Science.gov

Sample records for air piracy threats

  1. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  2. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  3. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  4. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  5. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  6. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  7. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  8. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  9. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  10. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  11. Non-Traditional Security Threats in the Border Areas: Terrorism, Piracy, Environmental Degradation in Southeast Asian Maritime Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabova, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    with other subsystems like South East Asia may have different approaches to global governance, international constitutional order, or particular cases such as the measure of infringement of human rights when targeting individuals suspected of terrorist links. Yet international law remains the key part of the Asian and global security regime. The hypothesis of this study is that the "void of governance" regime in territorial and international waters provides lucrative environment for developing terrorism, piracy, environmental degradation, and other criminal activities that pose untraditional threats to the regional security. This "void of governance" regime can be caused by either, or both, de jure or de facto insufficient control over particular marine territories.

  12. Contemporary threats and air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopke, Philip K.

    It is now well understood that air pollution produces significant adverse health effects in the general public and over the past 60 years, there have been on-going efforts to reduce the emitted pollutants and their resulting health effects. There are now shifting patterns of industrialization with many heavily polluting industries moving from developed countries with increasingly stringent air quality standards to the developing world. However, even in decreasing concentrations of pollutants, health effects remain important possibly as a result of changes in the nature of the pollutants as new chemicals are produced and as other causes of mortality and morbidity are reduced. In addition, there is now the potential for deliberate introduction of toxic air pollutants by local armed conflicts and terrorists. Thus, there are new challenges to understand the role of the atmospheric environment on public health in this time of changing economic and demographic conditions overlaid with the willingness to indirectly attack governments and other established entities through direct attacks on the general public.

  13. Law, Pirates, and Piracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    Maritime piracy has increasingly been in the news, and in the courtroom, in recent years. This article presents an interview with international legal and overseas piracy expert Douglas Guilfoyle. In this interview, Guilfoyle discusses why piracy is a growing problem and some of the challenges it creates for the international community. He also…

  14. 49 CFR 1540.117 - Threat assessments regarding aliens holding or applying for FAA certificates, ratings, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Assistant Administrator for Intelligence for TSA. Date of service means— (1) The date of personal... other evidence if there is no certificate of service or postmark. Deputy Administrator means the officer...— (1) A threat to transportation or national security; (2) A threat of air piracy or terrorism; (3)...

  15. 49 CFR 1540.117 - Threat assessments regarding aliens holding or applying for FAA certificates, ratings, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Assistant Administrator for Intelligence for TSA. Date of service means— (1) The date of personal... other evidence if there is no certificate of service or postmark. Deputy Administrator means the officer...— (1) A threat to transportation or national security; (2) A threat of air piracy or terrorism; (3)...

  16. 49 CFR 1540.117 - Threat assessments regarding aliens holding or applying for FAA certificates, ratings, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Assistant Administrator for Intelligence for TSA. Date of service means— (1) The date of personal... other evidence if there is no certificate of service or postmark. Deputy Administrator means the officer...— (1) A threat to transportation or national security; (2) A threat of air piracy or terrorism; (3)...

  17. Analyzing Software Piracy in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesisko, Lee James

    This study analyzes the controversy of software piracy in education. It begins with a real world scenario that presents the setting and context of the problem. The legalities and background of software piracy are explained and true court cases are briefly examined. Discussion then focuses on explaining why individuals and organizations pirate…

  18. Congress Seeks Tales of Piracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Brock

    2007-01-01

    This month, leaders of two committees in the U.S. House of Representatives sent letters warning of an epidemic of online music and movie piracy to 19 colleges, singling out those schools that, in the eyes of entertainment-industry officials, have been unable to stop students from illegally downloading music and movies. Enclosed with each message…

  19. Deindividuation and Internet software piracy.

    PubMed

    Hinduja, Sameer

    2008-08-01

    Computer crime has increased exponentially in recent years as hardware, software, and network resources become more affordable and available to individuals from all walks of life. Software piracy is one prevalent type of cybercrime and has detrimentally affected the economic health of the software industry. Moreover, piracy arguably represents a rend in the moral fabric associated with the respect of intellectual property and reduces the financial incentive of product creation and innovation. Deindividuation theory, originating from the field of social psychology, argues that individuals are extricated from responsibility for their actions simply because they no longer have an acute awareness of the identity of self and of others. That is, external and internal constraints that would typically regulate questionable behavior are rendered less effective via certain anonymizing and disinhibiting conditions of the social and environmental context. This exploratory piece seeks to establish the role of deindividuation in liberating individuals to commit software piracy by testing the hypothesis that persons who prefer the anonymity and pseudonymity associated with interaction on the Internet are more likely to pirate software. Through this research, it is hoped that the empirical identification of such a social psychological determinant will help further illuminate the phenomenon.

  20. Digital Piracy: An Assessment of Consumer Piracy Risk and Optimal Supply Chain Coordination Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Bong-Keun

    2010-01-01

    Digital piracy and the emergence of new distribution channels have changed the dynamics of supply chain coordination and created many interesting problems. There has been increased attention to understanding the phenomenon of consumer piracy behavior and its impact on supply chain profitability. The purpose of this dissertation is to better…

  1. Design, Development, and Innovation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Christopher A.; Marwaha, Shweta

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive multimedia simulator for air transportation bomb threat training. The objective of this project is to improve the air transportation sector s capability to respond to bomb threats received by commercial airports and aircraft. The simulator provides realistic training on receiving and responding to a variety of bomb threats that might not otherwise be possible due to time, cost, or operational constraints. Validation analysis indicates that the use of the simulator resulted in statistically significant increases in individual ability to respond to these types of bomb threats.

  2. A five states survivability model for missions with ground-to-air threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsson, Tina; Niklasson, Lars

    2013-05-01

    Fighter pilots are exposed to the risk of getting hit by enemy fire when flying missions with ground-to-air threats. A tactical support system including a survivability model could aid the pilot to assess and handle this risk. The survivability model presented here is a Markov model with five states; Undetected, Detected, Tracked, Engaged and Hit. The output from the model is the probabilities that the aircraft is in these states during the mission. The enemy's threat systems are represented with sensor and weapon areas and the transitions between the states depend on whether or not the aircraft is within any of these areas. Contrary to previous work, the model can capture the behaviors that the enemy's sensor systems communicate and that the risk of getting hit depends on the enemy's knowledge regarding the aircraft's kinematics. The paper includes a discussion regarding the interpretation of the states and the factors that influence the transitions between the states. Further developments are also identified for using the model to aid fighter pilots and operators of unmanned aerial vehicles with planning and evaluating missions as well as analyzing the situation during flight.

  3. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  4. Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

    This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

  5. Stream piracy in the Black Hills: A geomorphology lab exercise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaprowski, B.J.; Evenson, E.B.; Epstein, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Hills of South Dakota exhibits many fine examples of stream piracy that are very suitable for teaching geomorphology lab exercises. This lab goes beyond standard topographic map interpretation by using geologic maps, well logs, gravel provenance and other types of data to teach students about stream piracy. Using a step-by-step method in which the lab exercises ramp up in difficulty, students hone their skills in deductive reasoning and data assimilation. The first exercises deal with the identification of stream piracy at a variety of spatial scales and the lab culminates with an exercise on landscape evolution and drainage rearrangement.

  6. Clearing the air: identity safety moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women's leadership aspirations.

    PubMed

    Davies, Paul G; Spencer, Steven J; Steele, Claude M

    2005-02-01

    Exposing participants to gender-stereotypic TV commercials designed to elicit the female stereotype, the present research explored whether vulnerability to stereotype threat could persuade women to avoid leadership roles in favor of nonthreatening subordinate roles. Study 1 confirmed that exposure to the stereotypic commercials undermined women's aspirations on a subsequent leadership task. Study 2 established that varying the identity safety of the leadership task moderated whether activation of the female stereotype mediated the effect of the commercials on women's aspirations. Creating an identity-safe environment eliminated vulnerability to stereotype threat despite exposure to threatening situational cues that primed stigmatized social identities and their corresponding stereotypes.

  7. Clearing the air: identity safety moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women's leadership aspirations.

    PubMed

    Davies, Paul G; Spencer, Steven J; Steele, Claude M

    2005-02-01

    Exposing participants to gender-stereotypic TV commercials designed to elicit the female stereotype, the present research explored whether vulnerability to stereotype threat could persuade women to avoid leadership roles in favor of nonthreatening subordinate roles. Study 1 confirmed that exposure to the stereotypic commercials undermined women's aspirations on a subsequent leadership task. Study 2 established that varying the identity safety of the leadership task moderated whether activation of the female stereotype mediated the effect of the commercials on women's aspirations. Creating an identity-safe environment eliminated vulnerability to stereotype threat despite exposure to threatening situational cues that primed stigmatized social identities and their corresponding stereotypes. PMID:15841859

  8. A parametric design of ceramic faced composite armor subject to air weapon threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y. N.; Sun, Q.

    2015-12-01

    By taking into consideration the two categories of military projectile threats to aircraft structures, an optimal layer configuration of ceramic faced composite armor was designed in this paper. Using numerical simulations and the same layer arrangement of ceramic, UHMWPE, and carbon fiber laminates, a parametric finite element model using LS-DYNA code was built. Several thickness combinations were analyzed in order to determine the final lightest configuration that is capable of supporting a high-speed impact load and HEI blast wave load, which implements a high anti-penetration design for aircraft armor. This configuration can be used to improve the anti-impact ability of aircraft structures as well as achieve a structure/function integration design that considers a lighter weight.

  9. A methodology for the evaluation of the turbine jet engine fragment threat to generic air transportable containers

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, D.C.; Pierce, J.D.

    1993-06-01

    Uncontained, high-energy gas turbine engine fragments are a potential threat to air-transportable containers carried aboard jet aircraft. The threat to a generic example container is evaluated by probability analyses and penetration testing to demonstrate the methodology to be used in the evaluation of a specific container/aircraft/engine combination. Fragment/container impact probability is the product of the uncontained fragment release rate and the geometric probability that a container is in the path of this fragment. The probability of a high-energy rotor burst fragment from four generic aircraft engines striking one of the containment vessels aboard a transport aircraft is approximately 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} strikes/hour. Finite element penetration analyses and tests can be performed to identify specific fragments which have the potential to penetrate a generic or specific containment vessel. The relatively low probability of engine fragment/container impacts is primarily due to the low release rate of uncontained, hazardous jet engine fragments.

  10. What Do Computer Science Students Think about Software Piracy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantakis, Nikos I.; Palaigeorgiou, George E.; Siozos, Panos D.; Tsoukalas, Ioannis A.

    2010-01-01

    Today, software piracy is an issue of global importance. Computer science students are the future information and communication technologies professionals and it is important to study the way they approach this issue. In this article, we attempt to study attitudes, behaviours and the corresponding reasoning of computer science students in Greece…

  11. Piracy in cyber space: consumer complicity, pirates and enterprise enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhry, Peggy E.; Chaudhry, Sohail S.; Stumpf, Stephen A.; Sudler, Hasshi

    2011-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the growth of internet piracy in the global marketplace. The ethical perceptions (or lack of) of the younger generation is addressed, in terms of their willingness to consume counterfeit goods on the web. Firms face the task of educating the consumer that downloading music, software, movies and the like, without compensation, is unethical. This awareness is critical for decreasing the demand for counterfeit goods in the virtual marketplace, where a consumer can exhibit a rogue behaviour with a limited fear of prosecution. We address the pyramid of internet piracy, which encompasses sophisticated suppliers/facilitators, such as the Warez group. Recent sting operations, such as Operation Buccaneer, are also depicted to highlight successful tactical manoeuvres of enforcement agencies. An overview of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and the No Electronic Theft Act is included to debate the controversy surrounding this legislation. A discussion of enterprise enforcement mechanisms and novel anti-piracy technology for cyberspace is provided to reveal some of the tools used to fight the pirates, such as innovations in digital watermarking and NEC's recently announced video content identification technology. Enterprise information systems and its interdependence on the internet are also demanding new technologies that enable internet investigators to rapidly search, verify and potentially remove pirated content using web services. The quality of service of web services designed to efficiently detect pirated content is a growing consideration for new anti-piracy technology.

  12. Biological threat detection in the air and on the surface: how to define the risk.

    PubMed

    Trafny, Elżbieta Anna; Lewandowski, Rafał; Stępińska, Małgorzata; Kaliszewski, Miron

    2014-08-01

    The improvements in the existing methods of rapid detection and biological pathogen surveillance are still needed. The new spectroscopic methods that rely on the unique structural features and intrinsic fluorescence of microorganisms are well fitted for monitoring the spread of airborne biological agents or their reagentless detection in the air, and these methods may bring a new quality to bioaerosols remote detection. This review describes the problem of the confidence in the environmental testing results that may affect clearance standard, sampling techniques, and the estimation of risk of human exposure to the low concentrations of harmful microorganisms during bioterrorist event or naturally occurring outbreaks. Higher recovery efficiency of dangerous biological agents from the air and contaminated surfaces would enable more reliable environmental human risk exposure assessment. PMID:24917429

  13. [Buenos Aires, between Eros and Thanatos. Prostitution as dysgenic threat (1930-1955)].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marisa A

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the medical-legal discourse around female prostitution that was articulated in Buenos Aires during the first decades of the 20th century. It focuses on the use of different ideological resources and on the policies and laws that were introduced to gain control over the sex trade and describes parallelisms between prostitution, disease and crime. In fact, the capital of Argentina was internationally known as a centre of prostitution and white slave trafficking, and Jewish participation in these activities allowed the consolidation of xenophobic theories. Medicine and law, among other disciplines, made important inputs into a simplified approach to this problem. PMID:22849217

  14. [Buenos Aires, between Eros and Thanatos. Prostitution as dysgenic threat (1930-1955)].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marisa A

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the medical-legal discourse around female prostitution that was articulated in Buenos Aires during the first decades of the 20th century. It focuses on the use of different ideological resources and on the policies and laws that were introduced to gain control over the sex trade and describes parallelisms between prostitution, disease and crime. In fact, the capital of Argentina was internationally known as a centre of prostitution and white slave trafficking, and Jewish participation in these activities allowed the consolidation of xenophobic theories. Medicine and law, among other disciplines, made important inputs into a simplified approach to this problem.

  15. Threat to future global food security from climate change and ozone air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Amos P. K.; Martin, Maria Val; Heald, Colette L.

    2014-09-01

    Future food production is highly vulnerable to both climate change and air pollution with implications for global food security. Climate change adaptation and ozone regulation have been identified as important strategies to safeguard food production, but little is known about how climate and ozone pollution interact to affect agriculture, nor the relative effectiveness of these two strategies for different crops and regions. Here we present an integrated analysis of the individual and combined effects of 2000-2050 climate change and ozone trends on the production of four major crops (wheat, rice, maize and soybean) worldwide based on historical observations and model projections, specifically accounting for ozone-temperature co-variation. The projections exclude the effect of rising CO2, which has complex and potentially offsetting impacts on global food supply. We show that warming reduces global crop production by >10% by 2050 with a potential to substantially worsen global malnutrition in all scenarios considered. Ozone trends either exacerbate or offset a substantial fraction of climate impacts depending on the scenario, suggesting the importance of air quality management in agricultural planning. Furthermore, we find that depending on region some crops are primarily sensitive to either ozone (for example, wheat) or heat (for example, maize) alone, providing a measure of relative benefits of climate adaptation versus ozone regulation for food security in different regions.

  16. Design considerations and performance characteristics of AirSentinel: a new UV-LIF bio-aerosol threat detection trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFreez, Richard; Merrill, Ezra; Albanna, Sam; Davis, Bert; Call, Charles

    2005-10-01

    AirSentinel® is a new low cost, compact ultraviolet-based light induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) bio-aerosol threat detection trigger. Earlier UV-LIF triggers, for example, FLAPS, BARTS, BAWS, Bioni, and BioLert, have used UV laser sources to induce fluorescence of biological aerosols. Two recent developments from the DARPA MTO SUVOS program, BAST and TAC-BIO, use UV LEDs for the same purpose, thereby broadening the term UV-LIF to mean laser or LED induced autofluorescence. All of these earlier triggers interrogate aerosols on a particle-by-particle basis on- the-fly. The major trade-off for these instruments is cost, size, and complexity versus counting efficiency (probability of detection) with the lower size end of the respirable range being most difficult to detect. AirSentinel® employs a different approach to UV-LIF detection: aerosol concentration by collection on a surface, surface interrogation, and surface rejuvenation prior to repeated concentration and interrogation cycles. Aerosol particle concentration via impaction on a surface addresses the issue of small particle counting efficiency since the fluorescence from the sum of the particles is the sum of the fluorescence signals from the collected particles, typically hundreds or thousands in number. Surface interrogation for a LIF signal is accomplished by illumination with a 280 nm and/or a 365 nm LED. As expected, test results show better relative detection performance using 280 nm excitation LEDs for bio-toxin simulants and somewhat better performance at 365 nm for standard Bacillus globigii spore targets. AirSentinel® beta technology is currently in long term testing in a number of public and other government buildings.

  17. Buried treasure: evolutionary perspectives on microbial iron piracy

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Matthew F.; Elde, Nels C.

    2015-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions provide valuable systems for the study of evolutionary genetics and natural selection. The sequestration of essential iron has emerged as a critical innate defense system termed nutritional immunity, leading pathogens to evolve mechanisms of `iron piracy' to scavenge this metal from host proteins. This battle for iron carries numerous consequences not only for host-pathogen evolution, but also microbial community interactions. Here we highlight recent and potential future areas of investigation on the evolutionary implications of microbial iron piracy in relation to molecular arms races, host range, competition, and virulence. Applying evolutionary genetic approaches to the study of microbial iron acquisition could also provide new inroads for understanding and combating infectious disease. PMID:26431675

  18. Spatial, Temporal and Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Maritime Piracy

    PubMed Central

    Marchione, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine patterns in the timing and location of incidents of maritime piracy to see whether, like many urban crimes, attacks cluster in space and time. Methods: Data for all incidents of maritime piracy worldwide recorded by the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency are analyzed using time-series models and methods originally developed to detect disease contagion. Results: At the macro level, analyses suggest that incidents of pirate attacks are concentrated in five subregions of the earth’s oceans and that the time series for these different subregions differ. At the micro level, analyses suggest that for the last 16 years (or more), pirate attacks appear to cluster in space and time suggesting that patterns are not static but are also not random. Conclusions: Much like other types of crime, pirate attacks cluster in space, and following an attack at one location the risk of others at the same location or nearby is temporarily elevated. The identification of such regularities has implications for the understanding of maritime piracy and for predicting the future locations of attacks. PMID:25076796

  19. Intention to Commit Online Music Piracy and Its Antecedents: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Neil A.; Koufteros, Xenophon

    2008-01-01

    Online piracy of copyrighted digital music has become rampant as Internet bandwidth and digital compression technologies have advanced. The music industry has suffered significant financial losses and has responded with lawsuits, although online music piracy remains prevalent. This article developed a research model to study the determinants of…

  20. Student Digital Piracy in the Florida State University System: An Exploratory Study on Its Infrastructural Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Digital piracy is a problem that may never disappear from society. Through readily available resources such as those found in a university, students will always have access to illegal goods. While piracy is a global phenomenon, an institution's resources combined with the typical college student's lack of funds makes it more lucrative. Students…

  1. Biological Threats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ...

  2. An integrated approach to assess air pollution threats to cultural heritage in a semi-confined environment: the case study of Michelozzo's Courtyard in Florence (Italy).

    PubMed

    Nava, S; Becherini, F; Bernardi, A; Bonazza, A; Chiari, M; García-Orellana, I; Lucarelli, F; Ludwig, N; Migliori, A; Sabbioni, C; Udisti, R; Valli, G; Vecchi, R

    2010-02-15

    An example of an integrated approach to assess air pollution threats to cultural heritage in a semi-confined environment is presented in this work, where the monitoring campaign carried out at the Michelozzo's Courtyard (in Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, Italy) is used as a case study. A wide research project was carried out, with the main aim of obtaining the first quantitative data on air quality and microclimate conditions inside the Courtyard, and, if possible, identifying the main causes of degradation and suggesting appropriate conservation strategies. The investigation adopted a holistic approach involving thermographic measurements on the wall paintings, microclimatic analysis, gaseous pollutant monitoring, atmospheric particles characterisation and dry deposition compositional analysis. Attention was focused on the wall painting depicting the city of Hall because of its anomalous and critical conservation conditions, which are visible at a glance, due to the contrast between a wide darker zone around the central subject of the painting and external lighter areas.

  3. Stereotype Threat.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate.

  4. 41 CFR 128-1.5009 - Authorization for use of the Federal Bureau of Investigation anti-piracy warning seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Anti-Piracy Warning Seal (“APW Seal”) is an official insignia of the FBI... of these laws and the authority of the FBI to enforce them. (b) The APW Seal is a modified image of the Official FBI Seal with the words “FBI ANTI-PIRACY WARNING” displayed horizontally across...

  5. 41 CFR 128-1.5009 - Authorization for use of the Federal Bureau of Investigation anti-piracy warning seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Anti-Piracy Warning Seal (“APW Seal”) is an official insignia of the FBI... of these laws and the authority of the FBI to enforce them. (b) The APW Seal is a modified image of the Official FBI Seal with the words “FBI ANTI-PIRACY WARNING” displayed horizontally across...

  6. Environmental Threats at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Twhanna

    2005-01-01

    Children can be exposed to dangerous chemicals and toxins in the most unlikely of places: Their schools. This brief article describes the types of threats that school environments pose to students' health, including such pollution and chemical exposures as lead, mercury, arsenic, molds, and poor indoor air quality. The article provides tips for…

  7. Breaks, Flows, and Other In-Between Spaces: Rethinking Piracy and Copyright Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shujen

    2006-01-01

    This article uses three case studies to examine the intersecting developments of technology, capitalism, and globalization through the contradictions and paradoxes of copyright governance and piracy. China is used as a case study to investigate the relations among the state, law, and global capitalism. (Contains 7 tables and 9 notes.)

  8. Passive automatic anti-piracy defense system of ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szustakowski, M.; Życzkowski, M.; Ciurapiński, W.; Karol, M.; Kastek, M.; Stachowiak, R.; Markowski, P.

    2013-10-01

    The article describes the technological solution for ship self-defense against pirate attacks. The paper presents the design solutions in the field of direct physical protection. All the solutions are connected with the latest optoelectronic and microwave systems and sensors to detect, recognize and the threat posed by pirates. In particular, tests of effectiveness and the detection-range of technology demonstrator developed by a team of authors were carried out.

  9. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  10. When Students Make Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanan, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about the use of threat assessment. Schools are encouraged to have threat assessment teams and a threat assessment process as part of a comprehensive safe schools effort. Encouraging and enabling members of the school community to report possible threats in a timely manner is an essential component of an effective threat…

  11. When Students Make Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanan, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about the use of threat assessment. Schools are encouraged to have threat assessment teams and a threat assessment process as part of a comprehensive safe schools effort. Encouraging and enabling all members of the school community to report possible threats in a timely manner is an essential component of an effective threat…

  12. Cyber threat metrics.

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  13. Cross-National Attitudes and Perceptions Concerning Software Piracy: A Comparative Study of Students from the United States and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlinson, David R.; Lupton, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Students' attitudes and perceptions regarding the use of unlicensed software are important to educators and businesses. Students have a proven propensity to pirate software and other intellectual property. By understanding how attitudes and perceptions toward software piracy differ among university students in a cross-national context, educators…

  14. Threat of allergenic airborne grass pollen in Szczecin, NW Poland: the dynamics of pollen seasons, effect of meteorological variables and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Puc, Małgorzata

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics of Poaceae pollen season, in particularly that of the Secale genus, in Szczecin (western Poland) 2004-2008 was analysed to establish a relationship between the meteorological variables, air pollution and the pollen count of the taxa studied. Consecutive phases during the pollen season were defined for each taxon (1, 2.5, 5, 25, 50, 75, 95, 97.5, 99% of annual total), and duration of the season was determined using the 98% method. On the basis of this analysis, the temporary differences in the dynamics of the seasons were most evident for Secale in 2005 and 2006 with the longest main pollen season (90% total pollen). The pollen season of Poaceae started the earliest in 2007, when thermal conditions were the most favourable. Correlation analysis with meteorological factors demonstrated that the relative humidity, mean and maximum air temperature, and rainfall were the factors influencing the average daily pollen concentrations in the atmosphere; also, the presence of air pollutants such as ozone, PM(10) and SO(2) was statistically related to the pollen count in the air. However, multiple regression models explained little part of the total variance. Atmospheric pollution induces aggravation of symptoms of grass pollen allergy.

  15. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  16. Using panicogenic inhalations of carbon dioxide enriched air to induce attentional bias for threat: Implications for the development of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Valdivia-Salas, Sonsoles; Forsyth, John P; Berghoff, Christopher R; Ritzert, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    The tendency for anxious individuals to selectively attend to threatening information is believed to cause and exacerbate anxious emotional responding in a self-perpetuating cycle. The present study sought to examine the relation between differential interoceptive conditioning (IC) using carbon dioxide inhalation as a panicogenic unconditioned stimulus (US) and the development of Stroop colour-naming interference to various non-word conditioned stimuli (CSs). Healthy university students (N = 27) underwent the assessment of colour-naming interference to reinforced CS+ and non-reinforced CS- non-words prior to and following differential fear conditioning. Participants showed greater magnitude electrodermal and verbal-evaluative responses to the CS+ over the CS- non-word following IC, and demonstrated the expected slower colour-naming latencies to the CS+ compared to the CS- non-word from baseline to post-conditioning. We discuss the relation between fear learning and the emergence of attentional bias for threat to further understand the maintenance of anxiety disorders. PMID:24499115

  17. Using panicogenic inhalations of carbon dioxide enriched air to induce attentional bias for threat: Implications for the development of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Valdivia-Salas, Sonsoles; Forsyth, John P; Berghoff, Christopher R; Ritzert, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    The tendency for anxious individuals to selectively attend to threatening information is believed to cause and exacerbate anxious emotional responding in a self-perpetuating cycle. The present study sought to examine the relation between differential interoceptive conditioning (IC) using carbon dioxide inhalation as a panicogenic unconditioned stimulus (US) and the development of Stroop colour-naming interference to various non-word conditioned stimuli (CSs). Healthy university students (N = 27) underwent the assessment of colour-naming interference to reinforced CS+ and non-reinforced CS- non-words prior to and following differential fear conditioning. Participants showed greater magnitude electrodermal and verbal-evaluative responses to the CS+ over the CS- non-word following IC, and demonstrated the expected slower colour-naming latencies to the CS+ compared to the CS- non-word from baseline to post-conditioning. We discuss the relation between fear learning and the emergence of attentional bias for threat to further understand the maintenance of anxiety disorders.

  18. Nutritional immunity. Escape from bacterial iron piracy through rapid evolution of transferrin.

    PubMed

    Barber, Matthew F; Elde, Nels C

    2014-12-12

    Iron sequestration provides an innate defense, termed nutritional immunity, leading pathogens to scavenge iron from hosts. Although the molecular basis of this battle for iron is established, its potential as a force for evolution at host-pathogen interfaces is unknown. We show that the iron transport protein transferrin is engaged in ancient and ongoing evolutionary conflicts with TbpA, a transferrin surface receptor from bacteria. Single substitutions in transferrin at rapidly evolving sites reverse TbpA binding, providing a mechanism to counteract bacterial iron piracy among great apes. Furthermore, the C2 transferrin polymorphism in humans evades TbpA variants from Haemophilus influenzae, revealing a functional basis for standing genetic variation. These findings identify a central role for nutritional immunity in the persistent evolutionary conflicts between primates and bacterial pathogens. PMID:25504720

  19. Long term monitoring of open-air monuments under threat: the case study of the "Tombs of the Kings" in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapiou, A.; Lysandrou, V.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.; Alexakis, D. D.; Themistocleous, K.; Michaelides, S.

    2012-04-01

    Since antiquity, Cyprus has been a crossroad were various cultures, arts and ideas were deposited. This is evidenced by its huge archaeological residues spread all over the island. Open to air monuments are being exposed to environmental conditions and without any appropriate measures various deterioration factors may become disastrous. Monitoring Cultural Heritage (CH) Sites and Monuments in Cyprus is commonly based on site observations. However, this procedure which includes data collection, periodical observations and multivariate risk assessment analysis, is difficult to be accomplished with the traditional practices and methods, since it is time consuming and expensive. In contrast, new technologies like satellite sensing sensors and in situ measurements can successfully confront this problem by providing to the scientists an integrated and multi-layer monitoring system for vast areas simultaneously. The present paper describes the registration of deterioration processes in one of the most important archaeological areas in Cyprus, listed in the World's Cultural Heritage Sites, the so called "Tomb of the Kings" at Nea Pafos. This work is a part of the research programme "Managing Cultural Heritage Sites through Space and ground Technologies using Geographical Information Systems: A Pilot application at the archaeological sites of Paphos", funded by the Research Promotion Foundation of Cyprus. The project concerns the region of Paphos district in western Cyprus and it deals with cultural heritage sites managements using integrated space and ground technologies, aiming at risk assessment of the areas under examination. The paper presents the methodological framework of the project with some preliminary results for the long term monitoring of Cultural Heritage Sites based, not only in situ observations, but also on using new technologies such as satellite images for retrieving air pollution, laser scanner, thermo-cameras etc.

  20. Threats and vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    In this chapter, we present a review of threats and vulnerabilities that could afflict society and individuals in the AmI world in the context of the key policy issues of privacy, identity, trust, security and digital divide. We define a threat as the potential for one or more unwanted consequences caused by a circumstance, capability, action or event that could be harmful to a system or person. Threats can be caused naturally, accidentally or intentionally. In essence, a threat is a ubiquitous phenomenon. A vulnerability is a flaw or weakness in a system's design, its implementation, operation or management that could be exploited to violate the system and, consequently, cause a threat. Vulnerabilities may have different dimensions: technical, functional or behavioural.1

  1. Interspecies modulation of bacterial development through iron competition and siderophore piracy

    PubMed Central

    Traxler, Matthew F.; Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R.; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Summary While soil-dwelling actinomycetes are renowned for secreting natural products, little is known about the roles of these molecules in mediating actinomycete interactions. In a previous co-culture screen, we found that one actinomycete, Amycolatopsis sp. AA4, inhibited aerial hyphae formation in adjacent colonies of Streptomyces coelicolor. A siderophore, amychelin, mediated this developmental arrest. Here we present genetic evidence that confirms the role of the amc locus in the production of amychelin and in the inhibition of S. coelicolor development. We further characterize the Amycolatopsis sp. AA4 - S. coelicolor interaction by examining expression of developmental and iron acquisition genes over time in co-culture. Manipulation of iron availability and/or growth near Amycolatopsis sp. AA4 led to alterations in expression of the critical developmental gene bldN, and other key down-stream genes in the S. coelicolor transcriptional cascade. In Amycolatopsis sp. AA4, siderophore genes were down-regulated when grown near S. coelicolor, leading us to find that deferrioxamine E, produced by S. coelicolor, could be readily utilized by Amycolatopsis sp. AA4. Collectively these results suggest that competition for iron via siderophore piracy and species-specific siderophores can alter patterns of gene expression and morphological differentiation during actinomycete interactions. PMID:22931126

  2. Facing ambiguous threats.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Michael A; Bohmer, Richard M J; Edmondson, Amy C

    2006-11-01

    On February 1, 2003, the world watched in horror as the Columbia space shuttle broke apart while reentering the earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts. Some have argued that NASA's failure to respond with appropriate intensity to the so-called foam strike that led to the accident was evidence of irresponsible or incompetent management. The authors' research, however, suggests that NASA was exhibiting a natural, albeit unfortunate, pattern of behavior common in many organizations. The foam strike is a prime example of what the authors call an ambiguous threat-a signal that may or may not portend future harm. Ambiguous threats differ from threats with obvious causes-say, a fire in the building-for which the response is clear. They also differ from unmistakable threats that may lack straightforward response paths (such as the frightening oxygen-tank explosion aboard Apollo 13). However, when the warning sign is ambiguous and the threat's potential effect is unclear, managers may choose to ignore or discount the risk. Such an approach can be catastrophic. Firms that do a good job of dealing with ambiguous threats do not improvise during a crisis; rather, they apply a rigorous set of detection and response capabilities that they have developed and practiced beforehand. In this article, the authors outline how to put such capabilities in place long before a crisis strikes. First, companies need to hone their teamwork and rapid problem-solving skills through practice. Second, they must learn to recognize weak signals, amplify the threat, and encourage employees to ask disconcerting "what if" questions in a safe environment. Finally, they should explore possible responses to threats through quick, low-cost experimentation.

  3. Facing ambiguous threats.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Michael A; Bohmer, Richard M J; Edmondson, Amy C

    2006-11-01

    On February 1, 2003, the world watched in horror as the Columbia space shuttle broke apart while reentering the earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts. Some have argued that NASA's failure to respond with appropriate intensity to the so-called foam strike that led to the accident was evidence of irresponsible or incompetent management. The authors' research, however, suggests that NASA was exhibiting a natural, albeit unfortunate, pattern of behavior common in many organizations. The foam strike is a prime example of what the authors call an ambiguous threat-a signal that may or may not portend future harm. Ambiguous threats differ from threats with obvious causes-say, a fire in the building-for which the response is clear. They also differ from unmistakable threats that may lack straightforward response paths (such as the frightening oxygen-tank explosion aboard Apollo 13). However, when the warning sign is ambiguous and the threat's potential effect is unclear, managers may choose to ignore or discount the risk. Such an approach can be catastrophic. Firms that do a good job of dealing with ambiguous threats do not improvise during a crisis; rather, they apply a rigorous set of detection and response capabilities that they have developed and practiced beforehand. In this article, the authors outline how to put such capabilities in place long before a crisis strikes. First, companies need to hone their teamwork and rapid problem-solving skills through practice. Second, they must learn to recognize weak signals, amplify the threat, and encourage employees to ask disconcerting "what if" questions in a safe environment. Finally, they should explore possible responses to threats through quick, low-cost experimentation. PMID:17131567

  4. Late Quaternary stream piracy and strath terrace formation along the Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers, South Dakota and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamm, John F.; Hendricks, Robert R.; Sawyer, J. Foster; Mahan, Shannon; Zaprowski, Brent J.; Geibel, Nicholas M.; Azzolini, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Stream piracy substantially affected the geomorphic evolution of the Missouri River watershed and drainages within, including the Little Missouri, Cheyenne, Belle Fourche, Bad, and White Rivers. The ancestral Cheyenne River eroded headward in an annular pattern around the eastern and southern Black Hills and pirated the headwaters of the ancestral Bad and White Rivers after ~ 660 ka. The headwaters of the ancestral Little Missouri River were pirated by the ancestral Belle Fourche River, a tributary to the Cheyenne River that currently drains much of the northern Black Hills. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques were used to estimate the timing of this piracy event at ~ 22–21 ka. The geomorphic evolution of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers is also expressed by regionally recognized strath terraces that include (from oldest to youngest) the Sturgis, Bear Butte, and Farmingdale terraces. Radiocarbon and OSL dates from fluvial deposits on these terraces indicate incision to the level of the Bear Butte terrace by ~ 63 ka, incision to the level of the Farmingdale terrace at ~ 40 ka, and incision to the level of the modern channel after ~ 12–9 ka. Similar dates of terrace incision have been reported for the Laramie and Wind River Ranges. Hypothesized causes of incision are the onset of colder climate during the middle Wisconsinan and the transition to the full-glacial climate of the late-Wisconsinan/Pinedale glaciation. Incision during the Holocene of the lower Cheyenne River is as much as ~ 80 m and is 3 to 4 times the magnitude of incision at ~ 63 ka and ~ 40 ka. The magnitude of incision during the Holocene might be due to a combined effect of three geomorphic processes acting in concert: glacial isostatic rebound in lower reaches (~ 40 m), a change from glacial to interglacial climate, and adjustments to increased watershed area resulting from piracy of the ancestral headwaters of the Little Missouri River.

  5. Is Your School Sick? Five Threats to Healthy Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Deborah; Diamantes, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Examines the five major threats to healthy school buildings: sick building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and general indoor air quality. Discusses ways to assess and address them. (SR)

  6. Phycodnavirus Potassium Ion Channel Proteins Question the Virus Molecular Piracy Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Hamacher, Kay; Greiner, Timo; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Van Etten, James L.; Gebhardt, Manuela; Villarreal, Luis P.; Cosentino, Cristian; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Phycodnaviruses are large dsDNA, algal-infecting viruses that encode many genes with homologs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Among the viral gene products are the smallest proteins known to form functional K+ channels. To determine if these viral K+ channels are the product of molecular piracy from their hosts, we compared the sequences of the K+ channel pore modules from seven phycodnaviruses to the K+ channels from Chlorella variabilis and Ectocarpus siliculosus, whose genomes have recently been sequenced. C. variabilis is the host for two of the viruses PBCV-1 and NY-2A and E. siliculosus is the host for the virus EsV-1. Systematic phylogenetic analyses consistently indicate that the viral K+ channels are not related to any lineage of the host channel homologs and that they are more closely related to each other than to their host homologs. A consensus sequence of the viral channels resembles a protein of unknown function from a proteobacterium. However, the bacterial protein lacks the consensus motif of all K+ channels and it does not form a functional channel in yeast, suggesting that the viral channels did not come from a proteobacterium. Collectively, our results indicate that the viruses did not acquire their K+ channel-encoding genes from their current algal hosts by gene transfer; thus alternative explanations are required. One possibility is that the viral genes arose from ancient organisms, which served as their hosts before the viruses developed their current host specificity. Alternatively the viral proteins could be the origin of K+ channels in algae and perhaps even all cellular organisms. PMID:22685610

  7. Ancient woodlands: modern threats.

    PubMed

    Rackham, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    This review discusses the following adverse influences on long-established forests, wood-pastures, and savannas in Europe and other continents: destruction and fragmentation; depletion; pollution and eutrophication; fire and lack of fire; excessive shade; excessive numbers of deer; invasive species and cultivars; infilling of savanna; climate change; and globalization of plant diseases. Human influences on the world's mainland forests and savannas have been pervasive throughout the Holocene, to the extent that recovering 'virgin forest' becomes a somewhat nebulous conservation objective. Present and future threats arise both from increasing human activities and from withdrawal of the human activities that have shaped forests in the past. The severity of different threats depends on so many factors, especially the properties of different plants and animals, that generalization is impossible; however, in the long term, spread of pathogens is probably the most serious threat. PMID:18771472

  8. Credible threats and promises.

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2002-01-01

    We consider various implications of information about the other player in two-player evolutionary games. A simple model of desertion shows that information about the partner's behaviour can be disadvantageous, and highlights the idea of credible threats. We then discuss the general issue of whether the partner can convince the focal player that it will behave in a specific way, i.e. whether the focal player can make credible threats or promises. We show that when desertion decisions depend on reserves, a player can manipulate its reserves so as to create a credible threat of desertion. We then extend previous work on the evolution of trust and commitment, discussing conditions under which it is advantageous to assume that a partner will behave in a certain way even though it is not in its best interest. PMID:12495517

  9. Different groups, different threats: a multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2011-04-01

    Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective.

  10. Cognitive appraisals of stereotype threat.

    PubMed

    Berjot, S; Roland-Levy, C; Girault-Lidvan, N

    2011-04-01

    Using the cognitive appraisal conceptualisation of the transactional model of stress, the goal was to assess how victims of stereotype threat respond to this situation in terms of primary appraisals (threat/challenge) and to investigate whether those appraisals may mediate the relation between stereotype threat and performance. Results show that, while participants from North Africa living in France did appraise the situation more as a threat and less as a challenge, only challenge appraisal mediated between stereotype threat and performance.

  11. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Hilland, D.; Phipps, G.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G.

    1997-12-31

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

  12. Distance mitigates perceived threat.

    PubMed

    Stamps, Arthur E

    2011-12-01

    It has previously been shown that distance mitigates the extent to which visual cues convey perceived threat. It was hypothesized that the visual cues of eye contact, sex, facial expression, and posture would all convey threat. It was further hypothesized that the effects of visual cues on the perception of threat would decrease with distance, but the extent of those decreases was unknown. In the present study, participants were exposed to images of people situated in a physical venue. The images were created to exhibit combinations of the levels of the four visual cues (yes or no for eye contact, male or female for sex, hostile or benign for facial expression, and hostile or benign for posture). Participants were given an opportunity to record how threatening the images of the people seemed to be. The results supported all a priori hypotheses regarding the effects of the visual cues. The results also generated estimates of the distances at which those visual cues ceased to convey threat.

  13. The Population Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Robert S.

    1969-01-01

    In an address delivered at the University of Notre Dame, May 1969, Secretary McNamara discussed the threat of unmanageable population pressure which is undervalued and misunderstood by the general public. Unrestricted population growth will have catastrophic consequences unless it is dealt with rapidly and rationally. Copies from: Office of…

  14. ThreatView

    2007-09-25

    The ThreatView project is based on our prior work with the existing ParaView open-source scientific visualization application. Where ParaView provides a grapical client optimized scientific visualization over the VTK parallel client server architecture, ThreatView provides a client optimized for more generic visual analytics over the same architecture. Because ThreatView is based on the VTK parallel client-server architecture, data sources can reside on remote hosts, and processing and rendering can be performed in parallel. As seenmore » in Fig. 1, ThreatView provides four main methods for visualizing data: Landscape View, which displays a graph using a landscape metaphor where clusters of graph nodes produce "hills" in the landscape; Graph View, which displays a graph using a traditional "ball-and-stick" style; Table View, which displays tabular data in a standard spreadsheet; and Attribute View, which displays a tabular "histogram" of input data - for a selected table column, the Attribute View displays each unique value within the column, and the number of times that value appears in the data. There are two supplemental view types: Text View, which displays tabular data one-record-at-a-time; and the Statistics View, which displays input metadata, such as the number of vertices and edges in a graph, the number of rows in a table, etc.« less

  15. Proliferation: Threat and response

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    ;Table of Contents: Section I: The Regional Proliferation Challenge; Northeast Asia; The Middle East and North Africa; The Former Soviet Union: Russia, Ukrane, Kazakstan, And Belarus; South Asia; The International Threat: Dangers from Terrorism, Insurgencies, Civil Wars, And Organized Crime; Section II: Department of Defense Response; Technical Annex: Accessible Technologies; Glossary.

  16. [Bioterrorism--real threat].

    PubMed

    Wiackowski, Stanisław K

    2004-01-01

    In the presented paper natural and artificial threat concern of possible use of biological weapon was discussed. Special attention was given to viruses and bacteria which may be used by terrorists and methods of their application, utilisation of different organisms for example: insects such as intermediate hosts or transport medium of contagious microorganisms. PMID:15682939

  17. Ethical Proactive Threat Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aycock, John; Sullins, John

    Through a provocative examination of the positive effects of computer security research on regular users, we argue that traditional security research is insufficient. Instead, we turn to a largely untapped alternative, proactive threat research, a fruitful research area but an ethical minefield. We discuss practices for ethical research and dissemination of proactive research.

  18. Threat Assessment Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2008-01-01

    With every new case of school violence, district leaders are urged to be proactive in hopes of averting potential violence. Experts say part of that proactive work comes from a threat assessment plan that every district should have. While every district that receives funds from the U.S. Department of Education for school safety is required to have…

  19. ThreatView

    SciTech Connect

    Shead, Timothy M.; Wylie, Brian

    2007-09-25

    The ThreatView project is based on our prior work with the existing ParaView open-source scientific visualization application. Where ParaView provides a grapical client optimized scientific visualization over the VTK parallel client server architecture, ThreatView provides a client optimized for more generic visual analytics over the same architecture. Because ThreatView is based on the VTK parallel client-server architecture, data sources can reside on remote hosts, and processing and rendering can be performed in parallel. As seen in Fig. 1, ThreatView provides four main methods for visualizing data: Landscape View, which displays a graph using a landscape metaphor where clusters of graph nodes produce "hills" in the landscape; Graph View, which displays a graph using a traditional "ball-and-stick" style; Table View, which displays tabular data in a standard spreadsheet; and Attribute View, which displays a tabular "histogram" of input data - for a selected table column, the Attribute View displays each unique value within the column, and the number of times that value appears in the data. There are two supplemental view types: Text View, which displays tabular data one-record-at-a-time; and the Statistics View, which displays input metadata, such as the number of vertices and edges in a graph, the number of rows in a table, etc.

  20. Threat in dreams: an adaptation?

    PubMed

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Solms, Mark; Turnbull, Oliver; Tredoux, Colin

    2008-12-01

    Revonsuo's influential Threat Simulation Theory (TST) predicts that people exposed to survival threats will have more threat dreams, and evince enhanced responses to dream threats, compared to those living in relatively safe conditions. Participants in a high crime area (South Africa: n=208) differed significantly from participants in a low crime area (Wales, UK: n=116) in having greater recent exposure to a life-threatening event (chi([1,N=186])(2)=14.84, p<.00012). Contrary to TST's predictions, the SA participants reported significantly fewer threat dreams (chi([1,N=287])(2)=6.11, p<.0134), and did not differ from the Welsh participants in responses to dream threats (Fisher's Exact test, p=.2478). Overall, the incidence of threat in dreams was extremely low-less than 20% of dreams featured realistic survival threats. Escape from dream threats occurred in less than 2% of dreams. We conclude that this evidence contradicts key aspects of TST.

  1. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  2. Proliferation: Threat and response

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    During the height of the Cold War, the Russian physicist Andre Sakharov said, `Reducing the risk of annihilating humanity in a nuclear war carries an absolute priority over all other considerations.` The end of the Cold War has reduced the threat of global nuclear war, but today a new threat is rising from the global spread of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Hostile groups and nations have tried - or have been able - to obtain these weapons, the technology, and homegrown ability to make them or ballistic missiles that can deliver the massive annihilation, poison, and death of these weapons hundreds of miles away. For rogue nations, these weapons are a ticket to power, stature, and confidence in regional war.

  3. Pollution: a global threat.

    PubMed

    McCrink-Goode, Melissa

    2014-07-01

    Over the past several decades, several large-scale seemingly unrelated events have unfolded in all corners of the world. Within the oceans, coral reef systems have been facing unprecedented mass bleaching episodes, sea turtles worldwide are currently experiencing an epidemic in the form of fibropapilloma, and global phytoplankton populations have declined by 40%. Within the Earth's terrestrial systems, similar phenomena have appeared in the form of colony collapse disorder (CCD) currently devastating honey bee colonies, White Nose Syndrome decimating bat populations, and the chytrid fungus plaguing amphibian populations. On the surface these events appear to be unrelated yet at the root of each phenomenon there appears an underlying threat - pollution. This paper will investigate the commonality of these occurrences as well as investigate the current and potential solutions to the threat.

  4. Pollution: a global threat.

    PubMed

    McCrink-Goode, Melissa

    2014-07-01

    Over the past several decades, several large-scale seemingly unrelated events have unfolded in all corners of the world. Within the oceans, coral reef systems have been facing unprecedented mass bleaching episodes, sea turtles worldwide are currently experiencing an epidemic in the form of fibropapilloma, and global phytoplankton populations have declined by 40%. Within the Earth's terrestrial systems, similar phenomena have appeared in the form of colony collapse disorder (CCD) currently devastating honey bee colonies, White Nose Syndrome decimating bat populations, and the chytrid fungus plaguing amphibian populations. On the surface these events appear to be unrelated yet at the root of each phenomenon there appears an underlying threat - pollution. This paper will investigate the commonality of these occurrences as well as investigate the current and potential solutions to the threat. PMID:24727071

  5. 49 CFR 1515.9 - Appeal of security threat assessment based on other analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the applicant for an HME or TWIC poses a security threat as provided in 49 CFR 1572.107. (2) TSA had determined that an air cargo worker poses a security threat as provided in 49 CFR 1540.205. (3) TSA had... Determination of Threat Assessment and Immediate Revocation pursuant to 49 CFR 1572.21(d)(3). (3) If...

  6. 49 CFR 1515.9 - Appeal of security threat assessment based on other analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the applicant for an HME or TWIC poses a security threat as provided in 49 CFR 1572.107. (2) TSA had determined that an air cargo worker poses a security threat as provided in 49 CFR 1540.205. (3) TSA had... Determination of Threat Assessment and Immediate Revocation pursuant to 49 CFR 1572.21(d)(3). (3) If...

  7. 49 CFR 1515.9 - Appeal of security threat assessment based on other analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the applicant for an HME or TWIC poses a security threat as provided in 49 CFR 1572.107. (2) TSA had determined that an air cargo worker poses a security threat as provided in 49 CFR 1540.205. (3) TSA had... firms poses a security threat as provided in 49 CFR 1549.109. (b) Grounds for appeal. An applicant...

  8. Emergicenters. Opportunity or threat?

    PubMed

    Meyer, L C

    1983-01-01

    Political, social, and economic pressures on the healthcare industry are resulting in the development of new approaches to the delivery of quality health care to consumers. One of the newest responses to these change forces has been the development and proliferation of freestanding emergency centers. This article examines the underlying causes behind their development, describes the distinct services and strengths of the "emergicenter" concept, and shows how medical group practices can turn a potential competitive threat into an opportunity for future growth.

  9. Space collision threat mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatezalo, Aleksandar; Stipanović, Dušan; Mehra, Raman K.; Pham, Khanh

    2014-06-01

    Mitigation of possible collision threats to current and future operations in space environments is an important an challenging task considering high nonlinearity of orbital dynamics and discrete measurement updates. Such discrete observations are relatively scarce with respect to space dynamics including possible unintentional or intentional rocket propulsion based maneuvers even in scenarios when measurement collections are focused to a one single target of interest. In our paper, this problem is addressed in terms of multihypothesis and multimodel estimation in conjunction with multi-agent multigoal game theoretic guaranteed evasion strategies. Collision threat estimation is formulated using conditional probabilities of time dependent hypotheses and spacecraft controls which are computed using Liapunov-like approach. Based on this formulation, time dependent functional forms of multi-objective utility functions are derived given threat collision risk levels. For demonstrating developed concepts, numerical methods are developed using nonlinear filtering methodology for updating hypothesis sets and corresponding conditional probabilities. Space platform associated sensor resources are managed using previously developed and demonstrated information-theoretic objective functions and optimization methods. Consequently, estimation and numerical methods are evaluated and demonstrated on a realistic Low Earth Orbit collision encounter.

  10. Intentional cargo disruption by nefarious means: Examining threats, systemic vulnerabilities and securitisation measures in complex global supply chains.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Conor; Harrop, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Global trade and commerce requires products to be securely contained and transferred in a timely way across great distances and between national boundaries. Throughout the process, cargo and containers are stored, handled and checked by a range of authorities and authorised agents. Intermodal transportation involves the use of container ships, planes, railway systems, land bridges, road networks and barges. This paper examines the the nefarious nature of intentional disruption and nefarious risks associated with the movement of cargo and container freight. The paper explores main threats, vulnerabilities and security measures relevant to significant intermodal transit risk issues such as theft, piracy, terrorism, contamination, counterfeiting and product tampering. Three risk and vulnerability models are examined and basic standards and regulations that are relevant to safe and secure transit of container goods across international supply networks are outlined. PMID:25990978

  11. Intentional cargo disruption by nefarious means: Examining threats, systemic vulnerabilities and securitisation measures in complex global supply chains.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Conor; Harrop, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Global trade and commerce requires products to be securely contained and transferred in a timely way across great distances and between national boundaries. Throughout the process, cargo and containers are stored, handled and checked by a range of authorities and authorised agents. Intermodal transportation involves the use of container ships, planes, railway systems, land bridges, road networks and barges. This paper examines the the nefarious nature of intentional disruption and nefarious risks associated with the movement of cargo and container freight. The paper explores main threats, vulnerabilities and security measures relevant to significant intermodal transit risk issues such as theft, piracy, terrorism, contamination, counterfeiting and product tampering. Three risk and vulnerability models are examined and basic standards and regulations that are relevant to safe and secure transit of container goods across international supply networks are outlined.

  12. Overview of the Distributed Mission Training Integrated Threat Environment project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.; Santos, Eugene, Jr.

    1998-08-01

    The Joint Synthetic Battlespace (JSB) envisioned within the Department of Defense modeling and simulation master plan requires a distributed virtual environment (DVE) wide consistent threat environment to achieve a useful mission rehearsal, training, test and evaluation capability. To achieve this objective, all threats in the DVE must appear at compatible levels of fidelity to all the entities operating in the DVE and they must interact with human- operated and computer-controlled entities in a realistic fashion. Achieving this goal is not currently possible for two reasons. First, each primary aircraft simulator training system developer has created their own threat system and made their own modeling decisions to support a specific user for a select few predetermined conditions. This traditional threat simulation approach is expensive and leads to ongoing difficulties in maintaining threat currency as intelligence updates are made, new weapons are introduced and new theaters of operation are identified. Second, the threat system interaction on a distributed network must be coordinated. The individualized nature of current threat systems precludes the possibility of introducing coordinated threats. The Distributed Mission Training Integrated Threat Environment (DMTITE) project is developing an effective solution to these issues. The DMTITE project is identifying the requirements for a distributed threat environment and building a demonstrator DOD High Level Architecture compatible system that can provide realistic threats for pilots to train against. The DMTITE prototype will instantiate a variety of threats for use in distributed training scenarios, including surface threats, air threats, radars, and jamming systems. A key element of the system will be the provision of realistic behaviors for the threat systems. We based DMTITE on a general software design methodology and software architecture for computer-generated forces (CGFs) that naturally supports `variety

  13. Not All Threats Are Equal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surface, Jeanne L.

    2011-01-01

    School leaders must be fully prepared to respond to all types of threats that occur. In order to respond to threats most appropriately, the school needs to have a systematic approach that combines education, prevention, intervention, discipline, security, and crisis preparedness measures. All threats must be assessed carefully and swiftly,…

  14. Combating emerging viral threats

    PubMed Central

    Bekerman, Elena; Einav, Shirit

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Most approved antiviral therapeutics selectively inhibit proteins encoded by a single virus, thereby providing a “one drug-one bug” solution. As a result of this narrow spectrum of coverage and the high cost of drug development, therapies are currently approved for fewer than ten viruses out of the hundreds known to cause human disease. This perspective summarizes progress and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral therapies. These strategies include targeting enzymatic functions shared by multiple viruses and host cell machinery by newly discovered compounds or by repurposing approved drugs. These approaches offer new practical means for developing therapeutics against existing and emerging viral threats. PMID:25883340

  15. Threats to international science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  16. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  17. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  18. Different groups, different threats: a multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2011-04-01

    Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective. PMID:21441217

  19. Categorizing threat : building and using a generic threat matrix.

    SciTech Connect

    Woodard, Laura; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Thomas, Sherry Reede; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The key piece of knowledge necessary for building defenses capable of withstanding or surviving cyber and kinetic attacks is an understanding of the capabilities posed by threats to a government, function, or system. With the number of threats continuing to increase, it is no longer feasible to enumerate the capabilities of all known threats and then build defenses based on those threats that are considered, at the time, to be the most relevant. Exacerbating the problem for critical infrastructure entities is the fact that the majority of detailed threat information for higher-level threats is held in classified status and is not available for general use, such as the design of defenses and the development of mitigation strategies. To reduce the complexity of analyzing threat, the threat space must first be reduced. This is achieved by taking the continuous nature of the threat space and creating an abstraction that allows the entire space to be grouped, based on measurable attributes, into a small number of distinctly different levels. The work documented in this report is an effort to create such an abstraction.

  20. Evaluation of a landscape evolution model to simulate stream piracies: Insights from multivariable numerical tests using the example of the Meuse basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaïchouche, Abed; Stab, Olivier; Tessier, Bruno; Cojan, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    In landscapes dominated by fluvial erosion, the landscape morphology is closely related to the hydrographic network system. In this paper, we investigate the hydrographic network reorganization caused by a headward piracy mechanism between two drainage basins in France, the Meuse and the Moselle. Several piracies occurred in the Meuse basin during the past one million years, and the basin's current characteristics are favorable to new piracies by the Moselle river network. This study evaluates the consequences over the next several million years of a relative lowering of the Moselle River (and thus of its basin) with respect to the Meuse River. The problem is addressed with a numerical modeling approach (landscape evolution model, hereafter LEM) that requires empirical determinations of parameters and threshold values. Classically, fitting of the parameters is based on analysis of the relationship between the slope and the drainage area and is conducted under the hypothesis of equilibrium. Application of this conventional approach to the capture issue yields incomplete results that have been consolidated by a parametric sensitivity analysis. The LEM equations give a six-dimensional parameter space that was explored with over 15,000 simulations using the landscape evolution model GOLEM. The results demonstrate that stream piracies occur in only four locations in the studied reach near the city of Toul. The locations are mainly controlled by the local topography and are model-independent. Nevertheless, the chronology of the captures depends on two parameters: the river concavity (given by the fluvial advection equation) and the hillslope erosion factor. Thus, the simulations lead to three different scenarios that are explained by a phenomenon of exclusion or a string of events.

  1. Lizard threat display handicaps endurance.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Y

    2003-01-01

    Honest-signalling theory asserts that threat displays reliably advertise attributes that influence fighting success. Endurance, as measured by treadmill performance, predicts the outcome of agonistic interactions among lizards. If threat displays in lizards function to advertise endurance capacity then variation in threat displays should correlate with endurance. I tested this prediction for the duration of threat posturing in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) and examined whether threat displays act as quality handicaps, reliable signals that expend the attribute that is advertised. Individual variation in the duration of threat posturing correlated with endurance, while an experimental reduction of endurance diminished the duration of threat posturing. As expected of a quality handicap, endurance fell below baseline after display production. A restriction of aerobic metabolism can account for this effect. In threat posturing, lateral compression of the thorax may interfere with respiration or with circulation, limiting aerobic metabolism and causing a compensatory increase in anaerobic metabolism, thereby generating lactate and diminishing locomotor capacity. Concentrations of lactate measured after display production were higher than baseline, consistent with the proposed mechanism. By restricting aerobic metabolism, the threat posture can act as a quality handicap, simultaneously advertising and expending the endurance capacity of displaying lizards. PMID:12803896

  2. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  3. Threat Assessment in College Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the landscape of campus safety changed abruptly with the Virginia Tech shooting and the subsequent wave of anonymous threats in colleges across the country. In response to the tragedy, the Virginia state legislature mandated that every public institution of higher education establish a "threat assessment team." Both the FBI and the U.S.…

  4. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  5. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    DOEpatents

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  6. Linking Stereotype Threat and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2007-01-01

    Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis has attracted significant attention in recent years. This study tested one of the main tenets of his theory--that stereotype threat serves to increase individual anxiety levels, thus hurting performance--using real-time measures of physiological arousal. Subjects were randomly assigned to either high or…

  7. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  8. Threat expert system technology advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurrasch, E. R.; Tripp, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed to determine the feasibility of using expert system technology to enhance the performance and survivability of helicopter pilots in a combat threat environment while flying NOE (Nap of the Earth) missions. The basis for the concept is the potential of using an Expert System Advisor to reduce the extreme overloading of the pilot who flies NOE mission below treetop level at approximately 40 knots while performing several other functions. The ultimate goal is to develop a Threat Expert System Advisor which provides threat information and advice that are better than even a highly experienced copilot. The results clearly show that the NOE pilot needs all the help in decision aiding and threat situation awareness that he can get. It clearly shows that heuristics are important and that an expert system for combat NOE helicopter missions can be of great help to the pilot in complex threat situations and in making decisions.

  9. Information fusion: telling the story (or threat narrative)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenstermacher, Laurie

    2014-06-01

    Today's operators face a "double whammy" - the need to process increasing amounts of information, including "Twitter-INT"1 (social information such as Facebook, You-Tube videos, blogs, Twitter) as well as the need to discern threat signatures in new security environments, including those in which the airspace is contested. To do this will require the Air Force to "fuse and leverage its vast capabilities in new ways."2 For starters, the integration of quantitative and qualitative information must be done in a way that preserves important contextual information since the goal increasingly is to identify and mitigate violence before it occurs. To do so requires a more nuanced understanding of the environment being sensed, including the human environment, ideally from the "emic" perspective; that is, from the perspective of that individual or group. This requires not only data and information that informs the understanding of how the individuals and/or groups see themselves and others (social identity) but also information on how that identity filters information in their environment which, in turn, shapes their behaviors.3 The goal is to piece together the individual and/or collective narratives regarding threat, the threat narrative, from various sources of information. Is there a threat? If so, what is it? What is motivating the threat? What is the intent of those who pose the threat and what are their capabilities and their vulnerabilities?4 This paper will describe preliminary investigations regarding the application of prototype hybrid information fusion method based on the threat narrative framework.

  10. Stereotype Threat as Validity Threat: The Anxiety-Sex-Threat Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Ana R.; Prieto, Gerardo

    2008-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been invoked to explain underperformance on a variety of groups for whom the stereotypes allege inferior cognitive abilities. In math testing, stereotype threat has been used to explain sex differences in test performance. This paper describes an experimental study on a large sample (n = 313), in which the role of anxiety and…

  11. Managing biosecurity threats in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanzhong

    2011-03-01

    Compared to the extensive literature on bioterrorism and biosecurity in the United States, less analysis has been conducted on similar challenges in China. This article seeks to fill this void by providing an integrated and updated assessment of 3 major biosecurity threats China faces: biowarfare, bioterrorism, and biocrimes. An analysis of China's biosecurity threats and biodefense building suggest varying levels of risk associated with each threat type. First, a direct bioweapons attack on China is highly unlikely, although the threat of biowarfare cannot be simply written off. Second, potential perpetrators of bioterrorism have capabilities at their disposal for carrying out such attacks. While terrorist organizations in China do not have a strong interest in bioterrorism, the limited state capability to counter such a threat may increase the risk in the future. Third, unlike the threats of biowarfare and bioterrorism, potential perpetrators of biocrimes have both incentives and capabilities, and biocrimes can produce reactions far out of proportion to the actual number of casualties. Despite the distinct biosecurity challenges it faces, China has yet to articulate a differentiated and coherent strategy to effectively tackle the challenges. Assessing different types of biosecurity threats in terms of degrees of risk not only provides greater analytical clarity but also has important implications for the strategies required to manage the risks.

  12. Stereotype threat spillover: how coping with threats to social identity affects aggression, eating, decision making, and attention.

    PubMed

    Inzlicht, Michael; Kang, Sonia K

    2010-09-01

    Stereotype threat spillover is a situational predicament in which coping with the stress of stereotype confirmation leaves one in a depleted volitional state and thus less likely to engage in effortful self-control in a variety of domains. We examined this phenomenon in 4 studies in which we had participants cope with stereotype and social identity threat and then measured their performance in domains in which stereotypes were not "in the air." In Study 1 we examined whether taking a threatening math test could lead women to respond aggressively. In Study 2 we investigated whether coping with a threatening math test could lead women to indulge themselves with unhealthy food later on and examined the moderation of this effect by personal characteristics that contribute to identity-threat appraisals. In Study 3 we investigated whether vividly remembering an experience of social identity threat results in risky decision making. Finally, in Study 4 we asked whether coping with threat could directly influence attentional control and whether the effect was implemented by inefficient performance monitoring, as assessed by electroencephalography. Our results indicate that stereotype threat can spill over and impact self-control in a diverse array of nonstereotyped domains. These results reveal the potency of stereotype threat and that its negative consequences might extend further than was previously thought.

  13. China. Population. New threat.

    PubMed

    Although China's population growth rate in 1980 was the lowest in 31 years, doubling of marriages and increasing life expectancy have emerged as threats to the government plan to hold national population growth to 1200 million by the end of the present century, a Beijing official magazine reported. Liaowang (Observation), published by the government's Xinhua news agency, quoted state family planning officials as saying that a subsequent doubling of marriages this year "threatens another baby boom in the world's most populous nation." The officials said the country's population stood at 982.55 million at the end of 1980, roughly equivalent to 20% of the world's total. According to the magazine, the natural population growth rate declined to 8.97 million last year as the number of births fell to 14.99 million and that of deaths stood at 6.02 million. During the past decade, the natural increase rate of China's population dropped from 26/1000 in 1970 to just 12/1000 in 1980. Owing to increase in production and living standards, along with expansion and improvement of medical facilities, the mortality rate fell from almost 30/1000 before the founding of the People's Republic of China to around 6-8/1000 by the 1970s. According to U.N. statistics prepared for the recently-held international conference on population and development in Beijing, China succeeded in reducing its birth rate by as much as 23.1% between 1960-65 and 1970-75. But such accomplishment is now in danger of being wiped out by a new birth peak expected during the next 10 or more years as those born during the baby boom of the 1960s reached childbearing age during the present decade. In addition, the population control program is also threatened by the rising life expectancy of the Chinese people. Latest statistics compiled by the Ministry of Public Health showed that the average life span of the Chinese population had doubled to 68 years in 1980 from 35 years in 1949.

  14. Global Threats to Child Safety.

    PubMed

    Mace, Sharon E

    2016-02-01

    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children. PMID:26613687

  15. Global Threats to Child Safety.

    PubMed

    Mace, Sharon E

    2016-02-01

    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children.

  16. Bomb Threat Becomes Real News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastaldo, Evann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the staff of the newspaper at Camarillo High School (California) covered a bomb threat at their school. Describes how they, overnight, conducted interviews, took and developed photographs, produced the layout, and published the newspaper. (RS)

  17. Combating the Insider Cyber Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Moore, Andrew P.; Cappelli, Dawn M.; Andrews, Dee H.; Carroll, Lynn; Hull, Thomas D.

    2008-01-02

    This article represents a collaboration between PNNL, CERT/CMU, and AFRL that describes needs and related efforts by these institutions to develop technologies and approaches to counter cyber threats by insiders to informatin systems. The main focus of this article is on the need for effective training on insider threat to raise staff awareness and encourage organizations to adopt a more effective approach to identifying potential risks and take proactive steps to mitigate them.

  18. Bad Air For Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  19. Escorting commercial aircraft to reduce the MANPAD threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, Nicholas; Richardson, M. A.; Butters, B.; Walmsley, R.; Ayling, R.; Taylor, B.

    2005-11-01

    This paper studies the Man-Portable Air Defence System (MANPADS) threat against large commercial aircraft using flight profile analysis, engagement modelling and simulation. Non-countermeasure equipped commercial aircraft are at risk during approach and departure due to the large areas around airports that would need to be secured to prevent the use of highly portable and concealable MANPADs. A software model (CounterSim) has been developed and was used to simulate an SA-7b and large commercial aircraft engagement. The results of this simulation have found that the threat was lessened when a escort fighter aircraft is flown in the 'Centreline Low' position, or 25 m rearward from the large aircraft and 15 m lower, similar to the Air-to-Air refuelling position. In the model a large aircraft on approach had a 50% chance of being hit or having a near miss (within 20m) whereas escorted by a countermeasure equipped F-16 in the 'Centerline Low' position, this was reduced to only 14%. Departure is a particularly vulnerable time for large aircraft due to slow climb rates and the inability to fly evasive manoeuvres. The 'Centreline Low' escorted departure greatly reduced the threat to 16% hit or near miss from 62% for an unescorted heavy aircraft. Overall the CounterSim modelling has showed that escorting a civilian aircraft on approach and departure can reduce the MANPAD threat by 3 to 4 times.

  20. From stereotype threat to stereotype threats: implications of a multi-threat framework for causes, moderators, mediators, consequences, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jenessa R; Neuberg, Steven L

    2007-05-01

    More than 100 articles have examined the construct of stereotype threat and its implications. However, stereotype threat seems to mean different things to different researchers and has been employed to describe and explain processes and phenomena that appear to be fundamentally distinct. Complementing existing models, the authors posit a Multi-Threat Framework in which six qualitatively distinct stereotype threats arise from the intersection of two dimensions--the target of the threat (the self/one's group) and the source of the threat (the self/outgroup others/ingroup others). The authors propose that these threats constitute the core of the broader stereotype threat construct and provide the foundation for understanding additional, as of yet uncharacterized, stereotype threats. The proposed threats likely differentially peril those with different stigmatizable characteristics, have different eliciting conditions and moderators, are mediated by somewhat different processes, are coped with and compensated for in different ways, and require different interventions to overcome.

  1. The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

    For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

  2. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  3. The Threat to College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barol, Bill

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of young academics, known as gypsy scholars, find themselves hired temporarily, drawing the worst teaching assignments, having the heaviest workloads, and having the lowest pay. Tenure is seen as academia's brass ring. The threat to tenure in Nevada is discussed. (MLW)

  4. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  5. Threats to the Inclusive Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiler, Anthony; Gibson, Howard

    1999-01-01

    This article explores four key threats to the movement toward inclusion within the field of special educational needs: the lack of precision in definitions of inclusion; the lack of research evidence, the tendency for some children to experience internal exclusion in the schools, and the continuing inclination to label children. (Author/CR)

  6. Measuring Vulnerability to Stereotype Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Lucy; Burley, Hansel; Olivarez, Arturo; Crooks, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of an instrument intended to measure vulnerability to stereotype threat. Method: We revised the instrument through assessing score reliability and then examined a domain specific model using confirmatory factor analyses. After examining the responses of the total sample…

  7. Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Despite all its efforts to crack down on the bomb scares that disrupted classes again and again in 2003, North Carolina's Orange County district fell victim to yet another false alarm this school year, 2004. For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for…

  8. Inhalation of 7.5% carbon dioxide increases threat processing in humans.

    PubMed

    Garner, Matthew; Attwood, Angela; Baldwin, David S; James, Alexandra; Munafò, Marcus R

    2011-07-01

    Inhalation of 7.5% CO(2) increases anxiety and autonomic arousal in humans, and elicits fear behavior in animals. However, it is not known whether CO(2) challenge in humans induces dysfunction in neurocognitive processes that characterize generalized anxiety, notably selective attention to environmental threat. Healthy volunteers completed an emotional antisaccade task in which they looked toward or away from (inhibited) negative and neutral stimuli during inhalation of 7.5% CO(2) and air. CO(2) inhalation increased anxiety, autonomic arousal, and erroneous eye movements toward threat on antisaccade trials. Autonomic response to CO(2) correlated with hypervigilance to threat (speed to initiate prosaccades) and reduced threat inhibition (increased orienting toward and slower orienting away from threat on antisaccade trials) independent of change in mood. Findings extend evidence that CO(2) triggers fear behavior in animals via direct innervation of a distributed fear network that mobilizes the detection of and allocation of processing resources toward environmental threat in humans.

  9. Environmental degradation and environmental threats in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a review of environmental degradation and its threats in China. Air pollution, water pollution, deforestation, soil degradation, sand depositing in dams, decaying urban infrastructure, and more and more hazards such as floods, landslides and soil erosion are major consequences of environmental degradation and are making tremendous loss both in life and property. Through investigation, the author found that poor air quality in the large cities; water pollution in the downstream of many rivers; the multiple problems of many mining areas; lack of access to fresh water; decaying sewage systems; and the disastrous impact of these environmental degradations on public health and agricultural products in many provinces is rather serious. Relationship of environmental degradation and natural hazards is close; more attention should be put in environmental degradation that may surpass economy progress if the trend continues. It is therefore imperative that Chinese government undertake a series of prudent actions now that will enable to be in the best possible position when the current environmental crisis ultimately passes.

  10. Can We Eliminate the Major Tornado Threats in Tornado Alley?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.

    2014-03-01

    The recent devastating tornado attacks in Oklahoma, Iowa, Nebraska, and South Dakota raise an important question: can we do something to eliminate the major tornado threats in Tornado Alley? Violent tornado attacks in Tornado Alley are starting from intensive encounters between the northbound warm air flow and southbound cold air flow. As there is no mountain in Tornado Alley ranging from west to east to weaken or block such air flows, some encounters are violent, creating instability: The strong wind changes direction and increases in speed and height. As a result, it creates a supercell, violent vortex, an invisible horizontal spinning motion in the lower atmosphere. When the rising air tilts the spinning air from horizontal to vertical, tornadoes with radii of miles are formed and cause tremendous damage. Here we show that if we build three east-west great walls in the American Midwest, 300m high and 50m wide, one in North Dakota, one along the border between Kansas and Oklahoma to east, and the third one in the south Texas and Louisiana, we will diminish the tornado threats in the Tornado Alley forever. We may also build such great walls at some area with frequent devastating tornado attacks first, then gradually extend it. This research is supported in part by a grant from US Naval Research Lab.

  11. 28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) Direct threat means a significant risk to the health or safety of others that cannot be eliminated by a modification of policies... individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, a public accommodation must make...

  12. Identifying Separation Threats in Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argles, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Outlines the types of separation threats common in troubled families. Signs that threats are being used may include inappropriate clinging behavior, phobias, psychosomatic symptoms, and anxious attachment. Therapists may find other behaviors, often seen as problems in themselves, that are really reactions to perceived separation threats. (JAC)

  13. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  14. Threat Assessment Teams Target School Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the creation of a threat-assessment team to be utilized in order to analyze each threat and the usage of threat-assessment protocols for the purpose of guiding school administrators through a crisis. These are actually developed with the advice from the US Department of Education and the Secret Service. When a…

  15. Threats to Networked RFID Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Beye, Michael; Peris-Lopez, Pedro

    RFID technology is an area currently undergoing active development. An issue, which has received a lot of attention, is the security risks that arise due to the inherent vulnerabilities of RFID technology. Most of this attention, however, has focused on related privacy issues. The goal of this chapter is to present a more global overview of RFID threats. This can not only help experts perform risk analyses of RFID systems but also increase awareness and understanding of RFID security issues for non-experts. We use clearly defined and widely accepted concepts from both the RFID area and classical risk analysis to structure this overview.

  16. [Modern threat of Ebola virus].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2014-11-01

    Since the detection of Ebola virus in 1976. recorded 13 major epidemics in Africa. The current threat in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone absorbs another victims and threatened pandemic. Picture of the disease is initially very non-characteristic (influenza-like symptoms) and quickly leads to dehydration, shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, which is responsible for high mortality. Lack of effective antibiotic therapy and vaccine hampers the existing situation. For this reason, there is an absolute necessity to introduce regimes sanitation, quarantine at the suspects and maintain the highest safety measures for emergency responders. Developed procedures require absolute compliance.

  17. The role of threats in animal cooperation.

    PubMed

    Cant, Michael A

    2011-01-22

    In human societies, social behaviour is strongly influenced by threats of punishment, even though the threats themselves rarely need to be exercised. Recent experimental evidence suggests that similar hidden threats can promote cooperation and limit within-group selfishness in some animal systems. In other animals, however, threats appear to be ineffective. Here I review theoretical and empirical studies that help to understand the evolutionary causes of these contrasting patterns, and identify three factors-impact, accuracy and perception-that together determine the effectiveness of threats to induce cooperation.

  18. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI.

  19. Stereotype threat and female communication styles.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan

    2011-10-01

    A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Threat sensitivity in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Muhtadie, Luma; Johnson, Sheri L

    2015-02-01

    Life stress is a major predictor of the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have used laboratory paradigms to examine stress reactivity in bipolar disorder, and none have assessed autonomic reactivity to laboratory stressors. In the present investigation we sought to address this gap in the literature. Participants, 27 diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 24 controls with no history of mood disorder, were asked to complete a complex working memory task presented as "a test of general intelligence." Self-reported emotions were assessed at baseline and after participants were given task instructions; autonomic physiology was assessed at baseline and continuously during the stressor task. Compared to controls, individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater increases in pretask anxiety from baseline and showed greater cardiovascular threat reactivity during the task. Group differences in cardiovascular threat reactivity were significantly correlated with comorbid anxiety in the bipolar group. Our results suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing stress reactivity-including the use of physiological parameters that differentiate between maladaptive and adaptive profiles of stress responding-can yield valuable information regarding stress sensitivity and its associations with negative affectivity in bipolar disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25688436

  1. Threat Sensitivity in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Muhtadie, Luma; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2015-01-01

    Life stress is a major predictor of the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have used laboratory paradigms to examine stress reactivity in bipolar disorder, and none have assessed autonomic reactivity to laboratory stressors. In the present investigation we sought to address this gap in the literature. Participants, 27 diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 24 controls with no history of mood disorder, were asked to complete a complex working memory task presented as “a test of general intelligence.” Self-reported emotions were assessed at baseline and after participants were given task instructions; autonomic physiology was assessed at baseline and continuously during the stressor task. Compared to controls, individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater increases in pretask anxiety from baseline and showed greater cardiovascular threat reactivity during the task. Group differences in cardiovascular threat reactivity were significantly correlated with comorbid anxiety in the bipolar group. Our results suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing stress reactivity—including the use of physiological parameters that differentiate between maladaptive and adaptive profiles of stress responding— can yield valuable information regarding stress sensitivity and its associations with negative affectivity in bipolar disorder. PMID:25688436

  2. Patent and product piracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced industrial countries are affected by technology theft. German industry annually loses more than 50 billion euros. The main causes are industrial espionage and fraudulent copying patents and industrial products. Many Asian countries are profiteering saving up to 65% of production costs. Most affected are small medium enterprises, who do not have sufficient economic power to assert themselves against some powerful countries. International organizations, such as Interpol and World Customs Organization - WCO - work together to combat international economic crime. Several methods of protection can be achieved by registering patents or specific technical methods for recognition of product originality. They have developed more suitable protection, like Hologram, magnetic stripe, barcode, CE marking, digital watermarks, DNA or Nano-technologies, security labels, radio frequency identification, micro color codes, matrix code, cryptographic encodings. The automotive industry has developed the method “Manufactures against Product Piracy”. A sticker on the package features original products and it uses a Data Matrix verifiable barcode. The code can be recorded with a smartphone camera. The smartphone is connected via Internet to a database, where the identification numbers of the original parts are stored.

  3. Piracy without Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the confusion arising when public colleges invoke a constitutional shield when they are accused of pirating software. Some state institutions claim immunity under the 11th Amendment from prosecution for infringement of intellectual property. (SLD)

  4. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Vantine, H C

    2002-10-04

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  5. Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?

    PubMed

    Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2014-03-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes.

  6. World's soils are under threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, Luca; Pennock, Daniel Jon; McKenzie, Neil; Badraoui, Mohamed; Chude, Victor; Baptista, Isaurinda; Mamo, Tekalign; Yemefack, Martin; Singh Aulakh, Mikha; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hong, Suk Young; Vijarnsorn, Pisoot; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Arrouays, Dominique; Black, Helaina; Krasilnikov, Pavel; Sobocká, Jaroslava; Alegre, Julio; Henriquez, Carlos Roberto; de Lourdes Mendonça-Santos, Maria; Taboada, Miguel; Espinosa-Victoria, David; AlShankiti, Abdullah; Kazem AlaviPanah, Sayed; El Mustafa Elsheikh, Elsiddig Ahmed; Hempel, Jon; Camps Arbestain, Marta; Nachtergaele, Freddy; Vargas, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils has completed the first State of the World's Soil Resources Report. Globally soil erosion was identified as the gravest threat, leading to deteriorating water quality in developed regions and to lowering of crop yields in many developing regions. We need to increase nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in infertile tropical and semi-tropical soils - the regions where the most food insecurity among us are found - while reducing global use of these products overall. Stores of soil organic carbon are critical in the global carbon balance, and national governments must set specific targets to stabilize or ideally increase soil organic carbon stores. Finally the quality of soil information available for policy formulation must be improved - the regional assessments in the State of the World's Soil Resources Report frequently base their evaluations on studies from the 1990s based on observations made in the 1980s or earlier.

  7. World's soils are under threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, L.; Pennock, D. J.; McKenzie, N. J.; Badraoui, M.; Chude, V.; Baptista, I.; Mamo, T.; Yemefack, M.; Singh Aulakh, M.; Yagi, K.; Hong, S. Young; Vijarnsorn, P.; Zhang, G.-L.; Arrouays, D.; Black, H.; Krasilnikov, P.; Sobocká, J.; Alegre, J.; Henriquez, C. R.; Mendonça-Santos, M. L.; Taboada, M.; Espinosa-Victoria, D.; AlShankiti, A.; AlaviPanah, S. K.; Elsheikh, E. A. E.; Hempel, J.; Camps Arbestain, M.; Nachtergaele, F.; Vargas, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils has completed the first State of the World's Soil Resources report. Globally soil erosion was identified as the gravest threat, leading to deteriorating water quality in developed regions and to lowering of crop yields in many developing regions. We need to increase nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in infertile tropical and semi-tropical soils - the regions where the most food insecure among us are found - while reducing global use of these products overall. Stores of soil organic carbon are critical in the global carbon balance, and national governments must set specific targets to stabilize or ideally increase soil organic carbon stores. Finally the quality of soil information available for policy formulation must be improved - the regional assessments in the SWSR report frequently base their evaluations on studies from the 1990s based on observations made in the 1980s or earlier.

  8. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Zhao, Yufang; Ybarra, Oscar; Stephan, Walter G.; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes–Dodson law, Easterbrook’s theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study 1, we manipulated symbolic threat and examined participants’ memory for threat and neutral words. In study 2, memory performance was assessed following the induction of realistic threat. Across the studies, in the control condition participants showed better memory for threat-related than neutral information. However, participants under threat remembered neutral information as well as threat-related information. In addition, participants in the threat condition remembered threat-related information as well as participants in the control condition. The findings are discussed in terms of automatic vigilance processes but also the effects of threat on arousal and its effect on information processing. This latter perspective, suggests paradoxically, that under some circumstances involving an outgroup threat, non-threatening information about outgroups can be extensively processed. PMID:26635669

  9. Threat of resource loss: The role of self-regulation in adaptive task performance.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Cornelia; Jimmieson, Nerina L

    2016-03-01

    Changes at work are often accompanied with the threat of, or actual, resource loss. Through an experiment, we investigated the detrimental effect of the threat of resource loss on adaptive task performance. Self-regulation (i.e., task focus and emotion control) was hypothesized to buffer the negative relationship between the threat of resource loss and adaptive task performance. Adaptation was conceptualized as relearning after a change in task execution rules. Threat of resource loss was manipulated for 100 participants undertaking an air traffic control task. Using discontinuous growth curve modeling, 2 kinds of adaptation--transition adaptation and reacquisition adaptation--were differentiated. The results showed that individuals who experienced the threat of resource loss had a stronger drop in performance (less transition adaptation) and a subsequent slower recovery (less reacquisition adaptation) compared with the control group who experienced no threat. Emotion control (but not task focus) moderated the relationship between the threat of resource loss and transition adaptation. In this respect, individuals who felt threatened but regulated their emotions performed better immediately after the task change (but not later on) compared with those individuals who felt threatened and did not regulate their emotions as well. However, later on, relearning (reacquisition adaptation) under the threat of resource loss was facilitated when individuals concentrated on the task at hand.

  10. Effect of evaluation threat on procrastination behavior.

    PubMed

    Bui, Ngoc H

    2007-06-01

    The author evaluated the effects of evaluation apprehension and trait procrastination on behaviors. The author examined private university students from southern California (N = 72) on two independent variables: evaluation threat (manipulated) and trait procrastination (nonmanipulated). The author found a significant interaction effect between type of evaluation threat and level of trait procrastination on the number of days to complete an assigned essay. Post hoc analyses showed high trait procrastinators in the high evaluation threat group significantly delayed returning essays compared with those in the low evaluation threat group. Also, in the low evaluation threat group, low trait procrastinators delayed more than did high trait procrastinators. These results suggest that educators can reduce behavioral delays by increasing evaluation threat, depending on a student's level of trait procrastination.

  11. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    DOEpatents

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  12. DOE site-specific threat assessment

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.J.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1985-07-12

    A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs.

  13. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR

    ScienceCinema

    INL

    2016-07-12

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

  14. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR

    SciTech Connect

    INL

    2008-05-29

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

  15. Threats: power, family mealtimes, and social influence.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, Alexa; Potter, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    One of the most basic topics in social psychology is the way one agent influences the behaviour of another. This paper will focus on threats, which are an intensified form of attempted behavioural influence. Despite the centrality to the project of social psychology, little attention has been paid to threats. This paper will start to rectify this oversight. It reviews early examples of the way social psychology handles threats and highlights key limitations and presuppositions about the nature and role of threats. By contrast, we subject them to a programme of empirical research. Data comprise video records of a collection of family mealtimes that include preschool children. Threats are recurrent in this material. A preliminary conceptualization of features of candidate threats from this corpus will be used as an analytic start point. A series of examples are used to explicate basic features and dimensions that build the action of threatening. The basic structure of the threats uses a conditional logic: if the recipient continues problem action/does not initiate required action then negative consequences will be produced by the speaker. Further analysis clarifies how threats differ from warnings and admonishments. Sequential analysis suggests threats set up basic response options of compliance or defiance. However, recipients of threats can evade these options by, for example, reworking the unpleasant upshot specified in the threat, or producing barely minimal compliance. The implications for broader social psychological concerns are explored in a discussion of power, resistance, and asymmetry; the paper ends by reconsidering the way social influence can be studied in social psychology.

  16. Threat by association: do distant intergroup threats carry-over into local intolerance?

    PubMed

    Bouman, Thijs; van Zomeren, Martijn; Otten, Sabine

    2014-09-01

    Individuals are often confronted with intergroup threats, yet many of these threats emanate from distant groups that most individuals are unlikely to encounter in their local environment. An important yet unanswered question is whether reactions to those threats, such as intolerance towards the threatening group, carry over to other groups that individuals actually do encounter in their local environment (e.g., immigrants). The main goal of our studies was to experimentally identify this carry-over effect of intergroup threat. Specifically, we hypothesized that (by definition relatively abstract) symbolic threats (e.g., threats to the ingroup's worldview) have an especially strong carry-over potential because those threats can be easily attributed to other outgroups. We tested these predictions in one correlational and two experimental studies. The results of all three studies confirmed our hypothesis that particularly distant symbolic threats were predictive of intolerance towards local outgroups.

  17. Nuclear threats from small states

    SciTech Connect

    Kahan, J.H.

    1994-06-13

    What are the policy implications regarding proliferation and counter proliferation of nuclear weapons among Third World states. How does deterrence operate outside the parameters of superpower confrontation as defined by the cold war elaborate system of constraints enforced by concepts like mutual assured destruction, and counter-value and counter-force targeting. How can US policymakers devise contingencies for dealing with nuclear threats posed by countries like North Korea, Libya, Iraq, Iran, and Syria. These are some of the unsettling but nevertheless important questions addressed by the author in this monograph. In his analysis, Mr. Jerome Kahan examines the likelihood that one or more of these countries will use nuclear weapons before the year 2000. He also offers a framework that policymakers and planners might use in assessing US interests in preempting the use of nuclear weapons or in retaliating for their use. Ironically, with the end of the cold war, it is imperative that defense strategists, policymakers, and military professionals think about the `unthinkable`. In the interest of fostering debate on this important subject, the Strategic Studies Institute commends this insightful monograph.

  18. [Counterfeit medicines: a growing threat].

    PubMed

    Barbereau, S

    2006-12-01

    The medical drug market has undergone considerable transformation in recent years. Like other products, medicines have been affected by globalization. Free trade policies have had a number of negative effects including a reduction in quality control not only for some products but also for raw materials and finished products. The global environment has also created conditions conducive to counterfeit medicines. The term counterfeit medicine is defined differently from one country to another in terms of quality, legality and fraudulent intent. This situation prompted the WHO to propose the following definition: "A counterfeit medicine is one which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabeled with respect to identity and/or source. Counterfeiting can apply to both branded and generic products and counterfeit products may include products with the correct ingredients or with the wrong ingredients, without active ingredients, with insufficient active ingredients or with fake packaging." Weak pharmaceutical regulation often compounded by widespread corruption in developing countries has greatly facilitated the development of this illicit market with harmful and costly effects on public health. Due to the lack of pharmocovigilance accidents involving use of counterfeit drugs go unreported. For this reason it is not possible to measure the economic impact. While counterfeiting has become a major threat in developing countries, it also affects industrialized countries. Fraudulent behavior occurs all over the world.

  19. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  20. Stereotype threat prevents perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Robert J; Shiffrin, Richard M; Boucher, Kathryn L; Van Loo, Katie; Rydell, Michael T

    2010-08-10

    Stereotype threat (ST) refers to a situation in which a member of a group fears that her or his performance will validate an existing negative performance stereotype, causing a decrease in performance. For example, reminding women of the stereotype "women are bad at math" causes them to perform more poorly on math questions from the SAT and GRE. Performance deficits can be of several types and be produced by several mechanisms. We show that ST prevents perceptual learning, defined in our task as an increasing rate of search for a target Chinese character in a display of such characters. Displays contained two or four characters and half of these contained a target. Search rate increased across a session of training for a control group of women, but not women under ST. Speeding of search is typically explained in terms of learned "popout" (automatic attraction of attention to a target). Did women under ST learn popout but fail to express it? Following training, the women were shown two colored squares and asked to choose the one with the greater color saturation. Superimposed on the squares were task-irrelevant Chinese characters. For women not trained under ST, the presence of a trained target on one square slowed responding, indicating that training had caused the learning of an attention response to targets. Women trained under ST showed no slowing, indicating that they had not learned such an attention response.

  1. Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

  2. Bombs and Bomb Threats in the School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, David J.; Starkey, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Bombs and the threat of bombing can leave school personnel faced by an explosive hazard without knowledge of what to do. Therefore, a preplanned response is necessary. Discusses four major stages of dealing with bombs and bomb threats. (Author/RK)

  3. Personality Correlates of Nuclear War Threat Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II

    This study investigated the relationship between individual personality characteristics and the threat of nuclear war among 192 introductory psychology students at a small college in the Pacific Northwest. One measure of nuclear threat perception was spontaneous concern, which was assessed using five presentations each of the incomplete sentences,…

  4. Keeping Schools Safe through Threat Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Rhonda

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates how effective a threat assessment program like the Mid-Valley Student Threat Assessment (STAT) program can be in dealing with violent and threatening students. STAT is a a regional system that draws together resources from schools, mental health agencies, law enforcement bureaus, and other youth-serving organizations in…

  5. How species respond to multiple extinction threats.

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Nick J. B.; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2004-01-01

    It is well established that different species vary in their vulnerability to extinction risk and that species biology can underpin much of this variation. By contrast, very little is known about how the same species responds to different threat processes. The purpose of this paper is therefore twofold: to examine the extent to which a species' vulnerability to different types of threat might covary and to explore the biological traits that are associated with threat-specific responses. We use an objective and quantitative measure of local extinction risk to show that vulnerability to local population decline in primates varies substantially among species and between threat types. Our results show that a species' response to one threat type does not predict its response to others. Multivariate analyses also suggest that different mechanisms of decline are associated with each type of threat, since different biological traits are correlated with each threat-specific response. Primate species at risk from forestry tend to exhibit low ecological flexibility, while those species vulnerable to agriculture tend to live in the canopy and eat low-fruit diets; in further contrast, primates at risk from hunting tend to exhibit large body size. Our analyses therefore indicate that a species' vulnerability to local extinction can be highly variable and is likely to depend on both threat type and biology. PMID:15306363

  6. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  7. The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

  8. How you perceive threat determines your behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Orlando; Portugal, Liana C. L.; Alves, Rita C. S.; Campagnoli, Rafaela R.; Mocaiber, Izabela; David, Isabel P. A.; Erthal, Fátima C. S.; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G.

    2013-01-01

    The prioritization of processing emotional stimuli usually produces deleterious effects on task performance when it distracts from a task. One common explanation is that brain resources are consumed by emotional stimuli, diverting resources away from executing the task. Viewing unpleasant stimuli also generates defensive reactions, and these responses may be at least partially responsible for the effect of the emotional modulation observed in various reaction time (RT) paradigms. We investigated whether modulatory effects on RT vary if we presented threat stimuli to prompt different defensive responses. To trigger different responses, we manipulated threat perception by moving the direction of threatening stimuli. Threatening or neutral stimuli were presented as distractors during a bar orientation discrimination task. The results demonstrated that threat stimuli directed toward the observer produced a decrease in RT; in contrast, threat stimuli directed away from the observer produced an increase in RT, when compared to neutral stimuli. Accelerated RT during directed toward threat stimuli was attributed to increased motor preparation resulting from strong activation of the defense response cascade. In contrast, directed away threat stimuli likely activated the defense cascade, but less intensively, prompting immobility. Different threat stimuli produced varying effects, which was interpreted as evidence that the modulation of RT by emotional stimuli represents the summation of attentional and motivational effects. Additionally, participants who had been previously exposed to diverse types of violent crime were more strongly influenced by threat stimuli directed toward the observer. In sum, our data support the concept that emotions are indeed action tendencies. PMID:24115925

  9. 28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) In determining whether an individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, a public accommodation must make an individualized assessment, based on reasonable judgment that relies on current medical knowledge or on the...

  10. 28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) In determining whether an individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, a public accommodation must make an individualized assessment, based on reasonable judgment that relies on current medical knowledge or on the...

  11. 28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) In determining whether an individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, a public accommodation must make an individualized assessment, based on reasonable judgment that relies on current medical knowledge or on the...

  12. 28 CFR 35.139 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities of that public entity when that individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) In determining whether an individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, a public entity must make an individualized assessment, based on reasonable judgment that relies on...

  13. 28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) In determining whether an individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, a public accommodation must make an individualized assessment, based on reasonable judgment that relies on current medical knowledge or on the...

  14. 28 CFR 35.139 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities of that public entity when that individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) In determining whether an individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, a public entity must make an individualized assessment, based on reasonable judgment that relies on...

  15. Cosmic Impacts: The DoomsDay Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaha, J.

    1998-07-01

    Recent science fiction movies (Deep Impact and Armageddon) have brought public attention to the threat of possible impacts from space. Just how real is this threat and what would be the consequences of such an impact? Can we do anything to prevent it? The survival of civilization may depend on it.

  16. Development of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pseekos, A. Chantelle; Dahlen, Eric R.; Levy, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the development and preliminary validation of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory, a self-report measurement of math-related stereotype threat among women. A preliminary version of the instrument was administered to 308 undergraduate women. Principal component analysis yielded a 3-factor solution. Convergent and…

  17. Shades of Threat: Racial Identity as a Moderator of Stereotype Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Claytie, III; Aronson, Joshua; Salinas, Moises

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated Black racial identity attitudes as a moderator of intellectual performance in potentially stereotype threatening situations. Ninety-eight African American students were randomly assigned to one of three stereotype threatening conditions: low threat, medium threat, or high threat. Analyses confirmed a stereotype threat…

  18. Inferences from counterfactual threats and promises.

    PubMed

    Egan, Suzanne M; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2012-01-01

    We examine how people understand and reason from counterfactual threats, for example, "if you had hit your sister, I would have grounded you" and counterfactual promises, for example, "if you had tidied your room, I would have given you ice-cream." The first experiment shows that people consider counterfactual threats, but not counterfactual promises, to have the illocutionary force of an inducement. They also make the immediate inference that the action mentioned in the "if" part of the counterfactual threat and promise did not occur. The second experiment shows that people make more negative inferences (modus tollens and denial of the antecedent) than affirmative inferences (modus ponens and affirmation of the consequent) from counterfactual threats and promises, unlike indicative threats and promises. We discuss the implications of the results for theories of the mental representations and cognitive processes that underlie conditional inducements. PMID:22580411

  19. Repeated threat (without harm) in a living environment potentiates defensive behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, D J; Anderson, B J

    2015-02-15

    Children exposed to neighborhood violence have higher rates of aggression, but it is unclear whether aggression is associated with threat, harm or the combination of factors. All animals, including humans, experience threat as they leave the safety of home and risk harm to gather resources (foraging). To better understand how selective environmental variables drive behavioral tendencies, we developed a semi-naturalistic living environment that includes the need to navigate across space to obtain resources. Rats were housed for three weeks in two tub cages, one with food and the other with water, both consistently available, but separated by a 91 cm long tunnel. After habituating for three days, half the rats (threat stress condition) received unpredictable threats (simultaneous puff of air with ferret dander, abrupt flash of light, and an abrupt sound) when crossing the central position of the tunnel (random order with p=0.25) for 21 days. During the manipulation, the threat stress rats crossed the tunnel less and exhibited risk assessment behaviors. After cessation of the treatment conditions, the threat stress group spent more time burying a rag with ferret dander odor and was more likely to bury, and spent more time burying a highly novel stimulus. There were no group differences in symptoms of depression, avoidance, or exploration. The results suggest that repeated threats without harm increase pre-emptive defense behaviors, a form of active coping, without affecting passive forms of coping. PMID:25446759

  20. External threat and the definition of deviance.

    PubMed

    Laudedale, P; Smith-Cunnien, P; Parker, J; Inverarity, J

    1984-05-01

    Research ( Lauderdale , 1976; Schachter , 1951) suggests that an external threat to a group can lead to the rejection of deviant members of the group and alteration of group communication patterns and solidarity. This study sought to extend those findings, integrate them with concepts from Simmel 's (1917/1955) work on group conflict, and link them to key issues in the societal reaction approach to deviant behavior. We examined the effect of variation in level of threat, the relationship between deviant status and nonconformity to the central task norm, the role of high-status actors in deviance designation, the relationship between rejection and negative definition of the deviant, and the effects of rejection and negative definition on group solidarity. Hypotheses were tested in an experimental design involving three conditions (strong threat, weak threat, and no threat). The results suggest that (a) the level of threat is directly related to the extent of rejection and negative definition, (b) nonconformity to the central task norm is not systematically related to deviant status, (c) high-status actors are more involved in the rejection of the deviant, (d) sociometric rejection of the deviant is accompanied by negative definition in the strong-threat condition, and (e) the level of group solidarity is related to the extent of rejection and negative definition. Implications of these findings are discussed relative to the societal reaction approach to deviant behavior and analogous processes in other social groups.

  1. Forecasting Lightning Threat Using WRF Proxy Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Given that high-resolution WRF forecasts can capture the character of convective outbreaks, we seek to: 1. Create WRF forecasts of LTG threat (1-24 h), based on 2 proxy fields from explicitly simulated convection: - graupel flux near -15 C (captures LTG time variability) - vertically integrated ice (captures LTG threat area). 2. Calibrate each threat to yield accurate quantitative peak flash rate densities. 3. Also evaluate threats for areal coverage, time variability. 4. Blend threats to optimize results. 5. Examine sensitivity to model mesh, microphysics. Methods: 1. Use high-resolution 2-km WRF simulations to prognose convection for a diverse series of selected case studies. 2. Evaluate graupel fluxes; vertically integrated ice (VII). 3. Calibrate WRF LTG proxies using peak total LTG flash rate densities from NALMA; relationships look linear, with regression line passing through origin. 4. Truncate low threat values to make threat areal coverage match NALMA flash extent density obs. 5. Blend proxies to achieve optimal performance 6. Study CAPS 4-km ensembles to evaluate sensitivities.

  2. Are all interventions created equal? A multi-threat approach to tailoring stereotype threat interventions.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jenessa R; Williams, Amy M; Hambarchyan, Mariam

    2013-02-01

    To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one's group-and self-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on one's own abilities. The present experiments explored Black college students' performance on diagnostic intelligence tests (Experiments 1 and 3) and women's interest (Experiment 2) and performance (Experiment 4) in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Across the 4 experiments, participants were randomly assigned to experience either a group-as-target or self-as-target stereotype threat. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that role model interventions were successful at protecting only against group-as-target stereotype threats, and Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that self-affirmation interventions were successful at protecting only against self-as-target stereotype threats. The present research provides an experimental test of the Multi-Threat Framework across different negatively stereotyped groups (Black students, female students), different negatively stereotyped domains (general intelligence, STEM), and different outcomes (test performance, career interest). This research suggests that interventions should address the range of possible stereotype threats to effectively protect individuals against these threats. Through an appreciation of the distinct forms of stereotype threats and the ways in which interventions work to reduce them, this research aims to facilitate a more complete understanding of stereotype threat.

  3. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  4. Insider threat to secure facilities: data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-09

    Three data sets drawn from industries that have experienced internal security breaches are analyzed. The industries and the insider security breaches are considered analogous in one or more respects to insider threats potentially confronting managers in the nuclear industry. The three data sets are: bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E), computer-related crime, and drug theft from drug manufacturers and distributors. A careful analysis by both descriptive and formal statistical techniques permits certain general conclusions on the internal threat to secure industries to be drawn. These conclusions are discussed and related to the potential insider threat in the nuclear industry. 49 tabs.

  5. Examining Perceived Stereotype Threat among Overweight/Obese Adults Using a Multi-Threat Framework

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A.; Domoff, Sarah E.; Burmeister, Jacob M.; Koball, Afton M.; Hinman, Nova G.; Davis, Alan K.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Leroy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Hoffmann, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group) and source (i.e., the self or others). This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. Method 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants’ mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18–64) years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5) kg/m2. Results Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI) and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat). Conclusion Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals’ susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes’ impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. PMID:23736227

  6. Advanced Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Larsen, Robert; O'Brien, Mike; Edmunds, Tom

    2009-02-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is an update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat. The postulated threat includes both abrupt and protracted theft scenarios. Presentation is envisioned to be through classroom instruction and discussion. Several practical and group exercises are included for demonstration and application of the analysis approach contained in the lecture/discussion sessions as applied to a hypothetical nuclear facility.

  7. Children's Threats: When Are They Serious?

    MedlinePlus

    ... TV shows, movies, music, magazines, comics, books, video games, and Internet sites mental illness, such as depression, ... others are concerned? When a child makes a serious threat it should not be dismissed as just ...

  8. Acid Rain: The Silent Environmental Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmud, Mia

    1992-01-01

    Describes the silent environmental threat posed by acid rain. Caused mainly by manmade pollutants, acid rain damages water and trees, decreases visibility, corrodes monuments, and threatens public health. The article includes guidelines for action. (SM)

  9. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - David Bruemmer, Curtis Nielsen

    2016-07-12

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

  10. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - David Bruemmer, Curtis Nielsen

    2008-05-29

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

  11. Encoding and reinstatement of threat: recognition potentials.

    PubMed

    Weymar, Mathias; Bradley, Margaret M; Hamm, Alfons O; Lang, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    On a recognition test, stimuli originally encoded in the context of shock threat show an enhanced late parietal positivity during later recognition compared to stimuli encoded during safety, particularly for emotionally arousing stimuli. The present study investigated whether this ERP old/new effect is further influenced when a threat context is reinstated during the recognition test. ERPs were measured in a yes-no recognition test for words rated high or low in emotional arousal that were encoded and recognized in the context of cues that signaled threat of shock or safety. Correct recognition of words encoded under threat, irrespective of reinstatement, was associated with an enhanced old-new ERP difference (500-700ms; centro-parietal), and this difference was only reliable for emotionally arousing words. Taken together, the data suggest that information processed in a stressful context are associated with better recollection on later recognition, an effect that was not modulated by reinstating the stressful context at retrieval.

  12. Childhood maltreatment and threats with weapons.

    PubMed

    Casiano, Hygiea; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between childhood maltreatment and future threats with weapons is unknown. We examined data from the nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 5692) and conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lifetime behavior of threatening others with a gun or other weapon. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing domestic violence were significantly associated with threats made with a gun (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] ranging between 3.38 and 4.07) and other weapons (AOR ranging between 2.16 and 2.83). The greater the number of types of maltreatment experienced, the stronger the association with lifetime threats made to others with guns and any weapons. Over 94% of respondents who experienced maltreatment and made threats reported that the maltreatment occurred prior to threatening others with weapons. Prevention efforts that reduce exposure to maltreatment may reduce violent behavior in later life.

  13. Hydrology: Indo-Gangetic groundwater threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendorf, Scott; Benner, Shawn G.

    2016-10-01

    Increasing groundwater extraction supports hundreds of millions of people across the Indo-Gangetic Basin. Data suggests that despite the increase in withdrawals, groundwater depletion is localized and the most widespread threat is contamination.

  14. Intergroup threat gates social attention in humans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujie; Zhao, Yufang

    2015-02-01

    Humans shift their attention to follow another person's gaze direction, a phenomenon called gaze cueing. This study examined whether a particular social factor, intergroup threat, modulates gaze cueing. As expected, stronger responses of a particular in-group to a threatening out-group were observed when the in-group, conditioned to perceive threat from one of two out-groups, was presented with facial stimuli from the threatening and non-threatening out-groups. These results suggest that intergroup threat plays an important role in shaping social attention. Furthermore, larger gaze-cueing effects were found for threatening out-group faces than for in-group faces only at the 200 ms but not the 800 ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA); the specificity of the gaze-cueing effects at the short SOA suggests that threat cues modulate the involuntary component of gaze cueing. PMID:25716090

  15. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  16. A resolution supporting enhanced maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea and encouraging increased cooperation between the United States and West and Central African countries to fight armed robbery at sea, piracy, and other maritime threats.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Flake, Jeff [R-AZ

    2013-11-06

    01/07/2014 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S81-82; text as passed Senate: CR S81-82) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  18. Advanced insider threat mitigation workshop instructional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Larsen, Robert; O Brien, Mike; Edmunds, Tom

    2008-11-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is a n update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios.

  19. Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

    1987-01-01

    An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

  20. An Information Fusion Framework for Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Justin M; Kerekes, Ryan A; Treadwell, Jim N

    2009-01-01

    Modern enterprises are becoming increasingly sensitive to the potential destructive power of small groups or individuals with malicious intent. In response, significant investments are being made in developing a means to assess the likelihood of certain threats to their enterprises. Threat assessment needs are typically focused in very specific application areas where current processes rely heavily on human analysis to both combine any available data and draw conclusions about the probability of a threat. A generic approach to threat assessment is proposed, including a threat taxonomy and decision-level information fusion framework, that provides a computational means for merging multi-modal data for the purpose of assessing the presence of a threat. The framework is designed for flexibility, and intentionally accounts for the accuracy of each data source, given the environmental conditions, in order to manage the uncertainty associated with any acquired data. The taxonomy and information fusion framework is described, and discussed in the context of real-world applications such as shipping container security and cyber security.

  1. Nuclear Threat Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuliasha, Michael

    2012-03-01

    The National Security Strategy states that the greatest threat to the American people is ``the pursuit of nuclear weapons by violent extremists and their proliferation to additional states.'' The Global Nuclear Detection Architecture (GNDA) addresses a key portion of that threat by focusing on detecting nuclear and radiological materials that are out of regulatory control within permissive operating environments. However, the force protection requirements of the Department of Defense (DoD) range across a wider mission space from permissive environments, where nuclear and radiological materials can be monitored while under regulatory control, to hostile environments where nuclear and radiological materials exist in defiance of international regulations and agreements. This wider range of operating environments and the inherent physics limitations on the range of radiation detection pose great challenges to radiation detection-focused approaches to nuclear threat detection. Consequently, DoD is in the process of defining an intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance approach to countering nuclear threats that considers the observable signatures of all elements that comprise a potential threat; information, funds, people, material, equipment, and infrastructure. This strategy represents a shift from radiation detection as the primary sensing modality to radiation detection as one of many sensing modalities, including the human dimension, with a heavy emphasis on data fusion. This presentation will describe the attributes of a layered sensing approach to nuclear threat detection, illustrate the approach with examples, define potential building blocks, and discuss technical challenges.

  2. Stereotype threat in the classroom: dejection mediates the disrupting threat effect on women's math performance.

    PubMed

    Keller, Johannes; Dauenheimer, Dirk

    2003-03-01

    Research on stereotype threat, which is defined as the risk of confirming a negative stereotypic expectation about one's group, has demonstrated that the applicability of negative stereotypes disrupts the performance of stigmatized social groups. While it has been shown that a reduction of stereotype threat leads to improved performance by members of stigmatized groups, there is a lack of clear-cut findings about the mediating processes. The aim of the present study is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms that stereotype threat causes in women working on mathematical problems. In addition, the study set out to test stereotype threat theory in a natural environment: high school classrooms. The experiment involved the manipulation of the gender fairness of a math test. The results indicate that the stereotype threat effect exists in this everyday setting. Moreover, it appears that dejection emotions mediate the effect of threat manipulation. PMID:15273014

  3. Are All Interventions Created Equal? A Multi-Threat Approach to Tailoring Stereotype Threat Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Jenessa R.; Williams, Amy M.; Hambarchyan, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one’s group—and self-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on one’s own abilities. The present experiments explored Black college students’ performance on diagnostic intelligence tests (Experiments 1 and 3) and women’s interest (Experiment 2) and performance (Experiment 4) in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Across the 4 experiments, participants were randomly assigned to experience either a group-as-target or self-as-target stereotype threat. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that role model interventions were successful at protecting only against group-as-target stereotype threats, and Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that self-affirmation interventions were successful at protecting only against self-as-target stereotype threats. The present research provides an experimental test of the Multi-Threat Framework across different negatively stereotyped groups (Black students, female students), different negatively stereotyped domains (general intelligence, STEM), and different outcomes (test performance, career interest). This research suggests that interventions should address the range of possible stereotype threats to effectively protect individuals against these threats. Through an appreciation of the distinct forms of stereotype threats and the ways in which interventions work to reduce them, this research aims to facilitate a more complete understanding of stereotype threat. PMID:23088232

  4. 49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... check conducted by TSA. (2) A security threat assessment conducted under 49 CFR part 1572 for the... Assistant Program Manager, Attn: Federal Agency Comparability Check, Hazmat Threat Assessment...

  5. 49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... check conducted by TSA. (2) A security threat assessment conducted under 49 CFR part 1572 for the... Assistant Program Manager, Attn: Federal Agency Comparability Check, Hazmat Threat Assessment...

  6. 49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... check conducted by TSA. (2) A security threat assessment conducted under 49 CFR part 1572 for the... Assistant Program Manager, Attn: Federal Agency Comparability Check, Hazmat Threat Assessment...

  7. Threat inoculation: experienced and imagined intergenerational contact prevents stereotype threat effects on older people's math performance.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Dominic; Crisp, Richard J; Marques, Sibila; Fagg, Emily; Bedford, Lauren; Provias, Dimitri

    2008-12-01

    The authors hypothesized that experienced and imagined intergenerational contact should improve older people's math test performance under stereotype threat. In Experiment 1 (N=51, mean age=69 years), positive prior contact with grandchildren eliminated stereotype threat, which was mediated partially by reduced test-related anxiety. In Experiment 2 (N=84, mean age=72 years), the effect of threat on performance was significantly improved when participants merely imagined intergenerational contact, a situation again mediated by reduced anxiety. Previous research established that intergroup contact improves intergroup attitudes. The findings show that intergroup (intergenerational) contact also provides a defense against stereotype threat.

  8. Applications Using AIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  9. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. PMID:25461063

  10. Stereotype threat affects financial decision making.

    PubMed

    Carr, Priyanka B; Steele, Claude M

    2010-10-01

    The research presented in this article provides the first evidence that one's decision making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one's identity. Many studies document gender differences in decision making, and often attribute these differences to innate and stable factors, such as biological and hormonal differences. In three studies, we found that stereotype threat affected decision making and led to gender differences in loss-aversion and risk-aversion behaviors. In Study 1, women subjected to stereotype threat in academic and business settings were more loss averse than both men and women who were not facing the threat of being viewed in light of negative stereotypes. We found no gender differences in loss-aversion behavior in the absence of stereotype threat. In Studies 2a and 2b, we found the same pattern of effects for risk-aversion behavior that we had observed for loss-aversion behavior. In addition, in Study 2b, ego depletion mediated the effects of stereotype threat on women's decision making. These results suggest that individuals' decision making can be influenced by stereotype concerns. PMID:20855899

  11. Stereotype threat affects financial decision making.

    PubMed

    Carr, Priyanka B; Steele, Claude M

    2010-10-01

    The research presented in this article provides the first evidence that one's decision making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one's identity. Many studies document gender differences in decision making, and often attribute these differences to innate and stable factors, such as biological and hormonal differences. In three studies, we found that stereotype threat affected decision making and led to gender differences in loss-aversion and risk-aversion behaviors. In Study 1, women subjected to stereotype threat in academic and business settings were more loss averse than both men and women who were not facing the threat of being viewed in light of negative stereotypes. We found no gender differences in loss-aversion behavior in the absence of stereotype threat. In Studies 2a and 2b, we found the same pattern of effects for risk-aversion behavior that we had observed for loss-aversion behavior. In addition, in Study 2b, ego depletion mediated the effects of stereotype threat on women's decision making. These results suggest that individuals' decision making can be influenced by stereotype concerns.

  12. Ballistics examination of air rifle.

    PubMed

    Bogiel, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination. PMID:25184422

  13. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  14. Epidemiology today: Mitigating threats to an ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems comprise all the living and non-living things in a particular area (e.g., rain forest, desert), which interact and maintain equilibrium. Loss of equilibrium (e.g., clear-cutting trees in a rain forest) can mean the decline of the ecosystem, unless it is able to adapt to the new circumstances. The term "knowledge ecosystem" describes an approach to managing knowledge in a particular field; the components of this system include the people, the technological skills and resources, and information or data. Epidemiology can be thought of as a knowledge ecosystem and, like ecological systems, its existence can be threatened, from both internal and external forces that may alter its equilibrium. This paper describes some threats to the epidemiology knowledge ecosystem, how these threats came about, and what responses we can make that may serve to mitigate those threats. PMID:27348106

  15. On the special status of "ego threats".

    PubMed

    Schotte, D E

    1992-05-01

    This article comments on a recent article by Heatherton, Herman, and Polivy (1991) in which they suggest that ego threats are a prerequisite to affectively induced disinhibition of food intake in restrained eaters and current dieters. In contrast, the present review suggests that mood induction procedures that involve no apparent threat (e.g., viewing a frightening film) can also prompt disinhibition in restrained eaters. Thus, any mood induction procedure that does not directly physically threaten the S may disinhibit restrained eaters. It is concluded that recommendations to focus future research on ego threats are premature and may serve to obscure the mechanisms by which changes in affective state influence food intake in dieters. PMID:1507070

  16. Threat detection, precautionary responses, and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Nesse, Randolph M

    2011-03-01

    Study of the anxiety disorders may be a particularly useful vehicle for demonstrating how foundational sciences (e.g. cognitive-affective neuroscience, evolutionary psychology) can advance psychiatric theory and research. Here we consider important potential advances and remaining future challenges when basic research on threat detection and precautionary responses is used to address the anxiety disorders. We emphasize the potential value of a model of threat detection and precautionary responses that integrates cognitive-affective neuroscience and evolutionary approaches for understanding the anxiety disorders. However, we also suggest that substantial additional work is needed in order to link systematically the psychobiological mechanisms posited by basic work on threat detection and precautionary responses to the complex phenomena seen in the clinic. PMID:21147162

  17. Insider Threat Assessment: Model, Analysis and Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinchani, Ramkumar; Ha, Duc; Iyer, Anusha; Ngo, Hung Q.; Upadhyaya, Shambhu

    Insider threat is typically attributed to legitimate users who maliciously leverage their system privileges, and familiarity and proximity to their computational environment to compromise valuable information or inflict damage. According to the annual CSI/FBI surveys conducted since 1996, internal attacks and insider abuse form a significant portion of reported incidents. The strongest indication yet that insider threat is very real is given by the recent study [2] jointly conducted by CERT and the US Secret Service; the first of its kind, which provides an in-depth insight into the problem in a real-world setting. However, there is no known body of work which addresses this problem effectively. There are several challenges, beginning with understanding the threat.

  18. [The threat of snake and scorpion venoms].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz; Smędzik, Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Venoms of snakes and scorpions pose a significant threat to the health and life of humans. The speed and range of their actions causes damage of the organ responsible for the maintenance of vital signs. Venomous snake venoms cause blood clotting disorders, tissue necrosis and hemolysis, and the release of a number of proinflammatory cytokines and impair antibody synthesis. Availability of antitoxins is limited and in the most cases supportive treatment is recommended. In turn, the venom of scorpions beside intestinal symptoms cause significant impairment of neuromuscular conduction, causing severe respiratory disorders. Action venom poses a particular threat to sensitive patients. The degree of threat to life caused by the venom of snakes and scorpions authorizes the treatment of these substances as a potential biological weapon. PMID:26449581

  19. 49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fees for security threat assessment. 1540.209...: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.209 Fees for security threat assessment. This section describes the payment process for completion of the security threat assessments required under this...

  20. 49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fees for security threat assessment. 1540.209...: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.209 Fees for security threat assessment. This section describes the payment process for completion of the security threat assessments required under this...

  1. Bioterrorism: is it a real threat?

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, René; Preiser, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    The Geneva Protocol of 1925 commits the signatory nations to refraining from the use of biological weapons. However, the terrorist assaults of September 2001 and, subsequently, the anthrax-containing letters are cause for great concerns: new threats to the security of nations are expected, as terrorist organizations seem to increasingly explore novel ways of spreading terror. In this context, naturally emerging diseases such as SARS, monkeypox or West Nile fever assume new importance because it is difficult to distinguish between natural epidemics and possible bioweapon assaults. Great efforts on the part of governments and public health authorities are necessary to counteract these threats. PMID:15349775

  2. [Assessing adolescents with school massacre threats].

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Nina; Sailas, Eila; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-01-01

    School massacres have increased pressure on health-care authorities for assessing risk for severe violence. In acute situations, threat analysis focuses at thought processes and actions of adolescents presenting threat of violence, in order to assess to which extent the adolescent has progressed from thoughts to actions. Because of great variability in aggressive behavior, separate interventions for individual, family and other developmental surroundings are often needed. Structured risk-assessment in special health care is aimed for conducting decision making towards risk reduction and adequate help for adolescents at risk. PMID:24069639

  3. 49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does an operator identify potential threats to....917 How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat identification in its integrity program? (a) Threat identification. An operator must identify and evaluate...

  4. 49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does an operator identify potential threats to....917 How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat identification in its integrity program? (a) Threat identification. An operator must identify and evaluate...

  5. 49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does an operator identify potential threats to....917 How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat identification in its integrity program? (a) Threat identification. An operator must identify and evaluate...

  6. Defensive activation to (un)predictable interoceptive threat: The NPU respiratory threat test (NPUr).

    PubMed

    Schroijen, Mathias; Fantoni, Simona; Rivera, Carmen; Vervliet, Bram; Schruers, Koen; van den Bergh, Omer; van Diest, Ilse

    2016-06-01

    Potentially life-threatening interoceptive sensations easily engage the behavioral defensive system. Resulting fear and anxiety toward interoceptive threat are functionally distinct states that are hypothesized to play a prominent role in the etiology of panic disorder. The present study aimed to investigate whether fear- and anxiety-potentiated startle responses occur to predictable and unpredictable interoceptive threat, respectively. Therefore, we modified the NPU threat test (Schmitz & Grillon, ) and replaced the aversive electrocutaneous stimulus with an aversive interoceptive stimulus (a breathing occlusion, making it briefly impossible to breathe). Healthy participants (N = 48) underwent three instructed conditions. A visual cue signaled the occlusion in the predictable condition (P), whereas another cue was unrelated to the occurrence of the occlusion in the unpredictable condition (U). The safe condition (N) also had a visual cue, but no occlusion. Both fear- and anxiety-potentiated startle blink responses were observed in response to predictable and unpredictable respiratory threat, respectively. The current study presents and validates the NPU respiratory threat test (NPUr) as an ecologically valid paradigm to study both anxiety and fear in response to a panic-relevant interoceptive threat. The paradigm allows future testing of contextual generalization, investigation of different clinical groups, and more explicit comparisons of defensive responding to interoceptive versus exteroceptive threats.

  7. Defensive activation to (un)predictable interoceptive threat: The NPU respiratory threat test (NPUr).

    PubMed

    Schroijen, Mathias; Fantoni, Simona; Rivera, Carmen; Vervliet, Bram; Schruers, Koen; van den Bergh, Omer; van Diest, Ilse

    2016-06-01

    Potentially life-threatening interoceptive sensations easily engage the behavioral defensive system. Resulting fear and anxiety toward interoceptive threat are functionally distinct states that are hypothesized to play a prominent role in the etiology of panic disorder. The present study aimed to investigate whether fear- and anxiety-potentiated startle responses occur to predictable and unpredictable interoceptive threat, respectively. Therefore, we modified the NPU threat test (Schmitz & Grillon, ) and replaced the aversive electrocutaneous stimulus with an aversive interoceptive stimulus (a breathing occlusion, making it briefly impossible to breathe). Healthy participants (N = 48) underwent three instructed conditions. A visual cue signaled the occlusion in the predictable condition (P), whereas another cue was unrelated to the occurrence of the occlusion in the unpredictable condition (U). The safe condition (N) also had a visual cue, but no occlusion. Both fear- and anxiety-potentiated startle blink responses were observed in response to predictable and unpredictable respiratory threat, respectively. The current study presents and validates the NPU respiratory threat test (NPUr) as an ecologically valid paradigm to study both anxiety and fear in response to a panic-relevant interoceptive threat. The paradigm allows future testing of contextual generalization, investigation of different clinical groups, and more explicit comparisons of defensive responding to interoceptive versus exteroceptive threats. PMID:26879710

  8. Threat captures attention, but not automatically: Top-down goals modulate attentional orienting to threat distractors.

    PubMed

    Vromen, Joyce M G; Lipp, Ottmar V; Remington, Roger W; Becker, Stefanie I

    2016-10-01

    The rapid orienting of attention to potential threats has been proposed to proceed outside of top-down control. However, paradigms that have been used to investigate this have struggled to separate the rapid orienting of attention (i.e. capture) from the later disengagement of focal attention that may be subject to top-down control. Consequently, it remains unclear whether and to what extent orienting to threat is contingent on top-down goals. The current study manipulated the goal-relevance of threat distractors (spiders), whilst a strict top-down attentional set was encouraged by presenting the saliently colored target and the threat distracter simultaneously for a limited time. The goal-relevance of threatening distractors was manipulated by including a spider amongst the possible target stimuli (Experiment 1: spider/cat targets) or excluding it (Experiment 2: bird/fish targets). Orienting and disengagement were disentangled by cueing attention away from or towards the threat prior to its onset. The results indicated that the threatening spider distractors elicited rapid orienting of attention when spiders were potentially goal-relevant (Experiment 1) but did so much less when they were irrelevant to the task goal (Experiment 2). Delayed disengagement from the threat distractors was even more strongly contingent on the task goal and occurred only when a spider was a possible target. These results highlight the role of top-down goals in attentional orienting to and disengagement from threat. PMID:27234013

  9. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    PubMed

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread.

  10. The Threat Index: A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigdon, Michael A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The Threat Index (TI), theoretically based on George Kelly's personal construct theory, was developed as a measure of death orientation. Outlines the emerging reliability and validity picture. The aim is to give direction to future TI research by summarizing and critically evaluating the currently available data. (Author)

  11. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    PubMed

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  12. Preempting Threats with a Sound School Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stader, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Administrators should regard each student threat as legitimate, but need flexibility in how they respond. Getting the facts and following due process are essential. School policy should require that students be referred to law-enforcement officials and specify communication, crisis-management, identification, and preventive/proactive procedures.…

  13. The silent threat of low genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    Across the Caribbean, protected coastal waters have served as primary feeding and breeding grounds for the endangered Antillean manatee. Unfortunately, these same coastal waters are also a popular “habitat” for humans. In the past, the overlap between human and manatee habitat allowed for manatee hunting and threatened the survival of these gentle marine mammals. Today, however, threats are much more inadvertent and are often related to coastal development, degraded habitats and boat strikes. In the state of Florida, decades of research on the species’ biological needs have helped conservationists address threats to its survival. For example, low wake zones and boater education have protected manatees from boat strikes, and many of their critical winter refuges are now protected. The Florida population has grown steadily, thus increasing from approximately 1,200 in 1991 to more than 5,000 in 2010. It is conceivable that in Florida manatees may one day be reclassified as “threatened” rather than “endangered.” Yet, in other parts of the Caribbean, threats still loom. This includes small, isolated manatee populations found on islands that can be more susceptible to extinction and lack of genetic diversity. To ensure the species’ long-term viability, scientists have turned their sights to the overall population dynamics of manatees throughout the Caribbean. Molecular genetics has provided new insights into long-term threats the species faces. Fortunately, the emerging field of conservation genetics provides managers with tools and strategies for protecting the species’ long-term viability.

  14. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Paini, Dean R.; Sheppard, Andy W.; Cook, David C.; De Barro, Paul J.; Worner, Susan P.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  15. The Asteroid Impact Threat: Decisions Upcoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweickart, Russell L.

    The asteroid impact threat has likely been constant for the past three billion years. What has accelerated is our knowledge of the impact hazard, and in particular the population of near- Earth objects (NEOs), those asteroids and near-Earth comets whose orbits approach or cross that of the Earth. In the next 10-15 years we will know the orbits of over 300,000 NEOs of a size capable of destroying a major city on impact. Based on current data 97 Given that a NEO deflection campaign can be initiated using existing space technology the international community will shortly be confronted with the decision of whether action should be taken, when it should be taken and who should take such action. The Association of Space Explorers (ASE)* and its Panel on Asteroid Threat Mitigation is currently concluding a two year process leading to a recommended decision program on asteroid threat mitigation that will be submitted to the United Nations in 2009. UN member states will soon be looking to the scientific community for their inputs on this matter. This presentation is intended to provide basic information on the NEO threat and our ability to take preventive action, anticipating an increasing demand for scientific opinion on this issue from international political institutions. (*) The Association of Space Explorers is the profession international organization of astronauts and cosmonauts. See www.space-explorers.org.

  16. Shape threat detection via adaptive computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudi, Ahmad; Thamvichai, Ratchaneekorn; Neifeld, Mark A.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is used widely for screening purposes. Conventional x-ray threat detection systems employ image reconstruction and segmentation algorithms prior to making threat/no-threat decisions. We find that in many cases these pre-processing steps can degrade detection performance. Therefore in this work we will investigate methods that operate directly on the CT measurements. We analyze a fixed-gantry system containing 25 x-ray sources and 2200 photon counting detectors. We present a new method for improving threat detection performance. This new method is a so-called greedy adaptive algorithm which at each time step uses information from previous measurements to design the next measurement. We utilize sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) in order to derive both the optimal "next measurement" and the stopping criterion to insure a target probability of error Pe. We find that selecting the next x-ray source according to such a greedy adaptive algorithm, we can reduce Pe by a factor of 42.4× relative to the conventional measurement sequence employing all 25 sources in sequence.

  17. Computer Security-Risks, Threats, and Safeguards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    2001-01-01

    Describes a variety of Internet threats to computers and networks used in schools. Discusses electronic trashing; clearing hard drives; cyber spying on Web sites visited; protection against cyber spying, including disposable email accounts; password sniffers; privacy policies; email snooping; email attachments that carry viruses; and hoaxes. (LRW)

  18. Diversity, Racial Threat and Metropolitan Housing Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that as the percent black or percent Hispanic grows, that group's residential segregation from whites tends to increase as well. Typically, these findings are explained in terms of white discriminatory reaction to the perceived threat associated with minority population growth. The present analysis examines whether…

  19. Threats and countermeasures for network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

  20. The Threat Index: An Additive Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Paul J.; Wood, Keith

    1985-01-01

    Examined the effects of actualization and integration on death anxiety in 120 students who completed the Threat Index, Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale, and Templer Death Anxiety Scale. Results provided clear evidence that actualization and integration have an additive effect on death fear and anxiety. (JAC)

  1. The Nature of the Terrorism Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how Bruce Hoffman and Marc Sageman, two prominent scholars of terrorism, square off over whether Al Qaeda remains the primary global terrorist threat. The dispute began in the pages of "Foreign Affairs," where Hoffman, a professor in the security-studies program at Georgetown University, wrote a withering review of Sageman's…

  2. Using the Threat Probability Task to Assess Anxiety and Fear During Uncertain and Certain Threat

    PubMed Central

    Korhumel, Rachel A.; Curtin, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Fear of certain threat and anxiety about uncertain threat are distinct emotions with unique behavioral, cognitive-attentional, and neuroanatomical components. Both anxiety and fear can be studied in the laboratory by measuring the potentiation of the startle reflex. The startle reflex is a defensive reflex that is potentiated when an organism is threatened and the need for defense is high. The startle reflex is assessed via electromyography (EMG) in the orbicularis oculi muscle elicited by brief, intense, bursts of acoustic white noise (i.e., “startle probes”). Startle potentiation is calculated as the increase in startle response magnitude during presentation of sets of visual threat cues that signal delivery of mild electric shock relative to sets of matched cues that signal the absence of shock (no-threat cues). In the Threat Probability Task, fear is measured via startle potentiation to high probability (100% cue-contingent shock; certain) threat cues whereas anxiety is measured via startle potentiation to low probability (20% cue-contingent shock; uncertain) threat cues. Measurement of startle potentiation during the Threat Probability Task provides an objective and easily implemented alternative to assessment of negative affect via self-report or other methods (e.g., neuroimaging) that may be inappropriate or impractical for some researchers. Startle potentiation has been studied rigorously in both animals (e.g., rodents, non-human primates) and humans which facilitates animal-to-human translational research. Startle potentiation during certain and uncertain threat provides an objective measure of negative affective and distinct emotional states (fear, anxiety) to use in research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse and broadly in affective science. As such, it has been used extensively by clinical scientists interested in psychopathology etiology and by affective scientists interested in individual differences in emotion. PMID:25285398

  3. Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H; Roche, Charles T

    2011-01-01

    The technical objectives of nuclear safeguards are (1) the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown and (2) the deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards and security program must address both outsider threats and insider threats. Outsider threats are primarily addressed by the physical protection system. Insider threats can be any level of personnel at the site including passive or active insiders that could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion. This could occur by an individual acting alone or by collusion between an individual with material control and accountability (MC&A) responsibilities and another individual who has responsibility or control within both the physical protection and the MC&A systems. The insider threat is one that must be understood and incorporated into the safeguards posture. There have been more than 18 documented cases of theft or loss of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. The insider has access, authority, and knowledge, as well as a set of attributes, that make him/her difficult to detect. An integrated safeguards program is designed as a defense-in-depth system that seeks to prevent the unauthorized removal of nuclear material, to provide early detection of any unauthorized attempt to remove nuclear material, and to rapidly respond to any attempted removal of nuclear material. The program is also designed to support protection against sabotage, espionage, unauthorized access, compromise, and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security, program continuity, the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment. Nuclear MC&A play an essential role in the capabilities of an integrated safeguards system to deter and detect theft or diversion of nuclear material. An integrated safeguards system with

  4. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  5. Sexual harassment under social identity threat: the computer harassment paradigm.

    PubMed

    Maass, Anne; Cadinu, Mara; Guarnieri, Gaia; Grasselli, Annalisa

    2003-11-01

    Two laboratory experiments investigated the hypothesis that threat to male identity would increase the likelihood of gender harassment. In both experiments, using the computer harassment paradigm, male university students (N=80 in Experiment 1, N=90 in Experiment 2) were exposed to different types of identity threat (legitimacy threat and threat to group value in Experiment 1 and distinctiveness threat and prototypicality threat in Experiment 2) or to no threat and were then given the opportunity to send pornographic material to a virtual female interaction partner. Results show that (a) participants harassed the female interaction partner more when they were exposed to a legitimacy, distinctiveness, or prototypicality threat than to no threat; (b) this was mainly true for highly identified males; and (c) harassment enhanced postexperimental gender identification. Results are interpreted as supporting a social identity account of gender harassment.

  6. A threat in the computer: the race implicit association test as a stereotype threat experience.

    PubMed

    Frantz, Cynthia M; Cuddy, Amy J C; Burnett, Molly; Ray, Heidi; Hart, Allen

    2004-12-01

    Three experiments test whether the threat of appearing racist leads White participants to perform worse on the race Implicit Association Test (IAT) and whether self-affirmation can protect from this threat. Experiments 1 and 2 suggest that White participants show a stereotype threat effect when completing the race IAT, leading to stronger pro-White scores when the test is believed to be diagnostic of racism. This effect increases for domain-identified (highly motivated to control prejudice) participants (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, self-affirmation inoculates participants against stereotype threat while taking the race IAT. These findings have methodological implications for use of the race IAT and theoretical implications concerning the malleability of automatic prejudice and the potential interpersonal effects of the fear of appearing racist.

  7. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  8. Insider Threat and Information Security Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles-Kemp, Lizzie; Theoharidou, Marianthi

    The notion of insider has multiple facets. An organization needs to identify which ones to respond to. The selection, implementetion and maintenance of information security countermeasures requires a complex combination of organisational policies, functions and processes, which form Information Security Management. This chapter examines the role of current information security management practices in addressing the insider threat. Most approaches focus on frameworks for regulating insider behaviour and do not allow for the various cultural responses to the regulatory and compliance framework. Such responses are not only determined by enforcement of policies and awareness programs, but also by various psychological and organisational factors at an individual or group level. Crime theories offer techniques that focus on such cultural responses and can be used to enhance the information security management design. The chapter examines the applicability of several crime theories and concludes that they can contribute in providing additional controls and redesign of information security management processes better suited to responding to the insider threat.

  9. The Concept of Identification in Threat Assessment.

    PubMed

    Meloy, J Reid; Mohandie, Kris; Knoll, James L; Hoffmann, Jens

    2015-06-01

    Identification is one of eight warning behaviors--superordinate patterns of accelerating risk--that are theorized to correlate with targeted violence, and have some empirical validation. It is characterized by one or more of five characteristics: pseudo-commando behavior, evidence of a warrior mentality, a close association with weapons or other military or law enforcement paraphernalia, wanting to imitate and often surmount previous attackers or assassins, or believing oneself to be an agent to advance a particular cause or belief system. The authors briefly explore the history of the psychology of identification, its current usage, and its application to threat assessment. Four cases are used to illustrate identification as both a process and a product, and a likely motive for targeted violence in some subjects. Its operational relevance for threat assessment is suggested. PMID:25728417

  10. Nursing science: more promise than threat.

    PubMed

    Jennings, B M

    1986-09-01

    This paper considers the issue of nursing science. Nursing, as an art, has long been accepted as integral to nursing. Nursing, as a science, however, is a more recent concept. Nursing science is viewed as a threat to the profession by its opponents, while the proponents of nursing science see it as a promise for advancement of the discipline. This paper examines the issue of nursing science by looking at its history and development, the definition of science, and five factors critical to the nursing science issue. The author concludes that nursing science is, in varying respects, both a threat and a promise. It is clear that the preponderance of evidence favours the promise nursing science holds for the profession of nursing. It is not a matter of choosing either art or science, but rather skillfully blending both for the betterment of nursing. Both art and science are necessary in nursing--neither, however, is sufficient.

  11. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

    2009-03-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  12. Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

  13. Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, Terry

    2010-04-01

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

  14. EPR Severe Accident Threats and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Azarian, G.; Kursawe, H.M.; Nie, M.; Fischer, M.; Eyink, J.; Stoudt, R.H.

    2004-07-01

    Despite the extremely low EPR core melt frequency, an improved defence-in-depth approach is applied in order to comply with the EPR safety target: no stringent countermeasures should be necessary outside the immediate plant vicinity like evacuation, relocation or food control other than the first harvest in case of a severe accident. Design provisions eliminate energetic events and maintain the containment integrity and leak-tightness during the entire course of the accident. Based on scenarios that cover a broad range of physical phenomena and which provide a sound envelope of boundary conditions associated with each containment challenge, a selection of representative loads has been done, for which mitigation measures have to cope with. This paper presents the main critical threats and the approach used to mitigate those threats. (authors)

  15. Climate change and global infectious disease threats.

    PubMed

    Jackson, E K

    The world's climate is warming up and, while debate continues about how much change we can expect, it is becoming clear that even small changes in climate can have major effects on the spread of disease. Erwin K Jackson, a member of Greenpeace International's Climate Impacts Unit and a delegate to the 11th session of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Rome, 11-15 December), reviews the scientific evidence of this new global threat to health.

  16. Matrix Characterization in Threat Material Detection Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Valkovic, V.

    2009-03-10

    Matrix characterization in the threat material detection is of utmost importance, it generates the background against which the threat material signal has to be identified. Threat materials (explosive, chemical warfare, ...) are usually contained within small volume inside large volumes of variable matrices. We have studied the influence of matrix materials on the capability of neutron systems to identify hidden threat material. Three specific scenarios are considered in some details: case 1--contraband material in the sea containers, case 2 - explosives in soil (landmines), case 3 - explosives and chemical warfare on the sea bottom. Effects of container cargo material on tagged neutron system are seen in the increase of gamma background and the decrease of neutron beam intensity. Detection of landmines is more complex because of variable soil properties. We have studied in detail space and time variations of soil elemental compositions and in particular hydrogen content (humidity). Of special interest are ammunitions and chemical warfare on the sea bottom, damping sites and leftovers from previous conflicts (WW-I, WW-II and local). In this case sea sediment is background source and its role is similar to the role of the soil in the landmine detection. In addition to geochemical cycling of chemical elements in semi-enclosed sea, like the Adriatic Sea, one has to consider also anthropogenic influence, especially when studying small scale variations in concentration levels. Some preliminary experimental results obtained with tagged neutron sensor inside an underwater vehicle are presented as well as data on sediment characterization by X-Ray Fluorescence.

  17. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  18. Nonproliferation, Nuclear Security, and the Insider Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya I.; Duggan, Ruth

    2012-07-12

    Insider threat concept is evolving and getting more attention: (1) Domestically, internationally and in foreign countries, (2) At the government, academia, and industry levels, and (3) Public awareness and concerns are also growing. Negligence can be an insider's action. Technology advancements provide more opportunities, new tools for the insider. Our understanding of the insider is shaped by our cultural, social and ethnic perceptions and traditions. They also can limit our recognition of the issues and response actions.

  19. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: ORGANIC AIR EMISSIONS FROM WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organic chemicals contained in wastes processed during waste management operations can volatilize into the atmosphere and cause toxic or carcinogenic effects or contribute to ozone formation. Because air emissions from waste management operations pose a threat to human health...

  20. Mere effort and stereotype threat performance effects.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G

    2007-10-01

    Although the fact that stereotype threat impacts performance is well established, the underlying process(es) is(are) not clear. Recently, T. Schmader and M. Johns (2003) argued for a working memory interference account, which proposes that performance suffers because cognitive resources are expended on processing information associated with negative stereotypes. The antisaccade task provides a vehicle to test this account because optimal performance requires working memory resources to inhibit the tendency to look at an irrelevant, peripheral cue (the prepotent response) and to generate volitional saccades to the target. If stereotype threat occupies working memory resources, then the ability to inhibit the prepotent response and to launch volitional saccades will be impaired, and performance will suffer. In contrast, S. Harkins's (2006) mere effort account argues that stereotype threat participants are motivated to perform well, which potentiates the prepotent response, but also leads to efforts to counter this tendency if participants recognize that the response is incorrect, know the correct response, and have the opportunity to make it. Results from 4 experiments support the mere effort but not the working memory interference account.

  1. Toddlers’ Duration of Attention towards Putative Threat

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2010-01-01

    Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk for developing anxious behavior, toddlers’ attention towards a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined how attention towards an angry-looking gorilla mask in a room with alternative opportunities for play in 24-month-old toddlers predicted social inhibition when children entered kindergarten. Analyses examined attention to threat above and beyond and in interaction with both proximity to the mask and fear of novelty observed in other situations. Attention to threat interacted with proximity to the mask to predict social inhibition, such that attention to threat most strongly predicted social inhibition when toddlers stayed furthest from the mask. This relation occurred above and beyond the predictive relation between fear of novelty and social inhibition. Results are discussed within the broader literature of anxiety development and attentional processes in young children. PMID:21373365

  2. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  3. Posterror speeding after threat-detection failure.

    PubMed

    Caudek, Corrado; Ceccarini, Francesco; Sica, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive control enables individuals to rapidly adapt to changing task demands. To investigate error-driven adjustments in cognitive control, we considered performance changes in posterror trials, when participants performed a visual search task requiring detection of angry, happy, or neutral facial expressions in crowds of faces. We hypothesized that the failure to detect a potential threat (angry face) would prompt a different posterror adjustment than the failure to detect a nonthreatening target (happy or neutral face). Indeed, in 3 sets of experiments, we found evidence of posterror speeding, in the first case, and of posterror slowing, in the second case. Previous results indicate that a threatening stimulus can improve the efficiency of visual search. The results of the present study show that a similar effect can also be observed when participants fail to detect a threat. The impact of threat-detection failure on cognitive control, as revealed by the present study, suggests that posterror adjustments should be understood as the product of domain-specific mechanisms that are strongly influenced by affective information, rather than as the effect of a general-purpose error-monitoring system.

  4. Cyber threat model for tactical radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdziel, Michael T.

    2014-05-01

    The shift to a full information-centric paradigm in the battlefield has allowed ConOps to be developed that are only possible using modern network communications systems. Securing these Tactical Networks without impacting their capabilities has been a challenge. Tactical networks with fixed infrastructure have similar vulnerabilities to their commercial counterparts (although they need to be secure against adversaries with greater capabilities, resources and motivation). However, networks with mobile infrastructure components and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANets) have additional unique vulnerabilities that must be considered. It is useful to examine Tactical Network based ConOps and use them to construct a threat model and baseline cyber security requirements for Tactical Networks with fixed infrastructure, mobile infrastructure and/or ad hoc modes of operation. This paper will present an introduction to threat model assessment. A definition and detailed discussion of a Tactical Network threat model is also presented. Finally, the model is used to derive baseline requirements that can be used to design or evaluate a cyber security solution that can be scaled and adapted to the needs of specific deployments.

  5. Stereotype threat reinterpreted as a regulatory mismatch.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Lisa R; Markman, Arthur B; Maddox, W Todd; Baldwin, Grant C

    2009-02-01

    This research documents performance decrements resulting from the activation of a negative task-relevant stereotype. The authors combine a number of strands of work to identify causes of stereotype threat in a way that allows them to reverse the effects and improve the performance of individuals with negative task-relevant stereotypes. The authors draw on prior work suggesting that negative stereotypes induce a prevention focus and on other research suggesting that people exhibit greater flexibility when their regulatory focus matches the reward structure of the task. This work suggests that stereotype threat effects emerge from a prevention focus combined with tasks that have an explicit or implicit gains reward structure. The authors find flexible performance can be induced in individuals who have a negative task-relevant stereotype by use of a losses reward structure. The authors demonstrate the interaction of stereotypes and the reward structure of the task with chronic stereotypes and Graduate Record Examination math problems (Experiment 1), and with primed stereotypes and a category learning task (Experiments 2A and 2B). The authors discuss implications of this research for other work on stereotype threat.

  6. Bot armies as threats to network security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

    2007-04-01

    "Botnets", or "bot armies", are large groups of remotely controlled malicious software. Bot armies pose one of the most serious security threats to all networks. Botnets, remotely controlled and operated by botmasters or botherders, can launch massive denial of service attacks, multiple penetration attacks, or any other malicious network activity on a massive scale. While bot army activity has, in the past, been limited to fraud, blackmail, and other forms of criminal activity, their potential for causing large-scale damage to the entire internet; for launching large-scale, coordinated attacks on government computers and networks; and for large-scale, coordinated data gathering from thousands of users and computers on any network has been underestimated. This paper will not discuss how to build bots but the threats they pose. In a "botnet" or "bot army", computers can be used to spread spam, launch denial-of-service attacks against Web sites, conduct fraudulent activities, and prevent authorized network traffic from traversing the network. In this paper we discuss botnets and the technologies that underlie this threat to network and computer security. The first section motivates the need for improved protection against botnets, their technologies, and for further research about botnets. The second contains background information about bot armies and their key underlying technologies. The third section presents a discussion of the types of attacks that botnets can conduct and potential defenses against them. The fourth section contains a summary and suggestions for future research and development.

  7. Culture, Threat, and Mental Illness Stigma: Identifying Culture-Specific Threat among Chinese-American Groups

    PubMed Central

    Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G.; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C.

    2014-01-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one’s family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002–2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. PMID:23702210

  8. Culture, threat, and mental illness stigma: identifying culture-specific threat among Chinese-American groups.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C

    2013-07-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures.

  9. 75 FR 60430 - Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... technology security, combating weapons of mass destruction (WMD), chemical and biological defense, the future... level briefings on WMD threats, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and the status of the...

  10. Introduction to Administrative Programs that Mitigate the Insider Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Gerke, Gretchen K.; Rogers, Erin; Landers, John; DeCastro, Kara

    2012-09-01

    This presentation begins with the reality of the insider threat, then elaborates on these tools to mitigate the insider threat: Human Reliability Program (HRP); Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Program; Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

  11. Stereotype Threat and Feedback Seeking in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Loriann; Deitch, Elizabeth A.; Brief, Arthur P.; Block, Caryn J.

    2003-01-01

    Among 166 African American managers, those who were the only minority-group member in their workgroup perceived more stereotype threat. Stereotype threat was related to indirect feedback seeking and discounting of supervisors' performance feedback. (Contains 41 references.) (SK)

  12. Linking terrestrial and marine conservation planning and threats analysis.

    PubMed

    Tallis, Heather; Ferdaña, Zach; Gray, Elizabeth

    2008-02-01

    The existence of the Gulf of Mexico dead zone makes it clear that marine ecosystems can be damaged by terrestrial inputs. Marine and terrestrial conservation planning need to be aligned in an explicit fashion to fully represent threats to marine systems. To integrate conservation planning for terrestrial and marine systems, we used a novel threats assessment that included 5 cross-system threats in a site-prioritization exercise for the Pacific Northwest coast ecoregion (U.S.A.). Cross-system threats are actions or features in one ecological realm that have effects on species in another realm. We considered bulkheads and other forms of shoreline hardening threats to terrestrial systems and roads, logging, agriculture, and urban areas threats to marine systems. We used 2 proxies of freshwater influence on marine environments, validated against a mechanistic model and field observations, to propagate land-based threats into marine sites. We evaluated the influence of cross-system threats on conservation priorities by comparing MARXAN outputs for 3 scenarios that identified terrestrial and marine priorities simultaneously: (1) no threats, (2) single-system threats, and (3) single- and cross-system threats. Including cross-system threats changed the threat landscape dramatically. As a result the best plan that included only single-system threats identified 323 sites (161,500 ha) at risk from cross-system threats. Including these threats changed the location of best sites. By comparing the best and sum solutions of the single- and cross-system scenarios, we identified areas ideal for preservation or restoration through integrated management. Our findings lend quantitative support to the call for explicitly integrated decision making and management action in terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  13. Space Station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 2: Threat development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.; Rockoff, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for initial operational capability (IOC) during the early 1990's were considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration, and debris.

  14. The eyes are sufficient to produce a threat superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Fox, Elaine; Damjanovic, Ljubica

    2006-08-01

    The research described in this article used a visual search task and demonstrated that the eye region alone can produce a threat superiority effect. Indeed, the magnitude of the threat superiority effect did not increase with whole-face, relative to eye-region-only, stimuli. The authors conclude that the configuration of the eyes provides a key signal of threat, which can mediate the search advantage for threat-related facial expressions.

  15. Legal Aspects of Asbestos Abatement. Responses to the Threat of Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristin

    Exposure to asbestos in the air poses serious health threats, particularly to children. The use of asbestos in schools after World War II may have exposed millions of persons before regulations controlling asbestos use began appearing in the 1970s. Federal efforts to reduce exposure to asbestos have included passage of the Asbestos School Hazard…

  16. Isolating Neural Components of Threat Bias in Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Jennifer C.; Bar-Haim, Yair; Carver, Frederick W.; Holroyd, Tom; Norcross, Maxine A.; Detloff, Allison; Leibenluft, Ellen; Ernst, Monique; Pine, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention biases toward threat are often detected in individuals with anxiety disorders. Threat biases can be measured experimentally through dot-probe paradigms, in which individuals detect a probe following a stimulus pair including a threat. On these tasks, individuals with anxiety tend to detect probes that occur in a location…

  17. Death Threat and Death Concerns in the College Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobacyk, Jerome; Eckstein, Daniel

    1980-01-01

    Thanatology students reported significantly lesser death threat and significantly greater death concerns. Trait anxiety was found to be a significant predictor of change in death threat in the Thanatology Group, with lesser anxiety associated with greater decline in death threat. (Author)

  18. 49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.209 Fees for security threat assessment. This section... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fees for security threat assessment....

  19. Student Reports of Peer Threats of Violence: Prevalence and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekvasil, Erin K.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2012-01-01

    Authorities in education and law enforcement have recommended that schools use a threat-assessment approach to prevent violence, but there is relatively little research on characteristics and outcomes of threats among students. The current study examined student reports of threat experiences in a sample of 3,756 high school students. Approximately…

  20. Attention Training and the Threat Bias: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Laura; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety is characterized by exaggerated attention to threat. Several studies suggest that this threat bias plays a causal role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Furthermore, although the threat bias can be reduced in anxious individuals and induced in non-anxious individual, the attentional mechanisms underlying these…

  1. Gender, Stereotype Threat, and Anxiety: Psychophysiological and Cognitive Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis proposed that negative group stereotypes increase individual anxiety levels, hurting performance. However, the role of anxiety in stereotype threat has not been fully explored. This study examined the hypothesis that experimental manipulation of stereotype threat would influence real-time…

  2. Unleashing Latent Ability: Implications of Stereotype Threat for College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logel, Christine R.; Walton, Gregory M.; Spencer, Steven J.; Peach, Jennifer; Mark, Zanna P.

    2012-01-01

    Social-psychological research conducted over the past 15 years provides compelling evidence that pervasive psychological threats are present in common academic environments--especially threats that originate in negative intellectual stereotypes--and that these threats undermine the real-world academic performance of non-Asian ethnic minority…

  3. Assessing the threat of firearms: new threat formula, resources, and ontological linking algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Sirakov, Nikolay Metodiev

    2014-06-01

    The present work is part of an ongoing larger project.2, 3, 11, 12 The goal of this project is to develop a system capable of automatic threat assessment for instances of firearms use in public places. The main components of the system are: an ontology of firearms;1, 14 algorithms to create the visual footprint of the firearms,1, 14 to compare visual information,2, 3, 11, 12 to facilitate search in the ontology, and to generate the links between the conceptual and visual ontologies; as well as a formula to calculate the threat of individual firearms, firearms classes, and ammunition types in different environments. One part of the dual-level ontology for the properties of the firearms captures key visual features used to identify their type or class in images, while the other part captures their threat-relevant conceptual properties. The visual ontology is the result of image segmentation and matching methods, while the conceptual ontology is designed using knowledge-engineering principles and populated semi-automatically from Web resources. The focus of the present paper is two-fold. On the one hand, we will report on an update of the initial threat formula, based on the substantially increased population of the firearm ontology, including ammunition types and comparisons to actual incidents, and allowing for an overall more accurate assessment. On the other hand, the linking algorithms between the visual and conceptual ontologies are elaborated for faster transfer of information leading to an improvement in accuracy of the threat assessment.

  4. Application of the adaptive subspace detector to Raman spectra for biological threat detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Thomas A.; Borchardt, Steven; Anderson, Richard; Treado, Patrick; Neiss, Jason

    2006-10-01

    Effective application of point detectors in the field to monitor the air for biological attack imposes a challenging set of requirements on threat detection algorithms. Raman spectra exhibit features that discriminate between threats and non-threats, and such spectra can be collected quickly, offering a potential solution given the appropriate algorithm. The algorithm must attempt to match to known threat signatures, while suppressing the background clutter in order to produce acceptable Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. The radar space-time adaptive processing (STAP) community offers a set of tools appropriate to this problem, and these have recently crossed over into hyperspectral imaging (HSI) applications. The Adaptive Subspace Detector (ASD) is the Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) detector for structured backgrounds (which we expect for Raman background spectra) and mixed pixels, and supports the necessary adaptation to varying background environments. The structured background model reduces the training required for that adaptation, and the number of statistical assumptions required. We applied the ASD to large Raman spectral databases collected by ChemImage, developed spectral libraries of threat signatures and several backgrounds, and tested the algorithm against individual and mixture spectra, including in blind tests. The algorithm was successful in detecting threats, however, in order to maintain the desired false alarm rate, it was necessary to shift the decision threshold so as to give up some detection sensitivity. This was due to excess spread of the detector histograms, apparently related to variability in the signatures not captured by the subspaces, and evidenced by non-Gaussian residuals. We present here performance modeling, test data, algorithm and sensor performance results, and model validation conclusions.

  5. Cooperative Threat Reduction: Cooperation Threat Reduction Program Liquid Propellant Disposition Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    This audit is one in a series of audits the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested. As part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, DoD agreed to assist the Russian Federation in disposing of its liquid rocket propellant. Public Law 102-228 (section 2551 NOTE, title 22, United States Code), the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991 designates DoD as the executive agent for the CTR Program. Specific objectives of the act are to destroy chemical, nuclear, and other weapons; transport, store, disable, and safeguard weapons in connection with their destruction; and establish verifiable safeguards against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Policy), under the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, develops, coordinates, and oversees implementation of policy for the CTR Program. The CTR Directorate, Defense Threat Reduction Agency operates the program.

  6. Protection without detection: a threat mitigation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joshua; McCoy, Joseph R.; Ratazzi, Paul

    2012-05-01

    Networking systems and individual applications have traditionally been defended using signature-based tools that protect the perimeter, many times to the detriment of service, performance, and information flow. These tools require knowledge of both the system on which they run and the attack they are preventing. As such, by their very definition, they only account for what is known to be malicious and ignore the unknown. The unknown, or zero day threat, can occur when defenses have yet to be immunized via a signature or other identifier of the threat. In environments where execution of the mission is paramount, the networks and applications must perform their function of information delivery without endangering the enterprise or losing the salient information, even when facing zero day threats. In this paper we, describe a new defensive strategy that provides a means to more deliberately balance the oft mutually exclusive aspects of protection and availability. We call this new strategy Protection without Detection, since it focuses on network protection without sacrificing information availability. The current instantiation analyzes the data stream in real time as it passes through an in-line device. Critical files are recognized, and mission-specific trusted templates are applied as they are forwarded to their destination. The end result is a system which eliminates the opportunity for propagation of malicious or unnecessary payloads via the various containers that are inherent in the definition of standard file types. In some cases, this method sacrifices features or functionality that is typically inherent in these files. However, with the flexibility of the template approach, inclusion or exclusion of these features becomes a deliberate choice of the mission owners, based on their needs and amount of acceptable risk. The paper concludes with a discussion of future extensions and applications.

  7. 49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) MAOP increases; or (iii) The stresses leading to cyclic fatigue increase. (4) ERW pipe. If a covered... internal corrosion, external corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking; (2) Static or resident threats, such... consider any threats unique to the integrity of plastic pipe. (e) Actions to address particular threats....

  8. 49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MAOP increases; or (iii) The stresses leading to cyclic fatigue increase. (4) ERW pipe. If a covered... internal corrosion, external corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking; (2) Static or resident threats, such... consider any threats unique to the integrity of plastic pipe. (e) Actions to address particular threats....

  9. The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment Scale: An Instrument to Help Aid Immediate Threat Assessment for Counselors, Faculty, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhnke, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    Threats of violence are not uncommon to counselors, faculty, or teachers. Each must be taken seriously, quickly analyzed, and safety procedures implemented. Yet, there exists a paucity of brief, face-to-face, assessments designed to aid threat assessment. To address this paucity, the author created The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment…

  10. Threat in Context: School Moderation of the Impact of Social Identity Threat on Racial/Ethnic Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanselman, Paul; Bruch, Sarah K.; Gamoran, Adam; Borman, Geoffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Schools with very few and relatively low-performing marginalized students may be most likely to trigger social identity threats (including stereotype threats) that contribute to racial disparities. We test this hypothesis by assessing variation in the benefits of a self-affirmation intervention designed to counteract social identity threat in a…

  11. Assessing the global threat from Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Lessler, Justin; Chaisson, Lelia H; Kucirka, Lauren M; Bi, Qifang; Grantz, Kyra; Salje, Henrik; Carcelen, Andrea C; Ott, Cassandra T; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Ferguson, Neil M; Cummings, Derek A T; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel

    2016-08-12

    First discovered in 1947, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection remained a little-known tropical disease until 2015, when its apparent association with a considerable increase in the incidence of microcephaly in Brazil raised alarms worldwide. There is limited information on the key factors that determine the extent of the global threat from ZIKV infection and resulting complications. Here, we review what is known about the epidemiology, natural history, and public health effects of ZIKV infection, the empirical basis for this knowledge, and the critical knowledge gaps that need to be filled.

  12. Rabies: the emergence of a microbial threat.

    PubMed

    Borus, P

    1996-01-01

    Since 1912 when rabies was first confirmed in Kenya, the disease has largely existed in varying degrees of occurrence. Spatial and temporal distribution of cases of animal rabies are well documented. Records of human cases have not been as detailed as the veterinary cases. The principal animal reservoir for rabies has been the dog. Save for the 1960s, rabies outbreaks occurred in the country for most part of this century. The 1980's witnessed a dramatic upward swing in the number of cases reported annually. Over the years an enzootic pattern covering most parts of the country emerged. This article reviews available data showing rabies as an emerging microbial threat in Kenya.

  13. Assessing the global threat from Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Lessler, Justin; Chaisson, Lelia H; Kucirka, Lauren M; Bi, Qifang; Grantz, Kyra; Salje, Henrik; Carcelen, Andrea C; Ott, Cassandra T; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Ferguson, Neil M; Cummings, Derek A T; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel

    2016-08-12

    First discovered in 1947, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection remained a little-known tropical disease until 2015, when its apparent association with a considerable increase in the incidence of microcephaly in Brazil raised alarms worldwide. There is limited information on the key factors that determine the extent of the global threat from ZIKV infection and resulting complications. Here, we review what is known about the epidemiology, natural history, and public health effects of ZIKV infection, the empirical basis for this knowledge, and the critical knowledge gaps that need to be filled. PMID:27417495

  14. Lyssaviruses and Bats: Emergence and Zoonotic Threat

    PubMed Central

    Banyard, Ashley C.; Evans, Jennifer S.; Luo, Ting Rong; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    The continued detection of zoonotic viral infections in bats has led to the microbial fauna of these mammals being studied at a greater level than ever before. Whilst numerous pathogens have been discovered in bat species, infection with lyssaviruses is of particular significance from a zoonotic perspective as, where human infection has been reported, it is invariably fatal. Here we review the detection of lyssaviruses within different bat species and overview what is understood regarding their maintenance and transmission following both experimental and natural infection. We discuss the relevance of these pathogens as zoonotic agents and the threat of newly discovered viruses to human populations. PMID:25093425

  15. Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information that older adults accurately recall. In the current research, we tested whether stereotype threat can also benefit memory. According to the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, threat induces a prevention focus in which people become concerned with avoiding errors of commission and are sensitive to the presence or absence of losses within their environment. Because of this, we predicted that stereotype threat might reduce older adults' memory errors. Results were consistent with this prediction. Older adults under stereotype threat had lower intrusion rates during free-recall tests (Experiments 1 and 2). They also reduced their false alarms and adopted more conservative response criteria during a recognition test (Experiment 2). Thus, stereotype threat can decrease older adults' false memories, albeit at the cost of fewer veridical memories, as well.

  16. Mitigation Policy Scenario of Space Debris Threat Related with National Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdiansyah, Herdis; Frimawaty, Evy; Munir, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    The development of air space recently entered a new phase, when the space issues correlated with the future of a country. In past time, the space authorization was related with advancing technology by many space mission and various satellite launchings, or it could be said that who ruled technology will rule the space. Therefore, the numerous satellites in the space could be a threat for the countries which are mainly located in the path of the satellite, especially in the equatorial region including Indonesia. This study aims to create a policy scenario in mitigating the threat of space debris. The results showed that although space debris was not threatened national security for now, but the potential and its impact on the future potentially harmful. The threats of orbit circulation for some experts considered as a threat for national security, because its danger potential which caused by space debris could significantly damage the affected areas. However, until now Indonesia has no comprehensive mitigation strategy for space matters although it has been ratified by the United Nations Convention.

  17. In Brief: Threats to species continue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-11-01

    Of 47,677 assessed species, 17,291 are threatened with extinction, according to the latest update of the Red List of Threatened Species issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) on 3 November. The list indicates that amphibians are the most threatened group of species known to date, with 1895 (nearly 30%) of 6285 amphibians in danger of extinction. Thirty-nine are already extinct or extinct in the wild, 484 are critically endangered, 754 are endangered, and 657 are vulnerable, according to IUCN. Under threat are 21% of mammals, 30% of amphibians, 12% of birds, 28% of reptiles, 37% of freshwater fishes, 70% of plants, and 35% of invertebrates assessed to date. “We have only managed to assess 47,663 species so far; there are many more millions out there which could be under serious threat,” according to IUCN Red List Unit Manager Craig Hilton-Taylor. For more information, visit http://www.iucnredlist.org.

  18. Passive acoustic threat detection in estuarine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Brian; Sutin, Alexander; Roh, Heui-Seol; Bunin, Barry

    2008-04-01

    The Maritime Security Laboratory (MSL) at Stevens Institute of Technology supports research in a range of areas relevant to harbor security, including passive acoustic detection of underwater threats. The difficulties in using passive detection in an urban estuarine environment include intensive and highly irregular ambient noise and the complexity of sound propagation in shallow water. MSL conducted a set of tests in the Hudson River near Manhattan in order to measure the main parameters defining the detection distance of a threat: source level of a scuba diver, transmission loss of acoustic signals, and ambient noise. The source level of the diver was measured by comparing the diver's sound with a reference signal from a calibrated emitter placed on his path. Transmission loss was measured by comparing noise levels of passing ships at various points along their routes, where their distance from the hydrophone was calculated with the help of cameras and custom software. The ambient noise in the Hudson River was recorded under varying environmental conditions and amounts of water traffic. The passive sonar equation was then applied to estimate the range of detection. Estimations were done for a subset of the recorded noise levels, and we demonstrated how variations in the noise level, attenuation, and the diver's source level influence the effective range of detection. Finally, we provided analytic estimates of how an array improves upon the detection distance calculated by a single hydrophone.

  19. Identifying chemicals that are planetary boundary threats.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Matthew; Breitholtz, Magnus; Cousins, Ian T; de Wit, Cynthia A; Persson, Linn M; Rudén, Christina; McLachlan, Michael S

    2014-10-01

    Rockström et al. proposed a set of planetary boundaries that delimit a "safe operating space for humanity". Many of the planetary boundaries that have so far been identified are determined by chemical agents. Other chemical pollution-related planetary boundaries likely exist, but are currently unknown. A chemical poses an unknown planetary boundary threat if it simultaneously fulfills three conditions: (1) it has an unknown disruptive effect on a vital Earth system process; (2) the disruptive effect is not discovered until it is a problem at the global scale, and (3) the effect is not readily reversible. In this paper, we outline scenarios in which chemicals could fulfill each of the three conditions, then use the scenarios as the basis to define chemical profiles that fit each scenario. The chemical profiles are defined in terms of the nature of the effect of the chemical and the nature of exposure of the environment to the chemical. Prioritization of chemicals in commerce against some of the profiles appears feasible, but there are considerable uncertainties and scientific challenges that must be addressed. Most challenging is prioritizing chemicals for their potential to have a currently unknown effect on a vital Earth system process. We conclude that the most effective strategy currently available to identify chemicals that are planetary boundary threats is prioritization against profiles defined in terms of environmental exposure combined with monitoring and study of the biogeochemical processes that underlie vital Earth system processes to identify currently unknown disruptive effects.

  20. Mitigating Inadvertent Insider Threats with Incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Debin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Camp, L. Jean

    Inadvertent insiders are trusted insiders who do not have malicious intent (as with malicious insiders) but do not responsibly managing security. The result is often enabling a malicious outsider to use the privileges of the inattentive insider to implement an insider attack. This risk is as old as conversion of a weak user password into root access, but the term inadvertent insider is recently coined to identify the link between the behavior and the vulnerability. In this paper, we propose to mitigate this threat using a novel risk budget mechanism that offers incentives to an insider to behave according to the risk posture set by the organization. We propose assigning an insider a risk budget, which is a specific allocation of risk points, allowing employees to take a finite number of risk-seeking choice. In this way, the employee can complete her tasks without subverting the security system, as with absolute prohibitions. In the end, the organization penalizes the insider if she fails to accomplish her task within the budget while rewards her in the presence of a surplus. Most importantly. the risk budget requires that the user make conscious visible choices to take electronic risks. We describe the theory behind the system, including specific work on the insider threats. We evaluated this approach using human-subject experiments, which demonstrate the effectiveness of our risk budget mechanism. We also present a game theoretic analysis of the mechanism.

  1. Unattended sensors for nuclear threat detection

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Bowler, Ryan S.; Kiff, Scott D.; Morris, Scott J.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Rohrer, John S.; Todd, Lindsay C.

    2008-06-30

    This paper discusses the ongoing development of a compact, unattended, and low-power radiation detection system designed for deployment to the front lines of nuclear proliferation. Current countermeasure deployments aim to detect nuclear threats by screening cargo containers abroad or at ports of entry, but the defensive nature of these systems means that they face the immense challenge of detecting intentionally-concealed materials. A complementary strategy places countermeasures closer to the source of nuclear proliferation, but deployments to these regions often must operate autonomously and in the absence of infrastructure. This application motivates our development of a low-power system capable of detecting gamma-ray and neutron emissions while operating autonomously for extended periods of time. Many challenges are present when developing radiation-detection systems for this application, and this paper describes work focused on two of them: the development of compact, low-power electronics for gamma-ray-spectrometer and 3He- tube signal processing, and analysis algorithms capable of distinguishing threats from benign sources in mid-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers. We discuss our development efforts on these fronts and present results based on implementation in a proof-of-principle system comprised of two 5 cm x 10 cm x 41 cm NaI(Tl) crystals and eight 40-cm 3He tubes.

  2. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  3. A Lesson Not to Be Learned? Understanding Stereotype Threat Does Not Protect Women from Stereotype Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Appoloni, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This research examines whether reading a text presenting scientific evidence concerning the phenomenon of stereotype threat improves or disrupts women's performance in a subsequent math task. In two experimental conditions participants (N=118 ) read a text summarizing an experiment in which stereotypes, and not biological differences, were shown…

  4. Conditioned social dominance threat: observation of others' social dominance biases threat learning.

    PubMed

    Haaker, Jan; Molapour, Tanaz; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Social groups are organized along dominance hierarchies, which determine how we respond to threats posed by dominant and subordinate others. The persuasive impact of these dominance threats on mental and physical well-being has been well described but it is unknown how dominance rank of others bias our experience and learning in the first place. We introduce a model of conditioned social dominance threat in humans, where the presence of a dominant other is paired with an aversive event. Participants first learned about the dominance rank of others by observing their dyadic confrontations. During subsequent fear learning, the dominant and subordinate others were equally predictive of an aversive consequence (mild electric shock) to the participant. In three separate experiments, we show that participants' eye-blink startle responses and amygdala reactivity adaptively tracked dominance of others during observation of confrontation. Importantly, during fear learning dominant vs subordinate others elicited stronger and more persistent learned threat responses as measured by physiological arousal and amygdala activity. Our results characterize the neural basis of learning through observing conflicts between others, and how this affects subsequent learning through direct, personal experiences.

  5. Users Guide for the Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool V1.7.0 for AWIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2007-01-01

    landing facilities at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and beyond. The anvil clouds were generated around 1930 UTC (1430 EDT) by thunderstorm activity over central Florida and transported 90 n mi east-northeastward within 2 hours, as diagnosed by the anvil forecast tool. Phase III, delivered in February 2003, built upon the results of Phase II by enhancing the Anvil Threat Sector Tool with the capability to use national model forecast winds for depiction of potential anvil lengths and orientations over the KSC/CCAFS area with lead times from 3 through 168 hours (7 days). In September 2003, AMU customers requested the capability to use data from the KSC 50 MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) in the Anvil Threat Sector Tool and this capability was delivered by the AMU in December 2003. In March 2005, the AMU was tasked to migrate the MIDDS Anvil Threat Sector Tool capabilities onto the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) as the Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool.

  6. When threat to society becomes a threat to oneself: implications for right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice.

    PubMed

    Onraet, Emma; Van Hiel, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between threat on one hand and right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice on the other were investigated in a heterogeneous sample (N = 588). Specifically, we considered the perception of economic and terroristic threats in terms of their consequences at the societal and personal levels. Previous studies revealed that societal consequences of threat, rather than personal consequences, are related to right-wing attitudes. However, the present results challenge these findings. More specifically, three important results emerged. First, items probing the distinct threat levels loaded on separate dimensions for economic and terroristic threat, validating the distinction between societal and personal threat consequences. Second, consistent with previous research, this study revealed that perceived societal consequences of threat yield strong and robust relationships with all target variables. However, personal consequences of threat were also associated with higher levels of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), social dominance orientation (SDO), and ethnic prejudice in particular. Third, societal and personal consequences of threat interacted in explaining the target variables. More specifically, feeling personally threatened by terrorism was only related to higher levels of RWA in the presence of low levels of threat to society, whereas experiencing personal economic threat was only related to higher levels of SDO and ethnic prejudice when high societal economic threat was experienced. In sum, although the perception of societal consequences of threat plays a prominent role in explaining right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice, the perception of being personally affected by threat is also associated with higher levels of RWA and SDO, and especially ethnic prejudice.

  7. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Dan E; Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia; Rolando, Antonio; Girardello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds). For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community.

  8. Recent advances in the development of a novel aerosol sorting and deposition system for bio-threat sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletcher, Timothy; McGinn, Joseph; Keller, David; Huston, Alan; Eversole, Jay; Sivaprakasum, Vasanthi

    2007-10-01

    Sarnoff Corporation and the Naval Research Laboratory, through support of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, are developing an automated, high throughput bio-aerosol physical enrichment system designed for use as part of a biological-threat protection system. The Biological Aerosol-Capture-Enrichment (BioACE) system is a bio-aerosol collection system that combines three unique technologies to create physically enriched aerosol samples that can be subsequently interrogated by any number of bio-threat detection systems for the presence of threat agents. An air-to-air concentrator uses an inertial separation technique to highly concentrate an aerosol sample presented to a dual wavelength ultra-violet laser induced fluorescence (UVLIF) optical trigger used to discriminate potential threat particles from non-threat particles conveyed in a collimated particle stream. This particle classification information is used to trigger an electrostatic deposition mechanism to deposit only those particles determined to be potential bio-threats onto a stainless steel substrate. Non-threat particles are discarded with the exiting airflow. The goal for the most recent development effort has been the integration and optimization of these technologies into a unit capable of producing highly enriched particulate samples from ambient air containing variable background aerosol loading and type. Several key technical and engineering challenges were overcome during the course of this development including a unique solution for compensating particle velocity dispersion within the airflow, development of a real-time signal acquisition and detection algorithm for determining material type on a particle by particle basis at rates greater than 2000 particles per second, and the introduction of a robust method for transferring deposited particulate into a 50ul wet sample suitable for most advanced bio-detection techniques. This paper will briefly describe the overall system architecture and

  9. Portable Integrated Wireless Device Threat Assessment to Aircraft Radio Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salud, Maria Theresa P.; Williams, Reuben A. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    An assessment was conducted on multiple wireless local area network (WLAN) devices using the three wireless standards for spurious radiated emissions to determine their threat to aircraft radio navigation systems. The measurement process, data and analysis are provided for devices tested using IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b, and Bluetooth as well as data from portable laptops/tablet PCs and PDAs (grouping known as PEDs). A comparison was made between wireless LAN devices and portable electronic devices. Spurious radiated emissions were investigated in the radio frequency bands for the following aircraft systems: Instrument Landing System Localizer and Glideslope, Very High Frequency (VHF) Communication, VHF Omnidirectional Range, Traffic Collision Avoidance System, Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System, Microwave Landing System and Global Positioning System. Since several of the contiguous navigation systems were grouped under one encompassing measurement frequency band, there were five measurement frequency bands where spurious radiated emissions data were collected for the PEDs and WLAN devices. The report also provides a comparison between emissions data and regulatory emission limit.

  10. COAMPS Application to Global and Homeland Security Threat Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H S; Glascoe, L G

    2004-09-14

    Atmospheric dispersion problems have received more attention with regard to global and homeland security than their conventional roles in air pollution and local hazard assessment in the post 9/11 era. Consequently, there is growing interest to characterize meteorology uncertainty at both low and high altitudes (below and above 30 km, respectively). A 3-D Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Prediction System (COAMPS, developed by Naval Research Laboratory; Hodur, 1997) is used to address LLNL's task. The objective of this report is focused on the effort at the improvement of COAMPS forecast to address the uncertainty issue, and to provide new capability for high-altitude forecast. To assess the atmospheric dispersion behavior in a wider range of meteorological conditions and to expand its vertical scope for the potential threat at high altitudes, several modifications of COAMPS are needed to meet the project goal. These improvements include (1) the long-range forecast capability to show the variability of meteorological conditions at a much larger time scale (say, a year), and (2) the model physics enhancement to provide new capability for high-altitude forecast.

  11. Females that experience threat are better teachers.

    PubMed

    Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Colombelli-Négrel, Diane

    2014-05-01

    Superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) females use an incubation call to teach their embryos a vocal password to solicit parental feeding care after hatching. We previously showed that high call rate by the female was correlated with high call similarity in fairy-wren chicks, but not in cuckoo chicks, and that parent birds more often fed chicks with high call similarity. Hosts should be selected to increase their defence behaviour when the risk of brood parasitism is highest, such as when cuckoos are present in the area. Therefore, we experimentally test whether hosts increase call rate to embryos in the presence of a singing Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites basalis). Female fairy-wrens increased incubation call rate when we experimentally broadcast cuckoo song near the nest. Embryos had higher call similarity when females had higher incubation call rate. We interpret the findings of increased call rate as increased teaching effort in response to a signal of threat. PMID:24806422

  12. Marburg and Ebola viruses as aerosol threats.

    PubMed

    Leffel, Elizabeth K; Reed, Douglas S

    2004-01-01

    Ebola and Marburg viruses are the sole members of the genus Filovirus in the family Filoviridae. There has been considerable media attention and fear generated by outbreaks of filoviruses because they can cause a severe viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) syndrome that has a rapid onset and high mortality. Although they are not naturally transmitted by aerosol, they are highly infectious as respirable particles under laboratory conditions. For these and other reasons, filoviruses are classified as category A biological weapons. However, there is very little data from animal studies with aerosolized filoviruses. Animal models of filovirus exposure are not well characterized, and there are discrepancies between these models and what has been observed in human outbreaks. Building on published results from aerosol studies, as well as a review of the history, epidemiology, and disease course of naturally occurring outbreaks, we offer an aerobiologist's perspective on the threat posed by aerosolized filoviruses.

  13. The expectancy of threat and peritraumatic dissociation

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Pamela; Bryant, Richard A.; Silove, Derrick; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; McFarlane, Alexander C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Peritraumatic dissociation is one of the most critical acute responses to a traumatic experience, partly because it predicts subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite this, there is little understanding about the factors that influence peritraumatic dissociation. This study investigated the extent to which peritraumatic dissociation is predicted by the amount of perceived warning that participants had of the impact of the trauma. Method Randomized eligible admissions to four major trauma hospitals (N=243) were assessed during hospital admission with the Peritraumatic Dissociation Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) and the perceived warning that participants had before the trauma impact occurred. Results Whereas female gender predicted both Awareness and Derealization subscale scores on the PDEQ, perceived warning also predicted scores on the Derealization subscale. Conclusions This finding suggests that the degree of anticipated threat may contribute to peritraumatic dissociation. PMID:24363835

  14. Water bathing alters threat perception in starlings

    PubMed Central

    Brilot, Ben O.; Bateson, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The majority of bird taxa perform water bathing, but little is known about the adaptive value of this behaviour. If bathing is important for feather maintenance then birds that have not bathed should have poorer feather condition, compromised escape ability and therefore increased responsiveness to cues of predation. We conducted two experiments examining the behaviour of captive starlings responding to conspecific alarm calls. Birds that had no access to bathing water showed a decreased willingness to feed and increased their vigilance behaviour following an alarm call. We argue that birds denied access to bathing water interpreted an ambiguous cue of threat as requiring more caution than birds that had access, consistent with higher levels of anxiety. Our results support the provision of bathing water for captive birds as an important welfare measure. PMID:22250131

  15. “Filoviruses”: a real pandemic threat?

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Byron EE; Osterhaus, Albert DME

    2009-01-01

    Filoviruses are zoonotic and among the deadliest viruses known to mankind, with mortality rates in outbreaks reaching up to 90%. Despite numerous efforts to identify the host reservoir(s), the transmission cycle of filoviruses between the animal host(s) and humans remains unclear. The last decade has witnessed an increase in filovirus outbreaks with a changing epidemiology. The high mortality rates and lack of effective antiviral drugs or preventive vaccines has propagated the fear that filoviruses may become a real pandemic threat. This article discusses the factors that could influence the possible pandemic potential of filoviruses and elaborates on the prerequisites for the containment of future outbreaks, which would help prevent the evolution of filovirus into more virulent and more transmissible viruses. PMID:20049699

  16. Scientific performance estimation of robustness and threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, John R.; Sorensen, Eric; Stelzig, Chad A.; Mahler, Ronald P. S.; El-Fallah, Adel I.; Alford, Mark G.

    2002-07-01

    For the last three years at this conference we have been describing the implementation of a unified, scientific approach to performance estimation for various aspects of data fusion: multitarget detection, tracking, and identification algorithms; sensor management algorithms; and adaptive data fusion algorithms. The proposed approach is based on finite-set statistics (FISST), a generalization of conventional statistics to multisource, multitarget problems. Finite-set statistics makes it possible to directly extend Shannon-type information metrics to multisource, multitarget problems in such a way that information can be defined and measured even though any given end-user may have conflicting or even subjective definitions of what informative means. In this presentation, we will show how to extend our previous results to two new problems. First, that of evaluating the robustness of multisensor, multitarget algorithms. Second, that of evaluating the performance of multisource-multitarget threat assessment algorithms.

  17. Nuclear weapons, a continuing threat to health.

    PubMed

    Holdstock, D; Waterston, L

    2000-04-29

    32,000 nuclear weapons, with a destructive force equivalent to several thousand megatons of conventional explosive, are still deployed. The risk of nuclear war by accident may have increased and new threats include war between newly declared nuclear-weapon-states and the construction by terrorist groups of crude but effective devices. Health workers have drawn attention in the past to the likely major health consequences of the use of nuclear weapons. An opportunity for their global elimination under a nuclear weapons convention arises with the current review conference in New York of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty--a crucial event for efforts to bring about a world free of nuclear weapons.

  18. Stereotype Threat and Women's Performance in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Gwen C.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2013-12-01

    Stereotype threat (ST), which involves confirming a negative stereotype about one's group, is a factor thought to contribute to the gender gap in science achievement and participation. This study involved a quasi-experiment in which 312 US high school physics students were randomly assigned, via their classroom cluster, to one of three ST conditions. The conditions included an explicit ST condition, an implicit ST condition, and a nullified condition. Results indicated that males in all three conditions performed similarly on a set of physics problems. Females in the nullified condition outperformed females in the explicit ST condition and females in the implicit and explicit conditions performed similarly. Males performed better than females in the implicit and explicit ST conditions, but male and female performance on the physics problems was not significantly different in the nullified condition. The implications of these findings for physics instruction and future research on gender differences in physics and ST in science are discussed.

  19. Prejudice towards Muslims in The Netherlands: testing integrated threat theory.

    PubMed

    Velasco González, Karina; Verkuyten, Maykel; Weesie, Jeroen; Poppe, Edwin

    2008-12-01

    This study uses integrated threat theory to examine Dutch adolescents' (N=1,187) prejudice towards Muslim minorities. One out of two participants was found to have negative feelings towards Muslims. Perceived symbolic and realistic threat and negative stereotypes were examined as mediators between antecedent factors (in-group identification, intergroup contact, and the endorsement of multiculturalism) and prejudice. Based on structural equation modelling, it was found that stereotypes and symbolic threats, but not realistic threats, predicted prejudice towards Muslims. Further, it was found that the effect of in-group identification on prejudice was fully mediated by symbolic threat, the effect of contact was partially mediated by stereotypes, and the effect of the endorsement of multiculturalism was mediated by both symbolic threat and stereotypes. In addition, contact and multiculturalism were directly associated with prejudice towards Muslims. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. When anticipation beats accuracy: Threat alters memory for dynamic scenes.

    PubMed

    Greenstein, Michael; Franklin, Nancy; Martins, Mariana; Sewack, Christine; Meier, Markus A

    2016-05-01

    Threat frequently leads to the prioritization of survival-relevant processes. Much of the work examining threat-related processing advantages has focused on the detection of static threats or long-term memory for details. In the present study, we examined immediate memory for dynamic threatening situations. We presented participants with visually neutral, dynamic stimuli using a representational momentum (RM) paradigm, and manipulated threat conceptually. Although the participants in both the threatening and nonthreatening conditions produced classic RM effects, RM was stronger for scenarios involving threat (Exps. 1 and 2). Experiments 2 and 3 showed that this effect does not generalize to the nonthreatening objects within a threatening scene, and that it does not extend to arousing happy situations. Although the increased RM effect for threatening objects by definition reflects reduced accuracy, we argue that this reduced accuracy may be offset by a superior ability to predict, and thereby evade, a moving threat.

  1. When anticipation beats accuracy: Threat alters memory for dynamic scenes.

    PubMed

    Greenstein, Michael; Franklin, Nancy; Martins, Mariana; Sewack, Christine; Meier, Markus A

    2016-05-01

    Threat frequently leads to the prioritization of survival-relevant processes. Much of the work examining threat-related processing advantages has focused on the detection of static threats or long-term memory for details. In the present study, we examined immediate memory for dynamic threatening situations. We presented participants with visually neutral, dynamic stimuli using a representational momentum (RM) paradigm, and manipulated threat conceptually. Although the participants in both the threatening and nonthreatening conditions produced classic RM effects, RM was stronger for scenarios involving threat (Exps. 1 and 2). Experiments 2 and 3 showed that this effect does not generalize to the nonthreatening objects within a threatening scene, and that it does not extend to arousing happy situations. Although the increased RM effect for threatening objects by definition reflects reduced accuracy, we argue that this reduced accuracy may be offset by a superior ability to predict, and thereby evade, a moving threat. PMID:26698159

  2. The insider threat--a new aspect of biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Engells, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    The need for those responsible for security at hospital research centers to take steps to counter insider threats to use biomedical and microbiological research and for perverted purposes is real, says the author. He spells out what the threats consist of suspicious behaviors to be aware of and reporting procedures for effective resolution that will enable life science researchers and law enforcement to successfully work together to thwart such threats. PMID:24020316

  3. The insider threat--a new aspect of biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Engells, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    The need for those responsible for security at hospital research centers to take steps to counter insider threats to use biomedical and microbiological research and for perverted purposes is real, says the author. He spells out what the threats consist of suspicious behaviors to be aware of and reporting procedures for effective resolution that will enable life science researchers and law enforcement to successfully work together to thwart such threats.

  4. Mechanisms of visual threat detection in specific phobia.

    PubMed

    Weierich, Mariann R; Treat, Teresa A

    2015-01-01

    People with anxiety or stress-related disorders attend differently to threat-relevant compared with non-threat stimuli, yet the temporal mechanisms of differential allocation of attention are not well understood. We investigated two independent mechanisms of temporal processing of visual threat by comparing spider-phobic and non-fearful participants using a rapid serial visual presentation task. Consistent with prior literature, spider phobics, but not non-fearful controls, displayed threat-specific facilitated detection of spider stimuli relative to negative stimuli and neutral stimuli. Further, signal detection analyses revealed that facilitated threat detection in spider-phobic participants was driven by greater sensitivity to threat stimulus features and a trend towards a lower threshold for detecting spider stimuli. However, phobic participants did not display reliably slowed temporal disengagement from threat-relevant stimuli. These findings advance our understanding of threat feature processing that might contribute to the onset and maintenance of symptoms in specific phobia and disorders that involve visual threat information more generally.

  5. Stereotype threat in salary negotiations is mediated by reservation salary.

    PubMed

    Tellhed, Una; Björklund, Fredrik

    2011-04-01

    Women are stereotypically perceived as worse negotiators than men, which may make them ask for less salary than men when under stereotype threat (Kray et al., 2001). However, the mechanisms of stereotype threat are not yet properly understood. The current study investigated whether stereotype threat effects in salary negotiations can be explained by motivational factors. A total of 116 business students negotiated salary with a confederate and were either told that this was diagnostic of negotiating ability (threat manipulation) or not. Measures of minimum (reservation) and ideal (aspiration) salary goals and regulatory focus were collected. The finding (Kray et al., 2001) that women make lower salary requests than men when under stereotype threat was replicated. Women in the threat condition further reported lower aspiration salary, marginally significantly lower reservation salary and less eagerness/more vigilance than men. Reservation salary mediated the stereotype threat effect, and there was a trend for regulatory focus to mediate the effect. Thus, reservation salary partly explains why women ask for less salary than men under stereotype threat. Female negotiators may benefit from learning that stereotype threat causes sex-differences in motivation.

  6. Stereotype Threat Alters the Subjective Experience of Memory.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    There is now evidence that negative age-related stereotypes about memory reduce older adults' memory performance, and inflate age differences in this domain. Here, we examine whether stereotype threat may also influence the basic feeling that one is more or less able to remember. Using the Remember/Know paradigm, we demonstrated that stereotype threat conducted older adults to a greater feeling of familiarity with events, while failing to retrieve any contextual detail. This finding indicates that stereotype threat alters older adults' subjective experience of memory, and strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects. PMID:27120561

  7. Culture, distance, and threat perception: comment on Stamps (2011).

    PubMed

    Su, Yin; Zheng, Yu; Li, Shu

    2012-12-01

    Stamps found that the effects of visual cues on the perception of threat decrease with distance, even when the range of distance is extended to 45 m. The present comment suggests that the findings Stamps obtained in a Western culture may not hold in other cultures. The robustness of these findings might be improved by using real targets at actual physical distances and "necessarily high" threats. Further studies are needed to examine whether other dimensions of psychological distance have the same effect on threat perception as does spatial distance. There is also a need to examine whether perceived threats have a significant effect on the perception of spatial distance.

  8. Stereotype Threat Alters the Subjective Experience of Memory.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    There is now evidence that negative age-related stereotypes about memory reduce older adults' memory performance, and inflate age differences in this domain. Here, we examine whether stereotype threat may also influence the basic feeling that one is more or less able to remember. Using the Remember/Know paradigm, we demonstrated that stereotype threat conducted older adults to a greater feeling of familiarity with events, while failing to retrieve any contextual detail. This finding indicates that stereotype threat alters older adults' subjective experience of memory, and strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects.

  9. Cyclone: A close air support aircraft for tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George; Croulet, Donald; Dunn, James; Graham, Michael; Ip, Phillip; Low, Scott; Vance, Gregg; Volckaert, Eric

    1991-01-01

    To meet the threat of the battlefield of the future, the U.S. ground forces will require reliable air support. To provide this support, future aircrews demand a versatile close air support aircraft capable of delivering ordinance during the day, night, or in adverse weather with pin-point accuracy. The Cyclone aircraft meets these requirements, packing the 'punch' necessary to clear the way for effective ground operations. Possessing anti-armor, missile, and precision bombing capability, the Cyclone will counter the threat into the 21st Century. Here, it is shown that the Cyclone is a realistic, economical answer to the demand for a capable close air support aircraft.

  10. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  11. Biological warfare--an emerging threat.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Reshma; Shukla, S K; Dharmani, S; Gandhi, A

    2004-09-01

    As we approach the 21st century, there is an increasing worldwide awareness and threat regarding the use of biological warfare agents both for war and terrorist attack. Biological agents include microorganisms or biological toxins that are used to produce death in humans, animals and plants. They are characterized by low visibility, high potency, substantial accessibility and relatively easy delivery. Biological warfare agents are unconventional weapons that can be delivered by unconventional means like aerosol sprays, food and water contamination, conventional explosive munitions or by covert injections. Because of their concealed delivery, easy transportation and difficult identification they are readily adaptable for terrorist operations or to gain political advantages. The detection of such attack requires recognition of the clinical syndromes associated with various biological warfare agents. Diagnosis can be made on clinical grounds and on investigations. Protective measures can be taken against biological warfare agents. These should be implemented early (if warning is received) or later (once suspicion of agent use is made). After the confirmation of diagnosis emergency medical treatment and decontamination are performed in rapid sequence. Patients are then evacuated and specific therapy is given according to the agent involved. Appropriate emergency department and hospital response could significantly limit the morbidity and mortality of biological warfare agents.

  12. Space Shuttle MMOD Threat Mitigation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, J. L.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.; Kerr, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to each shuttle mission, threat assessments are performed to determine the risk of critical penetration, payload bay door radiator tube leak and crew module window replacement from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD). Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the analysis. Ballistic limit equations, based on hypervelocity impact testing of shuttle materials are used to estimate the critical particle diameters of the outer surfaces of the vehicle. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). The most critical involves the calculation of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) risk. An overview of significant MMOD impacts on the Payload Bay Door radiators, wing leading edge reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels and crew module windows will be presented, along with a discussion of the techniques NASA has implemented to reduce the risk from MMOD impacts. This paper will describe on-orbit inspection of the RCC regions and the methods used discern hypervelocity impact damage. Impact damage contingency plans and on-orbit repair techniques will also be discussed. The wing leading edge impact detection system (WLEIDS) and it s role in the reduction of on-orbit risk reduction will be presented. Finally, an analysis of alternative shuttle flight attitudes on MMOD risk will be demonstrated.

  13. Space Shuttle MMOD Threat Mitigation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Justin L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Kerr, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Prior to each shuttle mission, threat assessments are performed to determine the risk of critical penetration, payload bay door radiator tube leak and crew module window replacement from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD). Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the analysis. Ballistic limit equations, based on hypervelocity impact testing of shuttle materials are used to estimate the critical particle diameters of the outer surfaces of the vehicle. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). The most critical involves the calculation of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) risk. In recent years, NASA has implemented several techniques to reduce the risk to the Shuttle from MMOD impacts. This paper will describe on-orbit inspection of the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) regions and the methods used discern hypervelocity impact damage. Impact damage contingency plans and on-orbit repair techniques will also be discussed. The wing leading edge impact detection system (WLEIDS) and it's role in the reduction of on-orbit risk reduction will be presented. Finally, an analysis of the effectivity of alternative shuttle flight attitudes on MMOD risk will be demonstrated.

  14. Recognizing the real threat of biological terror.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Richard P

    2002-01-01

    Weapons of mass destruction can be used to harm and terrorize populations. Such weapons include those with chemical, nuclear or biological properties. Obviously computer viruses can add additional barriers to a quick response. The most effective, least costly and greatest threats are biologicals. Biological terror is not new, and biological weapons have been used for centuries. However, as a result of modern technology, the risks are greater now and the outcomes more terrible. Today they include live pathogens, various toxins, and theoretically "bioregulators"--biochemicals affecting cell signaling. Altered cell signaling could be used to induce apoptosis-cell death, or a heightened outpouring of cytokines mimicking overwhelming sepsis, or even an intracellular, biochemical "strike" causing cellular paralysis. Biological weaponeers now have the frightening ability to alter the genetic makeup of pathogens, rendering them resistant not only to available antibiotic therapy but also to currently effective vaccines. In dark corners of some fringe groups, bioweaponeers are searching for the capability of designing pathogens that target specific races, by virtue of discriminating ligands (1). The resulting morbidity and mortality from use of any biological weapons will be accompanied by chaos, governmental and social instability, panic, an extraordinary utilization of available resources, and an ongoing epidemic of sleepless nights (2,3). Herein I will review some of the issues and some of the currently available biological weapons. The major goal is to highlight the clinical presentations of patients with infections that could be used as biological weapons. PMID:12053717

  15. [Chikungunya fever - A new global threat].

    PubMed

    Montero, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The recent onset of epidemics caused by viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Lassa, coronavirus, West-Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue, yellow fever and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever alerts about the risk these agents represent for the global health. Chikungunya virus represents a new threat. Surged from remote African regions, this virus has become endemic in the Indic ocean basin, the Indian subcontinent and the southeast of Asia, causing serious epidemics in Africa, Indic Ocean Islands, Asia and Europe. Due to their epidemiological and biological features and the global presence of their vectors, chikungunya represents a serious menace and could become endemic in the Americas. Although chikungunya infection has a low mortality rate, its high attack ratio may collapse the health system during epidemics affecting a sensitive population. In this paper, we review the clinical and epidemiological features of chikungunya fever as well as the risk of its introduction into the Americas. We remark the importance of the epidemiological control and mosquitoes fighting in order to prevent this disease from being introduced into the Americas.

  16. Superluminous Supernovae: No Threat from Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Brian; Melott, A. L.; Fields, B. D.; Anthony-Twarog, B. J.

    2008-05-01

    Recently Supernova 2006gy was noted as the most luminous ever recorded, with a total radiated energy of 1044 Joules. It was proposed that the progenitor may have been a massive evolved star similar to η Carinae, which resides in our own galaxy at a distance of about 2.3 kpc. η Carinae appears ready to detonate. Although it is too distant to pose a serious threat as a normal supernova, and given its rotation axis is unlikely to produce a Gamma-Ray Burst oriented toward the Earth, η Carinae is about 30,000 times nearer than 2006gy, and we re-evaluate it as a potential superluminous supernova. We find that given the large ratio of emission in the optical to the X-ray, atmospheric effects are negligible. Ionization of the atmosphere and concomitant ozone depletion are unlikely to be important. Any cosmic ray effects should be spread out over 104 y, and similarly unlikely to produce any serious perturbation to the biosphere. We also discuss a new possible effect of supernovae, endocrine disruption induced by blue light near the peak of the optical spectrum. This is a possibility for nearby supernovae at distances too large to be considered "dangerous” for other reasons. However, due to reddening and extinction by the interstellar medium, η Carinae is unlikely to trigger such effects to any significant degree.

  17. Superluminous Supernovae: No Threat from η Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Brian C.; Melott, Adrian L.; Field, Brian D.; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.

    2008-02-01

    Recently, Supernova 2006gy was noted as the most luminous ever recorded, with a total radiated energy of 1044 Joules. It was proposed that the progenitor may have been a massive evolved star similar to η Carinae, which resides in our own Galaxy at a distance of about 2.3 kpc. η Carinae appears ready to detonate. Although it is too distant to pose a serious threat as a normal supernova, and given that its rotation axis is unlikely to produce a gamma-ray burst oriented toward Earth, η Carinae is about 30,000 times nearer than 2006gy, and we re-evaluate it as a potential superluminous supernova. We have found that, given the large ratio of emission in the optical to the X-ray, atmospheric effects are negligible. Ionization of the atmosphere and concomitant ozone depletion are unlikely to be important. Any cosmic ray effects should be spread out over 104 y and similarly unlikely to produce any serious perturbation to the biosphere. We also discuss a new possible effect of supernovaeendocrine disruption induced by blue light near the peak of the optical spectrum. This is a possibility for nearby supernovae at distances too large to be considered dangerous for other reasons. However, due to reddening and extinction by the interstellar medium, η Carinae is unlikely to trigger such effects to any significant degree.

  18. Gonococcal endocarditis: an ever-present threat

    PubMed Central

    Kawabata, Vitor Sérgio; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria; Felipe-Silva, Aloísio; de Lemos, Ana Paula Silva

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of severe complications of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection has presented variations over recent decades since the advent of penicillin. Gonococcal endocarditis (GE) still remains an ever-present threat afflicting the society’s poor and sexually active young population. This entity frequently requires surgical intervention and usually exhibits a poor outcome. The interval between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis does not usually exceed 4 weeks. One of the characteristics of GE is a proclivity for aortic valve involvement with large vegetation and valve ring abscess formation. The authors report the case of a young man with a 2-week history of fever, malaise, weakness, and progressive heart failure symptoms, who had no previous history of genital complaints or cardiopathy. The physical examination was consistent with acute aortic insufficiency, which was most probably of an infectious origin. The echocardiogram showed thickened aortic cusps and valve insufficiency. After hospital admission, the patient’s clinical status worsened rapidly and he died on the second day. The autopsy findings disclosed aortic valve destruction with vegetation and a ring abscess besides signs of septic shock, such as diffuse alveolar damage, acute tubular necrosis, and zone 3 hepatocellular necrosis. The blood culture isolated N. gonorrhoeae resistant to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. The authors call attention to the pathogen of this particular infectious endocarditis, and the need for early diagnosis and evaluation by a cardiac surgery team. PMID:27547739

  19. Integrated optic chip for laser threat identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2010-04-01

    In this conference last year, we proposed free-space gratings, Fizeau interferometers and wavefront estimation for detecting the different lasers deployed in the battlefield for range finding, target designation, communications, dazzle, location of targets, munitions guidance, and destruction. Since last year, advanced laser weapons of the electron cyclotron type, are in development, such as the free-electron laser, that are tunable and can, unlike conventional bound-electron state lasers, be used at any wavelength from microwaves to soft X-rays. We list the characteristics of the nine dominant laser weapons because we assume that the free-electron lasers will initially use one of the current threat wavelengths because of availability of components and instrumentation. In this paper we replace the free-space grating with a higher performing array waveguide grating integrated optic chip, similar to that used in telecommunications, because integrated circuits are more robust and less expensive. It consists of a star coupler that fans out amongst waveguides of different length followed by a star coupler that focuses different wavelengths to different outputs in order to separate them. Design equations are derived to cover a range of frequencies at specific frequency spacing relevant to this application.

  20. Gonococcal endocarditis: an ever-present threat.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Fernando Peixoto Ferraz; Kawabata, Vitor Sérgio; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria; Felipe-Silva, Aloísio; de Lemos, Ana Paula Silva

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of severe complications of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection has presented variations over recent decades since the advent of penicillin. Gonococcal endocarditis (GE) still remains an ever-present threat afflicting the society's poor and sexually active young population. This entity frequently requires surgical intervention and usually exhibits a poor outcome. The interval between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis does not usually exceed 4 weeks. One of the characteristics of GE is a proclivity for aortic valve involvement with large vegetation and valve ring abscess formation. The authors report the case of a young man with a 2-week history of fever, malaise, weakness, and progressive heart failure symptoms, who had no previous history of genital complaints or cardiopathy. The physical examination was consistent with acute aortic insufficiency, which was most probably of an infectious origin. The echocardiogram showed thickened aortic cusps and valve insufficiency. After hospital admission, the patient's clinical status worsened rapidly and he died on the second day. The autopsy findings disclosed aortic valve destruction with vegetation and a ring abscess besides signs of septic shock, such as diffuse alveolar damage, acute tubular necrosis, and zone 3 hepatocellular necrosis. The blood culture isolated N. gonorrhoeae resistant to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. The authors call attention to the pathogen of this particular infectious endocarditis, and the need for early diagnosis and evaluation by a cardiac surgery team. PMID:27547739

  1. Depressed mood enhances anxiety to unpredictable threat

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, OJ; Overstreet, C; Letkiewicz, A; Grillon, C

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety disorders (AD) are highly comorbid, but the reason for this comorbidity is unclear. One possibility is that they predispose one another. An informative way to examine interactions between disorders without the confounds present in patient populations is to manipulate the psychological processes thought to underlie the pathological states in healthy individuals. In this paper we therefore asked whether a model of the sad mood in depression can enhance psychophysiological responses (startle) to a model of the anxiety in AD. We predicted that sad mood would increase anxious anxiety-potentiated startle responses. Methods In a between-subjects design, participants (N=36) completed either a sad mood induction procedure (N=18) or neutral mood induction procedure (N=18). Startle responses were assessed during short duration predictable electric shock conditions (fear-potentiated startle) or long-duration unpredictable threat of shock conditions (anxiety-potentiated startle). Results Induced sadness enhanced anxiety-, but not fear- potentiated startle. Conclusions This study provides support for the hypothesis that sadness can increase anxious responding measured by the affective startle response. This, taken together with prior evidence that AD can contribute to depression, provides initial experimental support for the proposition that AD and depression are frequently comorbid because they may be mutually reinforcing. PMID:22088577

  2. The Practice of Campus-Based Threat Assessment: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Jeffrey W.; Nolan, Jeffrey J.; Deisinger, Eugene R. D.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of threat assessment and management as implemented on campuses of higher education. Standards of practice and state calls for implementation are cited. An overview of some of the basic principles for threat assessment and management implementation is accompanied by examples of how they are utilized. Pitfalls…

  3. Western threat perceptions: Implications for NATO nuclear planning

    SciTech Connect

    Thoemmes, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between NATO's perception of the Soviet threat and its military strategy and nuclear planning are examined. In particular, two mutually interactive relationships are assessed: (1) the extent to which NATO strategy and nuclear planning have been shaped by the objective Soviet threat, as opposed to subjective and internal factors; and (2) the extent to which NATO's perception and definition of that threat has been determined or influenced by Western preferences and constraints, i.e, by what NATO can or is willing to do in response. The Soviet threat per se is not examined; the threat is evaluated only in the context of NATO perceptions and planning. Nevertheless, since the nature of the Soviet threat has long been the subject of great debate, a variety of contending interpretations are assessed. This dissertation empirically evaluates a set of propositions derived from the historical record. Part One provides the historical context, reviewing chronologically the emergence of NATO's strategy, assumptions for war, and perceptions of the Soviet threat. Part Two focuses on the current NATO planning environment, Western perceptions, and contending interpretations of the Soviet threat.

  4. Bio-threat preparedness: Need for a paradigm shift

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, A.K.; Roy, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    India of late has been vulnerable to Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) threat, on account of its unique geographic position. Biological threat is an imminent threat in the hands of a terrorist. The public health system of our country is overburdened due to its present role and bio-attack response is not a priority area. This paper suggests that as the prime focus is on the CR and N threats in the integrated CBRN preparedness strategy and that specialized and technical forces are needed to deal with a bio-threat; hence there is a need for a paradigm shift in policy. The emerging field of bio-threat needs to be delinked from the joint family of ‘CBRN’, with consequent structural and functional changes. A separate specialized cadre needs to be formed for dealing with bio-threat, created from the pool of doctors and non-medical scientists from the AFMS and the DRDO. Structural changes are needed in the organization, to bring in the resources of NCDC, New Delhi for enhanced disease surveillance capacity and creation of a bio-threat mitigation node in the AFMC, Pune. PMID:24843207

  5. Ultrasociality, class, threat, and intentionality in human society.

    PubMed

    McCain, Roger A

    2016-01-01

    Gowdy & Krall neglect an important aspect of human societies, which is that class systems are not genetically based but rather based on threat. In turn, threat presupposes intentionality, so seems to distinguish human from arthropod ultrasociality. Class systems, in turn, seem to explain the distinctive mixture of persistence and instability characteristic of human, but not arthropod, ultrasocial populations. PMID:27561750

  6. Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities

    PubMed Central

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M.; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A.; Davenport, Tim R. B.; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A.; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C.; Holbech, Lars H.; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K.; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G.; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J.; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M.; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  7. 49 CFR 1540.205 - Procedures for security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION... TSA determines that the applicant meets the security threat assessment standards in 49 CFR 1540.201(c... the applicant does not meet the security threat assessment standards in 49 CFR 1540.201(c)....

  8. Investigating Hypervigilance for Social Threat of Lonely Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualter, Pamela; Rotenberg, Ken; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, Peter; Barlow, Alexandra; Stylianou, Maria; Harris, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that lonely children show hypervigilance for social threat was examined in a series of three studies that employed different methods including advanced eye-tracking technology. Hypervigilance for social threat was operationalized as hostility to ambiguously motivated social exclusion in a variation of the hostile attribution…

  9. Political homogeneity can nurture threats to research validity.

    PubMed

    Chambers, John R; Schlenker, Barry R

    2015-01-01

    Political homogeneity within a scientific field nurtures threats to the validity of many research conclusions by allowing ideologically compatible values to influence interpretations, by minimizing skepticism, and by creating premature consensus. Although validity threats can crop in any research, the usual corrective activities in science are more likely to be minimized and delayed.

  10. 77 FR 73516 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...), respectively, and the Presidential Memorandum of September 23, 2010 (75 FR 67025), shall submit the request to... and III of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012. DATES: Effective Date...), to implement sections of Titles II and III of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act...

  11. Soviet military power: an assessment of the threat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Contents include: the nature of the Soviet threat--Soviet national-security policies; Soviet foreign policy under Gorbachev; military resources allocation; Soviet strategic programs and space forces; Soviet conventional forces; an assessment of the threat--the strategic balance; regional and functional balances; research and development: the technological competition; collective security: our risks and responsibilities.

  12. A Stereotype Threat Account of Boys' Academic Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Bonny L.; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged…

  13. Superior Detection of Threat-Relevant Stimuli in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoBue, Vanessa; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to quickly detect potential threat is an important survival mechanism for humans and other animals. Past research has established that adults have an attentional bias for the detection of threat-relevant stimuli, including snakes and spiders as well as angry human faces. Recent studies have documented that preschool children also…

  14. Threat Level High (School): Curriculum Reform with Violence in Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, T. Elijah; Twemlow, Stuart W.

    2015-01-01

    When school communities are troubled by violence, or threats of violence, at the hands of young people, educators have an opportunity to learn about aggression and adolescent identity development. A disturbing threat incident provides the point of departure for this principal's reflection on how high school curriculum can better meet the identity…

  15. 41 CFR 60-300.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Direct threat defense. 60-300.22 Section 60-300.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor may use as...

  16. 41 CFR 60-250.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Direct threat defense. 60-250.22 Section 60-250.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor may use as...

  17. 41 CFR 60-741.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Direct threat defense. 60-741.22 Section 60-741.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor...

  18. Lack of Stereotype Threat at a Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivardo, Mark G.; Rhodes, Michael E.; Klein, Brandi

    2008-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been demonstrated to reduce the performance of stereotyped individuals in the threatened domain (Steele & Aronson, 1995). This study attempted to replicate the finding that stereotype threat instruction can erase the performance deficit women experience in math performance (Johns, Schmader, & Martens, 2005) and to further…

  19. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    PubMed

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

  20. Ultrasociality, class, threat, and intentionality in human society.

    PubMed

    McCain, Roger A

    2016-01-01

    Gowdy & Krall neglect an important aspect of human societies, which is that class systems are not genetically based but rather based on threat. In turn, threat presupposes intentionality, so seems to distinguish human from arthropod ultrasociality. Class systems, in turn, seem to explain the distinctive mixture of persistence and instability characteristic of human, but not arthropod, ultrasocial populations.

  1. Research in Review. Children Living with the Nuclear Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifel, Stuart

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the literature on children and the threat of nuclear war, focusing on four areas: awareness of nuclear weapons, fear of the bomb, influences on personality, and denial of the threat. The research is briefly critiqued, and implications for early childhood are drawn. (RH)

  2. Creating Safe Learning Zones: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This report is a follow-up to the first publication of the Child Proofing Our Communities Campaign, titled "Poisoned Schools: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions." The previous report looked at the problems of public schools built on contaminated land years ago, the trend of proposing new schools on contaminated land, and the threat of toxic…

  3. Understanding and managing human threats to the coastal marine environment.

    PubMed

    Crain, Caitlin M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Beck, Mike W; Kappel, Carrie V

    2009-04-01

    Coastal marine habitats at the interface of land and sea are subject to threats from human activities in both realms. Researchers have attempted to quantify how these various threats impact different coastal ecosystems, and more recently have focused on understanding the cumulative impact from multiple threats. Here, the top threats to coastal marine ecosystems and recent efforts to understand their relative importance, ecosystem-level impacts, cumulative effects, and how they can best be managed and mitigated, are briefly reviewed. Results of threat analysis and rankings will differ depending on the conservation target (e.g., vulnerable species, pristine ecosystems, mitigatable threats), scale of interest (local, regional, or global), whether externalities are considered, and the types of management tools available (e.g., marine-protected areas versus ecosystem-based management). Considering the cumulative effect of multiple threats has only just begun and depends on spatial analysis to predict overlapping threats and a better understanding of multiple-stressor effects and interactions. Emerging conservation practices that hold substantial promise for protecting coastal marine systems include multisector approaches, such as ecosystem-based management (EBM), that account for ecosystem service valuation; comprehensive spatial management, such as ocean zoning; and regulatory mechanisms that encourage or require cross-sector goal setting and evaluation. In all cases, these efforts require a combination of public and private initiatives for success. The state of our ecological understanding, public awareness, and policy initiatives make the time ripe for advancing coastal marine management and improving our stewardship of coastal and marine ecosystems.

  4. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    PubMed

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  5. Is Academic Freedom a Threat to Teaching Introductory Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Donald P.

    2005-01-01

    Graves (2005) suggested that academic freedom might impede efforts to improve institutional performance and achieve the goals set for learning outcomes, cost efficiency, and preparing students for the workplace. The author's initial response to threats to academic freedom and calls for efficiency is to bristle, because he views these as threats to…

  6. Does Manipulating Stereotype Threat Condition Change Performance Goal State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Cecil Max

    2010-01-01

    This study tested whether the Stereotype Threat effect is mediated by achievement goals, in particular performance-avoidance goals. Threat level was altered before a difficult math test to observe how the endorsement by females of various achievement goal dimensions was affected. 222 people (96 females) in a pre-calculus class at a Mid-Western…

  7. An Integrated Process Model of Stereotype Threat Effects on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmader, Toni; Johns, Michael; Forbes, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Research showing that activation of negative stereotypes can impair the performance of stigmatized individuals on a wide variety of tasks has proliferated. However, a complete understanding of the processes underlying these stereotype threat effects on behavior is still lacking. The authors examine stereotype threat in the context of research on…

  8. An examination of stereotype threat effects on girls' mathematics performance.

    PubMed

    Ganley, Colleen M; Mingle, Leigh A; Ryan, Allison M; Ryan, Katherine; Vasilyeva, Marina; Perry, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    Stereotype threat has been proposed as 1 potential explanation for the gender difference in standardized mathematics test performance among high-performing students. At present, it is not entirely clear how susceptibility to stereotype threat develops, as empirical evidence for stereotype threat effects across the school years is inconsistent. In a series of 3 studies, with a total sample of 931 students, we investigated stereotype threat effects during childhood and adolescence. Three activation methods were used, ranging from implicit to explicit. Across studies, we found no evidence that the mathematics performance of school-age girls was impacted by stereotype threat. In 2 of the studies, there were gender differences on the mathematics assessment regardless of whether stereotype threat was activated. Potential reasons for these findings are discussed, including the possibility that stereotype threat effects only occur in very specific circumstances or that they are in fact occurring all the time. We also address the possibility that the literature regarding stereotype threat in children is subject to publication bias.

  9. Attention Bias toward Threat in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Amy Krain; Vasa, Roma A.; Bruck, Maggie; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Sweeney, Michael; Bergman, R. Lindsey; McClure-Tone, Erin B.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    Attention bias towards threat faces is examined for a large sample of anxiety-disordered youths using visual probe task. The results showed that anxious individuals showed a selective bias towards threat due to perturbation in neural mechanisms that control vigilance.

  10. Threat-Related Attentional Bias in Anxious Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puliafico, Anthony C.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2006-01-01

    The research literature suggests that children and adolescents suffering from anxiety disorders experience cognitive distortions that magnify their perceived level of threat in the environment. Of these distortions, an attentional bias toward threat-related information has received the most theoretical and empirical consideration. A large volume…

  11. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  12. Trait anxiety and conflict monitoring following threat: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Chen, Chao-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Threat-related attentional disruptions in anxiety may relate to changes in cognitive control during task processing. The present study examined this question using the N2 event-related brain potential. It was predicted that threat stimuli will selectively influence the N2 for those showing elevated trait anxiety and that reduced N2 may reflect a compensatory process predicting better attention performance. EEG was recorded while 36 participants completed a cued flanker task with threat or nonthreat distracters. N2 amplitudes were greater to incongruent versus congruent flankers. Following threat, high trait anxious participants showed reduced modulation of the N2 by flanker type and greater N2 amplitudes to congruent flankers. Reduced N2 was associated with better attention performance. This study was among the first documenting the emotional modulation of the N2 related to the threat bias and its links with attention interference in anxiety. PMID:19055504

  13. Instantaneous threat escape and differentiated refuge demand among zooplankton taxa.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Lars-Anders; Bianco, Giuseppe; Ekvall, Mikael; Heuschele, Jan; Hylander, Samuel; Yang, Xi

    2016-02-01

    Most animals, including aquatic crustacean zooplankton, perform strong avoidance movements when exposed to a threat, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We here show that the genera Daphnia and Bosmina instantly adjust their vertical position in the water in accordance with the present UVR threat, i.e., seek refuge in deeper waters, whereas other taxa show less response to the threat. Moreover, Daphnia repeatedly respond to UVR pulses, suggesting that they spend more energy on movement than more stationary taxa, for example, during days with fluctuating cloud cover, illustrating nonlethal effects in avoiding UVR threat. Accordingly, we also show that the taxa with the most contrasting behavioral responses differ considerably in photoprotection, suggesting different morphological and behavioral strategies in handling the UVR threat. In a broader context, our studies on individual and taxa specific responses to UVR provide insights into observed spatial and temporal distribution in natural ecosystems. PMID:27145603

  14. Personality and defensive reactions: fear, trait anxiety, and threat magnification.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Adam M; Cooper, Andrew; Abdelall, Maura; Smillie, Luke D; Corr, Philip J

    2010-06-01

    The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (rRST) of personality (Gray & McNaughton, 2000) maintains that trait individual differences in the operation of defensive systems relate to facets of human personality, most notably anxiety and fear. We investigated this theory in 2 separate studies (total N=270) using a threat scenario research strategy (Blanchard, Hynd, Minke, Minemoto, & Blanchard, 2001). Consistent with rRST, results showed that individuals with high fear questionnaire scores tended to select defensive responses entailing orientation away from threat (e.g., run away) and that fear-prone individuals also tended to perceive threats as magnified. The extent of this threat magnification mediated the positive association observed between fear and orientation away from threat. Overall, results suggest that interindividual variance in defensive reactions is associated with a variety of existing personality constructs but that further research is required to determine the precise relationship between personality and defensive reactions.

  15. Perceived control qualifies the effects of threat on prejudice.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Louis, Winnifred R; Hornsey, Matthew J; Jones, Janelle M

    2014-09-01

    People sometimes show a tendency to lash out in a prejudiced manner when they feel threatened. This research shows that the relationship between threat and prejudice is moderated by people's levels of perceived control: Threat leads to prejudice only when people feel concurrently low in control. In two studies, terrorist threat was associated with heightened prejudice among people who were low in perceived control over the threat (Study 1; N = 87) or over their lives in general (Study 2; N = 2,394), but was not associated with prejudice among people who were high in perceived control. Study 3 (N = 139) replicated this finding experimentally in the context of the Global Financial Crisis. The research identifies control as an important ingredient in threatening contexts that, if bolstered, can reduce general tendencies to lash out under threat. PMID:24006898

  16. Perceived control qualifies the effects of threat on prejudice.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Louis, Winnifred R; Hornsey, Matthew J; Jones, Janelle M

    2014-09-01

    People sometimes show a tendency to lash out in a prejudiced manner when they feel threatened. This research shows that the relationship between threat and prejudice is moderated by people's levels of perceived control: Threat leads to prejudice only when people feel concurrently low in control. In two studies, terrorist threat was associated with heightened prejudice among people who were low in perceived control over the threat (Study 1; N = 87) or over their lives in general (Study 2; N = 2,394), but was not associated with prejudice among people who were high in perceived control. Study 3 (N = 139) replicated this finding experimentally in the context of the Global Financial Crisis. The research identifies control as an important ingredient in threatening contexts that, if bolstered, can reduce general tendencies to lash out under threat.

  17. Dissociated neural effects of cortisol depending on threat escapability.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Estrella R; van Honk, Jack; Bos, Peter A; Terburg, David

    2015-11-01

    Evolution has provided us with a highly flexible neuroendocrine threat system which, depending on threat imminence, switches between active escape and passive freezing. Cortisol, the "stress-hormone", is thought to play an important role in both fear behaviors, but the exact mechanisms are not understood. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging we investigated how cortisol modulates the brain's fear systems when humans are under virtual-predator attack. We show dissociated neural effects of cortisol depending on whether escape from threat is possible. During inescapable threat cortisol reduces fear-related midbrain activity, whereas in anticipation of active escape cortisol boosts activity in the frontal salience network (insula and anterior cingulate cortex), which is involved in autonomic control, visceral perception and motivated action. Our findings suggest that cortisol adjusts the human neural threat system from passive fear to active escape, which illuminates the hormone's crucial role in the adaptive flexibility of fear behaviors.

  18. Unhealthy interactions: the role of stereotype threat in health disparities.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Joshua; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M; Juarez, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors.

  19. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  20. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia; Rolando, Antonio; Girardello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds). For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community. PMID:26966659

  1. Public health and bioterrorism: renewed threat of anthrax and smallpox.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Arūne; Luksiene, Zivile; Zagminas, Kestutis; Surkiene, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Bioterrorism is one of the main public health categorical domains. According to sociological analytics, in postmodern society terrorism is one of the real threats of the 21st century. While rare, the use of biological weapons has a long history. Recently, anthrax has been evaluated as one of the most dangerous biological weapons. Naturally occurring anthrax in humans is a disease acquired from contact with anthrax-infected animals or anthrax-contaminated animal products. Usually anthrax infection occurs in humans by three major routes: inhalational, cutaneous, and gastrointestinal. Inhalational anthrax is expected to account for most serious morbidity and most mortality. The clinical presentation of inhalation anthrax has been described as a two-stage illness. Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis. Antibiotics, anthrax globulin, corticosteroids, mechanical ventilation, vaccine are possible tools of therapy. Smallpox existed in two forms: variola major, which accounted for most morbidity and mortality, and a milder form, variola minor. Smallpox spreads from person to person primarily by droplet nuclei or aerosols expelled from the oropharynx of infected persons and by direct contact. In the event of limited outbreak with few cases, patients should be admitted to the hospital and confined to rooms that are under negative pressure and equipped with high-efficiency particulate air filtration. In larger outbreaks, home isolation and care should be the objective for most patients. Progress in detection, suitable vaccines, postexposure prophylaxis, infection control, and decontamination might be serious tools in fight against the most powerful biological weapon. To assure that the public health and healthcare system can respond to emergencies, the government should direct resources to strengthen the emergency-response system, create medication stockpiles, and improve the public health infrastructure. PMID:17485954

  2. Coupling measurement and lightning threat assessment report for Pantex Cell 12-44-1

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, Mike; Anderson, Robert

    1998-09-01

    This report is the first of a series that will quantify the lightning threat to the Pantex Plant where high-risk operations occur. More information can be found in the report written by the Lightning Protection Team [1] and Sandia National Laboratory documents. Low-power RF coupling measurements were completed on Cell 12-44-1 in May 1998. These measurements quantify the voltage and current levels that could leak into the cell from possible lightning strike points. Cell 1 is representative of the most "leaky" class of cells at Pantex because the floor was not intentionally electrically connected to the walls. From the measurement data, linear models were developed. These transfer functions allow us to calculate the effect in the cell from the much higher power lightning threat. Two types of coupling paths were characterized: (1) external ventilation stack to cell interior and (2) cell ceiling to other cell elements. For the maximum lightning threat [2], an estimate of the maximum cell-to-floor voltage is 150 kV. The extrapolated voltage levels at normal working heights are lower. The potential between the air duct and the electro-static ground is estimated to be 4 kV. A secondary goal was to compare results with Sandia as a quality control check. While the estimated maximum ceiling-to-floor voltages are similar, the comparison was limited by high-frequency resonances on the drive wire.

  3. Costly retaliation is promoted by threats to resources in women and threats to status in men.

    PubMed

    Geniole, Shawn N; Cunningham, Cody E; Keyes, Amanda E; Busseri, Michael A; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2015-01-01

    What motivates people to act against their own self-interest? In men, what seems to be irrational decision-making in the short-term may be explained by other long-term benefits; thus retaliation may not be motivated by tangible costs, but instead intangible psychological variables (e.g., status threats). In contrast, there is evidence that women are more sensitive to tangible costs than are men. In Experiment 1, using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP), we tested the prediction that in men, the frequency of provocation, and not the monetary loss (tangible cost), would be associated with retaliation, whereas women would be sensitive to the tangible costs. In keeping with the prediction, women (n = 80) who incurred greater tangible costs (irrespective of frequency) retaliated with more costly punishment, whereas men (n = 90) who were provoked more frequently (irrespective of tangible costs) retaliated with more costly punishment. In Experiment 2, we directly investigated whether women were more sensitive to threats to resources and men were more sensitive to threats to status, as suggested by the results of Experiment 1. Women's (n = 53) retaliation was greater when they reported it to be a means to protect their resources, and men's (n = 35) retaliation was greater when they reported it to be a means to protect their status. Thus, these results identify psychological variables that guide retaliation that is costly to the actor. Consistent with evolutionary perspectives, concerns about status appear to drive costly retaliatory behavior more so in men than in women. PMID:25832315

  4. The moderating role of age-group identification and perceived threat on stereotype threat among older adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sonia K; Chasteen, Alison L

    2009-01-01

    Although research has shown that older adults are negatively affected by aging stereotypes, relatively few studies have attempted to identify those older adults who may be especially susceptible to these effects. The current research takes steps toward identifying older adults most susceptible to the effects of stereotype threat and investigates the consequence of stereotype threat on the well-being of older adults. Older adults were tested on their recall of a prose passage under normal or stereotype threatening conditions. Memory decrements for those in the threat condition were moderated by perceived stereotype threat such that greater decrements were seen for those who reported greater perceived threat. A similar pattern was observed for negative emotion, such that those in the threat condition who reported higher perceptions of threat experienced a greater decrease in positive emotions. Age group identification also proved to be an important factor, with the strongly identified performing worse than the weakly identified. As well, high age-group identification buffered some of the negative affective consequences associated with stereotype threat, which is consistent with some models of coping with stigma.

  5. Erasing fear for an imagined threat event.

    PubMed

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2012-11-01

    Although memory for emotionally arousing and stressful experiences is strong and resistant to change, recent years have witnessed rapidly emerging evidence for the plasticity of fear memories. Upon retrieval a memory may be rendered labile and vulnerable to the disruptive effects of amnestic agents. This process is referred to as "disrupting reconsolidation" and may point to a novel therapeutic strategy for the permanent reduction of fear in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. However, the fear-reducing effects are thus far only demonstrated for freezing reactions in rodents and autonomic fear responding in humans. If disrupting reconsolidation will be of value for clinical practice, it should also target the subjective feelings of anxiety. Using an instructed fear-learning paradigm in humans, we here tested whether disrupting reconsolidation would diminish the subjective feelings of anxiety for a noxious event that was anticipated but never actually experienced. Beta-adrenergic receptor blockade during reconsolidation strongly diminished the behavioral expression of the instructed fear memory (i.e., startle responding) as well as the subjective feelings of anxiety 24h later, yet without affecting both the physiological and cognitive component of the anticipation of threat (i.e., skin conductance responding, expectancy ratings). Together, the present findings suggest that the various memory traces of a learned fear association do not necessarily undergo reconsolidation in harmony. Considering that patients with anxiety disorders (1) often fear objects and situations that they have never actually experienced, and (2) primarily suffer from the subjective feelings of anxiety, the present findings may have important ramifications for psychotherapy. PMID:22503387

  6. Garlic: nature's protection against physiological threats.

    PubMed

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Butt, Mehmood S; Iqbal, Javaid

    2009-06-01

    Currently reliance on natural products is gaining popularity to combat various physiological threats including oxidative stress, cardiovascular complexities, cancer insurgence, and immune dysfunction. The use of traditional remedies may encounter more frequently due to an array of scientific evidence in their favor. Garlic (Allium sativum) holds a unique position in history and was recognized for its therapeutic potential. Recent advancements in the field of immunonutrition, physiology, and pharmacology further explored its importance as a functional food against various pathologies. Extensive research work has been carried out on the health promoting properties of garlic, often referred to its sulfur containing metabolites i.e. allicin and its derivatives. Garlic in its preparations are effective against health risks and even used as dietary supplements such as age garlic extract (AGE) and garlic oil etc. Its components/formulations can scavenge free radicals and protect membranes from damage and maintains cell integrity. It also provides cardiovascular protection mediated by lowering of cholesterol, blood pressure, anti-platelet activities, and thromboxane formation thus providing protection against atherosclerosis and associated disorders. Besides this, it possesses antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties that are interesting in chemopreventive interventions. Several mechanisms have been reviewed in this context like activation of detoxification phase-I and II enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and reducing DNA damage etc. Garlic could be useful in preventing the suppression of immune response associated with increased risk of malignancy as it stimulates the proliferation of lymphocytes, macrophage phagocytosis, stimulates the release of interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and enhances natural killer cells. In this paper much emphasis has been placed on garlic's ability to ameliorate oxidative stress, core role

  7. Chemical-Sensing Cables Detect Potential Threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Intelligent Optical Systems Inc. (IOS) completed Phase I and II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA's Langley Research Center to develop moisture- and pH-sensitive sensors to detect corrosion or pre-corrosive conditions, warning of potentially dangerous conditions before significant structural damage occurs. This new type of sensor uses a specially manufactured optical fiber whose entire length is chemically sensitive, changing color in response to contact with its target, and demonstrated to detect potentially corrosive moisture incursions to within 2 cm. After completing the work with NASA, the company received a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Phase III SBIR to develop the sensors further for detecting chemical warfare agents, for which they proved just as successful. The company then worked with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to fine tune the sensors for detecting potential threats, such as toxic industrial compounds and nerve agents. In addition to the work with government agencies, Intelligent Optical Systems has sold the chemically sensitive fiber optic cables to major automotive and aerospace companies, who are finding a variety of uses for the devices. Marketed under the brand name Distributed Intrinsic Chemical Agent Sensing and Transmission (DICAST), these unique continuous-cable fiber optic chemical sensors can serve in a variety of applications: Corrosive-condition monitoring, aiding experimentation with nontraditional power sources, as an economical means of detecting chemical release in large facilities, as an inexpensive "alarm" systems to alert the user to a change in the chemical environment anywhere along the cable, or in distance-resolved optical time domain reflectometry systems to provide detailed profiles of chemical concentration versus length.

  8. Recognizing the real threat of biological terror.

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Richard P.

    2002-01-01

    Weapons of mass destruction can be used to harm and terrorize populations. Such weapons include those with chemical, nuclear or biological properties. Obviously computer viruses can add additional barriers to a quick response. The most effective, least costly and greatest threats are biologicals. Biological terror is not new, and biological weapons have been used for centuries. However, as a result of modern technology, the risks are greater now and the outcomes more terrible. Today they include live pathogens, various toxins, and theoretically "bioregulators"--biochemicals affecting cell signaling. Altered cell signaling could be used to induce apoptosis-cell death, or a heightened outpouring of cytokines mimicking overwhelming sepsis, or even an intracellular, biochemical "strike" causing cellular paralysis. Biological weaponeers now have the frightening ability to alter the genetic makeup of pathogens, rendering them resistant not only to available antibiotic therapy but also to currently effective vaccines. In dark corners of some fringe groups, bioweaponeers are searching for the capability of designing pathogens that target specific races, by virtue of discriminating ligands (1). The resulting morbidity and mortality from use of any biological weapons will be accompanied by chaos, governmental and social instability, panic, an extraordinary utilization of available resources, and an ongoing epidemic of sleepless nights (2,3). Herein I will review some of the issues and some of the currently available biological weapons. The major goal is to highlight the clinical presentations of patients with infections that could be used as biological weapons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:12053717

  9. How Does Air Pollution Threaten Basic Human Rights? The Case Study of Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmedova, Aylin Hasanova

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between air pollution and human rights. It investigates whether air pollution threatens basic human rights such as the right to health, life, and the environment. Air pollution represents a major threat both to health and to the environment. Despite the adoption of numerous…

  10. Driving Less for Better Air: Impacts of a Public Information Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gary T.; Gordon, Craig S.

    2003-01-01

    In the wake of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, localities across the United States initiated public information campaigns both to raise awareness of threats to air quality and to change behavior related to air pollution by recommending specific behavioral changes in the campaign messages. These campaigns are designed to reduce the health…

  11. Stereotype threat can both enhance and impair older adults' memory.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-12-01

    Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults' memory via stereotype threat; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. In two experiments, we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts of stereotype threat: executive-control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about age-related memory declines or not under such threat. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive-control-interference account predicts that stereotype threat decreases the availability of executive-control resources and hence should impair working memory performance. The regulatory-fit account predicts that threat induces a prevention focus, which should impair performance when gains are emphasized but improve performance when losses are emphasized. Results were consistent only with the regulatory-fit account. Although stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults' working memory performance when remembering led to gains, it significantly improved performance when forgetting led to losses. PMID:24150969

  12. Application of modified threat reduction assessments in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Matar, Diane A; Anthony, Brandon P

    2010-10-01

    Worldwide efforts have concentrated on developing monitoring methods that would enhance the assessment of progress toward achieving the 2010 conservation objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Threat reduction assessment is one such method. It provides an indirect measure of the effects of a conservation project by evaluating changes in human-induced direct threats to protected areas. We applied modified threat reduction assessments and the 2008 International Union for Conservation of Nature standardized lexicon for classification of threats to Horsh Ehden and Al-Shouf Cedar nature reserves in Lebanon. Our goal was in part to test the suitability of this tool for improving monitoring and management effectiveness of protected forests in Lebanon. In Horsh Ehden, composite threats decreased by 24% from 1997 to 2002, and then increased from 2002 to 2009 by 78% in the core area of the reserve and by 118% in the reserve's buffer zone (surrounds core area, conservation and recreational activities allowed). In Al-Shouf Cedar reserve threats decreased by 51% from 2006 to 2009. Management teams from both reserves have integrated the use of this method to prioritize actions for new management plans. We believe that in Lebanon and other countries with limited resources and weak monitoring programs or that are experiencing political instability threat reduction assessments could be used to improve the effectiveness of protected areas management.

  13. The Consequences of Chronic Stereotype Threat: Domain Disidentification and Abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s “leak” from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat. PMID:22746674

  14. Attention Training and the Threat Bias: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Toole, Laura; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety is characterized by exaggerated attention to threat. Several studies suggest that this threat bias plays a causal role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Furthermore, although the threat bias can be reduced in anxious individuals and induced in non-anxious individual, the attentional mechanisms underlying these changes remain unclear. To address this issue, 49 non-anxious adults were randomly assigned to either attentional training toward or training away from threat using a modified version of the dot probe task. Behavioral measures of attentional biases were also generated pre- and post-training using the dot probe task. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were generated to threat and non-threat face pairs and probes during pre- and post-training assessments. Effects of training on behavioral measures of the threat bias were significant, but only for those participants showing pre-training biases. Attention training also influenced early spatial attention, as measured by post-training P1 amplitudes to cues. Results illustrate the importance of taking pre-training attention biases in non-anxious individuals into account when evaluating the effects of attention training and tracking physiological changes in attention following training. PMID:22083026

  15. Manipulating cardiovascular indices of challenge and threat using resource appraisals.

    PubMed

    Turner, Martin J; Jones, Marc V; Sheffield, David; Barker, Jamie B; Coffee, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Challenge and threat reflect two distinct psychophysiological approaches to motivated performance situations. Challenge is related to superior performance in a range of tasks compared to threat, thus methods to promote challenge are valuable. In this paper we manipulate challenge and threat cardiovascular reactivity using only resource appraisals, without altering perceived task demands between challenge and threat conditions. Study 1 used a competitive throwing task and Study 2 used a physically demanding climbing task. In both studies challenge task instructions led to challenge cardiovascular reactivity and threat task instructions led to threat cardiovascular reactivity. In Study 1, participants who received challenge instructions performed better than participants who received threat instructions. In Study 2, attendance at the climbing task did not differ across groups. The findings have implications for stress management in terms of focusing on manipulating appraisals of upcoming tasks by promoting self-efficacy and perceived control and focusing on approach goals. Future research could more reliably assess the influence of similar task instructions on performance. PMID:25036595

  16. Manipulating cardiovascular indices of challenge and threat using resource appraisals.

    PubMed

    Turner, Martin J; Jones, Marc V; Sheffield, David; Barker, Jamie B; Coffee, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Challenge and threat reflect two distinct psychophysiological approaches to motivated performance situations. Challenge is related to superior performance in a range of tasks compared to threat, thus methods to promote challenge are valuable. In this paper we manipulate challenge and threat cardiovascular reactivity using only resource appraisals, without altering perceived task demands between challenge and threat conditions. Study 1 used a competitive throwing task and Study 2 used a physically demanding climbing task. In both studies challenge task instructions led to challenge cardiovascular reactivity and threat task instructions led to threat cardiovascular reactivity. In Study 1, participants who received challenge instructions performed better than participants who received threat instructions. In Study 2, attendance at the climbing task did not differ across groups. The findings have implications for stress management in terms of focusing on manipulating appraisals of upcoming tasks by promoting self-efficacy and perceived control and focusing on approach goals. Future research could more reliably assess the influence of similar task instructions on performance.

  17. Technosocial Modeling of IED Threat Scenarios and Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Paul D.; Brothers, Alan J.; Coles, Garill A.; Young, Jonathan; Wolf, Katherine E.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Niesen, David A.; Madsen, John M.; Henderson, Cynthia L.

    2009-03-23

    This paper describes an approach for integrating sociological and technical models to develop more complete threat assessment. Current approaches to analyzing and addressing threats tend to focus on the technical factors. This paper addresses development of predictive models that encompass behavioral as well as these technical factors. Using improvised explosive device (IED) attacks as motivation, this model supports identification of intervention activities 'left of boom' as well as prioritizing attack modalities. We show how Bayes nets integrate social factors associated with IED attacks into general threat model containing technical and organizational steps from planning through obtaining the IED to initiation of the attack. The social models are computationally-based representations of relevant social science literature that describes human decision making and physical factors. When combined with technical models, the resulting model provides improved knowledge integration into threat assessment for monitoring. This paper discusses the construction of IED threat scenarios, integration of diverse factors into an analytical framework for threat assessment, indicator identification for future threats, and future research directions.

  18. The consequences of chronic stereotype threat: domain disidentification and abandonment.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P Wesley

    2012-10-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s "leak" from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat.

  19. Stereotype threat can both enhance and impair older adults' memory.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-12-01

    Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults' memory via stereotype threat; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. In two experiments, we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts of stereotype threat: executive-control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about age-related memory declines or not under such threat. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive-control-interference account predicts that stereotype threat decreases the availability of executive-control resources and hence should impair working memory performance. The regulatory-fit account predicts that threat induces a prevention focus, which should impair performance when gains are emphasized but improve performance when losses are emphasized. Results were consistent only with the regulatory-fit account. Although stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults' working memory performance when remembering led to gains, it significantly improved performance when forgetting led to losses.

  20. A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

  1. Threat from Rubble-Pile Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    Artemieva, 2004]. The "needle model" for the Carancas meteorite entry, however, raises questions about this lower limit for threats by rubble-pile asteroids, e.g., Itokawa. Consequently, we modeled the fate of a rubble-pile entering earth's atmosphere using GEODYN, an Eulerian code with adaptive mesh refinement (Antoun et al., 2001).

  2. Simulation and modeling for military air operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreichauf, Ruth D.; Bedros, Saad; Ateskan, Yusuf; Hespanha, Joao; Kizilocak, Hakan

    2001-09-01

    The Joint Forces Air Component Commander (JFACC) in military air operations controls the allocation of resources (wings, squadrons, air defense systems, AWACS) to different geographical locations in the theater of operations. The JFACC mission is to define a sequence of tasks for the aerospace systems at each location, and providing feedback control for the execution of these tasks in the presence of uncertainties and a hostile enemy. Honeywell Labs has been developing an innovative method for control of military air operations. The novel model predictive control (MPC) method extends the models and optimization algorithms utilized in traditional model predictive control systems. The enhancements include a tasking controller and, in a joint effort with USC, a probabilistic threat/survival map indicating high threat regions for aircraft and suggesting optimal routes to avoid these regions. A simulation/modeling environment using object-oriented methodologies has been developed to serve as an aide to demonstrate the value of MPC and facilitate its development. The simulation/modeling environment is based on an open architecture that enables the integration, evaluation, and implementation of different control approaches. The simulation offers a graphical user interface displaying the battlefield, the control performance, and a probability map displaying high threat regions. This paper describes the features of the different control approaches and their integration into the simulation environment.

  3. Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposure. Municipal water treatment facilities would be measurably less effective. Some replicating (infectious) agents and a few biotoxins are inactivated by chlorine disinfection; for others chlorine is ineffective or of unknown efficacy. This report assesses the state of our knowledge of agents as potable water threats and contemplates the consequences of intentional or collateral contamination of potable water supplies by 18 replicating agents and 9 biotoxins known or likely to be weaponized or otherwise used as threats. PMID:10585901

  4. Reassessing Biological Threats: Implications for Cooperative Mitigation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Summer Elise; Petzing, Stephanie Rachel; Young, Catharine Grace

    2015-01-01

    Multiple factors ranging from globalization to ecosystem disruption are presenting the global community with evolving biological threats to local, national, and global security that reach beyond the realm of traditional bioweapon threats. As a result, mitigation strategies have adapted necessarily to the increased diversity of biological threats. In general, response and preparedness strategies have largely shifted from being primarily reactive to traditional biological weapons to more proactive in nature. In this review, we briefly explore biological threats through a wider aperture, to embrace a greater appreciation of viral pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and agricultural pathogens, and their potential to cause civil, economic, and political devastation. In addition, we discuss current mitigation strategies codified by the Global Health Security Agenda and the One Health paradigm as well as some of the available tools to assist with their sustainable implementation. PMID:26649289

  5. Death Threats and a Sit-In Divide Penn State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes how death threats against black students at Penn State prompted an extended sit-in and a debate over whether the university was doing enough to protect black students and promote diversity. (EV)

  6. Impaired threat prioritisation after selective bilateral amygdala lesions.

    PubMed

    Bach, Dominik R; Hurlemann, Rene; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-02-01

    The amygdala is proposed to process threat-related information in non-human animals. In humans, empirical evidence from lesion studies has provided the strongest evidence for a role in emotional face recognition and social judgement. Here we use a face-in-the-crowd (FITC) task which in healthy control individuals reveals prioritised threat processing, evident in faster serial search for angry compared to happy target faces. We investigate AM and BG, two individuals with bilateral amygdala lesions due to Urbach-Wiethe syndrome, and 16 control individuals. In lesion patients we show a reversal of a threat detection advantage indicating a profound impairment in prioritising threat information. This is the first direct demonstration that human amygdala lesions impair prioritisation of threatening faces, providing evidence that this structure has a causal role in responding to imminent danger.

  7. Stereotype threat and arousal: effects on women's math performance.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Laurie T; Crandall, Christian S

    2003-06-01

    Theories of arousal suggest that arousal should decrease performance on difficult tasks and increase performance on easy tasks. An experiment tested the hypothesis that the effects of stereotype threat on performance are due to heightened arousal. The authors hypothesized that telling participants that a math test they are about to take is known to have gender differences would cause stereotype threat in women but not in men. In the experiment, each participant took two tests--a difficult math test and an easy math test. Compared to women in a "no differences" condition, women in the "gender differences" condition scored better on the easy math test and worse on the difficult math test. Men's performance was unaffected by the manipulation. These data are consistent with an arousal-based explanation of stereotype threat effects. Data were inconsistent with expectancy, evaluation apprehension, and persistence explanations of the stereotype threat phenomenon.

  8. Contamination threats to critical surfaces from handling and storage practices.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poehlmann, H. C.; Manning, R. R.; Jackman, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the procedures and results of a program designed to remove the threat of sources of molecular and particulate contamination of critical optical, electrical, and mechanical elements in spacecraft. The results of recent contamination-probing thermal-vacuum tests indicate that some of the materials and practices commonly used to protect critical surfaces from molecular or particulate contamination can themselves represent significant threats. These contamination sources include clean-room and clean-tent materials, gloves, tissues, and covering or packaging materials. Mass and infrared spectral analyses of these materials and the environments and instruments exposed to them show that the contaminants are mostly plasticizers, slip or antistatic agents, and binders used in the manufacture of these products. Products of particular threat include vinyl gloves, boots, clean-tent walls, and some polyethylene sheets and bags. Techniques for reducing these threats are discussed.

  9. Implicit self-esteem compensation: automatic threat defense.

    PubMed

    Rudman, Laurie A; Dohn, Matthew C; Fairchild, Kimberly

    2007-11-01

    Four experiments demonstrated implicit self-esteem compensation (ISEC) in response to threats involving gender identity (Experiment 1), implicit racism (Experiment 2), and social rejection (Experiments 3-4). Under conditions in which people might be expected to suffer a blow to self-worth, they instead showed high scores on 2 implicit self-esteem measures. There was no comparable effect on explicit self-esteem. However, ISEC was eliminated following self-affirmation (Experiment 3). Furthermore, threat manipulations increased automatic intergroup bias, but ISEC mediated these relationships (Experiments 2-3). Thus, a process that serves as damage control for the self may have negative social consequences. Finally, pretest anxiety mediated the relationship between threat and ISEC (Experiment 3), whereas ISEC negatively predicted anxiety among high-threat participants (Experiment 4), suggesting that ISEC may function to regulate anxiety. The implications of these findings for automatic emotion regulation, intergroup bias, and implicit self-esteem measures are discussed.

  10. Reassessing Biological Threats: Implications for Cooperative Mitigation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Summer Elise; Petzing, Stephanie Rachel; Young, Catharine Grace

    2015-01-01

    Multiple factors ranging from globalization to ecosystem disruption are presenting the global community with evolving biological threats to local, national, and global security that reach beyond the realm of traditional bioweapon threats. As a result, mitigation strategies have adapted necessarily to the increased diversity of biological threats. In general, response and preparedness strategies have largely shifted from being primarily reactive to traditional biological weapons to more proactive in nature. In this review, we briefly explore biological threats through a wider aperture, to embrace a greater appreciation of viral pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and agricultural pathogens, and their potential to cause civil, economic, and political devastation. In addition, we discuss current mitigation strategies codified by the Global Health Security Agenda and the One Health paradigm as well as some of the available tools to assist with their sustainable implementation.

  11. College Leaders Wrestle with How to Prepare for Unknown Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selingo, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how colleges are seeking the best ways to respond to dangerous incidents like the shootings that occurred at Virginia Tech, and how best to alert people on their campuses to various threats to public safety and emergencies.

  12. How feelings of stereotype threat influence older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Chasteen, Alison L; Bhattacharyya, Sudipa; Horhota, Michelle; Tam, Raymond; Hasher, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to explore the role of stereotype threat as a mediator of older people's memory performance under different instructional sets. In three studies, younger and older participants completed a memory test that was either framed as a memorization or as an impression formation task. Across these studies, memory performance was greater for younger than for older adults and was higher in the impression formation than memorization condition, but was not different for older adults in the two instruction conditions. These results also showed that age differences in memory performance were mediated by participants' feelings of stereotype threat, such that age was positively related to stereotype threat and stereotype threat was negatively related to memory performance. These data demonstrate that concerns about being negatively stereotyped influence age differences in memory performance, and that the effects of these feelings on performance are not easily reduced by reframing the task instructions. PMID:16036721

  13. Threat, prejudice and the impact of the riots in England.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Eline A; Goodwin, Matthew J; Pickup, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines how a major outbreak of rioting in England in 2011 impacted on prejudice toward three minority groups in Britain: Muslims, Black British and East Europeans. We test whether the riots mobilized individuals by increasing feelings of realistic and symbolic threat and ultimately prejudice, or whether the riots galvanized those already concerned about minorities, thus strengthening the relationship between threat and prejudice. We conducted three national surveys - before, after and one year on from the riots - and show that after the riots individuals were more likely to perceive threats to society's security and culture, and by extension express increased prejudice toward Black British and East European minorities. We find little evidence of a galvanizing impact. One year later, threat and prejudice had returned to pre-riots levels; however, results from a survey experiment show that priming memories of the riots can raise levels of prejudice.

  14. The cyber threat landscape: Challenges and future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Santiago; Kott, Alexander; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-07-01

    While much attention has been paid to the vulnerability of computer networks to node and link failure, there is limited systematic understanding of the factors that determine the likelihood that a node (computer) is compromised. We therefore collect threat log data in a university network to study the patterns of threat activity for individual hosts. We relate this information to the properties of each host as observed through network-wide scans, establishing associations between the network services a host is running and the kinds of threats to which it is susceptible. We propose a methodology to associate services to threats inspired by the tools used in genetics to identify statistical associations between mutations and diseases. The proposed approach allows us to determine probabilities of infection directly from observation, offering an automated high-throughput strategy to develop comprehensive metrics for cyber-security.

  15. Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Vörösmarty, C J; McIntyre, P B; Gessner, M O; Dudgeon, D; Prusevich, A; Green, P; Glidden, S; Bunn, S E; Sullivan, C A; Liermann, C Reidy; Davies, P M

    2010-09-30

    Protecting the world's freshwater resources requires diagnosing threats over a broad range of scales, from global to local. Here we present the first worldwide synthesis to jointly consider human and biodiversity perspectives on water security using a spatial framework that quantifies multiple stressors and accounts for downstream impacts. We find that nearly 80% of the world's population is exposed to high levels of threat to water security. Massive investment in water technology enables rich nations to offset high stressor levels without remedying their underlying causes, whereas less wealthy nations remain vulnerable. A similar lack of precautionary investment jeopardizes biodiversity, with habitats associated with 65% of continental discharge classified as moderately to highly threatened. The cumulative threat framework offers a tool for prioritizing policy and management responses to this crisis, and underscores the necessity of limiting threats at their source instead of through costly remediation of symptoms in order to assure global water security for both humans and freshwater biodiversity.

  16. Perceived threats of individuals recovering from myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S J

    1992-01-01

    Lazarus' phenomenological theory of stress and coping provided the basis for this descriptive study of perceived threats after myocardial infarction (MI). Sixty-four post-MI subjects enrolled in phase II cardiac rehabilitation programs identified threats they had experienced in the past month. Perceived threats were defined as situations that were difficult or troubling to the individual and were described by respondents in narrative form. Degree of threat was then measured by one item on which subjects indicated the degree of concern the threatening event had caused them. Responses to the one item were analyzed and categorized into the following five areas: physical problems; medical therapy/self-care; work/physical activity; interpersonal/family; and financial. The results provide an overview of the multiple concerns individuals deal with after a major life-threatening cardiac event.

  17. Lightning threat warning system at the Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R

    1992-07-01

    This report documents the lightning threat warning system at the Tonopah Test Range and the technology it uses. The report outlines each of the system's individual components and the information each contributes.

  18. 49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... check conducted by TSA. (2) A security threat assessment conducted under 49 CFR part 1572 for the... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL...

  19. Little Threat of Zika Spread from Rio Olympics

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160051.html Little Threat of Zika Spread From Rio Olympics: Study Because it's winter ... in Brazil are not likely to contract the Zika virus during their stay or bring it back ...

  20. Mediators of Stereotype Threat among Black College Students.

    PubMed

    Massey, Douglas S; Owens, Jayanti

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesize that the manner in which stereotype threat affects college grade achievement is mediated by institutional context as well as individual characteristics. Drawing on a sample of black students from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen we find weak and inconsistent evidence that institutional characteristics influence the operation of stereotype threat. We find more consistent evidence to indicate that the effect of stereotype threat is conditioned by individual factors such as skin color, multiracial origins, and an integrated upbringing. Most of the effect on grade achievement occurs through the internalization pathway, in which the internalization of negative stereotypes leads to disinvestment manifested by a reduction in academic effort. The reduction in work effort, in turn, lowers grades. We also find evidence that immigrant origin confers protection from the negative effects of stereotype threat through both internalization and externalization mechanisms, though the ultimate effect of grade achievement is rather small.

  1. Stereotype threat and hazard perception among provisional license drivers.

    PubMed

    Skorich, Daniel P; Webb, Hugh; Stewart, Lisa; Kostyanaya, Maria; Cruwys, Tegan; McNeill, Kathy; Frain, Andrew J; Lim, Li; Jones, Benjamin M; Smyth, Lillian; O'Brien, Kerry J

    2013-05-01

    Stereotype threat refers to the negative impact a stereotype about one's group can have on one's performance in domains relevant to the stereotype. In the current paper, we explore whether the negative stereotype of provisional license drivers (PLDs) might produce stereotype threat in a driving-related hazard perception task. We manipulate threat by asking participants to self-identify as PLDs in a categorization condition, or by reminding PLD participants explicitly of the stereotype of PLDs in an explicit stereotype condition. Results reveal increments in hazard perception in the categorization condition, and decrements in hazard perception in the explicit stereotype condition. Mediation analysis reveals that hazard perception performance is fully mediated by increased effort in the categorization condition and by decreased effort in the explicit stereotype condition. We discuss these findings in terms of their implications for stereotype threat and its mediators, and for public policy that explicitly discriminates between PLDs and other driver groups.

  2. RESPONDING TO THREATS AND INCIDENTS OF INTENTIONAL DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    All drinking water systems have some degree of vulnerability to contamination, and analysis shows that it is possible to contaminate drinking water at levels causing varying degrees of harm. Furthermore, experience indicates that the threat of contamination, overt or circumstant...

  3. Physician office readiness for managing Internet security threats.

    PubMed

    Keshavjee, K; Pairaudeau, N; Bhanji, A

    2006-01-01

    Internet security threats are evolving toward more targeted and focused attacks.Increasingly, organized crime is involved and they are interested in identity theft. Physicians who use Internet in their practice are at risk for being invaded. We studied 16 physician practices in Southern Ontario for their readiness to manage internet security threats. Overall, physicians have an over-inflated sense of preparedness. Security practices such as maintaining a firewall and conducting regular virus checks were not consistently done. PMID:17238600

  4. Understanding and managing human threats to the coastal marine environment.

    PubMed

    Crain, Caitlin M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Beck, Mike W; Kappel, Carrie V

    2009-04-01

    Coastal marine habitats at the interface of land and sea are subject to threats from human activities in both realms. Researchers have attempted to quantify how these various threats impact different coastal ecosystems, and more recently have focused on understanding the cumulative impact from multiple threats. Here, the top threats to coastal marine ecosystems and recent efforts to understand their relative importance, ecosystem-level impacts, cumulative effects, and how they can best be managed and mitigated, are briefly reviewed. Results of threat analysis and rankings will differ depending on the conservation target (e.g., vulnerable species, pristine ecosystems, mitigatable threats), scale of interest (local, regional, or global), whether externalities are considered, and the types of management tools available (e.g., marine-protected areas versus ecosystem-based management). Considering the cumulative effect of multiple threats has only just begun and depends on spatial analysis to predict overlapping threats and a better understanding of multiple-stressor effects and interactions. Emerging conservation practices that hold substantial promise for protecting coastal marine systems include multisector approaches, such as ecosystem-based management (EBM), that account for ecosystem service valuation; comprehensive spatial management, such as ocean zoning; and regulatory mechanisms that encourage or require cross-sector goal setting and evaluation. In all cases, these efforts require a combination of public and private initiatives for success. The state of our ecological understanding, public awareness, and policy initiatives make the time ripe for advancing coastal marine management and improving our stewardship of coastal and marine ecosystems. PMID:19432644

  5. Risk assessment as an evolved threat detection and analysis process.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, D Caroline; Griebel, Guy; Pobbe, Roger; Blanchard, Robert J

    2011-03-01

    Risk assessment is a pattern of activities involved in detection and analysis of threat stimuli and the situations in which the threat is encountered. It is a core process in the choice of specific defenses, such as flight, freezing, defensive threat and defensive attack, that counter the threat and minimize the danger it poses. This highly adaptive process takes into account important characteristics, such as type and location (including distance from the subject) of the threat, as well as those (e.g. presence of an escape route or hiding place) of the situation, combining them to predict which specific defense is optimal with that particular combination of threat and situation. Risk assessment is particularly associated with ambiguity either of the threat stimulus or of the outcome of available defensive behaviors. It is also crucial in determining that threat is no longer present, permitting a return to normal, nondefensive behavior. Although risk assessment has been described in detail in rodents, it is also a feature of human defensive behavior, particularly in association with ambiguity. Rumination may be a specifically human form of risk assessment, more often expressed by women, and highly associated with anxiety. Risk assessment behaviors respond to drugs effective against generalized anxiety disorder; however, flight, a dominant specific defense in many common situations, shows a pharmacological response profile closer to that of panic disorder. Risk assessment and flight also appear to show some consistent differences in terms of brain regional activation patterns, suggesting a potential biological differentiation of anxiety and fear/panic systems. An especially intriguing possibility is that mirror neurons may respond to some of the same types of situational differences that are analyzed during risk assessment, suggesting an additional functional role for these neurons.

  6. Physician Office Readiness for Managing Internet Security Threats

    PubMed Central

    Keshavjee, K; Pairaudeau, N; Bhanji, A

    2006-01-01

    Internet security threats are evolving toward more targeted and focused attacks. Increasingly, organized crime is involved and they are interested in identity theft. Physicians who use Internet in their practice are at risk for being invaded. We studied 16 physician practices in Southern Ontario for their readiness to manage internet security threats. Overall, physicians have an over-inflated sense of preparedness. Security practices such as maintaining a firewall and conducting regular virus checks were not consistently done. PMID:17238600

  7. A Bayesian Belief Network of Threat Anticipation and Terrorist Motivations

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M; Allgood, Glenn O; Davenport, Kristen M; Schryver, Jack C

    2010-01-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  8. Neuroimaging the temporal dynamics of human avoidance to sustained threat.

    PubMed

    Schlund, Michael W; Hudgins, Caleb D; Magee, Sandy; Dymond, Simon

    2013-11-15

    Many forms of human psychopathology are characterized by sustained negative emotional responses to threat and chronic behavioral avoidance, implicating avoidance as a potential transdiagnostic factor. Evidence from both nonhuman neurophysiological and human neuroimaging studies suggests a distributed frontal-limbic-striatal brain network supports avoidance. However, our understanding of the temporal dynamics of the network to sustained threat that prompts sustained avoidance is limited. To address this issue, 17 adults were given extensive training on a modified free-operant avoidance task in which button pressing avoided money loss during a sustained threat period. Subsequently, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing the avoidance task. In our regions of interest, we observed phasic, rather than sustained, activation during sustained threat in dorsolateral and inferior frontal regions, anterior and dorsal cingulate, ventral striatum and regions associated with emotion, including the amygdala, insula, substantia nigra and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis complex. Moreover, trait levels of experiential avoidance were negatively correlated with insula, hippocampal and amygdala activation. These findings suggest knowledge that one can consistently avoid aversive outcomes is not associated with decreased threat-related responses and that individuals with greater experiential avoidance exhibit reduced reactivity to initial threat. Implications for understanding brain mechanisms supporting human avoidance and psychological theories of avoidance are discussed. PMID:24095880

  9. Feature based passive acoustic detection of underwater threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolkin, Rustam; Sutin, Alexander; Radhakrishnan, Sreeram; Bruno, Michael; Fullerton, Brian; Ekimov, Alexander; Raftery, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Stevens Institute of Technology is performing research aimed at determining the acoustical parameters that are necessary for detecting and classifying underwater threats. This paper specifically addresses the problems of passive acoustic detection of small targets in noisy urban river and harbor environments. We describe experiments to determine the acoustic signatures of these threats and the background acoustic noise. Based on these measurements, we present an algorithm for robustly discriminating threat presence from severe acoustic background noise. Measurements of the target's acoustic radiation signal were conducted in the Hudson River. The acoustic noise in the Hudson River was also recorded for various environmental conditions. A useful discriminating feature can be extracted from the acoustic signal of the threat, calculated by detecting packets of multi-spectral high frequency sound which occur repetitively at low frequency intervals. We use experimental data to show how the feature varies with range between the sensor and the detected underwater threat. We also estimate the effective detection range by evaluating this feature for hydrophone signals, recorded in the river both with and without threat presence.

  10. Attentional bias to threat: a perceptual accuracy approach.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Stefaan; Crombez, Geert; Notebaert, Lies

    2008-12-01

    To investigate attentional bias to threatening information, the authors propose a new version of the spatial cueing paradigm in which the focus is on perceptual accuracy instead of response speed. In two experiments, healthy volunteers made unspeeded discriminations between three visual targets presented left or right. Each target was preceded by a visual cue (colored rectangle) at either the same (valid) or opposite (invalid) location. By means of differential classical conditioning with aversive white noise, a threat cue and a control cue were created. Analyses of error rates showed that cueing effects (lower proportion of errors in valid trials relative to invalid trials) were more pronounced in threat trials than in neutral trials. This threat-related bias was particularly because of threat cues reducing accuracy in invalid trials, indicating difficulty disengaging attention from threatening information. Engagement of attention was not affected by threat, as threat cues did not facilitate the processing of targets in valid trials. The findings are discussed in light of the strengths and limitations of spatial cueing tasks.

  11. Managing Threats against Control in Old Age: A Narrative Inquiry

    PubMed Central

    Black, Helen K.; Santanello, Holly R.; Caruso, Christa J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The desire to retain personal control over self and life circumstances continues into old age; it exists in tension with late-life vulnerabilities. Objectives This article investigates how elders respond to threats against control in light of changes surrounding health and identity. Methods Community-dwelling African-American (n = 10) and European-American elders (n = 10), aged 70 years and older, with varied self-reported health statuses were qualitatively interviewed. Open-ended interviews explored elders’ perceptions of control and threats to control in older age. Results Three themes linked elders’ responses to threats to control. Elders: (a) proactively monitored physical and mental health; (b) maintained roles that shaped important aspects of identity, and (c) fostered personal growth and development by generative practices. Responses of participants who had difficulty countering threats to control are also offered. Discussion This study shows that the construct of control is not abstract; it is interpreted and applied by elders in the contexts of everyday life. Respondents used personal resources honed throughout the life course to respond to threats to control. Elders viewed control as a cultural construct with nuanced meanings that recalled past roles and current changes that occur with age. Suggestions are offered for how health professionals can assist elders with the cognitive and emotional tasks required to deal with threats to personal control surrounding health and identity. PMID:24165219

  12. Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women’s advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including: (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community; (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias; (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders; (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards; and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

  13. Exciting fear in adolescence: Does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    PubMed Central

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity to experience (some) fear-evoking experiences as an exciting thrill. In the second part of this paper, we test key features of this model by examining brain activation to threat cues in a longitudinal study that disentangled pubertal and age effects. Pubertal increases in testosterone predicted increased activation to threat cues, not only in regions associated with threat avoidance (i.e., amygdala), but also regions associated with reward pursuit (i.e., nucleus accumbens). These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that puberty is associated with a maturational shift toward more complex processing of threat cues–which may contribute to adolescent tendencies to explore and enjoy some types of risky experiences. PMID:24548554

  14. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    PubMed

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

  15. A Bayesian belief network of threat anticipation and terrorist motivations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Davenport, Kristen M.; Schryver, Jack C.

    2010-04-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  16. Policing of reproduction by hidden threats in a cooperative mammal.

    PubMed

    Cant, Michael A; Nichols, Hazel J; Johnstone, Rufus A; Hodge, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies is associated with mechanisms to suppress individual selfishness. In insect societies, queens and workers enforce cooperation by "policing" selfish reproduction by workers. Insect policing typically takes the form of damage limitation after individuals have carried out selfish acts (such as laying eggs). In contrast, human policing is based on the use of threats that deter individuals from acting selfishly in the first place, minimizing the need for damage limitation. Policing by threat could in principle be used to enforce reproductive suppression in animal societies, but testing this idea requires an experimental approach to simulate reproductive transgression and provoke out-of-equilibrium behavior. We carried out an experiment of this kind on a wild population of cooperatively breeding banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) in Uganda. In this species, each group contains multiple female breeders that give birth to a communal litter, usually on the same day. In a 7-y experiment we used contraceptive injections to manipulate the distribution of maternity within groups, triggering hidden threats of infanticide. Our data suggest that older, socially dominant females use the threat of infanticide to deter selfish reproduction by younger females, but that females can escape the threat of infanticide by synchronizing birth to the same day as older females. Our study shows that reproduction in animal societies can be profoundly influenced by threats that remain hidden until they are triggered experimentally. Coercion may thus extend well beyond the systems in which acts of infanticide are common. PMID:24367092

  17. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    PubMed

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

  18. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  19. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  20. Threat ≠ prevention, challenge ≠ promotion: the impact of threat, challenge and regulatory focus on attention to negative stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sassenberg, Kai; Sassenrath, Claudia; Fetterman, Adam K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current experiment was to distinguish between the impact of strategic and affective forms of gain- and loss-related motivational states on the attention to negative stimuli. On the basis of the counter-regulation principle and regulatory focus theory, we predicted that individuals would attend more to negative than to neutral stimuli in a prevention focus and when experiencing challenge, but not in a promotion focus and under threat. In one experiment (N = 88) promotion, prevention, threat, or challenge states were activated through a memory task, and a subsequent dot probe task was administered. As predicted, those in the prevention focus and challenge conditions had an attentional bias towards negative words, but those in promotion and threat conditions did not. These findings provide support for the idea that strategic mindsets (e.g., regulatory focus) and hot emotional states (e.g., threat vs. challenge) differently affect the processing of affective stimuli.

  1. Distinguishing stereotype threat from priming effects: on the role of the social self and threat-based concerns.

    PubMed

    Marx, David M; Stapel, Diederick A

    2006-08-01

    It has been argued that priming negative stereotypic traits is sufficient to cause stereotype threat. The present research challenges this assumption by highlighting the role of the social self and targets' concerns about confirming a negative group-based stereotype. Specifically, in 3 experiments the authors demonstrate that stereotype threat adversely affects the test performance and threat-based concerns of targets (but not nontargets) because only targets' social self is linked to the negative group stereotype. Trait priming, however, harms the test performance of both targets and nontargets but has no effect on their threat-based concerns because trait priming does not require such a link between the social self and the group stereotype. Moreover, the authors show that merely increasing the accessibility of the social self in nonthreatening situations leads to the underperformance of targets but has no meaningful effect on nontargets' test performance.

  2. Effects of threat management interactions on conservation priorities.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Nancy A; Wilson, Kerrie A; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Rhodes, Jonathan R; Hanson, Jeffrey O; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-12-01

    Decisions need to be made about which biodiversity management actions are undertaken to mitigate threats and about where these actions are implemented. However, management actions can interact; that is, the cost, benefit, and feasibility of one action can change when another action is undertaken. There is little guidance on how to explicitly and efficiently prioritize management for multiple threats, including deciding where to act. Integrated management could focus on one management action to abate a dominant threat or on a strategy comprising multiple actions to abate multiple threats. Furthermore management could be undertaken at sites that are in close proximity to reduce costs. We used cost-effectiveness analysis to prioritize investments in fire management, controlling invasive predators, and reducing grazing pressure in a bio-diverse region of southeastern Queensland, Australia. We compared outcomes of 5 management approaches based on different assumptions about interactions and quantified how investment needed, benefits expected, and the locations prioritized for implementation differed when interactions were taken into account. Managing for interactions altered decisions about where to invest and in which actions to invest and had the potential to deliver increased investment efficiency. Differences in high priority locations and actions were greatest between the approaches when we made different assumptions about how management actions deliver benefits through threat abatement: either all threats must be managed to conserve species or only one management action may be required. Threatened species management that does not consider interactions between actions may result in misplaced investments or misguided expectations of the effort required to mitigate threats to species.

  3. Alcohol Stress Response Dampening during imminent vs. distal, uncertain threat

    PubMed Central

    Hefner, Kathryn R.; Moberg, Christine A.; Hachiya, Laura Y.; Curtin, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that fear and anxiety are distinct processes with separable neurobiological substrates. Predictable vs. unpredictable shock administration has been used to elicit fear vs. anxiety, respectively. Recent research has demonstrated that alcohol may reduce anxiety but not fear. However, previous manipulations of predictability have varied both probability and temporal uncertainty of shock threat, leaving unresolved questions regarding which stimulus characteristics elicit anxiety and are sensitive to alcohol stress response dampening (SRD). We developed a novel paradigm to closely parallel basic research in animals that systematically varied temporal uncertainty of threat while holding threat probability constant. Intoxicated (0.08% target BAC), placebo, and no-alcohol control participants viewed a series of visual threat cues. Certain cue duration (5 seconds) blocks were equivalent to predictable shock blocks eliciting fear in earlier research. Uncertain cue duration (5, 20, 50 or 80 second, intermixed) blocks introduced temporal uncertainty regarding impending shock to elicit anxiety. Startle potentiation relative to matched cue periods in no-shock blocks provided the primary measure of affective response. All threat cues produced robust startle potentiation. Alcohol reduced startle potentiation during the first 5 seconds of threat cue presentation in uncertain but not certain duration blocks. Alcohol also reduced startle potentiation at later times among longer uncertain duration cues, suggesting that alcohol SRD persisted. Trait negative emotionality and binge drinking status moderated alcohol SRD magnitude during uncertain threat. These translational findings corroborate previous reports regarding distinct substrates of fear vs. anxiety, and have implications for both alcoholism etiology and comorbidity with anxiety disorders. PMID:24016014

  4. Threat affects risk preferences in movement decision making.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2015-01-01

    Emotional states such as sadness, anger, and threat have been shown to play a critical role in decision-making processes. Here we addressed the question of whether risk preferences are influenced by postural threat and whether this influence generalizes across motor tasks. We examined risk attitudes in the context of arm-reaching (ARM) and whole-body (WB) leaning movements, expecting that increased postural threat would lead to proportionally similar changes in risk-sensitivity for each motor task. Healthy young adults were shown a series of two-alternative forced-choice lotteries, where they were asked to choose between a riskier lottery and a safer lottery on each trial. Our lotteries consisted of different monetary rewards and target sizes. Subjects performed each choice task at ground level and atop an elevated platform. In the presence of this postural threat, increased physiological arousal was correlated with decreased movement variability. To determine risk-sensitivity, we quantified the frequency with which a subject chose the riskier lottery and fit lottery responses to a choice model based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). Subjects exhibited idiosyncratic changes in risk-sensitivity between motor tasks and between elevations. However, we found that overweighting of small probabilities increased with postural threat in the WB task, indicating a more cautious, risk-averse strategy is ascribed to the possibility of a fall. Subjects were also more risk-seeking in the WB movements than in ARM at low elevation; this behavior does not seem to derive from consistent distortions in utility or probability representations but may be explained by subjects' inaccurate estimation of their own motor variability. Overall, our findings suggest that implicit threat can modify risk attitudes in the motor domain, and the threat may induce risk-aversion in salient movement tasks. PMID:26106311

  5. A simple strategy to reduce stereotype threat for orthopedic residents

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Everlyne; Wright, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stereotype threat, defined as the predicament felt by people in either positive or negative learning experiences where they could conform to negative stereotypes associated with their own group membership, can interfere with learning. The purpose of this study was to determine if a simple orientation session could reduce stereotype threat for orthopedic residents. Methods The intervention group received an orientation on 2 occasions focusing on their possible responses to perceived poor performance in teaching rounds and the operating room (OR). Participants completed a survey with 7 questions typical for stereotype threat evaluating responses to their experiences. The questions had 7 response options with a maximum total score of 49, where higher scores indicated greater degree of experiences typical of stereotype threat. Results Of the 84 eligible residents, 49 participated: 22 in the nonintervention and 27 in the intervention group. The overall scores were 29 and 29.4, and 26.2 and 25.8 in the nonintervention and intervention groups for their survey responses to perceived poor performance in teaching rounds (p = 0.85) and the OR (p = 0.84), respectively. Overall, responses typical of stereotype threat were greater for perceived poor performance at teaching rounds than in the OR (p = 0.001). Conclusion Residents experience low self-esteem following perceived poor performance, particularly at rounds. A simple orientation designed to reduce stereotype threat was unsuccessful in reducing this threat overall. Future research will need to consider longer-term intervention as possible strategies to reduce perceived poor performance at teaching rounds and in the OR. PMID:24666454

  6. Effects of threat management interactions on conservation priorities.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Nancy A; Wilson, Kerrie A; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Rhodes, Jonathan R; Hanson, Jeffrey O; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-12-01

    Decisions need to be made about which biodiversity management actions are undertaken to mitigate threats and about where these actions are implemented. However, management actions can interact; that is, the cost, benefit, and feasibility of one action can change when another action is undertaken. There is little guidance on how to explicitly and efficiently prioritize management for multiple threats, including deciding where to act. Integrated management could focus on one management action to abate a dominant threat or on a strategy comprising multiple actions to abate multiple threats. Furthermore management could be undertaken at sites that are in close proximity to reduce costs. We used cost-effectiveness analysis to prioritize investments in fire management, controlling invasive predators, and reducing grazing pressure in a bio-diverse region of southeastern Queensland, Australia. We compared outcomes of 5 management approaches based on different assumptions about interactions and quantified how investment needed, benefits expected, and the locations prioritized for implementation differed when interactions were taken into account. Managing for interactions altered decisions about where to invest and in which actions to invest and had the potential to deliver increased investment efficiency. Differences in high priority locations and actions were greatest between the approaches when we made different assumptions about how management actions deliver benefits through threat abatement: either all threats must be managed to conserve species or only one management action may be required. Threatened species management that does not consider interactions between actions may result in misplaced investments or misguided expectations of the effort required to mitigate threats to species. PMID:26171646

  7. Benefits of integrating complementarity into priority threat management.

    PubMed

    Chadés, Iadine; Nicol, Sam; van Leeuwen, Stephen; Walters, Belinda; Firn, Jennifer; Reeson, Andrew; Martin, Tara G; Carwardine, Josie

    2015-04-01

    Conservation decision tools based on cost-effectiveness analysis are used to assess threat management strategies for improving species persistence. These approaches rank alternative strategies by their benefit to cost ratio but may fail to identify the optimal sets of strategies to implement under limited budgets because they do not account for redundancies. We devised a multiobjective optimization approach in which the complementarity principle is applied to identify the sets of threat management strategies that protect the most species for any budget. We used our approach to prioritize threat management strategies for 53 species of conservation concern in the Pilbara, Australia. We followed a structured elicitation approach to collect information on the benefits and costs of implementing 17 different conservation strategies during a 3-day workshop with 49 stakeholders and experts in the biodiversity, conservation, and management of the Pilbara. We compared the performance of our complementarity priority threat management approach with a current cost-effectiveness ranking approach. A complementary set of 3 strategies: domestic herbivore management, fire management and research, and sanctuaries provided all species with >50% chance of persistence for $4.7 million/year over 20 years. Achieving the same result cost almost twice as much ($9.71 million/year) when strategies were selected by their cost-effectiveness ranks alone. Our results show that complementarity of management benefits has the potential to double the impact of priority threat management approaches.

  8. Global biological threats to health: an imperative for collaboration.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Marla E

    2005-01-01

    Biological threats to health are challenging governments worldwide. National strategies for preventing and managing existing and emerging threats require significant collaboration across borders, sectors, services, agencies and professions. Perhaps most important are the partnerships of key national health leaders who can develop and foster these relationships. Government Chief Nursing Officers (CNOs) and Chief Medical Officers (CMOs), providing leadership in more than 100 countries worldwide, play crucial roles in addressing biological threats to health. However, much of this leadership is exercised without the benefit of strong collaborative relationships between these two key national leaders. Unfortunately, without functional partnerships between nurses and physicians at all levels, national and global capacity to address biological and other threats will be greatly compromised. For these reasons, the first ever global forum for CNOs and CMOs teams was hosted by the Lillian Carter Center for International Nursing in Atlanta, in June 2004. Representatives from 70 countries focused on biological threats in relation to three key purposes: (1) gaining shared scientific and practical knowledge; (2) developing and strengthening collaboration and partnerships among CNOs and CMOs; and, (3) creating a joint plan for advancing national preparedness. This article describes the content, process and outcomes of this historic meeting.

  9. Threat-related automatic associations in socially anxious adolescents.

    PubMed

    de Hullu, Eva; de Jong, Peter J; Sportel, B Esther; Nauta, Maaike H

    2011-08-01

    Threat-related automatic associations are assumed to play an important role in the development and maintenance of social anxiety. We tested whether threat-related automatic associations are already evident in high socially anxious adolescents, by comparing a group of adolescents (age 12-15) with subclinical levels of social anxiety (n=170) to a group of low socially anxious adolescents (n=193). We used a single-target implicit association test to measure threat-related automatic associations to social cues. Results showed that indeed in high socially anxious adolescents social cues automatically elicited relatively strong threat-related associations. Supporting the relevance of differentiating between automatic and more explicit measures, both automatic and explicit associations were independently associated with adolescents' level of self-reported social anxiety. The present pattern of findings is not only consistent with the view that automatic and more deliberate threat-related associations are both involved in the etiology of social-anxiety symptoms, but also suggest that both types of associations are proper targets for early intervention programs. PMID:21652030

  10. Benefits of integrating complementarity into priority threat management.

    PubMed

    Chadés, Iadine; Nicol, Sam; van Leeuwen, Stephen; Walters, Belinda; Firn, Jennifer; Reeson, Andrew; Martin, Tara G; Carwardine, Josie

    2015-04-01

    Conservation decision tools based on cost-effectiveness analysis are used to assess threat management strategies for improving species persistence. These approaches rank alternative strategies by their benefit to cost ratio but may fail to identify the optimal sets of strategies to implement under limited budgets because they do not account for redundancies. We devised a multiobjective optimization approach in which the complementarity principle is applied to identify the sets of threat management strategies that protect the most species for any budget. We used our approach to prioritize threat management strategies for 53 species of conservation concern in the Pilbara, Australia. We followed a structured elicitation approach to collect information on the benefits and costs of implementing 17 different conservation strategies during a 3-day workshop with 49 stakeholders and experts in the biodiversity, conservation, and management of the Pilbara. We compared the performance of our complementarity priority threat management approach with a current cost-effectiveness ranking approach. A complementary set of 3 strategies: domestic herbivore management, fire management and research, and sanctuaries provided all species with >50% chance of persistence for $4.7 million/year over 20 years. Achieving the same result cost almost twice as much ($9.71 million/year) when strategies were selected by their cost-effectiveness ranks alone. Our results show that complementarity of management benefits has the potential to double the impact of priority threat management approaches. PMID:25362843

  11. An Expert System For Multispectral Threat Assessment And Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Alan N.

    1987-05-01

    A concept has been defined for an automatic system to manage the self-defense of a combat aircraft. Distinctive new features of this concept include: a. the flexible prioritization of tasks and coordinated use of sensor, countermeasures, flight systems and weapons assets by means of an automated planning function; b. the integration of state-of-the-art data fusion algorithms with event prediction processing; c. the use of advanced Artificial Intelligence tools to emulate the decision processes of tactical EW experts. Threat Assessment functions (a) estimate threat identity, lethality and intent on the basis of multi-spectral sensor data, and (b) predict the time to critical events in threat engagements (e.g., target acquisition, tracking, weapon launch, impact). Response Management functions (a) select candidate responses to reported threat situations; (b) estimate the effects of candidate actions on survival; and (c) coordinate the assignment of sensors, weapons and countermeasures with the flight plan. The system employs Finite State Models to represent current engagements and to predict subsequent events. Each state in a model is associated with a set of observable features, allowing interpretation of sensor data and adaptive use of sensor assets. Defined conditions on state transitions allow prediction of times to critical future states and are used in planning self-defensive responses, which are designed either to impede a particular state transition or to force a transition to a lower threat state.

  12. Stereotype threat reduces false recognition when older adults are forewarned.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessica T; Gallo, David A

    2016-01-01

    Exposing older adults to ageing stereotypes can reduce their memory for studied information--a phenomenon attributed to stereotype threat--but little is known about stereotype effects on false memory. Here, we assessed ageing stereotype effects on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory illusion. Older adults studied lists of semantically associated words, and then read a passage about age-related memory decline (threat condition) or an age-neutral passage (control condition). They then took a surprise memory test with a warning to avoid false recognition of non-studied associates. Relative to the control condition, activating stereotype threat reduced the recognition of both studied and non-studied words, implicating a conservative criterion shift for associated test words. These results indicate that stereotype threat can reduce false memory, and they help to clarify mixed results from prior ageing research. Consistent with the regulatory focus hypothesis, threat motivates older adults to respond more conservatively when error-prevention is emphasised at retrieval.

  13. Emotion blocks the path to learning under stereotype threat.

    PubMed

    Mangels, Jennifer A; Good, Catherine; Whiteman, Ronald C; Maniscalco, Brian; Dweck, Carol S

    2012-02-01

    Gender-based stereotypes undermine females' performance on challenging math tests, but how do they influence their ability to learn from the errors they make? Females under stereotype threat or non-threat were presented with accuracy feedback after each problem on a GRE-like math test, followed by an optional interactive tutorial that provided step-wise problem-solving instruction. Event-related potentials tracked the initial detection of the negative feedback following errors [feedback related negativity (FRN), P3a], as well as any subsequent sustained attention/arousal to that information [late positive potential (LPP)]. Learning was defined as success in applying tutorial information to correction of initial test errors on a surprise retest 24-h later. Under non-threat conditions, emotional responses to negative feedback did not curtail exploration of the tutor, and the amount of tutor exploration predicted learning success. In the stereotype threat condition, however, greater initial salience of the failure (FRN) predicted less exploration of the tutor, and sustained attention to the negative feedback (LPP) predicted poor learning from what was explored. Thus, under stereotype threat, emotional responses to negative feedback predicted both disengagement from learning and interference with learning attempts. We discuss the importance of emotion regulation in successful rebound from failure for stigmatized groups in stereotype-salient environments.

  14. Sensor-netting algorithm for CB threat mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Thomas; Grim, Larry; Keiser, Christopher; Ginley, William

    2010-04-01

    Large networks of disparate chemical/biological (CB) sensors, MET sensors, and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) sensors reporting to various command/display locations can lead to conflicting threat information, questions of alarm confidence, and a confused situational awareness. Sensor netting algorithms (SNA) are being developed to resolve these conflicts and to report high confidence consensus threat map data products on a common operating picture (COP) display. A phase I SBIR study to develop a conceptual design for a SNA was recently completed. Mathematical approaches for assigning uncertainty to incoming data streams, doing spatial/temporal correlation of point and standoff sensor data (via vector translation based tomography), estimating uncertainty for threat maps, and consistency checking between the consensus threat map result and the individual input data streams were developed. A set of simulation environment tools for testing the SNA, including a simple threat model, sensor models, and fused and un-fused COPs, were also prototyped during phase I. The SNA development and simulation based testing will continue during the phase II effort, which was just awarded.

  15. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  16. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  17. Urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Air pollution and the risk of potential health effects are not sufficiently convincing reasons for people to stop driving their cars, according to a study by the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) released on November 18.While sufficient levels of suspended particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and lead can present health concerns, the study found that many people surveyed for the study were not convinced of the clear linkage between air pollution and health.

  18. Securing passenger aircraft from the threat of man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS).

    PubMed

    Okpara, Uche; Bier, Vicki M

    2008-12-01

    In this article, we develop a model for the expected maximum hit probability of an attack on a commercial aircraft using MANPADS, as a function of the (random) location of the attacker. We also explore the sensitivity of the expected maximum hit probability to the parameters of the model, including both attacker parameters (such as weapon characteristics) and defender parameters (such as the size of the secure region around the airport). We conclude that having a large secure region around an airport offers some protection against MANPADS, and that installing onboard countermeasures reduces the success probability of a MANPADS attack.

  19. Advances in Linked Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry Models to Address Bidirectional Ammonia Flux in CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent increases in anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to air, land and water media pose a growing threat to human health and ecosystems. Modeling of air-surface N flux is one area in need of improvement. Implementation of a linked air quality and cropland management system is de...

  20. "Advances in Linked Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry Models to Address Bidrectional Ammonia Flux in CMAQ"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent increases in anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to air, land and water media pose a growing threat to human health and ecosystems. Modeling of air-surface N flux is one area in need of improvement. Implementation of a linked air quality and cropland management system is de...

  1. Amygdala lesions in rhesus macaques decrease attention to threat

    PubMed Central

    Dal Monte, Olga; Costa, Vincent D.; Noble, Pamela L.; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from animal and human studies has suggested that the amygdala plays a role in detecting threat and in directing attention to the eyes. Nevertheless, there has been no systematic investigation of whether the amygdala specifically facilitates attention to the eyes or whether other features can also drive attention via amygdala processing. The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys on attentional capture by specific facial features, as well as gaze patterns and changes in pupil dilation during free viewing. Here we show reduced attentional capture by threat stimuli, specifically the mouth, and reduced exploration of the eyes in free viewing in monkeys with amygdala lesions. Our findings support a role for the amygdala in detecting threat signals and in directing attention to the eye region of faces when freely viewing different expressions. PMID:26658670

  2. A stereotype threat account of boys' academic underachievement.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Bonny L; Sutton, Robbie M

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged 7-8 years (n = 162) that boys tend to do worse than girls at school. This manipulation hindered boys' performance on a reading, writing, and math test, but did not affect girls' performance. Study 3 counteracted stereotype threat, informing children aged 6-9 years (n = 184) that boys and girls were expected to perform similarly. This improved the performance of boys and did not affect that of girls. PMID:23402479

  3. Dimensions of early experience and neural development: deprivation and threat.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2014-11-01

    Over the past decade, a growing area of research has focused on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and their impacts on neural and developmental outcomes. Work in the field to-date has generally conceptualized ACEs in terms of exposure to stress while overlooking the underlying dimensions of environmental experience that may distinctly impact neural development. Here, we propose a novel framework that differentiates between deprivation (absence of expected cognitive and social input) and threat (presence of a threat to one's physical integrity). We draw support for the neural basis of this distinction from studies on fear learning and sensory deprivation in animals to highlight potential mechanisms through which experiences of threat and deprivation could affect neural structure and function in humans. PMID:25305194

  4. Amygdala lesions in rhesus macaques decrease attention to threat.

    PubMed

    Dal Monte, Olga; Costa, Vincent D; Noble, Pamela L; Murray, Elisabeth A; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from animal and human studies has suggested that the amygdala plays a role in detecting threat and in directing attention to the eyes. Nevertheless, there has been no systematic investigation of whether the amygdala specifically facilitates attention to the eyes or whether other features can also drive attention via amygdala processing. The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys on attentional capture by specific facial features, as well as gaze patterns and changes in pupil dilation during free viewing. Here we show reduced attentional capture by threat stimuli, specifically the mouth, and reduced exploration of the eyes in free viewing in monkeys with amygdala lesions. Our findings support a role for the amygdala in detecting threat signals and in directing attention to the eye region of faces when freely viewing different expressions. PMID:26658670

  5. Looming vulnerability to threat: a cognitive paradigm for anxiety.

    PubMed

    Riskind, J H

    1997-08-01

    The concept that perceived threat or danger is a cognitive antecedent of anxiety is central in clinical psychology, personality psychology, and social psychology. The aim in the current article is to review this concept and present a new conception called the looming vulnerability model. Looming vulnerability is conceptualized as an important cognitive component of threat or danger that elicits anxiety, sensitizes the individual to signs of movement and threat, biases cognitive processing, and makes the anxiety more persistent and less likely to habituate. In addition, it is postulated as a principal theme that discriminates anxiety and focal fears from depression. The looming vulnerability model integrates a disparate collection of findings and integrates the conceptualization of anxiety and fear with ethological and developmental observations. The social-cognitive and evolutionary basis of the sense of looming vulnerability are discussed, as well as its roots in cognitive schemata (fear scripts), its state elicitation by several potential classes of antecedent conditions, and possible treatment implications.

  6. A vector relational data modeling approach to Insider threat intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Ryan F.; Anderson, Thomas S.

    2016-05-01

    We address the problem of detecting insider threats before they can do harm. In many cases, co-workers notice indications of suspicious activity prior to insider threat attacks. A partial solution to this problem requires an understanding of how information can better traverse the communication network between human intelligence and insider threat analysts. Our approach employs modern mobile communications technology and scale free network architecture to reduce the network distance between human sensors and analysts. In order to solve this problem, we propose a Vector Relational Data Modeling approach to integrate human "sensors," geo-location, and existing visual analytics tools. This integration problem is known to be difficult due to quadratic increases in cost associated with complex integration solutions. A scale free network integration approach using vector relational data modeling is proposed as a method for reducing network distance without increasing cost.

  7. Threat and social-choice: when eye size matters.

    PubMed

    Pettijohn, Terry F; Tesser, Abraham

    2005-10-01

    The Environmental Security Hypothesis (T. F. Pettijohn II & A. Tesser, 1999) indicates that as environmental threat increases, the desirability of persons with neotenous features should decrease. In 2 experiments (Ns = 96, 80), the authors tested this hypothesis and a mediation account that was based on the attributions made about neotenous and mature-featured others. In each experiment, the authors manipulated threat and gave participants the choice of a neotenous (increased eye-size) or mature (decreased eye-size) female partner. The authors tested mediation in Study 1 by experimentally uncoupling attributions from facial features and in Study 2 by manipulating the participant's dependence on his or her partner. Both studies provided evidence for the Environmental Security Hypothesis: Preference for partners with neotenous facial features decreased under high threat. Support for the role of attributions as mediators was mixed. An alternative interpretation of the results indicates the possibility that responses to facial features may depend on nonconscious processing. PMID:16201678

  8. Rejection sensitivity and disruption of attention by social threat cues

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Kathy R.; Gyurak, Anett; Ayduk, Özlem; Downey, Geraldine; Garner, Matthew J.; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested the hypothesis that Rejection Sensitivity (RS) increases vulnerability to disruption of attention by social threat cues, as would be consistent with prior evidence that it motivates individuals to prioritize detecting and managing potential rejection at a cost to other personal and interpersonal goals. In Study 1, RS predicted disruption of ongoing goal-directed attention by social threat but not negative words in an Emotional Stroop task. In Study 2, RS predicted attentional avoidance of threatening but not pleasant faces in a Visual Probe task. Threat-avoidant attention was also associated with features of borderline personality disorder. This research extends understanding of processes by which RS contributes to a self-perpetuating cycle of interpersonal problems and distress. PMID:20160869

  9. Dimensions of early experience and neural development: deprivation and threat.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2014-11-01

    Over the past decade, a growing area of research has focused on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and their impacts on neural and developmental outcomes. Work in the field to-date has generally conceptualized ACEs in terms of exposure to stress while overlooking the underlying dimensions of environmental experience that may distinctly impact neural development. Here, we propose a novel framework that differentiates between deprivation (absence of expected cognitive and social input) and threat (presence of a threat to one's physical integrity). We draw support for the neural basis of this distinction from studies on fear learning and sensory deprivation in animals to highlight potential mechanisms through which experiences of threat and deprivation could affect neural structure and function in humans.

  10. A stereotype threat account of boys' academic underachievement.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Bonny L; Sutton, Robbie M

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged 7-8 years (n = 162) that boys tend to do worse than girls at school. This manipulation hindered boys' performance on a reading, writing, and math test, but did not affect girls' performance. Study 3 counteracted stereotype threat, informing children aged 6-9 years (n = 184) that boys and girls were expected to perform similarly. This improved the performance of boys and did not affect that of girls.

  11. Task demands moderate stereotype threat effects on memory performance.

    PubMed

    Hess, Thomas M; Emery, Lisa; Queen, Tara L

    2009-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults' memory performance is adversely affected by the explicit activation of negative stereotypes about aging. In this study, we examined the impact of stereotype threat on recognition memory, with specific interest in (a) the generalizability of previously observed effects, (b) the subjective experience of memory, and (c) the moderating effects of task demands. Older participants subjected to threat performed worse than did those in a nonthreat condition but only when performance constraints were high (i.e., memory decisions had to be made within a limited time frame). This effect was reflected in the subjective experience of memory, with participants in this condition having a lower ratio of "remember" to "know" responses. The absence of threat effects when constraints were minimal provides important boundary information regarding stereotype influences on memory performance.

  12. The threat of disease increases as species move toward extinction.

    PubMed

    Heard, Matthew J; Smith, Katherine F; Ripp, Kelsey J; Berger, Melanie; Chen, Jane; Dittmeier, Justin; Goter, Maggie; McGarvey, Stephen T; Ryan, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    At local scales, infectious disease is a common driver of population declines, but globally it is an infrequent contributor to species extinction and endangerment. For species at risk of extinction from disease important questions remain unanswered, including when does disease become a threat to species and does it co-occur, predictably, with other threats? Using newly compiled data from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, we examined the relative role and co-occurrence of threats associated with amphibians, birds, and mammals at 6 levels of extinction risk (i.e., Red List status categories: least concern, near threatened, vulnerable, endangered, critically endangered, and extinct in the wild/extinct). We tested the null hypothesis that the proportion of species threatened by disease is the same in all 6 Red List status categories. Our approach revealed a new method for determining when disease most frequently threatens species at risk of extinction. The proportion of species threatened by disease varied significantly between IUCN status categories and linearly increased for amphibians, birds, and all species combined as these taxa move from move from least concern to critically endangered. Disease was infrequently the single contributing threat. However, when a species was negatively affected by a major threat other than disease (e.g., invasive species, land-use change) that species was more likely to be simultaneously threatened by disease than species that had no other threats. Potential drivers of these trends include ecological factors, clustering of phylogenetically related species in Red List status categories, discovery bias among species at greater risk of extinction, and availability of data. We echo earlier calls for baseline data on the presence of parasites and pathogens in species when they show the first signs of extinction risk and arguably before. La Amenaza de Enfermedades Incrementa a Medida que las Especies se

  13. The threat of disease increases as species move toward extinction.

    PubMed

    Heard, Matthew J; Smith, Katherine F; Ripp, Kelsey J; Berger, Melanie; Chen, Jane; Dittmeier, Justin; Goter, Maggie; McGarvey, Stephen T; Ryan, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    At local scales, infectious disease is a common driver of population declines, but globally it is an infrequent contributor to species extinction and endangerment. For species at risk of extinction from disease important questions remain unanswered, including when does disease become a threat to species and does it co-occur, predictably, with other threats? Using newly compiled data from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, we examined the relative role and co-occurrence of threats associated with amphibians, birds, and mammals at 6 levels of extinction risk (i.e., Red List status categories: least concern, near threatened, vulnerable, endangered, critically endangered, and extinct in the wild/extinct). We tested the null hypothesis that the proportion of species threatened by disease is the same in all 6 Red List status categories. Our approach revealed a new method for determining when disease most frequently threatens species at risk of extinction. The proportion of species threatened by disease varied significantly between IUCN status categories and linearly increased for amphibians, birds, and all species combined as these taxa move from move from least concern to critically endangered. Disease was infrequently the single contributing threat. However, when a species was negatively affected by a major threat other than disease (e.g., invasive species, land-use change) that species was more likely to be simultaneously threatened by disease than species that had no other threats. Potential drivers of these trends include ecological factors, clustering of phylogenetically related species in Red List status categories, discovery bias among species at greater risk of extinction, and availability of data. We echo earlier calls for baseline data on the presence of parasites and pathogens in species when they show the first signs of extinction risk and arguably before. La Amenaza de Enfermedades Incrementa a Medida que las Especies se

  14. Cultural adaptations to the differential threats posed by hot versus cold climates.

    PubMed

    Murray, Damian R

    2013-10-01

    Hot and cold climates have posed differential threats to human survival throughout history. Cold temperatures can pose direct threats to survival in themselves, whereas hot temperatures may pose threats indirectly through higher prevalence of infectious disease. These differential threats yield convergent predictions for the relationship between more demanding climates and freedom of expression, but divergent predictions for freedom from discrimination.

  15. Threats to social identity can trigger social deviance.

    PubMed

    Belmi, Peter; Barragan, Rodolfo Cortes; Neale, Margaret A; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2015-04-01

    We hypothesized that threats to people's social (i.e., group) identity can trigger deviant attitudes and behaviors. A correlational study and five experiments showed that experiencing or recalling situations associated with the devaluation of a social identity caused participants to endorse or engage in deviant actions, including stealing, cheating, and lying. The effect was driven by the tendency to construe social identity threats not as isolated incidents but as symbolic of the continuing devaluation and disrespectful treatment of one's group. Supplementing sociological approaches to deviance and delinquency, the results suggest the relevance and utility of a social-psychological account.

  16. Meteoroids and Meteor Storms: A Threat to Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Robust system design is the best protection against meteoroid damage. Impacts by small meteoroids are common on satellite surfaces, but impacts by meteoroids large enough to damage well designed systems are very rare. Estimating the threat from the normal meteoroid environment is difficult. Estimates for the occasional "storm" are even more uncertain. Common sense precautions are in order for the 1999 Leonids, but wide-spread catastrophic damage is highly unlikely. Strong Leonid showers are also expected in 2000 and 2001, but these pose much less threat than 1999.

  17. Extending the amygdala in theories of threat processing

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Andrew S.; Oler, Jonathan A.; Tromp, Do P.M.; Fudge, Julie L.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2015-01-01

    The central extended amygdala is an evolutionarily conserved set of interconnected brain regions that play an important role in threat processing to promote survival. Two core components of the central extended amygdala, the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) are highly similar regions that serve complimentary roles by integrating fear- and anxiety-relevant information. Survival depends on the central extended amygdala's ability to rapidly integrate and respond to threats that vary in their immediacy, proximity, and characteristics. Future studies will benefit from understanding alterations in central extended amygdala function in relation to stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25851307

  18. Integrated response to the dynamic threat of school violence.

    PubMed

    Callaway, David W; Westmoreland, Ted C; Baez, Alejandro A; McKay, Sean A; Raja, Ali S

    2010-01-01

    A terrorist attack on US schools no longer can be considered a Black Swan event. Mounting evidence suggests that extremist organizations actively are targeting US schools. Equally disturbing are data suggesting that schools, universities, and communities are unprepared for large-scale violence. The Operational Medicine Institute Conference on an Integrated Response to the Modern Urban Terrorist Threat revealed significant variations in the perceived threats and critical response gaps among emergency medical providers, law enforcement personnel, politicians, and security specialists. The participants recommended several steps to address these gaps in preparedness, training, responses, and recovery. PMID:21053197

  19. The globalization of public health, I: Threats and opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Yach, D; Bettcher, D

    1998-01-01

    The globalization of public health poses new threats to health but also holds important opportunities in the coming century. This commentary identifies the major threats and opportunities presented by the process of globalization and emphasizes the need for transnational public health approaches to take advantage of the positive aspects of global change and to minimize the negative ones. Transnational public health issues are areas of mutual concern for the foreign policies of all countries. These trends indicate a need for cross-national comparisons (e.g., in the areas of health financing and policy development) and for the development of a transnational research agenda in public health. PMID:9585736

  20. Cyber Security Threats to Safety-Critical, Space-Based Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Atencia Yepez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Space-based systems play an important role within national critical infrastructures. They are being integrated into advanced air-traffic management applications, rail signalling systems, energy distribution software etc. Unfortunately, the end users of communications, location sensing and timing applications often fail to understand that these infrastructures are vulnerable to a wide range of security threats. The following pages focus on concerns associated with potential cyber-attacks. These are important because future attacks may invalidate many of the safety assumptions that support the provision of critical space-based services. These safety assumptions are based on standard forms of hazard analysis that ignore cyber-security considerations This is a significant limitation when, for instance, security attacks can simultaneously exploit multiple vulnerabilities in a manner that would never occur without a deliberate enemy seeking to damage space based systems and ground infrastructures. We address this concern through the development of a combined safety and security risk assessment methodology. The aim is to identify attack scenarios that justify the allocation of additional design resources so that safety barriers can be strengthened to increase our resilience against security threats.

  1. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities.

    PubMed

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Lawler, Joshua J; Olden, Julian D; Blumenthal, Dana M; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P; Sorte, Cascade J B; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion. PMID:27549569

  2. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities

    PubMed Central

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Olden, Julian D.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D.; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P.; Sorte, Cascade J. B.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion. PMID:27549569

  3. Stereotype Threat in Classroom Settings: The Interactive Effect of Domain Identification, Task Difficulty and Stereotype Threat on Female Students' Maths Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Background: Stereotype threat research revealed that negative stereotypes can disrupt the performance of persons targeted by such stereotypes. This paper contributes to stereotype threat research by providing evidence that domain identification and the difficulty level of test items moderate stereotype threat effects on female students' maths…

  4. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  5. 76 FR 60755 - Air Cargo Screening; Reopening of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... ``Air Cargo Screening Security Threat Assessment Fee Development Report.'' 76 FR 51858. The final rule... fee. DATES: The comment period for the final rule at 76 FR 51848, Part III, August 18, 2011, is... Privacy Act Statement published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR ] 19477) and modified...

  6. Academic Integrity at the United States Air Force Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, LeAnn

    2006-01-01

    In troubled times, where threats to honor abound, it is essential that people support students who may have been enculturated in social dishonesty. The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) has worked hard to put in place a number of supports to help cadets to grow beyond social norms where dishonesty may be tolerated. The academy seeks to…

  7. Chronic illness in the workplace: stigma, identity threat and strain.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L

    2014-10-01

    Chronic illness affects a large and growing number of workers in the United States and globally. Stigmatization (devaluation) at work based on chronic illness may be stressful for individuals and therefore may lead to negative psychological consequences (i.e. strains). In order to better understand stressful experiences of stigma for workers with chronic illnesses, a model of stigma-related identity threat (perceptions that one is at risk of being treated negatively at work because of chronic illness) was tested on a sample of 203 working adults with chronic illnesses. The following variables related to workers' perceptions of chronic illness-related identity threat: workers' boundary flexibility (flexibility in managing their work and life), their meta-perceptions of devaluation (perceptions of others' devaluation of them based on illness) and their job self-efficacy (feelings of confidence related to performing their job). In turn, perceptions of identity threat related to both feelings of psychological strain and (lower levels of) perceived work ability. Surprisingly, neither stigma centrality (how fundamental illness is to one's identity) nor supervisor support related to workers' identity threat perceptions.

  8. Chlorine Gas: An Evolving Hazardous Material Threat and Unconventional Weapon

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Robert; Wills, Brandon; Kang, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Chlorine gas represents a hazardous material threat from industrial accidents and as a terrorist weapon. This review will summarize recent events involving chlorine disasters and its use by terrorists, discuss pre-hospital considerations and suggest strategies for the initial management for acute chlorine exposure events. PMID:20823965

  9. How To Handle Bomb Threats and Suspicious Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ways schools can handle bomb threats and suspicious devices and describes risk reduction steps in preparation for these events. Suggests security risk reduction can be accomplished through proper use of policies and procedures, conducting staff training, establishing security agreements, and creating crisis preparedness guidelines. (GR)

  10. Survey of Threats and Assaults by Patients on Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…

  11. Speaking Across the Curriculum: Threat, Opportunity, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmerton, Patricia R.

    "Speaking Across the Curriculum" (SAC) has become a catch-all label for a variety of programs aimed at teaching oral communication skills to a large body of students in settings other than the typical public speaking class. Such programs offer both threats and opportunities to the speech field. In many programs, faculty in other disciplines take…

  12. The antibiotic resistance crisis: part 1: causes and threats.

    PubMed

    Ventola, C Lee

    2015-04-01

    Decades after the first patients were treated with antibiotics, bacterial infections have again become a threat because of the rapid emergence of resistant bacteria-a crisis attributed to abuse of these medications and a lack of new drug development. PMID:25859123

  13. Regulation in a Brave New World: Safeguarding against Subversive Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornosty, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology is a rapidly advancing science that has the potential to revolutionize medicine and transform human abilities. Accompanying these positives are an underdiscussed category of threats to principles of human rights and equality. Although any technology might be used to inegalitarian ends, biotechnology has the capacity to beget…

  14. Major Threats to Environmental Quality in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogl, Robert; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports study findings of environmental educators' opinions on issues which pose threats to environmental quality in North America and the status of the availability of educational materials for the issues. Identified as priority items were hazardous wastes management, water contamination, and acid deposition. Compares responses of American and…

  15. Animal botulism outcomes in the AniBioThreat project.

    PubMed

    Woudstra, Cédric; Tevell Åberg, Annica; Skarin, Hanna; Anniballi, Fabrizio; De Medici, Dario; Bano, Luca; Koene, Miriam; Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Trine; Hedeland, Mikael; Fach, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    Botulism disease in both humans and animals is a worldwide concern. Botulinum neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other Clostridium species are the most potent biological substances known and are responsible for flaccid paralysis leading to a high mortality rate. Clostridium botulinum and botulinum neurotoxins are considered potential weapons for bioterrorism and have been included in the Australia Group List of Biological Agents. In 2010 the European Commission (DG Justice, Freedom and Security) funded a 3-year project named AniBioThreat to improve the EU's capacity to counter animal bioterrorism threats. A detection portfolio with screening methods for botulism agents and incidents was needed to improve tracking and tracing of accidental and deliberate contamination of the feed and food chain with botulinum neurotoxins and other Clostridia. The complexity of this threat required acquiring new genetic information to better understand the diversity of these Clostridia and develop detection methods targeting both highly specific genetic markers of these Clostridia and the neurotoxins they are able to produce. Several European institutes participating in the AniBioThreat project collaborated on this program to achieve these objectives. Their scientific developments are discussed here.

  16. Collective threat, trust, and the sense of personal control.

    PubMed

    Ross, Catherine E

    2011-09-01

    A threatening and dangerous neighborhood may produce distressing emotions of anxiety, anger, and depression among the individuals who live there because residents find these neighborhoods subjectively alienating. The author introduces the idea that neighborhood disorder indicates collective threat, which is alienating-shaping perceptions of powerlessness and mistrust. The author presents a theory of trust that posits that mistrust develops in places where resources are scarce and threat is common and among individuals with few resources and who feel powerless to avoid or manage the threat. Perceived powerlessness develops with exposure to uncontrollable, negative conditions such as crime, danger, and threat in one's neighborhood. Thus, neighborhood disorder, common in disadvantaged neighborhoods, influences mistrust directly and indirectly by increasing perceptions of powerlessness among residents, which amplify disorder's effect on mistrust. The very thing needed to protect disadvantaged residents from the negative effects of their environment-a sense of personal control-is eroded by that environment in a process that the author calls structural amplification. Powerlessness and mistrust in turn are distressing, increasing levels of anxiety, anger, and depression.

  17. Threats to Feminist Identity and Reactions to Gender Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Kofta, Mirek; Rozum, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was to examine conditions that modify feminists' support for women as targets of gender discrimination. In an experimental study we tested a hypothesis that threatened feminist identity will lead to greater differentiation between feminists and conservative women as victims of discrimination and, in turn, a decrease in support for non-feminist victims. The study was conducted among 96 young Polish female professionals and graduate students from Gender Studies programs in Warsaw who self-identified as feminists (Mage  = 22.23). Participants were presented with a case of workplace gender discrimination. Threat to feminist identity and worldview of the discrimination victim (feminist vs. conservative) were varied between research conditions. Results indicate that identity threat caused feminists to show conditional reactions to discrimination. Under identity threat, feminists perceived the situation as less discriminatory when the target held conservative views on gender relations than when the target was presented as feminist. This effect was not observed under conditions of no threat. Moreover, feminists showed an increase in compassion for the victim when she was portrayed as a feminist compared to when she was portrayed as conservative. Implications for the feminist movement are discussed.

  18. Threats of incarceration in a psychiatric probation and parole service.

    PubMed

    Draine, J; Solomon, P

    2001-04-01

    This study of the extent to which probation officers use threats of incarceration when working with clients who have mental illness found that collaboration between probation and parole officers and mental health workers significantly enhances the coercive interactions between officers and their clients. Guidelines for collaboration between criminal justice and mental health systems are called for.

  19. Mass Media Use by College Students during Hurricane Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of studies on how college students prepare for the threat of natural disasters. This study surveyed college students' preferences in mass media use prior to an approaching hurricane. The convenience sample (n = 76) were from a university located in the hurricane-prone area of the central Gulf of Mexico coast. Interestingly,…

  20. Medical support in a nuclear/biological/chemical threat environment.

    PubMed

    Handke, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    This account shows how military personnel deployed abroad are often exposed to particularly stressful events and how they must cope with enormous challenges. Shortly after the ground offensive started in Iraq, 109 soldiers were deployed, at very short notice, from Germany to Kuwait on March 21, 2003, as Extending Operation Forces in the area of operations. They reinforced the German NBC defense battalion that was already stationed on the Persian Gulf. From March 21 to May 6, 2003, I was assigned to Camp Doha, Kuwait, as the senior medical officer of the German contingent participating in Operation Enduring Freedom. The situation changed drastically when Operation Iraqi Freedom started on March 20, 2003, when the camp was attacked by Iraqi missiles. Medical support was then provided under the conditions of an acute conventional and NBC threat situation. Providing medical support in multinational operations is one of the tasks specified in the operational spectrum of the Medical Service. As a result of the growing threat posed worldwide by terrorist acts involving the use not only of conventional weapons but also of NBC agents, it is becoming increasingly important for medical personnel to receive appropriate training in how to behave and in how to treat patients in a NBC threat environment. We must make every effort to fully understand this new type of threat environment and to address it effectively. PMID:18214132