-self-adjoint operators. In particular, we analyze the relation between these two concepts, and apply it to the study of diff (M)-equivariant liftings. Finally, we briefly consider the case of liftings equivariant with respect to the algebra of projective transformations and describe all regular self-adjoint and anti-self-adjoint liftings. Our constructions can be considered as a generalisation of equivariant quantisation.

  18. Tracking particles by passing messages between images

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Kroc, Lukas; Zdeborova, Lenka; Krakala, Florent; Vergassola, M

    2009-01-01

    Methods to extract information from the tracking of mobile objects/particles have broad interest in biological and physical sciences. Techniques based on the simple criterion of proximity in time-consecutive snapshots are useful to identify the trajectories of the particles. However, they become problematic as the motility and/or the density of the particles increases because of the uncertainties on the trajectories that particles have followed during the acquisition time of the images. Here, we report efficient methods for learning parameters of the dynamics of the particles from their positions in time-consecutive images. Our algorithm belongs to the class of message-passing algorithms, also known in computer science, information theory and statistical physics under the name of Belief Propagation (BP). The algorithm is distributed, thus allowing parallel implementation suitable for computations on multiple machines without significant inter-machine overhead. We test our method on the model example of particle tracking in turbulent flows, which is particularly challenging due to the strong transport that those flows produce. Our numerical experiments show that the BP algorithm compares in quality with exact Markov Chain Monte-Carlo algorithms, yet BP is far superior in speed. We also suggest and analyze a random-distance model that provides theoretical justification for BP accuracy. Methods developed here systematically formulate the problem of particle tracking and provide fast and reliable tools for its extensive range of applications.

  19. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  20. Single Pass Multi-component Harvester

    SciTech Connect

    Reed Hoskinson; J. Richard Hess

    2004-08-01

    Abstract. In order to meet the U. S. government’s goal of supplementing the energy available from petroleum by increasing the production of energy from renewable resources, increased production of bioenergy has become one of the new goals of the United States government and our society. U.S. Executive Orders and new Federal Legislation have mandated changes in government procedures and caused reorganizations within the government to support these goals. The Biomass Research and Development Initiative is a multi-agency effort to coordinate and accelerate all U.S. Federal biobased products and bioenergy research and development. The Initiative is managed by the National Biomass Coordination Office, which is staffed by both the DOE and the USDA. One of the most readily available sources of biomass from which to produce bioenergy is an agricultural crop residue, of which straw from small grains is the most feasible residue with which to start. For the straw residue to be used its collection must be energy efficient and its removal must not impact the sustainability of the growing environment. In addition, its collection must be economically advantageous to the producer. To do all that, a single pass multi-component harvester system is most desirable. Results from our first prototype suggest that current combines probably do adequate threshing and that a separate chassis can be developed that does additional separation and that is economically feasible.

  1. Low-Pass Filtered Volumetric Shadows.

    PubMed

    Ament, Marco; Sadlo, Filip; Dachsbacher, Carsten; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    We present a novel and efficient method to compute volumetric soft shadows for interactive direct volume visualization to improve the perception of spatial depth. By direct control of the softness of volumetric shadows, disturbing visual patterns due to hard shadows can be avoided and users can adapt the illumination to their personal and application-specific requirements. We compute the shadowing of a point in the data set by employing spatial filtering of the optical depth over a finite area patch pointing toward each light source. Conceptually, the area patch spans a volumetric region that is sampled with shadow rays; afterward, the resulting optical depth values are convolved with a low-pass filter on the patch. In the numerical computation, however, to avoid expensive shadow ray marching, we show how to align and set up summed area tables for both directional and point light sources. Once computed, the summed area tables enable efficient evaluation of soft shadows for each point in constant time without shadow ray marching and the softness of the shadows can be controlled interactively. We integrated our method in a GPU-based volume renderer with ray casting from the camera, which offers interactive control of the transfer function, light source positions, and viewpoint, for both static and time-dependent data sets. Our results demonstrate the benefit of soft shadows for visualization to achieve user-controlled illumination with many-point lighting setups for improved perception combined with high rendering speed. PMID:26356957

  2. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael Z.; Dunn, Alan M.; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider’s desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users’ desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly “re-anonymize” their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user. PMID:24504081

  3. 40 CFR 89.510 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 89.510 Section 89.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  4. 40 CFR 91.608 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 91.608 Section 91.608 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations § 91.608...

  5. 40 CFR 91.608 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 91.608 Section 91.608 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations § 91.608...

  6. 40 CFR 89.510 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 89.510 Section 89.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  7. Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School (PASS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Clarence D.; Hathaway, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School Project (PASS) Project was granted a one-year no cost extension for 2001-2002. In year three of the project, objectives and strategies were modified based on the previous year-end evaluation. The recommendations were incorporated and the program was replicated within most of the remaining elementary schools in Portsmouth, Virginia and continued in the four middle schools. The Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School Project is a partnership, which includes Norfolk State University, Cooperating Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME), NASA Langley Research Center, and the City of Portsmouth, Virginia Public Schools. The project seeks to strengthen the knowledge of Portsmouth Public Schools students in the field of atmospheric sciences and enhance teacher awareness of hands on activities in the atmospheric sciences. The project specifically seeks to: 1) increase the interest and participation of elementary and middle school students in science and mathematics; 2) strengthen existing science programs; and 3) facilitate greater achievement in core subjects, which are necessary for math, science, and technical careers. Emphasis was placed on providing training activities, materials and resources for elementary students (grades 3 - 5) and middle school students (grades 6 - 8), and teachers through a CHROME club structure. The first year of the project focused on introducing elementary students to concepts and activities in atmospheric science. Year two of the project built on the first year's activities and utilizes advanced topics and activities appropriate for middle school students. During the third year of the project, in addition to the approaches used in years one and two, emphasis was placed on activities that enhanced the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL).

  8. The Single Pass Multi-component Harvester

    SciTech Connect

    Reed Hoskinson; John R. Hess

    2004-08-01

    collection must be economically advantageous to the producer. To do all that, a single pass multi-component harvester system is most desirable. Results from our first prototype suggest that current combines probably do adequate threshing and that a separate chassis can be developed that does additional separation and that is economically feasible.

  9. Chelyabinsk fireball and Dyatlov pass tragedy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2013-09-01

    The Chelyabinsk bolide as well as the Kunashak meteorite in 1949 (Fig. 3, black square) hit ground in ectonically peculiar place in the Ural Mountains. The main explosion was followed by a series of weaker bangs. The long Uralian fold belt (Pz) separates two subsectors (1 & 2, Fig. 1) of the Eurasian sector (1+2) of the Eastern hemisphere sectoral structure (Fig. 1). At the Pamirs-Hindukush massif (the "Pamirs' cross") meet four tectonic sectors of this structure: two opposite differently uplifted (Africa-Mediterranean ++ and Asian +) and separating them two opposite differently subsided (Eurasian - and Indooceanic - -). Tectonic bisectors divide the sectors into two differently tectonically elevated subsectors. The Ural Mountains is one of these bisectors dividing the somewhat risen East-European subsector and the relatively fallen West-Siberian one. Even more important is the sharp tectonic boundary between subsided Eurasian sector and uplifted Asian one (between 2 and 3, Fig. 1). Fig. 3 shows distribution of electrophonic bolides over USSR [1]. Observations numbers are in circles. The total of 343 observations is distributed at relevant districts; accompanied meteorites were found only in 23-24 cases; in the chart are excluded background values of 1-2 observations per district. Two areas are obviously anomalous. These of the Urals, and the Eurasia-Asia sectoral contact (Novosibirsk - Yenisei R. - Tunguska). A location in the long Uralian belt is determined by its intersection with the Timan fold belt coming from the northwest (Fig. 3). The catastrophic Dyatlov pass where nine people mysteriously died at once occurs there (triangle in Fig. 3). Mancy aborigines know this place as deadly where killing white shining spheres appear. Moreover this belt intersection is well known among hunters for UFO as the Permian triangle (Fig. 2). They meet there to observe unusual atmospheric shining and other anomalous phenomena. In the Yenisei-Tunguska-Baikal region lightning

  10. Multi-pass gas cell designed for VOCs analysis by infrared spectroscopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junbo; Wang, Xin; Wei, Haoyun

    2015-10-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emitted from chemical, petrochemical, and other industries are the most common air pollutants leading to various environmental hazards. Regulations to control the VOCs emissions have been more and more important in China, which requires specific VOCs measurement systems to take measures. Multi-components analysis system, with an infrared spectrometer, a gas handling module and a multi-pass gas cell, is one of the most effective air pollution monitoring facilities. In the VOCs analysis system, the optical multi-pass cell is required to heat to higher than 150 degree Celsius to prevent the condensation of the component gas. Besides that, the gas cell needs to be designed to have an optical path length that matches the detection sensitivity requirement with a compact geometry. In this article, a multi-pass White cell was designed for the high temperature absorption measurements in a specified geometry requirement. The Aberration theory is used to establish the model to accurately calculate the astigmatism for the reflector system. In consideration of getting the optimum output energy, the dimensions of cell geometry, object mirrors and field mirror are optimized by the ray-tracing visible simulation. Then finite element analysis was used to calculate the thermal analysis for the structure of the external and internal elements for high stability. According to the simulation, the cell designed in this paper has an optical path length of 10 meters with an internal volume of 3 liters, and has good stability between room temperature to 227 degree Celsius.

  11. Martian Clouds Pass By on a Winter Afternoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    patterns. They usually form 6 kilometers to 12 kilometers (4 to 7 miles) above Earth's surface by a process known as convection, during which warm air rises and cools, with clouds condensing from the moist air once it has cooled sufficiently.

    These Martian clouds appear to be associated with a broader layer of ice-crystal clouds fanning out toward the upper right of the frames at the end of the movie. This is similar to the occurrence of terrestrial cirrocumulus and altocumulus clouds within layers of cirrus or cirrostratus clouds on Earth. Also apparent in this movie are prominent waves in the clouds, a result of the effect of gravity waves on cloud thickness, as on Earth.

    Though both rovers now have the ability to autonomously detect clouds, these images were taken prior to the first use of the new abilities. The images shown here were stored on Opportunity and were transmitted to Earth on sol 1056 (Jan. 12, 2007) during a routine communications pass.

  12. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  13. THE CHALLENGES OF AIR POLLUTION AND RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT (EDITORIAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act (CAA), a comprehensive federal law that regulates air pollution from stationary and mobile sources, was first passed in 1963. The act has provided the primary framework for protecting human health and the environment. The CAA divides air pollutants into "criteri...

  14. 33 CFR 117.267 - Big Carlos Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Carlos Pass. 117.267 Section 117.267 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.267 Big Carlos Pass. The draw of...

  15. 33 CFR 117.267 - Big Carlos Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Big Carlos Pass. 117.267 Section 117.267 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.267 Big Carlos Pass. The draw of...

  16. 33 CFR 117.267 - Big Carlos Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Carlos Pass. 117.267 Section 117.267 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.267 Big Carlos Pass. The draw of...

  17. 33 CFR 117.267 - Big Carlos Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Carlos Pass. 117.267 Section 117.267 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.267 Big Carlos Pass. The draw of...

  18. 33 CFR 117.267 - Big Carlos Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Carlos Pass. 117.267 Section 117.267 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.267 Big Carlos Pass. The draw of...

  19. 36 CFR 1193.37 - Information pass through.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information pass through... § 1193.37 Information pass through. Telecommunications equipment and customer premises equipment shall..., formats or other information necessary to provide telecommunications in an accessible format....

  20. North elevation from shoulder of Altamont Pass Road; Interstate Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North elevation from shoulder of Altamont Pass Road; Interstate Highway 5 viaduct in background; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) Railroad at right; abandoned Southern Pacific right of way beneath bridge; view to southwest; 90 mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  1. 12 CFR 560.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pass-through investments. 560.32 Section 560.32 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.32 Pass-through investments. (a)...

  2. 12 CFR 160.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pass-through investments. 160.32 Section 160.32 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.32 Pass-through investments. (a) A Federal savings association (“you”) may make...

  3. 12 CFR 560.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Pass-through investments. 560.32 Section 560.32 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.32 Pass-through investments. (a)...

  4. 12 CFR 560.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pass-through investments. 560.32 Section 560.32 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.32 Pass-through investments. (a)...

  5. 12 CFR 560.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pass-through investments. 560.32 Section 560.32 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.32 Pass-through investments. (a)...

  6. 12 CFR 160.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pass-through investments. 160.32 Section 160.32 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.32 Pass-through investments. (a) A Federal savings association (“you”) may make...

  7. 12 CFR 160.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pass-through investments. 160.32 Section 160.32 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.32 Pass-through investments. (a) A Federal savings association (“you”) may make...

  8. 12 CFR 560.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Pass-through investments. 560.32 Section 560.32 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.32 Pass-through investments. (a)...

  9. Logical Consequences: Using Passing Times to Prevent Misbehavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Dion; Pierre, Christina

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the No Passing Plan, a no-passing policy implemented at White Bear Lake (MN) High School-North Campus in order to prevent chronic tardiness and misbehavior in the halls. The plan is an alternative consequence for administrators to use with students who are disruptive in the halls or consistently tardy to class. Suspending…

  10. Teaching Strategies for the Forearm Pass in Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casebolt, Kevin; Zhang, Peng; Brett, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article shares teaching strategies for the forearm pass in the game of volleyball and identifies how they will help students improve their performance and development of forearm passing skills. The article also provides an assessment rubric to facilitate student understanding of the skill.

  11. Temporal decorrelation in repeat pass-radar interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villasenor, John; Zebker, Howard

    1992-01-01

    Correlation in pass-to-pass, interferometric radar can be degraded by thermal noise, lack of parallelism between the radar flight tracks, spatial baseline noise, and surficial change. The effects of decorrelation due to thermal noise can be easily evaluated and removed, while those due slight angular changes between flight tracks are negligible for data acquired using near-repeat orbits. Empirical results obtained using images of Death Valley confirm that as the baseline increases, the overall correlation decreases due to spatial baseline noise. It is shown that areas of Cottonball Basin in Death Valley remained unchanged over the three-week period for which data was obtained, while a heavily forested area in Oregon exhibited significant temporal decorrelation. Lava in central Oregon also appeared to decorrelate. The results demonstrate that generation of height maps of heavily vegetated areas using pass-to-pass interferometry is practical, provided that the time between passes is at most several weeks.

  12. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Black, Roger L.

    1981-01-01

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  13. Solid sorbent air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galen, T. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.

  14. Screening system and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Jones, David A; Gresham, Christopher A; Basiliere, Marc L; Spates, James J; Rodacy, Philip J

    2014-04-15

    An integrated apparatus and method for screening an object for a target material is provided. The integrated apparatus comprises a housing and an integrated screener. The housing is positionable adjacent the object, and has a channel therethrough. The integrated screener is positionable in the housing, and comprises a fan, at least one filter, a heater and an analyzer. The fan is for drawing air carrying particles and vapor through the channel of the housing. The filter(s) is/are positionable in the channel of the housing for passage of the air therethrough. The filter(s) comprise(s) at least one metal foam having a plurality of pores therein for collecting and adsorbing a sample from the particles and vapor passing therethrough. The heater is for applying heat to the at least one metal foam whereby the collected sample is desorbed from the metal foam. The analyzer detects the target material from the desorbed sample.

  15. Physical and hydrologic characteristics of Matlacha Pass, southwestern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.L. ); Russell, G.M. )

    1994-03-01

    Matlacha Pass is part of the connected inshore waters of the Charlotte Harbor estuary in southwestern Florida. Bathymetry indicates that depths in the main channel of the pass range from 4 to 14 feet below sea level. The channel averages about 8 feet deep in the northern part of the pass and about 5 feet deep in the southern part. Additionally, depths average about 4 feet in a wide section of the middle of the pass and about 2 feet along the mangrove swamps near the shoreline. Tidal flow within Matlacha Pass varies depending on aquatic vegetation densities, oyster beds, and tidal flats. Surface-water runoff occurs primarily during the wet season (May to September), with most of the flow entering the Matlacha Pass through two openings in the spreader canal system near the city of Matlacha. Freshwater flow into the pass from the north Cape Coral spreader canal system averaged 113 cubic feet per second from October 1987 to September 1992. Freshwater inflow from the Aries Canal of the south Cape Coral spreader canal system averaged 14.1 cubic feet per second from October 1989 to September 1992. Specific conductance throughout Matlacha Pass ranged from less than 1,000 to 57,000 microsiemens per centimeter. Specific conductance, collected from a continuous monitoring data logger in the middle of the pass from February to September 1992, averaged 36,000 microsiemens per centimeter at 2 feet below the water surface and 40,000 microsiemens per centimeter at 2 feet above the bottom. During both the wet and dry seasons, specific conductance indicated that the primary mixing of tidal waters and freshwater inflow occurs in the mangrove swamps along the shoreline.

  16. Does the endolymph pass through the base of the cupula?

    PubMed

    Jijiwa, H; Watanabe, N; Hattori, T; Matuda, F; Hashiba, M; Mizuno, Y; Shindo, M; Watanabe, S

    2001-01-01

    Whether the endolymph of the semicircular canal passes the cupular partition or not was examined using the lateral semicircular canal system of adult pigeons (Columba livia). By applying various pressures by means of injection of a dye solution through the membranous canal, it was found that the dye solution, was seen to pass the cupula even under very low pressures when the pressure was increased gradually. When pulled by a magnet, the ultrafine particles of the dextran magnetite contained in the injected fluid were found to pass through the subcupular space without evident increase of the ampullary pressure.

  17. Does the endolymph pass through the base of the cupula?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jijiwa, H.; Watanabe, N.; Hattori, T.; Matuda, F.; Hashiba, M.; Mizuno, Y.; Shindo, M.; Watanabe, S.

    2001-08-01

    Whether the endolymph of the semicircular canal passes the cupular partition or not was examined using the lateral semicircular canal system of adult pigeons (Columba livia). By applying various pressures by means of injection of a dye solution through the membranous canal, it was found that the dye solution was seen to pass the cupula even under very low pressures when the pressure was increased gradually. When pulled by a magnet, the ultrafine particles of the dextran magnetite contained in the injected fluid were found to pass through the subcupular space without evident increase of the ampullary pressure.

  18. CONTEXT VIEW SHOWING MODERN TRACKS PASSING UNDER HULETTS AND ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW SHOWING MODERN TRACKS PASSING UNDER HULETTS AND ORE YARD. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. Some Psychoacoustical Experiments with All-Pass Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    All-pass filter systems can be used in laboratory experiments in the physics and psychophysics of sound and music. Particular applications, such as lateralization of sounds in headphone listening, are presented. (BB)

  20. Phobos Passes in Front of Sun's Face, Nov. 9, 2010

    NASA Video Gallery

    The larger of the two moons of Mars, Phobos, transits (passes in front of) the sun in this approximately true-speed movie simulation using images from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars E...

  1. Rainfall Totals from the Tropical Cyclones Passing Over Philippines

    NASA Video Gallery

    Rainfall totals from the TRMM satellite of all tropical cyclones that passed through the Philippines from January through November 11, 2013. Red indicated areas where rainfall totals were greater t...

  2. ELEVATION VIEW NORTH AS AQUEDUCT PASSES OVER CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT. COVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELEVATION VIEW NORTH AS AQUEDUCT PASSES OVER CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT. COVERED PART OF SIPHON ON DIRECT LINE WITH VERTICAL PIPE IN FOREGROUND - Los Angeles Aqueduct, California Aqueduct, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 5. VIEW OF TRAIL WHERE IT PASSES THROUGH SAGE AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF TRAIL WHERE IT PASSES THROUGH SAGE AREA, OWL CREEK IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. VIEW LOOKING EAST - Hole-in-the-Rock Trail, Running From Bluff Vicinity to Escalante, Garfield County, Bluff, San Juan County, UT

  4. Redwood tanks with pipeline on trestle passing behind. Old rain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Redwood tanks with pipeline on trestle passing behind. Old rain shed (Building No. 43) can be seen at right behind the trestle. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  5. 48 CFR 652.237-71 - Identification/Building Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... letter to the company Facility Security Officer (FSO) notifying them that the individual may proceed to... building pass can be issued, DS/ISP/INB shall notify the FSO and the COR that the applicant has...

  6. S316, GUARD TOWER ON KOLEKOLE PASS RD. Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    S316, GUARD TOWER ON KOLEKOLE PASS RD. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Off Dent Road & on Kolekole Road near north boundary of installation, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Pass over Eastern Asia to Philippine Sea and Guam

    NASA Video Gallery

    This pass begins over Mongolia, looking towards the Pacific Ocean, China, and Japan. As the video progresses, you can see major cities along the coast and the Japanese islands on the Philippine Sea...

  8. Search for plutonium-244 tracks in mountain pass bastnaesite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischer, R.L.; Naeser, C.W.

    1972-01-01

    WE have found that bastnaesite, a rare earth fluorocarbonate, from the Precambrian Mountain Pass deposit has an apparent Cretaceous fission track age, and hence does not reveal any anomalous fission tracks due to 244Pu. ?? 1972 Nature Publishing Group.

  9. 49 CFR 383.135 - Minimum passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE... score on such knowledge test. (b) To achieve a passing score on the skills test, the driver...

  10. Band pass filters. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-04-01

    A bibliography containing 242 abstracts addressing the design, fabrication, characterization, and application of band pass filters is presented. Radiofrequency, digital, acoustic surface wave, and X-ray filters are included.

  11. 47 CFR 6.9 - Information pass through.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE, TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT AND CUSTOMER PREMISES EQUIPMENT BY PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 6.9 Information pass through. Telecommunications equipment and customer premises...

  12. Computational analysis of flow field around Ahmed car model passing underneath a flyover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Md Nor; Osman, Kahar; Hamat, Ab Malik A.

    2012-06-01

    A flow structure around a ground vehicle has been studied by many researchers using numerous methods, either computational or experimental. However, no analysis of flow field generated by a car passing under a flyover has been carried out. One of the famous simplified models of a car is the Ahmed body that has been established to investigate the influence of the flow structure on the drag. In this paper, we investigate a flow field around Ahmed body of a single cruising condition as the vehicle passes under a flyover, using a computational method with RANS equation. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the turbulence kinetic energy and velocity magnitude developed within the wall boundary created by the flyover, to the air flow field that is generated by the Ahmed reference car. It was observed that the simulated airflow passes the vehicle was bounded by the wall of the flyover and consequently changes the pattern of the flow field. Understanding the characteristic of this flow field under a flyover is essential if one wants to maximize the recovery of the dissipated energy which, for example, can be used to power a small vertical-axis wind turbine to produce and store electrical energy for lighting under the flyover.

  13. Analysis of passing sequences, shots and goals in soccer.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mike; Franks, Ian

    2005-05-01

    Early research into how goals were scored in association football (Reep and Benjamin, 1968) may have shaped the tactics of British football. Most coaches have been affected, to a greater or lesser extent, by the tactics referred to as the "long-ball game" or "direct play", which was a tactic employed as a consequence of this research. Data from these studies, published in the late 1960s, have been reconfirmed by analyses of different FIFA World Cup tournaments by several different research groups. In the present study, the number of passes that led to goals scored in two FIFA World Cup finals were analysed. The results conform to that of previous research, but when these data were normalized with respect to the frequency of the respective lengths of passing sequences, there were more goals scored from longer passing sequences than from shorter passing sequences. Teams produced significantly more shots per possession for these longer passing sequences, but the strike ratio of goals from shots is better for "direct play" than for "possession play". Finally, an analysis of the shooting data for successful and unsuccessful teams for different lengths of passing sequences in the 1990 FIFA World Cup finals indicated that, for successful teams, longer passing sequences produced more goals per possession than shorter passing sequences. For unsuccessful teams, neither tactic had a clear advantage. It was further concluded that the original work of Reep and Benjamin (1968), although a key landmark in football analysis, led only to a partial understanding of the phenomenon that was investigated.

  14. Gestalt-like representations hijack Chunk-and-Pass processing.

    PubMed

    Dumitru, Magda L

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C) make two related and somewhat contradictory claims, namely that the ever abstract language representations built during Chunk-and-Pass processing allow for ever greater interference from extra-linguistic information, and that it is nevertheless the language system that re-codes incoming information into abstract representations. I analyse these claims and discuss evidence suggesting that Gestalt-like representations hijack Chunk-and-Pass processing.

  15. ACLMPL: Portable and efficient message passing for MPPs

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, J.; Krogh, M.; Hansen, C.; McCormick, P. |; de Verdiere, G.C.

    1995-09-19

    This paper presents the Advanced Computing Lab Message Passing Library (ACLMPL). Modeled after Thinking Machines Corporation`s CMMD, ACLMPL is a high throughout, low latency communications library for building message passing applications. The library has been implemented on the Cray T3D, Thinking Machines CM-5, SGI workstations, and on top of PVM. On the Cray T3D, benchmarks show ACLMPL to be 4 to 7 times faster than MPI or PVM.

  16. Gestalt-like representations hijack Chunk-and-Pass processing.

    PubMed

    Dumitru, Magda L

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C) make two related and somewhat contradictory claims, namely that the ever abstract language representations built during Chunk-and-Pass processing allow for ever greater interference from extra-linguistic information, and that it is nevertheless the language system that re-codes incoming information into abstract representations. I analyse these claims and discuss evidence suggesting that Gestalt-like representations hijack Chunk-and-Pass processing. PMID:27562687

  17. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  18. Experimental and Computational Study of Trapped Vortex Combustor Sector Rig with Tri-pass Diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.; Burrus, D. L.; Duncan, B. S.; Ryder, R. C.; Brankovic, A.; Liu, N.-S.; Gallagher, J. R.; Hendricks, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) potentially offers numerous operational advantages over current production gas turbine engine combustors. These include lower weight, lower pollutant emissions, effective flame stabilization, high combustion efficiency, excellent high altitude relight capability, and operation in the lean burn or RQL (Rich burn/Quick mix/Lean burn) modes of combustion. The present work describes the operational principles of the TVC, and provides detailed performance data on a configuration featuring a tri-pass diffusion system. Performance data include EINOx (NO(sub x) emission index) results for various fuel-air ratios and combustor residence times, combustion efficiency as a function of combustor residence time, and combustor lean blow-out (LBO) performance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations using liquid spray droplet evaporation and combustion modeling are performed and related to flow structures observed in photographs of the combustor. The CFD results are used to understand the aerodynamics and combustion features under different fueling conditions. Performance data acquired to date are favorable in comparison to conventional gas turbine combustors. Further testing over a wider range of fuel-air ratios, fuel flow splits, and pressure ratios is in progress to explore the TVC performance. In addition, alternate configurations for the upstream pressure feed, including bi-pass diffusion schemes, as well as variations on the fuel injection patterns, are currently in test and evaluation phases.

  19. Ultra-compact broadband higher order-mode pass filter fabricated in a silicon waveguide for multimode photonics.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaowei; Ding, Yunhong; Frandsen, Lars H

    2015-08-15

    An ultra-compact and broadband higher order-mode pass filter in a 1D photonic crystal silicon waveguide is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The photonic crystal is designed for the lower order mode to work in the photonic band gap, while the higher order mode is located in the air band. Consequently, light on the lower order mode is prohibited to pass through the filter, while light on a higher order mode can be converted to a Bloch mode in the photonic crystal and pass through the filter with low insertion loss. As an example, we fabricate a ∼15-μm-long first-order-mode pass filter that filters out the fundamental mode and provides a measured insertion loss of ∼1.8  dB for the first-order-mode pass signals. The extinction ratio is measured to be around 50 dB (with a variation of ±10  dB due to the detection limitation of the measurement setup) in the measured wavelength range from 1480 to 1580 nm. Additionally, calculations predict the extinction ratio to be larger than 50 dB in a 170 nm broad bandwidth.

  20. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  1. Effect of ball mass on dribble, pass, and pass reception in 9-11-year-old boys' basketball.

    PubMed

    Arias, José L; Argudo, Francisco M; Alonso, José I

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of ball mass on dribble, pass, and pass reception in real game situations in 9-11-year-old boys' basketball. Participants were 54 boys identified from six federated teams. The independent variable was ball mass, and dependent variables were number of dribbles, passes, and pass receptions. Three situations were established in which the participants played four games with each of the following: (a) regulation ball (485 g, 69-71 cm), (b) ball of smaller mass (440 g, 69-71 cm), and (c) ball of greater mass (540 g, 69-71 cm). Four observers recorded data from observing game videos using a computerized register instrument. Participants executed more dribbles, passes, and pass receptions with the 440g ball when compared to the regulation (p < .05) and 540g ball (p < .01). Reduction of ball mass seems to have enabled the children to go from paying attention to aspects related to ball handling to aspects of game interpretation.

  2. PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems: A new approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Poles, T.; Anderson, D.R.; Durilla, M.; Heck, R.; Hoke, J.; Ober, R.; Rudy, W.

    1996-12-01

    PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems represents a new approach to air pollution control--one that focuses on destroying pollutants already in the air. PremAir is the trademark for a family of developmental catalysts capable of reducing ozone, carbon monoxide and potentially other pollutants in ambient air that comes into contact with catalyst-coated surfaces. The more air that comes into contact with the surface the more pollutants that can be destroyed. For this reason, Engelhard has focused its attention on heat-exchange equipment such as automotive radiators and air-conditioner condensers. It is because of advances in catalysis achieved at Engelhard that PremAir catalysts are active at the low temperatures found in these environments. In Los Angeles, which has the country`s worst smog problem, approximately one trillion cubic feet per day of air pass through car radiators and five trillion cubic feet per day pass through air conditioners. Most of the research, development and testing work performed to date has been on ozone catalysts and their application to car radiators. This paper discusses that work and the potential benefits associated with the PremAir technology. In addition, preliminary work on stationary applications of this new technology is discussed.

  3. 75 FR 62512 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY... September 7, 2010, by Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC (Sabine Pass), requesting long-term, multi-contract... Pass in conjunction with the development of the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project (Liquefaction...

  4. Maximizing Number of Passes in Recirculating Energy Recovery Linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, S. Alex

    2016-03-01

    The next generation of high energy recirculating linear accelerators (RLAs) will rely on the energy recovery (ER) process for their extreme high current operation. Here, we discuss optimum design of multi-pass linac optics for an RLA based on a large scale superconducting linac. Initial strategy used in the design of 60 GeV, 6 pass RLA for the LHeC, has been extended to 10 passes for the proposed CEBAF ER experiment. The presented optimization scheme addresses overall beam transport performance, as well as specific beam dynamics issues, such as, beam stability due to collective effects. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  5. Standards for message-passing in a distributed memory environment

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    This report presents a summary of the main ideas presented at the First CRPC Work-shop on Standards for Message Passing in a Distributed Memory Environment, held April 29-30, 1992, in Williamsburg, Virginia. This workshop attracted 68 attendees including representative from major hardware and software vendors, and was the first in a series of workshops sponsored by the Center for Research on Parallel Computation. The aim of this series of workshops is to develop and implement a standard for message passing on distributed memory concurrent computers, thereby making it easier to develop efficient, portable application codes for such machines. The report discusses the main issues raised in the CRPC workshop, and describes proposed desirable features of a message passing standard for distributed memory environments.

  6. Validation of the G-PASS code : status report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R. B.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-12

    Validation is the process of determining whether the models in a computer code can describe the important phenomena in applications of interest. This report describes past work and proposed future work for validating the Gas Plant Analyzer and System Simulator (G-PASS) code. The G-PASS code was developed for simulating gas reactor and chemical plant system behavior during operational transients and upset events. Results are presented comparing code properties, individual component models, and integrated system behavior against results from four other computer codes. Also identified are two experiment facilities nearing completion that will provide additional data for individual component and integrated system model validation. The main goal of the validation exercise is to ready a version of G-PASS for use as a tool in evaluating vendor designs and providing guidance to vendors on design directions in nuclear-hydrogen applications.

  7. Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) study. Fiscal year 1989 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sue, Miles K. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is exploring the potential and feasibility of a personal access satellite system (PASS) that will offer the user greater freedom and mobility than existing or currently planned communications systems. Studies performed in prior years resulted in a strawman design and the identification of technologies that are critical to the successful implementation of PASS. The study efforts in FY-89 were directed towards alternative design options with the objective of either improving the system performance or alleviating the constraints on the user terminal. The various design options and system issues studied this year and the results of the study are presented.

  8. Air turbo-ramjet engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kepler, C.E.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a jet engine capable of being used to power an aircraft throughout a range of speeds from subsonic to high supersonic. It comprises means for bounding an internal passage centered on an axis and including, in succession as considered in the direction of axial flow of incoming air into and through the passage, a fixed-area air inlet section, a diverging passage section, a mixing section, a combustion section, and an outlet section; fan means situated in the air inlet section and including a rotor mounted in the bounding means for rotation about the axis and including a plurality of circumferentially spaced rotor blade members; means for selectively rotating the rotor about the axis with attendant impelling action of the rotor blade members on the air flowing therebetween; and means for selectively discharging air from a region of the passage situated between the air inlet section and the diverging passage section to the exterior of the bounding means, both at subsonic and supersonic speeds of the aircraft, when the amount of incoming air passing through the fixed-area inlet section exceeds that required in the combustion section.

  9. Earth-air heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Kammel, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Optimizing the thermal environment of a livestock building is beneficial to the growth and production of the animal. Minimizing temperature extremes of inlet ventilation air to the livestock building by passing the air through underground ducts would accomplish this goal. Providing this optimum environment by reducing heating and cooling loads would reduce energy costs and increase profits for the producer. The heat transfer in an earth-air heat exchanger was studied in two phases to develop design criteria for these systems. The experimental phase consisted of an earth-air exchanger installation from which data were collected during hot weather (cooling effect), cold weather (heating effect), and mild weather performances. The analytical phase developed a finite element program for simulating the earth-air heat exchanger and studying the effects of important parameters on the heat transfer rate and the air temperature. Results of the first phase were used to verify the computer model. Design criteria for the earth-air heat exchanger were determined based on the information obtained in the two phases of this study.

  10. Just passing through: the effect of the Master Settlement Agreement on estimated cigarette tax price pass-through

    PubMed Central

    Lillard, Dean R.; Sfekas, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, cigarette manufacturers and state attorneys general in the United States settled a group of lawsuits in an agreement known as the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA). Among the provisions of this agreement were a set of mandated escrow payments to the states that would be based on cigarette sales. The result of these provisions is that the apparent relationship between taxes and prices changed substantially following implementation of the MSA. This article estimates whether the MSA escrow amounts are reflected in prices and compares the pass-through rate of state and federal cigarette taxes only and the rate when one adds escrow payments. We find much different pass-through rates for the two measures. State and federal taxes are not fully passed to smokers. In years that escrow payments were made, cigarette prices increased by more than the sum of the state and federal taxes and the escrow payments. PMID:24465153

  11. BMM SEPARATION SCREEN PERMITS SAND TO PASS TO BELT CONVEYORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BMM SEPARATION SCREEN PERMITS SAND TO PASS TO BELT CONVEYORS BELOW THAT TRANSPORT THE SAND BACK TO STORAGE AND RECONDITIONING BINS WHILE CASTINGS ARE TRANSPORTED ON ADDITIONAL VIBRATING CONVEYORS TO DEGATING AREAS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Shaking, Degating & Sand Systems, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Geochemistry of water at Cajon Pass, California: preliminary results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Ambats, G.; Evans, William C.; White, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    Samples of water and associated gases were collected from the Cajon Pass well using downhole samplers, and from the pipe stands at the completion of drill stem tests. Results of chemical analysis indicate major differences in the composition of water from different fracture systems. The differences in water composition indicate different evolutionary paths and isolation of water within relatively proximal fracture systems. -from Authors

  13. 47 CFR 7.9 - Information pass through.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Information pass through. 7.9 Section 7.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 7.9 Information...

  14. 75 FR 62690 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Grants Pass, Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Grants Pass, Oregon AGENCY: Federal Communications...(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed...--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for Part 73 continues to read as follows:...

  15. Teaching Texts Materially: The Ends of Nella Larsen's Passing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John K.

    2004-01-01

    A professor of English explains how literary piece of work goes under versions, revisions and publications loosing its material text. Nella Larsen's Passing has become one of the most widely read New Negro Renaissance material text in recent years, but it's end is really unknown to everyone.

  16. Note Passing and Gendered Discipline in Vietnamese Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    While researchers agree that note passing is predominantly an activity engaged in by girls, there has been relatively little consideration of why this is the case. In this article, I argue that gendered expectations about the appropriate characters of boys and girls in Vietnam are incorporated into the disciplinary framework of schools, and that…

  17. 36 CFR 13.918 - Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area. 13.918 Section 13.918 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  18. 36 CFR 13.918 - Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area. 13.918 Section 13.918 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  19. 36 CFR 13.918 - Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area. 13.918 Section 13.918 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  20. 36 CFR 13.918 - Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area. 13.918 Section 13.918 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  1. PASS Model Processes of Children with Emotional Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Christine E.; Nagle, Richard J.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    The cognitive styles of 40 children (ages 8-17) with serious emotional disturbance (SED) were investigated via their performance on Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive (PASS) model tasks as represented by the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (CAS). In the study, the children with SED and 40 typical children were administered the 14…

  2. 20 CFR 416.2096 - Basic pass-along rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Basic pass-along rules. 416.2096 Section 416.2096 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED State Supplementation Provisions; Agreement; Payments § 416.2096 Basic...

  3. 36 CFR 72.37 - Pass-through funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Innovation § 72.37 Pass-through funding. Section 1006(a)(1) of the Act states that at the... Innovation grants may be transferred in whole or in part to independent special purpose local governments... rehabilitated or used for innovation, through lease or ownership. (vii) Establish a contractual agreement...

  4. 36 CFR 72.37 - Pass-through funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Innovation § 72.37 Pass-through funding. Section 1006(a)(1) of the Act states that at the... Innovation grants may be transferred in whole or in part to independent special purpose local governments... rehabilitated or used for innovation, through lease or ownership. (vii) Establish a contractual agreement...

  5. 33 CFR 401.31 - Meeting and passing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meeting and passing. 401.31 Section 401.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... between the caution signs at bridges or within any area that is designated as a “no meeting area” by...

  6. Stabilized Alkali-Metal Ultraviolet-Band-Pass Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, Nick; Fraschetti, George A.; Mccann, Timothy; Mayall, Sherwood D.; Dunn, Donald E.; Trauger, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Layers of bismuth 5 to 10 angstrom thick incorporated into alkali-metal ultraviolet-band-pass optical filters by use of advanced fabrication techniques. In new filters layer of bismuth helps to reduce surface migration of sodium. Sodium layer made more stable and decreased tendency to form pinholes by migration.

  7. U.S. Senate Passes Digital Copyright Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Open Forum, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Highlights key aspects of and issues related to the "Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998," a bill passed by the U.S. Senate on May 14, 1998. Discussion includes banning of black boxes (i.e., technological-protection measures such as tv signal scramblers), fair-use protection, identification of copyrighted works, protection for Internet…

  8. 20 CFR 416.2096 - Basic pass-along rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basic pass-along rules. 416.2096 Section 416.2096 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED... 1977 and April 1983 if the supplementary payment levels have not been reduced below the levels...

  9. 20 CFR 416.2096 - Basic pass-along rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Basic pass-along rules. 416.2096 Section 416.2096 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED... 1977 and April 1983 if the supplementary payment levels have not been reduced below the levels...

  10. 47 CFR 7.9 - Information pass through.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Information pass through. 7.9 Section 7.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND..., signal compression technologies shall not remove information needed for access or shall restore it...

  11. 47 CFR 6.9 - Information pass through.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Information pass through. 6.9 Section 6.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE, TELECOMMUNICATIONS... achievable. In particular, signal compression technologies shall not remove information needed for access...

  12. 16. Boiler room, view looking east showing three, four pass ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Boiler room, view looking east showing three, four pass horizontal Cleaver Brooks Package Boilers, 1-150 H.P. and 2-200 H.P., 6900 lbs/hour and 5175 lbs/hour, 200 PSI - East Boston Pumping Station, Chelsea Street at Chelsea Creek, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. Amplified spontaneous emission in a single pass free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Li Hua; Krinsky, S.

    1988-01-01

    We discuss the relationship of the effective start-up noise in a single pass free electron laser to the spontaneous radiation emitted in the initial gain length of the wiggler magnet. Also, it is noted that the number of modes in the output is related to the phase space volume occupied by the spontaneous radiation emitted in the first gain length. 12 refs.

  14. 36 CFR 72.37 - Pass-through funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Innovation § 72.37 Pass-through funding. Section 1006(a)(1) of the Act states that at the... Innovation grants may be transferred in whole or in part to independent special purpose local governments... rehabilitated or used for innovation, through lease or ownership. (vii) Establish a contractual agreement...

  15. The Push to Pass: Merits of Intervention in Precalculus Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascal, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    A portion of all students in introductory or developmental undergraduate mathematics courses find themselves at an unfortunate tipping point: the border between passing and failing. These high-stakes courses often come with high enrollments, and a recurring problem: high failure rates. The measure of success used at the author's institution, the…

  16. 47 CFR 7.9 - Information pass through.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., signal compression technologies shall not remove information needed for access or shall restore it upon... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information pass through. 7.9 Section 7.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES...

  17. U.S.: PEPFAR reauthorization bills pass House, Senate committee.

    PubMed

    Dolinsky, Anna

    2008-07-01

    On 2 April 2008, the U.S. House of Representatives passed a bill (H.R. 5501) to reauthorize the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). The House bill would authorize the appropriation of US$50 billion over the next five years--40 percent more than the US$30 billion requested by President George W. Bush.

  18. KITCHEN SHOWING THE PASS THRU TO DINING ROOM. NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    KITCHEN SHOWING THE PASS THRU TO DINING ROOM. NOTE THE CANEC PANEL CEILING. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. DINING ROOM SHOWING DOOR TO LANAI AND PASS THRU TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DINING ROOM SHOWING DOOR TO LANAI AND PASS THRU TO KITCHEN (RIGHT). VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Cumberland Extension entering Magnolia Bend in West Virginia. After passing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cumberland Extension entering Magnolia Bend in West Virginia. After passing over the Third Potomac and C&O Canal Crossing, the line curves over the former B&O Railroad at Bridge No. 1363, First B&O Crossing in foreground, looking northeast. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  1. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHTOFWAY PASSING OVER RAILROAD LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHT-OF-WAY PASSING OVER RAILROAD LINE FROM STONE QUARRY. TRACKS ARE GONE BUT RIGHT-OF-WAY IS STILL VISIBLE. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Quarry Railroad Bridge, Aqueduct Lane at Williams Street, Hastings-on-Hudson, Westchester County, NY

  2. Evaluating low pass filters on SPECT reconstructed cardiac orientation estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Shekhar

    2009-02-01

    Low pass filters can affect the quality of clinical SPECT images by smoothing. Appropriate filter and parameter selection leads to optimum smoothing that leads to a better quantification followed by correct diagnosis and accurate interpretation by the physician. This study aims at evaluating the low pass filters on SPECT reconstruction algorithms. Criteria for evaluating the filters are estimating the SPECT reconstructed cardiac azimuth and elevation angle. Low pass filters studied are butterworth, gaussian, hamming, hanning and parzen. Experiments are conducted using three reconstruction algorithms, FBP (filtered back projection), MLEM (maximum likelihood expectation maximization) and OSEM (ordered subsets expectation maximization), on four gated cardiac patient projections (two patients with stress and rest projections). Each filter is applied with varying cutoff and order for each reconstruction algorithm (only butterworth used for MLEM and OSEM). The azimuth and elevation angles are calculated from the reconstructed volume and the variation observed in the angles with varying filter parameters is reported. Our results demonstrate that behavior of hamming, hanning and parzen filter (used with FBP) with varying cutoff is similar for all the datasets. Butterworth filter (cutoff > 0.4) behaves in a similar fashion for all the datasets using all the algorithms whereas with OSEM for a cutoff < 0.4, it fails to generate cardiac orientation due to oversmoothing, and gives an unstable response with FBP and MLEM. This study on evaluating effect of low pass filter cutoff and order on cardiac orientation using three different reconstruction algorithms provides an interesting insight into optimal selection of filter parameters.

  3. 36 CFR 13.918 - Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area. 13.918 Section 13.918 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  4. The Western Maryland Rail Trail passes high above the canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    The Western Maryland Rail Trail passes high above the canal and behind the surviving remains of the Round Top cement works, milepost 120, looking northwest. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  5. Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS): Does Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geerlings, Peter M.; Cole, Helen; Batt, Sharryn; Martin-Lynch, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Peer-learning is an effective way to assist students to acquire study skills and content knowledge, especially in university courses that students find difficult, and it is an effective adjunct to improve student retention. In 2014, Murdoch University in Perth, Western Australia, commenced Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) in two first-year…

  6. A Compact Double-pass Raman Backscattering Amplifier/Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jun

    2007-11-01

    The resonant Stimulated Raman backscattering (SRBS) amplifier/compressor in plasma has been shown to move towards reaching ultra-high laser intensities [1,2]. However, the achieved energy transfer efficiency from pump to seed is still much below that predicted by theory [3]. We will present the enhancement of SRBS by introducing the proper plasma density gradient along the pump/seed interaction path. The energy transfer efficiency was significantly improved. The seed pulse was amplified by a factor of more than 10,000 from the input in a 2mm long plasma, which also exceeded the intensity of the pump pulse by almost 2 orders of magnitude. Moreover, this amplification was accompanied by very effective pulse compression, from 500 fsec down to 90 fsec, in a single pass. SRBS was further improved by a novel double-pass design, in which ``left over'' of the pump from the first pass and amplified seed were passed through the same plasma for another round of interaction. The energy transfer efficiency was increased by another factor of ˜ 2 and the pulse was compressed down to˜50 fsec without increasing the size and cost of the system. The crucial result of the two-pass experiment was a very significant improvement in the efficiency of the system, with a 6.4% energy transfer from the pump to the ultra-short pulses. This result was more than a factor of 6 improvements in comparison to the best of our previous results [2], which makes this SRBS amplifier/compressor close to a practical device. [1] Y. Ping, W. Cheng, and S. Suckewer, Phys.Rev.Lett. 92, 175007 (2004). [2] W. Cheng, Y. Avitzour, Y. Ping, S. Suckewer, N. J. Fisch, M. S. Hur, and J. S. Wurtele Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 045003 (2005). [3] V. M. Malkin, G. Shvets, and N. J. Fisch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4448 (1999).

  7. Piloted rich-catalytic lean-burn hybrid combustor

    DOEpatents

    Newburry, Donald Maurice

    2002-01-01

    A catalytic combustor assembly which includes, an air source, a fuel delivery means, a catalytic reactor assembly, a mixing chamber, and a means for igniting a fuel/air mixture. The catalytic reactor assembly is in fluid communication with the air source and fuel delivery means and has a fuel/air plenum which is coated with a catalytic material. The fuel/air plenum has cooling air conduits passing therethrough which have an upstream end. The upstream end of the cooling conduits is in fluid communication with the air source but not the fuel delivery means.

  8. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  9. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  10. [Air-borne disease].

    PubMed

    Lameiro Vilariño, Carmen; del Campo Pérez, Victor M; Alonso Bürger, Susana; Felpeto Nodar, Irene; Guimarey Pérez, Rosa; Pérez Alvarellos, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    Respiratory protection is a factor which worries nursing professionals who take care of patients susceptible of transmitting microorganisms through the air more as every day passes. This type of protection covers the use of surgical or hygienic masks against the transmission of infection by airborne drops to the use of highly effective masks or respirators against the transmission of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis or SARS, a recently discovered disease. The adequate choice of this protective device and its correct use are fundamental in order to have an effective protection for exposed personnel. The authors summarize the main protective respiratory devices used by health workers, their characteristics and degree of effectiveness, as well as the circumstances under which each device is indicated for use. PMID:14705591

  11. Statistics of Epidemics in Networks by Passing Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Munik Kumar

    Epidemic processes are common out-of-equilibrium phenomena of broad interdisciplinary interest. In this thesis, we show how message-passing approach can be a helpful tool for simulating epidemic models in disordered medium like networks, and in particular for estimating the probability that a given node will become infectious at a particular time. The sort of dynamics we consider are stochastic, where randomness can arise from the stochastic events or from the randomness of network structures. As in belief propagation, variables or messages in message-passing approach are defined on the directed edges of a network. However, unlike belief propagation, where the posterior distributions are updated according to Bayes' rule, in message-passing approach we write differential equations for the messages over time. It takes correlations between neighboring nodes into account while preventing causal signals from backtracking to their immediate source, and thus avoids "echo chamber effects" where a pair of adjacent nodes each amplify the probability that the other is infectious. In our first results, we develop a message-passing approach to threshold models of behavior popular in sociology. These are models, first proposed by Granovetter, where individuals have to hear about a trend or behavior from some number of neighbors before adopting it themselves. In thermodynamic limit of large random networks, we provide an exact analytic scheme while calculating the time dependence of the probabilities and thus learning about the whole dynamics of bootstrap percolation, which is a simple model known in statistical physics for exhibiting discontinuous phase transition. As an application, we apply a similar model to financial networks, studying when bankruptcies spread due to the sudden devaluation of shared assets in overlapping portfolios. We predict that although diversification may be good for individual institutions, it can create dangerous systemic effects, and as a result

  12. Air compliance goals to crystallize in 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    In 1990, Congress enacted a sweeping overhaul to the Clean Air Act known as the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). One of the most complicated and comprehensive pieces of environmental legislation ever passed, the amendments have resulted in substantial regulatory changes at the federal and state levels. The year 1995 promises more of the same as regulations previously proposed are finalized and EPA proposes new regulations. Key regulatory programs include the Title V operating permit program, the enhanced monitoring rule under Title V, the low emission vehicle program and the hazardous air pollutants maximum achievable control technology (MACT) rules under Title III.

  13. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    zoster, whereas close contact is required for the direct transmission of infectious diseases transmitted by droplets, such as influenza (the flu) and SARS. The Technology In-room air cleaners are supplied as portable or fixed devices. Fixed devices can be attached to either a wall or ceiling and are preferred over portable units because they have a greater degree of reliability (if installed properly) for achieving adequate room air mixing and airflow patterns, which are important for optimal effectiveness. Through a method of air recirculation, an in-room air cleaner can be used to increase room ventilation rates and if used to exhaust air out of the room it can create a negative-pressure room for airborne infection isolation (AII) when the building’s HVAC system cannot do so. A negative-pressure room is one where clean air flows into the room but contaminated air does not flow out of it. Contaminated room air is pulled into the in-room air cleaner and cleaned by passing through a series of filters, which remove the airborne infectious pathogens. The cleaned air is either recirculated into the room or exhausted outside the building. By filtering contaminated room air and then recirculating the cleaned air into the room, an in-room air cleaner can improve the room’s ventilation. By exhausting the filtered air to the outside the unit can create a negative-pressure room. There are many types of in-room air cleaners. They vary widely in the airflow rates through the unit, the type of air cleaning technology used, and the technical design. Crucial to maximizing the efficiency of any in-room air cleaner is its strategic placement and set-up within a room, which should be done in consultation with ventilation engineers, infection control experts, and/or industrial hygienists. A poorly positioned air cleaner may disrupt airflow patterns within the room and through the air cleaner, thereby compromising its air cleaning efficiency. The effectiveness of an in-room air cleaner

  14. Urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  15. Carbon fiber composite molecular sieve electrically regenerable air filter media

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, K.A.; Burchell, T.D.; Judkins, R.R.

    1998-10-27

    An electrically regenerable gas filter system includes a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) filter medium. After a separate medium-efficiency pre-filter removes particulate from the supply air stream, the CFCMS filter sorbs gaseous air pollutants before the air is recirculated to the space. When saturated, the CFCMS media is regenerated utilizing a low-voltage current that is caused to pass through the filter medium. 3 figs.

  16. Optically tunable acoustic wave band-pass filter

    SciTech Connect

    Swinteck, N.; Lucas, P.; Deymier, P. A.

    2014-12-15

    The acoustic properties of a hybrid composite that exhibits both photonic and phononic behavior are investigated numerically with finite-element and finite-difference time-domain simulations. The structure is constituted of a periodic array of photonic resonant cavities embedded in a background superlattice. The resonant cavities contain a photo-elastic chalcogenide glass that undergoes atomic-scale structural reorganization when irradiated with light having energy close to its band-gap. Photo-excitation of the chalcogenide glass changes its elastic properties and, consequently, augments the acoustic transmission spectrum of the composite. By modulating the intensity of light irradiating the hybrid photonic/phononic structure, the position and spectral width of phonon passing-bands can be controlled. This demonstration offers the technological platform for optically-tunable acoustic wave band-pass filters.

  17. Location constrained approximate message passing for compressed sensing MRI.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kyunghyun; Daniel, Bruce L; Hargreaves, Brian A

    2013-08-01

    Iterative thresholding methods have been extensively studied as faster alternatives to convex optimization methods for solving large-sized problems in compressed sensing. A novel iterative thresholding method called LCAMP (Location Constrained Approximate Message Passing) is presented for reducing computational complexity and improving reconstruction accuracy when a nonzero location (or sparse support) constraint can be obtained from view shared images. LCAMP modifies the existing approximate message passing algorithm by replacing the thresholding stage with a location constraint, which avoids adjusting regularization parameters or thresholding levels. This work is first compared with other conventional reconstruction methods using random one-dimention signals and then applied to dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging to demonstrate the excellent reconstruction accuracy (less than 2% absolute difference) and low computation time (5-10 s using Matlab) with highly undersampled three-dimentional data (244 × 128 × 48; overall reduction factor = 10). PMID:23042658

  18. A search for stars passing close to the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, J.; Preston, R. A.; Jones, D. L.; Weissman, P. R.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Latham, D. W.; Stefanik, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    Hipparcos proper motion and parallax data are combined for nearby stars with ground-based radial velocity measurements in order to identify stars which may have passed, or will pass, close enough to the sun to perturb the Oort cloud. Close stellar encounters could deflect large numbers of comets into the inner solar system, with possible serious consequences for impact hazards on the earth. Only one star, Gliese 710 is found with a predicted closest approach of less than 0.5 pc, although several stars come within 1 pc during a 8.5 M year interval. In most cases, the uncertainty in closest approach distance is dominated by uncertainties in the barycenter motion of binary systems. A program to obtain new radial velocities for stars in the sample with no previously published values is underway.

  19. Doppler lidar results from the San Gorgonio Pass experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, W. C.; Skarda, J. R.; Renne, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    During FY-84, the Doppler Lidar data from the San Gorgonio Pass experiments were analyzed, evaluated, and interpreted with regard to signal strength, signal width, magnitude and direction of velocity component and a goodness parameter associated with the expected noise level of the signal. From these parameters, a screening criteria was developed to eliminate questionable data. For the most part analysis supports the validity of Doppler Lidar data obtained at San Gorgonio Pass with respect to the mean velocity magnitude and direction. The question as to whether the Doppler width could be interpreted as a measure of the variance of the turbulence within the Doppler Lidar System (DLS) focal volume was not resolved. The stochastic nature of the Doppler broadening from finite residence time of the particles in the beam as well as other Doppler broadening phenomenon tend to mask the Doppler spread associated with small scale turbulence. Future tests with longer pulses may assist in better understanding.

  20. 50 omega characteristic impedance low-pass metal powder filters.

    PubMed

    Milliken, F P; Rozen, J R; Keefe, G A; Koch, R H

    2007-02-01

    We have fabricated several 50 omega characteristic impedance low-pass metal powder filters. The filters are made with bronze or copper metal powder with varying amounts of metal powder in a metal powder/epoxy mixture. Our goal is to make a filter with a characteristic impedance Z = 50 omega at frequencies up to 10 GHz. Using a 78% bronze powder/epoxy mixture in a suitable geometry, we achieved an impedance Z = 54 omega at 4.2 K, with a cutoff frequency fc approximately/= 0.3 GHz and an attenuation A = Vout/Vin=0.0001 (-80 dB) at 10 GHz. We also made several non-50 omega low-pass bronze powder filters with fc = 1 MHz and A = 0.0001 at 10 MHz. Fabrication details and performance data will be presented for both types of filter.

  1. Optically tunable acoustic wave band-pass filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinteck, N.; Lucas, P.; Deymier, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The acoustic properties of a hybrid composite that exhibits both photonic and phononic behavior are investigated numerically with finite-element and finite-difference time-domain simulations. The structure is constituted of a periodic array of photonic resonant cavities embedded in a background superlattice. The resonant cavities contain a photo-elastic chalcogenide glass that undergoes atomic-scale structural reorganization when irradiated with light having energy close to its band-gap. Photo-excitation of the chalcogenide glass changes its elastic properties and, consequently, augments the acoustic transmission spectrum of the composite. By modulating the intensity of light irradiating the hybrid photonic/phononic structure, the position and spectral width of phonon passing-bands can be controlled. This demonstration offers the technological platform for optically-tunable acoustic wave band-pass filters.

  2. Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression via Approximate Message Passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Evan; Schniter, Philip

    2016-11-01

    For the problem of multi-class linear classification and feature selection, we propose approximate message passing approaches to sparse multinomial logistic regression (MLR). First, we propose two algorithms based on the Hybrid Generalized Approximate Message Passing (HyGAMP) framework: one finds the maximum a posteriori (MAP) linear classifier and the other finds an approximation of the test-error-rate minimizing linear classifier. Then we design computationally simplified variants of these two algorithms. Next, we detail methods to tune the hyperparameters of their assumed statistical models using Stein's unbiased risk estimate (SURE) and expectation-maximization (EM), respectively. Finally, using both synthetic and real-world datasets, we demonstrate improved error-rate and runtime performance relative to existing state-of-the-art approaches to sparse MLR.

  3. Fish pass assessment by remote control: a novel framework for quantifying the hydraulics at fish pass entrances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Blackburn, Kim; Gill, Andrew; Breckon, Toby; Everard, Nick; Wright, Ros; Rivas Casado, Monica

    2014-05-01

    Fragmentation of aquatic habitats can lead to the extinction of migratory fish species with severe negative consequences at the ecosystem level and thus opposes the target of good ecological status of rivers defined in the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). In the UK, the implementation of the EU WFD requires investments in fish pass facilities of estimated 532 million GBP (i.e. 639 million Euros) until 2027 to ensure fish passage at around 3,000 barriers considered critical. Hundreds of passes have been installed in the past. However, monitoring studies of fish passes around the world indicate that on average less than half of the fish attempting to pass such facilities are actually successful. There is a need for frameworks that allow the rapid identification of facilities that are biologically effective and those that require enhancement. Although there are many environmental characteristics that can affect fish passage success, past research suggests that variations in hydrodynamic conditions, reflected in water velocities, velocity gradients and turbulences, are the major cues that fish use to seek migration pathways in rivers. This paper presents the first steps taken in the development of a framework for the rapid field-based quantification of the hydraulic conditions downstream of fish passes and the assessment of the attractivity of fish passes for salmonids and coarse fish in UK rivers. For this purpose, a small-sized remote control platform carrying an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), a GPS unit, a stereo camera and an inertial measurement unit has been developed. The large amount of data on water velocities and depths measured by the ADCP within relatively short time is used to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of water velocities. By matching these hydraulic features with known preferences of migratory fish, it is attempted to identify likely migration routes and aggregation areas at barriers as well as hydraulic features that

  4. Ontario passes new mandatory blood testing law: a preliminary review.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2007-05-01

    In December 2006, the Mandatory Blood Testing Act, 2006 passed third reading in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. When this new Act comes into force, it will replace the existing administrative system for forced blood testing, currently operating under Ontario's public health law. Responsibility for forced blood testing will shift from the Minister of Health and Long-Term Care to the Minister of Community Safety and Corrections. PMID:17715523

  5. Equivalent statistical bandwidths of conventional low-pass filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, W. D.; Peterson, S. J.

    1979-01-01

    Values of the equivalent statistical bandwidths of Butterworth up to ten poles and Chebyshev up to eight poles low-pass filters for six different passband ripple levels have been computed and tabulated along with the corresponding noise bandwidths. The results obtained can be used for estimating the mean-square error resulting from power spectrum measurements employed in the sensitivity analysis of microwave radiometer systems.

  6. Teaching Doppler Effect with a passing noise source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Ivan F.; Mocellin, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    The noise pitch variation of a passing noise source allows a low cost experimental approach to calculate speed and, for the first time, distance. We adjusted the recorded noise pitch variation to the Doppler shift equation for sound. We did this by taking into account the frequency delay due to the sound source displacement and performing a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the noise signal using free software. This experimental method was successfully applied to aircraft and automobiles.

  7. 1996 Budget finally passed; NASA delivers bad news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Seven months, 13 continuing resolutions, and several furloughs into the 1996 fiscal year, the U.S. government and its besieged science agencies now have a budget. On April 25, H.R. 3019, the omnibus spending appropriation for the rest of fiscal 1996 was passed by Congress and, on April 26, President Clinton signed the $163 billion spending bill into law, providing funds for nine cabinet departments and 38 federal agencies through September 30, 1996.

  8. Impact of Non-geostationary Orbits on PASS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, Polly; Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The use of satellites in non-geostationary orbits (NGO) for PASS (Personal Access Satellite System) is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) orbit parameters (circular and elliptical orbit characteristics); (2) link characteristics (Doppler shift, propagation loss, CONUS coverage antenna, multibeam antenna gain, and impact on link equations); (3) number of satellites required for continuous CONUS coverage (circular and elliptical orbit results); and (4) advantages and disadvantages of NGOs.

  9. One pass learning for generalized classifier neural network.

    PubMed

    Ozyildirim, Buse Melis; Avci, Mutlu

    2016-01-01

    Generalized classifier neural network introduced as a kind of radial basis function neural network, uses gradient descent based optimized smoothing parameter value to provide efficient classification. However, optimization consumes quite a long time and may cause a drawback. In this work, one pass learning for generalized classifier neural network is proposed to overcome this disadvantage. Proposed method utilizes standard deviation of each class to calculate corresponding smoothing parameter. Since different datasets may have different standard deviations and data distributions, proposed method tries to handle these differences by defining two functions for smoothing parameter calculation. Thresholding is applied to determine which function will be used. One of these functions is defined for datasets having different range of values. It provides balanced smoothing parameters for these datasets through logarithmic function and changing the operation range to lower boundary. On the other hand, the other function calculates smoothing parameter value for classes having standard deviation smaller than the threshold value. Proposed method is tested on 14 datasets and performance of one pass learning generalized classifier neural network is compared with that of probabilistic neural network, radial basis function neural network, extreme learning machines, and standard and logarithmic learning generalized classifier neural network in MATLAB environment. One pass learning generalized classifier neural network provides more than a thousand times faster classification than standard and logarithmic generalized classifier neural network. Due to its classification accuracy and speed, one pass generalized classifier neural network can be considered as an efficient alternative to probabilistic neural network. Test results show that proposed method overcomes computational drawback of generalized classifier neural network and may increase the classification performance.

  10. Switched Band-Pass Filters for Adaptive Transceivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ray

    2007-01-01

    Switched band-pass filters are key components of proposed adaptive, software- defined radio transceivers that would be parts of envisioned digital-data-communication networks that would enable real-time acquisition and monitoring of data from geographically distributed sensors. Examples of sensors to be connected to such networks include security cameras, radio-frequency identification units, and geolocation units based on the Global Positioning System. Through suitable software configuration and without changing hardware, these transceivers could be made to operate according to any of a number of complex wireless-communication standards that could be characterized by diverse modulation schemes, bandwidths, and data-handling protocols. The adaptive transceivers would include field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and digital signal-processing hardware. In the receiving path of a transceiver, the incoming signal would be amplified by a low-noise amplifier (LNA). The output spectrum of the LNA would be processed by a band-pass filter operating in the frequency range between 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz. Then a down-converter would translate the signal to a lower frequency range to facilitate analog-to-digital conversion, which would be followed by baseband processing by one or more FPGAs. In the transmitting path, a digital stream would first be converted to an analog signal, which would then be up-converted to a selected frequency band before being applied to a transmitting power amplifier. The aforementioned band-pass filter in the receiving path would be a combination of resonant inductor-and-capacitor filters and switched band-pass filters. The overall combination would implement a switch function designed mathematically to exhibit desired frequency responses and to switch the signal in each frequency band to an analog-to-digital converter appropriate for that band to produce a digital intermediate-frequency signal for digital signal processing.

  11. Physics/computer science. Passing messages between disciplines.

    PubMed

    Mézard, Marc

    2003-09-19

    Problems in computer science, such as error correction in information transfer and "satisfiability" in optimization, show phase transitions familiar from solid-state physics. In his Perspective, Mézard explains how recent advances in these three fields originate in similar "message passing" procedures. The exchange of elaborate messages between different variables and constraints, used in the study of phase transitions in physical systems, helps to make error correction and satisfiability codes more efficient.

  12. One pass core design of a super fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qingjie; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2013-07-01

    One pass core design for Supercritical-pressure light water-cooled fast reactor (Super FR) is proposed. The whole core is cooled with upward flow in one through flow pattern like PWR. Compared with the previous two pass core design; this new flow pattern can significantly simplify the core concept. Upper core structure, coolant flow scheme as well as refueling procedure are as simple as in PWR. In one pass core design, supercritical-pressure water is at approximately 25.0 MPa and enters the core at 280 C. degrees and is heated up in one through flow pattern upwardly to the average outlet temperature of 500 C. degrees. Great density change in vertical direction can cause significant axial power offset during the cycle. Meanwhile, Pu accumulated in the UO{sub 2} fuel blanket assemblies also introduces great power increase during cycle, which requires large amount of flow for heat removal and makes the outlet temperature of blanket low at the beginning of equilibrium cycle (BOEC). To deal with these issues, some MOX fuel is applied in the bottom region of the blanket assembly. This can help to mitigate the power change in blanket due to Pu accumulation and to increase the outlet temperature of the blanket during cycle. Neutron transport and thermohydraulics coupled calculation shows that this design can satisfy the requirement in the Super FR principle for both 500 C. degrees outlet temperature and negative coolant void reactivity. (authors)

  13. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  14. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  15. 75 FR 74029 - Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application November 22, 2010. Take notice that on November 12, 2010, Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street, Suite 800, Houston... directed to Patricia Outtrim, Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., 700 Milam Street, Suite 800, Houston, Texas 77002,...

  16. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of...

  17. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of...

  18. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of...

  19. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of...

  20. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of...

  1. 33 CFR 80.840 - Sabine Pass, TX to Galveston, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sabine Pass, TX to Galveston, TX... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.840 Sabine Pass, TX to Galveston, TX. (a) A line drawn from the Sabine Pass East Jetty Light to the seaward end of the Sabine Pass...

  2. Urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Air pollution and the risk of potential health effects are not sufficiently convincing reasons for people to stop driving their cars, according to a study by the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) released on November 18.While sufficient levels of suspended particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and lead can present health concerns, the study found that many people surveyed for the study were not convinced of the clear linkage between air pollution and health.

  3. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  4. FINAL REPORT: MEMBRANE-MEDIATED EXTRACTION AND BIODEGRADATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes feasibility tests of a two-step strategy for air pollution control applicable to exhaust air contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from painting aircraft. In the first step, the VOC-contaminated air passes over coated, polypropylene, hollow-fibe...

  5. Experimental and Computational Study of Trapped Vortex Combustor Sector Rig With Tri-Pass Diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquernore, W. M.; Burrus, D. L.; Duncan, B. S.; Ryder, R. C.; Brankovic, A.; Liu, N.-S.; Gallagher, J. R.; Hendricks, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) potentially offers numerous operational advantages over current production gas turbine engine combustors. These include lower weight, lower pollutant emissions, effective flame stabilization, high combustion efficiency, excellent high altitude relight capability, and operation in the lean burn or RQL modes of combustion. The present work describes the operational principles of the TVC, and extends diffuser velocities toward choked flow and provides system performance data. Performance data include EINOx results for various fuel-air ratios and combustor residence times, combustion efficiency as a function of combustor residence time, and combustor lean blow-out (LBO) performance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations using liquid spray droplet evaporation and combustion modeling are performed and related to flow structures observed in photographs of the combustor. The CFD results are used to understand the aerodynamics and combustion features under different fueling conditions. Performance data acquired to date are favorable compared to conventional gas turbine combustors. Further testing over a wider range of fuel-air ratios, fuel flow splits, and pressure ratios is in progress to explore the TVC performance. In addition, alternate configurations for the upstream pressure feed, including bi-pass diffusion schemes, as well as variations on the fuel injection patterns, are currently in test and evaluation phases.

  6. Effect of rib angle on local heat/mass transfer distribution in a two-pass rib-roughened channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, P. R.; Han, J. C.; Lau, S. C.

    1987-01-01

    The naphthalene sublimation technique is used to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of turbulent air flow in a two-pass channel. A test section that resembles the internal cooling passages of gas turbine airfoils is employed. The local Sherwood numbers on the ribbed walls were found to be 1.5-6.5 times those for a fully developed flow in a smooth square duct. Depending on the rib angle-of-attack and the Reynolds number, the average ribbed-wall Sherwood numbers were 2.5-3.5 times higher than the fully developed values.

  7. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  8. UAVSAR: Airborne L-band Radar for Repeat Pass Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objectives of the UAVSAR Project were to: a) develop a miniaturized polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for use on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or piloted vehicle. b) develop the associated processing algorithms for repeat-pass differential interferometric measurements using a single antenna. c) conduct measurements of geophysical interest, particularly changes of rapidly deforming surfaces such as volcanoes or earthquakes. Two complete systems were developed. Operational Science Missions began on February 18, 2009 ... concurrent development and testing of the radar system continues.

  9. Double-pass imaging polarimetry in the human eye.

    PubMed

    Bueno, J M; Artal, P

    1999-01-01

    A Mueller-matrix imaging polarimeter was developed to measure spatially resolved polarization properties in the living human eye. The apparatus is a double-pass setup that incorporates two liquid-crystal variable retarders and a slow-scan CCD camera in the recording stage. Series of 16 images for the combinations of independent polarization states in the first and second passages were recorded for two experimental conditions: with the camera conjugated either with the retina or with the eye's pupil plane. Spatially resolved collections of Mueller matrices and the degree of polarization were calculated from those images for both retinal and pupil planes. PMID:18071409

  10. PENN PASS: a program for graduates of foreign dental schools.

    PubMed

    Berthold, P; Lopez, N

    1994-01-01

    An increasing number of graduates of foreign dental schools who enroll in advanced standing programs to qualify for licensure calls for dental schools to be prepared to handle not only the curricular demands but also the growing cultural diversity among its student population. The "reeducation" of this student group not only meets the need of foreign dentists for an American degree but may also provide health professionals to service various ethnic populations whose language and culture they are able to understand and identify with. A survey of students and graduates of a two-year Program for Advanced Standing Students (PASS) for graduates of foreign dental schools representing 34 countries aimed to arrive at an understanding of this student group through characterization of the foreign dentists and identification of their attitudes and feelings toward various aspects of the program, the school and faculty and their experience of stress. This report includes description of the distinctive features of the program which cater to specific needs and concerns of this non-traditional group of dental students. PASS students are accepted on the basis of their grades in dental school in home country, scores in the National Dental Board Examination Part I, Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL), and ratings in personal interviews. They complete an intensive summer program consisting of didactic and laboratory courses which prepares them for integration with four-year students for the last two years of didactic and clinical curriculum. Cultural diversity seminars, a special English class, PASS class meetings and seminars are unique additions to their program and aim to assist them adjust to the educational, social and cultural systems in an American school. Results of the survey show a majority of the PASS students feel that they are part of the school and that there is someone in the school whom they can approach for problems. An understanding of their ethnic and

  11. Vehicle passes detector based on multi-sensor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocharov, D.; Sidorchuk, D.; Konovalenko, I.; Koptelov, I.

    2015-02-01

    The study concerned deals with a new approach to the problem of detecting vehicle passes in vision-based automatic vehicle classification system. Essential non-affinity image variations and signals from induction loop are the events that can be considered as detectors of an object presence. We propose several vehicle detection techniques based on image processing and induction loop signal analysis. Also we suggest a combined method based on multi-sensor analysis to improve vehicle detection performance. Experimental results in complex outdoor environments show that the proposed multi-sensor algorithm is effective for vehicles detection.

  12. Low-pass spatial filtering of satellite radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Paul W.; Hoffer, Roger N.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-four low-pass spatial filter treatments were applied to a multi-angle SIR-B data set to reduce speckle effects and improve classification performance. These treatments were based on four algorithms: square mean, separable mean, square median, and separable recursive median. The filtered images were evaluated using both quantitative and qualitative techniques. It was determined that the square median algorithm implemented at two iterations with a window size of 3 by 3 produced the best overall results with the 28.5-m SIR-B data.

  13. Spectral band passes for a high precision satellite sounder.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, L D; Chahine, M T; Susskind, J; Searl, J E

    1977-02-01

    Atmospheric temperature soundings with significantly improved vertical resolution can be obtained from carefully chosen narrow band-pass measurements in the 4.3-microm band of CO(2) by taking advantage of the variation of the absorption coefficients, and thereby the weighting functions, with pressure and temperature. A set of channels has been found in the 4.2-microm region that is capable of yielding about 2-km vertical resolution in the troposphere. The concept of a complete system is presented for obtaining high resolution retrievals of temperature and water vapor distribution, as well as surface and cloud top temperatures, even in the presence of broken clouds.

  14. PENN PASS: a program for graduates of foreign dental schools.

    PubMed

    Berthold, P; Lopez, N

    1994-01-01

    An increasing number of graduates of foreign dental schools who enroll in advanced standing programs to qualify for licensure calls for dental schools to be prepared to handle not only the curricular demands but also the growing cultural diversity among its student population. The "reeducation" of this student group not only meets the need of foreign dentists for an American degree but may also provide health professionals to service various ethnic populations whose language and culture they are able to understand and identify with. A survey of students and graduates of a two-year Program for Advanced Standing Students (PASS) for graduates of foreign dental schools representing 34 countries aimed to arrive at an understanding of this student group through characterization of the foreign dentists and identification of their attitudes and feelings toward various aspects of the program, the school and faculty and their experience of stress. This report includes description of the distinctive features of the program which cater to specific needs and concerns of this non-traditional group of dental students. PASS students are accepted on the basis of their grades in dental school in home country, scores in the National Dental Board Examination Part I, Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL), and ratings in personal interviews. They complete an intensive summer program consisting of didactic and laboratory courses which prepares them for integration with four-year students for the last two years of didactic and clinical curriculum. Cultural diversity seminars, a special English class, PASS class meetings and seminars are unique additions to their program and aim to assist them adjust to the educational, social and cultural systems in an American school. Results of the survey show a majority of the PASS students feel that they are part of the school and that there is someone in the school whom they can approach for problems. An understanding of their ethnic and

  15. The 121.75 MHz band pass filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Prior to the ASTP joint flight it was observed during various tests on the USA's VHF/FM system, that the 121.75 MHz receiver unsquelched when exposed to certain RF power levels at a frequency of 142.417 MHz. Tests were conducted in an effort to arrive at a solution. Several recommendations were made but the most feasible was to insert a selective band pass filter in the transmit/receiver line of the VHF/FM transceiver. The tests were performed on the filter to determine the frequency response and rejection capabilities at 142.417 MHz.

  16. Double passing the Kitt Peak 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Hubbard, R.; Brault, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to a simple technique for performing the conversion of the Kitt Peak 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer's dual input/output optical configuration to a double pass configuration that improves spectral resolution by a factor of 2. The modification is made by placing a flat mirror in the output beam from each cat's eye, retroreflecting the beams back through the cat's eyes to the first beam splitter. A single detector is placed at the second input port, which then becomes the instrument's output.

  17. Charon Message-Passing Toolkit for Scientific Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Charon is a library, callable from C and Fortran, that aids the conversion of structured-grid legacy codes-such as those used in the numerical computation of fluid flows-into parallel, high- performance codes. Key are functions that define distributed arrays, that map between distributed and non-distributed arrays, and that allow easy specification of common communications on structured grids. The library is based on the widely accepted MPI message passing standard. We present an overview of the functionality of Charon, and some representative results.

  18. Line-item veto may pass this month

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U.S. House and Senate Republicans have cleared the way for legislation to give the President the power of a line-item-veto in time for the 1998 budget season.The line-item veto, as proposed, would allow the President to remove from appropriations bills selected appropriations items, new entitlement spending, or narrowly targeted tax breaks. Once a line item is cut from the budget, Congress would have to pass a separate appropriations bill for that individual item; that new, separate bill would then be subject to the traditional Presidential veto.

  19. Can Lionel Messi's brain slow down time passing?

    PubMed

    Jafari, Sajad; Smith, Leslie Samuel

    2016-01-01

    It seems that seeing others in slow-motion by heroes does not belong only to movies. When Lionel Messi plays football, you can hardly see anything from him that other players cannot do. Then why he is not stoppable really? It seems the answer may be that opponents do not have enough time to do what they want; because in Messi's neural system, time passes slower. In differential equations that model a single neuron, this speed can be generated by multiplying an equal term in all equations. Or maybe interactions between neurons and the structure of neural networks play this role. PMID:27010676

  20. How do spin waves pass through a bend?

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiangjun; Yu, Yongli; Li, Shuwei; Huang, Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    Spin-wave devices hold great promise to be used in future information processing. Manipulation of spin-wave propagation inside the submicrometer waveguides is at the core of promoting the practical application of these devices. Just as in today's silicon-based chips, bending of the building blocks cannot be avoided in real spin-wave circuits. Here, we examine spin-wave transport in bended magnonic waveguides at the submicron scale using micromagnetic simulations. It is seen that the impact of the bend is relevant to the frequency of the passing spin wave. At the lowest frequencies, the spin wave continuously follows the waveguide in the propagation process. At the higher frequencies, however the bend acts as a mode converter for the passing spin wave, causing zigzag-like propagation path formed in the waveguide behind the bend. Additionally, we demonstrate a logic-NOT gate based on such a waveguide, which could be combined to perform logic-NAND operation. PMID:24129823

  1. Ring formation by tidal disruption of a passing body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, Ryuki; Charnoz, Sébastien; Genda, Hidenori; Ohtsuki, Keiji

    2016-10-01

    The origin of rings around giant planets remains elusive. Here we investigate the tidal disruption of a passing object and the subsequent formation of planetary rings. First, we perform SPH simulations of the tidal destruction of differentiated objects with the mass of M~1022kg that experience close encounters with Saturn or Uranus. We find that about 0.1-10% of the mass of the passing body is gravitationally captured around the planet. However, these fragments are initially big chunks and have highly eccentric orbits around the planet. Therefore, in order to see their long-term evolution, we perform N-body simulations including the planet's oblateness up to J4 starting with data obtained from the SPH simulations. Our N-body simulations show that the chunks are tidally destructed during their next several orbits and become collections of smaller particles. Their individual orbits then start to precess incoherently around the planet's equator, which enhances their encounter velocities on longer-term evolution, resulting in more destructive impacts. These collisions would damp their eccentricities resulting in a progressive collapse of the debris cloud into a thin equatorial and low-eccentricity ring.

  2. Multi-Pass Approach for Mobile Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, J.; Eckels, R.; Evers, M.; Singh, R.; Olsen, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    Mobile Terrestrial Laser Scanning (MTLS) has been utilised for an increasing number of corridor surveys. Current MTLS surveys require that many targets be placed along the corridor to monitor the MTLS trajectory's accuracy. These targets enable surveyors to directly evaluate the magnitude of GNSS errors at regular intervals and can also be used to adjust the trajectory to the survey control. However, this "Multi-Target" approach (MTA) is an onerous task that can significantly reduce efficiency. It also is inconvenient to the travelling public, as lanes are often blocked and traffic slowed to permit surveyors to work safely along the road corridor. This paper introduces a "Multi-Pass" approach (MPA), which minimises the number of targets required for monitoring the GNSS-controlled trajectory while still maintaining strict engineering accuracies. MPA uses the power of multiple, independent MTLS passes with different GNSS constellations to generate a "Control Polyline" from the point cloud for the corridor. The Control Polyline can be considered as a statistically valid survey measurement and be incorporated in a network adjustment to strengthen a control network by identifying outliers. Results from a test survey at the MTLS course maintained by the Oregon Department of Transportation illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  3. A cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell

    SciTech Connect

    Stockett, M. H.; Lawler, J. E.

    2012-03-15

    A novel absorption cell has been developed to enable a spectroscopic survey of a broad range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) under astrophysically relevant conditions and utilizing a synchrotron radiation continuum to test the still controversial hypothesis that these molecules or their ions could be carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. The cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell resembles a wind tunnel; molecules evaporated from a crucible or injected using a custom gas feedthrough are entrained in a laminar flow of cryogenically cooled buffer gas and advected into the path of the synchrotron beam. This system includes a multi-pass optical White cell enabling absorption path lengths of hundreds of meters and a detection sensitivity to molecular densities on the order of 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3}. A capacitively coupled radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge provides ionized and metastable buffer gas atoms for ionizing the candidate molecules via charge exchange and the Penning effect. Stronger than expected clustering of PAH molecules has slowed efforts to record gas phase PAH spectra at cryogenic temperatures, though such clusters may play a role in other interstellar phenomena.

  4. A cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockett, M. H.; Lawler, J. E.

    2012-03-01

    A novel absorption cell has been developed to enable a spectroscopic survey of a broad range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) under astrophysically relevant conditions and utilizing a synchrotron radiation continuum to test the still controversial hypothesis that these molecules or their ions could be carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. The cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell resembles a wind tunnel; molecules evaporated from a crucible or injected using a custom gas feedthrough are entrained in a laminar flow of cryogenically cooled buffer gas and advected into the path of the synchrotron beam. This system includes a multi-pass optical White cell enabling absorption path lengths of hundreds of meters and a detection sensitivity to molecular densities on the order of 107 cm-3. A capacitively coupled radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge provides ionized and metastable buffer gas atoms for ionizing the candidate molecules via charge exchange and the Penning effect. Stronger than expected clustering of PAH molecules has slowed efforts to record gas phase PAH spectra at cryogenic temperatures, though such clusters may play a role in other interstellar phenomena.

  5. Omnibus Science R&D Bill passes House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In a largely symbolic action that presages other initiatives in the management of federal science programs, the U.S. House of Representatives has passed H.R. 2405, the Omnibus Civilian Science Authorization Act of 1995. The immediate future of the bill remains clouded, as the Senate has not yet taken up the measure, and President Bill Clinton has threatened a veto.In a largely partisan vote—248 to 161— on October 13, the House formally adopted the bill sponsored by Rep. Robert Walker (R-Pa.) and the leadership of the House Science Committee. H.R. 2405 bundles seven traditionally separate authorization bills for research funding into one broad package. Each of the constituent parts of the omnibus bill has been passed in the House, and those individual authorizations will apply to current science appropriations under consideration by Congress. Those bills establish spending levels for the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, the Department of Energy (DOE), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  6. Active messages versus explicit message passing under SUNMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Riesen, R.; Wheat, S.R.; Maccabe, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    In the past few years much effort has been devoted to finding faster and more convenient ways to exchange data between nodes of massively parallel distributed memory machines. One such approach, taken by Thorsten von Eicken et al. is called Active Messages. The idea is to hide message passing latency and continue to compute while data is being sent and delivered. The authors have implemented Active Messages under SUNMOS for the Intel Paragon and performed various experiments to determine their efficiency and utility. In this paper they concentrate on the subset of the Active Message layer that is used by the implementation of the Split-C library. They compare performance to explicit message passing under SUNMOS and explore new ways to support Split-C without Active Messages. They also compare the implementation to the original one on the Thinking Machines CM-5 and try to determine what the effects of low latency and low band-width versus high latency and high bandwidth are on user codes.

  7. Image stitching for three-pass whole breast ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ruey-Feng; Chen, Chii-Jen; Takada, Etsuo; Chou, Yi-Hong; Chen, Dar-Ren

    2006-03-01

    Early detection through screening is the best defense against morbidity and mortality from breast cancers. Mammography is the most used screening tool for detecting early breast cancer because it can easily obtain the view of whole breast. However, because the ultrasound images are cross-sectional images, not projection images like mammography, and the ultrasound probe does not fully cover the breast width, it is not a convenient screening tool when adjunct with screening mammography. The physician needs a lot of examination time to perform the breast screening. Recently, some whole breast ultrasound scanning machines are developed. The examination could be performed by an experienced technician. Because the probe width still does not fully cover the breast width, several scanning passes are required to obtain the whole breast image. The physician still cannot have a full view of breast. In this paper, an image stitching technique is proposed to stitch multi-pass images into a full-view image. The produced full-view image can reveal the breast anatomy and assists physicians to reduce extra manual adjustment.

  8. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  9. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  10. Inter-pass Thermal-vibration Stress Relief on Multi-pass Welded Joints of DH 36 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu-Qi; Fang, Hong-Yuan; Liu, Xue-Song; Wang, Ping; Ma, Ran; Cui, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Improving the efficiency and applicability of vibration stress relief (VSR) method is a hot topic today. In this study, the waste heat in the multi-pass welding procedure was used to enhance VSR. A novel stress relief method, i.e. inter-pass thermal-vibration stress relief (ITVSR), was proposed. The effects of ITVSR were compared to that of regular VSR and vibration welding (V-Welding). The results indicate that ITVSR is highly effective in decreasing the residual stress in the plates, which is very important for components to be used in offshore engineering. Further, the directional effectiveness of the three methods was revealed. The longitudinal stress in the plates was decreased while the transverse stress was increased, by all the three methods. The mechanism of this phenomenon was discussed. Comparing to the other two methods, ITVSR was more effective in relieving longitudinal stress, and raised transverse stress at a minimum amplitude. Thus, we propose a new technical route to improve the efficiency and applicability of VSR.

  11. Single pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar spacecraft formations for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rego, Paul J.

    The dissertation investigates formations of a space based exploration system consisting of an interplanetary capable spacecraft and two smaller deployable spacecraft. Spacecraft formations are optimized for single pass spot-light interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) imaging during planetary flybys. Two major system models are developed; (1) relative spacecraft motion, and (2) pixel height measurement variance. A generalized nonlinear relative motion model is developed. Assumptions of circular orbit and/or equal gravity gradient are applied to the nonlinear model and shown to yield relative motion equations commonly found in the spacecraft formation flying literature. An analysis shows that the generalized trajectory model with an equal gravity gradient assumption provides sufficient accuracy for a single pass IFSAR flyby. A pixel height variance model is developed to address issues unique to single pass multiple baseline space based systems. A bistatic IFSAR system is assumed with the radar transmitter aboard the leader spacecraft and radar receivers aboard all three spacecraft. Modeled noises include internal sensor noise, spatial decorrelation noise, non-parallel ground track (grid rotation) decorrelation noise, and system parameter uncertainties. With expected observation ranges in excess of 500 kilometers, large baselines are required to maximize IFSAR height sensitivity. An analysis of optimal correlation is presented that extends the work of Rodriguez & Martin (1992) to include model uncertainties. Analysis also considers the ability of post processing algorithms to unwrap the modulo-2pi phase difference measurements, an issue of particular concern for large baseline IFSAR systems. This issue is addressed through development of maximum baseline constraints computed from post processing algorithm performance specifications. Four IFSAR formation scenarios are investigated. Each mimics the planned flyby of the Kilauea volcano by the Air Force Tech

  12. Device for improved combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Polomchak, R.W.; Yacko, M.

    1988-03-08

    A device for improved combustion is described comprising: a tubular housing member having a first end and a second end, the first and second ends each having a circular opening therethrough; a combustion chamber disposed about the second end of the-tubular-housing member; a first conduit member extending from the first end of the tubular housing member and in fluid communication with the circular opening in the first end of the tubular housing member so as to allow the passage of air therethrough; a second conduit member axially disposed within the first conduit member and extending through the first conduit member and through the tubular housing member to the circular opening the second end of the tubular housing member so as to allow the passage of fuel therethrough; means for effecting turbulence in the air passing through the tubular housing member; means for effecting turbulence in the fuel passing through the second conduit member; means for intermixing and emitting the turbulent air and the fuel in a mushroom shaped configuration with the turbulent air surrounding the mushroom shaped configuration so as to substantially eliminate noxious waste gases as by-product of combustion of the air and fuel mixture.

  13. Permeability of rock samples from Cajon Pass, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, C.; Byerlee, J.

    1988-01-01

    Room temperature, steady-state flow measurements of permeability were conducted on 15 unfractured core samples collected at depths between 270 and 2100 m in the Cajon Pass drillhole. Confining and pore pressures were set to the lithostat and hydrostat for each depth. The first 500 m encountered in the drill hole is composed of sandstones with typically high permeabilities of around 10-17m2. The crystalline rocks between 500 and 2100 m show a systematic decrease in permeability with depth from 10-19 to less than 10-21m2. These values are particularly low relative to the applied effective stresses of only 10-30 MPa, and may be a result of the extensive crack healing that was observed in most samples. -Authors

  14. Optical microfiber-loaded surface plasmonic TE-pass polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Youqiao; Farrell, Gerald; Semenova, Yuliya; Li, Binghui; Yuan, Jinhui; Sang, Xinzhu; Yan, Binbin; Yu, Chongxiu; Guo, Tuan; Wu, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel optical microfiber-loaded plasmonic TE-pass polarizer consisting of an optical microfiber placed on top of a silver substrate and demonstrate its performance both numerically by using the finite element method (FEM) and experimentally. The simulation results show that the loss in the fundamental TE mode is relatively low while at the same time the fundamental TM mode suffers from a large metal dissipation loss induced by excitation of the microfiber-loaded surface plasmonic mode. The microfiber was fabricated using the standard microheater brushing-tapering technique. The measured extinction ratio over the range of the C-band wavelengths is greater than 20 dB for the polarizer with a microfiber diameter of 4 μm, which agrees well with the simulation results.

  15. Risk-based scheduling of multiple search passes for UUVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylog, John G.; Wettergren, Thomas A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper addresses selected computational aspects of collaborative search planning when multiple search agents seek to find hidden objects (i.e. mines) in operating environments where the detection process is prone to false alarms. A Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis is applied to construct a Bayesian cost objective function that weighs and combines missed detection and false alarm probabilities. It is shown that for fixed ROC operating points and a validation criterion consisting of a prerequisite number of detection outcomes, an interval exists in the number of conducted search passes over which the risk objective function is supermodular. We show that this property is not retained beyond validation criterion boundaries. We investigate the use of greedy algorithms for distributing search effort and, in particular, examine the double greedy algorithm for its applicability under conditions of varying criteria. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  16. Charon Message-Passing Toolkit for Scientific Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngarrt, Rob F.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Charon toolkit for piecemeal development of high-efficiency parallel programs for scientific computing is described. The portable toolkit, callable from C and Fortran, provides flexible domain decompositions and high-level distributed constructs for easy translation of serial legacy code or design to distributed environments. Gradual tuning can subsequently be applied to obtain high performance, possibly by using explicit message passing. Charon also features general structured communications that support stencil-based computations with complex recurrences. Through the separation of partitioning and distribution, the toolkit can also be used for blocking of uni-processor code, and for debugging of parallel algorithms on serial machines. An elaborate review of recent parallelization aids is presented to highlight the need for a toolkit like Charon. Some performance results of parallelizing the NAS Parallel Benchmark SP program using Charon are given, showing good scalability. Some performance results of parallelizing the NAS Parallel Benchmark SP program using Charon are given, showing good scalability.

  17. Charon Message-Passing Toolkit for Scientific Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Charon toolkit for piecemeal development of high-efficiency parallel programs for scientific computing is described. The portable toolkit, callable from C and Fortran, provides flexible domain decompositions and high-level distributed constructs for easy translation of serial legacy code or design to distributed environments. Gradual tuning can subsequently be applied to obtain high performance, possibly by using explicit message passing. Charon also features general structured communications that support stencil-based computations with complex recurrences. Through the separation of partitioning and distribution, the toolkit can also be used for blocking of uni-processor code, and for debugging of parallel algorithms on serial machines. An elaborate review of recent parallelization aids is presented to highlight the need for a toolkit like Charon. Some performance results of parallelizing the NAS Parallel Benchmark SP program using Charon are given, showing good scalability.

  18. MPI-2: Extending the Message-Passing Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, A.; Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Huss-Lederman, S. |; Lumsdaine, A.; Saphir, W.; Skjellum, T.; Snir, M.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes current activities of the MPI-2 Forum. The MPI - 2 Forum is a group of parallel computer vendors, library writers, and application specialists working together to define a set of extensions to MPI (Message Passing Interface). MPI was defined by the same process and now has many implementations, both vendor- proprietary and publicly available, for a wide variety of parallel computing environments. In this paper we present the salient aspects of the evolving MPI-2 document as it now stands. We discuss proposed extensions and enhancements to MPI in the areas of dynamic process management, one-sided operations, collective operations, new language binding, real-time computing, external interfaces, and miscellaneous topics.

  19. Boundary filters for vector particles passing parity breaking domains

    SciTech Connect

    Kolevatov, S. S.; Andrianov, A. A.

    2014-07-23

    The electrodynamics supplemented with a Lorenz and CPT invariance violating Chern-Simons (CS) action (Carrol-Field-Jackiw electrodynamics) is studied when the parity-odd medium is bounded by a hyperplane separating it from the vacuum. The solutions in both half-spaces are carefully discussed and for space-like boundary stitched on the boundary with help of the Bogolubov transformations. The presence of two different Fock vacua is shown. The passage of photons and massive vector mesons through a boundary between the CS medium and the vacuum of conventional Maxwell electrodynamics is investigated. Effects of reflection from a boundary (up to the total one) are revealed when vector particles escape to vacuum and income from vacuum passing the boundary.

  20. Pass-Fail Testing: Statistical Requirements and Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Gilliam, David; Leigh, Stefan; Rukhin, Andrew; Strawderman, William

    2009-01-01

    Performance standards for detector systems often include requirements for probability of detection and probability of false alarm at a specified level of statistical confidence. This paper reviews the accepted definitions of confidence level and of critical value. It describes the testing requirements for establishing either of these probabilities at a desired confidence level. These requirements are computable in terms of functions that are readily available in statistical software packages and general spreadsheet applications. The statistical interpretations of the critical values are discussed. A table is included for illustration, and a plot is presented showing the minimum required numbers of pass-fail tests. The results given here are applicable to one-sided testing of any system with performance characteristics conforming to a binomial distribution. PMID:27504221

  1. Effects of wake passing on stagnation region heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    In the present experimental study, an annular-flow wind tunnel fitted with a spoked-wheel wake generator was used to ascertain both time-averaged and time-resolved effects of wake passing in a cylinder stagnation region; the cylindrical spokes generated wakes simulating those of a turbine inlet guide vanes. The time-averaged heat transfer results obtained indicate an asymmetric heat-transfer coefficient distribution about the stagnation line, with higher heat-transfer coefficients on the side corresponding to the suction side of the turbine blade. Spectra of the hot-film records indicate that vortex-shedding is a major contributor to the unsteady buffeting of the test-cylinder boundary layer at circumferential stations located at both + and -60 deg from the stagnation line, despite making only a minor contribution to the stagnation line itself.

  2. DFB fiber laser hydrophone with band-pass response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Faxiang; Zhang, Wentao; Li, Fang; Liu, Yuliang

    2011-11-15

    A distributed-feedback fiber laser hydrophone with band-pass response is presented. The design of the hydrophone aims to equalize static pressure and eliminate signal aliasing of high-frequency acoustic components. Theoretical analysis is presented based on electro-acoustic theory. The experimental results agree well with the theory. The measured underwater responses show that the hydrophone has a pressure sensitivity of -170 dB re:pm/μPa over a bandwidth between 100 Hz and 500 Hz. A sensitivity reduction exceeding -35 dB is observed at 2500 Hz. The tested static pressure sensitivity of the hydrophone is -226 dB. The proposed fiber laser hydrophone of this kind is expected to have important application in deep water fiber-optic sonar systems with anti-aliasing, and the understanding gained through this work can be extended to a guide of hydrophone design for required filtering bandwidth.

  3. Pass-Fail Testing: Statistical Requirements and Interpretations.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, David; Leigh, Stefan; Rukhin, Andrew; Strawderman, William

    2009-01-01

    Performance standards for detector systems often include requirements for probability of detection and probability of false alarm at a specified level of statistical confidence. This paper reviews the accepted definitions of confidence level and of critical value. It describes the testing requirements for establishing either of these probabilities at a desired confidence level. These requirements are computable in terms of functions that are readily available in statistical software packages and general spreadsheet applications. The statistical interpretations of the critical values are discussed. A table is included for illustration, and a plot is presented showing the minimum required numbers of pass-fail tests. The results given here are applicable to one-sided testing of any system with performance characteristics conforming to a binomial distribution.

  4. Approximate message passing with restricted Boltzmann machine priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramel, Eric W.; Drémeau, Angélique; Krzakala, Florent

    2016-07-01

    Approximate message passing (AMP) has been shown to be an excellent statistical approach to signal inference and compressed sensing problems. The AMP framework provides modularity in the choice of signal prior; here we propose a hierarchical form of the Gauss-Bernoulli prior which utilizes a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) trained on the signal support to push reconstruction performance beyond that of simple i.i.d. priors for signals whose support can be well represented by a trained binary RBM. We present and analyze two methods of RBM factorization and demonstrate how these affect signal reconstruction performance within our proposed algorithm. Finally, using the MNIST handwritten digit dataset, we show experimentally that using an RBM allows AMP to approach oracle-support performance.

  5. A Message-Passing Algorithm for Wireless Network Scheduling *

    PubMed Central

    Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch.; Huang, Fuzhuo; Lai, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We consider scheduling in wireless networks and formulate it as Maximum Weighted Independent Set (MWIS) problem on a “conflict” graph that captures interference among simultaneous transmissions. We propose a novel, low-complexity, and fully distributed algorithm that yields high-quality feasible solutions. Our proposed algorithm consists of two phases, each of which requires only local information and is based on message-passing. The first phase solves a relaxation of the MWIS problem using a gradient projection method. The relaxation we consider is tighter than the simple linear programming relaxation and incorporates constraints on all cliques in the graph. The second phase of the algorithm starts from the solution of the relaxation and constructs a feasible solution to the MWIS problem. We show that our algorithm always outputs an optimal solution to the MWIS problem for perfect graphs. Simulation results compare our policies against Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) and other alternatives and show excellent performance. PMID:26752942

  6. Mapping Mineralization in the Monitor Pass Mining District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoffner, J. D.; Calvin, W. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Leviathan Mine, located in the Monitor Pass mining district in Alpine county California, was previously an open pit sulfur mine that supplied a nearby operation in Yerington, Nevada with sulfur for copper oxide leaching. The area was first mined underground in the mid 1800s and by the 1950s became an open pit operation. A decade later, the sulfur became uneconomic to extract, leaving the company bankrupt. By the 1980s, the EPA had declared Leviathan Mine a Superfund site due to acid mine drainage into Leviathan creek. Remediation continues today, but high sulfur soils and the potential for acid generation is abundant in the Monitor Pass area. This discovery of iron sulfate on Mars motivated the acquisition of airborne and spaceborne data similar to datasets available for Mars. In addition, high spatial resolution mineral mapping could help identify high priority remediation targets within the mine site. Low resolution (30m per pixel) spaceborne data from ALI and ASTER sensors were combined into a 13-filter dataset to locate areas of interest and as an overview of the area. Initial results were promising, showing evidence for iron oxides and clay mineralization, with some areas suggesting sulfates. The combination of thermal infrared and shortwave infrared datasets optimizes the potential for mineral identification. Therefore, we planned dual hyperspectral acquitions. SEBASS thermal data (7-15μm) at 2m per pixel was acquired on July 16, 2007. ProSpecTIR V-S (0.43- 2.45μm) was acquired on August 17, 2007, also at 2m per pixel. Field spectra were collected concurrently with the SpecTIR flight. The high resolution data will be used to confirm and refine the findings from spaceborne results and be presented at the meeting.

  7. 3D characterization of the Astor Pass geothermal system, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhew, Brett; Faulds, James E

    2013-10-19

    The Astor Pass geothermal system resides in the northwestern part of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Reservation, on the margins of the Basin and Range and Walker Lane tectonic provinces in northwestern Nevada. Seismic reflection interpretation, detailed analysis of well cuttings, stress field analysis, and construction of a 3D geologic model have been used in the characterization of the stratigraphic and structural framework of the geothermal area. The area is primarily comprised of middle Miocene Pyramid sequence volcanic and sedimentary rocks, nonconformably overlying Mesozoic metamorphic and granitic rocks. Wells drilled at Astor Pass show a ~1 km thick section of highly transmissive Miocene volcanic reservoir with temperatures of ~95°C. Seismic reflection interpretation confirms a high fault density in the geothermal area, with many possible fluid pathways penetrating into the relatively impermeable Mesozoic basement. Stress field analysis using borehole breakout data reveals a complex transtensional faulting regime with a regionally consistent west-northwest-trending least principal stress direction. Considering possible strike-slip and normal stress regimes, the stress data were utilized in a slip and dilation tendency analysis of the fault model, which suggests two promising fault areas controlling upwelling geothermal fluids. Both of these fault intersection areas show positive attributes for controlling geothermal fluids, but hydrologic tests show the ~1 km thick volcanic section is highly transmissive. Thus, focused upwellings along discrete fault conduits may be confined to the Mesozoic basement before fluids diffuse into the Miocene volcanic reservoir above. This large diffuse reservoir in the faulted Miocene volcanic rocks is capable of sustaining high pump rates. Understanding this type of system may be helpful in examining large, permeable reservoirs in deep sedimentary basins of the eastern Basin and Range and the highly fractured volcanic geothermal

  8. Parallelization of a hydrological model using the message passing interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Li, Tiejian; Sun, Liqun; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing knowledge about the natural processes, hydrological models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) are becoming larger and more complex with increasing computation time. Additionally, other procedures such as model calibration, which may require thousands of model iterations, can increase running time and thus further reduce rapid modeling and analysis. Using the widely-applied SWAT as an example, this study demonstrates how to parallelize a serial hydrological model in a Windows® environment using a parallel programing technology—Message Passing Interface (MPI). With a case study, we derived the optimal values for the two parameters (the number of processes and the corresponding percentage of work to be distributed to the master process) of the parallel SWAT (P-SWAT) on an ordinary personal computer and a work station. Our study indicates that model execution time can be reduced by 42%–70% (or a speedup of 1.74–3.36) using multiple processes (two to five) with a proper task-distribution scheme (between the master and slave processes). Although the computation time cost becomes lower with an increasing number of processes (from two to five), this enhancement becomes less due to the accompanied increase in demand for message passing procedures between the master and all slave processes. Our case study demonstrates that the P-SWAT with a five-process run may reach the maximum speedup, and the performance can be quite stable (fairly independent of a project size). Overall, the P-SWAT can help reduce the computation time substantially for an individual model run, manual and automatic calibration procedures, and optimization of best management practices. In particular, the parallelization method we used and the scheme for deriving the optimal parameters in this study can be valuable and easily applied to other hydrological or environmental models.

  9. Process for recovering organic vapors from air

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for recovering and concentrating organic vapor from a feed stream of air having an organic vapor content of no more than 20,000 ppm by volume. A thin semipermeable membrane is provided which has a feed side and a permeate side, a selectivity for organic vapor over air of at least 50, as measured by the ratio of organic vapor permeability to nitrogen permeability, and a permeability of organic vapor of at least 3.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.3 (STP) cm/cm.sup.2 sec.cm Hg. The feed stream is passed across the feed side of the thin semipermeable membrane while providing a pressure on the permeate side which is lower than the feed side by creating a partial vacuum on the permeate side so that organic vapor passes preferentially through the membrane to form an organic vapor depleted air stream on the feed side and an organic vapor enriched stream on the permeate side. The organic vapor which has passed through the membrane is compressed and condensed to recover the vapor as a liquid.

  10. 22 CFR 9b.5 - Temporary Department of State press building passes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary Department of State press building passes. 9b.5 Section 9b.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.5 Temporary Department of State press building passes. A...

  11. Factor Structure of the PASS Cognitive Tasks: A Reexamination of Naglieri et al. (1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranzler, John H.; Weng, Li-Jen

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the factor structure of a battery of tasks hypothesized to measure the constructs of the planning, attention, and simultaneous-successive (PASS) process model of human cognition. Results suggest that the original PASS model provides an improper factor solution. Recommends further refinement of the PASS theory or tests. (RJM)

  12. 20 CFR 416.1181 - What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)? 416.1181 Section 416.1181 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Self-Support § 416.1181 What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)? (a) A PASS must— (1) Be...

  13. 20 CFR 416.1181 - What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)? 416.1181 Section 416.1181 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Self-Support § 416.1181 What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)? (a) A PASS must— (1) Be...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1181 - What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)? 416.1181 Section 416.1181 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Self-Support § 416.1181 What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)? (a) A PASS must— (1) Be...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1181 - What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)? 416.1181 Section 416.1181 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Self-Support § 416.1181 What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)? (a) A PASS must— (1) Be...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1181 - What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)? 416.1181 Section 416.1181 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Self-Support § 416.1181 What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)? (a) A PASS must— (1) Be...

  17. Getting Science Students to PASS-UIW: A Successful Collaboration between Students, Staff, and Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariza, Cristina; Davis, Julian M.; Frye, Michael; Harmsen, Earl

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the reasons that Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) at the University of the Incarnate Word (UIW), commonly called PASS-UIW, has been successful in science courses at the University. The intent is to provide information for other institutions to launch, evaluate, or improve their own programs. PASS-UIW is a student-led…

  18. 9 CFR 310.6 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.6 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking shall be marked conspicuously on the surface tissues thereof by...

  19. 9 CFR 310.6 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.6 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking shall be marked conspicuously on the surface tissues thereof by...

  20. 9 CFR 310.6 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.6 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking shall be marked conspicuously on the surface tissues thereof by...

  1. Course Pass Rates in Fall 1989. Enrollment Analysis EA91-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.; Diehl, Patricia

    In 1990, a study was conducted at Prince George's Community College (PGCC) to determine the percentage of students enrolled in courses in the fall term who received passing grades, and to examine these pass rates by course, academic discipline, and division. The study also analyzed student pass rates by gender, age, race, and admission status.…

  2. 78 FR 62319 - Golden Pass Products, LLC, Golden Pass Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-16

    ...; potential visual effects of the aboveground facilities on surrounding areas; potential impacts and potential..., recreation, and visual resources; air quality and noise; cultural resources; socioeconomics; reliability and... public on the Project's potential effects on historic properties.\\6\\ We will define the...

  3. Dehumidifying Air for Cooling & Refrigeration: Nanotechnology Membrane-based Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Dais is developing a product called NanoAir which dehumidifies the air entering a building to make air conditioning more energy efficient. The system uses a polymer membrane that allows moisture but not air to pass through it. A vacuum behind the membrane pulls water vapor from the air, and a second set of membranes releases the water vapor outside. The membrane’s high selectivity translates into reduced energy consumption for dehumidification. Dais’ design goals for NanoAir are the use of proprietary materials and processes and industry-standard installation techniques. NanoAir is also complementary to many other energy saving strategies, including energy recovery.

  4. Airing Out Anthrax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The AiroCide TiO2 is an air-purifier that kills 93.3 percent of airborne pathogens that pass through it, including Bacillus anthraci, more commonly known as anthrax. It is essentially a spinoff of KES Science & Technology, Inc.'s Bio-KES system, a highly effective device used by the produce industry for ethylene gas removal to aid in preserving the freshness of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The TiO2-based ethylene removal technology that is incorporated into the company's AiroCide TiO2 and Bio-KES products was first integrated into a pair of plant-growth chambers known as ASTROCULTURE(TM) and ADVANCED ASTROCULTURE(TM). Both chambers have housed commercial plant growth experiments in space on either the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The AiroCide TiO2 also has a proven record of destroying 98 percent of other airborne pathogens, such as microscopic dust mites, molds, and fungi. Moreover, the device is a verified killer of Influenza A (flu), E. coli, Staphylococcus aureas, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, among many other harmful viruses.

  5. The effect of wake passing on turbine blade film cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidmann, James David

    The effect of upstream blade row wake passing on the showerhead film cooling performance of a downstream turbine blade has been investigated through a combination of experimental and computational studies. The experiments were performed in a steady-flow annular turbine cascade facility equipped with an upstream rotating row of cylindrical rods to produce a periodic wake field similar to that found in an actual turbine. Spanwise, chordwise, and temporal resolution of the blade surface temperature were achieved through the use of an array of nickel thin-film surface gauges covering one unit cell of showerhead film hole pattern. Film effectiveness and Nusselt number values were determined for a test matrix of various injectants, injectant blowing ratios, and wake Strouhal numbers. Results indicated a demonstrable reduction in film effectiveness with increasing Strouhal number, as well as the expected increase in film effectiveness with blowing ratio. An equation was developed to correlate the span-average film effectiveness data. The primary effect of wake unsteadiness was found to be correlated well by a chordwise-constant decrement of 0.094*St. Measurable spanwise film effectiveness variations were found near the showerhead region, but meaningful unsteady variations and downstream spanwise variations were not found. Nusselt numbers were less sensitive to wake and injection changes. Computations were performed using a three-dimensional turbulent Navier-Stokes code which was modified to model wake passing and film cooling. Unsteady computations were found to agree well with steady computations provided the proper time-average blowing ratio and pressure/suction surface flow split are matched. The remaining differences were isolated to be due to the enhanced mixing in the unsteady solution caused by the wake sweeping normally on the pressure surface. Steady computations were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental Nusselt numbers, but to overpredict

  6. The Effect of Wake Passing on Turbine Blade Film Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, James David

    1996-01-01

    The effect of upstream blade row wake passing on the showerhead film cooling performance of a downstream turbine blade has been investigated through a combination of experimental and computational studies. The experiments were performed in a steady-flow annular turbine cascade facility equipped with an upstream rotating row of cylindrical rods to produce a periodic wake field similar to that found in an actual turbine. Spanwise, chordwise, and temporal resolution of the blade surface temperature were achieved through the use of an array of nickel thin-film surface gauges covering one unit cell of showerhead film hole pattern. Film effectiveness and Nusselt number values were determined for a test matrix of various injectants, injectant blowing ratios, and wake Strouhal numbers. Results indicated a demonstratable reduction in film effectiveness with increasing Strouhal number, as well as the expected increase in film effectiveness with blowing ratio. An equation was developed to correlate the span-average film effectiveness data. The primary effect of wake unsteadiness was found to be correlated well by a chordwise-constant decrement of 0.094-St. Measurable spanwise film effectiveness variations were found near the showerhead region, but meaningful unsteady variations and downstream spanwise variations were not found. Nusselt numbers were less sensitive to wake and injection changes. Computations were performed using a three-dimensional turbulent Navier-Stokes code which was modified to model wake passing and film cooling. Unsteady computations were found to agree well with steady computations provided the proper time-average blowing ratio and pressure/suction surface flow split are matched. The remaining differences were isolated to be due to the enhanced mixing in the unsteady solution caused by the wake sweeping normally on the pressure surface. Steady computations were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental Nusselt numbers, but to overpredict

  7. Carbon fiber composite molecular sieve electrically regenerable air filter media

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Kirk A.; Burchell, Timothy D.; Judkins, Roddie R.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically regenerable gas filter system includes a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) filter medium. After a separate medium-efficiency pre-filter removes particulate from the supply airstream, the CFCMS filter sorbs gaseous air pollutants before the air is recirculated to the space. When saturated, the CFCMS media is regenerated utilizing a low-voltage current that is caused to pass through the filter medium.

  8. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  9. High-efficiency, multicrystal, single-pass, continuous-wave second harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Chaitanya; Samanta, G K; Devi, Kavita; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2011-06-01

    We describe the critical design parameters and present detailed experimental and theoretical studies for efficient, continuous-wave (cw), single-pass second harmonic generation (SHG) based on novel cascaded multicrystal scheme, providing >55% conversion efficiency and multiwatt output powers at 532 nm for a wide range of input fundamental powers at 1064 nm. Systematic characterization of the technique in single-crystal, double-crystal and multicrystal schemes has been performed and the results are compared. Optimization of vital parameters including focusing and phase-matching temperature at the output of each stage is investigated and strategies to achieve optimum SHG efficiency and power are discussed. Relevant theoretical calculations to estimate the effect of dispersion between the fundamental and the SH beam in air are also presented. The contributions of thermal effects on SHG efficiency roll-off have been studied from quasi-cw measurements. Using this multicrystal scheme, stable SH power with a peak-to-peak fluctuation better than 6.5% over more than 2 hours is achieved in high spatial beam quality with M2<1.6.

  10. Development of a Solar Assisted Drying System Using Double-Pass Solar Collector with Finned Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, M. S. M.; Othman, M. Y.; Sopian, K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Majid, Z. A. A.; Fudholi, A.; Yasin, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Solar Energy Research Group, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, International Islamic University Malaysia and Yayasan FELDA has designed and constructed a solar assisted drying system at OPF FELDA Factory, Felda Bukit Sagu 2, Kuantan, Pahang. The drying system has a total of six double-pass solar collectors. Each collector has a length of 480 cm and a width of 120 cm. The first channel depth is 3.5 cm and the second channel depth is 7 cm. Longitudinal fins made of angle aluminium, 0.8 mm thickness were attached to the bottom surface of the absorber plate. The solar collectors are arranged as two banks of three collectors each in series. Internal manifold are used to connect the collectors. Air enters through the first channel and then through the second channel of the collector. An auxiliary heater source is installed to supply heat under unfavourable solar radiation condition. An on/off controller is used to control the startup and shutdown of the auxiliary heater. An outlet temperature of 70-75 °C can be achieved at solar radiation range of 800-900 W/m2 and flow rate of 0.12 kg/s. The average thermal efficiency of a solar collector is approximately 37%.

  11. Double pass retroreflection for corrosion detection in aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komorowski, J. P.; Krishnakumar, S.; Gould, R. W.; Bellinger, N. C.; Karpala, F.; Hageniers, O. L.

    1995-01-01

    An optical double pass retroreflection surface inspection technique (D Sight) used for visualizing surface distortions, depressions or pertrusions has been adapted as a rapid, enhanced visual inspection method inspection of large external aircraft surfaces. A project to fully characterize the D Sight indications of corrosion damage in lap splices is currently active. Over 150 large transport aircraft fuselage lap splice specimens have been collected. D Sight Aircraft Inspection System - (DAIS) 250C has been developed and tested both in the laboratory and in the field. In laboratory tests lap splices retrieved from retired aircraft and subjected to accelerated corrosion and lap splices naturally corroded in-service were inspected with DAIS, eddy current, X-ray, shadow moire and subjected to tear down. It has been shown that the DAIS 250C is capable of locating corrosion pillowing indicative of a thickness loss as low as 2 percent. The first field trial of the DAIS 250C was based on two service bulletins requiring inspection of longitudinal and circumferential lap splices on the 737-200 aircraft from BS 259.5 to BS 1016. The DAIS 250C inspection, including analysis and report, took 36 man-hours. The recommended technique in the SB was close visual inspection and the time required according to the service bulletins, was 278 man-hours.

  12. Nonlinear Effects in Single-Pass ICRF Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arefiev, A. V.; Breizman, B. N.

    1999-01-01

    The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) concept employs Ion Cyclotron Resonant Frequency (ICRF) heating as the main power deposition mechanism. Since the ions accelerate to the full energy in a single pass through the cyclotron resonance, their response to the RF-field will be essentially nonlinear - hence the motivation to amend the commonly used linear approach to the problem. In a collisionless plasma, the energy gain of an accelerated ion is limited by the time the particle spends at the resonance. This time is affected by: (1) incident flow velocity, (2) longitudinal grad B force, (3) ambipolar electric field, and (4) ponderomotive force of the RF-field. Our analysis shows that the grad B force is the dominant factor at low to moderate levels of RF-power. We present nonlinear scaling for the energy gain and the absorption efficiency with RF-power and plasma parameters. We also demonstrate that the nonlinear regime exhibits a steep decrease in the plasma density at the resonance.

  13. Message passing with a limited number of DMA byte counters

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael; Chen, Dong; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-10-04

    A method for passing messages in a parallel computer system constructed as a plurality of compute nodes interconnected as a network where each compute node includes a DMA engine but includes only a limited number of byte counters for tracking a number of bytes that are sent or received by the DMA engine, where the byte counters may be used in shared counter or exclusive counter modes of operation. The method includes using rendezvous protocol, a source compute node deterministically sending a request to send (RTS) message with a single RTS descriptor using an exclusive injection counter to track both the RTS message and message data to be sent in association with the RTS message, to a destination compute node such that the RTS descriptor indicates to the destination compute node that the message data will be adaptively routed to the destination node. Using one DMA FIFO at the source compute node, the RTS descriptors are maintained for rendezvous messages destined for the destination compute node to ensure proper message data ordering thereat. Using a reception counter at a DMA engine, the destination compute node tracks reception of the RTS and associated message data and sends a clear to send (CTS) message to the source node in a rendezvous protocol form of a remote get to accept the RTS message and message data and processing the remote get (CTS) by the source compute node DMA engine to provide the message data to be sent.

  14. Containing Epidemic Outbreaks by Message-Passing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Dall'Asta, L.; Wakeling, J. R.; Zecchina, R.

    2014-04-01

    The problem of targeted network immunization can be defined as the one of finding a subset of nodes in a network to immunize or vaccinate in order to minimize a tradeoff between the cost of vaccination and the final (stationary) expected infection under a given epidemic model. Although computing the expected infection is a hard computational problem, simple and efficient mean-field approximations have been put forward in the literature in recent years. The optimization problem can be recast into a constrained one in which the constraints enforce local mean-field equations describing the average stationary state of the epidemic process. For a wide class of epidemic models, including the susceptible-infected-removed and the susceptible-infected-susceptible models, we define a message-passing approach to network immunization that allows us to study the statistical properties of epidemic outbreaks in the presence of immunized nodes as well as to find (nearly) optimal immunization sets for a given choice of parameters and costs. The algorithm scales linearly with the size of the graph, and it can be made efficient even on large networks. We compare its performance with topologically based heuristics, greedy methods, and simulated annealing on both random graphs and real-world networks.

  15. Reciprocity on the hardwood: passing patterns among professional basketball players.

    PubMed

    Willer, Robb; Sharkey, Amanda; Frey, Seth

    2012-01-01

    Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA) games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.

  16. Sound generation by a centrifugal pump at blade passing frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenroth, M.; Weaver, D.S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental study of the pressure pulsations produced by a centrifugal volute pump at its blade passing frequency and their amplification by acoustic resonance in a connected piping system. Detailed measurements were made of the pressure fluctuations in the piping as a function of pump speed and flow rate. A semi-empirical model was used to separate acoustic standing waves from hydraulic pressure fluctuations. The effects of modifying the cut-water geometry were also studied, including the use of flow visualization to observe the flow behavior at the cut-water. The results suggest that the pump may act as an acoustic pressure or velocity source, depending on the flow rate. At conditions of acoustic resonance, the pump acted as an open termination of the piping, i.e., as a node in the acoustic pressure standing waves. Rounding the cut-water had the effect of reducing the amplitude of acoustic resonance, apparently because of the ability of the stagnation point to move and thereby reduce the vorticity generated. A notable example of this acoustic resonance in the Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system at Ontario Hydro`s Darlington nuclear power station.

  17. [VARIANT ANATOMY OF SPLENIC LIGAMENTS AND ARTERIES PASSING THROUGH THEM].

    PubMed

    Gaivoronskiy, I V; Kotiv, B N; Alekseyev, V S; Nichiporuk, G I

    2015-01-01

    The research was performed on 15 non embalmed bodies and 32 abdominal complexes of adult individuals. The comparative study of variant anatomy of splenic ligaments and architectonics of arteries passing through them was carried out to substantiate the mobilization of splenopancreatic complex. Anatomical and angiographic restudied were carried out using preparation, morphometry, injection of gastric, pancreatic and splenic vascular bed with red lead suspension. It was established that the form and sizes of splenic ligaments and their interrelation with the branches of the splenic artery were variable. The minimal and maximal sizes of gastrolienal, phrenicosplenic and splenocolic ligaments differed 2-3 times. In most cases, spleen was fixed in abdominal cavity by many short ligaments. It was shown that architectonics and topography of main branches of spleen artery were determined by morphometric characteristics of the spleen proper and its ligaments. The knowledge of splenic ligament variant anatomy allows a new perspective to approach to substantiate different methods of the mobilization of spleno-pancreatic complex during surgical operations on organs of the upper part of the peritoneal cavity and organ-preserving surgery of the spleen.

  18. Characterizing Computation-Communication Overlap in Message-Passing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Bernholdt; Jarek Nieplocha; P. Sadayappan; Aniruddha G. Shet; Vinod Tipparaju

    2008-01-31

    Effective overlap of computation and communication is a well understood technique for latency hiding and can yield significant performance gains for applications on high-end computers. In this report, we describe an instrumentation framework developed for message-passing systems to characterize the degree of overlap of communication with computation in the execution of parallel applications. The inability to obtain precise time-stamps for pertinent communication events is a significant problem, and is addressed by generation of minimum and maximum bounds on achieved overlap. The overlap measures can aid application developers and system designers in investigating scalability issues. The approach has been used to instrument two MPI implementations as well as the ARMCI system. The implementation resides entirely within the communication library and thus integrates well with existing approaches that operate outside the library. The utility of the framework is demonstrated by analyzing communication-computation overlap for micro-benchmarks and the NAS benchmarks, and the insights obtained are used to modify the NAS SP benchmark, resulting in improved overlap.

  19. Milestone experiments for single pass UV/X-ray FELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    1995-04-01

    In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the theory and technology of high brightness electron beams and single pass FELs. These developments facilitate the construction of practical UV and X-ray FELs and has prompted proposals to the DOE for the construction of such facilities. There are several important experiments to be performed before committing to the construction of dedicated user facilities. Two experiments are under construction in the IR, the UCLA self-amplified spontaneous emission experiment and the BNL laser seeded harmonic generation experiment. A multi-institution collaboration is being organized about a 210 MeV electron linac available at BNL and the 10 m long NISUS wiggler. This experiment will be done in the UV and will test various experimental aspects of electron beam dynamics, FEL exponential regime with gain guiding, start-up from noise, seeding and harmonic generation. These experiments will advance the state of FEL research and lead towards future dedicated users' facilities.

  20. Single-pass memory system evaluation for multiprogramming workloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conte, Thomas M.; Hwu, Wen-Mei W.

    1990-01-01

    Modern memory systems are composed of levels of cache memories, a virtual memory system, and a backing store. Varying more than a few design parameters and measuring the performance of such systems has traditionally be constrained by the high cost of simulation. Models of cache performance recently introduced reduce the cost simulation but at the expense of accuracy of performance prediction. Stack-based methods predict performance accurately using one pass over the trace for all cache sizes, but these techniques have been limited to fully-associative organizations. This paper presents a stack-based method of evaluating the performance of cache memories using a recurrence/conflict model for the miss ratio. Unlike previous work, the performance of realistic cache designs, such as direct-mapped caches, are predicted by the method. The method also includes a new approach to the problem of the effects of multiprogramming. This new technique separates the characteristics of the individual program from that of the workload. The recurrence/conflict method is shown to be practical, general, and powerful by comparing its performance to that of a popular traditional cache simulator. The authors expect that the availability of such a tool will have a large impact on future architectural studies of memory systems.

  1. Assessment of Traffic Noise on Highway Passing from Urban Agglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Kori, Chandan; Kumar, Manoj; Chakrabarti, T.; Gupta, Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Assessment of traffic noise pollution in developing countries is complex due to heterogeneity in traffic conditions like traffic volume, road width, honking, etc. To analyze the impact of such variables, a research study was carried out on a national highway passing from an urban agglomeration. Traffic volume and noise levels (L10, Lmin, Lmax, Leq and L90) were measured during morning and evening peak hours. Contribution of noise by individual vehicle was estimated using passenger car noise unit. Extent of noise pollution and impact of noisy vehicles were estimated using noise pollution level and traffic noise index, respectively. Noise levels were observed to be above the prescribed Indian and International standards. As per audio spectrum analysis of traffic noise, honking contributed an additional 3-4 dB(A) noise. Based on data analysis, a positive relationship was observed between noise levels and honking while negative correlation was observed between noise levels and road width. The study suggests that proper monitoring and analysis of traffic data is required for better planning of noise abatement measures.

  2. Parallelized direct execution simulation of message-passing parallel programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, Phillip M.; Heidelberger, Philip; Nicol, David M.

    1994-01-01

    As massively parallel computers proliferate, there is growing interest in findings ways by which performance of massively parallel codes can be efficiently predicted. This problem arises in diverse contexts such as parallelizing computers, parallel performance monitoring, and parallel algorithm development. In this paper we describe one solution where one directly executes the application code, but uses a discrete-event simulator to model details of the presumed parallel machine such as operating system and communication network behavior. Because this approach is computationally expensive, we are interested in its own parallelization specifically the parallelization of the discrete-event simulator. We describe methods suitable for parallelized direct execution simulation of message-passing parallel programs, and report on the performance of such a system, Large Application Parallel Simulation Environment (LAPSE), we have built on the Intel Paragon. On all codes measured to date, LAPSE predicts performance well typically within 10 percent relative error. Depending on the nature of the application code, we have observed low slowdowns (relative to natively executing code) and high relative speedups using up to 64 processors.

  3. Geological history of the Flemish Pass Basin, offshore Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, D.G.; Robinson, A.G. )

    1993-04-01

    In this paper the authors present a seismic-stratigraphic interpretation of the Mesozoic and Tertiary geologic history of the Flemish Pass Basin, offshore Newfoundland, based on seismic data and data from seven wells that were integrated on the BP subsurface integrated interpretation system (SIIS). Four megasequences are identified. Megasequence 1 (MSI) is Triassic to lower Berriasian, and includes poorly known sediments associated with Triassic-Early Jurrasic rifting prior to spreading between the North African and American continents. The uppermost mappable unconformity-bounded unit within MSI contains major Kimmeridgian to Portlandian marine source rocks deposited in two east-west-trending subbasins in the Baccalieu and Gabriel areas. During the early Berrasian, pronounced rifting linked to the subsequent spreading of Iberia from the Grand Banks (Barremian-Aptian) led to regional deepening and deposition of clastic sediments (MS2) in two northeast-southwest-trending, fault-bounded subbasins in the Baccalieu and Gabriel areas. In the Aptian, Early Cretaceous subbasins were inverted due to strike-slip movement as extension assumed a northeast-southwest orientation prior to movement of Greenland/Europe away from Labrador (Albian). MS3 sediments fill northwest-southeast trending fault-bounded depocenters typically located on areas that had formed highs during Early Cretaceous. Postrift sedimentation continued from the Albian( ) to the present with Upper Cretaceous pelagic limestone and later clastic sediment deposition. 37 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Chaos pass filter: Linear response of synchronized chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeb, Steffen; Kestler, Johannes; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The linear response of synchronized time-delayed chaotic systems to small external perturbations, i.e., the phenomenon of chaos pass filter, is investigated for iterated maps. The distribution of distances, i.e., the deviations between two synchronized chaotic units due to external perturbations on the transferred signal, is used as a measure of the linear response. It is calculated numerically and, for some special cases, analytically. Depending on the model parameters this distribution has power law tails in the region of synchronization leading to diverging moments of distances. This is a consequence of multiplicative and additive noise in the corresponding linear equations due to chaos and external perturbations. The linear response can also be quantified by the bit error rate of a transmitted binary message which perturbs the synchronized system. The bit error rate is given by an integral over the distribution of distances and is calculated analytically and numerically. It displays a complex nonmonotonic behavior in the region of synchronization. For special cases the distribution of distances has a fractal structure leading to a devil's staircase for the bit error rate as a function of coupling strength. The response to small harmonic perturbations shows resonances related to coupling and feedback delay times. A bidirectionally coupled chain of three units can completely filter out the perturbation. Thus the second moment and the bit error rate become zero.

  5. Generalized access control strategies for integrated services token passing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Joseph W. M.; Tobagi, Fouad A.; Boyd, Stephen

    1994-08-01

    The demand for integrated services local area networks is increasing at a rapid pace with the advent of many new and exciting applications: office and factory automation, distributed computing, and multimedia communications. To support these new applications, it is imperative to integrate traffic with diverse statistical characteristics and differing delay requirements on the same network. An attractive approach for integrating traffic has been adopted in two token passing local area network standards, the IEEE 802.4 token bus standard and FDDI. The idea is to control the transmissions of each station based on a distributed timing algorithm, so as to achieve the following goals: (1) to limit the token cycles so that time-critical traffic can be accommodated, and (2) to allocate pre-specified bandwidths to different stations when the network is overloaded. We have investigated the analysis and design of this protocol. In this paper, we generalize the transmission control algorithm used previously. The major advantages of the generalization over the original protocol are: (1) it provides a much expanded design space, (2) it guarantees convergent behavior, and (3) it gives meaningful insights into the dynamics of the basic control algorithm.

  6. 1 THz Micromachined Waveguide Band-Pass Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang; Hu, Jiang; Zhang, Yong; Zheng, Zhongwan; Liu, Yupeng; Xu, Ruimin; Xue, Quan

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a waveguide band-pass filter operating at the 0.75 ˜ 1.1 THz frequency band. The metal conductivity, the surface impedance, and the skin depth are investigated in the terahertz (THz) frequency band for more accurate designs, especially at the 1 THz and higher frequencies. Because the influence of the fabrication tolerance on the component performance cannot be negligible while the frequency increases, it is a necessary to adopt the simple structure with less resonant cavities for obtaining the given performance. Therefore, the filter in this paper is designed based on the TE301/TE102 dual-mode rectangular waveguide resonant cavities, which has fewer cavities and better rejection of the stop-band. The proposed filter is fabricated using the deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) micromachining technique. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations, which verifies the accuracy of the analysis above, and the design process is valuable to realize high-performance passive components while the frequency is up to 1 THz or higher frequencies.

  7. Parallel imaging for first-pass myocardial perfusion.

    PubMed

    Irwan, Roy; Lubbers, Daniël D; van der Vleuten, Pieter A; Kappert, Peter; Götte, Marco J W; Sijens, Paul E

    2007-06-01

    Two parallel imaging methods used for first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging were compared in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image artifacts. One used adaptive Time-adaptive SENSitivity Encoding (TSENSE) and the other used GeneRalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisition (GRAPPA), which are both applied to a gradient-echo sequence. Both methods were tested on 12 patients with coronary artery disease. The order of perfusion sequences was inverted in every other patient. Image acquisition was started during the administration of a contrast bolus followed by a 20-ml saline flush (3 ml/s), and the next perfusion was started at least 15 min thereafter using an identical bolus. An acceleration rate of 2 was used in both methods, and acquisition was performed during breath-holding. Significantly higher SNR, CNR and image quality were obtained with GRAPPA images than with TSENSE images. GRAPPA, however, did not yield a higher CNR when applied after the second bolus. GRAPPA perfusion imaging produced larger differences between subjects than did TSENSE. Compared to TSENSE, GRAPPA produced significantly better CNR on the first bolus. More consistent SNR and CNR were obtained from TSENSE images than from GRAPPA images, indicating that the diagnostic value of TSENSE may be better.

  8. Multi-Pass Malware Sandbox Analysis with Controlled Internet Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Katsunari; Matsumoto, Tsutomu

    Malware sandbox analysis, in which a malware sample is actually executed in a testing environment (i.e. sandbox) to observe its behavior, is one of the promising approaches to tackling the emerging threats of exploding malware. As a lot of recent malware actively communicates with remote hosts over the Internet, sandboxes should also support an Internet connection, otherwise important malware behavior may not be observed. In this paper, we propose a multi-pass sandbox analysis with a controlled Internet connection. In the proposed method, we start our analysis with an isolated sandbox and an emulated Internet that consists of a set of dummy servers and hosts that run vulnerable services, called Honeypots in the Sandbox (HitS). All outbound connections from the victim host are closely inspected to see if they could be connected to the real Internet. We iterate the above process until no new behaviors are observed. We implemented the proposed method in a completely automated fashion and evaluated it with malware samples recently captured in the wild. Using a simple containment policy that authorizes only certain application protocols, namely, HTTP, IRC, and DNS, we were able to observe a greater variety of behaviors compared with the completely isolated sandbox. Meanwhile, we confirmed that a noticeable number of IP scans, vulnerability exploitations, and DoS attacks are successfully contained in the sandbox. Additionally, a brief comparison with two existing sandbox analysis systems, Norman Sandbox and CWSandbox, are shown.

  9. Fracture Characterization in the Astor Pass Geothermal Field, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, D. C.; Reeves, D. M.; Pohll, G.; Lyles, B. F.; Cooper, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Astor Pass geothermal field, near Pyramid Lake, NV, is under study as a site of potential geothermal energy production. Three wells have been completed in the graben of this typical Basin and Range geologic setting. Lithologies include a layer of unconsolidated sediment (basin fill) underlain by various tertiary volcanic units and granodiorite and metavolcanic basement rock. Characterization of fractures within the relatively impermeable rock matrix is being conducted for the three wells. Statistical analysis of fracture orientation, densities, and spacing obtained from borehole imaging logs is used to determine stress orientation and to generate a statistically equivalent Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model. Fractures at depth are compared to fracture data collected in nearby outcrops of the same lithologic stratigraphy. Fracture geometry and density is correlated to mechanically discrete layers within the stratigraphy to test whether variations in fracturing can be attributed to variations in Young's modulus. Correlation of fracture geometry and densities with spinner flowmeter logs and distributed temperature sensor records are made in an effort to identify potential flowing fracture zones intersecting the borehole. Mean fracture aperture is obtained from open fracture counts and reservoir-scale transmissivity values (computed from a 30 day pump test) in the absence of readily available aperture data. The goal of this thorough fracture characterization is to create a physically relevant model which may be coupled with a multipurpose fluid flow and thermal simulator for investigation of geothermal reservoir behavior, particularly at the borehole scale.

  10. Mapping a battlefield simulation onto message-passing parallel architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical problem in distributed simulation is that of mapping: without an effective mapping of workload to processors the speedup potential of parallel processing cannot be realized. Mapping a simulation onto a message-passing architecture is especially difficult when the computational workload dynamically changes as a function of time and space; this is exactly the situation faced by battlefield simulations. This paper studies an approach where the simulated battlefield domain is first partitioned into many regions of equal size; typically there are more regions than processors. The regions are then assigned to processors; a processor is responsible for performing all simulation activity associated with the regions. The assignment algorithm is quite simple and attempts to balance load by exploiting locality of workload intensity. The performance of this technique is studied on a simple battlefield simulation implemented on the Flex/32 multiprocessor. Measurements show that the proposed method achieves reasonable processor efficiencies. Furthermore, the method shows promise for use in dynamic remapping of the simulation.

  11. Complete Genes May Pass from Food to Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Spisák, Sándor; Solymosi, Norbert; Ittzés, Péter; Bodor, András; Kondor, Dániel; Vattay, Gábor; Barták, Barbara K.; Sipos, Ferenc; Galamb, Orsolya; Tulassay, Zsolt; Szállási, Zoltán; Rasmussen, Simon; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Brunak, Søren; Molnár, Béla; Csabai, István

    2013-01-01

    Our bloodstream is considered to be an environment well separated from the outside world and the digestive tract. According to the standard paradigm large macromolecules consumed with food cannot pass directly to the circulatory system. During digestion proteins and DNA are thought to be degraded into small constituents, amino acids and nucleic acids, respectively, and then absorbed by a complex active process and distributed to various parts of the body through the circulation system. Here, based on the analysis of over 1000 human samples from four independent studies, we report evidence that meal-derived DNA fragments which are large enough to carry complete genes can avoid degradation and through an unknown mechanism enter the human circulation system. In one of the blood samples the relative concentration of plant DNA is higher than the human DNA. The plant DNA concentration shows a surprisingly precise log-normal distribution in the plasma samples while non-plasma (cord blood) control sample was found to be free of plant DNA. PMID:23936105

  12. Emerging Latin American air quality regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hosmer, A.W.; Vitale, E.M.; Guerrero, C.R.; Solorzano-Vincent, L.

    1998-12-31

    Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In recent years, significant economic growth has resulted in population migration from rural areas to urban centers, as well as in a substantial rise in the standard of living within the Region. These changes have impacted the air quality of Latin American countries as increased numbers of industrial facilities and motor vehicles release pollutants into the air. With the advent of new free trade agreements such as MERCOSUR and NAFTA, economic activity and associated pollutant levels can only be expected to continue to expand in the future. In order to address growing air pollution problems, many Latin America countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico have passed, or will soon pass, new legislation to develop and strengthen their environmental frameworks with respect to air quality. As a first step toward understanding the impacts that this increased environmental regulation will have, this paper will examine the regulatory systems in six Latin American countries with respect to ambient air quality and for each of these countries: review a short history of the air quality problems within the country; outline the legal and institutional framework including key laws and implementing institutions; summarize in brief the current status of the country in terms of program development and implementation; and identify projected future trends. In addition, the paper will briefly review the international treaties that have bearing on Latin American air quality. Finally, the paper will conclude by identifying and exploring emerging trends in individual countries and the region as a whole.

  13. Risk appraisal of passing zones on two-lane rural highways and policy applications.

    PubMed

    Mwesige, Godfrey; Farah, Haneen; Koutsopoulos, Haris N

    2016-05-01

    Passing on two-lane rural highways is associated with risks of head-on collision resulting from unsafe completion of passing maneuvers in the opposite traffic lane. In this paper, we explore the use of time-to-collision (TTC) as a surrogate safety measure of the risk associated with passing maneuvers. Logistic regression models to predict the probability to end the passing maneuver with TTC less than 2 or 3s-threshold were developed with the time-gap from initiation of the maneuver to arrival of the opposite vehicle (effective accepted gap), and the passing duration as explanatory variables. The data used for model estimation was collected using stationary tripod-mounted camcorders at 19 passing zones in Uganda. Results showed that passing maneuvers completed with TTC less than 3s are unsafe and often involved sudden speed reduction, flashing headlights, and lateral shift to shoulders. Model sensitivity analysis was conducted for observed passing durations involving passenger cars or short trucks (2-3 axles), and long trucks (4-7 axles) as the passed vehicles for 3s TTC-threshold. Three risk levels were proposed based on the probability to complete passing maneuvers with TTC less than 3s for a range of opposite direction traffic volumes. Applications of the results for safety improvements of two-lane rural highways are also discussed. PMID:26874293

  14. Planar Close Encounter Trajectories for Spacecrafts Passing Near Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, A. F.; Broucke, R. A.

    In the present paper we study and classify Swing-By trajectories that use the planet Jupiter as the body for the close approach. The goal is to simulate a complete set of initial conditions for those orbits and classify them according to the effects caused by the close approach with Jupiter on the orbit of the spacecraft. The well-known planar restricted circular three-body problem is used as the mathematical model. The equations are regularized (using Lemaître's regularization), so it is possible to avoid the numerical problems that come from the close approach with Jupiter. After that, the velocity increment required to start or to stop the spacecraft at the Earth and the flight path angle at the meeting point are calculated. A section is also written to compare the results obtained with the dynamics given by the restricted problem and the "patched-conics" approximation. It is especially checked which ones of those orbits have a passage near the Earth in the outbound (starting at the Earth) and in the inbound (starting at Jupiter) trajectories. This is very important, because those orbits have more chances of practical application. The outbound trajectories are useful to send a spacecraft to Jupiter and the inbound trajectories are important because an asteroid passing by Jupiter may follow this trajectory to collide with the Earth. The results are shown in plots where one letter describing the effects of the Swing-by is assigned to the respective area in a two-dimensional graph that has in the horizontal axis the angle Psi (the approach angle) and in the vertical axis the Jacobian constant of the spacecraft. There is one plot for each value of the parameter Rp. After that, the velocity change required to start or to stop the spacecraft at the Earth and the flight path angle at the meeting point are calculated.

  15. Making manufacturers responsible for recycling: Passing the garbage buck

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, K.; Boerner, C.; Ansehl-Fellow, J.

    1995-09-01

    During a meeting with the Conference of Mayor and the National Association of Counties in April of 1993, Senator Max Baucus, then-Chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, unveiled his solution to America`s {open_quotes}garbage crisis{close_quotes}. Modeled after Germany`s draconian {open_quotes}green dot{close_quotes} recycling program, the Senator`s solution rested on a principle which he called {open_quotes}manufacturers` responsibility for the life-cycle of a product.{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Anyone who sells a product,{close_quotes} Senator Baucus noted, {open_quotes}should also be responsible for the product when it becomes waste{close_quotes}. Other variations on this life-cycle stewardship concept were a central element of Congress`s failed attempts in 1992-1993 to reauthorize the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Likewise, on July 11, 1994 the United States Conference of Mayors` Energy and Environment Committee passed a resolution calling on Congress to study the concept of {open_quotes}shared responsibility for waste reduction{close_quotes}. The committee cited the virtues of Western Europe`s systems of manufacturers` responsibility and claimed that a U.S. version would create jobs, promote new environmental technology and {open_quotes}result in the emergence of entire new industries{close_quotes}. This report describes a recycling program in Germany in which the manaufacturers are responsible for waste collection. The overall waste reduction benefits are described.

  16. Sediment pass-through, an alternative to reservoir dredging

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, L.L.; Lee, W.H.; Tu, S.

    1995-12-31

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is studying an alternative {open_quotes}Sediment Management Plan{close_quotes} (SMP) to control sediments at Rock Creek Reservoir and the downstream Cresta Reservoir on the North Fork Feather River in Plumas County. The reservoirs are part of the 182,000 kW Rock Creek-Cresta Project hydroelectric development. Approximately 5.4 million cubic meters of sediments, deposited in the two reservoirs since they were placed in service in 1949 and 1950, partially obstruct the dams` low level outlets and pipe inlets supplying water for spillway gate operations. The sediments jeopardize the reliable and efficient operation of the dams and powerhouses. The SMP includes retrofitting Rock Creek and Cresta Dams with additional low-level gated outlets and modification of trash racks at the existing low level outlet pipes at each dam to improve sediment pass-through (SPT) capacity during high flows. Also, to enable construction of the dam modifications and to facilitate the initiation of SPT operation, dredging of approximately 46,000 cubic meters at Rock Creek Reservoir and 57,000 cubic meters at Cresta Reservoir can be accomplished using a new slurry pump dredging technology to minimize turbidity and re-suspension of solids during dredging. It is proposed to deposit the sediment on the reservoir bottoms, upstream of the areas to be dredged. The dredged sediments subsequently would be flushed from the reservoirs during SPT operations to ultimately be deposited in the dead storage volume of a large downstream reservoir, Lake Oroville. The SPT management plan supersedes more costly plans for major dredging, and may preclude the need for future maintenance dredging at the reservoirs.

  17. Investigation of the transient aerodynamic phenomena associated with passing manoeuvres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noger, C.; Regardin, C.; Széchényi, E.

    2005-11-01

    Passing manoeuvres and crosswind can have significant effects on the stability of road vehicles. The transient aerodynamics, which interacts with suspension, steering geometry and driver reaction is not well understood. When two vehicles overtake or cross, they mutually influence the flow field around each other, and under certain conditions, can generate severe gust loads that act as additional forces on both vehicles. The transient forces acting on them are a function of the longitudinal and transverse spacings and of the relative velocity between the two vehicles. Wind tunnel experiments have been conducted in one of the automotive wind tunnels of the Institut Aérotechnique of Saint-Cyr l’École to simulate the transient overtaking process between two models of a simple generic automobile shape. The tests were designed to study the effects of various parameters such as the longitudinal and transverse spacing, the relative velocity and the crosswind on the aerodynamic forces and moments generated on the overtaken and overtaking vehicles. Test results characterize the transient aerodynamic side force as well as the yawing moment coefficients in terms of these parameters. Measurements of the drag force coefficient as well as the static pressure distribution around the overtaken vehicle complete the understanding. The main results indicate the aerodynamic coefficients of the overtaken vehicle to be velocity independent within the limit of the test parameters, while unsteady aerodynamic effects appear in the case of an overtaking vehicle. The mutual interference effects between the vehicles vary as a linear function of the transverse spacing and the crosswind does not really generate any new unsteady behaviour.

  18. Creep Deformation and Rupture Behavior of Single- and Dual-Pass 316LN Stainless-Steel-Activated TIG Weld Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayanand, V. D.; Vasudevan, M.; Ganesan, V.; Parameswaran, P.; Laha, K.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    Creep deformation and rupture behavior of single-pass and dual-pass 316LN stainless steel (SS) weld joints fabricated by an autogenous activated tungsten inert gas welding process have been assessed by performing metallography, hardness, and conventional and impression creep tests. The fusion zone of the single-pass joint consisted of columnar zones adjacent to base metals with a central equiaxed zone, which have been modified extensively by the thermal cycle of the second pass in the dual-pass joint. The equiaxed zone in the single-pass joint, as well as in the second pass of the dual-pass joint, displayed the lowest hardness in the joints. In the dual-pass joint, the equiaxed zone of the first pass had hardness comparable to the columnar zone. The hardness variations in the joints influenced the creep deformation. The equiaxed and columnar zone in the first pass of the dual-pass joint was more creep resistant than that of the second pass. Both joints possessed lower creep rupture life than the base metal. However, the creep rupture life of the dual-pass joint was about twofolds more than that of the single-pass joint. Creep failure in the single-pass joint occurred in the central equiaxed fusion zone, whereas creep cavitation that originated in the second pass was blocked at the weld pass interface. The additional interface and strength variation between two passes in the dual-pass joint provides more restraint to creep deformation and crack propagation in the fusion zone, resulting in an increase in the creep rupture life of the dual-pass joint over the single-pass joint. Furthermore, the differences in content, morphology, and distribution of delta ferrite in the fusion zone of the joints favors more creep cavitation resistance in the dual-pass joint over the single-pass joint with the enhancement of creep rupture life.

  19. BUILDING AN ENVIRONMENTAL TRAINING MODEL, MAPCORE - A TRAINING EXERCISE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIEGEL, GILBERT B.; SULLIVAN, DONALD M.

    NEW AIR POLLUTION CONTROL PROGRAMS HAVE RESULTED FROM THE "CLEAN AIR ACT" PASSED BY CONGRESS IN DECEMBER 1963. THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA DEVELOPED A TRAINING MODEL, CALLED "MAPCORE," WHICH PROVIDES A SEMISTRUCTURED ENVIRONMENT, IS PRACTICAL AND REALISTIC IN APPROACH, PROVIDES OPPORTUNITY FOR HIGH CREATIVITY, PROVIDES AN…

  20. The transfer of carbon fibers through a commercial aircraft water separator and air cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The fraction of carbon fibers passing through a water separator and an air filter was determined in order to estimate the proportion of fibers outside a closed aircraft that are transmitted to the electronics through the air conditioning system. When both devices were used together and only fibers 3 mm or larger were considered, a transfer function of .001 was obtained.

  1. Assessing the efficacy of single-pass backpack electrofishing to characterize fish community structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; McIntyre, J.P.; Pollock, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Two-pass backpack electrofishing data collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program were analyzed to assess the efficacy of single-pass backpack electrofishing. A two-capture removal model was used to estimate, within 10 river basins across the United States, proportional fish species richness from one-pass electrofishing and probabilities of detection for individual fish species. Mean estimated species richness from first-pass sampling (p??s1) ranged from 80.7% to 100% of estimated total species richness for each river basin, based on at least seven samples per basin. However, p??s1 values for individual sites ranged from 40% to 100% of estimated total species richness. Additional species unique to the second pass were collected in 50.3% of the samples. Of these, cyprinids and centrarchids were collected most frequently. Proportional fish species richness estimated for the first pass increased significantly with decreasing stream width for 1 of the 10 river basins. When used to calculate probabilities of detection of individual fish species, the removal model failed 48% of the time because the number of individuals of a species was greater in the second pass than in the first pass. Single-pass backpack electrofishing data alone may make it difficult to determine whether characterized fish community structure data are real or spurious. The two-pass removal model can be used to assess the effectiveness of sampling species richness with a single electrofishing pass. However, the two-pass removal model may have limited utility to determine probabilities of detection of individual species and, thus, limit the ability to assess the effectiveness of single-pass sampling to characterize species relative abundances. Multiple-pass (at least three passes) backpack electrofishing at a large number of sites may not be cost-effective as part of a standardized sampling protocol for large-geographic-scale studies. However, multiple-pass

  2. Mapping Slumgullion Landslide in Colorado, USA Using Airborne Repeat-Pass InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Shrestha, R. L.; Carter, W. E.; Glennie, C. L.; Wang, G.; Lu, Z.; Fernandez-Diaz, J. C.; Cao, N.; Zaugg, E.

    2015-12-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) uses two or more SAR images over the same area to determine landscape topography or ground deformation. An interferogram, generated by the phase components of two coherent SAR images, depicts range changes between the radar and the ground resolution elements, and can be used to derive both landscape topography and subtle changes in surface elevation. However, spaceborne repeat-pass interferometry has two main drawbacks: effects due to differences in atmospheric temperature, pressure, and water vapour at two observation times, and loss of coherence due to long spatial and temporal baselines between observations. Airborne repeat-pass interferometry does not suffer from these drawbacks. The atmospheric effect in case of airborne DInSAR becomes negligible due to smaller swath coverage, and the coherence can be maintained by using smaller spatial and temporal baselines. However, the main technical limitation concerning airborne DInSAR is the need of precise motion compensation with an accurate navigation system to correct for the significant phase errors due to typical flight instability from air turbulence. Here, we present results from a pilot study conducted on July 2015 using both X-band and L-band SlimSAR airborne system over the Slumgullion landslide in Colorado in order to (1) acquire the differential interferograms from the airborne platform, (2) understand their source of errors, and (3) pave a way to improve the precision of the derived surface deformation. The landslide movement estimated from airborne DInSAR is also compared with coincident GPS, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), airborne LiDAR, and spaceborne DInSAR measurements using COSMO-SkyMed images. The airborne DInSAR system has a potential to provide time-transient variability in land surface topography with high-precision and high-resolution, and provide researchers with greater flexibility in selecting the temporal and spatial baselines of the data

  3. Note: Laser frequency shifting by using two novel triple-pass acousto-optic modulator configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos-Lopez, E. de; Lopez, J. M.; Lopez, S.; Espinosa, M. G.; Lizama, L. A.

    2012-11-15

    We report the design of two novel triple-pass acousto-optic modulator systems. These designs are extensions of the well known acousto-optic modulator (AOM) double-pass configuration, which eliminates the angle dependence of the diffracted beam with respect to the modulation frequency. In a triple-pass system, however, the frequency dependence of the angle does not disappear but the frequency shift is larger, spanning 3 times the AOM central frequency. In some applications, such as optically pumped Cesium-beam frequency standards, the frequencies of the two laser beams remain fixed and a triple-pass optical system can be used to reduce to one the number of lasers used in such atomic clocks. The two triple-pass configurations use either a retro-reflecting mirror, or a right angle prism to pass for third time the laser beam through the AOM, obtaining diffraction efficiencies of about 27% and 44%, respectively.

  4. Freshwater transport from the Pacific to the Bering Sea through Amukta Pass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Carol; Stabeno, Phyllis J.

    2009-07-01

    Flow through the Aleutian Passes connects the North Pacific to the Bering Sea and ultimately the Arctic. Moorings spanning the width of Amukta Pass, deployed 2001-2008, allow quantitative assessment of volume and freshwater transports. Volume transport through Amukta Pass averages 4.7 Sv, with maximum transport in January, minimum in September, and a secondary maximum in July. Average freshwater transport through Amukta Pass is ˜5800 km3 yr-1 with a seasonal cycle similar to that of volume transport. Combining this estimate with first-order estimates of freshwater transports in the other eastern passes in the Aleutian chain suggests that total freshwater transport is more than five times the cross-shelf flux of freshwater needed to supply transport through Bering Strait into the Arctic. Ongoing measurements in the Aleutian Passes are critical to understanding the influence of these waters on the Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Note: laser frequency shifting by using two novel triple-pass acousto-optic modulator configurations.

    PubMed

    de Carlos-López, E; López, J M; López, S; Espinosa, M G; Lizama, L A

    2012-11-01

    We report the design of two novel triple-pass acousto-optic modulator systems. These designs are extensions of the well known acousto-optic modulator (AOM) double-pass configuration, which eliminates the angle dependence of the diffracted beam with respect to the modulation frequency. In a triple-pass system, however, the frequency dependence of the angle does not disappear but the frequency shift is larger, spanning 3 times the AOM central frequency. In some applications, such as optically pumped Cesium-beam frequency standards, the frequencies of the two laser beams remain fixed and a triple-pass optical system can be used to reduce to one the number of lasers used in such atomic clocks. The two triple-pass configurations use either a retro-reflecting mirror, or a right angle prism to pass for third time the laser beam through the AOM, obtaining diffraction efficiencies of about 27% and 44%, respectively. PMID:23206109

  6. Baseline Estimation Algorithm with Block Adjustment for Multi-Pass Dual-Antenna Insar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guowang; Xiong, Xin; Xu, Qing; Gong, Zhihui; Zhou, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Baseline parameters and interferometric phase offset need to be estimated accurately, for they are key parameters in processing of InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar). If adopting baseline estimation algorithm with single pass, it needs large quantities of ground control points to estimate interferometric parameters for mosaicking multiple passes dual-antenna airborne InSAR data that covers large areas. What's more, there will be great difference between heights derived from different passes due to the errors of estimated parameters. So, an estimation algorithm of interferometric parameters with block adjustment for multi-pass dual-antenna InSAR is presented to reduce the needed ground control points and height's difference between different passes. The baseline estimation experiments were done with multi-pass InSAR data obtained by Chinese dual-antenna airborne InSAR system. Although there were less ground control points, the satisfied results were obtained, as validated the proposed baseline estimation algorithm.

  7. Liquid Desiccant in Air Conditioners: Nano-Engineered Porous Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Air Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-02

    BEETIT Project: UTRC is developing an air conditioning system that is optimized for use in warm and humid climates. UTRC’s air conditioning system integrates a liquid drying agent or desiccant and a traditional vapor compression system found in 90% of air conditioners. The drying agent reduces the humidity in the air before it is cooled, using less energy. The technology uses a membrane as a barrier between the air and the liquid salt stream allowing only water vapor to pass through and not the salt molecules. This solves an inherent problem with traditional liquid desiccant systems—carryover of the liquid drying agent into the conditioned air stream—which eliminates corrosion and health issues

  8. Whispering-Gallery-Mode Tunable Narrow-Band-Pass Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    An experimental tunable, narrow-band-pass electro-optical filter is based on a whispering-gallery resonator. This device is a prototype of tunable filters needed for the further development of reconfigurable networking wavelength-division multiplexers and communication systems that utilize radio-frequency (more specifically, microwave) subcarrier signals on optical carrier signals. The characteristics of whispering-gallery resonators that make them attractive for such applications include high tuning speed, compactness, wide tuning range, low power consumption, and compatibility with single-mode optical fibers. In addition, relative to Fabry-Perot resonators, these devices offer advantages of greater robustness and lower cost. As described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, a whispering-gallery resonator is a spheroidal, disk-like, or toroidal body made of a highly transparent material. It is so named because it is designed to exploit whispering-gallery electromagnetic modes, which are waveguide modes that propagate circumferentially and are concentrated in a narrow toroidal region centered on the equatorial plane and located near the outermost edge. The experimental whispering-gallery tunable filter (see figure) is made from a disk of Z-cut LiNbO3 of 4.8-mm diameter and 0.17-mm thickness. The perimeter of the disk is rounded to a radius of curvature of 100 m. Metal coats on the flat faces of the disk serve as electrodes for exploiting the electro-optical effect in LiNbO3 for tuning. There is no metal coat on the rounded perimeter region, where the whispering-gallery modes propagate. Light is coupled from an input optical fiber into the whispering-gallery modes by means of a diamond prism. Another diamond prism is used to couple light from the whispering-gallery modes to an output optical fiber. This device is designed and operated to exploit transverse magnetic (TM) whispering- gallery modes, rather than transverse electric (TE) modes because the

  9. HUBBLE PHOTOGRAPHS WARPED GALAXY AS CAMERA PASSES MILESTONE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    observations of ESO 510-G13, WFPC2 passed the milestone of taking its 100,000th image since its installation in the telescope by shuttle astronauts in 1993. Image Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: C. Conselice (U. Wisconsin/STScI)

  10. Intel NX to PVM 3.2 message passing conversion library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey; Nelson, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has developed a library that allows Intel NX message passing codes to be executed under the more popular and widely supported Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) message passing library. PVM was developed at Oak Ridge National Labs and has become the defacto standard for message passing. This library will allow the many programs that were developed on the Intel iPSC/860 or Intel Paragon in a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) design to be ported to the numerous architectures that PVM (version 3.2) supports. Also, the library adds global operations capability to PVM. A familiarity with Intel NX and PVM message passing is assumed.

  11. Evaluation of Dynamic Passing Sight Distance Problem Using a Finite Element Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Xuedong; Radwan, Essam; Zhang, Fan; Parker, Jack C.

    2008-06-01

    Sufficient passing sight distance is an important control for two-lane rural highway design to minimize the possibility of a head-on collision between passing and opposing vehicles. Traditionally, passing zones are marked by checking passing sight distance that is potentially restricted by static sight obstructions. Such obstructions include crest curves, overpasses, and lateral objects along highways. This paper proposes a new concept of dynamic sight-distance assessment, which involves restricted passing sight distances due to the impeding vehicles that are traveling in the same direction. Using a finite-element model, the dynamic passing sight-distance problem was evaluated, and the writers analyzed the relationships between the available passing sight distance and other factors such as the horizontal curve radius, impeding vehicle dimensions, and a driver s following distance. It was found that the impeding vehicles may cause substantially insufficient passing sight distances, which may lead to potential traffic safety problems. It is worthwhile to expand on this safety issue and consider the dynamic passing sight distance in highway design.

  12. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  13. Multiple-pass laser beam deflection probe for detection of acoustic and weak shock waves in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaci, Janez; Možina, Janez

    1995-09-01

    We examine a novel laser beam deflection arrangement for detection of acoustic and weak shock waves in fluids. Novelty of the arrangement is folding of the probe beam by two parallel plane mirrors in such a way that the probe beam passes the wave propagation region several times before it reaches the deflection-detecting photodetector. In this way the probed wave interacts with several segments of the probing beam in sequence. A single oscilloscope trace of the photodetector output thus gives us the possibility to study the evolution of the probed wave at several distances from the source. To demonstrate the potentials of the arrangement we present wave forms of spherical blast waves detected in air during laser ablation of solid samples. We also discuss a simple theoretical model that qualitatively explains the most characteristic features of this arrangement.

  14. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  15. D0 Cryo Instrument Air Backup System

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-11-20

    The D0 instrument air system for cryo controls has an emergency backup supply of nitrogen gas. The backup system consists of a high pressure tube trailer (38 tubes - 2400 psig MAWP), piping, valves, regulators and pressure monitoring instrumentation. The trailer is located south of DAB alongside the LN{sub 2} Dewar. Fixed piping ties to the trailer with a flex-hose. The piping follows the cryo piping bridge entering the south wall of DAB. where it passes through the pipe chase and into the cryo pump room (Rm 315). The high pressure gas is regulated down to 90 psig before tying into the compressor supplied instrument air system. Check valves are installed at the tee for the primary air and the backup N{sub 2}. Normal operating pressure for instrument air is 100-120 psig. With the backup supply pressure set to 90 psig, 'emergency air' is supplied whenever primary air pressure falls below 90 psig. There are two additional, outside connections to the system: one is a connection for repumping the trailer after a minimum backup volume is reached and the other is an auxiliary flex-hose connection for another trailer. All manual valves at system connections will be locked closed when not in use. The system's maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is 2400 psi, which is the trailer MAWP. All piping and components have a minimum 2400 psi working pressure. Actual component working pressures are included in the component list.

  16. MoSi2-Base Structural Composite Passed Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, Michael V.; Hebsur, Mohan G.

    1999-01-01

    The intermetallic compound molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) is an attractive high-temperature structural material for advanced engine applications. It has excellent oxidation resistance, a high melting point, relatively low density, and high thermal conductivity; and it is easily machined. Past research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has resulted in the development of a hybrid composite consisting of a MoSi2 matrix reinforced with silicon nitride (Si3N4) particulate and silicon carbide (SiC) fibers. This composite has demonstrated attractive strength, toughness, thermal fatigue, and oxidation resistance, including resistance to "pest" oxidation. These properties attracted the interest of the Office of Naval Research and Pratt & Whitney, and a joint NASA/Navy/Pratt & Whitney effort was developed to continue to mature the MoSi2 composite technology. A turbine blade outer air seal, which was part of the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) program, was chosen as a first component on which to focus.

  17. Passing the Baton: An Experimental Study of Shift Handover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, Bonny; Hobbs, Alan; Kanki, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Shift handovers occur in many safety-critical environments, including aviation maintenance, medicine, air traffic control, and mission control for space shuttle and space station operations. Shift handovers are associated with increased risk of communication failures and human error. In dynamic industries, errors and accidents occur disproportionately after shift handover. Typical shift handovers involve transferring information from an outgoing shift to an incoming shift via written logs, or in some cases, face-to-face briefings. The current study explores the possibility of improving written communication with the support modalities of audio and video recordings, as well as face-to-face briefings. Fifty participants participated in an experimental task which mimicked some of the critical challenges involved in transferring information between shifts in industrial settings. All three support modalities, face-to-face, video, and audio recordings, reduced task errors significantly over written communication alone. The support modality most preferred by participants was face-to-face communication; the least preferred was written communication alone.

  18. AIRBORNE RADIATION DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Cartmell, T.R.; Gifford, J.F.

    1959-08-01

    An ionization chamber used for measuring the radioactivity of dust present in atmospheric air is described. More particularly. the patent describes a device comprising two concentric open ended, electrically connected cylinders between which is disposed a wire electrcde. A heating source is disposed inside of the cylinder to circulate air through the space between the two cylinders by convective flow. A high voltage electric field between the wire electrcde of the electrically connected cylinder will cause ionization of the air as it passes therethrough.

  19. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  20. A Study of Single Pass Ion Effects at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.M.; Thomson, J.; Chao, A.W.; Heifets, S.; Minty, M.G.; Seeman, J.T.; Stupakov, G.V.; Zimmermann, F.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; /CERN

    2011-09-13

    We report the results of experiments on a 'fast beam-ion instability' at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). This ion instability, which can arise even when the ions are not trapped over multiple beam passages, will likely be important for many future accelerators. In our experiments, we filled the ALS storage ring with helium gas, raising the pressure approximately two orders of magnitude above the nominal pressure. With gaps in the bunch train large enough to avoid conventional (multi-turn) ion trapping, we observed a factor of 2-3 increase in the vertical beam size along with coherent beam oscillations which increased along the bunch train. Ion trapping has long been recognized as a potential limitation in electron storage rings. The ions, generated by beam-gas collisions, become trapped in the negative potential of the beam and accumulate over multiple beam passages. The trapped ions are then observed to cause a number of deleterious effects such as an increasing beam phase space, a broadening and shifting of the beam transverse oscillation frequencies (tunes), collective beam instabilities, and beam lifetime reductions. All of these effects are of concern for the next generation of accelerators, such as the B-factories or damping rings for future linear colliders, which will store high beam currents with closely spaced bunches and ultra-low beam emittances. One of the standard solutions used to prevent ion trapping is to include a gap in the bunch train which is long compared to the bunch spacing. In this case, the ions are first strongly-focused by the passing electron bunches and then over-focused in the gap. With a sufficiently large gap, the ions can be driven to large amplitudes where they form a diffuse halo and do not affect the beam. In this paper, we describe experiments that study a new regime of transient ion instabilities predicted to arise in future electron storage rings, and linacs with bunch trains. These future rings and linacs, which will be

  1. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  2. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters Tobacco Education and Training Ask ...

  3. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  4. STONES: Passing a stone in your sleep might be easier than you think

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Passing kidney calculi can be excruciatingly painful for patients, likened to childbirth in intensity. The mechanism of the simple act of passing a stone, however, is not well understood. A recent research article examined a novel approach for optimizing kidney stone clearance—sleep position, a simple noninvasive concept that might improve urinary stone passage. PMID:21878879

  5. An Evaluation of the Pass-Fail Grading Policy at UW-Stevens Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Stevens Point. Office of Institutional Research.

    The Office of Institutional Research conducted an evaluation of the Pass-No Pass (P-N) grading system at the University of Wisconsin-Stephens Point. The second semester, 1971-72, was chosen for the basis of evaluation. Sources of information include student records, a brief questionnaire sent to students who chose at least one P-N course, and a…

  6. 9 CFR 310.6 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking. 310.6 Section 310.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF.... Carcasses and parts passed for cooking shall be marked conspicuously on the surface tissues thereof by...

  7. Reading Comprehension in University Students: Relevance of PASS Theory of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    We examined how Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive (PASS) processes predict reading comprehension in a sample of university students (Study 1) and what PASS processes distinguish adults with and without reading difficulties (Study 2). In Study 1, 128 university students were tested on Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System, reading…

  8. 76 FR 21338 - Reopening of Scoping Period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Reopening of Scoping Period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement... (DOE) is reopening the public scoping period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (DOE/EIS-0463). The scoping period now ends on June 14, 2011. DOE...

  9. 76 FR 34969 - Extension of Scoping Period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Extension of Scoping Period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement... Register (76 FR 7828) its intention to prepare an EIS to assess the potential environmental impacts from... (DOE) is reopening the public scoping period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line...

  10. 78 FR 57372 - Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement: Announcement of Change in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement: Announcement of Change in Public... amended Notice of Intent (NOI) to modify the scope of the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (DOE/EIS-0463) and to conduct additional public scoping meetings (78...

  11. 77 FR 20719 - Safety Zone; Matlacha Bridge Construction, Matlacha Pass, Matlacha, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Matlacha Bridge Construction, Matlacha Pass... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of Matlacha Pass in the vicinity of the Matlacha Bridge in Matlacha, Florida. The safety zone will be enforced during construction of the Matlacha Bridge from...

  12. 77 FR 1870 - Safety Zone; Matlacha Bridge Construction, Matlacha Pass, Matlacha, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Matlacha Bridge Construction, Matlacha Pass... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of Matlacha Pass in the vicinity of the Matlacha Bridge in Matlacha, Florida. The safety zone will be enforced during construction of the Matlacha Bridge...

  13. Behavioral Coaching to Improve Offensive Line Pass-Blocking Skills of High School Football Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, John V.; Luiselli, James K.; Reed, Derek D.; Fleming, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated several behavioral coaching procedures for improving offensive line pass-blocking skills with 5 high school varsity football players. Pass blocking was measured during practice drills and games, and our intervention included descriptive feedback with and without video feedback and teaching with acoustical guidance (TAG). Intervention…

  14. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  15. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  16. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  17. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  18. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  19. 42 CFR 419.66 - Transitional pass-through payments: Medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: Medical devices. (a) General rule. CMS makes a pass-through payment for a medical device that meets the... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transitional pass-through payments: Medical devices.... (3) Except for medical devices identified in paragraph (e) of this section, CMS determines the...

  20. 42 CFR 419.66 - Transitional pass-through payments: Medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: Medical devices. (a) General rule. CMS makes a pass-through payment for a medical device that meets the... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transitional pass-through payments: Medical devices.... (3) Except for medical devices identified in paragraph (e) of this section, CMS determines the...

  1. 42 CFR 419.66 - Transitional pass-through payments: Medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: Medical devices. (a) General rule. CMS makes a pass-through payment for a medical device that meets the... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transitional pass-through payments: Medical devices.... (3) Except for medical devices identified in paragraph (e) of this section, CMS determines the...

  2. South Africa?s Increased Matriculation Passes: What Skunks behind the Rose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monyooe, Lebusa; Tjatji, Martin; Mosese, Eulenda

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that the exponential increases in the Grade 12 (Matriculation) passes post 1994 do not necessarily translate to quality because of the low performance norms and standards set for passing Grade 12. It further calls for a serious reflection and interrogation of existing policies on performance, benchmarks, teacher education…

  3. 33 CFR 167.1331 - In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1331 In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass. In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass, the following are established: (a) Precautionary area “V,” which is bounded by... connects with precautionary area “V,” as described in paragraph (a) of this section, and is bounded by...

  4. 33 CFR 167.1331 - In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1331 In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass. In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass, the following are established: (a) Precautionary area “V,” which is bounded by... connects with precautionary area “V,” as described in paragraph (a) of this section, and is bounded by...

  5. Using Silence to "Pass": Embodiment and Interactional Categorization in a Diasporic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This article posits that "passing" is a manipulation of ambiguously embodied characteristics, linguistic practice, and ratification by other speakers. I explore discourses and practices of "passing" by post-migrant generation, diasporically-resident Moroccans who seek to be unmarked by migration when bargaining in Moroccan…

  6. 78 FR 5477 - Agency Information Collection Activities: InfoPass System, No Form Number; Extension, Without...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... information collection notice was previously published in the Federal Register on October 31, 2012, at 77 FR... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: InfoPass... Collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: InfoPass System. (3) Agency form number, if any, and...

  7. 78 FR 64531 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension, Sacramento Pass Recreation Area; Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... withdrawal established by PLO No. 7060 (59 FR 28790 (1994)), for an additional 20-year term. PLO No. 7060... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension, Sacramento Pass Recreation Area..., but not from leasing under the mineral leasing laws, to protect the Sacramento Pass Recreation...

  8. Passing the California High School Exit Exam: Have Recent Policies Improved Student Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Julian R.; Zau, Andrew C.; Zieleniak, Yendrick; Bachofer, Karen Volz

    2012-01-01

    The California High School Exit Examination (CAHSEE) plays an important role in California's public school accountability program. Beginning in grade 10, students have multiple chances to pass the mathematics and English Language Arts components of this exam. If they do not pass both components by the end of grade 12, they will not receive a high…

  9. 22 CFR 9b.8 - Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b.8 Section 9b.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING...' validity. Subject to positive completion of an international background check, passes for non-U.S....

  10. 22 CFR 9b.8 - Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b.8 Section 9b.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING...' validity. Subject to positive completion of an international background check, passes for non-U.S....

  11. 14 CFR 61.35 - Knowledge test: Prerequisites and passing grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Knowledge test: Prerequisites and passing....35 Knowledge test: Prerequisites and passing grades. (a) An applicant for a knowledge test must have... part for the certificate or rating sought and is prepared for the knowledge test; and (2)...

  12. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers; (5) Where...

  13. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers; (5) Where...

  14. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers; (5) Where...

  15. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers; (5) Where...

  16. 78 FR 18480 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chef Menteur Pass, at Lake Catherine, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chef Menteur Pass, at Lake Catherine.... Highway 90 swing highway bridge across the Chef Menteur Pass, mile 2.8, at Lake Catherine, Orleans Parish..., mile 2.8, at Lake Catherine, Orleans, Parish, Louisiana. The bridge provides 10 feet vertical...

  17. Gender Differences in Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    Examined 1,100 boys and 1,100 girls who matched the U.S. population using the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) cognitive-processing theory, built on the neuropsychological work of A.R. Luria (1973). Results illustrate that the PASS theory offers a useful way to examine gender differences in cognitive performance. (BF)

  18. Examining the Effects of PASS Cognitive Processes on Chinese Reading Accuracy and Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaochen; Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive) processes to Chinese reading accuracy and fluency. One-hundred-forty Grade 3 to 5 Mandarin-speaking children were assessed on measures of PASS processes, phonological awareness, and orthographic knowledge. A year later they were…

  19. Finding Your Way in the Legislation Maze: How To Pass Legislation in Your State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Offers tips for developing and passing legislation that would protect animals. Recommends being an authority on the issue, researching current laws, recognizing support groups and lobbyists, and knowing key legislative players. Contains a description of laws passed in the state of Illinois. (PVD)

  20. The Grading Nemesis: An Historical Overview and a Current Look at Pass/Fail Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, L. David

    1983-01-01

    A brief history of grading practices at American colleges and universities is given, along with results of a survey of the current uses of pass/fail grading. The pass/fail system is widely used for a limited number of elective courses. Its adoption peaked during the mid-1970s. (PP)

  1. Older Children's Misunderstanding of Uncertain Belief after Passing the False Belief Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ting; Zheng, Xueru; Zhang, Li; Sha, Wenju; Deak, Gedeon; Li, Hong

    2010-01-01

    A four-location belief task was designed to examine children's understanding of another's uncertain belief after passing a false belief (FB) task. In Experiment 1, after passing the FB task, participants were asked what a puppet would do after he failed to find his toy at the falsely believed location. Most 4-year-olds and half of 6-year-olds…

  2. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  3. System for lubrication of a brake air compressor associated with a turbocharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.C.

    1992-10-13

    This patent describes a system for use with a vehicle which includes a turbocharged internal combustion engine having a lubricating system wherein lubricating oil from an engine oil reservoir is circulated within the engine and also to and from an associated brake system air compressor which supplies compressed air for operation of the vehicle air braking system. This patent describes improvement in passing supercharged air to an oil crankcase of the air compressor to cause lubricating oil to drain therefrom and return to the engine oil reservoir.

  4. Scrubbing of contaminants from contaminated air streams with aerogel materials with optional photocatalytic destruction

    DOEpatents

    Attia, Yosry A.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for separating a vaporous or gaseous contaminant from an air stream contaminated therewith. This method includes the steps of: (a) passing said contaminated air into a contact zone in which is disposed an aerogel material capable of selecting adsorbing said contaminant from air and therein contacting said contaminated air with an aerogel material; and (b) withdrawing from said zone, air depleted of said contaminant. For present purposes, "contaminant" means a material not naturally occurring in ambient air and/or a material naturally occurring in air but present at a concentration above that found in ambient air. Thus, the present invention scrubs (or treats) air for the purpose of returning it to its ambient composition. Also disclosed herein is a process for the photocatalytic destruction of contaminants from an air stream wherein the contaminated air stream is passed into a control cell or contact zone in which is disposed a photocatalytic aerogel and exposing said aerogel to ultraviolet (UV) radiation for photocatalytically destroying the adsorbed contaminant, and withdrawing from said cell an exhaust air stream depleted in said contaminant.

  5. Is the three-foot bicycle passing law working in Baltimore, Maryland?

    PubMed

    Love, David C; Breaud, Autumn; Burns, Sean; Margulies, Jared; Romano, Max; Lawrence, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Maryland (MD) recently became one of fourteen states in the United States to enact a traffic law requiring motor vehicles to pass bicyclists at a distance of greater than three feet. To our knowledge, motorist compliance with the law has never been assessed. This study measured the distance between overtaking motor vehicles and cyclists [e.g. vehicle passing distance (VPD)], to develop baseline metrics for tracking implementation of the three-foot passing law in Baltimore, MD and to assess risk factors for dangerous passes. During September and October 2011, cyclists (n=5) measured VPD using a previously published video technique (Parkin and Meyers, 2010). Cyclists logged a total of 10.8h of video footage and 586 vehicle passes on 34 bicycle commuting trips. The average trip lasted 19.5±4.9 min and cyclists were passed on average 17.2±11.8 times per trip. VPDs of three feet or less were common when cycling in standard lanes (17%; 78 of 451 passes) and lanes with a shared lane marking (e.g. sharrows) (23%; 11 of 47 passes). No passes of three feet or less occurred in bicycle lanes (0 of 88 passes). A multiple linear regression model was created, which explained 26% of the variability in VPD. Significant model variables were lane width, bicycle infrastructure, cyclist identity, and street identity. Interventions, such as driver education, signage, enforcement, and bicycle infrastructure changes are needed to influence driving behavior in Baltimore to increase motorist compliance with the three-foot law. PMID:22664711

  6. MoSi2-Base Hybrid Composite Passed Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Hebsur, Mohan

    1998-01-01

    The intermetallics compound molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) is an attractive high-temperature structural material for advanced engine applications. It has excellent oxidation resistance, a high melting point, relatively low density, and high thermal conductivity, and it is easily machined. Past research'at the NASA Lewis Research Center has resulted in the development of a hybrid composite consisting of a MoSi2 matrix reinforced with silicon nitride (Si3N4) Particulate and silicon carbide (SiC) fibers. This composite has demonstrated attractive strength, toughness, thermal fatigue, and oxidation resistance, including resistance to "pest" oxidation. These properties attracted the interest of the Office of Naval Research and Pratt & Whitney, and a joint NASA/Navy/Pratt & Whitney effort was developed to continue to mature the MoSi2 Composite technology. A turbine blade outer air seal, which was part of the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) program, was chosen as a first component on which to focus. The first tasks of the materials development effort were to develop improved processing methods to reduce costs and to use fine-diameter fibers that enable the manufacturing of complex shapes. Tape-casting methods were developed to fully infiltrate the fine SiC fibers with matrix powders. The resulting composites were hot pressed to 100-percent density. Composites with cross-plied fiber architectures with 30 vol. % hi-nicalon SiC fibers and 30 vol. % nitride particles are now made routinely and demonstrate a good balance of properties. The next task entailed the measurement of a wide variety of mechanical properties to confirm the suitability of this composite in engines. In particular, participants in this effort demonstrated that composites made with Hi-Nicalon fibers had strength and toughness properties equal to or better than those of the composites made with the large-diameter fibers that had been used previously. Another critically

  7. Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Black, R.L.

    1980-11-12

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  8. Fuel-air ratio controlled carburetion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, H. G.

    1980-02-12

    An automatic control system is disclosed supplying a fuel-air mixture to an internal combustion engine including a variable-venturi carburetor. Air is fed into the input of the venturi, the air passing through the throat thereof whose effective area is adjusted by a mechanism operated by a servo motor. Fuel is fed into the input of the venturi from a fuel reservoir through a main path having a fixed orifice and an auxiliary path formed by a metering valve operated by an auxiliary fuel-control motor. The differential air pressure developed between the inlet of the venturi and the throat thereof is sensed to produce an airvelocity command signal that is applied to a controller adapted to compare the command signal with the servo motor set point to produce an output for governing the servo motor to cause it to seek a null point, thereby defining a closed process control loop. The intake manifold vacuum, which varies in degree as a function of load and speed conditions is sensed to govern the auxiliary fuel-control motor accordingly, is at the same time converted into an auxiliary signal which is applied to the controller in the closed loop to modulate the command signal in a manner establishing an optimum air-fuel ratio under the varying conditions of load and speed.

  9. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  10. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  11. Air traffic coverage

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.L.

    1988-09-16

    The Federal Aviation Administration plans to consolidate several hundred air traffic control centers and TRACONs into area control facilities while maintaining air traffic coverage. This paper defines air traffic coverage, a performance measure of the air traffic control system. Air traffic coverage measures performance without controversy regarding delay and collision probabilities and costs. Coverage measures help evaluate alternative facility architectures and help schedule consolidation. Coverage measures also help evaluate protocols for handling one facility's air traffic to another facility in case of facility failure. Coverage measures help evaluate radar, communications and other air traffic control systems and procedures. 4 refs., 2 figs.,

  12. Investigation of the effects of sleeper-passing impacts on the high-speed train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xingwen; Cai, Wubin; Chi, Maoru; Wei, Lai; Shi, Huailong; Zhu, Minhao

    2015-12-01

    The sleeper-passing impact has always been considered negligible in normal conditions, while the experimental data obtained from a High-speed train in a cold weather expressed significant sleeper-passing impacts on the axle box, bogie frame and car body. Therefore, in this study, a vertical coupled vehicle/track dynamic model was developed to investigate the sleeper-passing impacts and its effects on the dynamic performance of the high-speed train. In the model, the dynamic model of vehicle is established with 10 degrees of freedom. The track model is formulated with two rails supported on the discrete supports through the finite element method. The contact forces between the wheel and rail are estimated using the non-linear Hertz contact theory. The parametric studies are conducted to analyse effects of both the vehicle speeds and the discrete support stiffness on the sleeper-passing impacts. The results show that the sleeper-passing impacts become extremely significant with the increased support stiffness of track, especially when the frequencies of sleeper-passing impacts approach to the resonance frequencies of wheel/track system. The damping of primary suspension can effectively lower the magnitude of impacts in the resonance speed ranges, but has little effect on other speed ranges. Finally, a more comprehensively coupled vehicle/track dynamic model integrating with a flexible wheel set is developed to discuss the sleeper-passing-induced flexible vibration of wheel set.

  13. Band-pass processing in a GPCR signaling pathway selects for NFAT transcription factor activation.

    PubMed

    Sumit, M; Neubig, R R; Takayama, S; Linderman, J J

    2015-11-01

    Many biological processes are rhythmic and proper timing is increasingly appreciated as being critical for development and maintenance of physiological functions. To understand how temporal modulation of an input signal influences downstream responses, we employ microfluidic pulsatile stimulation of a G-protein coupled receptor, the muscarinic M3 receptor, in single cells with simultaneous real-time imaging of both intracellular calcium and NFAT nuclear localization. Interestingly, we find that reduced stimulation with pulses of ligand can give more efficient transcription factor activation, if stimuli are timed appropriately. Our experiments and computational analyses show that M3 receptor-induced calcium oscillations form a low pass filter while calcium-induced NFAT translocation forms a high pass filter. The combination acts as a band-pass filter optimized for intermediate frequencies of stimulation. We demonstrate that receptor desensitization and NFAT translocation rates determine critical features of the band-pass filter and that the band-pass may be shifted for different receptors or NFAT dynamics. As an example, we show that the two NFAT isoforms (NFAT4 and NFAT1) have shifted band-pass windows for the same receptor. While we focus specifically on the M3 muscarinic receptor and NFAT translocation, band-pass processing is expected to be a general theme that applies to multiple signaling pathways.

  14. Band-pass processing in a GPCR signaling pathway selects for NFAT transcription factor activation†

    PubMed Central

    Sumit, M.; Neubig, R. R.; Takayama, S.; Linderman, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Many biological processes are rhythmic and proper timing is increasingly appreciated as being critical for development and maintenance of physiological functions. To understand how temporal modulation of an input signal influences downstream responses, we employ microfluidic pulsatile stimulation of a G-Protein coupled receptor, the muscarinic M3 receptor, in single cells with simultaneous real-time imaging of both intracellular calcium and NFAT nuclear localization. Interestingly, we find that reduced stimulation with pulses of ligand can give more efficient transcription factor activation, if stimuli are timed appropriately. Our experiments and computational analyses show that M3 receptor-induced calcium oscillations form a low pass filter while calcium-induced NFAT translocation forms a high pass filter. The combination acts as a band-pass filter optimized for intermediate frequencies of stimulation. We demonstrate that receptor desensitization and NFAT translocation rates determine critical features of the band-pass filter and that the band-pass may be shifted for different receptors or NFAT dynamics. As an example, we show that the two NFAT isoforms (NFAT4 and NFAT1) have shifted band-pass windows for the same receptor. While we focus specifically on the M3 muscarinic receptor and NFAT translocation, band-pass processing is expected to be a general theme that applies to multiple signaling pathways. PMID:26374065

  15. Upper-body strength and power assessment in women using a chest pass.

    PubMed

    Cronin, John B; Owen, Greg J

    2004-08-01

    Finding assessment methods that are reliable, valid, and easy to administer is important, especially when assessing large numbers of athletes. The purpose of this research therefore was to investigate whether assessment of the upper body using the chest pass throw was significantly related to strength and power as measured using the bench press. The chest pass distance of 12 experienced netball players was measured; thereafter, their bench press 1 repetition maximum and various kinematic and kinetic variables were calculated from a 10-kg bench press throw performed on an instrumented Smith machine. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to establish the relationship between the strength/power variables and the chest pass. Of the kinematic and kinetic variables calculated from the bench press throws, impulse and power were the variables most highly correlated to chest pass distance (r = 0.775-0.810), whereas the measures of initial force production (F30ms and F100ms) were the lowest (r = 0.082-0.105). Four variables had a greater than 50% (R2) shared variance with the netball chest pass-impulse, peak power, mean power and maximal strength. Power and impulse are strong predictors of chest pass performance; however, the value of the chest pass as an assessment tool to map strength and power changes in an athlete needs to be investigated using a training study approach.

  16. Particle impactor assembly for size selective high volume air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Langer, Gerhard

    1988-08-16

    Air containing entrained particulate matter is directed through a plurality of parallel, narrow, vertically oriented impactor slots of an inlet element toward an adjacently located, relatively large, dust impaction surface preferably covered with an adhesive material. The air flow turns over the impaction surface, leaving behind the relatively larger particles according to the human thoracic separation system and passes through two elongate exhaust apertures defining the outer bounds of the impaction collection surface to pass through divergent passages which slow down and distribute the air flow, with entrained smaller particles, over a fine filter element that separates the fine particles from the air. The elongate exhaust apertures defining the impaction collection surface are spaced apart by a distance greater than the lengths of elongate impactor slots in the inlet element and are oriented to be normal thereto. By appropriate selection of dimensions and the number of impactor slots air flow through the inlet element is provided a nonuniform velocity distribution with the lower velocities being obtained near the center of the impactor slots, in order to separate out particles larger than a certain predetermined size on the impaction collection surface. The impaction collection surface, even in a moderately sized apparatus, is thus relatively large and permits the prolonged sampling of air for periods extending to four weeks.

  17. Benchmarking the gamma pass score using ArcCHECK for routine dosimetric QA of VMAT plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Sankar; Young, Tony; Xing, Aitang; Thwaites, David; Holloway, Lois

    2015-01-01

    A minimum expected gamma (γ) pass rate for VMAT plan verification using ArcCHECK was established based on the RTTQA, TGI 19 test cases and 10 clinical plans with varying levels of complexity. The impact of the 'Measurement Uncertainty' parameter as available in the ArcCHECK software on γ pass rate was studied for both global and local γ analysis. Our results show that excluding measurement uncertainty adds tighter tolerance in local γ comparison. From the verification of our benchmark cases we established minimum expected γ pass rates of 85% and 88% for 2%/2mm global and 3%/3mm local tolerance criteria.

  18. High efficiency multi-pass proton beam extraction with a bent crystal at the SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuna, X.; Bussa, M. P.; Carboni, G.; Dehning, B.; Elsener, K.; Ferrari, A.; Fidecaro, G.; Freund, A.; Guinand, R.; Gyr, M.; Herr, W.; Klem, J.; Laffin, M.; Lanceri, L.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Scandale, W.; Tosello, F.; Uggerhøj, E.; Vuagnin, G.; Weisse, E.; Weisz, S.

    1995-02-01

    Recent measurements of 120 GeV proton extraction by means of a bent silicon crystal at the CERN-SPS accelerator are summarized. The existence of multi-pass extraction has been proven by blocking first-pass extraction: using a crystal covered with an amorphous layer, extracted beam with high efficiency was observed, which provides a direct proof for the importance of the multi-pass mechanism. This opens new possibilities in the design and optimization of a bent crystal extraction scheme.

  19. By-Pass Diode Temperature Tests of a Solar Array Coupon under Space Thermal Environment Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie; Wu, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    By-Pass diodes are a key design feature of solar arrays and system design must be robust against local heating, especially with implementation of larger solar cells. By-Pass diode testing was performed to aid thermal model development for use in future array designs that utilize larger cell sizes that result in higher string currents. Testing was performed on a 56-cell Advanced Triple Junction solar array coupon provided by SSL. Test conditions were vacuum with cold array backside using discrete by-pass diode current steps of 0.25 A ranging from 0 A to 2.0 A.

  20. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  1. Canonical transformation for trapped/passing guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Brizard, Alain J.; Duthoit, François-Xavier

    2014-05-15

    The generating function for the canonical transformation from the parallel canonical coordinates (s,p{sub ||}) to the action-angle coordinates (ζ, J) for trapped/passing guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is presented. Drawing on the analogy between the phase-space portraits of the librating/rotating pendulum and the trapped/passing guiding-center orbits, the generating function is expressed in terms of the Jacobi zeta function, which can then readily be used to obtain an explicit expression for the bounce-center transformation for trapped/passing-particle guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry.

  2. High-level message-passing constructs for Zipcode 1.0: Design and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.G.; Falgout, R.D.; Still, C.H.; Skjellum, A.

    1993-10-01

    Zipcode is a message passing system that was initially designed for multicomputers and homogeneous networks of computers. This paper describes Zipcode ``invoices,`` which raise the message-passing interface of Zipcode to a higher level of abstraction. The ``gather-send`` and ``receive-scatter`` semantics enable heterogeneous communication. The higher level of abstraction also simplifies message passing and reveals more optimizations. We explain the utility of these features and give examples of the calling sequences that implement them. All of these features are seen as enablers for parallel library development and large applications.

  3. First results of electron temperature measurements by the use of multi-pass Thomson scattering system in GAMMA 10

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, M. Nagasu, K.; Shimamura, Y.; Shima, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Imai, T.; Ichimura, M.; Yasuhara, R.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Kawahata, K.; Minami, T.

    2014-11-15

    A multi-pass Thomson scattering (TS) has the advantage of enhancing scattered signals. We constructed a multi-pass TS system for a polarisation-based system and an image relaying system modelled on the GAMMA 10 TS system. We undertook Raman scattering experiments both for the multi-pass setting and for checking the optical components. Moreover, we applied the system to the electron temperature measurements in the GAMMA 10 plasma for the first time. The integrated scattering signal was magnified by approximately three times by using the multi-pass TS system with four passes. The electron temperature measurement accuracy is improved by using this multi-pass system.

  4. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  5. Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It is highest while ...

  6. 78 FR 45928 - Submission for OMB Review; Limitations on Pass-Through Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... regarding Limitations on Pass- Through Charges. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR... order value exceeds the simplified acquisition threshold (SAT). (2) For DoD, the total...

  7. 40 CFR 205.160-6 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-6 Passing or... noise emission standard in § 205.152. (b) The number of failing vehicles in a sample determines...

  8. 40 CFR 205.160-6 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-6 Passing or... noise emission standard in § 205.152. (b) The number of failing vehicles in a sample determines...

  9. 40 CFR 205.160-6 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-6 Passing or failing under... emission standard in § 205.152. (b) The number of failing vehicles in a sample determines whether...

  10. 40 CFR 205.160-6 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-6 Passing or... noise emission standard in § 205.152. (b) The number of failing vehicles in a sample determines...

  11. 33 CFR 80.835 - Point Au Fer, LA to Calcasieu Pass, LA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Point. (b) Lines following the general trend of the highwater shoreline drawn across the bayou and canal... across Southwest Pass. (d) A line drawn across the seaward extremity of the Freshwater Bayou...

  12. 1D linear-phase band-pass multiplierless FIR Hilbert transformers and filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlović, Vlastimir D.; Dončov, Nebojša S.; Ćirić, Dejan G.

    2016-06-01

    An original analytical method, based on modified Christoffel-Darboux formula, is used in the paper in order to synthesise a linear-phase band-pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter function that can have an effect of Hilbert transformer. New structure of the band-pass FIR filter in recursive realisation, together with the corresponding difference equation, is presented providing the efficient filter solution without multipliers. Several examples of filter types for different parity of two real free integer parameters, including a particular solution of Hilbert transformer, are considered in terms of required number of adders and values of cut-off frequencies of the pass and stop bands. A comparison of the proposed band-pass filter characteristics with those of a classical filter solution is provided in the paper.

  13. Static thermo-optic instability in double-pass fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2016-06-13

    A coupled-mode formalism, earlier used to describe transverse mode instabilities in single-pass optical fiber amplifiers is extended to the case of double-pass amplifiers. Contrary to the single-pass case, it is shown that the thermo-optic nonlinearity can couple light at the same frequency between the LP01 and LP11 modes, leading to a static deformation of the output beam profile. This novel phenomenon is caused by the interaction of light propagating in either direction with thermo-optic index perturbations caused by light propagating in the opposite direction. The threshold power for the static deformation is found to be several times lower than what is typically found for the dynamic modal instabilities observed in single-pass amplifiers. PMID:27410360

  14. Statistical variability and confidence intervals for planar dose QA pass rates

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Daniel W.; Nelms, Benjamin E.; Attwood, Kristopher; Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The most common metric for comparing measured to calculated dose, such as for pretreatment quality assurance of intensity-modulated photon fields, is a pass rate (%) generated using percent difference (%Diff), distance-to-agreement (DTA), or some combination of the two (e.g., gamma evaluation). For many dosimeters, the grid of analyzed points corresponds to an array with a low areal density of point detectors. In these cases, the pass rates for any given comparison criteria are not absolute but exhibit statistical variability that is a function, in part, on the detector sampling geometry. In this work, the authors analyze the statistics of various methods commonly used to calculate pass rates and propose methods for establishing confidence intervals for pass rates obtained with low-density arrays. Methods: Dose planes were acquired for 25 prostate and 79 head and neck intensity-modulated fields via diode array and electronic portal imaging device (EPID), and matching calculated dose planes were created via a commercial treatment planning system. Pass rates for each dose plane pair (both centered to the beam central axis) were calculated with several common comparison methods: %Diff/DTA composite analysis and gamma evaluation, using absolute dose comparison with both local and global normalization. Specialized software was designed to selectively sample the measured EPID response (very high data density) down to discrete points to simulate low-density measurements. The software was used to realign the simulated detector grid at many simulated positions with respect to the beam central axis, thereby altering the low-density sampled grid. Simulations were repeated with 100 positional iterations using a 1 detector/cm{sup 2} uniform grid, a 2 detector/cm{sup 2} uniform grid, and similar random detector grids. For each simulation, %/DTA composite pass rates were calculated with various %Diff/DTA criteria and for both local and global %Diff normalization

  15. Regional Comparisons, Spatial Aggregation, and Asymmetry of Price Pass-Through

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    Spot to retail price pass-through behavior of the U.S. gasoline market was investigated at the national and regional levels, using weekly wholesale and retail motor gasoline prices from January 2000 to the present.

  16. Static thermo-optic instability in double-pass fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2016-06-13

    A coupled-mode formalism, earlier used to describe transverse mode instabilities in single-pass optical fiber amplifiers is extended to the case of double-pass amplifiers. Contrary to the single-pass case, it is shown that the thermo-optic nonlinearity can couple light at the same frequency between the LP01 and LP11 modes, leading to a static deformation of the output beam profile. This novel phenomenon is caused by the interaction of light propagating in either direction with thermo-optic index perturbations caused by light propagating in the opposite direction. The threshold power for the static deformation is found to be several times lower than what is typically found for the dynamic modal instabilities observed in single-pass amplifiers.

  17. Overgrazing- How far are we from passing the tipping point of turning our rangelands into desert?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecological science, particularly with regard to Mongolian rangelands, is not able to estimate when a tipping point will be passed. Nonetheless, it does provide a framework for responding to the threat of desertification tipping points. ...

  18. Analysis of the NASA/MSFC airborne Doppler lidar results from San Gorgonio Pass, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, W. C.; Skarda, J. R.; Renne, D. S.; Sandusky, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC Airborne Doppler Lidar System was flown in July 1981 aboard the NASA/Ames Convair 990 on the east side of San Gorgonio Pass California, near Palm Springs, to measure and investigate the accelerated atmospheric wind field discharging from the pass. At this region, the maritime layer from the west coast accelerates through the pass and spreads out over the valley floor on the east side of the pass. The experiment was selected in order to study accelerated flow in and at the exit of the canyon. Ground truth wind data taken concurrently with the flight data were available from approximately 12 meteorological towers and 3 tala kites for limited comparison purposes. The experiment provided the first spatial data for ensemble averaging of spatial correlations to compute lateral and longitudinal length scales in the lateral and longitudinal directions for both components, and information on atmospheric flow in this region of interest from wind energy resource considerations.

  19. 48 CFR 52.215-23 - Limitations on Pass-Through Charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... value means that the Contractor performs subcontract management functions that the Contracting Officer... deliveries, performing quality assurance functions). Excessive pass-through charge, with respect to a... disclosed value-added functions....

  20. Efficient Implementation of Multigrid Solvers on Message-Passing Parrallel Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, John

    1994-01-01

    We discuss our implementation strategies for finite difference multigrid partial differential equation (PDE) solvers on message-passing systems. Our target parallel architecture is Intel parallel computers: the Delta and Paragon system.

  1. High peak-power kilohertz laser system employing single-stage multi-pass amplification

    DOEpatents

    Shan, Bing; Wang, Chun; Chang, Zenghu

    2006-05-23

    The present invention describes a technique for achieving high peak power output in a laser employing single-stage, multi-pass amplification. High gain is achieved by employing a very small "seed" beam diameter in gain medium, and maintaining the small beam diameter for multiple high-gain pre-amplification passes through a pumped gain medium, then leading the beam out of the amplifier cavity, changing the beam diameter and sending it back to the amplifier cavity for additional, high-power amplification passes through the gain medium. In these power amplification passes, the beam diameter in gain medium is increased and carefully matched to the pump laser's beam diameter for high efficiency extraction of energy from the pumped gain medium. A method of "grooming" the beam by means of a far-field spatial filter in the process of changing the beam size within the single-stage amplifier is also described.

  2. 75 FR 48278 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Excessive Pass-Through Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 215, 231, and 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Excessive Pass-Through Charges AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... language implementing section 852 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007...

  3. View of compartment D16, passing room; shaft and universal joints ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of compartment D-16, passing room; shaft and universal joints at top of photograph transmit control forces to steering unit in compartment d-23. (p62) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. TECHNICAL DESIGN NOTE Multi-pass light amplification for tomographic particle image velocimetry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaemi, Sina; Scarano, Fulvio

    2010-12-01

    The light source budget is a critical issue for tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) systems due to its requirement for large illuminated volume and imaging at small apertures. In this work, a light amplification system based on the multi-pass concept is investigated for Tomo-PIV applications. The system design is performed on the basis of a theoretical model providing an estimation of the most important system parameters and above all the amplification gain. The multi-pass light amplification concept is verified experimentally by measuring the scattered light intensity across the illuminated volume. The results demonstrate a gain factor of 7 and 5 times in comparison with the single-pass and double-pass illumination approaches, respectively.

  5. Passing particle toroidal precession induced by electric field in a tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, V. V.; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Sorokina, E. A.

    2013-12-15

    Characteristics of a rotation of passing particles in a tokamak with radial electric field are calculated. The expression for time-averaged toroidal velocity of the passing particle induced by the electric field is derived. The electric-field-induced additive to the toroidal velocity of the passing particle appears to be much smaller than the velocity of the electric drift calculated for the poloidal magnetic field typical for the trapped particle. This quantity can even have the different sign depending on the azimuthal position of the particle starting point. The unified approach for the calculation of the bounce period and of the time-averaged toroidal velocity of both trapped and passing particles in the whole volume of plasma column is presented. The results are obtained analytically and are confirmed by 3D numerical calculations of the trajectories of charged particles.

  6. Optics correction for the multi-pass FFAG ERL machine eRHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Brooks, S.; Litvinenko, V.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Trbojevic, D.

    2015-05-03

    Gradient errors in the multi-pass Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) machine, eRHIC, distort the beam orbit and therefore cause emittance increase. The localization and correction of gradient errors are essential for an effective orbit correction and emittance preservation. In this report, the methodology and simulation of optics correction for the multi-pass FFAG ERL machine eRHIC will be presented.

  7. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy - Quality and Reliability Date

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, James K.; Peltier, Daryl

    2010-01-01

    Thsi slide presentation reviews the avionics software system on board the space shuttle, with particular emphasis on the quality and reliability. The Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) provides automatic and fly-by-wire control of critical shuttle systems which executes in redundant computers. Charts given show the number of space shuttle flights vs time, PASS's development history, and other charts that point to the reliability of the system's development. The reliability of the system is also compared to predicted reliability.

  8. Four-Pass Coupler for Laser-Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, Donald B.

    2008-01-01

    A four-pass optical coupler affords increased (in comparison with related prior two-pass optical couplers) utilization of light generated by a laser diode in side pumping of a solid-state laser slab. The original application for which this coupler was conceived involves a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) crystal slab, which, when pumped by a row of laser diodes at a wavelength of 809 nm, lases at a wavelength of 1,064 nm. Heretofore, typically, a thin laser slab has been pumped in two passes, the second pass occurring by virtue of reflection of pump light from a highly reflective thin film on the side opposite the side through which the pump light enters. In two-pass pumping, a Nd:YAG slab having a thickness of 2 mm (which is typical) absorbs about 84 percent of the 809-nm pump light power, leaving about 16 percent of the pump light power to travel back toward the laser diodes. This unused power can cause localized heating of the laser diodes, thereby reducing their lifetimes. Moreover, if the slab is thinner than 2 mm, then even more unused power travels back toward the laser diodes. The four-pass optical coupler captures most of this unused pump light and sends it back to the laser slab for two more passes. As a result, the slab absorbs more pump light, as though it were twice as thick. The gain and laser cavity beam quality of a smaller laser slab in conjunction with this optical coupler can thus be made comparable to those of a larger two-pass-pumped laser slab.

  9. 26 CFR 1.53-3 - Separate rule for pass-through of jobs credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Separate rule for pass-through of jobs credit. 1... INCOME TAXES Tax Surcharge § 1.53-3 Separate rule for pass-through of jobs credit. (a) In general. Under section 53(b), in the case of a new jobs credit or targeted jobs credit earned under section 44B by...

  10. Verification of Faulty Message Passing Systems with Continuous State Space in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilotto, Concetta; White, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    We present a library of Prototype Verification System (PVS) meta-theories that verifies a class of distributed systems in which agent commu nication is through message-passing. The theoretic work, outlined in, consists of iterative schemes for solving systems of linear equations , such as message-passing extensions of the Gauss and Gauss-Seidel me thods. We briefly review that work and discuss the challenges in formally verifying it.

  11. The moisture updrafts on the cold pool captured by the continuously radiosonde observation passing through the marginal ice zone in Laptev Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Kensuke; Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Alexeev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    In summer 2013, we conducted 6 hourly radiosonde observation between off-ice and on-ice by Russian icebreaker "Akademik Fedorov" passing through the marginal ice-zone in Laptev Sea during NABOS project (Nansen and Amundsen Basins Obsevational System). During observation period, the warmer and humid air mass was advected by southeasterly wind from Siberia to Laptev sea because the low-pressure system was passing The temperature profiles bellow 600 m was maintaining the cold pool associated with a sea ice and the inversion layer formed above it. The humidity profiles were, however, not trapped until the height of inversion layer, they reached at higher levels (< 5000 m). These observational evidences implied that the humid air from Siberia was lifted on the cold pool maintained by sea ice and this process could transport the moisture to upper level in the arctic region. To verify these processes and examine the impact of the existence of sea ice, we conducted the numerical experiment by WRF. Three boundary conditions were adopted to simulation; present sea ice, removed all sea ice, and increased sea ice area. As primary results, the trajectories of air parcel from Siberia was rising to upper level with released the latent heat due to the condensation of humid air. The case of present sea ice transported much moisture vertically in the arctic region than other two cases. More detail results will be reported on the day. The process of the vertical moisture lifting due to the cold pool could contribute to the heat transport from the mid-latitude surface to the upper level in the arctic.

  12. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of single and double pass Aluminum AA6061 friction stir weld joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, N. H.; Shah, L. H.; Ishak, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the effect of single pass (SP), double sided pass (DSP) and normal double pass (NDP) method on friction stir welding of aluminum AA6061. Two pieces of AA6061 alloy with thickness of 6 mm were friction stir welded by using conventional milling machine. The rotational speeds that were used in this study were 800 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1200 rpm, respectively. The welding speed is fixed to 100 mm/min. Microstructure observation of welded area was studied by using optical microscope. Tensile test and Vickers hardness test were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of this specimen. Mechanical property analysis results indicate that at low rotational speeds, defects such as surface lack of fill and tunneling in the welded area can be observed. Vickers hardness of specimens however did not vary much when rotational speed is varied. Welded specimens using single pass method shows higher tensile strength and hardness value compared to both double pass methods up to 180.61 MPa. Moreover, DSP showed better tensile test and hardness test compared to NDP method. The optimum parameters were found to be single pass method with 1200 rpm of rotational speed. Therefore economically sound to only perform SP method to obtain maximum tensile strength for AA6061 FSW with thickness of 6 mm.

  13. Linear Fixed-Field Multi-Pass Arcs for Recirculating Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Morozov, S.A. Bogacz, Y.R. Roblin, K.B. Beard

    2012-06-01

    Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA's) provide a compact and efficient way of accelerating particle beams to medium and high energies by reusing the same linac for multiple passes. In the conventional scheme, after each pass, the different energy beams coming out of the linac are separated and directed into appropriate arcs for recirculation, with each pass requiring a separate fixed-energy arc. In this paper we present a concept of an RLA return arc based on linear combined-function magnets, in which two and potentially more consecutive passes with very different energies are transported through the same string of magnets. By adjusting the dipole and quadrupole components of the constituting linear combined-function magnets, the arc is designed to be achromatic and to have zero initial and final reference orbit offsets for all transported beam energies. We demonstrate the concept by developing a design for a droplet-shaped return arc for a dog-bone RLA capable of transporting two beam passes with momenta different by a factor of two. We present the results of tracking simulations of the two passes and lay out the path to end-to-end design and simulation of a complete dog-bone RLA.

  14. JEMMRLA - Electron Model of a Muon RLA with Multi-pass Arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, Slawomir Alex; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Morozov, Vasiliy S.; Roblin, Yves R.

    2013-06-01

    We propose a demonstration experiment for a new concept of a 'dogbone' RLA with multi-pass return arcs -- JEMMRLA (Jlab Electron Model of Muon RLA). Such an RLA with linear-field multi-pass arcs was introduced for rapid acceleration of muons for the next generation of Muon Facilities. It allows for efficient use of expensive RF while the multi-pass arc design based on linear combined-function magnets exhibits a number of advantages over separate-arc or pulsed-arc designs. Here we describe a test of this concept by scaling a GeV scale muon design for electrons. Scaling muon momenta by the muon-to-electron mass ratio leads to a scheme, in which a 4.5 MeV electron beam is injected in the middle of a 3 MeV/pass linac with two double-pass return arcs and is accelerated to 18 MeV in 4.5 passes. All spatial dimensions including the orbit distortion are scaled by a factor of 7.5, which arises from scaling the 200 MHz muon RF to a readily available 1.5 GHz. The hardware requirements are not very demanding making it straightforward to implement. Such an RLA may have applications going beyond muon acceleration: in medical isotope production, radiation cancer therapy and homeland security.

  15. Evaluating single-pass catch as a tool for identifying spatial pattern in fish distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, D.S.; Gresswell, R.E.; Torgersen, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate the efficacy of single-pass electrofishing without blocknets as a tool for collecting spatially continuous fish distribution data in headwater streams. We compare spatial patterns in abundance, sampling effort, and length-frequency distributions from single-pass sampling of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) to data obtained from a more precise multiple-pass removal electrofishing method in two mid-sized (500–1000 ha) forested watersheds in western Oregon. Abundance estimates from single- and multiple-pass removal electrofishing were positively correlated in both watersheds, r = 0.99 and 0.86. There were no significant trends in capture probabilities at the watershed scale (P > 0.05). Moreover, among-sample variation in fish abundance was higher than within-sample error in both streams indicating that increased precision of unit-scale abundance estimates would provide less information on patterns of abundance than increasing the fraction of habitat units sampled. In the two watersheds, respectively, single-pass electrofishing captured 78 and 74% of the estimated population of cutthroat trout with 7 and 10% of the effort. At the scale of intermediate-sized watersheds, single-pass electrofishing exhibited a sufficient level of precision to be effective in detecting spatial patterns of cutthroat trout abundance and may be a useful tool for providing the context for investigating fish-habitat relationships at multiple scales.

  16. Melt rheology and molecular weight degradation of amylopectin during multiple pass extrusion of starch

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, J.L.; Millard, M.M.; Jasberg, B.K.

    1996-12-31

    The degradation of starch during extrusion and the role of specific mechanical energy (SME) in this process have been widely studied for single pass extrusion, Multiple extrusion histories are not uncommon in the plastics industry, but little if any has been reported on their effects on starch. Native waxy maize starch (app. 98% amylopectin) was initially converted to a thermoplastic by twin screw extrusion. This extrudate was equilibrated to either 18% or 23% moisture content, and subsequently re-extruded in a single screw extruder (3:1 compression screw) at 110{degrees}C or 130{degrees}C. Melt viscosity data were calculated using the output-pressure data from the second pass. The melts exhibited shear thinning behavior; the power law index increased with temperature, and slightly with moisture content. Molecular weights of selected second-pass extrudates, as well as the native starch and the first-pass extrudate, were measured by light scattering in dimethyl sulfoxide/water. The initial extrusion pass reduced the molecular weight from 300 million to 50 million. Molecular weight reductions in the second pass increased with increasing SME. A first order expression was shown to fit the MW-SME data with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. Implications of the degradation on extrusion processing of starch and the use of single screw extruders for rheological characterization will be discussed.

  17. Apparatus for real-time airborne particulate radionuclide collection and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Smart, John E.; Perkins, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus for collecting and analyzing an airborne particulate radionuclide having a filter mounted in a housing, the housing having an air inlet upstream of the filter and an air outlet downstream of the filter, wherein an air stream flows therethrough. The air inlet receives the air stream, the filter collects the airborne particulate radionuclide and permits a filtered air stream to pass through the air outlet. The improvement which permits real time counting is a gamma detecting germanium diode mounted downstream of the filter in the filtered air stream. The gamma detecting germanium diode is spaced apart from a downstream side of the filter a minimum distance for a substantially maximum counting detection while permitting substantially free air flow through the filter and uniform particulate radionuclide deposition on the filter.

  18. Electron concentration distribution in a glow discharge in air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhamedzianov, R. B.; Gaisin, F. M.; Sabitov, R. A.

    1989-04-01

    Electron concentration distributions in a glow discharge in longitudinal and vortex air flows are determined from the attenuation of the electromagnetic wave passing through the plasma using microwave probes. An analysis of the distribution curves obtained indicates that electron concentration decreases in the direction of the anode. This can be explained by charge diffusion toward the chamber walls and electron recombination and sticking within the discharge.

  19. Radiation exposure and air travel: should we worry?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ronnell; Hansen, Elisa

    2011-06-01

    With the federal government introducing new advanced imaging scanners at airports, the traveling public has become concerned about the radiation exposure they may receive when passing through scanners as well as during flight. This article offers a primer on radiation and the extent to which exposure from various sources can affect health. It also provides advice for physicians whose patients may have concerns about radiation exposure during air travel. PMID:21736206

  20. The MapCHECK Measurement Uncertainty function and its effect on planar dose pass rates.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Daniel W; Spaans, Jason D; Kumaraswamy, Lalith K; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2016-03-08

    Our study aimed to quantify the effect of the Measurement Uncertainty function on planar dosimetry pass rates, as measured and analyzed with the Sun Nuclear Corporation MapCHECK 2 array and its associated software. This optional function is toggled in the program preferences of the software (though turned on by default upon installation), and automatically increases the dose difference tolerance defined by the user for each planar dose comparison. Dose planes from 109 static-gantry IMRT fields and 40 VMAT arcs, of varying modulation complexity, were measured at 5 cm water-equivalent depth in the MapCHECK 2 diode array, and respective calculated dose planes were exported from a commercial treatment planning system. Planar dose comparison pass rates were calculated within the Sun Nuclear Corporation analytic software using a number of calculation parameters, including Measurement Uncertainty on and off. By varying the percent difference (%Diff) criterion for similar analyses performed with Measurement Uncertainty turned off, an effective %Diff criterion was defined for each field/arc corresponding to the pass rate achieved with Measurement Uncertainty turned on. On average, the Measurement Uncertainty function increases the user-defined %Diff criterion by 0.8%-1.1% for 3%/3 mm analysis, depending on plan type and calculation technique (corresponding to an average change in pass rate of 1.0%-3.5%, and a maximum change of 8.7%). At the 2%/2 mm level, the Measurement Uncertainty function increases the user-defined %Diff criterion by 0.7%-1.2% on average, again depending on plan type and calculation technique (corresponding to an average change in pass rate of 3.5%-8.1%, and a maximum change of 14.2%). The largest increases in pass rate due to the Measurement Uncertainty function are generally seen with poorly matched planar dose comparisons, while the function has a notably smaller effect as pass rates approach 100%. The Measurement Uncertainty function, then, may

  1. Bad Air Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... children living near busy roadways—surrounded by particulate air pollution—are more likely to develop asthma and other ... found that genes may affect your response to air pollution. At least one gene seems to protect against ...

  2. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  3. Air stripping industrial wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, B.; Shearouse, D.

    1994-09-01

    Industrial wastewater can be quickly, efficiently and economically treated using air strippers. Air stripping removes a range of volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from water. And the performance of various types and sizes of tray-type air stripper for treating contaminated water now is highly predictable because of laboratory studies. Air stripping can be a fast, efficient and economical approach to treating industrial wastewater. However, since every industrial wastewater stream is unique, each must be evaluated to determine its constituents, its potentially adverse effects on treatability, and any pretreatment steps necessary to ensure desired results. The general principles of air stripping are simple. In an air stripper, the surfaces area of a film of contaminated water is maximized while air is directed across it. Contaminants at the air/water interface volatilize and are discharged to the atmosphere or to an off-gas treatment system.

  4. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  5. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  6. Nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters.

  7. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Airing It Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  9. Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Osgood, Sarah Jane; Bagepalli, Radhakrishna; Webbon, Waylon Willard; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.

  10. BOREAS AFM-2 Wyoming King Air 1994 Aircraft Sounding Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Robert D.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS AFM-2 team used the University of Wyoming King Air aircraft during IFCs 1, 2, and 3 in 1994 to collected pass-by-pass fluxes (and many other statistics) for the large number of level (constant altitude), straight-line passes used in a variety of flight patterns over the SSA and NSA and areas along the transect between these study areas. The data described here form a second set, namely soundings that were incorporated into nearly every research flight by the King Air in 1994. These soundings generally went from near the surface to above the inversion layer. Most were flown immediately after takeoff or immediately after finishing the last flux pattern of that particular day's flights. The parameters that were measured include wind direction, wind speed, west wind component (u), south wind component (v), static pressure, air dry bulb temperature, potential temperature, dewpoint, temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and CO2 concentration. Data on the aircraft's location, attitude, and altitude during data collection are also provided. These data are stored in tabular ASCH files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  11. Playing the Game: The Impact of No Pass/No Play Sanctions on High School Athletes, A Youth Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliphant, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    In the original "No Pass/No Play" legislation (enacted by Texas State Legislature in 1985), students had to pass all classes with at least a 70% average to participate in sports or extracurricular activities. Since then, no pass/no play regulations have been enacted across the nation with little evidence regarding their effectiveness. Questions…

  12. 33 CFR 165.839 - Safety Zone; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA. 165.839 Section...; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA. (a) Location. Within the Lower Mississippi River and Southwest Pass, moving safety zones are established around...

  13. 33 CFR 165.839 - Safety Zone; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA. 165.839 Section...; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA. (a) Location. Within the Lower Mississippi River and Southwest Pass, moving safety zones are established around...

  14. 9 CFR 315.3 - Disposal of products passed for cooking if not handled according to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cooking if not handled according to this part. 315.3 Section 315.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... OF CARCASSES AND PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.3 Disposal of products passed for cooking if not handled according to this part. Products passed for cooking if not handled and processed in...

  15. 9 CFR 315.3 - Disposal of products passed for cooking if not handled according to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cooking if not handled according to this part. 315.3 Section 315.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... OF CARCASSES AND PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.3 Disposal of products passed for cooking if not handled according to this part. Products passed for cooking if not handled and processed in...

  16. 9 CFR 315.3 - Disposal of products passed for cooking if not handled according to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cooking if not handled according to this part. 315.3 Section 315.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... OF CARCASSES AND PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.3 Disposal of products passed for cooking if not handled according to this part. Products passed for cooking if not handled and processed in...

  17. 9 CFR 315.3 - Disposal of products passed for cooking if not handled according to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cooking if not handled according to this part. 315.3 Section 315.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... OF CARCASSES AND PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.3 Disposal of products passed for cooking if not handled according to this part. Products passed for cooking if not handled and processed in...

  18. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. 315.2 Section 315.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food...

  19. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. 315.2 Section 315.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food...

  20. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. 315.2 Section 315.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food...