Science.gov

Sample records for air plants animals

  1. Air quality data analysis system for interrelating effects, standards, and needed source reductions: Part 12. Effects on man, animals, and plants as a function of air pollutant impact

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.I.; McDonnell, W.F.; Coffin, D.L.; Heck, W.W.

    1993-12-01

    The impact-effect mathematical model was developed previously to predict biological response as a function of air pollutant impact (exposure duration multiplied by pollutant concentration raised on an exponent). The purpose of this paper is plot and regress example effects on man, animals, and plants (a wide range of life forms) as a function of air pollutant impact to determine how well the plotted data fit this model and to determine, especially, how well both acute and chronic exposure data fit the model. The three examples of air pollutant effects plotted and regressed are: for man, lung function decrease after exposure to ozone (O3); for animals, mice mortality after exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2); and for plants, leaf injury after exposure to O3. The resultant impact-effect equations explain 95 percent of the variance for the lung function data, 92 percent for leaf injury, and 73 percent for mice mortality.

  2. Plants, Animals and Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheasant, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Countrystart is a class in which students work with plants and animals, providing numerous opportunities to integrate basic skills teaching. The practical subject area becomes the vehicle to develop other skills needed by students. (JOW)

  3. Attention "Blinks" Differently for Plants and Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Benjamin; Momsen, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Plants, to many, are simply not as interesting as animals. Students typically prefer to study animals rather than plants and recall plants more poorly, and plants are underrepresented in the classroom. The observed paucity of interest for plants has been described as "plant blindness," a term that is meant to encapsulate both the…

  4. Acoustic communication in plant-animal interactions.

    PubMed

    Schöner, Michael G; Simon, Ralph; Schöner, Caroline R

    2016-08-01

    Acoustic communication is widespread and well-studied in animals but has been neglected in other organisms such as plants. However, there is growing evidence for acoustic communication in plant-animal interactions. While knowledge about active acoustic signalling in plants (i.e. active sound production) is still in its infancy, research on passive acoustic signalling (i.e. reflection of animal sounds) revealed that bat-dependent plants have adapted to the bats' echolocation systems by providing acoustic reflectors to attract their animal partners. Understanding the proximate mechanisms and ultimate causes of acoustic communication will shed light on an underestimated dimension of information transfer between plants and animals. PMID:27423052

  5. Attention "blinks" differently for plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin; Momsen, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Plants, to many, are simply not as interesting as animals. Students typically prefer to study animals rather than plants and recall plants more poorly, and plants are underrepresented in the classroom. The observed paucity of interest for plants has been described as plant blindness, a term that is meant to encapsulate both the tendency to neglect plants in the environment and the lack of appreciation for plants' functional roles. While the term plant blindness suggests a perceptual or attentional component to plant neglect, few studies have examined whether there are real differences in how plants and animals are perceived. Here, we use an established paradigm in visual cognition, the "attentional blink," to compare the extent to which images of plants and animals capture attentional resources. We find that participants are better able to detect animals than plants in rapid image sequences and that visual attention has a different refractory period when a plant has been detected. These results suggest there are fundamental differences in how the visual system processes plants that may contribute to plant blindness. We discuss how perceptual and physiological constraints on visual processing may suggest useful strategies for characterizing and overcoming zoocentrism. PMID:25185227

  6. PLANT RESPONSE TO AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. ince leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbo...

  7. ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

  8. The difference between animal and plant (single)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Philip

    2012-03-01

    The plants have the cell walls, but the animal cells have not. This means the animals eat the other cells, but the plants make the cells by making the carbons into the oxygen. So the animals cells are the sword that kill the other cells. So the animal cells are together, but the cell walls mean they are making the same kinds from nothing to something. So plants' cells are the feeling that includes the sword of animals' cells. The feeling is from nothing. And this means the single is better than the dualism, as it has the arrow from the origin and this has the start and the end. So the animal and the plant are different from each other.

  9. Air pollution and plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Treshow, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book addresses air pollution's sources and movement; biochemical, cellular, and whole-plant effects, impacts on agricultural and natural systems; and control. The effects of convective turbulence and atmospheric stability are well illustrated. The diagnosis of air pollution injury to plants and mimicking symptoms are discussed. The environmental and source variables that affect pollutant dispersion are explained by use of the Gaussian dispersion model. An overview is presented of the effects of sulfur dioxide, photochemical oxidants, and fluoride on stomatal function, photosynthesis, respiration, and metabolic processes and products. Information is discussed concerning combinations of air pollutants, impacts on lichens, and effects of trace metals on plants. The relationship between air pollutants and diseases or other stress factors is evaluated.

  10. Large animal hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic plants.

    PubMed

    Oladosu, L A; Case, A A

    1979-10-01

    The hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic plants of large domestic animals have been reviewed. The most important ones are those widely distributed as weeds over pastures, negelcted forests and grasslands, those used as ornamentals, the nitrate concentrating forage crops, and the cyanophoric plants. Crotolaria spp, the ragwort (Senecia jacobaea), the lantana spp. and heliotopum are common hepatoxic plants. Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Solanum rostratum, and the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) are nephrotoxic plants. PMID:516370

  11. Biosynthesis of Plant and Animal Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, C. Patrick

    1984-01-01

    Presents a biochemical overview of the synthesis of food biopolymers that constitute macronutrients in the plant or animal cell. Emphasizes involvement of enzymes in steps characterized by accumulation of materials, activation, polymerization, postpolymerization conversion, and formation of structural components. (JN)

  12. The Evolution of Multicellular Plants and Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Traces the evolution of unicellular organisms to the multi-cellular plants and animals in existence today. Major events are depicted in a geologic timetable. Organisms, extinct and recent, are classified by taxonomic group. (MA)

  13. Air pollution injury to plants

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The injuries to plants by oxidant air pollution can be used as biological indicators of pollution episodes. Bel W3 tobacco is often used as an indicator organism. Dogwood is another potential indicator organism. Specific growing procedures used for indicator organisms are described, as are diagnostic criteria for the type and extent of injuries.

  14. Air pollution and plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Treshow, M.

    1984-01-01

    The publication of this volume could hardly have been more timely, for concern about the damage to plants from air pollution has grown rapidly in the last few years. The book comprises eighteen chapters by contributors of high repute. Three early chapters deal with Dispersion and Fate of Atmospheric Pollutants, Long Range Transport and Monitoring Levels and Effects of Air Pollutants. They provide essential reading for those working on effects in the field, and they set the scene for a contribution from the Volume Editor on the problems of diagnosis. The central chapters (7 to 11) provide, in considerable depth, a summary of the knowledge of the mechanism of action of pollutants on plants, in terms of physiology, biochemistry, and ultrastructure. Particularly valuable is the essay entitled Impact of Air Pollutant Combinations on Plants, which concludes that even though few generalizations are possible, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest that interactions between some pollutants (e.g. SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/) may seriously damage some plants.

  15. AIRS Storm Front Approaching California (animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the AIRS Storm Front Approaching California Animation

    NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument is able to peel back cloud cover to reveal 3-D structure of a storm's water vapor content, information that can be used to improve weather forecast models.

    In this animation the initial visible cloud image series shows a front moving toward the West Coast of the United States as a low pressure area moves into the Pacific Northwest. The 'Pineapple Express,' a stream of moisture that originates in the tropics South of Hawaii and usually crosses Mexico to enter New Mexico and Texas, has shifted Westward and is also visible moving into Baja California. The area preceding the front appears to be relatively clear in the visible images.

    As the view shifts from the visible to the infrared wavelengths which highlight water vapor, we see both cloud areas contain heavy burdens of moisture. The area which appears clear in the visible images is seen to contain water vapor near the coastline as well. The viewpoint then rotates so that we can see the vertical cross section of the fronts. The variability of the vertical extent of water vapor and the amount is now clearly visible. The storm moving in from the Gulf of Alaska is more heavily laden with water vapor than that moving in from the Southwest. The moisture is concentrated in the lower atmosphere. The colors indicate the amount of water vapor present. Blue areas denote low water vapor content; green areas are medium water vapor content; red areas signify high water vapor content. The vertical grid for the final frame ranges from 250 millibar pressure at the top to 1000 millibar pressure at the bottom. The top is about 10 km (6.2 miles) above the surface of the Earth.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in

  16. Science Experience Unit: Plant and Animal Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: No mention. Appears to be upper elementary. SUBJECT MATTER: Science units--plants and animals. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 35 activities. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. The activities suggested aim to recreate common…

  17. Interactions of Salmonella with animals and plants

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemann, Agnès; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chaussé, Anne-Marie; Schikora, Adam; Velge, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica species are Gram-negative bacteria, which are responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases in both humans and animals, thereby posing a major threat to public health. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports, linking Salmonella contaminated raw vegetables and fruits with food poisoning. Many studies have shown that an essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a large variety of cells and that the extent of internalization may be influenced by numerous factors. However, it is poorly understood how Salmonella successfully infects hosts as diversified as animals or plants. The aim of this review is to describe the different stages required for Salmonella interaction with its hosts: (i) attachment to host surfaces; (ii) entry processes; (iii) multiplication; (iv) suppression of host defense mechanisms; and to point out similarities and differences between animal and plant infections. PMID:25653644

  18. Interactions of Salmonella with animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Agnès; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chaussé, Anne-Marie; Schikora, Adam; Velge, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica species are Gram-negative bacteria, which are responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases in both humans and animals, thereby posing a major threat to public health. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports, linking Salmonella contaminated raw vegetables and fruits with food poisoning. Many studies have shown that an essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a large variety of cells and that the extent of internalization may be influenced by numerous factors. However, it is poorly understood how Salmonella successfully infects hosts as diversified as animals or plants. The aim of this review is to describe the different stages required for Salmonella interaction with its hosts: (i) attachment to host surfaces; (ii) entry processes; (iii) multiplication; (iv) suppression of host defense mechanisms; and to point out similarities and differences between animal and plant infections. PMID:25653644

  19. Role of plant sensory perception in plant-animal interactions.

    PubMed

    Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2015-02-01

    The sedentary lifestyle of plants can give the false impression that they are passive participants in interactions with other organisms and the broader environment. In fact, plants have evolved sophisticated perceptual abilities that allow them to monitor and respond to a wide range of changing biotic and abiotic conditions. In this paper, we discuss recent research exploring the diverse ways in which plant sensory abilities mediate interactions between plants and animals, especially insects. Such interactions include the detection and capture of animal prey by carnivorous plants, active plant responses to pollinator visitation, the perception of various cues associated with the immediate presence and feeding of herbivores, and plant responses to (olfactory) cues indicating the threat of future herbivory. We are only beginning to understand the full range of sensory cues that mediate such interactions and to elucidate the mechanisms by which plants perceive, interpret, and respond to them. Nevertheless, it is clear that plants continually gather information about their environments via a range of sensory modalities and actively respond in ways that profoundly influence their interactions with other organisms. PMID:25371503

  20. 50 CFR 27.52 - Introduction of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Introduction of plants and animals. 27.52 Section 27.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Animals § 27.52 Introduction of plants and animals. Plants and animals or their parts taken...

  1. 50 CFR 27.52 - Introduction of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Introduction of plants and animals. 27.52 Section 27.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Animals § 27.52 Introduction of plants and animals. Plants and animals or their parts taken...

  2. 50 CFR 27.52 - Introduction of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction of plants and animals. 27.52 Section 27.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Animals § 27.52 Introduction of plants and animals. Plants and animals or their parts taken...

  3. 50 CFR 27.52 - Introduction of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Introduction of plants and animals. 27.52 Section 27.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Animals § 27.52 Introduction of plants and animals. Plants and animals or their parts taken...

  4. 50 CFR 27.52 - Introduction of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Introduction of plants and animals. 27.52 Section 27.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Animals § 27.52 Introduction of plants and animals. Plants and animals or their parts taken...

  5. All about Plant & Animal Interdependency. Plant Life for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Plants provide oxygen, food, shelter, medicine and more for all animals, including humans. In fact, people depend on plants for their very survival just as plants rely on animals! In All About Plant & Animal Interdependency, join aspiring botanists as they discover how plants and animals interrelate. Learn about the constant exchange of gases in…

  6. Animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, James R.; Schreiber, R. Kent

    1984-07-01

    With existing and proposed air-quality regulations, ecological disasters resulting from air emissions such as those observed at Copperhill, Tennessee, and Sudbury, Ontario, are unlikely. Current air-quality standards, however, may not protect ecosystems from subacute and chronic exposure to air emissions. The encouragement of the use of coal for energy production and the development of the fossil-fuel industries, including oil shales, tar sands, and coal liquification, point to an increase and spread of fossil-fuel emissions and the potential to influence a number of natural ecosystems. This paper reviews the reported responses of ecosystems to air-borne pollutants and discusses the use of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to these pollutants. Animal species and populations can act as important indicators of biotic and abiotic responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These responses can indicate long-term trends in ecosystem health and productivity, chemical cycling, genetics, and regulation. For short-term trends, fish and wildlife also serve as monitors of changes in community structure, signaling food-web contamination, as well as providing a measure of ecosystem vitality. Information is presented to show not only the importance of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air-quality degradation, but also their value as air-pollution indices, that is, as air-quality-related values (AQRV), required in current air-pollution regulation.

  7. Animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.R.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1984-07-01

    With existing and proposed air-quality regulations, ecological disasters resulting from air emissions such as those observed at Copperhill, Tennessee, and Sudbury, Ontario, are unlikely. Current air-quality standards, however, may not protect ecosystems from subacute and chronic exposure to air emissions. The encouragement of the use of coal for energy production and the development of the fossil-fuel industries, including oil shales, tar sands, and coal liquification, point to an increase and spread of fossil-fuel emissions and the potential to influence a number of natural ecosystems. This paper reviews the reported responses of ecosystems to airborne pollutants and discusses the use of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to these pollutants. Animal species and populations can act as important indicators of biotic and abiotic responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These responses can indicate long-term trends in ecosystem health and productivity, chemical cycling, genetics, and regulation. For short-term trends, fish and wildlife also serve as monitors of changes in community structure, signaling food-web contamination, as well as providing a measure of ecosystem vitality. Information is presented to show not only the importance of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air-quality degradation, but also their value as air-pollution indices, that is, as air-quality-related values (AQRV), required in current air-pollution regulation.

  8. Young Children's Recognition of Commonalities between Animals and Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inagaki, Kayoko; Hatano, Giyoo

    1996-01-01

    Results from several experiments indicated that by age 5, children distinguished animals and plants from nonliving things in terms of growth; many 5-year olds attributed growth, intake of food and water, and illness to both animals and plants; and 5-year olds responded affirmatively when asked whether plants would manifest phenomena similar to…

  9. Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stys, Z. S.

    1983-09-01

    The design features and performance capabilities of Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants for transferring off-peak utility electricity to on-peak hours are described. The plant operations involve compressing ambient air with an axial flow compressor and depositing it in an underground reservoir at 70 bar pressure. Released during a peaking cycle, the pressure is reduced to 43 bar, the air is heated to 550 C, passed through an expander after a turbine, and passed through a low pressure combustion chamber to be heated to 850 C. A West German plant built in 1978 to supply over 300 MW continuous power for up to two hours is detailed, noting its availability factor of nearly 98 percent and power delivery cost of $230/kW installed. A plant being constructed in Illinois will use limestone caverns as the air storage tank.

  10. Chapter 9: Symbiosis of plants, animals, and microbes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A diversity of plants, animals and microbes on Earth abound due to evolution, climate, competition, and symbiosis. Single cell species such as microorganisms are assumed to have evolved initially. Over time, plants and animals established and flourished. As each new kingdom of life came about, the...

  11. Foliage Plants for Improving Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's research with foliage houseplants during the past 10 years has produced a new concept in indoor air quality improvement. This new and exciting technology is quite simple. Both plant leaves and roots are utilized in removing trace levels of toxic vapors from inside tightly sealed buildings. Low levels of chemicals such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde can be removed from indoor environments by plant leaves alone, while higher concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals can be removed by filtering indoor air through the plant roots surrounded by activated carbon. The activated carbon absorbs large quantities of the toxic chemicals and retains them until the plant roots and associated microorganisms degrade and assimilate these chemicals.

  12. Power plant VII - Air-air /tube boiler/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, M.

    An attempt to design a solar thermal electric central receiver power plant in the multi-MW size with acceptable efficiencies using air in the power loop is described. The turbine and generator are placed in the tower to reduce heat losses in the superheated gas, and the depleted gas loop is coupled to a low temperature generator powered by boiling water. The receiver cavity is configured to retain a maximum amount of flux and has brick walls. Nickel alloys are indicated for the air tubes in the receiver, with Inconel 601, Incoloy 800, and Inconel 600 considered acceptable. The gas leaving the chamber will be at 950 C to power a high pressure turbine, followed by entrance into a heat exchanger to boil the water for the low-pressure turbine, and is then discharged. Thermodynamic efficiencies between 13.9-20.3 percent for a 4700 kW plant are considered feasible with the design.

  13. Ambient air quality monitoring plan, Cumberland Steam Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, A.E. Jr.; Carter, R.V.

    1981-09-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has conducted ambient air quality monitoring at Cumberland Steam Plant since 1971. The monitoring network was operated to collect background air quality information prior to plant startup (1972) and to document ambient air quality after the plant reached full operating levels in 1973. This monitoring plan presents a new network design for Cumberland Steam Plant.

  14. Corridors affect plants, animals, and their interactions in fragmented landscapes.

    SciTech Connect

    Tewksbury, Joshua, J.; Levey, Douglas, J.; Haddad, Nick, M.; Sargent, Sarah; Orrock, John, L.; Weldon, Aimee; Danielson, Brent, J.; Brinkerhoff, Jory; Damschen, Ellen, I.; Townsend, Patricia

    2002-10-01

    Tewksbury, J.J., D.J. Levey, N.M. Haddad, S. Sargent, J.L. Orrock, A. Weldon, B.J. Danielson, J. Brinkerhoff, E.I. Damschen, and P. Townsend. 2002. Corridors affect plants, animals, and their interactions in fragmented landscapes. PNAS 99(20):12923-12926. Among the most popular strategies for maintaining populations of both plants and animals in fragmented landscapes is to connect isolated patches with thin strips of habitat, called corridors. Corridors are thought to increase the exchange of individuals between habitat patches, promoting genetic exchange and reducing population fluctuations. Empirical studies addressing the effects of corridors have either been small in scale or have ignored confounding effects of increased habitat area created by the presence of a corridor. These methodological difficulties, coupled with a paucity of studies examining the effects of corridors on plants and plant-animal interactions, have sparked debate over the purported value of corridors in conservation planning. We report results of a large-scale experiment that directly address this debate. We demonstrate that corridors not only increase the exchange of animals between patches, but also facilitate two key plant-animal interactions: pollination and seed dispersal. Our results show that the beneficial effects of corridors extend beyond the area they add, and suggest that increased plant and animal movement through corridors will have positive impacts on plant populations and community interactions in fragmented landscapes.

  15. Will GM animals follow the GM plant fate?

    PubMed

    Vàzquez-Salat, Núria; Houdebine, Louis-Marie

    2013-02-01

    Despite being both Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), GM plants and GM animals share few similarities outside the laboratory premises. Whilst GM plants were soon embraced by industry and became a commercial success, only recently have GM animals reached the market. However, an area where GM animals are likely to follow the GM plant path is on their potential to cause social unrest. One of the major flaws of the 90s GMO crisis was the underestimation of the influence that different players can have in the adoption of new biotechnological applications. In this article we describe the unique evolution of GM animals in two of the most important fields: the pharmaceutical and the breeding sectors. For our analysis, we have subdivided the production chain into three governance domains: Science, Market and Public. We describe the influence and interaction of each of these domains as a vehicle for predicting the future adoptability of GM animals and to highlight conflicting areas. PMID:22987246

  16. It's Not Easy Being Green: Student Recall of Plant and Animal Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Olzak, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented that people are less interested in studying plants than animals. We tested whether university students would selectively recall more animal images than plant images even when equally-nameable plant and animal images were presented for equal lengths of time. Animal and plant images were pre-tested and 14 animal-plant pairs…

  17. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  18. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  19. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  20. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  1. Plant and Animal Gravitational Biology. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA2 includes short reports covering: (1) The Interaction of Microgravity and Ethylene on Soybean Growth and Metabolism; (2) Structure and G-Sensitivity of Root Statocytes under Different Mass Acceleration; (3) Extracellular Production of Taxanes on Cell Surfaces in Simulated Microgravity and Hypergravity; (4) Current Problems of Space Cell Phytobiology; (5) Biological Consequences of Microgravity-Induced Alterations in Water Metabolism of Plant Cells; (6) Localization of Calcium Ions in Chlorella Cells Under Clinorotation; (7) Changes of Fatty Acids Content of Plant Cell Plasma Membranes under Altered Gravity; (8) Simulation of Gravity by Non-Symmetrical Vibrations and Ultrasound; and (9) Response to Simulated weightlessness of In Vitro Cultures of Differentiated Epithelial Follicular Cells from Thyroid.

  2. 22. Power plant engine pipingcompressed air piping diagram and sections, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Power plant engine piping-compressed air piping diagram and sections, sheet 81 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  3. Field Keys to Common Hawaiian Marine Animals and Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Presented are keys for identifying common Hawaiian marine algae, beach plants, reef corals, sea urchins, tidepool fishes, and sea cucumbers. Nearly all species considered can be distinguished by characteristics visible to the naked eye. Line drawings illustrate most plants and animals included, and a list of suggested readings follows each…

  4. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J

    2015-12-01

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia. PMID:26690479

  5. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Gonzalo J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia. PMID:26690479

  6. Pathogen perception by NLRs in plants and animals: Parallel worlds.

    PubMed

    Duxbury, Zane; Ma, Yan; Furzer, Oliver J; Huh, Sung Un; Cevik, Volkan; Jones, Jonathan D G; Sarris, Panagiotis F

    2016-08-01

    Intracellular NLR (Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich Repeat-containing) receptors are sensitive monitors that detect pathogen invasion of both plant and animal cells. NLRs confer recognition of diverse molecules associated with pathogen invasion. NLRs must exhibit strict intramolecular controls to avoid harmful ectopic activation in the absence of pathogens. Recent discoveries have elucidated the assembly and structure of oligomeric NLR signalling complexes in animals, and provided insights into how these complexes act as scaffolds for signal transduction. In plants, recent advances have provided novel insights into signalling-competent NLRs, and into the myriad strategies that diverse plant NLRs use to recognise pathogens. Here, we review recent insights into the NLR biology of both animals and plants. By assessing commonalities and differences between kingdoms, we are able to develop a more complete understanding of NLR function. PMID:27339076

  7. Microbiota and Host Nutrition across Plant and Animal Kingdoms.

    PubMed

    Hacquard, Stéphane; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; González, Antonio; Spaepen, Stijn; Ackermann, Gail; Lebeis, Sarah; McHardy, Alice C; Dangl, Jeffrey L; Knight, Rob; Ley, Ruth; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-05-13

    Plants and animals each have evolved specialized organs dedicated to nutrient acquisition, and these harbor specific bacterial communities that extend the host's metabolic repertoire. Similar forces driving microbial community establishment in the gut and plant roots include diet/soil-type, host genotype, and immune system as well as microbe-microbe interactions. Here we show that there is no overlap of abundant bacterial taxa between the microbiotas of the mammalian gut and plant roots, whereas taxa overlap does exist between fish gut and plant root communities. A comparison of root and gut microbiota composition in multiple host species belonging to the same evolutionary lineage reveals host phylogenetic signals in both eukaryotic kingdoms. The reasons underlying striking differences in microbiota composition in independently evolved, yet functionally related, organs in plants and animals remain unclear but might include differences in start inoculum and niche-specific factors such as oxygen levels, temperature, pH, and organic carbon availability. PMID:25974302

  8. 77 FR 53779 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ...This action extends the comment period of an NPRM on the reporting of incidents involving animals during air transport that was published in the Federal Register on June 29, 2012. See 77 FR 38747. The Department of Transportation is extending the period for interested persons to submit comments on this rulemaking from August 28, 2012, to September 27, 2012. This extension is a result of a......

  9. Mitochondrial ferritin in animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Galatro, Andrea; Puntarulo, Susana

    2007-01-01

    Ferritins play a role in preventing Fe toxicity because of their ability to sequester several thousand Fe atoms in their central cavity in a soluble, non-toxic bioavailable form. The identification of ferritin in mitochondria, an organelle with a constant generation of O2(-) as a by-product of the electron transfer, and the presence of a mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase activity opened up brand new metabolic interactions to be analyzed. In spite of cytosolic ferritins in mammals being ubiquitous, mitochondrial ferritin (mtF) expression is restricted to the testis, neuronal cells, islets of Langerhans, and as recently described to mice normal retinas. None was detected in major storage organs such as liver and spleen. MtF has about 80% identity to cytosolic H-chain and 55% to L-chain in its coding region. There has been reported some differences in the Fe binding and oxidation properties between mtF and cytosolic H-ferritin suggesting that mtF functions differently as an Fe storage protein within the mitochondria and perhaps has other function(s) in Fe homeostasis as well. Recently it was also presented evidence for the presence of ferritins in plant mitochondria. The understanding of the role of mitochondrial ferritin in Fe oxidative metabolism may be useful in approaching clinical situations such as the treatment of Friedreich's ataxia, X-linked sideroblastic anemia, and in other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:17127361

  10. Infectious diseases of animals and plants: an interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Katy; Grant, Wyn P; Green, Laura E; Hunter, Stephen; Jeger, Michael J; Lowe, Philip; Medley, Graham F; Mills, Peter; Phillipson, Jeremy; Poppy, Guy M; Waage, Jeff

    2011-07-12

    Animal and plant diseases pose a serious and continuing threat to food security, food safety, national economies, biodiversity and the rural environment. New challenges, including climate change, regulatory developments, changes in the geographical concentration and size of livestock holdings, and increasing trade make this an appropriate time to assess the state of knowledge about the impact that diseases have and the ways in which they are managed and controlled. In this paper, the case is explored for an interdisciplinary approach to studying the management of infectious animal and plant diseases. Reframing the key issues through incorporating both social and natural science research can provide a holistic understanding of disease and increase the policy relevance and impact of research. Finally, in setting out the papers in this Theme Issue, a picture of current and future animal and plant disease threats is presented. PMID:21624914

  11. Infectious diseases of animals and plants: an interdisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Katy; Grant, Wyn P.; Green, Laura E.; Hunter, Stephen; Jeger, Michael J.; Lowe, Philip; Medley, Graham F.; Mills, Peter; Phillipson, Jeremy; Poppy, Guy M.; Waage, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Animal and plant diseases pose a serious and continuing threat to food security, food safety, national economies, biodiversity and the rural environment. New challenges, including climate change, regulatory developments, changes in the geographical concentration and size of livestock holdings, and increasing trade make this an appropriate time to assess the state of knowledge about the impact that diseases have and the ways in which they are managed and controlled. In this paper, the case is explored for an interdisciplinary approach to studying the management of infectious animal and plant diseases. Reframing the key issues through incorporating both social and natural science research can provide a holistic understanding of disease and increase the policy relevance and impact of research. Finally, in setting out the papers in this Theme Issue, a picture of current and future animal and plant disease threats is presented. PMID:21624914

  12. Plant & Animal Interdependency. Plant Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In every ecosystem, organisms rely on each other in unique relationships that ensure each other's survival. In Plant & Animal Interdependency, find out how plants and animals interact, cooperate and compete. All living things have basic needs and depend on other living things to meet those needs. Discover why the constant exchange of nutrients and…

  13. Slicing across Kingdoms: Regeneration in Plants and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Kenneth D.; Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possessing relatively long life spans are subjected to diverse, constant, and often intense intrinsic and extrinsic challenges to their survival. Animal and plant tissues wear out as part of normal physiological functions and can be lost to predators, disease, and injury. Both kingdoms survive this wide variety of insults by strategies that include the maintenance of adult stem cells or the induction of stem cell potential in differentiated cells. Repatterning mechanisms often deploy embryonic genes, but the question remains in both plants and animals whether regeneration invokes embryogenesis, generic patterning mechanisms, or unique circuitry comprised of well-established patterning genes. PMID:18295584

  14. Gas circulation and mass exchange between animal and plant units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Hu, Enzhu

    To investigate the gas circulation and mass exchange relations among animal, plant and other biological units in the bioregenarative life support system, a closed cultivating system consisting of animal breeding chamber and plant growing chamber was established. This facility is 1.4 m high with the bottom area measuring 1.4 m X 0.8 m. In the animal chamber, silkworms in the multistage instars from the first instar to the third day in the fifth instar were bred; in the plant chamber, lettuce with sharp leaves were grown in a staggered manner. After transferring the silkworms in different instars hatched in the artificial climate box proportionally, utilizing mulberry leaves supplied from the outside of the closed cultivating system to feed the silkworms from the first instar to the third instar; fed the silkworms after the third instar to the third day in the fifth instar with the lettuce leaves grown in the closed facility, meanwhile, took out silkworms' excretion whose amount was in proportion to that of the mulberry leaves input into the facility. Furthermore, the silkworms on the third day in the fifth instar were took out to provide animal protein with high quality for astronauts at certain intervals and the next batch of the silkworms in the first instar were put into the animal chamber. In this cultivating process, the O2 cycle period and CO2 concentration change were investigated, moreover, the transfer and transforming ways of carbon and other elements were determined.

  15. 77 FR 5403 - Conservation of Antarctic Animals and Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 45 CFR Part 670 Conservation of Antarctic Animals and Plants AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, The National...

  16. Exploring Plant and Animal Content in Elementary Science Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Link-Perez, Melanie A.; Weber, Kirk M.; Dollo, Vanessa H.

    2010-01-01

    Student knowledge about plants is typically less than student knowledge about animals. Textbooks are a commonly-used curriculum material in elementary grades and contain embedded cultural ideologies that may impact instruction. This study analyzed two nationally-syndicated elementary science textbook series to explore their presentation of plant…

  17. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability §...

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of plants and animals: a comparative approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, J. W.; Tiffney, B. H.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Patterns of longevity and rate of appearance of taxa in the fossil record indicate a different evolutionary dynamic between land plants and marine invertebrates. Among marine invertebrates, rates of taxonomic turnover declined through the Phanerozoic, with increasingly extinction-resistant, long-lived, clades coming to dominate. Among terrestrial vascular plants, rates of turnover increased through the Phanerozoic, with short-lived, extinction-prone clades coming to dominate from the Devonian to the present. Terrestrial vertebrates appear to approximate the marine invertebrate pattern more closely than the plant record. We identify two features which individually or jointly may have influenced this distinction. First, land plants continuously invaded stressful environments during their evolution, while marine invertebrates and terrestrial vertebrates did not. Second, the relative structural simplicity and indeterminate mode of plant growth vs. the relative structural complexity and determinate mode of animal growth may have influenced the timing of major clade origin in the two groups.

  19. Epidemiology of intoxication of domestic animals by plants in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2013-08-01

    This review focuses on some of the most important poisonous plants in Europe and provides an overview of the poisoning episodes that have occurred in European countries. Poisoning of livestock and companion animals by plants is a relatively common occurrence. In Europe livestock and horses are commonly poisoned by Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Senecio spp. (ragworts and groundsels), Quercus spp. (oak), Taxus baccata (European yew), Nerium oleander (oleander), Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) and Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas). Poisoning may occur when the fresh plant is ingested in pasture or when it contaminates hay or silage. In pets, the greatest majority of plant poisonings are the result of ingestion of house or garden plants, such as Cycas revoluta (Sago palm), Ricinus communis (castor bean), Allium spp., Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia), Lilium spp., Convallaria majalis (Lily of the valley), Pyracantha spp. (firethorn), Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas), Melia azedarach (Chinaberry tree), Taxus baccata (European yew) and Nerium oleander (oleander). PMID:23570777

  20. Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Johnson, Anne; Bounds, Keith

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the leaves, roots, soil, and associated microorganisms of plants have been evaluated as a possible means of reducing indoor air pollutants. Additionally, a novel approach of using plant systems for removing high concentrations of indoor air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, organic solvents, and possibly radon has been designed from this work. This air filter design combines plants with an activated carbon filter. The rationale for this design, which evolved from wastewater treatment studies, is based on moving large volumes of contaminated air through an activated carbon bed where smoke, organic chemicals, pathogenic microorganisms (if present), and possibly radon are absorbed by the carbon filter. Plant roots and their associated microorganisms then destroy the pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and the organic chemicals, eventually converting all of these air pollutants into new plant tissue. It is believed that the decayed radon products would be taken up the plant roots and retained in the plant tissue.

  1. Absorption of excess selenium and sulfur by plants and animals

    SciTech Connect

    Mayland, H.F.

    1995-09-01

    High concentrations of selenium (Se) and sulfur (S) often occur in over-burden soils and underlying shales associated with western coal mining areas. Knowing the role of Se and S in the soil-plant-animal system is important for proper management of mine spoil reclamation. This paper will discuss recent findings about Se and S forms in soils, their absorption and accumulation by plants, and their subsequent toxicity to grazing animals. Selenium absorbed by the accumulating plants is generally metabolized to non-protein forms, while that absorbed by the non-accumulating plants occurs predominantly as selenomethionine. Selenomethionine is readily absorbed by animals. In animals, both acute and chronic forms of selenosis are known. Death occurs when a large dose of highly-available Se is ingested. One chronic form includes symptoms of inappetence, hair loss, hardening and extension of nails and hooves, reduced weight gains, and poor reproductive performance. Beath and Rosenfield identified {open_quotes}blind staggers{close_quotes} as another from of selenosis, but this disorder; more appropriately called polioencephalomalcia (PEM), occurred only in ruminants. However; the historical association of selenosis to blind staggers has been questioned. Recent experimental evidence has shown that PEM is likely caused by excess SO{sub 4}. Cases of this disorder have been documented in the USA and Canada when ruminants have high S intake from herbage and/or drinking water. Western mine reclamation decisions should consider the potential for not only excess Se, but also excess SO{sub 4} in water, soil, and plants.

  2. Phylogenomic analysis of transferrin family from animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lina; Qiao, Mu; Zheng, Rong; Deng, Changyan; Mei, Shuqi; Chen, Wanping

    2016-03-01

    Transferrins have been identified in animals and green algae, and they consist of a family of evolutionarily related proteins that play a central role in iron transport, immunity, growth and differentiation. This study assessed the transferrin genes among 100 genomes from a wide range of animal and plant kingdoms. The results showed that putative transferrins were widespread in animals, but their gene quantity and type differ greatly between animal groups. Generally, Mammalia possess abundant transferrin genes, whereas Trematoda contain few ones. Melanotransferrin and serotransferrin are widely distributed in vertebrates, while melanotransferrin-like and transferrin-like 1 are frequent in invertebrates. However, only a few plant species detected putative transferrins, and a novel transferrin member was first uncovered in Angiospermae and Pteridophyta. The structural comparison among transferrin family members revealed seven very well-repeated and conserved characteristic motifs, despite a considerable variation in the overall sequences. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that gene duplication, gene loss and horizontal transfer contributed to the diversification of transferrin family members, and their inferred evolutionary scenario was proposed. These findings help to the understanding of transferrin distribution, characteristic motifs and residues, and evolutionary process. PMID:26655280

  3. K₂p channels in plants and animals.

    PubMed

    González, Wendy; Valdebenito, Braulio; Caballero, Julio; Riadi, Gonzalo; Riedelsberger, Janin; Martínez, Gonzalo; Ramírez, David; Zúñiga, Leandro; Sepúlveda, Francisco V; Dreyer, Ingo; Janta, Michael; Becker, Dirk

    2015-05-01

    Two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels are membrane proteins widely identified in mammals, plants, and other organisms. A functional channel is a dimer with each subunit comprising two pore-forming loops and four transmembrane domains. The genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana harbors five genes coding for K2P channels. Homologs of Arabidopsis K2P channels have been found in all higher plants sequenced so far. As with the K2P channels in mammals, plant K2P channels are targets of external and internal stimuli, which fine-tune the electrical properties of the membrane for specialized transport and/or signaling tasks. Plant K2P channels are modulated by signaling molecules such as intracellular H(+) and calcium and physical factors like temperature and pressure. In this review, we ask the following: What are the similarities and differences between K2P channels in plants and animals in terms of their physiology? What is the nature of the last common ancestor (LCA) of these two groups of proteins? To answer these questions, we present physiological, structural, and phylogenetic evidence that discards the hypothesis proposing that the duplication and fusion that gave rise to the K2P channels occurred in a prokaryote LCA. Conversely, we argue that the K2P LCA was most likely a eukaryote organism. Consideration of plant and animal K2P channels in the same study is novel and likely to stimulate further exchange of ideas between students of these fields. PMID:25369776

  4. Genotyping of plant and animal samples without prior DNA purification.

    PubMed

    Chum, Pak Y; Haimes, Josh D; André, Chas P; Kuusisto, Pia K; Kelley, Melissa L

    2012-01-01

    The Direct PCR approach facilitates PCR amplification directly from small amounts of unpurified samples, and is demonstrated here for several plant and animal tissues (Figure 1). Direct PCR is based on specially engineered Thermo Scientific Phusion and Phire DNA Polymerases, which include a double-stranded DNA binding domain that gives them unique properties such as high tolerance of inhibitors. PCR-based target DNA detection has numerous applications in plant research, including plant genotype analysis and verification of transgenes. PCR from plant tissues traditionally involves an initial DNA isolation step, which may require expensive or toxic reagents. The process is time consuming and increases the risk of cross contamination. Conversely, by using Thermo Scientific Phire Plant Direct PCR Kit the target DNA can be easily detected, without prior DNA extraction. In the model demonstrated here, an example of derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis (dCAPS) is performed directly from Arabidopsis plant leaves. dCAPS genotyping assays can be used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by SNP allele-specific restriction endonuclease digestion. Some plant samples tend to be more challenging when using Direct PCR methods as they contain components that interfere with PCR, such as phenolic compounds. In these cases, an additional step to remove the compounds is traditionally required. Here, this problem is overcome by using a quick and easy dilution protocol followed by Direct PCR amplification (Figure 1). Fifteen year-old oak leaves are used as a model for challenging plants as the specimen contains high amounts of phenolic compounds including tannins. Gene transfer into mice is broadly used to study the roles of genes in development, physiology and human disease. The use of these animals requires screening for the presence of the transgene, usually with PCR. Traditionally, this involves a time consuming DNA isolation step, during which DNA

  5. Avoiding headaches from in-plant air problems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.W.

    1995-03-01

    The key to solving in-plant hazardous air pollution is identifying the problem. Welding gases (especially nitrogen dioxide), solvent vapors, mineral dust and metal plating operations all pose hazards to workers. First, the problem must be identified, then its impact and severity must be evaluated, and finally the feasible options to control the air contaminants of concern must be assessed before selecting the best solution. Significant improvements to air quality in most industrial plants can be made easily and cost effective.

  6. Solanum malacoxylon: a toxic plant which affects animal calcium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Boland, R L

    1988-12-01

    The "enteque seco" is a disease of calcinosis, i.e., pathological deposition of calcium phosphate in soft tissues, which occurs in grazing cattle in Argentina and is of considerable economic importance. The ingestion of leaves of Solanum malacoxylon has been identified as the cause of the disease. Hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia and mineralization of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems are usually seen in bovines or experimental animals exposed to this plant. The symptoms of the disease resemble those of vitamin D intoxication. In agreement with these observations, a glycoside derivative of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the hormonally active form of vitamin D in animals, has been identified as the toxic principle of S. malacoxylon. Glycoside conjugates of its precursors, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and vitamin D3, may also be present. Recent studies indicate that the plant factor is modified in the rumen of bovines through cleavage of the glycosidic linkage and further conversion of the released 1,25(OH)2D3 to a more polar metabolite, possibly 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3. Excess free 1,25(OH)2D3 may alter extracellular and intracellular Ca homeostasis in intoxicated animals through a receptor-mediated mechanism and activation of membrane Ca channels. In addition, 1,24,25(OH)3D3 may potentiate the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on intestinal Ca transport. PMID:3077267

  7. The optimization air separation plants for combined cycle MHD-power plant applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.; Springmann, H.; Greenberg, R.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the design approaches being employed during a current supported study directed at developing an improved air separation process for the production of oxygen enriched air for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) combustion are outlined. The ultimate objective is to arrive at conceptual designs of air separation plants, optimized for minimum specific power consumption and capital investment costs, for integration with MHD combined cycle power plants.

  8. Mechanisms of Arthropod Transmission of Plant and Animal Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Stewart M.; Banerjee, Nanditta

    1999-01-01

    A majority of the plant-infecting viruses and many of the animal-infecting viruses are dependent upon arthropod vectors for transmission between hosts and/or as alternative hosts. The viruses have evolved specific associations with their vectors, and we are beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate the virus transmission process. A majority of plant viruses are carried on the cuticle lining of a vector’s mouthparts or foregut. This initially appeared to be simple mechanical contamination, but it is now known to be a biologically complex interaction between specific virus proteins and as yet unidentified vector cuticle-associated compounds. Numerous other plant viruses and the majority of animal viruses are carried within the body of the vector. These viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to enable them to be transported through multiple tissues and to evade vector defenses. In response, vector species have evolved so that not all individuals within a species are susceptible to virus infection or can serve as a competent vector. Not only are the virus components of the transmission process being identified, but also the genetic and physiological components of the vectors which determine their ability to be used successfully by the virus are being elucidated. The mechanisms of arthropod-virus associations are many and complex, but common themes are beginning to emerge which may allow the development of novel strategies to ultimately control epidemics caused by arthropod-borne viruses. PMID:10066833

  9. Oxygen-enriched air for MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, R. W., Jr.; Cutting, J. C.; Burkhart, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Cryogenic air-separation process cycle variations and compression schemes are examined. They are designed to minimize net system power required to supply pressurized, oxygen-enriched air to the combustor of an MHD power plant with a coal input of 2000 MWt. Power requirements and capital costs for oxygen production and enriched air compression for enrichment levels from 13 to 50% are determined. The results are presented as curves from which total compression power requirements can be estimated for any desired enrichment level at any delivery pressure. It is found that oxygen enrichment and recuperative heating of MHD combustor air to 1400 F yields near-term power plant efficiencies in excess of 45%. A minimum power compression system requires 167 MW to supply 330 lb of oxygen per second and costs roughly 100 million dollars. Preliminary studies show MHD/steam power plants to be competitive with plants using high-temperature air preheaters burning gas.

  10. Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A; Briggs, Cheryl J; Brownstein, John S; Madoff, Lawrence C; McCraw, Sarah L; Gurr, Sarah J

    2012-04-12

    The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide. PMID:22498624

  11. Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Matthew C.; Henk, Daniel. A.; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Brownstein, John S.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; McCraw, Sarah L.; Gurr, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide. PMID:22498624

  12. 50 CFR 27.51 - Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants and animals. 27.51 Section 27.51 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Violations: Against Plants and Animals § 27.51 Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants and animals....

  13. What Plants and Animals Do Early Childhood and Primary Students' Name? Where Do They See Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2011-01-01

    Children from England and the United States of America have a basic similar knowledge of plants and animals, which they observe during their everyday life. Nine children of ages 4, 6, 8, and 10 years, in each country, were asked to free-list plants and animals. Afterwards, they were interviewed individually about the plants and animals they listed…

  14. Animal or Plant: Which Is the Better Fog Water Collector?

    PubMed Central

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Ebner, Martin; Dacke, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Occasional fog is a critical water source utilised by plants and animals in the Namib Desert. Fog basking beetles (Onymacris unguicularis, Tenebrionidae) and Namib dune bushman grass (Stipagrostris sabulicola, Poaceae) collect water directly from the fog. While the beetles position themselves optimally for fog water collection on dune ridges, the grass occurs predominantly at the dune base where less fog water is available. Differences in the fog-water collecting abilities in animals and plants have never been addressed. Here we place beetles and grass side-by-side in a fog chamber and measure the amount of water they collect over time. Based on the accumulated amount of water over a two hour period, grass is the better fog collector. However, in contrast to the episodic cascading water run-off from the grass, the beetles obtain water in a steady flow from their elytra. This steady trickle from the beetles' elytra to their mouth could ensure that even short periods of fog basking – while exposed to predators – will yield water. Up to now there is no indication of specialised surface properties on the grass leafs, but the steady run-off from the beetles could point to specific property adaptations of their elytra surface. PMID:22509331

  15. The evolution of animals and plants via symbiosis with microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Sharon, Gil; Atad, Ilil; Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana

    2010-08-01

    Animals and plants evolved from prokaryotes and have remained in close association with them. We suggest that early eukaryotic cells, formed by the fusion of two or more prokaryotes, already contained prokaryotic genetic information for aggregation and the formation of multicellular structures. The hologenome theory of evolution posits that a unit of selection in evolution is the holobiont (host plus symbionts). The hologenome is defined as the genetic information of the host and its microbiota, which function in consortium. Genetic variation of the holobiont, the raw material for evolution, can arise from changes in either the host or the symbiotic microbiota genomes. Changes in the hologenome can occur by two processes that are specific to holobionts: microbial amplification and acquisition of novel strains from the environment. Recent data from culture-independent studies provides considerable support of the hologenome theory: (i) all animals and plants contain abundant and diverse microbiota, (ii) the symbiotic microbiota affects the fitness of their host and (iii) symbiotic microorganisms are transmitted from parent to offspring. Consideration of the dynamic aspects of symbioses of hosts with their diverse microbiota leads to the conclusion that holobionts can evolve not only via Darwinian but also by adaptive Lamarckian principles. PMID:23766221

  16. The Hanford Reservation: A refuge for native plants and animals

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.; Rickard, W.H.

    1991-04-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site provides a refuge for plant and animal populations that have been either eradicated or greatly reduced on, surrounding farm lands. The Columbia River, both upstream and downstream of the Site, and much of the adjacent areas have experienced severe alterations during the past 5 decades, mostly from the construction and operation of a series of hydroelectric dams, increased agricultural activities, and the diversion and use of river water for irrigation. The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River provides nesting areas for waterfowl and other birds. The Hanford Reach serves as a migration route for salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri, now reclassified as O. mykiss). In addition, chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and steelhead trout spawn in the Hanford Reach. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) congregate along the Hanford Reach in the fall and winter to feed on the spawned-out carcasses of salmon and waterfowl. Nesting Canada goose (Branta canadensis), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), various plants and other animals, e.g., elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and coyotes (Canis latrans) are common. 65 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Introduction. Speciation in plants and animals: pattern and process.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Richard J; Ritchie, Michael G; Hollingsworth, Peter M

    2008-09-27

    Although approximately 150 years have passed since the publication of On the origin of species by means of natural selection, the definition of what species are and the ways in which species originate remain contentious issues in evolutionary biology. The biological species concept, which defines species as groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups, continues to draw support. However, there is a growing realization that many animal and plant species can hybridize with their close relatives and exchange genes without losing their identity. On occasion, such hybridization can lead to the origin of new species. A key to understanding what species are and the ways in which they originate rests to a large extent on a detailed knowledge of the nature and genetics of factors that limit gene flow between species and the conditions under which such isolation originates. The collection of papers in this issue addresses these topics and deals as well with some specific issues of hybrid speciation and the causes of species radiations. The papers included arise from a 1-day symposium on speciation held during the Sixth Biennial Meeting of the Systematics Association at Edinburgh in August 2007. In this introduction, we provide some background to these papers and highlight some key points made. The papers make clear that highly significant advances to our understanding of animal and plant speciation are currently being made across the range of this topic. PMID:18583278

  18. Air and the origin of the experimental plant physiology.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that oxygen and carbon dioxide are two chemicals which enter the plant metabolism as nutrients. The bases of this nowadays obvious statement were placed in the 18th century by means of the works of ingenious naturalists such as Robert Boyle, Stephen Hales, Joseph Priestley, Jam Ingenhousz, Lazzaro Spallanzani and Theodore De Saussure. Till the end of the 17th century, the atmospheric air was considered as an ineffable spirit, the function of which was of physical nature. Boyle was the first naturalist to admit the possibility that respiration were an exchange of vapours occurring in the blood. Stephen Hales realised that air could be fixed by plants under the influence of solar light. Priestley showed that plants could regenerate the bad air making it breathable. Ingenhousz demonstrated that the green parts of plants performed the complete purification of air only under the influence of the light. Spallanzani discovered that plants respire and guessed that the good air (oxygen) originated from the fixed air (carbon dioxide). Finally, Theodore De Saussure showed that plants were able to adsorb carbon dioxide and to release oxygen in a proportional air. All these discoveries benefited of the results coming from investigations of scholars of the so-called "pneumatic chemistry" (Boyle himself, George Ernst Stahl, Joseph Black, Priestley himself, and many more others. But among all the eminent scientists above mentioned stands out the genius of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, who revolutionised the chemistry of the 18th century ferrying it towards the modern chemistry. PMID:16440283

  19. Climate impacts on bird and plant communities from altered animal-plant interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Maron, John L.

    2012-03-01

    The contribution of climate change to declining populations of organisms remains a question of outstanding concern. Much attention to declining populations has focused on how changing climate drives phenological mismatches between animals and their food. Effects of climate on plant communities may provide an alternative, but particularly powerful, influence on animal populations because plants provide their habitats. Here, we show that abundances of deciduous trees and associated songbirds have declined with decreasing snowfall over 22 years of study in montane Arizona, USA. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that declining snowfall indirectly influences plants and associated birds by allowing greater over-winter herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). We excluded elk from one of two paired snowmelt drainages (10 ha per drainage), and replicated this paired experiment across three distant canyons. Over six years, we reversed multi-decade declines in plant and bird populations by experimentally inhibiting heavy winter herbivory associated with declining snowfall. Moreover, predation rates on songbird nests decreased in exclosures, despite higher abundances of nest predators, demonstrating the over-riding importance of habitat quality to avian recruitment. Thus, our results suggest that climate impacts on plant-animal interactions can have forceful ramifying effects on plants, birds, and ecological interactions.

  20. Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Mu, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui; Crystal Arens, Nan

    Phytoremediation—using plants to remove toxins—is an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.

  1. What Plants and Animals Do Early Childhood and Primary Students' Name? Where Do They See Them?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Patricia; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2011-10-01

    Children from England and the United States of America have a basic similar knowledge of plants and animals, which they observe during their everyday life. Nine children of ages 4, 6, 8, and 10 years, in each country, were asked to free-list plants and animals. Afterwards, they were interviewed individually about the plants and animals they listed to determine where they were seen. Additionally, children were asked to name animals they knew that were found in specific habitats or had specific characteristics. The results showed that children from the earliest years notice the animals in their everyday lives and 8 year olds were able to name the most animals. Plants were not named as often as animals and children in the USA found it difficult to name plants when questioned. This study shows that children are in touch with their everyday environment to varying extents, and that rich experiences can greatly contribute to their knowledge about plants and animals.

  2. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  3. Climate impacts on bird and plant communities from altered animal-plant interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Maron, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of climate change to declining populations of organisms remains a question of outstanding concern. Much attention to declining populations has focused on how changing climate drives phenological mismatches between animals and their food. Effects of climate on plant communities may provide an alternative, but particularly powerful, influence on animal populations because plants provide their habitats. Here, we show that abundances of deciduous trees and associated songbirds have declined with decreasing snowfall over 22 years of study in montane Arizona, USA. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that declining snowfall indirectly influences plants and associated birds by allowing greater over-winter herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). We excluded elk from one of two paired snowmelt drainages (10 ha per drainage), and replicated this paired experiment across three distant canyons. Over six years, we reversed multi-decade declines in plant and bird populations by experimentally inhibiting heavy winter herbivory associated with declining snowfall. Moreover, predation rates on songbird nests decreased in exclosures, despite higher abundances of nest predators, demonstrating the over-riding importance of habitat quality to avian recruitment. Thus, our results suggest that climate impacts on plant–animal interactions can have forceful ramifying effects on plants, birds, and ecological interactions.

  4. Physiology on a landscape scale: plant-animal interactions.

    PubMed

    Porter, Warren P; Sabo, John L; Tracy, Christopher R; Reichman, O J; Ramankutty, Navin

    2002-07-01

    We explore in this paper how animals can be affected by variation in climate, topography, vegetation characteristics, and body size. We utilize new spatially explicit state-of-the-art models that incorporate principles from heat and mass transfer engineering, physiology, morphology, and behavior that have been modified to provide spatially explicit hypotheses using GIS. We demonstrate how temporal and spatial changes in microclimate resulting from differences in topography and vegetation cover alter animal energetics, and behavior. We explore the impacts of these energetic predictions on elk energetics in burned and unburned stands of conifer in winter in Yellowstone National Park, chuckwalla lizard distribution limits in North America, California Beechey Ground squirrel and Dusky Footed woodrat mass and energy requirements and activity patterns on the landscape, their predator prey interactions with a rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis, and shifts in that food web structure due to topographic and vegetative variation. We illustrate how different scales of data/observation provide different pieces of information that may collectively define the real distributions of a species. We then use sensitivity analyses of energetic models to evaluate hypotheses about the effects of changes in core temperature (fever) global climate (increased air temperature under a global warming scenario) and vegetation cover (deforestation) on winter survival of elk, the geographic distribution of chuckwallas and the activity overlap of predator and prey species within a subset of commonly observed species in a terrestrial food web. Variation in slope and aspect affect the spatial variance in solar radiation incident on the ground, hence ground surface temperature, at the same elevation, same hourly 2 m air temperatures, and wind speeds. We illustrate visually how spatial effects and landscape heterogeneity make statistical descriptions of animal responses problematic, since multiple

  5. Microbes Drive Evolution of Animals and Plants: the Hologenome Concept.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana

    2016-01-01

    The hologenome concept of evolution postulates that the holobiont (host plus symbionts) with its hologenome (host genome plus microbiome) is a level of selection in evolution. Multicellular organisms can no longer be considered individuals by the classical definitions of the term. Every natural animal and plant is a holobiont consisting of the host and diverse symbiotic microbes and viruses. Microbial symbionts can be transmitted from parent to offspring by a variety of methods, including via cytoplasmic inheritance, coprophagy, direct contact during and after birth, and the environment. A large number of studies have demonstrated that these symbionts contribute to the anatomy, physiology, development, innate and adaptive immunity, and behavior and finally also to genetic variation and to the origin and evolution of species. Acquisition of microbes and microbial genes is a powerful mechanism for driving the evolution of complexity. Evolution proceeds both via cooperation and competition, working in parallel. PMID:27034283

  6. Microbes Drive Evolution of Animals and Plants: the Hologenome Concept

    PubMed Central

    Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hologenome concept of evolution postulates that the holobiont (host plus symbionts) with its hologenome (host genome plus microbiome) is a level of selection in evolution. Multicellular organisms can no longer be considered individuals by the classical definitions of the term. Every natural animal and plant is a holobiont consisting of the host and diverse symbiotic microbes and viruses. Microbial symbionts can be transmitted from parent to offspring by a variety of methods, including via cytoplasmic inheritance, coprophagy, direct contact during and after birth, and the environment. A large number of studies have demonstrated that these symbionts contribute to the anatomy, physiology, development, innate and adaptive immunity, and behavior and finally also to genetic variation and to the origin and evolution of species. Acquisition of microbes and microbial genes is a powerful mechanism for driving the evolution of complexity. Evolution proceeds both via cooperation and competition, working in parallel. PMID:27034283

  7. 77 FR 38747 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Privacy Act statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may... implementing section 710 of AIR-21. See 68 FR 47798. The rule required air carriers that provide scheduled... regulations. See 70 FR 7392. The rule is codified at 14 CFR 234.13. Section 234.13 requires air carriers...

  8. Dosimetry for animals and plants: contending with biota diversity.

    PubMed

    Ulanovsky, A

    2016-06-01

    Diversity of living organisms and their environmental radiation exposure conditions represents a special challenge for non-human dosimetry. In order to contend with such diversity, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has: (a) set up points of reference by providing dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) for reference entities known as 'Reference Animals and Plants' (RAPs); and (b) used dosimetric models that pragmatically assume simple body shapes with uniform composition and density, homogeneous internal contamination, a limited set of idealised external radiation sources, and truncation of the radioactive decay chains. This pragmatic methodology has been further developed and extended systematically. Significant methodological changes include: a new extended approach for assessing doses of external exposure for terrestrial animals, transition to the contemporary ICRP radionuclide database, assessment-specific consideration of the contribution of radioactive progeny to dose coefficients of parent nuclides, and the use of generalised allometric relationships in the estimation of biokinetic or metabolic parameters. The new methodological developments resulted in a revision of the DCCs for RAPs. Tables of the dose coefficients have now been complemented by a web-based software tool, which can be used to calculate a user-specific DCC for an organism of arbitrary mass and shape, located at user-defined height above the ground, and for an arbitrary radionuclide and its radioactive progeny. PMID:26984904

  9. Heat tolerance of higher plants cenosis to damaging air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Shklavtsova, Ekaterina

    Designing sustained biological-technical life support systems (BTLSS) including higher plants as a part of a photosynthesizing unit, it is important to foresee the multi species cenosis reaction on either stress-factors. Air temperature changing in BTLSS (because of failure of a thermoregulation system) up to the values leading to irreversible damages of photosynthetic processes is one of those factors. However, it is possible to increase, within the certain limits, the plant cenosis tolerance to the unfavorable temperatures’ effect due to the choice of the higher plants possessing resistance both to elevated and to lowered air temperatures. Besides, the plants heat tolerance can be increased when subjecting them during their growing to the hardening off temperatures’ effect. Thus, we have come to the conclusion that it is possible to increase heat tolerance of multi species cenosis under the damaging effect of air temperature of 45 (°) СC.

  10. 50 CFR 27.51 - Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Against Plants and Animals § 27.51 Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants and animals....

  11. 50 CFR 27.51 - Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Against Plants and Animals § 27.51 Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants and animals....

  12. 50 CFR 27.51 - Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Against Plants and Animals § 27.51 Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants and animals....

  13. 50 CFR 27.51 - Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Against Plants and Animals § 27.51 Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants and animals....

  14. Plant anesthesia supports similarities between animals and plants: Claude Bernard's forgotten studies.

    PubMed

    Grémiaux, Alexandre; Yokawa, Ken; Mancuso, Stefano; Baluška, František

    2014-01-01

    The French scientist Claude Bernard (1813-1878) is famous for his discoveries in physiology and for introducing rigorous experimental methods to medicine and biology. One of his major technical innovations was the use of chemicals in order to disrupt normal physiological function to test hypotheses. But less known is his conviction that the physiological functions of all living organisms rely on the same underlying principles. He hypothesized that similarly to animals, plants are also able to sense changes in their environment. He called this ability "sensitivity." In order to test his ideas, he performed anesthesia on plants and the results of these experiments were presented in 1878 in "Leçonssur les phénomènes de la vie communs aux animaux et aux végétaux." The phenomena described by Claude Bernard more than a century ago are not fully understood yet. Here, we present a short overview of anesthetic effects in animals and we discuss how anesthesia affects plant movements, seed germination, and photosynthesis. Surprisingly, these phenomena may have ecological relevance, since stressed plants generate anesthetics such as ethylene and ether. Finally, we discuss Claude Bernard's interpretations and conclusions in the perspective of modern plant sciences. PMID:24476640

  15. Mode of action of air pollutants in injuring horticultural plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbitts, T.W.; Kobriger, J.M.

    1983-10-01

    An attempt has been made to condense the great volume of literature for many different air pollutants and from many different plant systems. Only those responses that have been reported for several species are emphasized and the discussion is limited to responses obtained with intact plants. The general outline provides a focus; uptake becomes the crucial aspect of whether or not plants are injured by air pollutants. Pollutants must get into the plant to cause injury and the primary portal of entry is through the open stomata. Once into the plant, pollutants alter biochemical reactions, resulting in cell injury and causing economic losses for horticulturists. The authors have developed this outline for the pollutants sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), hydrogen fluoride (HF), ozone (O/sub 3/), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), which are the most common and and most damaging gaseous pollutants in the ambient environment.

  16. A Comparative Mechanical Analysis of Plant and Animal Cells Reveals Convergence across Kingdoms

    PubMed Central

    Durand-Smet, Pauline; Chastrette, Nicolas; Guiroy, Axel; Richert, Alain; Berne-Dedieu, Annick; Szecsi, Judit; Boudaoud, Arezki; Frachisse, Jean-Marie; Bendhamane, Mohammed; Hamant, Oliver; Asnacios, Atef

    2014-01-01

    Plant and animals have evolved different strategies for their development. Whether this is linked to major differences in their cell mechanics remains unclear, mainly because measurements on plant and animal cells relied on independent experiments and setups, thus hindering any direct comparison. In this study we used the same micro-rheometer to compare animal and plant single cell rheology. We found that wall-less plant cells exhibit the same weak power law rheology as animal cells, with comparable values of elastic and loss moduli. Remarkably, microtubules primarily contributed to the rheological behavior of wall-less plant cells whereas rheology of animal cells was mainly dependent on the actin network. Thus, plant and animal cells evolved different molecular strategies to reach a comparable cytoplasmic mechanical core, suggesting that evolutionary convergence could include the internal biophysical properties of cells. PMID:25418292

  17. Impacts of invasive plants on resident animals across ecosystems, taxa, and feeding types: a global assessment.

    PubMed

    Schirmel, Jens; Bundschuh, Mirco; Entling, Martin H; Kowarik, Ingo; Buchholz, Sascha

    2016-02-01

    As drivers of global change, biological invasions have fundamental ecological consequences. However, it remains unclear how invasive plant effects on resident animals vary across ecosystems, animal classes, and functional groups. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis covering 198 field and laboratory studies reporting a total of 3624 observations of invasive plant effects on animals. Invasive plants had reducing (56%) or neutral (44%) effects on animal abundance, diversity, fitness, and ecosystem function across different ecosystems, animal classes, and feeding types while we could not find any increasing effect. Most importantly, we found that invasive plants reduced overall animal abundance, diversity and fitness. However, this significant overall effect was contingent on ecosystems, taxa, and feeding types of animals. Decreasing effects of invasive plants were most evident in riparian ecosystems, possibly because frequent disturbance facilitates more intense plant invasions compared to other ecosystem types. In accordance with their immediate reliance on plants for food, invasive plant effects were strongest on herbivores. Regarding taxonomic groups, birds and insects were most strongly affected. In insects, this may be explained by their high frequency of herbivory, while birds demonstrate that invasive plant effects can also cascade up to secondary consumers. Since data on impacts of invasive plants are rather limited for many animal groups in most ecosystems, we argue for overcoming gaps in knowledge and for a more differentiated discussion on effects of invasive plant on native fauna. PMID:26390918

  18. 9 CFR 98.33 - Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of certain animal semen. 98.33 Section 98.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.33 Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following air and...

  19. 9 CFR 98.33 - Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of certain animal semen. 98.33 Section 98.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.33 Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following air and...

  20. 9 CFR 98.33 - Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of certain animal semen. 98.33 Section 98.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.33 Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following air and...

  1. Role of inhalation studies with animals in defining human health risks for vehicle and power plant emissions.

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, R O

    1983-01-01

    Automotive vehicles and power plants using fossil fuels emit a complex array of gases and particulate material. The physical and chemical characteristics of these emissions vary markedly between sources and comprise only a portion of the contributors to air pollution exposure of people. Further, it is well recognized that a single form of self-inflicted air pollution, cigarette smoking, is the dominant cause of air pollution-induced disease. These factors minimize our potential for developing an adequate understanding of the health effects of vehicle and power plant emissions by studying only people. The alternative is to use the human data to the extent feasible and complement it with information gained in studies with macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissues and whole animals. Within this context, this paper reviews the use of inhalation studies with animals for defining human health risks of airborne materials, especially particulate materials. The major areas covered are: the fate of inhaled materials, the pathogenesis of disease induced by inhaled materials and long-term animal studies to identify late-occurring effects. Emphasis is placed on the utility of studies in whole animals as integrative models in which the multiple processes such as xenobiotic metabolism, cell injury, repair, transformation and promotion under the influence of many host factors interact in a manner that may not be directly observed in isolated cells or tissues. PMID:6186479

  2. Role of inhalation studies with animals in defining human health risks for vehicle and power plant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Automotive vehicles and power plants using fossil fuels emit a complex array of gases and particulate material. The physical and chemical characteristics of these emissions vary markedly between sources and comprise only a portion of the contributors to air pollution exposure of people. Further, it is well recognized that a single form of self-inflicted air pollution, cigarette smoking, is the dominant cause of air pollution-induced disease. These factors minimize our potential for developing an adequate understanding of the health effects of vehicle and power plant emissions by studying only people. The alternative is to use the human data to the extent feasible and complement it with information gained in studies with macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissues and whole animals. Within this context, this paper reviews the use of inhalation studies with animals for defining human health risks of airborne materials, especially particulate materials. The major areas covered are: the fate of inhaled materials, the pathogenesis of disease induced by inhaled materials and long-term animal studies to identify late-occurring effects. Emphasis is placed on the utility of studies in whole animals as integrative models in which the multiple processes such as xenobiotic metabolism, cell injury, repair, transformation and promotion under the influence of many host factors interact in a manner that may not be directly observed in isolated cells or tissues. 60 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  3. Dirty air, dirty power. Mortality and health damage due to air pollution from power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Conrad G.; Padian, M.

    2004-06-15

    The Clean Air Task Force commissioned Abt Associates, the consulting firm relied upon by US EPA to assess the health benefits of many of the agency's air regulatory programs. The report documents the asthma attacks, hospitalisations, lost work and school days, and premature deaths linked to pollution from power plants. A first report was released in 2000. The 2004 report documents for the first time the number of heart attacks and lung cancer deaths that would be caused by power plants in 2010 and 2020. It compares the premature deaths that would result under the Bush administration's air pollution plan, the existing US Clean Air Act, and a proposal sponsored by Senator Jim Jeffords to strengthen the Clean Air Act. In general it was found that the administration's plan would produce the fewest benefits. The full study is available from the EPA, abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database. 65 refs., 2 apps.

  4. Science and payload options for animal and plant research accommodations aboard the early Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilchey, John D.; Arno, Roger D.; Gustan, Edith; Rudiger, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    The resources to be allocated for the development of the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) Space Station Animal and Plant Research Facility and the Growth Station Animal and Plant Vivarium and Laboratory may be limited; also, IOC accommodations for animal and plant research may be limited. An approach is presented for the development of Initial Research Capability Minilabs for animal and plant studies, which in appropriate combination and sequence can meet requirements for an evolving program of research within available accommodations and anticipated budget constraints.

  5. Not plants or animals: a brief history of the origin of Kingdoms Protozoa, Protista and Protoctista.

    PubMed

    Scamardella, J M

    1999-12-01

    In the wake of Darwin's evolutionary ideas, mid-nineteenth century naturalists realized the shortcomings of the long established two-kingdom system of organismal classification. Placement in a natural scheme of Protozoa, Protophyta, Phytozoa and Bacteria, microorganisms that exhibited plant-like and animal-like characteristics but obviously differed in organization from larger plants and animals, challenged traditional classification. The attempts of naturalists to classify these organisms outside the constraints of the plant and animal kingdoms led to concepts of additional kingdoms (Protozoa, Protista, Protoctista, etc.) to accommodate the nature of these organisms as not true plants or animals. PMID:10943416

  6. Animal models of brain maldevelopment induced by cycad plant genotoxins.

    PubMed

    Kisby, Glen E; Moore, Holly; Spencer, Peter S

    2013-12-01

    Cycads are long-lived tropical and subtropical plants that contain azoxyglycosides (e.g., cycasin, macrozamin) and neurotoxic amino acids (notably β-N-methylamino-l-alanine l-BMAA), toxins that have been implicated in the etiology of a disappearing neurodegenerative disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex that has been present in high incidence among three genetically distinct populations in the western Pacific. The neuropathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex includes features suggestive of brain maldevelopment, an experimentally proven property of cycasin attributable to the genotoxic action of its aglycone methylazoxymethanol (MAM). This property of MAM has been exploited by neurobiologists as a tool to study perturbations of brain development. Depending on the neurodevelopmental stage, MAM can induce features in laboratory animals that model certain characteristics of epilepsy, schizophrenia, or ataxia. Studies in DNA repair-deficient mice show that MAM perturbs brain development through a DNA damage-mediated mechanism. The brain DNA lesions produced by systemic MAM appear to modulate the expression of genes that regulate neurodevelopment and contribute to neurodegeneration. Epigenetic changes (histone lysine methylation) have also been detected in the underdeveloped brain after MAM administration. The DNA damage and epigenetic changes produced by MAM and, perhaps by chemically related substances (e.g., nitrosamines, nitrosoureas, hydrazines), might be an important mechanism by which early-life exposure to genotoxicants can induce long-term brain dysfunction. PMID:24339036

  7. Animal Models of Brain Maldevelopment Induced by Cycad Plant Genotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Kisby, Glen E.; Moore, Holly; Spencer, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Cycads are long-lived tropical and subtropical plants that contain azoxyglycosides (e.g., cycasin, macrozamin) and neurotoxic amino acids (notably β-N-methylamino-L-alanine L-BMAA), toxins that have been implicated in the etiology of a disappearing neurodegenerative disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex that has been present in high incidence among three genetically distinct populations in the western Pacific. The neuropathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex includes features suggestive of brain maldevelopment, an experimentally proven property of cycasin attributable to the genotoxic action of its aglycone methylazoxymethanol (MAM). This property of MAM has been exploited by neurobiologists as a tool to study perturbations of brain development. Depending on the neurodevelopmental stage, MAM can induce features in laboratory animals that model certain characteristics of epilepsy, schizophrenia, or ataxia. Studies in DNA repair-deficient mice show that MAM perturbs brain development through a DNA damage-mediated mechanism. The brain DNA lesions produced by systemic MAM appear to modulate the expression of genes that regulate neurodevelopment and contribute to neurodegeneration. Epigenetic changes (histone lysine methylation) have also been detected in the underdeveloped brain after MAM administration. The DNA damage and epigenetic changes produced by MAM and, perhaps by chemically related substances (e.g., nitrosamines, nitrosoureas, hydrazines), might be an important mechanism by which early-life exposure to genotoxicants can induce long-term brain dysfunction. PMID:24339036

  8. Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Terry L.; Price, Jeff T.; Hall, Kimberly R.; Schneider, Stephen H.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Pounds, J. Alan

    2003-01-01

    Over the past 100 years, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.6°C and is projected to continue to rise at a rapid rate. Although species have responded to climatic changes throughout their evolutionary history, a primary concern for wild species and their ecosystems is this rapid rate of change. We gathered information on species and global warming from 143 studies for our meta-analyses. These analyses reveal a consistent temperature-related shift, or `fingerprint', in species ranging from molluscs to mammals and from grasses to trees. Indeed, more than 80% of the species that show changes are shifting in the direction expected on the basis of known physiological constraints of species. Consequently, the balance of evidence from these studies strongly suggests that a significant impact of global warming is already discernible in animal and plant populations. The synergism of rapid temperature rise and other stresses, in particular habitat destruction, could easily disrupt the connectedness among species and lead to a reformulation of species communities, reflecting differential changes in species, and to numerous extirpations and possibly extinctions.

  9. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    PubMed

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages. PMID:26911961

  10. Integrated phenotypes: understanding trait covariation in plants and animals

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, W. Scott; Pélabon, Christophe; Bolstad, Geir H.; Hansen, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Integration and modularity refer to the patterns and processes of trait interaction and independence. Both terms have complex histories with respect to both conceptualization and quantification, resulting in a plethora of integration indices in use. We review briefly the divergent definitions, uses and measures of integration and modularity and make conceptual links to allometry. We also discuss how integration and modularity might evolve. Although integration is generally thought to be generated and maintained by correlational selection, theoretical considerations suggest the relationship is not straightforward. We caution here against uncontrolled comparisons of indices across studies. In the absence of controls for trait number, dimensionality, homology, development and function, it is difficult, or even impossible, to compare integration indices across organisms or traits. We suggest that care be invested in relating measurement to underlying theory or hypotheses, and that summative, theory-free descriptors of integration generally be avoided. The papers that follow in this Theme Issue illustrate the diversity of approaches to studying integration and modularity, highlighting strengths and pitfalls that await researchers investigating integration in plants and animals. PMID:25002693

  11. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consumer Protection Division a report on any incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an animal... of transportation, is being kept as a pet in a family household in the United States....

  12. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Consumer Protection Division a report on any incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an animal... of transportation, is being kept as a pet in a family household in the United States....

  13. Air ingression calculations for selected plant transients using MELCOR

    SciTech Connect

    Kmetyk, L.N.

    1994-01-01

    Two sets of MELCOR calculations have been completed studying the effects of air ingression on the consequences of various severe accident scenarios. One set of calculations analyzed a station blackout with surge line failure prior to vessel breach, starting from nominal operating conditions; the other set of calculations analyzed a station blackout occurring during shutdown (refueling) conditions. Both sets of analyses were for the Surry plant, a three-loop Westinghouse PWR. For both accident scenarios, a basecase calculation was done, and then repeated with air ingression from containment into the core region following core degradation and vessel failure. In addition to the two sets of analyses done for this program, a similar air-ingression sensitivity study was done as part of a low-power/shutdown PRA, with results summarized here; that PRA study also analyzed a station blackout occurring during shutdown (refueling) conditions, but for the Grand Gulf plant, a BWR/6 with Mark III containment. These studies help quantify the amount of air that would have to enter the core region to have a significant impact on the severe accident scenario, and demonstrate that one effect, of air ingression is substantial enhancement of ruthenium release. These calculations also show that, while the core clad temperatures rise more quickly due to oxidation with air rather than steam, the core also degrades and relocates more quickly, so that no sustained, enhanced core heatup is predicted to occur with air ingression.

  14. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 17. Plant section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 17 which reports the design of Plant Section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air. The plant and instrument air system is designed to provide dry, compressed air for a multitude of uses in plant operations and maintenance. A single centrifugal air compressor provides the total plant and instrument air requirements. An air drying system reduces the dew point of the plant and instrument air. Plant Section 2500 is designed to provide air at 100/sup 0/F and 100 psig. Both plant and instrument air are dried to a -40/sup 0/F dew point. Normal plant and instrument air requirements total 1430 standard cubic feet per minute.

  15. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  16. Assessment of air velocity sensors for use in animal produciton facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ventilation is an integral part of thermal environment control in animal production facilities. Accurately measuring the air velocity distribution within these facilities is cumbersome using the traverse method and a distributed velocity measurement system would reduce the time necessary to perform ...

  17. Floristic summary of plant species in the air pollution literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    A floristic summary and analysis was performed on a list of the plant species that have been studied for the effects of gaseous and chemical air pollutants on vegetation in order to compare the species with the flora of North America north of Mexico. The scientific names of 2081 vascular plant species were extracted from almost 4000 journal articles stored in two large literature databases on the effects of air pollutants on plants. Three quarters of the plant species studied occur in North America, but this was only 7% of the total North American flora. Sixteen percent and 56% of all North American genera and families have been studied. The most studied genus is Pinus with 70% of the North American species studied, and the most studied family is the grass family, with 12% of the species studied. Although Pinus is ranked 86th in the North American flora, the grass family is ranked third, indicating that representation at the family level is better than at the genus level. All of the top ten families in North America are represented in the top 20 families in the air pollution effects literature, but only one genus (Lupinus) in the top ten genera in North America is represented in the top thirteen genera in the air pollution literature.

  18. Monitoring of air pollution by plants methods and problems

    SciTech Connect

    Steubing, L.; Jager, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Ecosystem pollution is often discovered too late for preventive measure to be implemented. Papers include the topics of methods and problems of bioindication of air pollution. The participants discussed passive and active biological monitoring, including mapping of natural vegetation (lichens and mosses, for example) and plant exposure. Morphological and microscopical studies, chemical, physiological and biochemical investigations are presented.

  19. 36 CFR 219.9 - Diversity of plant and animal communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diversity of plant and animal communities and the persistence of native species in the plan area. Compliance... species as set forth in paragraph (b). The plan must provide for the diversity of plant and animal... diversity of native tree species similar to that existing in the plan area. (b) Additional,...

  20. 36 CFR 219.9 - Diversity of plant and animal communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diversity of plant and animal communities. 219.9 Section 219.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land Management Planning § 219.9 Diversity of plant and animal communities. This section adopts...

  1. 36 CFR 219.9 - Diversity of plant and animal communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diversity of plant and animal communities and the persistence of native species in the plan area. Compliance... species as set forth in paragraph (b). The plan must provide for the diversity of plant and animal... diversity of native tree species similar to that existing in the plan area. (b) Additional,...

  2. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... populations. 230.75 Section 230.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  3. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... populations. 230.75 Section 230.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  4. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... populations. 230.75 Section 230.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  5. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... populations. 230.75 Section 230.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  6. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... populations. 230.75 Section 230.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  7. Plants or Animals-Which do Junior High School Students Prefer to Study?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wandersee, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Determined if junior high school students prefer to study plants or animals and if their preferences are related to variables of grade level and/or sex. Findings show that, overall, students prefer animal study over plant study. Other findings (such as girls having a greater interest in biological topics than boys) are discussed. (JN)

  8. New Trends and Perspectives in the Evolution of Neurotransmitters in Microbial, Plant, and Animal Cells.

    PubMed

    Roshchina, Victoria V

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary perspective on the universal roles of compounds known as neurotransmitters may help in the analysis of relations between all organisms in biocenosis-from microorganisms to plant and animals. This phenomenon, significant for chemosignaling and cellular endocrinology, has been important in human health and the ability to cause disease or immunity, because the "living environment" influences every organism in a biocenosis relationship (microorganism-microorganism, microorganism-plant, microorganism-animal, plant-animal, plant-plant and animal-animal). Non-nervous functions of neurotransmitters (rather "biomediators" on a cellular level) are considered in this review and ample consideration is given to similarities and differences that unite, as well as distinguish, taxonomical kingdoms. PMID:26589213

  9. Compressed Air System Optimization Project Improves Production at a Metal Forging Plant (Modern Forge, TN, Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    In 1995, Modern Forge of Tennessee implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Piney Flats, Tennessee, forging plant. Due to the project’s implementation, the plant was able to operate with fewer compressors and improve its product quality, thus allowing it to increase productivity. The project also resulted in considerable energy and maintenance savings.

  10. Mercury hazards from gold mining to humans, plants, and animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    Mercury contamination of the environment from historical and ongoing mining practices that rely on mercury amalgamation for gold extraction is widespread. Contamination was particularly severe in the immediate vicinity of gold extraction and refining operations; however, mercury--especially in the form of water-soluble methylmercury--may be transported to pristine areas by rainwater, water currents, deforestation, volatilization, and other vectors. Examples of gold mining-associated mercury pollution are shown for Canada, the United States, Africa, China, the Philippines, Siberia, and South America. In parts of Brazil, for example, mercury concentrations in all abiotic materials, plants, and animals--including endangered species of mammals and reptiles--collected near ongoing mercury-amalgamation gold mining sites were far in excess of allowable mercury levels promulgated by regulatory agencies for the protection of human health and natural resources. Although health authorities in Brazil are unable to detect conclusive evidence of human mercury intoxication, the potential exists in the absence of mitigation for epidemic mercury poisoning of the mining population and environs. In the United States, environmental mercury contamination is mostly from historical gold mining practices, and portions of Nevada remain sufficiently mercury-contaminated to pose a hazard to reproduction of carnivorous fishes and fish-eating birds. Concentrations of total mercury lethal to sensitive representative natural resources range from 0.1 to 2.0 ug/L of medium for aquatic organisms; from 2200 to 31,000 ug/kg body weight (acute oral) and 4000 to 40,000 ug/kg (dietary) for birds; and from 100 to 500 ug/kg body weight (daily dose) and 1000 to 5000 ug/kg diet for mammals. Significant adverse sublethal effects were observed among selected aquatic species at water concentrations of 0.03 to 0.1 ug Hg/L. For some birds, adverse effects--mainly on reproduction--have been associated with total

  11. Recent Developments in the Quantification and Regulation of Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations.

    PubMed

    Heinzen, Tarah

    2015-03-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) emit various air pollutants, including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, methane, and nitrous oxide. Several of these pollutants are regulated under federal clean air statutes, yet AFOs have largely escaped regulation under these laws because of challenges in accurately estimating the rate and quantity of emissions from various types of livestock operations. Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to collect emissions data, develop an emissions model capable of estimating emissions at AFOs nationwide, and establish emissions estimating methodologies for certain key livestock air pollutants suffered from design flaws and omitted pollutants of concern. Moreover, this process seems to have stalled, delaying other regulatory reforms needed to increase transparency and increase regulation of these facilities. Until EPA establishes these methodologies, significant AFO pollution regulation under the Clean Air Act or emissions reporting statutes will be very difficult to achieve, and the public health and environmental impacts of these emissions will continue unabated. PMID:26231239

  12. Innovations in air sampling to detect plant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    West, JS; Kimber, RBE

    2015-01-01

    Many innovations in the development and use of air sampling devices have occurred in plant pathology since the first description of the Hirst spore trap. These include improvements in capture efficiency at relatively high air-volume collection rates, methods to enhance the ease of sample processing with downstream diagnostic methods and even full automation of sampling, diagnosis and wireless reporting of results. Other innovations have been to mount air samplers on mobile platforms such as UAVs and ground vehicles to allow sampling at different altitudes and locations in a short space of time to identify potential sources and population structure. Geographical Information Systems and the application to a network of samplers can allow a greater prediction of airborne inoculum and dispersal dynamics. This field of technology is now developing quickly as novel diagnostic methods allow increasingly rapid and accurate quantifications of airborne species and genetic traits. Sampling and interpretation of results, particularly action-thresholds, is improved by understanding components of air dispersal and dilution processes and can add greater precision in the application of crop protection products as part of integrated pest and disease management decisions. The applications of air samplers are likely to increase, with much greater adoption by growers or industry support workers to aid in crop protection decisions. The same devices are likely to improve information available for detection of allergens causing hay fever and asthma or provide valuable metadata for regional plant disease dynamics. PMID:25745191

  13. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles. PMID:26273851

  14. Plant pneumatics: stem air flow is related to embolism - new perspectives on methods in plant hydraulics.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciano; Bittencourt, Paulo R L; Oliveira, Rafael S; Junior, Mauro B M; Barros, Fernanda V; Ribeiro, Rafael V; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2016-07-01

    Wood contains a large amount of air, even in functional xylem. Air embolisms in the xylem affect water transport and can determine plant growth and survival. Embolisms are usually estimated with laborious hydraulic methods, which can be prone to several artefacts. Here, we describe a new method for estimating embolisms that is based on air flow measurements of entire branches. To calculate the amount of air flowing out of the branch, a vacuum was applied to the cut bases of branches under different water potentials. We first investigated the source of air by determining whether it came from inside or outside the branch. Second, we compared embolism curves according to air flow or hydraulic measurements in 15 vessel- and tracheid-bearing species to test the hypothesis that the air flow is related to embolism. Air flow came almost exclusively from air inside the branch during the 2.5-min measurements and was strongly related to embolism. We propose a new embolism measurement method that is simple, effective, rapid and inexpensive, and that allows several measurements on the same branch, thus opening up new possibilities for studying plant hydraulics. PMID:26918522

  15. Mercury hazards from gold mining to humans, plants, and animals.

    PubMed

    Eisler, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Mercury contamination of the environment from historical and ongoing mining practices that rely on mercury amalgamation for gold extraction is widespread. Contamination was particularly severe in the immediate vicinity of gold extraction and refining operations; however, mercury, especially in the form of water-soluble methylmercury, may be transported to pristine areas by rainwater, water currents, deforestation, volatilization, and other vectors. Examples of gold mining-associated mercury pollution have been shown for Canada, the U.S., Africa, China, the Philippines, Siberia, and South America. In parts of Brazil, for example, mercury concentrations in all abiotic materials, plants, and animals, including endangered species of mammals and reptiles, collected near ongoing mercury amalgamation gold mining sites were far in excess of allowable mercury levels promulgated by regulatory agencies for the protection of human health and natural resources. Although health authorities in Brazil are unable to detect conclusive evidence of human mercury intoxication, the potential exists in the absence of mitigation for epidemic mercury poisoning of the mining population and environs. In the U.S., environmental mercury contamination is mostly from historical gold mining practices, and portions of Nevada remain sufficiently mercury contaminated to pose a hazard to reproduction of carnivorous fishes and fish-eating birds. Concentrations of total mercury lethal to sensitive representative natural resources range from 0.1 to 2.0 microg/L of medium for aquatic organisms; from 2,200 to 31,000 microg/kg BW (acute oral) and from 4,000 to 40,000 microg/kg (dietary) for birds; and from 100 to 500 microg/kg BW (daily dose) and from 1,000 to 5,000 microg/kg diet for mammals. Significant adverse sublethal effects were observed among selected aquatic species at water concentrations of 0.03-0.1 microg Hg/L. For some birds, adverse effects, mainly on reproduction, have been associated with

  16. Common Origins and Host-Dependent Diversity of Plant and Animal Viromes

    PubMed Central

    Dolja, Valerian V.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2012-01-01

    Many viruses infecting animals and plants share common cores of homologous genes involved in the key processes of viral replication. In contrast, genes that mediate virus – host interactions including in many cases capsid protein genes are markedly different. There are three distinct scenarios for the origin of related viruses of plants and animals: i) evolution from a common ancestral virus predating the divergence of plants and animals; ii) horizontal transfer of viruses, for example, through insect vectors; iii) parallel origin from related genetic elements. We present evidence that each of these scenarios contributed, to a varying extent, to the evolution of different groups of viruses. PMID:22408703

  17. The Skeletal Muscle Anabolic Response to Plant- versus Animal-Based Protein Consumption.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Stephan; Burd, Nicholas A; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and consumer market interest is increasingly directed toward the use of plant-based proteins as dietary components aimed at preserving or increasing skeletal muscle mass. However, recent evidence suggests that the ingestion of the plant-based proteins in soy and wheat results in a lower muscle protein synthetic response when compared with several animal-based proteins. The possible lower anabolic properties of plant-based protein sources may be attributed to the lower digestibility of plant-based sources, in addition to greater splanchnic extraction and subsequent urea synthesis of plant protein-derived amino acids compared with animal-based proteins. The latter may be related to the relative lack of specific essential amino acids in plant- as opposed to animal-based proteins. Furthermore, most plant proteins have a relatively low leucine content, which may further reduce their anabolic properties when compared with animal proteins. However, few studies have actually assessed the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of plant proteins, with soy and wheat protein being the primary sources studied. Despite the proposed lower anabolic properties of plant vs. animal proteins, various strategies may be applied to augment the anabolic properties of plant proteins. These may include the following: 1) fortification of plant-based protein sources with the amino acids methionine, lysine, and/or leucine; 2) selective breeding of plant sources to improve amino acid profiles; 3) consumption of greater amounts of plant-based protein sources; or 4) ingesting multiple protein sources to provide a more balanced amino acid profile. However, the efficacy of such dietary strategies on postprandial muscle protein synthesis remains to be studied. Future research comparing the anabolic properties of a variety of plant-based proteins should define the preferred protein sources to be used in nutritional interventions to support skeletal muscle mass gain

  18. Implementing a Compressed Air System Leak Management Program at an Automotive Plant (Visteon's Monroe Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-01-01

    The energy team at Visteon’s Monroe plant, formerly owned by Ford Motor Company, implemented an ongoing compressed air system leak management program. The team developed an approach that combined a traditional “find and fix” effort with an innovative implementation and marketing program. As a result of the leak management program, compressed air system consumption was reduced by more than 50% on a per production unit basis.

  19. Photoluminescence spectroscopy for the discernment of plants within animal diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of different animal diets of free ranging herbivores is of much interest. Spectroscopic probes offer the potential for real-time analyses compared to microphitological procedures. The inherent multi-dimensionality of photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e., fluorescence and phosphoresce...

  20. The role of plants and animals in isolation barriers at Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Cadwell, L.L.; Petersen, K.L.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Landeen, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program was organized in 1985 to test the effectiveness of various barrier designs in minimizing the effects of water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion on buried wastes, and in minimizing the emanation of noxious gases. Plants will serve to minimize drainage and erosion, but present,the potential for growing roots into wastes. Animals burrow holes into the soil, and the burrow holes could allow water to preferentially drain into the waste. They also bring soil to the surface which, if wastes are incorporated, could present a risk for the dispersion of wastes into the environment. This report reviews work done to assess the role of plants and animals in isolation barriers at Hanford. It also reviews work done to understand the potential effects from climate change on the plants and animals that may inhabit barriers in the future.

  1. 78 FR 1825 - Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Service stakeholder registry. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Hallie Zimmers, Advisor for State and Stakeholder Relations, Legislative and Public Affairs, APHIS, room 1147, 1400 Independence Avenue...

  2. Effect of Ambient Design Temperature on Air-Cooled Binary Plant Output

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Air-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular air temperature. Nominally this air temperature is the annual mean or average air temperature for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design air temperature has on power generation for an air-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid temperature and fluctuating ambient temperatures. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet temperature limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal air-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient temperatures as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.

  3. Introduction: an overview of gravity sensing, perception, and signal transduction in animals and plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    The antiquity of biological sensitivity and response to gravity can be traced through the ubiquity of morphology, mechanisms, and cellular events in gravity sensing biological systems in the most diverse species of both plants and animals. Further, when we examine organisms at the cellular level to elucidate the molecular mechanism by which a gravitational signal is transduced into a biochemical response, the distinction between plants and animals becomes blurred.

  4. Plant-based vaccines for animals and humans: recent advances in technology and clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Takeyama, Natsumi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    It has been about 30 years since the first plant engineering technology was established. Although the concept of plant-based pharmaceuticals or vaccines motivates us to develop practicable commercial products using plant engineering, there are some difficulties in reaching the final goal: to manufacture an approved product. At present, the only plant-made vaccine approved by the United States Department of Agriculture is a Newcastle disease vaccine for poultry that is produced in suspension-cultured tobacco cells. The progress toward commercialization of plant-based vaccines takes much effort and time, but several candidate vaccines for use in humans and animals are in clinical trials. This review discusses plant engineering technologies and regulations relevant to the development of plant-based vaccines and provides an overview of human and animal vaccines currently under clinical trials. PMID:26668752

  5. Plant-based vaccines for animals and humans: recent advances in technology and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Takeyama, Natsumi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-09-01

    It has been about 30 years since the first plant engineering technology was established. Although the concept of plant-based pharmaceuticals or vaccines motivates us to develop practicable commercial products using plant engineering, there are some difficulties in reaching the final goal: to manufacture an approved product. At present, the only plant-made vaccine approved by the United States Department of Agriculture is a Newcastle disease vaccine for poultry that is produced in suspension-cultured tobacco cells. The progress toward commercialization of plant-based vaccines takes much effort and time, but several candidate vaccines for use in humans and animals are in clinical trials. This review discusses plant engineering technologies and regulations relevant to the development of plant-based vaccines and provides an overview of human and animal vaccines currently under clinical trials. PMID:26668752

  6. Resistance to toxic plants: The right animal in the right pasture at the right time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neurotoxic poisonous plants negatively impact livestock on many western rangelands, which results in annual economic losses of millions of dollars from animal deaths, increased management and treatment costs, and if animals are deferred from grazing, the underutilization of otherwise highly nutritio...

  7. Status and future developments in plant iron for animal and human nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant foods play a critical role in providing dietary iron to humans and other animals. Much of the world's human population subsists on diets that are predominantly vegetarian, while for those who eat limited to excessive amounts of animal food products, most of these foods come from livestock who...

  8. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-01-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan’s protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan. PMID:27538537

  9. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-01-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan's protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan. PMID:27538537

  10. Detection of dietary plant-based small RNAs in animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease and nutritional status are important factors controlling consumer nutrient requirements. An estimated 4 billion people worldwide live primarily on plant-based diets. Approximately 10%-15% of these people suffer from chronic kidney disease or gastrointestinal (GI) health issues. We hypothesiz...

  11. Air Liquide builds H{sub 2} plant in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-19

    Air Liquide will spend $18 million to build a naphtha steam reforming unit in Estarreja, Portugal that will produce 3,700 cu meters/hour of hydrogen (H{sub 2}). The new plant will raise Air Liquide`s H{sub 2} capacity at the site to 8,000 cu meters/hour. The company supplies Anilina de Portugal with H{sub 2}. In addition, Air Liquide supplies Dow Chemical with carbon monoxide used in its methylene di-para-phenylene isocyanate plant at the site. Anilina is spending Esc1.8 billion ($11.3 million) to expand aniline capacity from 60,000 m.t./year to 95,000 m.t./year by the end of 1997 and nitrobenzene from 100,000 m.t./year to 170,000 m.t./year. This year Dow will buy more than 50,000 m.t./year of aniline from the Portuguese firm for its MDI production.

  12. Nitrous oxide supersaturation at the liquid/air interface of animal waste.

    PubMed

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Andra, Syam S; Hardy, Michael; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Datta, Rupali; Bach, Stephan B H; Mullens, Conor P

    2009-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations around the globe generate large amounts of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) in the surrounding atmosphere. Liquid animal waste systems have received little attention with respect to N(2)O emissions. We hypothesized that the solution chemistry of animal waste aqueous suspensions would promote conditions that lead to N(2)O supersaturation at the liquid/air interface. The concentration of dissolved N(2)O in poultry litter (PL) aqueous suspensions at 25 degrees C was 0.36 microg N(2)O mL(-1), at least an order of magnitude greater than that measured in water in equilibrium with ambient air, suggesting N(2)O supersaturation. There was a nonlinear increase in the N(2)O Henry constants of PL from 2810 atm/mole fraction at 35 degrees C to 17 300 atm/mole fraction at 41 degrees C. The extremely high N(2)O Henry constants were partially ascribed to N(2)O complexation with aromatic moieties. Complexed N(2)O structures were unstable at temperatures > 35 degrees C, supplying the headspace with additional free N(2)O concentrations. PMID:19573962

  13. How the Plant Temperature Links to the Air Temperature in the Desert Plant Artemisia ordosica

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ming-Han; Ding, Guo-Dong; Gao, Guang-Lei; Sun, Bao-Ping; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Wan, Li; Wang, De-Ying; Gui, Zi-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Plant temperature (Tp) is an important indicator of plant health. To determine the dynamics of plant temperature and self-cooling ability of the plant, we measured Tp in Artemisia ordosica in July, in the Mu Us Desert of Northwest China. Related factors were also monitored to investigate their effects on Tp, including environmental factors, such as air temperature (Ta), relative humidity, wind speed; and physiological factors, such as leaf water potential, sap flow, and water content. The results indicate that: 1) Tp generally changes in conjunction with Ta mainly, and varies with height and among the plant organs. Tp in the young branches is most constant, while it is the most sensitive in the leaves. 2) Correlations between Tp and environmental factors show that Tp is affected mainly by Ta. 3) The self-cooling ability of the plant was effective by midday, with Tp being lower than Ta. 4) Increasing sap flow and leaf water potential showed that transpiration formed part of the mechanism that supported self-cooling. Increased in water conductance and specific heat at midday may be additional factors that contribute to plant cooling ability. Therefore, our results confirmed plant self-cooling ability. The response to high temperatures is regulated by both transpiration speed and an increase in stem water conductance. This study provides quantitative data for plant management in terms of temperature control. Moreover, our findings will assist species selection with taking plant temperature as an index. PMID:26280557

  14. Efficient control of air pollution through plants, a cost-effective alternative: studies on Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, C S; Bamniya, B R; Kapoor, K

    2013-09-01

    Plants can be used as both passive biomonitors and biomitigators in urban and industrial environments to indicate the environmental quality and to ameliorate pollution level in a locality. Many studies reveal that plants are negatively affected by the ambient levels of air pollutants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of air pollution on comparative basis with reference to changes in photosynthetic pigments, plant height, leaves, as well as, biochemical parameters of plants of different sites around Udaipur city receiving varying levels of pollution load. The investigated tree species Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Family: Fabaceae) exhibited a reduction in various physiological and biochemical growth parameters that correspond with air pollution levels at different sites. The tree species growing in polluted and control areas were compared with respect to foliar dust load, leaf area, and chlorophyll and total carbohydrate and total protein concentration in the leaves. Our studies suggest that D. sissoo Roxb. can successfully be grown in an area for monitoring air pollution, where it is mild and droughts are common. It will prove as an ideal tree species to control pollution effectively beside acting as a shade tree and being a source of food for birds and animals. By plantation of D. sissoo Roxb., mitigative measure at the polluted sites to control generation of particulate matter and the air quality required can be ensured. Our results also confirm that industrial and vehicular air pollution level in Udaipur city is shifting beyond limits. PMID:23423551

  15. A comparison of plants and animals in their responses to risk of consumption.

    PubMed

    Karban, Richard; Orrock, John L; Preisser, Evan L; Sih, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Both plants and animals reduce their risk of being eaten by detecting and responding to herbivore and predator cues. Plants tend to be less mobile and rely on more local information perceived with widely dispersed and redundant tissues. As such, plants can more easily multi-task. Plants are more tolerant of damage and use damage to their own tissues as reliable cues of risk; plants have a higher threshold before responding to the threat of herbivory. Plants also use diverse cues that include fragments of plant tissue and molecular patterns from herbivores, herbivore feeding, or microbial associates of herbivores. Instead of fleeing from attackers, plants reallocate valuable resources to organs at less risk. They minimize unnecessary defenses against unrealized risks and costs of failing to defend against actual risk. Plants can remember and learn, although these abilities are poorly understood. PMID:27262943

  16. Farming of Plant-Based Veterinary Vaccines and Their Applications for Disease Prevention in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Pit Sze; Hair-Bejo, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Plants have been studied for the production of pharmaceutical compounds for more than two decades now. Ever since the plant-made poultry vaccine against Newcastle disease virus made a breakthrough and went all the way to obtain regulatory approval, research to use plants for expression and delivery of vaccine proteins for animals was intensified. Indeed, in view of the high production costs of veterinary vaccines, plants represent attractive biofactories and offer many promising advantages in the production of recombinant vaccine proteins. Furthermore, the possibility of conducting immunogenicity and challenge studies in target animals has greatly exaggerated the progress. Although there are no edible plant-produced animal vaccines in the market, plant-based vaccine technology has great potentials. In this review, development, uses, and advantages of plant-based recombinant protein production in various expression platforms are discussed. In addition, examples of plant-based veterinary vaccines showing strong indication in terms of efficacy in animal disease prevention are also described. PMID:26351454

  17. Farming of Plant-Based Veterinary Vaccines and Their Applications for Disease Prevention in Animals.

    PubMed

    Liew, Pit Sze; Hair-Bejo, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Plants have been studied for the production of pharmaceutical compounds for more than two decades now. Ever since the plant-made poultry vaccine against Newcastle disease virus made a breakthrough and went all the way to obtain regulatory approval, research to use plants for expression and delivery of vaccine proteins for animals was intensified. Indeed, in view of the high production costs of veterinary vaccines, plants represent attractive biofactories and offer many promising advantages in the production of recombinant vaccine proteins. Furthermore, the possibility of conducting immunogenicity and challenge studies in target animals has greatly exaggerated the progress. Although there are no edible plant-produced animal vaccines in the market, plant-based vaccine technology has great potentials. In this review, development, uses, and advantages of plant-based recombinant protein production in various expression platforms are discussed. In addition, examples of plant-based veterinary vaccines showing strong indication in terms of efficacy in animal disease prevention are also described. PMID:26351454

  18. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  19. Plants or animals - which do junior high school students prefer to study?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandersee, James H.

    This research addressed the following questions: (1) Which science topic do junior high school students prefer to study - plants or animals? (2) Is their preference related to the variables of grade level and sex of student? Public school students from grades 7, 8, and 9 in Avoca, New York participated in the study. Findings show that 9th grade students have a greater interest in biological science topics than do students in the other grades studied. Girls are more interested in biological science topics than boys are. Girls also showed a significant preference for animals over plants. As a group, junior high school students revealed that they prefer animal study over plant study. About half of the student responses categorized as biological science did not express a clear-cut preference for either plants or animals. A caution about generalizability is expressed. Interviews of students suggest that the following characteristics of animals are important determinants of preferences: Animals move, eat, have eyes for sight, communicate by sound, exhibit behaviors that are fun to watch, have short and observable live cycles, interact with humans, can learn, have mates, give birth, and raise their young. It was obvious that most students think of mammals when they hear the term animal.

  20. Plant G-proteins come of age: Breaking the bond with animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botella, Jimmy; Trusov, Yuri

    2016-05-01

    G-proteins are universal signal transducers mediating many cellular responses. Plant G-protein signaling has been modeled on the well-established animal paradigm but accumulated experimental evidence indicates that G-protein-dependent signaling in plants has taken a very different evolutionary path. Here we review the differences between plant and animal G-proteins reported over past two decades. Most importantly, while in animal systems the G-protein signaling cycle is activated by seven transmembrane-spanning G-protein coupled receptors, the existence of these type of receptors in plants is highly controversial. Instead plant G-proteins have been proven to be functionally associated with atypical receptors such as the Arabidopsis RGS1 and a number of receptor-like kinases. We propose that, instead of the GTP/GDP cycle used in animals, plant G-proteins are activated/de-activated by phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation. We discuss the need of a fresh new look at these signaling molecules and provide a hypothetical model that departs fromthe accepted animal paradigm.

  1. Plant G-Proteins Come of Age: Breaking the Bond with Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Trusov, Yuri; Botella, José R.

    2016-01-01

    G-proteins are universal signal transducers mediating many cellular responses. Plant G-protein signaling has been modeled on the well-established animal paradigm but accumulated experimental evidence indicates that G-protein-dependent signaling in plants has taken a very different evolutionary path. Here we review the differences between plant and animal G-proteins reported over past two decades. Most importantly, while in animal systems the G-protein signaling cycle is activated by seven transmembrane-spanning G-protein coupled receptors, the existence of these type of receptors in plants is highly controversial. Instead plant G-proteins have been proven to be functionally associated with atypical receptors such as the Arabidopsis RGS1 and a number of receptor-like kinases. We propose that, instead of the GTP/GDP cycle used in animals, plant G-proteins are activated/de-activated by phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation. We discuss the need of a fresh new look at these signaling molecules and provide a hypothetical model that departs from the accepted animal paradigm. PMID:27252940

  2. High Sensitivity SPECT for Small Animals and Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Gregory S.

    2015-02-28

    Imaging systems using single gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes typically implement collimators in order to form the images. However, a tradeoff in sensitivity is inherent in the use of collimators, and modern preclinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems detect a very small fraction of emitted gamma-rays (<0.3%). We have built a collimator-less system, which can reach sensitivity of 40% for 99mTc imaging, while still producing images of sufficient spatial resolution for certain applications in thin objects such as mice, small plants, and well plates used for in vitro experiments.

  3. Effects of ionizing radiation on terrestrial plants and animals: A workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1995-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Air, Water, and Radiation Division (EH-412) is preparing to issue protective radiological standards for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. To support this effort, DOE sponsored a workshop to evaluate the adequacy of current approaches to radiological protection. Workshop participants reviewed and discussed a 1992 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report on radiological protection of biota for its adequacy and completeness in answering the following questions: can DOE use these data and conclusions for promulgating radiological standards for the protection of terrestrial organisms; are the conclusions given in this report still valid or have they been superseded by more recent data? The consensus of the workshop participants was that the dose limits for animals and plants recommended by the IAEA are adequately supported by the available scientific information. Participants agreed, however, that better guidance on application of those dose limits is needed. Participants further agreed with the IAEA that dose limits deigned to protect humans generally protect biota as well, except when (1) human access is restricted without restricting access by biota, (2) unique exposure pathways exist, (3) rare or endangered species are present, or (4) other stresses are significant. To deal with these exceptions, site-specific exposures should be considered in developing secondary standards.

  4. Experimental investigation of buried tritium in plant and animal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. B.; Workman, W. J. G.; Davis, P. A.

    2008-07-15

    Buried exchangeable tritium appears as part of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the traditional experimental determination of OBT. Since buried tritium quickly exchanges with hydrogen atoms in the body following ingestion, assuming that it is part of OBT rather than part of tritiated water (HTO) could result in a significant overestimate of the ingestion dose. This paper documents an experimental investigation into the existence, amount and significance of buried tritium in plant and fish samples. OBT concentrations in the samples were determined in the traditional way and also following denaturing with five chemical solutions that break down large molecules and expose buried tritium to exchange with free hydrogen atoms. A comparison of the OBT concentrations before and after denaturing, together with the concentration of HTO in the supernatant obtained after denaturing, suggests that buried OBT may exist but makes up less than 5% of the OBT concentration in plants and at most 20% of the OBT concentration in fish. The effects of rinse time and rinse water volumes were investigated to optimize the removal of exchangeable OBT from the samples. (authors)

  5. Studies on the effects of gaseous ions on plant growth. II. The construction and operation of an air purification unit for use in studies on the biological effects of gaseous ions.

    PubMed

    KRUEGER, A P; BECKETT, J C; ANDRIESE, P C; KOTAKA, S

    1962-05-01

    Air pollutants seriously interfere with the maintenance of unipolar ionized atmospheres required in experimenting with the biological effects of gaseous ions. The construction and operation of an air purification unit designed to reduce air pollution to tolerable levels are described; it has functioned satisfactorily in conducting experiments with plants and animals. PMID:14459882

  6. Direct effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.

    1987-12-08

    Our completed research program concentrated on the direct in vivo effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction. Direct air pollution effects on plant sexual reproduction have been studied for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, two of the three major air pollutants.

  7. AIR DISPERSION MODELING AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, D.F.

    2000-08-01

    One concern at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides or hazardous chemicals that can become airborne at the facility and reach the Exclusive Use Area boundary as the result of a release from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) or from the underground during waste emplacement operations. The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR), WIPP RCRA Permit, and WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessments include air dispersion calculations to address this issue. Meteorological conditions at the WIPP facility will dictate direction, speed, and dilution of a contaminant plume of respirable material due to chronic releases or during an accident. Due to the paucity of meteorological information at the WIPP site prior to September 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) reports had to rely largely on unqualified climatic data from the site and neighboring Carlsbad, which is situated approximately 40 km (26 miles) to the west of the site. This report examines the validity of the DOE air dispersion calculations using new meteorological data measured and collected at the WIPP site since September 1996. The air dispersion calculations in this report include both chronic and acute releases. Chronic release calculations were conducted with the EPA-approved code, CAP88PC and the calculations showed that in order for a violation of 40 CFR61 (NESHAPS) to occur, approximately 15 mCi/yr of 239Pu would have to be released from the exhaust stack or from the WHB. This is an extremely high value. Hence, it is unlikely that NESHAPS would be violated. A site-specific air dispersion coefficient was evaluated for comparison with that used in acute dose calculations. The calculations presented in Section 3.2 and 3.3 show that one could expect a slightly less dispersive plume (larger air dispersion coefficient) given greater confidence in the meteorological data, i.e. 95% worst case meteorological conditions. Calculations show that dispersion will decrease

  8. Reporting air emissions from animal production activities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J; Patel, Parag G

    2010-04-01

    Major releases of airborne ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from the decomposition of animal waste have the American public concerned about the health of persons near farms. Emissions of these hazardous substances are regulated by the US Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). Moreover, federal regulatory provisions delineate thresholds for reporting hazardous pollutants being released into the air. In 2008, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted a reporting exemption under which all farms were exempted from reporting air emissions under CERCLA and small farms were exempted under EPCRA. The US EPA's exemption poses questions about whether the rule is contrary to congressional mandates. Environmental and industry groups have challenged this exemption in federal circuit court, and the judiciary will need to decide whether the agency had authority to adopt the rule. To accord protection to humans from hazardous airborne emissions from farms producing livestock, state agencies may want to adopt scientifically-justified ambient air quality standards. PMID:20056277

  9. Towards the identification of plant and animal binders on Australian stone knives.

    PubMed

    Blee, Alisa J; Walshe, Keryn; Pring, Allan; Quinton, Jamie S; Lenehan, Claire E

    2010-07-15

    There is limited information regarding the nature of plant and animal residues used as adhesives, fixatives and pigments found on Australian Aboriginal artefacts. This paper reports the use of FTIR in combination with the chemometric tools principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering (HC) for the analysis and identification of Australian plant and animal fixatives on Australian stone artefacts. Ten different plant and animal residues were able to be discriminated from each other at a species level by combining FTIR spectroscopy with the chemometric data analysis methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering (HC). Application of this method to residues from three broken stone knives from the collections of the South Australian Museum indicated that two of the handles of knives were likely to have contained beeswax as the fixative whilst Spinifex resin was the probable binder on the third. PMID:20602964

  10. Arsenic hazards to humans, plants, and animals from gold mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic sources to the biosphere associated with gold mining include waste soil and rocks, residual water from ore concentrations, roasting of some types of gold-containing ores to remove sulfur and sulfur oxides, and bacterially-enhanced leaching. Arsenic concentrations near gold mining operations were elevated in abiotic materials and biota: maximum total arsenic concentrations measured were 560 ug/L in surface waters, 5.16 mg/L in sediment pore waters, 5.6 mg/kg dry weight (DW) in bird liver, 27 mg/kg DW in terrestrial grasses, 50 mg/kg DW in soils, 79 mg/kg DW in aquatic plants, 103 mg/kg DW in bird diets, 225 mg/kg DW in soft parts of bivalve molluscs, 324 mg/L in mine drainage waters, 625 mg/kg DW in aquatic insects, 7700 mg/kg DW in sediments, and 21,000 mg/kg DW in tailings. Single oral doses of arsenicals that were fatal to 50% of tested species ranged from 17 to 48 mg/kg body weight (BW) in birds and from 2.5 to 33 mg/kg BW in mammals. Susceptible species of mammals were adversely affected at chronic doses of 1 to 10 mg As/kg BW, or 50 mg As/kg diet. Sensitive aquatic species were damaged at water concentrations of 19 to 48 ug As/L, 120 mg As/kg diet, or tissue residues (in the case of freshwater fish) >1.3 mg/kg fresh weight. Adverse effects to crops and vegetation were recorded at 3 to 28 mg of water-soluble As/L (equivalent to about 25 to 85 mg total As/kg soil) and at atmospheric concentrations >3.9 ug As/m3. Gold miners had a number of arsenic-associated health problems including excess mortality from cancer of the lung, stomach, and respiratory tract. Miners and schoolchildren in the vicinity of gold mining activities had elevated urine arsenic of 25.7 ug/L (range 2.2-106.0 ug/L). Of the total population at this location, 20% showed elevated urine arsenic concentrations associated with future adverse health effects; arsenic-contaminated drinking water is the probable causative factor of elevated arsenic in urine. Proposed arsenic criteria to protect

  11. Below-ground plant-fungus network topology is not congruent with above-ground plant-animal network topology.

    PubMed

    Toju, Hirokazu; Guimarães, Paulo R; Olesen, Jens M; Thompson, John N

    2015-10-01

    In nature, plants and their pollinating and/or seed-dispersing animals form complex interaction networks. The commonly observed pattern of links between specialists and generalists in these networks has been predicted to promote species coexistence. Plants also build highly species-rich mutualistic networks below ground with root-associated fungi, and the structure of these plant-fungus networks may also affect terrestrial community processes. By compiling high-throughput DNA sequencing data sets of the symbiosis of plants and their root-associated fungi from three localities along a latitudinal gradient, we uncovered the entire network architecture of these interactions under contrasting environmental conditions. Each network included more than 30 plant species and hundreds of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi belonging to diverse phylogenetic groups. The results were consistent with the notion that processes shaping host-plant specialization of fungal species generate a unique linkage pattern that strongly contrasts with the pattern of above-ground plant-partner networks. Specifically, plant-fungus networks lacked a "nested" architecture, which has been considered to promote species coexistence in plant-partner networks. Rather, the below-ground networks had a conspicuous "antinested" topology. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that terrestrial plant community dynamics are likely determined by the balance between above-ground and below-ground webs of interspecific interactions. PMID:26601279

  12. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactants as New Players in Animal and Plant Defense against Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Vatsa, Parul; Sanchez, Lisa; Clement, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Rhamnolipids are known as very efficient biosurfactant molecules. They are used in a wide range of industrial applications including food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical formulations and bioremediation of pollutants. The present review provides an overview of the effect of rhamnolipids in animal and plant defense responses. We describe the current knowledge on the stimulation of plant and animal immunity by these molecules, as well as on their direct antimicrobial properties. Given their ecological acceptance owing to their low toxicity and biodegradability, rhamnolipids have the potential to be useful molecules in medicine and to be part of alternative strategies in order to reduce or replace pesticides in agriculture. PMID:21614194

  13. Decision Tree Classifier for Classification of Plant and Animal Micro RNA's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Bhasker; Pant, Kumud; Pardasani, K. R.

    Gene expression is regulated by miRNAs or micro RNAs which can be 21-23 nucleotide in length. They are non coding RNAs which control gene expression either by translation repression or mRNA degradation. Plants and animals both contain miRNAs which have been classified by wet lab techniques. These techniques are highly expensive, labour intensive and time consuming. Hence faster and economical computational approaches are needed. In view of above a machine learning model has been developed for classification of plant and animal miRNAs using decision tree classifier. The model has been tested on available data and it gives results with 91% accuracy.

  14. Water management requirements for animal and plant maintenance on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. C.; Rasmussen, D.; Curran, G.

    1987-01-01

    Long-duration Space Station experiments that use animals and plants as test specimens will require increased automation and advanced technologies for water management in order to free scientist-astronauts from routine but time-consuming housekeeping tasks. The three areas that have been identified as requiring water management and that are discusseed are: (1) drinking water and humidity condensate of the animals, (2) nutrient solution and transpired water of the plants, and (3) habitat cleaning methods. Automation potential, technology assessment, crew time savings, and resupply penalties are also discussed.

  15. Plant Protein Inhibitors of Enzymes: Their Role in Animal Nutrition and Plant Defence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Current information and research related to plant protein inhibitors of enzymes are reviewed, including potential uses of the inhibitors for medical treatment and for breeding plant varieties with greater resistance to insects. (DC)

  16. USA National Phenology Network: Plant and Animal Life-Cycle Data Related to Climate Change

    DOE Data Explorer

    Phenology refers to recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds. It is also the study of these recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, especially their timing and relationships with weather and climate. Phenology affects nearly all aspects of the environment, including the abundance and diversity of organisms, their interactions with one another, their functions in food webs, and their seasonable behavior, and global-scale cycles of water, carbon, and other chemical elements. Phenology records can help us understand plant and animal responses to climate change; it is a key indicator. The USA-NPN brings together citizen scientists, government agencies, non-profit groups, educators, and students of all ages to monitor the impacts of climate change on plants and animals in the United States. The network harnesses the power of people and the Internet to collect and share information, providing researchers with far more data than they could collect alone.[Extracts copied from the USA-NPN home page and from http://www.usanpn.org/about].

  17. Rain Forest: The Latest Information and Hands-on Activities To Explore Animals, Plants, and Geography. Grades 2-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Robin

    This book contains information and activities to help make the study of rainforests an exciting exploration for teachers and students. Students explore the animals, plants, and geography of the rainforest by completing hands-on activities from various disciplines. This book contains five units: (1) "Living Layers"; (2) "Animals, Animals, Animals";…

  18. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards. PMID:25151441

  19. Modern air protection technologies at thermal power plants (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    Realization of the ecologically safe technologies for fuel combustion in the steam boiler furnaces and the effective ways for treatment of flue gases at modern thermal power plants have been analyzed. The administrative and legal measures to stimulate introduction of the technologies for air protection at TPPs have been considered. It has been shown that both the primary intrafurnace measures for nitrogen oxide suppression and the secondary flue gas treatment methods are needed to meet the modern ecological standards. Examples of the environmentally safe methods for flame combustion of gas-oil and solid fuels in the boiler furnaces have been provided. The effective methods and units to treat flue gases from nitrogen and sulfur oxides and flue ash have been considered. It has been demonstrated that realization of the measures for air protection should be accompanied by introduction of the systems for continuous instrumentation control of the composition of combustion products in the gas path of boiler units and for monitoring of atmospheric emissions.

  20. Air quality impacts of power plant emissions in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jiming; Wang, Litao; Shen, Minjia; Li, Lin; Hu, Jingnan

    2007-05-01

    The CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system was applied to estimate the air quality impacts of power plants in 2000 and 2008 in Beijing, and the intake fractions (IF) were calculated to see the public health risks posed. Results show that in 2000 the high emission contribution induced a relatively small contribution to average ambient concentration and a significant impact on the urban area (9.52 microg/m(3) of SO(2) and 5.29 microg/m(3) of NO(x)). The IF of SO(2), NO(x) and PM(10) are 7.4 x 10(-6), 7.4 x 10(-6) and 8.7 x 10(-5), respectively. Control measures such as fuel substitution, flue gas desulfurization, dust control improvement and flue gas denitration planned before 2008 will greatly mitigate the SO(2) and PM(10) pollution, especially alleviating the pressure on the urban area to reach the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). NO(x) pollution will be mitigated with 34% decrease in concentration but further controls are still needed. PMID:16899328

  1. Plant poisoning in domestic animals: epidemiological data from an Italian survey (2000-2011).

    PubMed

    Caloni, F; Cortinovis, C; Rivolta, M; Alonge, S; Davanzo, F

    2013-06-01

    An Italian epidemiological study based on the human Poison Control Centre of Milan (Centro Antiveleni di Milano (CAV)) data related to domestic animal poisoning by exposure to plants, was carried out in collaboration with the Veterinary Toxicology Section of the University of Milan. It encompasses a 12-year period, from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2011. Calls related to toxic plants accounted for 5.7 per cent of total inquiries (2150) received by CAV. The dog was the most commonly poisoned species (61.8 per cent of calls) followed by the cat (26 per cent). Little information was recorded for other species. Most exposures (73.8 per cent) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in only 53.7 per cent of cases, and fatal poisoning accounted for 10.6 per cent of these cases. Glycoside, alkaloid, oxalate, toxalbumin, saponin, terpene and terpenoid-containing plants were recorded and found to be responsible for intoxication. Cycas revoluta, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Hydrangea macrophylla, Nerium oleander, Rhododendron species and Prunus species were the plants most frequently involved. Epidemiological data from this Italian survey provide useful information on animal exposure to plants and confirm the importance of plants as causative agents of animal poisoning. PMID:23716536

  2. Polar delivery in plants; commonalities and differences to animal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kania, Urszula; Fendrych, Matyáš; Friml, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Although plant and animal cells use a similar core mechanism to deliver proteins to the plasma membrane, their different lifestyle, body organization and specific cell structures resulted in the acquisition of regulatory mechanisms that vary in the two kingdoms. In particular, cell polarity regulators do not seem to be conserved, because genes encoding key components are absent in plant genomes. In plants, the broad knowledge on polarity derives from the study of auxin transporters, the PIN-FORMED proteins, in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In animals, much information is provided from the study of polarity in epithelial cells that exhibit basolateral and luminal apical polarities, separated by tight junctions. In this review, we summarize the similarities and differences of the polarization mechanisms between plants and animals and survey the main genetic approaches that have been used to characterize new genes involved in polarity establishment in plants, including the frequently used forward and reverse genetics screens as well as a novel chemical genetics approach that is expected to overcome the limitation of classical genetics methods. PMID:24740985

  3. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study. PMID:25466683

  4. Tritium release from Ti-T layers in air, in aqueous media and in animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Bíró, J; Fehér, I; Máté, L; Varga, L

    1978-01-01

    In connection with Ti-T incorporation hazard to which operators of neutron generators are exposed the release of tritium from Ti-T preparations of different ages was studied in experiments carried out in air, in aqueous media and in living animals. Samples were prepared with activities from 10 to 30 mCi and the effect of storage on the tritium release rate was also observed. In 250 days a fraction of 10(-3) of the tritium activity was absorbed by aqueous liquids. In air the release varied from 10(-6) to 10(-7) per hour. The Ti-T samples of different ages, introduced surgically into the abdominal cavity of rats, showed the tritium release rate to decrease with time. The tritium activity observable in the circulation was 5 to 6 orders of magnitude smaller compared with the introduced value. The observations permit the inference that in the case of Ti-T incorporation only a minor fraction of the tritium burden can be assessed from the activity measured in the urine. PMID:754442

  5. Rare & Endangered Species: Understanding Our Disappearing Plants and Animals. Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    About 464 plants and animals found in the United States and its territories are listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Another 3900 are candidates for protection. The activities in this guide are designed to help teachers and students understand the issue of endangered species. It includes ideas for several…

  6. Young Scientists Explore Wild Plants and Animals. Book 12 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. This activity book explores easily recognized animals, along with a few not-so-well-known plants. The theme of the first section is fall…

  7. Students' Perception of Plant and Animal Species: A Case Study from Rural Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nates, Juliana; Campos, Claudia; Lindemann-Matthies, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Exotic species seriously affect local biodiversity in Argentina. This article investigates how students in San Juan province perceive native and exotic species. With the help of a written questionnaire, 865 students (9-17 years old) were asked to name the plant and animal they liked most, disliked most, and perceived as most useful, and to name…

  8. Microbiomes: unifying animal and plant systems through the lens of community ecology theory.

    PubMed

    Christian, Natalie; Whitaker, Briana K; Clay, Keith

    2015-01-01

    The field of microbiome research is arguably one of the fastest growing in biology. Bacteria feature prominently in studies on animal health, but fungi appear to be the more prominent functional symbionts for plants. Despite the similarities in the ecological organization and evolutionary importance of animal-bacterial and plant-fungal microbiomes, there is a general failure across disciplines to integrate the advances made in each system. Researchers studying bacterial symbionts in animals benefit from greater access to efficient sequencing pipelines and taxonomic reference databases, perhaps due to high medical and veterinary interest. However, researchers studying plant-fungal symbionts benefit from the relative tractability of fungi under laboratory conditions and ease of cultivation. Thus each system has strengths to offer, but both suffer from the lack of a common conceptual framework. We argue that community ecology best illuminates complex species interactions across space and time. In this synthesis we compare and contrast the animal-bacterial and plant-fungal microbiomes using six core theories in community ecology (i.e., succession, community assembly, metacommunities, multi-trophic interactions, disturbance, restoration). The examples and questions raised are meant to spark discussion amongst biologists and lead to the integration of these two systems, as well as more informative, manipulatory experiments on microbiomes research. PMID:26441846

  9. Animal Foods vs. Plant Foods: Risks and Benefits for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Daniel R.

    Authorities offer conflicting viewpoints on whether animal foods are essential to the health of young children or whether they can ingest the nutrients they need from plant sources. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) contends that because of the small capacity of young children's stomachs, they are not likely to consume all of the…

  10. INVESTIGATIONS OF REPORTED PLANT AND ANIMAL HEALTH EFFECTS IN THE THREE MILE ISLAND AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of investigations into reported problems with plants and animals which may be related to the operation of and accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station are presented. The kinds of problems reported are listed, and potential areas of concern (such as the ...

  11. Observations on the measurement of total antimony and antimony species in algae, plant and animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Foster, S; Maher, W; Krikowa, F; Telford, K; Ellwood, M

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes our experiences with undertaking measurements of total antimony and antimony speciation in algae, plant and animal tissues. Digestion with nitric acid alone is suitable to release antimony from animal tissues. When organisms have high silica contents, e.g. some plants and algae, the addition of tetrafluorboric acid is required to dissolve silica as some antimony is retained by silica in extracts. Antimony in digested extracts is present as Sb5+ and hydride generation procedures can be used to determine total antimony concentrations, as total antimony in extracts will not be under estimated. Relatively non-aggressive solvents such as water, dilute nitric acid, sodium hydroxide and enzymes remove highly variable amounts of antimony (2-84%) from algae, plant and animal tissues. Addition of Sb3+ and Sb5+ to NIST CRM 1572 Citrus Leaves, pre- and post-extraction with water showed that Sb3+ is oxidised to Sb5+ while Sb5+ is redistributed amongst binding sites giving rise to artefacts. DOLT-2 and algae extracts indicated the presence of only inorganic antimony. A moss sample had inorganic antimony and a number of unknown antimony species in extracts. Future studies should explore the nature of the binding of antimony in tissues as solvents commonly used to extract metals and metalloids from algae, plant and animal tissues are not appropriate. PMID:16307074

  12. Exploring Plants, Insects, and Animals: Opportunities for Cultivating Empathy in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Imagine what a child can learn by slithering across the ground like a worm or snail! Children learn many things from their connections with beautiful living things such as flowers and rabbits. Many adults are surprised when young scientists identify with "yucky" animals and plants. A child who connects with creatures ranging from the cuddly to the…

  13. Rare Plants and Animals of the Texas Hill Country: Educator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    Texas Hill Country is a land of fresh water springs, stony hills, and steep canyons and home to many rare plants and animals. Six activities for grades 3-5 and six activities for grades 6-12 are contained in this guide. Elementary activity highlights include using "The Lorax" by Dr. Seuss to stimulate critical thinking about environmental problems…

  14. Introducing the Cell Concept with Both Animal and Plant Cells: A Historical and Didactic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    In France, as well as in several other countries, the cell concept is introduced at school by two juxtaposed drawings, a plant cell and an animal cell. After indicating the didactic obstacles associated with this presentation, this paper focuses on the reasons underlying the persistence of these two prototypes, through three complementary…

  15. Revealing gene function and genetic diversity in plants and animals via TILLING and EcoTILLING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the fairly recent advent of inexpensive, rapid sequencing technologies that continues to improve sequencing efficiency and accuracy, many species of animals, plants, and microbes have complete annotated genome information publicly available. The focus on genomics has thus been shifting from th...

  16. Large Animal Model of Pumpless Arteriovenous Extracorporeal CO₂ Removal Using Room Air via Subclavian Vessels.

    PubMed

    Witer, Lucas J; Howard, Ryan A; Trahanas, John M; Bryner, Benjamin S; Alghanem, Fares; Hoffman, Hayley R; Cornell, Marie S; Bartlett, Robert H; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    End-stage lung disease (ESLD) causes progressive hypercapnia and dyspnea and impacts quality of life. Many extracorporeal support (ECS) configurations for CO2 removal resolve symptoms but limit ambulation. An ovine model of pumpless ECS using subclavian vessels was developed to allow for ambulatory support. Vascular grafts were anastomosed to the left subclavian vessels in four healthy sheep. A low-resistance membrane oxygenator was attached in an arteriovenous (AV) configuration. Device function was evaluated in each animal while awake and spontaneously breathing and while mechanically ventilated with hypercapnia induced. Sweep gas (FiO2 = 0.21) to the device was increased from 0 to 15 L/min, and arterial and postdevice blood gases, as well as postdevice air, were sampled. Hemodynamics remained stable with average AV shunt flows of 1.34 ± 0.14 L/min. In awake animals, CO2 removal was 3.4 ± 1.0 ml/kg/min at maximum sweep gas flow. Respiratory rate decreased from 60 ± 25 at baseline to 30 ± 11 breaths per minute. In animals with induced hypercapnia, PaCO2 increased to 73.9 ± 15.1. At maximum sweep gas flow, CO2 removal was 3.4 ± 0.4 ml/kg/min and PaCO2 decreased to 49.1 ± 6.7 mm Hg. Subclavian AV access is effective in lowering PaCO2 and respiratory rate and is potentially an effective ambulatory destination therapy for ESLD patients. PMID:26461241

  17. Convergent occurrence of the developmental hourglass in plant and animal embryogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Cridge, Andrew G.; Dearden, Peter K.; Brownfield, Lynette R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The remarkable similarity of animal embryos at particular stages of development led to the proposal of a developmental hourglass. In this model, early events in development are less conserved across species but lead to a highly conserved ‘phylotypic period’. Beyond this stage, the model suggests that development once again becomes less conserved, leading to the diversity of forms. Recent comparative studies of gene expression in animal groups have provided strong support for the hourglass model. How and why might such an hourglass pattern be generated? More importantly, how might early acting events in development evolve while still maintaining a later conserved stage? Scope The discovery that an hourglass pattern may also exist in the embryogenesis of plants provides comparative data that may help us explain this phenomenon. Whether the developmental hourglass occurs in plants, and what this means for our understanding of embryogenesis in plants and animals is discussed. Models by which conserved early-acting genes might change their functional role in the evolution of gene networks, how networks buffer these changes, and how that might constrain, or confer diversity, of the body plan are also discused. Conclusions Evidence of a morphological and molecular hourglass in plant and animal embryogenesis suggests convergent evolution. This convergence is likely due to developmental constraints imposed upon embryogenesis by the need to produce a viable embryo with an established body plan, controlled by the architecture of the underlying gene regulatory networks. As the body plan is largely laid down during the middle phases of embryo development in plants and animals, then it is perhaps not surprising this stage represents the narrow waist of the hourglass where the gene regulatory networks are the oldest and most robust and integrated, limiting species diversity and constraining morphological space. PMID:27013176

  18. Predicting rarity and decline in animals, plants, and mushrooms based on species attributes and indicator groups

    PubMed Central

    Musters, C J M; Kalkman, Vincent; van Strien, Arco

    2013-01-01

    In decisions on nature conservation measures, we depend largely on knowledge of the relationship between threats and environmental factors for a very limited number of species groups, with relevant environmental factors often being deduced from the relationship between threat and species traits. But can relationships between traits and levels of threats be identified across species from completely different taxonomic groups; and how accurately do well-known taxonomic groups indicate levels of threat in other species groups? To answer these questions, we first made a list of 152 species attributes of morphological and demographic traits and habitat requirements. Based on these attributes we then grew random forests of decision trees for 1183 species in the 18 different taxonomic groups for which we had Red Lists available in the Netherlands, using these to classify animals, plants, and mushrooms according to their rarity and decline. Finally, we grew random forests for four species groups often used as indicator groups to study how well the relationship between attribute and decline within these groups reflected that relationship within the larger taxonomic group to which these groups belong. Correct classification of rarity based on all attributes was as high as 88% in animals, 85% in plants, and 94% in mushrooms and correct classification of decline was 78% in animals, 69% in plants, and 70% in mushrooms. Vertebrates indicated decline in all animals well, as did birds for all vertebrates and vascular plants for all plants. However, butterflies poorly indicated decline in all insects. Random forests are a useful tool to relate rarity and decline to species attributes thereby making it possible to generalize rarity and decline to a wider set of species groups. Random forests can be used to estimate the level of threat to complete faunas and floras of countries or regions. In regions like the Netherlands, conservation policy based on attributes known to be relevant

  19. Evolving role of air handlers in the plant

    SciTech Connect

    Katzel, J.

    1995-03-06

    Recent concern about quality and volume of ventilation air in the work place is giving air handling systems an increasingly important role. The paper looks at what`s available in air handlers today, including such options as energy recovery, noise control, and modular construction. A separate section examines the impact of indoor air quality codes and standards on air handlers, and a checklist reviews the major points involved in system selection and installation.

  20. What's in a Name: Differential labelling of plant and animal photographs in two nationally syndicated elementary science textbook series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link-Pérez, Melanie A.; Dollo, Vanessa H.; Weber, Kirk M.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated plant and animal photographs in elementary science textbooks to discern whether there were disparities in the number of plant and animal photographs or in how those photographs were labelled. We examined the Life Science sections of two nationally syndicated (USA) textbook series. For each text, we identified the photographs with plant and/or animal content and evaluated them for two features: (1) the subject of the photograph, and (2) the specificity of the label (name) provided. We found that photographs with animal subjects were more numerous than those with plant subjects; they also represented a greater diversity of animals and had a higher instance of repetition than did plant photographs. We also found a significant naming disparity: animal photographs were three times more likely to be provided with a specific label (common name) than were plant photographs. Not only were plant photographs less likely to be provided with a specific name for the plant (e.g. orchid or dandelion), but also they were commonly identified only by the name for a plant part (such as flower or leaf) or life-form (e.g. tree or shrub). To address the disparity revealed by this study, and to encourage student interest in and knowledge about plants, we recommend that educators go beyond textbooks to expose students to a diversity of named plants, and present plants as distinct organisms rather than as a collection of parts.

  1. Bone, Calcium and Spaceflight: A Living Systems Experiment Relating Animals and Plants the Effects of Calcium on Plant Growth and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss-Bubenheim, D.; Navarro, B.J.; Morey-Holton, E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA-sponsored educational outreach activity provided local students with information about Ames Research Center's (ARC) role in conducting life sciences research in space. Students were introduced to the scientific method while conducting a plant experiment that correlated with the Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) flight animal experiment of Dr. Emily Morey-Holton entitled "Bone, Calcium and Spaceflight". Students made daily observations, collected data and reported on their findings. Students also had the opportunity to witness the STS-58 landing at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California and attended a briefing given by the Payload Commander, Dr. Rhea Seddon at ARC last month. This classroom experiment providing a hands-on learning opportunity about terrestrial and space biology and, hopefully, introduced the students to new fields of study for future endeavors.

  2. An ergonomic analysis of premixing and compounding processes in an animal health plant.

    PubMed

    Lu, C; Goggins, W B

    1999-01-01

    This study is based on an ergonomic job analysis designed to develop a hazard prevention program for the premixing and compounding processes in animal health products plants. Animal health products plants are "pharmaceutical facilities" for livestock or domestic animals. A hazardous aerosol (highly concentrated antibiotics, anthelmintics, mineral oil, and animal hormones) is generated in the premixing or compounding processes. The animal health premixing jobs are heavy-duty jobs and have high potential for chemical exposure, heat stress, and ergonomic hazards. Ergonomic job analysis was used to recognize, identify, and evaluate actuarial and potential risks of injures or irritations. Chemical hazards and eight ergonomic factors were discussed: (1) forceful exertions, (2) awkward postures, (3) localized contract stresses, (4) vibration, (5) noise, (6) temperature extremes, (7) repetitive activities, and (8) prolonged activities. The results show that (1) current practices do not violate occupational safety and health regulations or recommended guidelines, but that hazards should be identified to protect worker health and safety; (2) for chemical hazards prevention, operators wear whole-body protection equipment, which also causes heat stress and increases the noise level in the work zone; and (3) the loading weight of the bags used needs to be reduced. PMID:10386360

  3. Hazardous air pollutant testing at the LGTI coal gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wetherold, R.G.; Williams, W.A.; Maxwell, D.P.; Mann, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    A comprehensive hazardous air pollutant test program was conducted in November 1994 at the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI), plant in Plaquemine, Louisiana. This program was sponsored by DOE/PETC, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Destec Energy. In May of 1995, additional testing of the hot syngas stream was conducted at the LGTI facility under this same program. DOE/METC provided additional technical support for the hot gas testing effort. In this paper, the sampling and analytical methods used during the November and May test program are summarized. The hot gas testing is described in greater detail. In particular, the hot gas sampling probe and probe insertion/withdrawal system are discussed. The sampling probe was designed to collect particulate and extract gas samples at process temperature and pressure. The design of the probe system is described, and the operating procedures are summarized. The operation of the probe during the testing is discussed, and photographs of the testing are provided. In addition to the summaries and descriptions of the test methodologies, selected preliminary emissions results of the November sampling are included in the paper.

  4. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-07-20

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  5. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain

  6. Food and Culture: Using Ethnic Recipes to Demonstrate the Post-Columbian Exchange of Plants and Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrich, Barbara E.

    1991-01-01

    Uses ethnic recipes to analyze new and old world post-Columbian exchange of domesticated plants and animals in an introductory cultural geography course. Describes student research projects and includes tables of domesticated plants and animals by region and use. Also provides two student sample recipes with lists of ingredient origins. (NL)

  7. What's in a Name: Differential Labelling of Plant and Animal Photographs in Two Nationally Syndicated Elementary Science Textbook Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link-Perez, Melanie A.; Dollo, Vanessa H.; Weber, Kirk M.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated plant and animal photographs in elementary science textbooks to discern whether there were disparities in the number of plant and animal photographs or in how those photographs were labelled. We examined the Life Science sections of two nationally syndicated (USA) textbook series. For each text, we identified the…

  8. A Study of Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Douglas, Willard L.; Bounds, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Previously, preliminary data on the ability of a group of common indoor plants to remove organic chemical from indoor air was presented. The group of plants chosen for this study was determined by joint agreement between NASA and the Associated Landscape Contractors of America. The chemicals chosen for study were benzene, trichloroethylene, and formaldehyde. The results show that plants can play a major role in removal of organic chemicals from indoor air.

  9. Recycling plant, human and animal wastes to plant nutrients in a closed ecological system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, H. P.; Modell, M.

    1979-01-01

    The essential minerals for plant growth are nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium (macronutrients), calcium, magnesium, sulfur (secondary nutrients), iron, manganese, boron, copper, zinc, chlorine, sodium, and molybdenum (micronutrients). The first step in recycling wastes will undoubtedly be oxidation of carbon and hydrogen to CO2 and H2O. Transformation of minerals to plant nutrients depends upon the mode of oxidation to define the state of the nutrients. For the purpose of illustrating the type of processing required, ash and off-gas compositions of an incineration process were assumed and subsequent processing requirements were identified. Several processing schemes are described for separating out sodium chloride from the ash, leading to reformulation of a nutrient solution which should be acceptable to plants.

  10. Arranging the bouquet of disease: floral traits and the transmission of plant and animal pathogens.

    PubMed

    McArt, Scott H; Koch, Hauke; Irwin, Rebecca E; Adler, Lynn S

    2014-05-01

    Several floral microbes are known to be pathogenic to plants or floral visitors such as pollinators. Despite the ecological and economic importance of pathogens deposited in flowers, we often lack a basic understanding of how floral traits influence disease transmission. Here, we provide the first systematic review regarding how floral traits attract vectors (for plant pathogens) or hosts (for animal pathogens), mediate disease establishment and evolve under complex interactions with plant mutualists that can be vectors for microbial antagonists. Attraction of floral visitors is influenced by numerous phenological, morphological and chemical traits, and several plant pathogens manipulate floral traits to attract vectors. There is rapidly growing interest in how floral secondary compounds and antimicrobial enzymes influence disease establishment in plant hosts. Similarly, new research suggests that consumption of floral secondary compounds can reduce pathogen loads in animal pollinators. Given recent concerns about pollinator declines caused in part by pathogens, the role of floral traits in mediating pathogen transmission is a key area for further research. We conclude by discussing important implications of floral transmission of pathogens for agriculture, conservation and human health, suggesting promising avenues for future research in both basic and applied biology. PMID:24528408

  11. Fluid stimulation elicits hearing in the absence of air and bone conduction-An animal study.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ronen; Adelman, Cahtia; Sohmer, Haim

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion Cochlea can be directly excited by fluid (soft-tissue) stimulation. Objective To determine whether there is no difference in auditory-nerve-brainstem evoked response (ABR) thresholds to fluid stimulation between normal and animal models of post radical-mastoidectomy, as seen in a previous human study. Background It has been shown in humans that hearing can be elicited with stimulation to fluid in the external auditory meatus (EAM), and radical-mastoidectomy cavity. These groups differed in age, initial hearing, and drilling exposure. To overcome this difference, experiments were conducted in sand-rats, first intact, and after inducing a radical-mastoidectomy. Methods The EAM of five sand-rats was filled with 0.3 ml saline. ABR thresholds were determined in response to vibratory stimulation by a clinical bone-vibrator with a plastic rod, applied to the saline in the EAM. Then the tympanic membrane was removed, and malleus dislocated (radical-mastoidectomy model). The cavity was filled with 0.45 ml saline and the ABR threshold was determined in response to vibratory stimulation to the cavity fluid. Results There was no difference in ABR fluid thresholds to EAM and mastoidectomy cavity stimulation. Air-conduction stimulation from the bone-vibrator was not involved (conductive loss due to fluid). Bone-conduction stimulation was not involved (large difference in acoustic impedance between fluid and bone). PMID:26824146

  12. Cell-to-cell communication in plants, animals, and fungi: a comparative review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemendal, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is a prerequisite for differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. This communication has to be tightly regulated to ensure that cellular components such as organelles, macromolecules, hormones, or viruses leave the cell in a precisely organized way. During evolution, plants, animals, and fungi have developed similar ways of responding to this biological challenge. For example, in higher plants, plasmodesmata connect adjacent cells and allow communication to regulate differentiation and development. In animals, two main general structures that enable short- and long-range intercellular communication are known, namely gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, respectively. Finally, filamentous fungi have also developed specialized structures called septal pores that allow intercellular communication via cytoplasmic flow. This review summarizes the underlying mechanisms for intercellular communication in these three eukaryotic groups and discusses its consequences for the regulation of differentiation and developmental processes.

  13. THz time-domain spectroscopy on plant oils and animal fats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ying; Guo, Lantao; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xi Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation, generated by ultra short laser pulses, occupies a broad band on electromagnetic spectrum chart. This radiation band belongs to far-infrared. It is a new research field of studying THz radiation interacting with materials especially with biomaterials. The paper shows experimental results of five plant oil samples from different kind of plants and two kinds of animal fat samples by using THz-TDS (THz time-domain spectroscopy) technology. The refraction indices and the absorption coefficients of these samples are measured in the range from 0.2 to 2.0 THz. The results show that different oils have different refraction indices. For oil samples, refraction indices decrease slowly while their coefficients of absorption increase with the increases of THz frequency. For the animal fat samples, the refraction indices show almost no change while the absorption coefficients increase with the increasing THz frequency. The absorption coefficients increase with the increasing temperature.

  14. Ultra-spatial synchrotron radiation for imaging molecular chemical structure: Applications in plant and animal studies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (S-FTIR) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive, bioanalytical technique. This technique takes advantage of synchrotron light brightness and small effective source size and is capable of exploring the molecular chemical features and make-up within microstructures of a biological tissue without destruction of inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions within cellular dimension. To date there has been very little application of this advanced synchrotron technique to the study of plant and animal tissues' inherent structure at a cellular or subcellular level. In this article, a novel approach was introduced to show the potential of themore » newly developed, advanced synchrotron-based analytical technology, which can be used to reveal molecular structural-chemical features of various plant and animal tissues.« less

  15. Hemiparasitic plant impacts animal and plant communities across four trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Hartley, S E; Green, P; Massey, F P; Press, M C P; Stewart, J A; John, E A

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the impact of species on community structure is a fundamental question in ecology. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that both subdominant species and parasites can have disproportionately large effects on other organisms. Here we report those impacts for a species that is both subdominant and parasitic, the hemiparasite Rhinanthus minor. While the impact of parasitic angiosperms on their hosts and, to a lesser degree, coexisting plant species, has been well characterized, much less is known about their effects on higher trophic levels: We experimentally manipulated field densities of the hemiparasite Rhinanthus minor in a species-rich grassland, comparing the plant and invertebrate communities in plots where it was removed, present at natural densities, or present at enhanced densities. Plots with natural and enhanced densities of R. minor had lower plant biomass than plots without the hemiparasite, but enhanced densities almost doubled the abundance of invertebrates within the plots across all trophic levels, with effects evident in herbivores, predators, and detritivores. The hemiparasite R. minor, despite being a subdominant and transient component within plant communities that it inhabits, has profound effects on four different trophic levels. These effects persist beyond the life of the hemiparasite, emphasizing its role as a keystone species in grassland communities. PMID:26594698

  16. Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.; Epstein, M.; Gould, L.; Botros, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

  17. Veterinary antibiotics in animal waste, its distribution in soil and uptake by plants: A review.

    PubMed

    Tasho, Reep Pandi; Cho, Jae Yong

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic and sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in livestock farming is and has been, a common practice worldwide. These bioactive organic compounds have short retention period and partial uptake into the animal system. The uptake effects of this pharmaceutics, with plants as the primary focus, has not been reviewed so far. This review addresses three main concerns 1) the extensive use of veterinary antibiotics in livestock farming, 2) disposal of animal waste containing active biosolids and 3) effects of veterinary antibiotics in plants. Depending upon the plant species and the antibiotic used, the response can be phytotoxic, hormetic as well as mutational. Additionally, the physiological interactions that make the uptake of these compounds relatively easy have also been discussed. High water solubility, longer half-lives, and continued introduction make them relatively persistent in the environment. Lastly, some prevention measures that can help limit their impact on the environment have been reviewed. There are three methods of control: treatment of animal manure before field application, an alternative bio-agent for disease treatment and a well targeted legalized use of antibiotics. Limiting the movement of these biosolids in the environment can be a challenge because of their varying physiological interactions. Electron irradiation and supervised inoculation of beneficial microorganisms can be effective remediation strategies. Thus, extensive future research should be focused in this area. PMID:27139307

  18. Polyamine catabolism: target for antiproliferative therapies in animals and stress tolerance strategies in plants.

    PubMed

    Tavladoraki, Paraskevi; Cona, Alessandra; Federico, Rodolfo; Tempera, Giampiero; Viceconte, Nikenza; Saccoccio, Stefania; Battaglia, Valentina; Toninello, Antonio; Agostinelli, Enzo

    2012-02-01

    Metabolism of polyamines spermidine and spermine, and their diamine precursor, putrescine, has been a target for antineoplastic therapy since these naturally occurring alkyl amines were found essential for normal mammalian cell growth. Intracellular polyamine concentrations are maintained at a cell type-specific set point through the coordinated and highly regulated interplay between biosynthesis, transport, and catabolism. A correlation between regulation of cell proliferation and polyamine metabolism is described. In particular, polyamine catabolism involves copper-containing amine oxidases and FAD-dependent polyamine oxidases. Several studies showed an important role of these enzymes in several developmental and disease-related processes in both animals and plants through a control on polyamine homeostasis in response to normal cellular signals, drug treatment, environmental and/or cellular stressors. The production of toxic aldehydes and reactive oxygen species, H(2)O(2) in particular, by these oxidases using extracellular and intracellular polyamines as substrates, suggests a mechanism by which the oxidases can be exploited as antineoplastic drug targets. This minireview summarizes recent advances on the physiological roles of polyamine catabolism in animals and plants in an attempt to highlight differences and similarities that may contribute to determine in detail the underlined mechanisms involved. This information could be useful in evaluating the possibility of this metabolic pathway as a target for new antiproliferative therapies in animals and stress tolerance strategies in plants. PMID:21874532

  19. Effects of lighting and air movement on temperatures in reproductive organs of plants in a closed plant growth facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.

    Temperature increases in plant reproductive organs such as anthers and stigmas could cause fertility impediments and thus produce sterile seeds under artificial lighting conditions without adequately controlled environments in closed plant growth facilities. There is a possibility such a situation could occur in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems under microgravity conditions in space because there will be little natural convective or thermal mixing. This study was conducted to determine the temperature of the plant reproductive organs as affected by illumination and air movement under normal gravitational forces on the earth and to make an estimation of the temperature increase in reproductive organs in closed plant growth facilities under microgravity in space. Thermal images of reproductive organs of rice and strawberry were captured using infrared thermography at air temperatures of 10 11 °C. Compared to the air temperature, temperatures of petals, stigmas and anthers of strawberry increased by 24, 22 and 14 °C, respectively, after 5 min of lighting at an irradiance of 160 W m-2 from incandescent lamps. Temperatures of reproductive organs and leaves of strawberry were significantly higher than those of rice. The temperatures of petals, stigmas, anthers and leaves of strawberry decreased by 13, 12, 13 and 14 °C, respectively, when the air velocity was increased from 0.1 to 1.0 ms-1. These results show that air movement is necessary to reduce the temperatures of plant reproductive organs in plant growth facilities.

  20. Scope for using plant viruses to present epitopes from animal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Porta; Lomonossoff

    1998-01-01

    Epitope presentation to the immune system for vaccination purposes can be achieved either via an inactivated or attenuated form of a pathogen or via its isolated antigenic sequences. When free, these peptides can adopt a variety of conformations, most of which will not exist in their native environment. Conjugation to carrier proteins restricts mobility of the peptides and increases their immunogenicity. A high local concentration of epitopes boosts the immune response further and can be generated by the use of self-aggregating carriers, such as the capsid proteins of viruses. In this regard plant viruses have in recent years started to make an impact as safer alternatives to the use of bacterial and attenuated animal viruses: the latter both require propagation in costly cell-culture systems where they can undergo reversion towards a virulent form and/or become contaminated by other pathogens. Plant virus-based vectors can be multiplied cheaply and to high yields (exceeding 1 mg/g plant tissue) in host plants. Both helical (tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X, alfalfa mosaic virus) and icosahedral (cowpea mosaic virus, tomato bushy stunt virus) particles have been used to express a number of animal B-cell epitopes, whose immunogenic properties have been explored to varying degrees. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10398492

  1. The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Prochnik, Simon E.; Vallon, Olivier; Harris, Elizabeth H.; Karpowicz, Steven J.; Witman, George B.; Terry, Astrid; Salamov, Asaf; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Marshall, Wallace F.; Qu, Liang-Hu; Nelson, David R.; Sanderfoot, Anton A.; Spalding, Martin H.; Kapitonov, Vladimir V.; Ren, Qinghu; Ferris, Patrick; Lindquist, Erika; Shapiro, Harris; Lucas, Susan M.; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Cardol, Pierre; Cerutti, Heriberto; Chanfreau, Guillaume; Chen, Chun-Long; Cognat, Valérie; Croft, Martin T.; Dent, Rachel; Dutcher, Susan; Fernández, Emilio; Ferris, Patrick; Fukuzawa, Hideya; González-Ballester, David; González-Halphen, Diego; Hallmann, Armin; Hanikenne, Marc; Hippler, Michael; Inwood, William; Jabbari, Kamel; Kalanon, Ming; Kuras, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul A.; Lemaire, Stéphane D.; Lobanov, Alexey V.; Lohr, Martin; Manuell, Andrea; Meier, Iris; Mets, Laurens; Mittag, Maria; Mittelmeier, Telsa; Moroney, James V.; Moseley, Jeffrey; Napoli, Carolyn; Nedelcu, Aurora M.; Niyogi, Krishna; Novoselov, Sergey V.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Pazour, Greg; Purton, Saul; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Riekhof, Wayne; Rymarquis, Linda; Schroda, Michael; Stern, David; Umen, James; Willows, Robert; Wilson, Nedra; Zimmer, Sara Lana; Allmer, Jens; Balk, Janneke; Bisova, Katerina; Chen, Chong-Jian; Elias, Marek; Gendler, Karla; Hauser, Charles; Lamb, Mary Rose; Ledford, Heidi; Long, Joanne C.; Minagawa, Jun; Page, M. Dudley; Pan, Junmin; Pootakham, Wirulda; Roje, Sanja; Rose, Annkatrin; Stahlberg, Eric; Terauchi, Aimee M.; Yang, Pinfen; Ball, Steven; Bowler, Chris; Dieckmann, Carol L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Green, Pamela; Jorgensen, Richard; Mayfield, Stephen; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Rajamani, Sathish; Sayre, Richard T.; Brokstein, Peter; Dubchak, Inna; Goodstein, David; Hornick, Leila; Huang, Y. Wayne; Jhaveri, Jinal; Luo, Yigong; Martínez, Diego; Ngau, Wing Chi Abby; Otillar, Bobby; Poliakov, Alexander; Porter, Aaron; Szajkowski, Lukasz; Werner, Gregory; Zhou, Kemin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the ∼120-megabase nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas and performed comparative phylogenomic analyses, identifying genes encoding uncharacterized proteins that are likely associated with the function and biogenesis of chloroplasts or eukaryotic flagella. Analyses of the Chlamydomonas genome advance our understanding of the ancestral eukaryotic cell, reveal previously unknown genes associated with photosynthetic and flagellar functions, and establish links between ciliopathy and the composition and function of flagella. PMID:17932292

  2. The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2007-04-09

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the 120-megabase nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas and performed comparative phylogenomic analyses, identifying genes encoding uncharacterized proteins that are likely associated with the function and biogenesis of chloroplasts or eukaryotic flagella. Analyses of the Chlamydomonas genome advance our understanding of the ancestral eukaryotic cell, reveal previously unknown genes associated with photosynthetic and flagellar functions, and establish links between ciliopathy and the composition and function of flagella.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS ON ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION IN ANIMAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution has long been associated with detrimental health risks in susceptible populations including asthmatics. Experimental evidence in rodents indicates that inhaled or instilled air pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), residual oil fly ash or its constitu...

  4. Air particulate matter exacerbates lung response on Sjögren's Syndrome animals.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, S; Orona, N; Villalón, L; Saldiva, P H N; Tasat, D R; Berra, A

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated air particulate matter (PM) inhalation with a decline in lung function and increased morbo-mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases, particularly in susceptible populations. Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by cellular infiltration in exocrine glands and extraglandular tissue, being the respiratory tract an important target. We evaluated the effect of PM on the airways of NOD mice, which develop SS and BALB/c mice. BALB/c or NOD mice (2-3 months) were randomized in two groups and exposed to intranasal instillation either with saline (control) or ROFA solution (1mg/kg body weight). After 24h, mice were euthanized in order to perform lung histology, or measure total cell number (TCN), differential cell count (DCC) and superoxide anion generation in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. BALB/c mice showed normal histoarchitecture, while NOD mice showed lymphocytic peribronchial infiltrates. ROFA exposure affected the respiratory tract from both BALB/c and NOD mice, with a significant increase in the TCN (p<0.05) and generation of O2(-) (p<0.05), as well as an imbalance in the DCC (p<0.05). All histological observations correlated with the cellular parameters evaluated. Lesions in NOD mice were more severe than those of BALB/c, showing cellular infiltration in the alveoli and leading to a greater decrease in the alveolar space. We have proved that in this experimental Sjögren's Syndrome animal model (NOD mice); airborne pollution exacerbates pre-existing pulmonary lesions. These findings show experimental evidence on the harmful effects of airborne pollution on the airways of patients with Sjögren's Syndrome. PMID:25467751

  5. Use of ITS2 Region as the Universal DNA Barcode for Plants and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kun; Han, Jianping; Li, Ying; Pang, Xiaohui; Xu, Hongxi; Zhu, Yingjie; Xiao, Peigen; Chen, Shilin

    2010-01-01

    Background The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA is regarded as one of the candidate DNA barcodes because it possesses a number of valuable characteristics, such as the availability of conserved regions for designing universal primers, the ease of its amplification, and sufficient variability to distinguish even closely related species. However, a general analysis of its ability to discriminate species in a comprehensive sample set is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, 50,790 plant and 12,221 animal ITS2 sequences downloaded from GenBank were evaluated according to sequence length, GC content, intra- and inter-specific divergence, and efficiency of identification. The results show that the inter-specific divergence of congeneric species in plants and animals was greater than its corresponding intra-specific variations. The success rates for using the ITS2 region to identify dicotyledons, monocotyledons, gymnosperms, ferns, mosses, and animals were 76.1%, 74.2%, 67.1%, 88.1%, 77.4%, and 91.7% at the species level, respectively. The ITS2 region unveiled a different ability to identify closely related species within different families and genera. The secondary structure of the ITS2 region could provide useful information for species identification and could be considered as a molecular morphological characteristic. Conclusions/Significance As one of the most popular phylogenetic markers for eukaryota, we propose that the ITS2 locus should be used as a universal DNA barcode for identifying plant species and as a complementary locus for CO1 to identify animal species. We have also developed a web application to facilitate ITS2-based cross-kingdom species identification (http://its2-plantidit.dnsalias.org). PMID:20957043

  6. Grazing impact on desert plants and soil seed banks: Implications for seed-eating animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pol, Rodrigo G.; Sagario, M. Cecilia; Marone, Luis

    2014-02-01

    We assess whether the knowledge of livestock diet helps to link grazing effects with changes in plant cover and soil seed bank size, aiming at inferring the consequences of grazing on seed-eating animals. Specifically, we test whether continuous and heavy grazing reduce the cover, number of reproductive structures and seed reserves of the same grass species whose seeds are selected and preferred by granivorous animals in the central Monte desert, Argentina. Grass cover and the number of grass spikes usually diminished under grazing conditions in the two localities studied (Telteca and Ñacuñán), and soil seed bank was consistently reduced in all three years evaluated owing to a decline of perennial grass and forb seeds. In particular, the abundance of those seeds selected and preferred by birds and ants (in all cases grass species) declined 70-92% in Ñacuñán, and 52-72% in Telteca. Reduction of perennial grass cover and spike number in grazed sites reinforced the causal link between livestock grazing and the decline of grass soil seed reserves throughout failed plant reproduction. Grass seed bank depletion suggests that grazing may trigger a "cascade" of mechanisms that affect the abundance and persistence of valuable fodder species as well as the availability of seed resources for granivorous animals.

  7. Upgrade of Compressed Air Control System Reduces Energy Costs at Michelin Tire Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights the upgraded compressed air system at a Michelin tire manufacturing plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina. The controls upgrade project enabled multiple compressor operation without blow-off, and significantly reduced energy costs.

  8. Floristic summary of North American plant species in the air pollution literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Notes are given on a project to create a database of bibliographic information, abstracts and keywords for publications on the biological effects of gaseous and heavy metal air pollution on plants and lichens.

  9. Effect of air sparging on fate and transport of trichloroethylene in chambers with alfalfa plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Hu, J.; Erickson, L.E.; Davis, L.C.

    1997-12-31

    To study the effect of air sparging in soil with trichloroethylene present as a dense nonaqueous phase, air was supplied through pipes installed at the bottom of two chambers planted with alfalfa. Air input rate was 2.14 L/m{sup 2}/day. The fate of trichloroethylene (TCE) was investigated by monitoring TCE concentration in both outflow groundwater and soil gas. Comparison of these results with those of the previous study without air sparging indicates that air sparging appreciably increases the groundwater concentration of TCE. The soil gas at the surface shows even greater concentration difference. The flux of TCE to the atmosphere is increased significantly by air input. Accordingly, the authors can conclude that air sparging improved mass transfer of TCE from the nonaqueous phase to groundwater phase. Air sparging appeared to negatively impact the health of the alfalfa because of the elevated TCE present in the vadose zone of the chamber.

  10. Biochemical parameters of plants as indicators of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, A K; Gautam, Mukesh

    2007-01-01

    In the present study species like Mangifera indica, Linn., Cassia fistula, Linn., and Eucalyptus hybrid were exposed to different air pollution load for short duration (active biomonitoring). Variation in biochemical parameters like chlorophyll, protein, soluble sugar free amino acid, ascorbic acid, nitrate reductase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in the leaves were found to be pollution load dependent. These variations can be used as indicators of air pollution for early diagnosis of stress or as a marker for physiological damage to trees prior to the onset of visible injury symptoms. Just by analyzing these biochemical indicators air quality can also be assessed. PMID:17717999

  11. Directly toxic effects of plant chemicals which may occur in human and animal foods.

    PubMed

    Seawright, A A

    1995-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are among the most significant plant chemicals causing disease in animals and humans. After absorption from the gut, the compounds are converted to electrophilic pyrroles in the liver which, apart from causing damage to this organ, may escape to cause injury to extraheptic tissues such as the lungs, heart, and kidneys. A group of compounds more recently found to be associated with neurotoxicity are various polyhydroxyalkaloids which are able to interfere with polysaccharide metabolism. They are able to inhibit lysosomal monosaccharidases by virtue of their structural resemblance to the transition state of particular sugar molecules. The resulting lysosomal storage diseases have pathology identical to that of the respective congenital and heritable lysosomal storage diseases which occur in animals and humans. Consumption of cycad plants by cattle may cause a neurotoxicity characterised mainly by a posterior sensory ataxia. In recent years, cycads are considered to be a risk factor for a spectrum of progressive neuro degenerative diseases of humans in the Western Pacific region. The known toxins in the plant are the methylazoxymethanol glycosides which are hepatotoxic and carcinogenic, and the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid beta-methylaminoalanine. A plant carcinogen which can be of great abundance in the nutritional environment is the illudine norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside which is found in bracken fern. This is the only plant carcinogen which causes natural outbreaks of bladder and/or intestinal cancer in livestock. Many legumes contain phytooestrogens, notably isoflavones. Consumption of these compounds at high levels by sheep can cause extensive lesions of the genitalia of females and castrated males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7582621

  12. Multiple Targets of Salicylic Acid and Its Derivatives in Plants and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Klessig, Daniel F.; Tian, Miaoying; Choi, Hyong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a critical plant hormone that is involved in many processes, including seed germination, root initiation, stomatal closure, floral induction, thermogenesis, and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Its central role in plant immunity, although extensively studied, is still only partially understood. Classical biochemical approaches and, more recently, genome-wide high-throughput screens have identified more than two dozen plant SA-binding proteins (SABPs), as well as multiple candidates that have yet to be characterized. Some of these proteins bind SA with high affinity, while the affinity of others exhibit is low. Given that SA levels vary greatly even within a particular plant species depending on subcellular location, tissue type, developmental stage, and with respect to both time and location after an environmental stimulus such as infection, the presence of SABPs exhibiting a wide range of affinities for SA may provide great flexibility and multiple mechanisms through which SA can act. SA and its derivatives, both natural and synthetic, also have multiple targets in animals/humans. Interestingly, many of these proteins, like their plant counterparts, are associated with immunity or disease development. Two recently identified SABPs, high mobility group box protein and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are critical proteins that not only serve key structural or metabolic functions but also play prominent roles in disease responses in both kingdoms. PMID:27303403

  13. Molecular taphonomy of animal and plant cuticles: selective preservation and diagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, D. E. G.

    1999-01-01

    The nature of organic material and the environment in which it is deposited exert a major influence on the extent to which biomacromolecules are preserved in the fossil record. The role of these factors is explored with a particular focus on the cuticle of arthropods and leaves. Preservation of the original chemistry of arthropod cuticles is favoured by their thickness and degree of sclerotization, and the presence of biominerals. Decay and burial in terrestrial as opposed to marine, and anoxic rather than oxygenated conditions, likewise appear to enhance preservation. The most important factor in the long-term preservation of the chemistry of both animal and plant cuticles, however, is diagenetic alteration to an aliphatic composition. This occurs even in amber, which encapsulates the fossil, eliminating almost all external factors. Some plants contain an original decay-resistant macromolecular aliphatic component but this is not the case in arthropods. It appears that the aliphatic components of many plant as well as animal fossils may be the result of diagenetic polymerization. Selective preservation as a result of decay resistance may explain the initial survival of organic materials in sediments, but in many cases longer-term preservation relies on chemical changes. Selective preservation is only a partial explanation for the origin of kerogen.

  14. Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Branching in Plants, Animals and Humans by VESGEN Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Humans face daunting challenges in the successful exploration and colonization of space, including adverse alterations in gravity and radiation. The Earth-determined biology of humans, animals and plants is significantly modified in such extraterrestrial environments. One physiological requirement shared by humans with larger plants and animals is a complex, highly branching vascular system that is dynamically responsive to cellular metabolism, immunological protection and specialized cellular/tissue function. The VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis has been developed as a mature beta version, pre-release research software for mapping and quantification of the fractal-based complexity of vascular branching. Alterations in vascular branching pattern can provide informative read-outs of altered vascular regulation. Originally developed for biomedical applications in angiogenesis, VESGEN 2D has provided novel insights into the cytokine, transgenic and therapeutic regulation of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and other microvascular remodeling phenomena. Vascular trees, networks and tree-network composites are mapped and quantified. Applications include disease progression from clinical ophthalmic images of the human retina; experimental regulation of vascular remodeling in the mouse retina; avian and mouse coronary vasculature, and other experimental models in vivo. We envision that altered branching in the leaves of plants studied on ISS such as Arabidopsis thaliana cans also be analyzed.

  15. Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Branching in Plants, Animals and Humans by VESGEN Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, P. A.; Vickerman, M. B.; Keith, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Humans face daunting challenges in the successful exploration and colonization of space, including adverse alterations in gravity and radiation. The Earth-determined biology of plants, animals and humans is significantly modified in such extraterrestrial environments. One physiological requirement shared by larger plants and animals with humans is a complex, highly branching vascular system that is dynamically responsive to cellular metabolism, immunological protection and specialized cellular/tissue function. VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis has been developed as a mature beta version, pre-release research software for mapping and quantification of the fractal-based complexity of vascular branching. Alterations in vascular branching pattern can provide informative read-outs of altered vascular regulation. Originally developed for biomedical applications in angiogenesis, VESGEN 2D has provided novel insights into the cytokine, transgenic and therapeutic regulation of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and other microvascular remodeling phenomena. Vascular trees, networks and tree-network composites are mapped and quantified. Applications include disease progression from clinical ophthalmic images of the human retina; experimental regulation of vascular remodeling in the mouse retina; avian and mouse coronary vasculature, and other experimental models in vivo. We envision that altered branching in the leaves of plants studied on ISS such as Arabidopsis thaliana cans also be analyzed.

  16. Animal Models as Tools to Investigate Antidiabetic and Anti-Inflammatory Plants

    PubMed Central

    Eddouks, Mohamed; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Zeggwagh, Naoufel Ali

    2012-01-01

    Plants have been historically used for diabetes treatment and related anti-inflammatory activity throughout the world; few of them have been validated by scientific criteria. Recently, a large diversity of animal models has been developed for better understanding the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its underlying inflammatory mechanism and new drugs have been introduced in the market to treat this disease. The aim of this work is to review the available animal models of diabetes and anti-inflammatory activity along with some in vitro models which have been used as tools to investigate the mechanism of action of drugs with potential antidiabetic properties and related anti-inflammatory mechanism. At present, the rigorous procedures for evaluation of conventional antidiabetic medicines have rarely been applied to test raw plant materials used as traditional treatments for diabetes; and natural products, mainly derived from plants, have been tested in chemically induced diabetes model. This paper contributes to design new strategies for the development of novel antidiabetic drugs and its related inflammatory activity in order to treat this serious condition which represents a global public health problem. PMID:22899950

  17. Comparative study of the P2X gene family in animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhuoran; Cao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    P2X receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that can bind with the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and have diverse functional roles in neuropathic pain, inflammation, special sense, and so on. In this study, 180 putative P2X genes, including 176 members in 32 animal species and 4 members in 3 species of lower plants, were identified. These genes were divided into 13 groups, including 7 groups in vertebrates and 6 groups in invertebrates and lower plants, through phylogenetic analysis. Their gene organization and motif composition are conserved in most predicted P2X members, while group-specific features were also found. Moreover, synteny relationships of the putative P2X genes in vertebrates are conserved while simultaneously experiencing a series of gene insertion, inversion, and transposition. Recombination signals were detected in almost all of the vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting that intragenic recombination may play a significant role in the evolution of P2X genes. Selection analysis also identified some positively selected sites that acted on the evolution of most of the predicted P2X proteins. The phenomenon of alternative splicing occurred commonly in the putative P2X genes of vertebrates. This article explored in depth the evolutional relationship among different subtypes of P2X genes in animal and plants and might serve as a solid foundation for deciphering their functions in further studies. PMID:26874702

  18. Microbiomes: unifying animal and plant systems through the lens of community ecology theory

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Natalie; Whitaker, Briana K.; Clay, Keith

    2015-01-01

    The field of microbiome research is arguably one of the fastest growing in biology. Bacteria feature prominently in studies on animal health, but fungi appear to be the more prominent functional symbionts for plants. Despite the similarities in the ecological organization and evolutionary importance of animal-bacterial and plant–fungal microbiomes, there is a general failure across disciplines to integrate the advances made in each system. Researchers studying bacterial symbionts in animals benefit from greater access to efficient sequencing pipelines and taxonomic reference databases, perhaps due to high medical and veterinary interest. However, researchers studying plant–fungal symbionts benefit from the relative tractability of fungi under laboratory conditions and ease of cultivation. Thus each system has strengths to offer, but both suffer from the lack of a common conceptual framework. We argue that community ecology best illuminates complex species interactions across space and time. In this synthesis we compare and contrast the animal-bacterial and plant–fungal microbiomes using six core theories in community ecology (i.e., succession, community assembly, metacommunities, multi-trophic interactions, disturbance, restoration). The examples and questions raised are meant to spark discussion amongst biologists and lead to the integration of these two systems, as well as more informative, manipulatory experiments on microbiomes research. PMID:26441846

  19. Air-cooled condensers eliminate plant water use

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, W.; Peltier, R.

    2008-09-15

    River or ocean water has been the mainstay for condensing turbine exhaust steam since the first steam turbine began generating electricity. A primary challenge facing today's plant developers, especially in drought-prone regions, is incorporating processes that reduce plant water use and consumption. One solution is to shed the conventional mindset that once-through cooling is the only option and adopt dry cooling technologies that reduce plant water use from a flood to a few sips. A case study at the Astoria Energy plant, New York City is described. 14 figs.

  20. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS USING SRC VERSUS CONVENTIONAL COAL IN POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of air quality modeling to assess the impact of burning solvent-refined coal (SRC) instead of conventional coal in three power plants which exceeded National Ambient Air Quality Standards when burning conventional coal. The EPA CRSTER Gaussian plume model...

  1. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 7: Industrialist's Manual No. 2, People's Pulp Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 2, People's Pulp Plant is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  2. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 9: Industrialist's Manual No. 5, Caesar's Rendering Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 5, Caesar's Rendering Plant is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  3. Let There Be Light! Bioluminescent Imaging to Study Bacterial Pathogenesis in Live Animals and Plants.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Issmat I; Splitter, Gary A; Miller, Sally; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    : Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of bacteria was primarily designed to permit real-time, sensitive, and noninvasive monitoring of the progression of infection in live animals. Generally, BLI relies on the construction of bacterial strains that possess the lux operon. The lux operon is composed of a set of genes that encode the luciferase enzyme and its cognate substrate, which interact to produce light-a phenomenon that is referred to as bioluminescence. Bioluminescence emitted by the bacteria can then be detected and imaged within a living host using sensitive charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras. In comparison to traditional host-pathogen studies, BLI offers the opportunity for extended monitoring of infected animals without resorting to euthanasia and extensive tissue processing at each time point. Therefore, BLI can reduce the number of animals required to generate meaningful data, while significantly contributing to the understanding of pathogenesis in the host and, subsequently, the development and evaluation of adequate vaccines and therapeutics. BLI is also useful in characterizing the interactions of pathogens with plants and the para-host environment. In this chapter, we demonstrate the broad application of BLI for studying bacterial pathogens in different niches. Furthermore, we will specifically focus on the use of BLI to characterize the following: (1) the pathogenesis of Brucella melitensis in mice (animal host), and (2) the progression of infection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomatoes (plant host). These studies will provide an overview of the wide potential of BLI and its role in enhancing the study of unique-and sometimes difficult-to-characterize-bacterial pathogens. PMID:25395174

  4. A Family of MicroRNAs Present in Plants and Animals[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga-Vázquez, Mario; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Although many miRNAs are deeply conserved within each kingdom, none are known to be conserved between plants and animals. We identified Arabidopsis thaliana miR854 and miR855, two microRNAs (miRNAs) with multiple binding sites in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of OLIGOURIDYLATE binding PROTEIN1b (At UBP1b), forming miRNA:mRNA interactions similar to those that cause translational repression/mRNA cleavage in animals. At UBP1b encodes a member of a heterogeneous nuclear RNA binding protein (hnRNP) family. The 3′UTR of At UBP1b is sufficient to repress reporter protein expression in tissues expressing miR854 or miR855 (rosette leaves and flowers, respectively) but not where both miRNAs are absent (cauline leaves). Intergenic regions containing sequences closely resembling miR854 are predicted to fold into stable miRNA precursors in animals, and members of the miR854 family are expressed in Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens, all with imperfect binding sites in the 3′UTR of genes encoding the T cell Intracellular Antigen-Related protein, an hnRNP of the UBP1 family. Potential binding sites for miR854 are absent from UBP1-like genes in fungi lacking the miRNA biogenetic machinery. Our results indicate that plants and animals share miRNAs of the miR854 family, suggesting a common origin of these miRNAs as regulators of basal transcriptional mechanisms. PMID:17189346

  5. Phylogenetic detection of numerous gene duplications shared by animals, fungi and plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene duplication is considered a major driving force for evolution of genetic novelty, thereby facilitating functional divergence and organismal diversity, including the process of speciation. Animals, fungi and plants are major eukaryotic kingdoms and the divergences between them are some of the most significant evolutionary events. Although gene duplications in each lineage have been studied extensively in various contexts, the extent of gene duplication prior to the split of plants and animals/fungi is not clear. Results Here, we have studied gene duplications in early eukaryotes by phylogenetic relative dating. We have reconstructed gene families (with one or more orthogroups) with members from both animals/fungi and plants by using two different clustering strategies. Extensive phylogenetic analyses of the gene families show that, among nearly 2,600 orthogroups identified, at least 300 of them still retain duplication that occurred before the divergence of the three kingdoms. We further found evidence that such duplications were also detected in some highly divergent protists, suggesting that these duplication events occurred in the ancestors of most major extant eukaryotic groups. Conclusions Our phylogenetic analyses show that numerous gene duplications happened at the early stage of eukaryotic evolution, probably before the separation of known major eukaryotic lineages. We discuss the implication of our results in the contexts of different models of eukaryotic phylogeny. One possible explanation for the large number of gene duplication events is one or more large-scale duplications, possibly whole genome or segmental duplication(s), which provides a genomic basis for the successful radiation of early eukaryotes. PMID:20370904

  6. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF TOXIC TRACE METALS. VOLUME 2. TOXIC TRACE METALS IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS OF THE WORLD. PART III

    EPA Science Inventory

    The needs and priorities in using biological accumulator organisms for monitoring toxic trace metals in plants and animals are analyzed. The toxic trace metals selected for study are antimony, arsenic, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, se...

  7. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF TOXIC TRACE METALS. VOLUME 2. TOXIC TRACE METALS IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS OF THE WORLD. PART II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The needs and priorities in using biological accumulator organisms for monitoring toxic trace metals in plants and animals are analyzed. The toxic trace metals selected for study are antimony, arsenic, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, se...

  8. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF TOXIC TRACE METALS. VOLUME 2. TOXIC TRACE METALS IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS OF THE WORLD. PART I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The needs and priorities in using biological accumulator organisms for monitoring toxic trace metals in plants and animals are analyzed. The toxic trace metals selected for study are antimony, arsenic, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, se...

  9. Safety assessment of animal- and plant-derived amino acids as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of animal- and plant-derived amino acid mixtures, which function as skin and hair conditioning agents. The safety of α-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established, based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures and the Panel previously has reviewed the safety of individual α-amino acids in cosmetics. The Panel focused its review on dermal irritation and sensitization data relevant to the use of these ingredients in topical cosmetics. The Panel concluded that these 21 ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as used in cosmetics. PMID:25323218

  10. Modulation of diabetes-mellitus-induced male reproductive dysfunctions in experimental animal models with medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Gyan Chand; Jangir, Ram Niwas

    2014-01-01

    Today diabetes mellitus has emerged as a major healthcare problem throughout the world. It has recently broken the age barrier and has been diagnosed in younger people also. Sustained hyperglycemia is associated with many complications including male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of the diabetes mellitus in various traditional system of medicine and in folklore worldwide as they are a rich source of bioactive phytoconstituents, which lower blood glucose level and/or also act as antioxidants resulting in the amelioration of oxidative-stress-induced diabetic complications. The present review describes the ameliorative effects of medicinal plants or their products, especially on male reproductive dysfunctions, in experimental diabetic animal models. PMID:25125884

  11. Effect of very high pressure on life of plants and animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, F.; Mori, Y.; Sougawa, M.; Takarabe, K.; Hada, Y.; Nishihira, N.; Motose, H.; Saigusa, M.; Matsushima, Y.; Yamazaki, D.; Ito, E.; Saini, N. L.

    2012-07-01

    We studied the tolerance of living organisms, such as a small animal (Milnesium tardigradum), a small crustacean (Artemia), non-vascular plants or moss (Ptichomitrium and Venturiella), and a vascular plant (Trifolium) to the extremely high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa. It turned out that most of the high pressure exposed seeds of white clover were alive. Those exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 1 day and seeded on agar germinated roots. Those exposed for up to 1 hour and seeded on soil germinated stems and leaves. Considering the fact that proteins begins to unfold around 0.3 GPa, it seems difficult to understand that all the living samples which have been investigated can survive after exposure to 7.5 GPa.

  12. Photosynthesis, transpiration and water use efficiencies of a plant canopy and plant leaves under restricted air current conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Shibuya, Toshio; Tsuruyama, Joshin

    A fundamental study was conducted to obtain the knowledge for culturing plants and exchanging gases with plants under restricted air circulation conditions in space agriculture. The effects of air velocities less than 1.3 m s-1 on net photosynthetic rates (Pn), transpiration rates (Tr) and Pn/Tr, water use efficiencies (WUE), of a canopy of cucumber seedlings and of single leaves of cucumber, sweet potato and barley were assessed with assimilation chamber methods in ground based experiments. The cucumber seedling canopy, which had a LAI of 1.4 and height of 0.1 m, was set in a wind tunnel installed in a plant canopy assimilation chamber. Each of the attached single leaves was set in a leaf assimilation chamber. The Pn and Tr of the plant canopy increased to 1.2 and 2.8 times, respectively, and WUE decreased to 0.4 times with increasing the air velocity from 0.02 to 1.3 m s-1. The Pn and Tr of the single leaves of all the species increased by 1.3-1.7 and 1.9-2.2 times, respectively, and WUE decreased to 0.6-0.8 times as the air velocity increased from 0.05 to 0.8 m s-1. The effect of air velocity was more significant on Tr than on Pn and thus WUE decreased with increasing air velocity in both the plant canopy and the individual leaves. The leaf boundary layer resistance was approximately proportional to the minus 1/3 power of the air velocity. Stomatal resistance was almost constant during the experiment. The CO2 concentrations in the sub-stomatal cavity in leaves of cucumber, sweet potato and barley, respectively, were 43, 31 and 58 mmol mol-1 lower at the air velocity of 0.05 m s-1 than at the air velocity of 0.8 m s-1, while the water vapor pressure in the sub-stomatal cavity was constant. We concluded that the change in the CO2 concentration in the sub-stomatal cavity was a cause of the different effect of the air velocity on Pn and Tr, and thus on WUE. The phenomenon will be more remarkable under restricted air convection conditions at lower gravity in space.

  13. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER AT AIR FORCE PLANT 4, CARSWELL, TEXAS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 600 Cottonwood trees were planted over a shallow groundwater plume in an attempt to detoxify the trichloroethylene (TCE) in a groundwater plume at a former Air Force facility. Two planting techniques were used: rooted stock about two years old, and 18 inch cuttings were inst...

  14. 77 FR 2677 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants'' is being extended for 12 days. DATES: Comments. The public comment period for the proposed rule published December 6, 2011, (76 FR... Aluminum Reduction Plants; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  15. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    DOEpatents

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  16. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    DOEpatents

    Drost, Monte K.

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  17. Compressed Air System Upgrade Improves Production at an Automotive Glass Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-02-01

    In 2000, The Visteon automotive glass plant improved its compressed air system at its automotive glass plant in Nashville, Tennessee. This improvement allowed Visteon to save $711,000 annually, reduce annual energy consumption by 7.9 million kilowatt-hours, reduce maintenance, improve system performance, and avoid $800,000 in asbestos abatement costs.

  18. Invasive cells in animals and plants: searching for LECA machineries in later eukaryotic life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Invasive cell growth and migration is usually considered a specifically metazoan phenomenon. However, common features and mechanisms of cytoskeletal rearrangements, membrane trafficking and signalling processes contribute to cellular invasiveness in organisms as diverse as metazoans and plants – two eukaryotic realms genealogically connected only through the last common eukaryotic ancestor (LECA). By comparing current understanding of cell invasiveness in model cell types of both metazoan and plant origin (invadopodia of transformed metazoan cells, neurites, pollen tubes and root hairs), we document that invasive cell behavior in both lineages depends on similar mechanisms. While some superficially analogous processes may have arisen independently by convergent evolution (e.g. secretion of substrate- or tissue-macerating enzymes by both animal and plant cells), at the heart of cell invasion is an evolutionarily conserved machinery of cellular polarization and oriented cell mobilization, involving the actin cytoskeleton and the secretory pathway. Its central components - small GTPases (in particular RHO, but also ARF and Rab), their specialized effectors, actin and associated proteins, the exocyst complex essential for polarized secretion, or components of the phospholipid- and redox- based signalling circuits (inositol-phospholipid kinases/PIP2, NADPH oxidases) are aparently homologous among plants and metazoans, indicating that they were present already in LECA. Reviewer: This article was reviewed by Arcady Mushegian, Valerian Dolja and Purificacion Lopez-Garcia. PMID:23557484

  19. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  20. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A. F.; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-05-01

    Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species' phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological "status", or the ability to track presence-absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.

  1. Holocene shifts in the assembly of plant and animal communities implicate human impacts.

    PubMed

    Lyons, S Kathleen; Amatangelo, Kathryn L; Behrensmeyer, Anna K; Bercovici, Antoine; Blois, Jessica L; Davis, Matt; DiMichele, William A; Du, Andrew; Eronen, Jussi T; Faith, J Tyler; Graves, Gary R; Jud, Nathan; Labandeira, Conrad; Looy, Cindy V; McGill, Brian; Miller, Joshua H; Patterson, David; Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Potts, Richard; Riddle, Brett; Terry, Rebecca; Tóth, Anikó; Ulrich, Werner; Villaseñor, Amelia; Wing, Scott; Anderson, Heidi; Anderson, John; Waller, Donald; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how ecological communities are organized and how they change through time is critical to predicting the effects of climate change. Recent work documenting the co-occurrence structure of modern communities found that most significant species pairs co-occur less frequently than would be expected by chance. However, little is known about how co-occurrence structure changes through time. Here we evaluate changes in plant and animal community organization over geological time by quantifying the co-occurrence structure of 359,896 unique taxon pairs in 80 assemblages spanning the past 300 million years. Co-occurrences of most taxon pairs were statistically random, but a significant fraction were spatially aggregated or segregated. Aggregated pairs dominated from the Carboniferous period (307 million years ago) to the early Holocene epoch (11,700 years before present), when there was a pronounced shift to more segregated pairs, a trend that continues in modern assemblages. The shift began during the Holocene and coincided with increasing human population size and the spread of agriculture in North America. Before the shift, an average of 64% of significant pairs were aggregated; after the shift, the average dropped to 37%. The organization of modern and late Holocene plant and animal assemblages differs fundamentally from that of assemblages over the past 300 million years that predate the large-scale impacts of humans. Our results suggest that the rules governing the assembly of communities have recently been changed by human activity. PMID:26675730

  2. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-01-01

    Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species’ phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological “status”, or the ability to track presence–absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.

  3. The influence of plant species on the plant/air partitioning coefficients of PCBs and chlorinated benzenes

    SciTech Connect

    Koemp, P.; McLachlan, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    The plant/air partitioning coefficients (K{sub PA}) of pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene and 16 PCB congeners were determined in five different grass and herb species common to Central Europe (Lolium multiflorum, Trifolium repens, Plantago lanceolata, Crepis biennis, Achillea millefolium). The measurements were conducted between 5 C and 35 C using a solid phase fugacity meter. Octanol/air partition coefficients (K{sub OA}) were also measured over a similar temperature range. In all cases an excellent linear relationship between log K{sub PA} and log K{sub OA} was observed (r{sup 2} between 0.80 and 0.99). However, while the slope of this relationship was 1 for Lolium multiflorum (ryegrass), in agreement with previous work, the slopes of the log K{sub PA} vs. log K{sub OA} plot were less than 1 for the other 4 species, lying as low as 0.49 for Achillea millefolium (yarrow). Large differences in the enthalpy of phase change (plant/air) were also observed between the different species, but these differences were not related to the differences in the partition coefficients. These observations demonstrate that the contaminant storage properties of plants are variable, and that the lipophilic compartment in some plants is considerably more polar than octanol. This places constraints on the applicability of current models of plant uptake, almost all of which assume that the lipophilic compartment behaves like octanol, and reinforces the need for more research into the contaminant storage properties of plants.

  4. Relation of soil and plant magnesium to nutrition of animals and man.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S R; Stuedemann, J A; Grunes, D L; Devine, O J

    1987-01-01

    The importance of Mg for the production and quality of crops grown on soils, as well as the health and productivity of animals and humans that consume these crops, is the focus of this paper. The Mg requirements and resulting concentrations of most crops are sufficiently high that primary Mg deficiency in animals consuming these crops is rare, providing the crops receive adequate Mg from soil solution for normal growth. Hypomagnesemic grass tetany or conditioned Mg deficiency occurs in mature ruminant lactating females grazing cool season forages. Grass tetany occurrence is seasonal, and is often related to heavy lactation demand for Mg. Another factor is reduced bioavailability of Mg to the ruminant associated with high concentrations of crude protein and K, as well as associated changes in plant constituents such as lowered soluble carbohydrate content and increased levels of higher fatty acids and organic acids. The high water content in the immature grass tissue being grazed may also result in less efficient Mg absorption by animals. Grass tetany studies at Watkinsville, Ga., revealed that high N fertilization of tall fescue pastures from poultry manure, or inorganic fertilizer increased incidence of hypomagnesemic grass tetany, and hypomagnesemia. Regression analyses indicate highly significant correlations between Mg levels in blood serum and forage Mg, K and crude protein. The results between years and experimental pastures clearly suggested that individual years and experimental pasture relationships were different. The following was concluded with regard to the relationship of soil and plant Mg to human nutrition: first, surveys of agricultural raw products indicate that genetic factors (species and cultivars) appear to have more effect on plant Mg composition than do soil and environmental factors. Second, patterns of Mg intake by humans in the USA suggest that about 50% of their intake is from foods of plant origin. About half of this intake is from

  5. Direct effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction. Final report, February 1, 1979--January 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.

    1987-12-08

    Our completed research program concentrated on the direct in vivo effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction. Direct air pollution effects on plant sexual reproduction have been studied for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, two of the three major air pollutants.

  6. Mechanical forces as information: an integrated approach to plant and animal development.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Valeria; Rueda, Denisse; Caballero, Lorena; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Benítez, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces such as tension and compression act throughout growth and development of multicellular organisms. These forces not only affect the size and shape of the cells and tissues but are capable of modifying the expression of genes and the localization of molecular components within the cell, in the plasma membrane, and in the plant cell wall. The magnitude and direction of these physical forces change with cellular and tissue properties such as elasticity. Thus, mechanical forces and the mesoscopic fields that emerge from their local action constitute important sources of positional information. Moreover, physical and biochemical processes interact in non-linear ways during tissue and organ growth in plants and animals. In this review we discuss how such mechanical forces are generated, transmitted, and sensed in these two lineages of multicellular organisms to yield long-range positional information. In order to do so we first outline a potentially common basis for studying patterning and mechanosensing that relies on the structural principle of tensegrity, and discuss how tensegral structures might arise in plants and animals. We then provide some examples of morphogenesis in which mechanical forces appear to act as positional information during development, offering a possible explanation for ubiquitous processes, such as the formation of periodic structures. Such examples, we argue, can be interpreted in terms of tensegral phenomena. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis of mechanically isotropic points as a potentially generic mechanism for the localization and maintenance of stem-cell niches in multicellular organisms. This comparative approach aims to help uncovering generic mechanisms of morphogenesis and thus reach a better understanding of the evolution and development of multicellular phenotypes, focusing on the role of physical forces in these processes. PMID:24959170

  7. Mechanical forces as information: an integrated approach to plant and animal development

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Hernández, Valeria; Rueda, Denisse; Caballero, Lorena; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Benítez, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces such as tension and compression act throughout growth and development of multicellular organisms. These forces not only affect the size and shape of the cells and tissues but are capable of modifying the expression of genes and the localization of molecular components within the cell, in the plasma membrane, and in the plant cell wall. The magnitude and direction of these physical forces change with cellular and tissue properties such as elasticity. Thus, mechanical forces and the mesoscopic fields that emerge from their local action constitute important sources of positional information. Moreover, physical and biochemical processes interact in non-linear ways during tissue and organ growth in plants and animals. In this review we discuss how such mechanical forces are generated, transmitted, and sensed in these two lineages of multicellular organisms to yield long-range positional information. In order to do so we first outline a potentially common basis for studying patterning and mechanosensing that relies on the structural principle of tensegrity, and discuss how tensegral structures might arise in plants and animals. We then provide some examples of morphogenesis in which mechanical forces appear to act as positional information during development, offering a possible explanation for ubiquitous processes, such as the formation of periodic structures. Such examples, we argue, can be interpreted in terms of tensegral phenomena. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis of mechanically isotropic points as a potentially generic mechanism for the localization and maintenance of stem-cell niches in multicellular organisms. This comparative approach aims to help uncovering generic mechanisms of morphogenesis and thus reach a better understanding of the evolution and development of multicellular phenotypes, focusing on the role of physical forces in these processes. PMID:24959170

  8. Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2009-06-30

    This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

  9. Air Pollutants from Jeddah Desalination—Power Plant (KSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Seroury, F. A.; Mayhoub, A. B.

    2011-10-01

    Ground level concentrations due to emissions from the Jeddah dual—purpose plant (sea water desalination and electric power production) have been estimated using the standard Gaussian plume model (GPM). The main types of pollutants emitted from the plant are: Hydro-carbons HC, carbon monoxide CO, Nitrogen oxides NOx and sulfur dioxide SO2. Thermal stability classes for Jeddah city are estimated for the months of the year (2007). It was found that the dominant stability class for the city is the moderately unstable class B (according to pasquill classification). The results of stability classes' evaluation together with the meteorological wind—data are used to predict the ground level concentration (glc) of the pollutants against the downwind distance from the plant location. The month and day of each calculated value of the pollutant concentration during the year (2007) have been specified. The maximum (glc) and their positions on the ground for each pollutant are found.

  10. Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) solar thermal plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The plant proved its capability to deliver the desired energy product in a USAF industrial environment. The collector proved capable of energy conversion at insolation levels up to 25% below design minimum. The plant and the project were negatively affected by severe winter weather, with total insolation during the test period 60 percent less than the expected value. Environmental effects reduced plant availability to 55 percent. Only five, minimally good operating days were experienced during the test period. The subsequent lack of performance data prohibits the drawing of general conclusions regarding system performance. System operability was rated generally high. The only inhibiting factor was the difficulty in procuring replacement parts for rapid repair under USAF stockage and procurement policies. No inherently serious system failures were recorded, although a thermostatic valve malfunction in the freeze protection system ultimately took 30 days to repair.

  11. Plant and animal protein intakes are differently associated with nutrient adequacy of the diet of French adults.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Huneau, Jean-François; Carpentier, Florence; Dubuisson, Carine; Mariotti, François

    2013-09-01

    The sustainability of dietary plant and animal protein consumption is an important issue, but few data are available to ascertain the health-related impact of animal and plant protein intake. The objective was to study the relationships between animal and plant protein intake and diet quality, as reflected by an integrated index of nutrient adequacy. Using data on 1912 adults from the French Individual and National Consumption Survey 2 (2006-2007), we assessed diet quality by using the PANDiet, a unique score combining 35 probabilities of having an adequate nutrient intake, and used multiple regression analysis to study the relationship with intakes of plant, animal, and related food source proteins. After adjustments for intakes of energy, alcohol, and protein from other sources and sociodemographic factors, plant protein intake was positively associated with the PANDiet, irrespective of sex (β = 0.50, P < 0.0001). By contrast, total and animal protein intakes were differently associated with the PANDiet according to sex, with a positive association in women (β = 0.07 and β = 0.08, respectively; P < 0.01) and an inverse association in men (β = -0.07 and β = -0.05, respectively; P < 0.01). The relationships between the PANDiet and intakes of protein from animal food sources varied: for instance, associations were inverse for red meat and poultry in men but not in women, whereas irrespective of sex, they were positive for fish, milk, and yogurt and inverse for processed meat, cheese, and eggs. These findings show that plant protein is a robust marker of a healthy diet, whereas total animal protein includes different subtypes of animal protein that largely vary in their relationship with diet quality. These data could help refine protein recommendations from a qualitative and dietary standpoint. PMID:23864509

  12. Plant stress proteins of the thaumatin-like family discovered in animals.

    PubMed

    Brandazza, Anna; Angeli, Sergio; Tegoni, Mariella; Cambillau, Christian; Pelosi, Paolo

    2004-08-13

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) are polypeptides of about 200 residues synthesized by plants in response to fungal infection. In addition to the exceptionally strong sweet taste exhibited by some members, they are also reported to be endowed with endo-beta-1,3-glucanase activity and alpha-amylase inhibiting properties. However, the detailed mechanism of their antifungal action is not completely understood. So far, TLPs have only been described in plants, with several members of the family expressed in the same species. Here, for the first time in animals, we report the identification of two genes encoding members of the thaumatin-like proteins family in the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria and show their expression in different parts of the body. Southern blot and Western blot experiments revealed the presence of orthologous genes and their expression products in the related species Locusta migratoria. A search through the available genomes yielded similar sequences in the nematode Caenorhabditis but not in Drosophila and other insects. A three-dimensional model of S. gregaria TLP suggests a glucanase function. As in plants, TLPs could play a defense role in insects against pathogens. PMID:15304314

  13. Improving Compressed Air Energy Efficiency in Automotive Plants - Practical Examples and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The automotive industry is the largest industry in the United States in terms of the dollar value of production [1]. U.S. automakers face tremendous pressure from foreign competitors, which have an increasing manufacturing presence in this country. The Big Three North American Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler are reacting to declining sales figures and economic strain by working more efficiently and seeking out opportunities to reduce production costs without negatively affecting the production volume or the quality of the product. Successful, cost-effective investment and implementation of the energy efficiency technologies and practices meet the challenge of maintaining the output of high quality product with reduced production costs. Automotive stamping and assembly plants are typically large users of compressed air with annual compressed air utility bills in the range of $2M per year per plant. This paper focuses on practical methods that the authors have researched, analyzed and implemented to improve compressed air system efficiency in automobile manufacturing facilities. It describes typical compressed air systems in automotive stamping and assembly plants, and compares these systems to best practices. The paper then presents a series of examples, organized using the method of inside-out approach, which strategically identifies the energy savings in the compressed air system by first minimizing end-use demand, then minimizing distribution losses, and finally making improvements to primary energy conversion equipment, the air compressor plant.

  14. A review of potential alternatives for air cleaning at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1990-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted this review in support of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) being designed by Fluor Daniel Inc. for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The literature on air cleaning systems is reviewed to identify potential air cleaning alternatives that might be included in the design of HWVP. An overview of advantages/disadvantages of the various air cleaning technologies follows. Information and references are presented for the following potential air cleaning alternatives: deep-bed glass-fiber filters (DBGF), high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), remote modular filter systems, high-efficiency mist eliminators (HEME), electrostatic precipitators, and the sand filter. Selected information is summarized for systems in the United States, Belgium, Japan, and West Germany. This review addresses high-capacity air cleaning systems currently used in the nuclear industry and emphasizes recent developments. 10 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. 9 CFR 3.114 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., rail, air and marine). 3.114 Section 3.114 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in... animal cargo space must be constructed and maintained in a manner that will prevent the ingress of...

  16. Auto-ignition hazard of mixtures of ammonia, hydrogen, methane and air in a urea plant.

    PubMed

    Vandebroek, L; Verplaetsen, F; Berghmans, J; van den Aarssen, A; Winter, H; Vliegen, G; van 't Oost, E

    2002-07-01

    The auto-ignition of NH(3)/CH(4)/H(2)/air mixtures constitutes a hazard that is of much concern in urea plants. In this study, the auto-ignition behaviour of NH(3)/CH(4)/H(2)/air mixtures is investigated experimentally for pressures up to 7500 kPa. The experiments were carried out in a closed spherical vessel with a volume of 8 dm(3). The concentration and the pressure dependence of the auto-ignition temperature (AIT) were determined for four types of mixtures: NH(3)/air, NH(3)/CH(4)/air, NH(3)/H(2)/air and NH(3)/CH(4)/H(2)/air. The most ignitable NH(3)/air mixtures were situated between stoichiometry and the upper flammability limit. Small amounts of methane and hydrogen decrease the AIT of NH(3)/air mixtures to a large extent. The pressure dependence of the AIT could be correlated by a Semenov relationship. For the multi-fuel mixtures, a distinct deviation from the Semenov correlation was observed at the lowest temperatures. With respect to the explosion hazard in urea plants, the experimental results were used to assess realistic AIT values in the pool reactor and the ammonia scrubber, operating at a pressure of 15,000 kPa. PMID:12062958

  17. Compromising genetic diversity in the wild: unmonitored large-scale release of plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Laikre, Linda; Schwartz, Michael K; Waples, Robin S; Ryman, Nils

    2010-09-01

    Large-scale exploitation of wild animals and plants through fishing, hunting and logging often depends on augmentation through releases of translocated or captively raised individuals. Such releases are performed worldwide in vast numbers. Augmentation can be demographically and economically beneficial but can also cause four types of adverse genetic change to wild populations: (1) loss of genetic variation, (2) loss of adaptations, (3) change of population composition, and (4) change of population structure. While adverse genetic impacts are recognized and documented in fisheries, little effort is devoted to actually monitoring them. In forestry and wildlife management, genetic risks associated with releases are largely neglected. We outline key features of programs to effectively monitor consequences of such releases on natural populations. PMID:20688414

  18. Transcriptome analysis of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed with animal and plant diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Shan; Sun, Jian; Wen, Zheng-Yong; He, Yu-Hui; Cai, Wen-Jing; Wang, Ya-Ping; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-12-15

    Numerous studies have been focused on the replacement of fish meal by other alternative protein sources. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanism of utilization of diets with different protein sources in fish. Grass carp is a typical herbivorous fish. To elucidate the relationship between gene expression and utilization of animal and plant diets, transcriptome sequencing was performed in grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed. Grass carp fed with duckweed had significantly higher relative length of gut than those fed with chironomid larvae. 4435 differentially expressed genes were identified between grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed in brain, liver and gut, involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, appetite control, circadian rhythm, digestion and metabolism pathways. These pathways might play important roles in utilization of diets with different protein sources in grass carp. And the findings could provide a new insight into the replacement of fish meal in artificial diets. PMID:26283148

  19. A checklist of plant and animal species at Los Alamos National Laboratory and surrounding areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hinojosa, H.

    1998-02-01

    Past and current members of the Biology Team (BT) of the Ecology Group have completed biological assessments (BAs) for all of the land that comprises Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within these assessments are lists of plant and animal species with the potential to exist on LANL lands and the surrounding areas. To compile these lists, BT members examined earlier published and unpublished reports, surveys, and data bases that pertained to the biota of this area or to areas that are similar. The species lists that are contained herein are compilations of the lists from these BAs, other lists that were a part of the initial research for the performance of these BAs, and more recent surveys.

  20. Effectors of animal and plant pathogens use a common domain to bind host phosphoinositides

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Dor; Guo, Yirui; Kinch, Lisa N.; Grishin, Nick V.; Gardner, Kevin H.; Orth, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial Type III Secretion Systems deliver effectors into host cells to manipulate cellular processes to the advantage of the pathogen. Many host targets of these effectors are found on membranes. Therefore, to identify their targets, effectors often use specialized membrane-localization domains to localize to appropriate host membranes. However, the molecular mechanisms used by many domains are unknown. Here we identify a conserved bacterial phosphoinositide-binding domain (BPD) that is found in functionally diverse Type III effectors of both plant and animal pathogens. We show that members of the BPD family functionally bind phosphoinositides and mediate localization to host membranes. Moreover, NMR studies reveal that the BPD of the newly identified Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III effector VopR is unfolded in solution, but folds into a specific structure upon binding its ligand phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate. Thus, our findings suggest a possible mechanism for promoting refolding of Type III effectors after delivery into host cells. PMID:24346350

  1. Checklists: An under-used tool for the inventory and monitoring of plants and animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Droege, S.; Cyr, A.; Larivee, J.

    1998-01-01

    Checklists are widely used to catalog field observations of plants and animals. We used 25 years of bird checklist data from the Etudes des Populations d'Oiseaux du Quebec program to examine the ability of checklists to produce reliable conservation, management, and ecological information. We found that checklists can provide reliable information on changes in bird populations, phenology, and geographic and climate abundance patterns at local, regional, and continental scales. Professional and amateur conservation groups that need to develop extensive monitoring programs should take advantage of the fact that checklists, unlike other time-consuming and expensive techniques, can be used to detect large-scale changes in an entire community of species.

  2. Sources and Amounts of Animal, Dairy, and Plant Protein Intake of US Adults in 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Lieberman, Harris R; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-08-01

    Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years). Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA) databases were used to partition the composition of foods consumed into animal, dairy, or plant components. Mean ± SE animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes were determined and deciles of usual intakes were estimated. The percentages of total protein intake derived from animal, dairy, and plant protein were 46%, 16%, and 30%, respectively; 8% of intake could not be classified. Chicken and beef were the primary food sources of animal protein intake. Cheese, reduced-fat milk, and ice cream/dairy desserts were primary sources of dairy protein intake. Yeast breads, rolls/buns, and nuts/seeds were primary sources of plant protein intake. This study provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to alter the composition of protein foods consumed by the American public. PMID:26308049

  3. Sources and Amounts of Animal, Dairy, and Plant Protein Intake of US Adults in 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Pasiakos, Stefan M.; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Lieberman, Harris R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007–2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years). Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA) databases were used to partition the composition of foods consumed into animal, dairy, or plant components. Mean ± SE animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes were determined and deciles of usual intakes were estimated. The percentages of total protein intake derived from animal, dairy, and plant protein were 46%, 16%, and 30%, respectively; 8% of intake could not be classified. Chicken and beef were the primary food sources of animal protein intake. Cheese, reduced-fat milk, and ice cream/dairy desserts were primary sources of dairy protein intake. Yeast breads, rolls/buns, and nuts/seeds were primary sources of plant protein intake. This study provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to alter the composition of protein foods consumed by the American public. PMID:26308049

  4. Air-flow distortion and turbulence statistics near an animal facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emission and dispersion of particulates and gases from confined animal feeding operations (CAFO) at local to regional scales is a current issue in science and society. The transport of particulates in the atmosphere at these scales is largely determined by turbulence. Any models that attempt to ...

  5. Monitoring ambient air for mutagenicity using the higher plant Tradescantia

    SciTech Connect

    Schairer, L A; Sautkulis, R C; Tempel, N R

    1981-01-01

    Final assessment of human health effects resulting from exposure to harmful environmental agents may rest with mammalian test system results. In vitro systems are short-term assays used most frequently for extrapolation to humans. However, no single assay system is adequate and the more expensive long-term tests must be augmented by multiple assays designed for redundancy or to fill gaps in present state of the art of environmental monitoring. The Tradescantia stamen hair test system is one such assay offering redundancy as well as filling the gap of monitoring ambient air for mutagenic agents. The flower color locus in heterozygous clones of Tradescantia mutates when exposed to such agents as fumigants, solvents, chemical additives or catalysts, and compounds requiring activation such as benzo (a) pyrene. The stamen hair system responds to low levels of airborne compounds. The Tradescantia stamen hair system was used as an in situ monitor for mutagens in ambient air in polluted industrial sites. Preliminary results from many sites showed a significant increase in mutation rate. The environment most consistently mutagenic was that downwind from petroleum refineries. No specific compounds or groups of compounds have as yet been correlated with the positive sites. (ERB)

  6. Assessment of an aerosol treatment to improve air quality in a swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO).

    PubMed

    Rule, Ana M; Chapin, Amy R; McCarthy, Sheila A; Gibson, Kristen E; Schwab, Kellogg J; Buckley, Timothy J

    2005-12-15

    Poor air quality within swine concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) poses a threat to workers, the surrounding community, and farm production. Accordingly, the current study was conducted to evaluate a technology for reducing air pollution including particulate matter (PM), viable bacteria, and ammonia within such a facility. The technology consists of an acid-oil-alcohol aerosol applied daily. Its effectiveness was evaluated by comparing air quality from before to after treatment and between treated and untreated sides of a barn separated by an impervious partition. On the untreated side, air quality was typical for a swine CAFO, with mean PM2.5 of 0.28 mg/m3 and PM(TOT) of 1.5 mg/m3. The treatment yielded a reduction in PM concentration of 75-90% from before to after treatment. Effectiveness increased with time, application, and particle size (40% reduction for 1 microm and 90% for >10 microm). Airborne bacteria levels (total bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and gram-positive cocci) decreased one logarithmic unit after treatment. In contrast, treatment had no effect on ammonia concentrations. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in yielding exposure and emission reductions. PMID:16475347

  7. Beyond animals and plants: dynamic maternal effects in the fungus Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, K C K; Levitis, D A; Pringle, A

    2016-07-01

    Maternal effects are widely documented in animals and plants, but not in fungi or other eukaryotes. A principal cause of maternal effects is asymmetrical parental investment in a zygote, creating greater maternal vs. paternal influence on offspring phenotypes. Asymmetrical investments are not limited to animals and plants, but are also prevalent in fungi and groups including apicomplexans, dinoflagellates and red algae. Evidence suggesting maternal effects among fungi is sparse and anecdotal. In an experiment designed to test for maternal effects across sexual reproduction in the model fungus Neurospora crassa, we measured offspring phenotypes from crosses of all possible pairs of 22 individuals. Crosses encompassed reciprocals of 11 mating-type 'A' and 11 mating-type 'a' wild strains. After controlling for the genetic and geographic distances between strains in any individual cross, we found strong evidence for maternal control of perithecia (sporocarp) production, as well as maternal effects on spore numbers and spore germination. However, both parents exert equal influence on the percentage of spores that are pigmented and size of pigmented spores. We propose a model linking the stage-specific presence or absence of maternal effects to cellular developmental processes: effects appear to be mediated primarily through the maternal cytoplasm, and, after spore cell walls form, maternal influence on spore development is limited. Maternal effects in fungi, thus far largely ignored, are likely to shape species' evolution and ecologies. Moreover, the association of anisogamy and maternal effects in a fungus suggests maternal effects may also influence the biology of other anisogamous eukaryotes. PMID:27062053

  8. Type III Protein Secretion Systems in Bacterial Pathogens of Animals and Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hueck, Christoph J.

    1998-01-01

    Various gram-negative animal and plant pathogens use a novel, sec-independent protein secretion system as a basic virulence mechanism. It is becoming increasingly clear that these so-called type III secretion systems inject (translocate) proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells, where the translocated proteins facilitate bacterial pathogenesis by specifically interfering with host cell signal transduction and other cellular processes. Accordingly, some type III secretion systems are activated by bacterial contact with host cell surfaces. Individual type III secretion systems direct the secretion and translocation of a variety of unrelated proteins, which account for species-specific pathogenesis phenotypes. In contrast to the secreted virulence factors, most of the 15 to 20 membrane-associated proteins which constitute the type III secretion apparatus are conserved among different pathogens. Most of the inner membrane components of the type III secretion apparatus show additional homologies to flagellar biosynthetic proteins, while a conserved outer membrane factor is similar to secretins from type II and other secretion pathways. Structurally conserved chaperones which specifically bind to individual secreted proteins play an important role in type III protein secretion, apparently by preventing premature interactions of the secreted factors with other proteins. The genes encoding type III secretion systems are clustered, and various pieces of evidence suggest that these systems have been acquired by horizontal genetic transfer during evolution. Expression of type III secretion systems is coordinately regulated in response to host environmental stimuli by networks of transcription factors. This review comprises a comparison of the structure, function, regulation, and impact on host cells of the type III secretion systems in the animal pathogens Yersinia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

  9. Impacts of flare emissions from an ethylene plant shutdown to regional air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang; Ho, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Critical operations of chemical process industry (CPI) plants such as ethylene plant shutdowns could emit a huge amount of VOCs and NOx, which may result in localized and transient ozone pollution events. In this paper, a general methodology for studying dynamic ozone impacts associated with flare emissions from ethylene plant shutdowns has been developed. This multi-scale simulation study integrates process knowledge of plant shutdown emissions in terms of flow rate and speciation together with regional air-quality modeling to quantitatively investigate the sensitivity of ground-level ozone change due to an ethylene plant shutdown. The study shows the maximum hourly ozone increments can vary significantly by different plant locations and temporal factors including background ozone data and solar radiation intensity. It helps provide a cost-effective air-quality control strategy for industries by choosing the optimal starting time of plant shutdown operations in terms of minimizing the induced ozone impact (reduced from 34.1 ppb to 1.2 ppb in the performed case studies). This study provides valuable technical supports for both CPI and environmental policy makers on cost-effective air-quality controls in the future.

  10. Development of hot gas filtration for air blown gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, P.; Dutton, M.; Tustin, M.; Rasmussen, G.; Sage, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes some of the development work carried out on hot gas filtration for the Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC). The ABGC comprises partial gasification of coal at elevated pressure with combustion of the fuel gas produced in a gas turbine. The residual carbon from gasification is burned in an atmospheric pressure circulating fluidized bed combustor raising steam to drive a steam turbine. A critical requirement in the ABGC is to ensure that the fuel gas is free of dust, in order to avoid damage to the gas turbine. Ceramic filter elements are the preferred technology for this clean-up. The required operating temperature is 400--600 C, based on optimizing efficiency and to allow use of other hot gas clean-up systems, for instance for sulfur polishing. A development program on hot gas filtration has been carried out at CTDD in order to ensure that this component of the cycle can be used with minimum risk. To date, over 2,000 h of operation at up to 600 C has been achieved on two pilot scale hot gas filters, each taking full flow of gas from air blown gasifiers. The filters have operated with high availability and there have been no incidents of breakage of filter elements. Information has been generated for effect of filtration velocity and temperature, cleaning gas requirements, changing dust and gas composition, and for design of critical components such as fast opening valves, venturi ejectors and sealing mechanisms. The effect of different operating conditions on filter element strength has been evaluated for a range of filter elements.

  11. A Gravity-Responsive Time-Keeping Protein of the Plant and Animal Cell Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James

    2003-01-01

    The hypothesis under investigation was that a ubiquinol (NADH) oxidase protein of the cell surface with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity (= NOX protein) is a plant and animal time-keeping ultradian (period of less than 24 h) driver of both cell enlargement and the biological clock that responds to gravity. Despite considerable work in a large number of laboratories spanning several decades, this is, to my knowledge, our work is the first demonstration of a time-keeping biochemical reaction that is both gravity-responsive and growth-related and that has been shown to determine circadian periodicity. As such, the NOX protein may represent both the long-sought biological gravity receptor and the core oscillator of the cellular biological clock. Completed studies have resulted in 12 publications and two issued NASA-owned patents of the clock activity. The gravity response and autoentrainment were characterized in cultured mammalian cells and in two plant systems together with entrainment by light and small molecules (melatonin). The molecular basis of the oscillatory behavior was investigated using spectroscopic methods (Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism) and high resolution electron microscopy. We have also applied these findings to an understanding of the response to hypergravity. Statistical methods for analysis of time series phenomena were developed (Foster et al., 2003).

  12. Patterns of phenotypic correlations among morphological traits across plants and animals

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Jeffrey K.; Cooper, Idelle A.; La Rosa, Raffica J.; Pérez, Samuel G.; Royer, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the long-standing interest of biologists in patterns of correlation and phenotypic integration, little attention has been paid to patterns of correlation across a broad phylogenetic spectrum. We report analyses of mean phenotypic correlations among a variety of linear measurements from a wide diversity of plants and animals, addressing questions about function, development, integration and modularity. These analyses suggest that vertebrates, hemimetabolous insects and vegetative traits in plants have similar mean correlations, around 0.5. Traits of holometabolous insects are much more highly correlated, with a mean correlation of 0.84; this may be due to developmental homeostasis caused by lower spatial and temporal environmental variance during complete metamorphosis. The lowest mean correlations were those between floral and vegetative traits, consistent with Berg's ideas about functional independence between these modules. Within trait groups, the lowest mean correlations were among vertebrate head traits and floral traits (0.38–0.39). The former may be due to independence between skull modules. While there is little evidence for floral integration overall, certain sets of functionally related floral traits are highly integrated. A case study of the latter is described from wild radish flowers. PMID:25002694

  13. Genetic causes of transitions from sexual reproduction to asexuality in plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Neiman, M; Sharbel, T F; Schwander, T

    2014-07-01

    The persistence of sexual reproduction in the face of competition from asexual invaders is more likely if asexual lineages are produced infrequently or have low fitness. The generation rate and success of new asexual lineages will be influenced by the proximate mechanisms underlying transitions to asexuality. As such, characterization of these mechanisms can help explain the distribution of reproductive modes among natural populations. Here, we synthesize the literature addressing proximate causes of transitions from sexual to asexual reproduction in plants and animals. In cyclical and facultatively asexual taxa, individual mutations can cause obligate asexuality. The evolution of asexuality in obligately sexual groups is more complex, requiring the simultaneous acquisition of two traits generally controlled by different genetic factors: unreduced gamete formation and spontaneous development of unfertilized gametes. At least three 'pre-adaptations' could favour transitions to obligate asexuality in obligate sexuals. First, linkage among loci affecting separate key components of asexuality facilitates its spread, with evidence for these linkage blocks in plants. Second, asexuality should evolve more readily in haplodiploids; support for this hypothesis comes from two examples where a single locus causes transitions to asexuality. Third, standing genetic variation for the production of unreduced gametes could facilitate transitions to asexuality, but whether the ability to produce unreduced gametes contributes to the evolution of obligate asexuality remains unclear. We close by reviewing the associations between asexuality, hybridization and polyploidy, and argue that current data suggest that hybridization is more likely to play a causal role in transitions to asexuality than polyploidy. PMID:24666600

  14. Universal model for water costs of gas exchange by animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Woods, H Arthur; Smith, Jennifer N

    2010-05-01

    For terrestrial animals and plants, a fundamental cost of living is water vapor lost to the atmosphere during exchange of metabolic gases. Here, by bringing together previously developed models for specific taxa, we integrate properties common to all terrestrial gas exchangers into a universal model of water loss. The model predicts that water loss scales to gas exchange with an exponent of 1 and that the amount of water lost per unit of gas exchanged depends on several factors: the surface temperature of the respiratory system near the outside of the organism, the gas consumed (oxygen or carbon dioxide), the steepness of the gradients for gas and vapor, and the transport mode (convective or diffusive). Model predictions were largely confirmed by data on 202 species in five taxa--insects, birds, bird eggs, mammals, and plants--spanning nine orders of magnitude in rate of gas exchange. Discrepancies between model predictions and data seemed to arise from biologically interesting violations of model assumptions, which emphasizes how poorly we understand gas exchange in some taxa. The universal model provides a unified conceptual framework for analyzing exchange-associated water losses across taxa with radically different metabolic and exchange systems. PMID:20404161

  15. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 1: Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J.

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations.

  16. Technologies for Maintaining Animals in Space: Lighting, Air Quality, Noise, Food and Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Skidmore, M. G.; Holley, D. C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In the terrestrial environment multiple time cues exist. Zeitgebers have been identified and studied for their ability to convey temporal information to various physiological systems, In the microgravity experiment it is necessary to define time cues within the flight hardware prior to flight. During flight if changes in the Circadian System (e.g., mean, phase angle, period) occur this would indicate that the gravity vector is important relative to biological timing. This presentation is concerned with the environmental parameters to support rodent experiments in microgravity. The Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) provides solid food bars and water via lixits ad libitum. Flight animals (Sprague-Dawley rats, 60 - 300g) when compared to ground controls show similar growth (mean growth per day, g +/- SD; flight 5.4 +/- 2.0, ground 5.9 +/- 2.1). Current AEMs use incandescent lighting (approx. 5 Lux). Light emitting diode (LED) arrays are being developed that provide a similar light environment as cool-white fluorescent sources (40 Lux). In ground based tests (12L:12D), these arrays show normal circadian entrainment (Tau = 24.0) with respect to the behavioral responses. measured (drinking, eating, gross locomotor activity). A newly developed ultra high efficiency filter system can entrap all feces, urine and odors from 6 rats for 24 days. Maximum sound level exposure limits (per octave band 22 Hz - 179 kHz) have been established. The AEM will effectively support animal experiments in microgravity.

  17. Technologies For Maintaining Animals In Space: Lighting, Air Quality, Noise, Food And Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Skidmore, M. G.; Holley, D. C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In the terrestrial environment multiple time cues exist. Zeitgebers have been identified and studied for their ability to convey temporal information to various physiological systems. In the microgravity experiment it is necessary to define time cues within the flight hardware prior to flight. During flight if changes in the Circadian System (e.g., mean, phase angle, period) occur this would indicate that the gravity vector is important relative to biological timing. This presentation is concerned with the environmental parameter: to support rodent experiments in microgravity. The Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) provides solid food bars and water via lixits and ad libitum. Flight animals (Sprague-Dawley rats, 60 - 300g) when compared to ground controls show similar growth (mean growth per day g, plus or minus SD; flight 5.4 plus or minus 2.0, ground 5.9 plus or minus 2.1). Current AEMs use incandescent lighting (approx. 5 Lux). Light emitting diode (LED) arrays are being developed that provide a similar light environment as cool-white fluorescent sources (40 Lux). In ground based tests (12L:12D), these arrays show normal circadian entrainment (Tau = 24.0) with respect to the behavioral responses, measured (drinking, eating, gross locomotor activity). A newly developed ultra high efficiency filter system can entrap all feces, urine and odors from 6 rats for 24 days. Maximum sound level exposure limits (per octave band 22 Hz - 179 kHz) have been established. The AEM will effectively support animal experiments in microgravity.

  18. Acceptance of evolutionary explanations as they are applied to plants, animals, and humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanukos, Anastasia

    In four investigations using Likert-scale questionnaires and think-aloud protocols with 173 university students in total, the willingness to accept evolutionary explanations regarding plant, animal, and human characteristics was examined. Participants were presented with evolutionary explanations for features and behaviors and were asked to rate how much they agreed with evolution as an explanation for each scenario. Some were also asked to explain their reasoning in think-aloud protocols or to discuss item ratings with one another. Overall, participants thought evolutionary explanations appropriate, with median ratings in the upper quarter of the rating scale. They were slightly more willing to ascribe evolutionary explanations to plant than to human phenomena; however, this general effect was mediated by more specific aspects of the evolutionary scenarios in question. Participants who were generally negative regarding evolution were particularly negative towards human evolution. Those who were positive or neutral towards evolution in general were more willing to accept human evolution, but were more likely to use evolution to explain similarities between humans and other species than to explain particular human adaptations. For example, they were more likely to agree that evolution is responsible for the DNA similarities between humans and chimpanzees than that evolution is responsible for human behavioral characteristics, such as the fight or flight response. Think-aloud protocols suggest that, while people are more familiar with human evolutionary relationships than plant evolutionary relationships, they may be less likely to see human characteristics as adaptively valuable. One plausible explanation for these patterns is that an evolutionary explanation is judged jointly by its availability in an individual's memory and its plausibility (i.e., its congruence with the individual's worldview). Popular media coverage, with its focus on controversy and litigation

  19. Work on power-plant (air) plumes involving remote sensing of SO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, C. L., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Acquisition of air quality and concurrent meteorological data was used for dispersion model development and plant siting needs of the Maryland power plants. One of the major instruments in these studies was the Barringer correlation spectrometer, a remote sensor, using atmospherically scattered sunlight that was used to measure the total amount of SO2 in a cross section of the plume. Correlation spectrometer and its role in this measurement program are described.

  20. Robustness analysis of an air heating plant and control law by using polynomial chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Colón, Diego; Ferreira, Murillo A. S.; Bueno, Átila M.; Balthazar, José M.; Rosa, Suélia S. R. F. de

    2014-12-10

    This paper presents a robustness analysis of an air heating plant with a multivariable closed-loop control law by using the polynomial chaos methodology (MPC). The plant consists of a PVC tube with a fan in the air input (that forces the air through the tube) and a mass flux sensor in the output. A heating resistance warms the air as it flows inside the tube, and a thermo-couple sensor measures the air temperature. The plant has thus two inputs (the fan's rotation intensity and heat generated by the resistance, both measured in percent of the maximum value) and two outputs (air temperature and air mass flux, also in percent of the maximal value). The mathematical model is obtained by System Identification techniques. The mass flux sensor, which is nonlinear, is linearized and the delays in the transfer functions are properly approximated by non-minimum phase transfer functions. The resulting model is transformed to a state-space model, which is used for control design purposes. The multivariable robust control design techniques used is the LQG/LTR, and the controllers are validated in simulation software and in the real plant. Finally, the MPC is applied by considering some of the system's parameters as random variables (one at a time, and the system's stochastic differential equations are solved by expanding the solution (a stochastic process) in an orthogonal basis of polynomial functions of the basic random variables. This method transforms the stochastic equations in a set of deterministic differential equations, which can be solved by traditional numerical methods (That is the MPC). Statistical data for the system (like expected values and variances) are then calculated. The effects of randomness in the parameters are evaluated in the open-loop and closed-loop pole's positions.

  1. Robustness analysis of an air heating plant and control law by using polynomial chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón, Diego; Ferreira, Murillo A. S.; Balthazar, José M.; Bueno, Átila M.; de S. R. F. Rosa, Suélia

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a robustness analysis of an air heating plant with a multivariable closed-loop control law by using the polynomial chaos methodology (MPC). The plant consists of a PVC tube with a fan in the air input (that forces the air through the tube) and a mass flux sensor in the output. A heating resistance warms the air as it flows inside the tube, and a thermo-couple sensor measures the air temperature. The plant has thus two inputs (the fan's rotation intensity and heat generated by the resistance, both measured in percent of the maximum value) and two outputs (air temperature and air mass flux, also in percent of the maximal value). The mathematical model is obtained by System Identification techniques. The mass flux sensor, which is nonlinear, is linearized and the delays in the transfer functions are properly approximated by non-minimum phase transfer functions. The resulting model is transformed to a state-space model, which is used for control design purposes. The multivariable robust control design techniques used is the LQG/LTR, and the controllers are validated in simulation software and in the real plant. Finally, the MPC is applied by considering some of the system's parameters as random variables (one at a time, and the system's stochastic differential equations are solved by expanding the solution (a stochastic process) in an orthogonal basis of polynomial functions of the basic random variables. This method transforms the stochastic equations in a set of deterministic differential equations, which can be solved by traditional numerical methods (That is the MPC). Statistical data for the system (like expected values and variances) are then calculated. The effects of randomness in the parameters are evaluated in the open-loop and closed-loop pole's positions.

  2. Air-flow distortion and turbulence statistics near an animal facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prueger, J. H.; Eichinger, W. E.; Hipps, L. E.; Hatfield, J. L.; Cooper, D. I.

    The emission and dispersion of particulates and gases from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) at local to regional scales is a current issue in science and society. The transport of particulates, odors and toxic chemical species from the source into the local and eventually regional atmosphere is largely determined by turbulence. Any models that attempt to simulate the dispersion of particles must either specify or assume various statistical properties of the turbulence field. Statistical properties of turbulence are well documented for idealized boundary layers above uniform surfaces. However, an animal production facility is a complex surface with structures that act as bluff bodies that distort the turbulence intensity near the buildings. As a result, the initial release and subsequent dispersion of effluents in the region near a facility will be affected by the complex nature of the surface. Previous Lidar studies of plume dispersion over the facility used in this study indicated that plumes move in complex yet organized patterns that would not be explained by the properties of turbulence generally assumed in models. The objective of this study was to characterize the near-surface turbulence statistics in the flow field around an array of animal confinement buildings. Eddy covariance towers were erected in the upwind, within the building array and downwind regions of the flow field. Substantial changes in turbulence intensity statistics and turbulence-kinetic energy (TKE) were observed as the mean wind flow encountered the building structures. Spectra analysis demonstrated unique distribution of the spectral energy in the vertical profile above the buildings.

  3. Compressed Air System Optimization Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Citation Forging Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-05-01

    In the 1990s, a subsidiary of the Citation Corporation, Interstate Forging, implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Milwaukee, Wisconsin, forging plant. This improvement enabled the plant to maintain an adequate and stable pressure level using fewer compressors, which led to improved product quality and lower production downtime. The project also yielded annual energy savings of 820,000 kWh and $45,000. With a total project cost of $67,000, the plant achieved a simple payback of just 1.5 years.

  4. Citation Corporation: Compressed Air System Optimization Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at Forging Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-05-01

    In the 1990s, a subsidiary of the Citation Corporation, Interstate Forging, implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Milwaukee, Wisconsin, forging plant. This improvement enabled the plant to maintain an adequate and stable pressure level using fewer compressors, which led to improved product quality and lower production downtime. The project also yielded annual energy savings of 820,000 kWh and$45,000. With a total project cost of$67,000, the plant achieved a simple payback of just 1.5 years.

  5. Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

  6. AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION OF AMBIENT AIR NEAR A COMMERCIAL LURGI COAL GASIFICATION PLANT, KOSOVO REGION, YUGOSLAVIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air samples were collected continuously from May 14-29, 1980 to determine if the emissions from a commercial Lurgi coal gasification plant could be identified downwind of the facility. Physical, inorganic, and organic analyses were carried out on the collected aerosol sam...

  7. Associations between microalbuminuria and animal foods, plant foods, and dietary patterns in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis2

    PubMed Central

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; Steffen, Lyn M; Palmas, Walter; Burke, Gregory L; Jacobs, David R

    2008-01-01

    Background The balance between the intake of animal and the intake of plant foods may influence renal vascular integrity as reflected by urinary albumin excretion. Objective We assessed cross-sectional associations between urinary albumin excretion and dietary patterns and intake of plant and animal foods. Design At baseline, diet (food-frequency questionnaire) and the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR; spot urine collection) were measured in 5042 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who were aged 45−84 y and were without clinical cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or macroalbuminuria (sex-adjusted ACR ≥ 250). We derived dietary patterns by principal components analysis. We also summed food groups to characterize plant food intake (fruit, fruit juice, vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, and refined grains), animal food intake (red meat, processed meat, poultry, fish, high-fat dairy, and low-fat dairy), and nondairy animal food intake. Results After adjustment for multiple demographic and lifestyle confounders, a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of whole grains, fruit, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods was associated with 20% lower ACR across quintiles (P for trend = 0.004). Neither total animal nor total plant food intake was associated with ACR. However, greater low-fat dairy consumption was associated with 13% lower ACR across quartiles (P for trend = 0.03). Total nondairy animal food consumption was associated with 11% higher ACR across quintiles (P for trend = 0.03). Conclusions A high intake of low-fat dairy foods and a dietary pattern rich in whole grains, fruit, and low-fat dairy foods were both associated with lower ACR. In contrast, collectively, nondairy animal food intake was positively associated with ACR. PMID:18541574

  8. Advanced air separation for coal gasification-combined-cycle power plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kiersz, D.F.; Parysek, K.D.; Schulte, T.R.; Pavri, R.E.

    1987-08-01

    Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) and General Electric Company (GE) conducted a study to determine the benefits associated with extending the integration of integrated coal gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) systems to include the air separation plant which supplies oxygen to the gasifiers. This is achieved by extracting air from the gas turbine air compressors to feed the oxygen plant and returning waste nitrogen to the gas turbine. The ''Radiant Plus Convective Design'' (59/sup 0/F ambient temperature case) defined in EPRI report AP-3486 was selected as a base case into which the oxygen plant-gas turbine integration was incorporated and against which it was compared. General Electric Company's participation in evaluating gas turbine and power block performance ensured consistency between EPRI report AP-3486 and this study. Extending the IGCC integration to include an integrated oxygen plant-gas turbine results in a rare combination of benefits - higher efficiency and lower capital costs. Oxygen plant capital costs are over 20% less and the power requirement is reduced significantly. For the IGCC system, the net power output is higher for the same coal feed rate; this results in an overall improvement in heat rate of about 2% coupled with a reduction in capital costs of 2 to 3%. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Combined compressed air storage-low BTU coal gasification power plant

    DOEpatents

    Kartsounes, George T.; Sather, Norman F.

    1979-01-01

    An electrical generating power plant includes a Compressed Air Energy Storage System (CAES) fueled with low BTU coal gas generated in a continuously operating high pressure coal gasifier system. This system is used in coordination with a continuously operating main power generating plant to store excess power generated during off-peak hours from the power generating plant, and to return the stored energy as peak power to the power generating plant when needed. The excess coal gas which is produced by the coal gasifier during off-peak hours is stored in a coal gas reservoir. During peak hours the stored coal gas is combined with the output of the coal gasifier to fuel the gas turbines and ultimately supply electrical power to the base power plant.

  10. Could ozonation technology really work for mitigating air emissions from animal feeding operations?

    PubMed

    Li, Qianfeng; Wang, Lingjuan; Liu, Zifei; Kamens, Richard M

    2009-10-01

    Among various mitigation technologies for ammonia (NH3) emission control at animal feeding operations (AFOs), room ozonation technology is the most controversial. This paper aims to present full perspectives of ozonation techniques through a literature review and a series of laboratory experiments. In the literature review, ozone chemistry was summarized to address (1) ozone and NH3 reactions, (2) ozone and odor reactions, (3) ozone and particulate matter reactions, and (4) ozone and microorganism reactions. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted in a dual large outdoor aerosol smog chamber (270 m3). NH3 and fine particle number concentrations from ozone-treated and control experiments were compared. The experimental results indicated that (1) ozone has no significant effect on NH3 emissions/concentrations or NH3 decay of an outdoor chamber; and (2) with ozone treatment, high concentration of particles in the "high-risk" respiratory fraction (in submicron range) are generated. PMID:19842331

  11. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1). PMID:25944962

  12. Effects of plant tannin extracts supplementation on animal performance and gastrointestinal parasites infestation in steers grazing winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-six stocker cattle (286.1 ± 25.7 kg) were used to quantify the effect of commercial plant tannin extracts (control vs. mimosa and chestnut tannins) on animal performance, gastrointestinal parasites control, and plasma metabolite changes in heifers grazing winter wheat forage (Triticum aestivu...

  13. Fungal and oomycete genes galore: highlights from the Fungal Genomics Workshop at the 2007 Plant and Animal Genome Conference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the new Fungal Genomics Workshop at the Plant and Animal Genome meetings is to go beyond generating sequences to discuss what can be done next, particularly in comparative genomics and global functional analyses. The new workshop is timely and hopefully will provide a broad forum f...

  14. Animal and plant cell technology: a critical evaluation of the technology/society interface.

    PubMed

    Spier, R E

    1998-10-27

    The rate at which technology progresses is dependent on the nature of the technology/society interface. This is a complex interaction which involves the production of people capable of making technical advances, the physical opportunities for the deployment of those trained individuals in this task as well as cultural and social factors which will motivate the innovators to produce the advances we need to maintain the momentum of our continually improving situation. One particular aspect of the social situation which may be singled out for special attention is that of the ethics of the society in which people make and use the products of the innovation process. The ethical aspects of biotechnological activities has commanded a great deal of attention recently both from the professional and societal stake-holders. This paper, therefore examines in some detail the ethical aspects of the technology/society interface as it applies, in particular, to the development of animal and plant cell biotechnology. It focuses on the role of the regulatory agency and on the need for biotechnologists to acquire professional status so that they may develop a more trustworthy relationship with society. PMID:9828457

  15. Universal model for water costs of gas exchange by animals and plants

    PubMed Central

    Woods, H. Arthur; Smith, Jennifer N.

    2010-01-01

    For terrestrial animals and plants, a fundamental cost of living is water vapor lost to the atmosphere during exchange of metabolic gases. Here, by bringing together previously developed models for specific taxa, we integrate properties common to all terrestrial gas exchangers into a universal model of water loss. The model predicts that water loss scales to gas exchange with an exponent of 1 and that the amount of water lost per unit of gas exchanged depends on several factors: the surface temperature of the respiratory system near the outside of the organism, the gas consumed (oxygen or carbon dioxide), the steepness of the gradients for gas and vapor, and the transport mode (convective or diffusive). Model predictions were largely confirmed by data on 202 species in five taxa—insects, birds, bird eggs, mammals, and plants—spanning nine orders of magnitude in rate of gas exchange. Discrepancies between model predictions and data seemed to arise from biologically interesting violations of model assumptions, which emphasizes how poorly we understand gas exchange in some taxa. The universal model provides a unified conceptual framework for analyzing exchange-associated water losses across taxa with radically different metabolic and exchange systems. PMID:20404161

  16. Transfer parameters for ICRP reference animals and plants collected from a forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barnett, C L; Beresford, N A; Walker, L A; Baxter, M; Wells, C; Copplestone, D

    2014-03-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have suggested the identification of a series of terrestrial, marine and freshwater sites from which samples of each Reference animal and plant (RAP) could be systematically collected and analysed. We describe the first such study in which six of the eight terrestrial RAPs, and associated soil samples, were collected from a site located in a managed coniferous forestry plantation in north-west England. Adult life stages of species representing six of the terrestrial RAPs (Wild grass, Pine tree, Deer, Rat, Earthworm and Bee) were sampled and analysed to determine concentrations of 60 elements and gamma-emitting radionuclides. The resultant data have been used to derive concentration ratios (CR(wo-soil)) relating element/radionuclide concentrations in the RAPs to those in soil. This paper presents the first-reported transfer parameters for a number of the RAP-element combinations. Where possible, the derived CR(wo-soil) values are compared with the ICRPs-recommended values and any appreciable differences discussed. PMID:24173444

  17. Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    2004-01-01

    Highly toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN) is used by the international mining community to extract gold and other precious metals through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores (Korte et al. 2000). The process to concentrate gold using cyanide was developed in Scotland in 1887 and was used almost immediately in the Witwatersrand gold fields of the Republic of South Africa. Heap leaching with cyanide was proposed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1969 as a means of extracting gold from low-grade ores. The gold industry adopted the technique in the 1970s, soon making heap leaching the dominant technology in gold extraction (Da Rosa and Lyon 1997). The heap leach and milling processes, which involve dewatering of gold-bearing ores, spraying of dilute cyanide solutions on extremely large heaps of ores containing low concentrations of gold, or the milling of ores with the use of cyanide and subsequent recovery of the gold-cyanide complex, have created a number of serious environmental problems affecting wildlife and water management. In this account, we review the history of cyanide use in gold mining with emphasis on heap leach gold mining, cyanide hazards to plants and animals, water management issues associated with gold mining, and proposed mitigation and research needs.

  18. Colonization genetics of an animal-dispersed plant (Vaccinium membranaceum) at Mount St Helens, Washington.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Bishop, J G; Webster, M S

    2008-02-01

    Population founding and spatial spread may profoundly influence later population genetic structure, but their effects are difficult to quantify when population history is unknown. We examined the genetic effects of founder group formation in a recently founded population of the animal-dispersed Vaccinium membranaceum (black huckleberry) on new volcanic deposits at Mount St Helens (Washington, USA) 24 years post-eruption. Using amplified fragment length polymorphisms and assignment tests, we determined sources of the newly founded population and characterized genetic variation within new and source populations. Our analyses indicate that while founders were derived from many sources, about half originated from a small number of plants that survived the 1980 eruption in pockets of remnant soil embedded within primary successional areas. We found no evidence of a strong founder effect in the new population; indeed genetic diversity in the newly founded population tended to be higher than in some of the source regions. Similarly, formation of the new population did not increase among-population genetic variance, and there was no evidence of kin-structured dispersal in the new population. These results indicate that high gene flow among sources and long-distance dispersal were important processes shaping the genetic diversity in this young V. membranaceum population. Other species with similar dispersal abilities may also be able to colonize new habitats without significant reduction in genetic diversity or increase in differentiation among populations. PMID:18194163

  19. Climate change in the oceans: evolutionary versus phenotypically plastic responses of marine animals and plants

    PubMed Central

    Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2014-01-01

    I summarize marine studies on plastic versus adaptive responses to global change. Due to the lack of time series, this review focuses largely on the potential for adaptive evolution in marine animals and plants. The approaches were mainly synchronic comparisons of phenotypically divergent populations, substituting spatial contrasts in temperature or CO2 environments for temporal changes, or in assessments of adaptive genetic diversity within populations for traits important under global change. The available literature is biased towards gastropods, crustaceans, cnidarians and macroalgae. Focal traits were mostly environmental tolerances, which correspond to phenotypic buffering, a plasticity type that maintains a functional phenotype despite external disturbance. Almost all studies address coastal species that are already today exposed to fluctuations in temperature, pH and oxygen levels. Recommendations for future research include (i) initiation and analyses of observational and experimental temporal studies encompassing diverse phenotypic traits (including diapausing cues, dispersal traits, reproductive timing, morphology) (ii) quantification of nongenetic trans-generational effects along with components of additive genetic variance (iii) adaptive changes in microbe–host associations under the holobiont model in response to global change (iv) evolution of plasticity patterns under increasingly fluctuating environments and extreme conditions and (v) joint consideration of demography and evolutionary adaptation in evolutionary rescue approaches. PMID:24454551

  20. Air pollution-caused changes in photosynthesis: Effects on plant growth and rhizosphere functions

    SciTech Connect

    Winner, W.E. . Dept. of General Science); Antibus, R.K.; Linkins, A.E. . Dept. of Biology)

    1990-02-01

    The relationships between plants, soil nutrient status, and rhizosphere symbionts were probed using ozone (O{sub 3}), a commonly occurring air pollutant, as an above-ground stress to alter carbon gain. Laboratory experiments were designed to examine O{sub 3} effects on: (1) tree species grown at varying nutrient levels, (2) plants in symbiosis with a dinitrogen-fixing symbiont, (3) plants in symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi, and (4) plants having both a dinitrogen-fixing symbiont and mycorrhizae. Photosynthesis measurements and growth analysis were applied to detect O{sub 3} effects on plant carbon gain and allocation, respectively. Stable carbon isotope ratios were analyzed as a means of integrating effects of O{sub 3} on gas exchange of leaves over the life of the plant. Transmission electron microscopy detected alterations in plant root cells symbiotic with dinitrogen-fixing bacteria caused by ozone. To better understand the relationship between host plant and mycorrhizal fungi, studies were conducted on utilization of carbohydrate by ectomycorrhizal fungi and metabolism of ectomycorrhizal fungi and roots. Taken together, these studies provide new information on metabolic relationships of plants and symbionts and the effect of O{sub 3} on these relationships.

  1. 9 CFR 3.37 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.37 Section 3.37 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  2. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.62 Section 3.62 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of...

  3. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation...

  4. Performance of Introducing Outdoor Cold Air for Cooling a Plant Production System with Artificial Light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang; Xin, Min

    2016-01-01

    The commercial use of a plant production system with artificial light (PPAL) is limited by its high initial construction and operation costs. The electric-energy consumed by heat pumps, applied mainly for cooling, accounts for 15–35% of the total electric-energy used in a PPAL. To reduce the electric-energy consumption, an air exchanger with low capacity (180 W) was used for cooling by introducing outdoor cold air. In this experiment, the indoor air temperature in two PPALs (floor area: 6.2 m2 each) was maintained at 25 and 20°C during photoperiod and dark period, respectively, for lettuce production. A null CO2 balance enrichment method was used in both PPALs. In one PPAL (PPALe), an air exchanger (air flow rate: 250 m3·h−1) was used along with a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) to maintain the indoor air temperature at the set-point. The other PPAL (PPALc) with only a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) was used for reference. Effects of introducing outdoor cold air on energy use efficiency, coefficient of performance (COP), electric-energy consumption for cooling and growth of lettuce were investigated. The results show that: when the air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor ranged from 20.2 to 30.0°C: (1) the average energy use efficiency of the air exchanger was 2.8 and 3.4 times greater than the COP of the heat pumps in the PPALe and PPALc, respectively; (2) hourly electric-energy consumption for cooling in the PPALe reduced by 15.8–73.7% compared with that in the PPALc; (3) daily supply of CO2 in the PPALe reduced from 0.15 to 0.04 kg compared with that in the PPALc with the outdoor air temperature ranging from −5.6 to 2.7°C; (4) no significant difference in lettuce growth was observed in both PPALs. The results indicate that using air exchanger to introduce outdoor cold air should be considered as an effective way to reduce electric-energy consumption for cooling with little effects on plant growth in a PPAL. PMID:27066012

  5. Performance of Introducing Outdoor Cold Air for Cooling a Plant Production System with Artificial Light.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang; Xin, Min

    2016-01-01

    The commercial use of a plant production system with artificial light (PPAL) is limited by its high initial construction and operation costs. The electric-energy consumed by heat pumps, applied mainly for cooling, accounts for 15-35% of the total electric-energy used in a PPAL. To reduce the electric-energy consumption, an air exchanger with low capacity (180 W) was used for cooling by introducing outdoor cold air. In this experiment, the indoor air temperature in two PPALs (floor area: 6.2 m(2) each) was maintained at 25 and 20°C during photoperiod and dark period, respectively, for lettuce production. A null CO2 balance enrichment method was used in both PPALs. In one PPAL (PPALe), an air exchanger (air flow rate: 250 m(3)·h(-1)) was used along with a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) to maintain the indoor air temperature at the set-point. The other PPAL (PPALc) with only a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) was used for reference. Effects of introducing outdoor cold air on energy use efficiency, coefficient of performance (COP), electric-energy consumption for cooling and growth of lettuce were investigated. The results show that: when the air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor ranged from 20.2 to 30.0°C: (1) the average energy use efficiency of the air exchanger was 2.8 and 3.4 times greater than the COP of the heat pumps in the PPALe and PPALc, respectively; (2) hourly electric-energy consumption for cooling in the PPALe reduced by 15.8-73.7% compared with that in the PPALc; (3) daily supply of CO2 in the PPALe reduced from 0.15 to 0.04 kg compared with that in the PPALc with the outdoor air temperature ranging from -5.6 to 2.7°C; (4) no significant difference in lettuce growth was observed in both PPALs. The results indicate that using air exchanger to introduce outdoor cold air should be considered as an effective way to reduce electric-energy consumption for cooling with little effects on plant growth in a PPAL. PMID:27066012

  6. A comparison of humid air turbine (HAT) cycle and combined-cycle power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, A.D.; Francuz, V.J.; Shen, J.C.; West, E.W. )

    1991-03-01

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) cycle is a combustion turbine-based power generating cycle that provides an alternative to combined-cycle power generation. The HAT cycle differs from combined cycles in that it eliminates the steam turbine bottoming cycle by vaporizing water into the turbine's combustion air with heat obtained from the combustion turbine exhaust and other heat sources. This report presents the results of a study conducted by Fluor Daniel, Inc. for EPRI in which the HAT cycle was compared with combined-cycle plants in integration with the Texaco coal gasification process, and in natural gas-fired plants. The comparison of the coal gasification-based power plants utilizing the HAT cycle with Texaco coal gasification-based combined-cycle plants indicate that HAT cycle-based plants are less expensive and produce less environmental emissions. Whereas the combined-cycle plants require the use of expensive syngas coolers to achieve high efficiencies, the HAT cycle plants can achieve similar high efficiencies without the use of such equipment, resulting in a significant savings in capital cost and a reduction in levelized cost of electricity of up to 15%. In addition, HAT cycle plants produce very low levels of NO{sub x} emissions, possibly as little as 6 ppmv (dry, 15% O{sub 2} basis) without requiring the use of control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. In natural gas-fired plants, the HAT cycle was calculated to have as much as a 4 percentage point gain in efficiency over the combined cycle and a potential for substantial reductions in NO{sub x} emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and water consumption. 71 figs., 74 tabs.

  7. [The role of trace elements in radiation protection of plants and animals on radionuclide contaminated territories of Poles'e].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, I N; Lazarev, N M; Grusha, V V; Bidenko, V N

    2011-01-01

    The retrospective review and analysis of works on some physiologically active trace elements influence on the radionuclides transfer from soil to plants and with forage to animals are presented. Also reviewed is their radioresistance in the contaminated territories. It is shown that some elements--zinc, manganese, cobalt--being appled to the soil at seeding or spraying plants with aqueous solutions and also in complex compounds are capable of reducing significantly the 90Sr and 137Cs transit to agricultural plants, and with forage--into the animals bodies. We have also shown that trace elements reduce the effects of radiation injury. The mechanisms of the radioprotective action of trace elements are also discussed in the paper. PMID:21520614

  8. Animal, Plant, Living: Notes for Teachers. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Beverley

    The Learning in Science Project investigated the proportion of students at different ages who considered a horse, person, dolphin, worm, and spider to be animals. Although scientists would agree that they are indeed animals, findings indicate that many students of varying ages did not consider them to be animals; similar findings were reported for…

  9. Phytoremediation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene contaminated air by D. deremensis and O. microdasys plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People usually spent about 90% of their time indoors, which are probably more polluted than outside the buildings. High levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known as causes of sick building syndrome. The present study was designed to determine the quantitative effects of some plants to improve the quality of the environmental air. Results D. deremensis and O. microdasys were chosen for the present study. There is no report of using O. microdasys for cleaning the air from pollutants. So, in this study, the effectiveness of O. microdasys in air removing from pollutants was studied and compared with D. dermensis. O. microdasys plant can remove 2 ppm concentration benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene from air in test chambers completely after 48, 55, 47 and 57 hours, respectively. The removal rates of benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene (BTEX) from air in the test chambers were 1.18, 0.54, 1.64 and 1.35 mg/ m2d1, respectively. Conclusions If an office containing 2.5 ppm of each of BTEX and had an approximate volume of 30 m3, it contains 16, 8, 22 and 22 mg/m3 benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene, respectively. Using ten O. microdasys pots with the same size used in this study, can remove benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene totally after 36, 40, 30 and 39 hours. The authors recommended studying the efficiency of the plants for removal of BTEX from air at higher range of concentrations such as 20-30 ppm. PMID:24451679

  10. Air quality assessment of benzo(a)pyrene from asphalt plant operation.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Nigel; Stewart, Robert; Rankin, Erika

    2012-01-01

    A study has been carried out to assess the contribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from asphalt plant operation, utilising Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a marker for PAHs, to the background air concentration around asphalt plants in the UK. The purpose behind this assessment was to determine whether the use of published BaP emission factors based on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology is appropriate in the context of the UK, especially as the EPA methodology does not give BaP emission factors for all activities. The study also aimed to improve the overall understanding of BaP emissions from asphalt plants in the UK, and determine whether site location and operation is likely to influence the contribution of PAHs to ambient air quality. In order to establish whether the use of US EPA emissions factors is appropriate, the study has compared the BaP emissions measured and calculated emissions rates from two UK sites with those estimated using US EPA emission factors. A dispersion modelling exercise was carried out to show the BaP contribution to ambient air around each site. This study showed that, as the US EPA methodology does not provide factors for all emission sources on asphalt plants, their use may give rise to over- or under-estimations, particularly where sources of BaP are temperature dependent. However, the contribution of both the estimated and measured BaP concentrations to environmental concentration were low, averaging about 0.05 ng m(-3) at the boundary of the sites, which is well below the UK BaP assessment threshold of 0.25 ng m(-3). Therefore, BaP concentrations, and hence PAH concentrations, from similar asphalt plant operations are unlikely to contribute negatively to ambient air quality. PMID:22116523

  11. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in... constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases from...

  12. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in... constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases from...

  13. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in... constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases from...

  14. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in... constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases from...

  15. Ozone flux to vegetation and its relationship to plant response and ambient air quality standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musselman, Robert C.; Massman, William J.

    The National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone is based on occurrences of the maximum 8 h average ambient ozone concentration. However, biologists have recommended a cumulative ozone exposure parameter to protect vegetation. In this paper we propose a third alternative which uses quantifiable flux-based numerical parameters as a replacement for cumulative ambient parameters. Herein we discuss the concept of ozone flux as it relates to plant response and the NAAQS, and document information needed before a flux-based ozone NAAQS for vegetation can be implemented. Additional research is needed in techniques for determining plant uptake and in the quantification of plant defensive mechanisms to ozone. Models which include feedback mechanisms should be developed to relate ozone flux, loading, and detoxification with photosynthesis and plant productivity.

  16. Osmosis and solute-solvent drag: fluid transport and fluid exchange in animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Hammel, H T; Schlegel, Whitney M

    2005-01-01

    , (3) the return of interstitial fluid to the vasa recta, (4) return of aqueous humor to the episcleral veins, and (5) flow of phloem from source to sink in higher plants and many more examples of fluid transport and fluid exchange in animal and plant physiology. When a membrane is permeable to water only and when it separates differing aqueous solutions, the flow of water is from the solution with the lower osmotic pressure to the solution with the higher osmotic pressure. PMID:15976460

  17. Anticancer activities against cholangiocarcinoma, toxicity and pharmacological activities of Thai medicinal plants in animal models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a devastating cancer with increasing worldwide incidence and mortality rates, is largely ineffective. The discovery and development of effective chemotherapeutics is urgently needed. Methods/Design The study aimed at evaluating anticancer activities, toxicity, and pharmacological activities of the curcumin compound (CUR), the crude ethanolic extracts of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger: ZO) and Atractylodes lancea thung. DC (Khod-Kha-Mao: AL), fruits of Piper chaba Hunt. (De-Plee: PC), and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai formulation (a mixture of parts of 18 Thai medicinal plants: PPF) were investigated in animal models. Anti-cholangiocarcinoma (anti-CCA) was assessed using CCA-xenograft nude mouse model. The antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and anti-ulcer activities and effects on motor coordination were investigated using Rota-rod test, CODA tail-cuff system, writhing and hot plate tests, carrageenan-induced paw edema test, brewer's yeast test, and alcohol-induced gastric ulcer test, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity tests were performed according to the OECD guideline for testing of chemicals with modification. Results Promising anticancer activity against CCA in nude mouse xenograft model was shown for the ethanolic extract of AL at all oral dose levels (1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight) as well as the extracts of ZO, PPF, and CUR compound at the highest dose level (5000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight, respectively). PC produced no significant anti-CCA activity. Results from acute and subacute toxicity tests both in mice and rats indicate safety profiles of all the test materials in a broad range of dose levels. No significant toxicity except stomach irritation and general CNS depressant signs were observed. Investigation of pharmacological activities of the test materials revealed promising anti-inflammatory (ZO, PPF, and AL), analgesic (CUR and PPF), antipyretic

  18. Plant, Animal, and Fungal Micronutrient Queuosine Is Salvaged by Members of the DUF2419 Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Queuosine (Q) is a modification found at the wobble position of tRNAs with GUN anticodons. Although Q is present in most eukaryotes and bacteria, only bacteria can synthesize Q de novo. Eukaryotes acquire queuine (q), the free base of Q, from diet and/or microflora, making q an important but under-recognized micronutrient for plants, animals, and fungi. Eukaryotic type tRNA-guanine transglycosylases (eTGTs) are composed of a catalytic subunit (QTRT1) and a homologous accessory subunit (QTRTD1) forming a complex that catalyzes q insertion into target tRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of eTGT subunits revealed a patchy distribution pattern in which gene losses occurred independently in different clades. Searches for genes co-distributing with eTGT family members identified DUF2419 as a potential Q salvage protein family. This prediction was experimentally validated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by confirming that Q was present by analyzing tRNAAsp with anticodon GUC purified from wild-type cells and by showing that Q was absent from strains carrying deletions in the QTRT1 or DUF2419 encoding genes. DUF2419 proteins occur in most Eukarya with a few possible cases of horizontal gene transfer to bacteria. The universality of the DUF2419 function was confirmed by complementing the S. pombe mutant with the Zea mays (maize), human, and Sphaerobacter thermophilus homologues. The enzymatic function of this family is yet to be determined, but structural similarity with DNA glycosidases suggests a ribonucleoside hydrolase activity. PMID:24911101

  19. Fitness costs of animal medication: antiparasitic plant chemicals reduce fitness of monarch butterfly hosts.

    PubMed

    Tao, Leiling; Hoang, Kevin M; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of ecological immunology demonstrates that allocation by hosts to immune defence against parasites is constrained by the costs of those defences. However, the costs of non-immunological defences, which are important alternatives to canonical immune systems, are less well characterized. Estimating such costs is essential for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of alternative host defence strategies. Many animals have evolved medication behaviours, whereby they use antiparasitic compounds from their environment to protect themselves or their kin from parasitism. Documenting the costs of medication behaviours is complicated by natural variation in the medicinal components of diets and their covariance with other dietary components, such as macronutrients. In the current study, we explore the costs of the usage of antiparasitic compounds in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), using natural variation in concentrations of antiparasitic compounds among plants. Upon infection by their specialist protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, monarch butterflies can selectively oviposit on milkweed with high foliar concentrations of cardenolides, secondary chemicals that reduce parasite growth. Here, we show that these antiparasitic cardenolides can also impose significant costs on both uninfected and infected butterflies. Among eight milkweed species that vary substantially in their foliar cardenolide concentration and composition, we observed the opposing effects of cardenolides on monarch fitness traits. While high foliar cardenolide concentrations increased the tolerance of monarch butterflies to infection, they reduced the survival rate of caterpillars to adulthood. Additionally, although non-polar cardenolide compounds decreased the spore load of infected butterflies, they also reduced the life span of uninfected butterflies, resulting in a hump-shaped curve between cardenolide non-polarity and the life span of infected butterflies

  20. Plant, animal, and fungal micronutrient queuosine is salvaged by members of the DUF2419 protein family.

    PubMed

    Zallot, Rémi; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Gaston, Kirk W; Forouhar, Farhad; Limbach, Patrick A; Hunt, John F; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2014-08-15

    Queuosine (Q) is a modification found at the wobble position of tRNAs with GUN anticodons. Although Q is present in most eukaryotes and bacteria, only bacteria can synthesize Q de novo. Eukaryotes acquire queuine (q), the free base of Q, from diet and/or microflora, making q an important but under-recognized micronutrient for plants, animals, and fungi. Eukaryotic type tRNA-guanine transglycosylases (eTGTs) are composed of a catalytic subunit (QTRT1) and a homologous accessory subunit (QTRTD1) forming a complex that catalyzes q insertion into target tRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of eTGT subunits revealed a patchy distribution pattern in which gene losses occurred independently in different clades. Searches for genes co-distributing with eTGT family members identified DUF2419 as a potential Q salvage protein family. This prediction was experimentally validated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by confirming that Q was present by analyzing tRNA(Asp) with anticodon GUC purified from wild-type cells and by showing that Q was absent from strains carrying deletions in the QTRT1 or DUF2419 encoding genes. DUF2419 proteins occur in most Eukarya with a few possible cases of horizontal gene transfer to bacteria. The universality of the DUF2419 function was confirmed by complementing the S. pombe mutant with the Zea mays (maize), human, and Sphaerobacter thermophilus homologues. The enzymatic function of this family is yet to be determined, but structural similarity with DNA glycosidases suggests a ribonucleoside hydrolase activity. PMID:24911101

  1. Air monitoring for volatile organic compounds at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Sytsma, L.F.; Cohut, V.J.; Cobo, H.A.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of CWA. Deterioration of the buildings and violations of environmental laws led to closure of the complex in 1986. Since that time, all equipment, piping, and conduit in the buildings have been removed. The buildings have been declared free of surface CWA contamination as a result of air sampling using the military system. However, no air sampling has been done to determine if other hazardous volatile organic compounds are present in the PPC, although a wide range of toxic and/or hazardous materials other than CWA was used in the PPC. The assumption has been that the air in the PPC is not hazardous. The purpose of this air-monitoring study was to screen the indoor air in the PPC to confirm the assumption that the air does not contain volatile organic contaminants at levels that would endanger persons in the buildings. A secondary purpose was to identify any potential sources of volatile organic contaminants that need to be monitored in subsequent sampling efforts.

  2. Problems in creation of modern air inlet filters of power gas turbine plants in Russia and methods of their solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Sherapov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The main problems in creation and operation of modern air inlet paths of gas turbine plants installed as part of combined-cycle plants in Russia are presented. It is noted that design features of air inlet filters shall be formed at the stage of the technical assignment not only considering the requirements of gas turbine plant manufacturer but also climatic conditions, local atmospheric air dustiness, and a number of other factors. The recommendations on completing of filtration system for air inlet filter of power gas turbine plants depending on the facility location are given, specific defects in design and experience in operation of imported air inlet paths are analyzed, and influence of cycle air preparation quality for gas turbine plant on value of operating expenses and cost of repair works is noted. Air treatment equipment of various manufacturers, influence of aerodynamic characteristics on operation of air inlet filters, features of filtration system operation, anti-icing system, weather canopies, and other elements of air inlet paths are considered. It is shown that nonuniformity of air flow velocity fields in clean air chamber has a negative effect on capacity and aerodynamic resistance of air inlet filter. Besides, the necessity in installation of a sufficient number of differential pressure transmitters allowing controlling state of each treatment stage not being limited to one measurement of total differential pressure in the filtration system is noted in the article. According to the results of the analysis trends and methods for modernization of available equipment for air inlet path, the importance of creation and implementation of new technologies for manufacturing of filtering elements on sites of Russia within the limits of import substitution are given, and measures on reliability improvement and energy efficiency for air inlet filter are considered.

  3. Ozone: An Air Pollutant Acting as a Plant-Signaling Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandermann, Heinrich, Jr.

    The air pollutant ozone has recently been found to trigger plant signal transduction chains resembling those induced by fungal and viral pathogens. Chloroplast-related functions are generally inhibited, while genes of antioxidative and pathogen defense are activated. The resulting perturbation of plant metabolism leads to higher susceptibility (or in certain cases higher tolerance) for other abiotic and biotic stressors. This mechanism of action links ozone by some criteria to "novel" forest decline and to agricultural crop loss. Further progress appears to depend on coordinated long-term laboratory and field experiments.

  4. Compressed Air System Modifications Improve Efficiency at a Plastics Blow Molding Plant (Southeastern Container Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the plastics blow molding plant project.

  5. US power plant carbon standards and clean air and health co-benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Charles T.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Levy, Jonathan I.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Burtraw, Dallas; Reid, Stephen B.; Fakhraei, Habibollah; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions standards for US power plants will influence the fuels and technologies used to generate electricity, alter emissions of pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, and influence ambient air quality and public health. We present an analysis of how three alternative scenarios for US power plant carbon standards could change fine particulate matter and ozone concentrations in ambient air, and the resulting public health co-benefits. The results underscore that carbon standards to curb global climate change can also provide immediate local and regional health co-benefits, but the magnitude depends on the design of the standards. A stringent but flexible policy that counts demand-side energy efficiency towards compliance yields the greatest health benefits of the three scenarios analysed.

  6. Implications of dealing with airborne substances and reactive oxygen species: what mammalian lungs, animals, and plants have to say?

    PubMed

    Spinelli Oliveira, Elisabeth; Hancock, John T; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Isola, Daniel A; Ochs, Matthias; Yu, Jerry; Wilhem Filho, Danilo

    2007-10-01

    A gas-exchange structure interacts with the environment and is constantly challenged by contaminants that may elicit defense responses, thus compromising its primary function. It is also exposed to high concentrations of O(2) that can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Revisiting the lung of mammals, an integrative picture emerges, indicating that this bronchi-alveolar structure deals with inflammation in a special way, which minimizes compromising the gas-exchange role. Depending on the challenge, pro-inflammatory or antiinflammatory responses are elicited by conserved molecules, such as surfactant proteins A and D. An even broader picture points to the participation of airway sensors, responsive to inflammatory mediators, in a loop linking the immunological and nervous systems and expanding the role played by respiratory organs in functions other than gas-exchange. A byproduct of exposure to high concentration of O(2) is the formation of superoxide ( ), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hydroxyl radical (HO(•)), and other ROS, which are known to be toxic to different types of cells, including the lung epithelium. A balance between antioxidants and oxidants exists; in pulmonary epithelial cells high intracellular and extracellular levels of antioxidants are found. Antioxidant adaptations related to plant and animal life-styles involve a broad range of overlapping strategies based on well-conserved molecules. Glutathione (GSH) is an abundant and ubiquitous thiol-tripeptide antioxidant, also present in lungs, whose role in providing information on the intracellular redox state of animals and plants is well established. In these organisms, GSH influences gene expression associated with stress, maximizing defense responses. Several enzymatic antioxidants, such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase participate in the redox system; in animals that are stress-tolerant GPx is a key

  7. Occurrence and prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in plant and animal derived food sources: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah; Odeyemi, Olumide A

    2015-01-01

    Cronobacter species are motile, non-spore forming, Gram negative emerging opportunistic pathogens mostly associated with bacteremia, meningitis, septicemia, brain abscesses and necrotizing enterocolitis in infected neonates, infants and immunocompromised adults. Members of the genus Cronobacter are previously associated with powdered infant formula although the main reservoir and routes of contamination are yet to be ascertained. This study therefore aim to summarize occurrence and prevalence of Cronobacter spp. from different food related sources. A retrospective systematic review and meta-analysis of peer reviewed primary studies reported between 2008 and 2014 for the occurrence and prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in animal and plant related sources was conducted using "Cronobacter isolation", "Cronobacter detection" and "Cronobacter enumeration" as search terms in the following databases: Web of Science (Science Direct) and ProQuest. Data extracted from the primary studies were then analyzed with meta-analysis techniques for effect rate and fixed effects was used to explore heterogeneity between the sources. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot. A total of 916 articles were retrieved from the data bases of which 28 articles met inclusion criteria. Cronobacter spp. could only be isolated from 103 (5.7 %) samples of animal related food while 123 (19 %) samples of plant related food samples harbors the bacteria. The result of this study shows that occurrence of Cronobacter was more prevalent in plant related sources with overall prevalence rate of 20.1 % (95 % CI 0.168-0.238) than animal originated sources with overall prevalence rate of 8 % (95 % CI 0.066-0.096). High heterogeneity (I (2) = 84) was observed mostly in plant related sources such as herbs, spices and vegetables compared to animal related sources (I (2) = 82). It could be observed from this study that plant related sources serve as reservoir and contamination routes of Cronobacter

  8. Analyzing the possibility of constructing the air heating system for an integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikula, V. A.; Ryzhkov, A. F.; Val'tsev, N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Combined-cycle power plants operating on solid fuel have presently been implemented only in demonstration projects. One of possible ways for improving such plants consists in making a shift to hybrid process circuits of integrated gasification combined-cycle plants with external firing of solid fuel. A high-temperature air heater serving to heat compressed air is a key element of the hybrid process circuit. The article describes application of a high-temperature recuperative metal air heater in the process circuit of an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant (IGCC). The available experience with high-temperature air heating is considered, and possible air heater layout arrangements are analyzed along with domestically produced heat-resistant grades of steel suitable for manufacturing such air heater. An alternative (with respect to the traditional one) design is proposed, according to which solid fuel is fired in a noncooled furnace extension, followed by mixing the combustion products with recirculation gases, after which the mixture is fed to a convective air heater. The use of this design makes it possible to achieve considerably smaller capital outlays and operating costs. The data obtained from thermal and aerodynamic calculations of the high-temperature air heater with a thermal capacity of 258 MW for heating air to a temperature of up to 800°C for being used in the hybrid process circuit of a combined-cycle power plant are presented.

  9. Plants + microbes: Innovative food crop systems that also clean air and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Wolverton, B. C.

    The limitations that will govern bioregenerative life support applications in space, especially volume and weight, make multi-purpose systems advantageous. This paper outlines two systems which utilize plants and associated microbial communities of root or growth medium to both produce food crops and clean air and water. Underlying these approaches are the large numbers and metabolic diversity of microbes associated with roots and found in either soil or other suitable growth media. It is known that most biogeochemical cycles have a microbial link, and the ability of microbes to metabolize virtually all trace gases, whether of technogenic or biogenic origin, have long been established. Wetland plants and soil/media also been extensively researched for their ability to purify wastewaters of all kinds of potential water pollutants, from nutrients like N and P, to heavy metals and a range of complex industrial pollutants. There is a growing body of research on the ability of higher plants to purify air and water. Associated benefits of these approaches is that by utilizing natural ecological processes, the cleansing of air and water can be done with little or no energy inputs. Soil and root microorganisms respond to changing pollutant types by an increase of the types of organisms with the capacity to use these compounds. Thus living systems have an extraordinary adaptive capacity as long as the starting populations are sufficiently diverse. It is known that tightly sealed environments, from office buildings to spacecraft, can have hundreds or even thousands of potential air pollutants, depending on the materials and machines enclosed. Human waste products carry a plethora of microbes can are readily used in the process of converting its organic load to forms that can be utilized by green plants. Having endogenous means of responding to changing air and water quality conditions represents safety factors which operate without the need for human direction. We will

  10. Plants + soil/wetland microbes: Food crop systems that also clean air and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Wolverton, B. C.

    2011-02-01

    The limitations that will govern bioregenerative life support applications in space, especially volume and weight, make multi-purpose systems advantageous. This paper outlines two systems which utilize plants and associated microbial communities of root or growth medium to both produce food crops and clean air and water. Underlying these approaches are the large numbers and metabolic diversity of microbes associated with roots and found in either soil or other suitable growth media. Biogeochemical cycles have microbial links and the ability of microbes to metabolize virtually all trace gases, whether of technogenic or biogenic origin, has long been established. Wetland plants and the rootzone microbes of wetland soils/media also been extensively researched for their ability to purify wastewaters of a great number of potential water pollutants, from nutrients like N and P, to heavy metals and a range of complex industrial pollutants. There is a growing body of research on the ability of higher plants to purify air and water. Associated benefits of these approaches is that by utilizing natural ecological processes, the cleansing of air and water can be done with little or no energy inputs. Soil and rootzone microorganisms respond to changing pollutant types by an increase of the types of organisms with the capacity to use these compounds. Thus living systems have an adaptive capacity as long as the starting populations are sufficiently diverse. Tightly sealed environments, from office buildings to spacecraft, can have hundreds or even thousands of potential air pollutants, depending on the materials and equipment enclosed. Human waste products carry a plethora of microbes which are readily used in the process of converting its organic load to forms that can be utilized by green plants. Having endogenous means of responding to changing air and water quality conditions represents safety factors as these systems operate without the need for human intervention. We review

  11. Effects of light intensity light quality and air velocity on temperature in plant reproductive organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.

    Excess temperature increase in plant reproductive organs such as anthers and stigmata could cause fertility impediments and thus produce sterile seeds under artificial lighting conditions in closed plant growth facilities There is a possibility that the aberration was caused by an excess increase in temperatures of reproductive organs in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems under microgravity conditions in space The fundamental study was conducted to know the thermal situation of the plant reproductive organs as affected by light intensity light quality and air velocity on the earth and to estimate the excess temperature increase in the reproductive organs in closed plant growth facilities in space Thermal images of reproductive organs of rice and strawberry were captured using infrared thermography at an air temperature of 10 r C The temperatures in flowers at 300 mu mol m -2 s -1 PPFD under the lights from red LEDs white LEDs blue LEDs fluorescent lamps and incandescent lamps increased by 1 4 1 7 1 9 6 0 and 25 3 r C respectively for rice and by 2 8 3 4 4 1 7 8 and 43 4 r C respectively for strawberry The flower temperatures increased with increasing PPFD levels The temperatures in petals anthers and stigmas of strawberry at 300 mu mol m -2 s -1 PPFD under incandescent lamps increased by 32 7 29 0 and 26 6 r C respectively at 0 1 m s -1 air velocity and by 20 6 18 5 and 15 9 r C respectively at 0 8 m s -1 air velocity The temperatures of reproductive organs decreased with increasing

  12. Controlled environment fumigation chambers for the study of reactive air pollutant effects on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, N. J.; Lucas, P. W.; Nicholas Hewitt, C.

    The design and construction of eight 1-m 3 fumigation chambers for exposing plants to reactive air pollutants at low concentrations are reported. Teflon surfaces are used where possible to minimize the adsorption, absorption, desorption and chemical reaction of the pollutants. A purified ambient air supply, to which metered quantities of gaseous pollutants are added, is used to give two air changes per minute at constant, low, pollutant concentrations. Comparative analysis of the chambers indicates that conditions may be maintained with a significant degree of precision, i.e. temperature ±0.3°C, RH ±6%, light intensity ±5 μmol m -2 s -1. Boundary layer analysis from models of cherry tree ( Prunus avium) leaves indicate that the minimum conductance value within these chambers is 2 cm s -1.

  13. Monitoring of volatile and non-volatile urban air genotoxins using bacteria, human cells and plants.

    PubMed

    Ceretti, E; Zani, C; Zerbini, I; Viola, G; Moretti, M; Villarini, M; Dominici, L; Monarca, S; Feretti, D

    2015-02-01

    Urban air contains many mutagenic pollutants. This research aimed to investigate the presence of mutagens in the air by short-term mutagenicity tests using bacteria, human cells and plants. Inflorescences of Tradescantia were exposed to air in situ for 6h, once a month from January to May, to monitor volatile compounds and micronuclei frequency was computed. On the same days PM10 was collected continuously for 24h. Half of each filter was extracted with organic solvents and studied by means of the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains, and the comet assay on human leukocytes. A quarter of each filter was extracted with distilled water in which Tradescantia was exposed. PM10 concentration was particularly high in the winter season (> 50 μg/m(3)). In situ exposure of inflorescences to urban air induced a significant increase in micronuclei frequency at all the sites considered, but only in January (p < 0.01). Aqueous extracts collected in January and February induced genotoxic effects in Tradescantia exposed in the laboratory (p < 0.01). Ames test showed that organic extracts of winter urban air were able to induce genetic mutations in S. typhimurium TA98 strain (± S9), but not in TA100 strain, with a revertants/plate number nine times higher than the negative control. Comet assay showed that winter extracts were more toxic and genotoxic than spring extracts. All the mutagenicity tests performed confirmed that urban air in North Italy in winter contains both volatile and non-volatile genotoxic substances able to induce genetic damage in bacteria, human cells and plants. PMID:25084136

  14. Transgenic plants and animals: Altered organisms from recombinant DNA technology. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and use of transgenic plants and animals. Transgenic plants and animals are organisms with foreign genes inserted into their cells. Topics include methods of induction of new genes and transgenetic expression in the organism, development of animal models of human diseases, and design of insect tolerant plants. Examples of transgenic organisms include mice, fish, chickens, pigs, rye, maize, tobacco, tomatoes, lettuce, and cotton. This information is of value for the increased production of food from animals by producing animal carcasses with reduced fat content. The information is also valuable for production of herbicide tolerant, virus resistant, and insect resistant crop plants, as well as the rapid production of transgenic plants with flowers and seeds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Responses to chemical cues from animal and plant foods by actively foraging insectivorous and omnivorous scincine lizards.

    PubMed

    Cooper, W E; Al-Johany, A M; Vitt, L J; Habegger, J J

    2000-10-01

    If tongue-flicking is important to lizards to sample chemical cues permitting identification of foods, tongue-flicking and subsequent feeding responses should be adjusted to match diet. This hypothesis can be examined for plant foods because most lizards are insectivores, but herbivory/omnivory has evolved independently in many lizard taxa. Here we present experimental data on chemosensory responses to chemical cues from animal prey and palatable plants by three species of the scincine lizards. When tested with chemical stimuli presented on cotton swabs, the insectivorous Eumeces fasciatus responded strongly to prey chemicals but not to chemicals from plants palatable to omnivorous lizards or to pungent or odorless control stimuli. Two omnivorous species, E. schneideri and Scincus mitranus, responded more strongly to chemical cues from both prey and food plants than to the control chemicals. All available data for actively foraging lizards, including these skinks, show that they are capable of prey chemical discrimination, and insectivores do not exhibit elevated tongue-flicking or biting responses to chemical cues from palatable plants. In all of the several species of herbivores/omnivores tested, the lizards show elevated responses to both animal and plant chemicals. We suggest two independent origins of both omnivory and plant chemical discrimination that may account for the evolution of diet and food chemical discriminations in the eight species of skinks studied, five of which are omnivores. All data are consistent with the hypothesis that acquisition of omnivory is accompanied by acquisition of plant chemical discrimination, but data on a broad diversity of taxa are needed for a definitive comparative test of the evolutionary hypothesis. J. Exp. Zool. 287:327-339, 2000. PMID:10980491

  16. Ford Van Dyke: Compressed Air Management Program Leads to Improvements that Reduce Energy Consumption at an Automotive Transmission Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-05-01

    Staff at the Ford Van Dyke Transmission Plant in Sterling Heights, Michigan, have increased the efficiency of the plant's compressed air system to enhance its performance while saving energy and improving production. After plant staff identified opportunities for system improvements, a qualified instructor from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Allied Partner, Scales Air Compressor Corporation, helped to clarify several of them. The resulting improvement measures are yielding energy savings for compressed air of more than 1 million kWh; energy and maintenance cost savings total $165,000. The total cost of planned upgrades and other measures was $336,000, for a 2-year simple payback.

  17. Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng-Qian; Liu, Yan-Ju; Chen, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Zhu, Ming-Hao; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Various plant species of green belt in urban traffic area help to reduce air pollution and beautify the city environment. Those plant species growing healthily under long-term atmospheric pollution environment are considered to be resilient. This study aims to identify plant species that are more tolerant to air pollution from traffic and to give recommendations for future green belt development in urban areas. Leaf samples of 47 plant species were collected from two heavy traffic roadside sites and one suburban site in Beijing during summer 2014. Four parameters in leaves were separately measured including relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCH), leaf-extract pH (pH), and ascorbic acid (AA). The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) method was adopted to assess plants' resistance ability based on the above four parameters. The tolerant levels of plant species were classified using two methods, one by comparing the APTI value of individual plant to the average of all species and another by using fixed APTI values as standards. Tolerant species were then selected based on combination results from both methods. The results showed that different tolerance orders of species has been found at the three sampling sites due to varied air pollution and other environmental conditions. In general, plant species Magnolia denudata, Diospyros kaki, Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Rosa chinensis were identified as tolerant species to air pollution environment and recommend to be planted at various location of the city, especially at heavy traffic roadside. PMID:27326901

  18. Radial distributions of air plants: a comparison between epiphytes and mistletoes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Amanda; Burns, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Vertical gradients of light and humidity within forest canopies are major predictors of air plant distributions. Although this pattern was first recognized over 120 years ago, few studies have considered an additional axis of resource availability, which exists radially around the trunks of trees. Here, we explored the radial distributions of mistletoes and epiphytes in relation to gradients of light and humidity around the trunks of their south-temperate host trees. Additionally, we correlated microclimate occupancy with plant physiological responses to shifting resource availability. The radial distributions of mistletoes and epiphytes were highly directional, and related to the availability of light and humidity, respectively. Mistletoes oriented northwest, parallel to gradients of higher light intensity, temperature, and lower humidity. Comparatively, epiphytes oriented away from the sun to the southeast. The rate of CO2 assimilation in mistletoes and photochemical efficiency of epiphytes was highest in plants growing in higher light and humidity environments, respectively. However, the photosynthetic parameters of mistletoes suggest that they are also efficient at assimilating CO2 in lower light conditions. Our results bridge a key gap in our understanding of within-tree distributions of mistletoes and epiphytes, and raise further questions on the drivers of air plant distributions. PMID:27220198

  19. [Negative air ions generated by plants upon pulsed electric field stimulation applied to soil].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ren-ye; Deng, Chuan-yuan; Yang, Zhi-jian; Weng, Hai-yong; Zhu, Tie-jun-rong; Zheng, Jin-gui

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigated the capacity of plants (Schlumbergera truncata, Aloe vera var. chinensis, Chlorophytum comosum, Schlumbergera bridgesii, Gymnocalycium mihanovichii var. friedrichii, Aspidistra elatior, Cymbidium kanran, Echinocactus grusonii, Agave americana var. marginata, Asparagus setaceus) to generate negative air ions (NAI) under pulsed electric field stimulation. The results showed that single plant generated low amounts of NAI in natural condition. The capacity of C. comosum and G. mihanovichii var. friedrichii generated most NAI among the above ten species, with a daily average of 43 ion · cm(-3). The least one was A. americana var. marginata with the value of 19 ion · cm(-3). When proper pulsed electric field stimulation was applied to soil, the NAI of ten plant species were greatly improved. The effect of pulsed electric field u3 (average voltage over the pulse period was 2.0 x 10(4) V, pulse frequency was 1 Hz, and pulse duration was 50 ms) was the greatest. The mean NAI concentration of C. kanran was the highest 1454967 ion · cm(-3), which was 48498.9 times as much as that in natural condition. The lowest one was S. truncata with the value of 34567 ion · cm(-3), which was 843.1 times as much as that in natural condition. The capacity of the same plants to generate negative air ion varied extremely under different intensity pulsed electric fields. PMID:26094455

  20. Concentration, size, and density of total suspended particulates at the air exhaust of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xufei; Lee, Jongmin; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Xinlei; Yang, Liangcheng

    2015-08-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were seasonally collected at the air exhaust of 15 commercial concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs; including swine finishing, swine farrowing, swine gestation, laying hen, and tom turkey) in the U.S. Midwest. The measured TSP concentrations ranged from 0.38 ± 0.04 mg m⁻³ (swine gestation in summer) to 10.9 ± 3.9 mg m⁻³ (tom turkey in winter) and were significantly affected by animal species, housing facility type, feeder type (dry or wet), and season. The average particle size of collected TSP samples in terms of mass median equivalent spherical diameter ranged from 14.8 ± 0.5 µm (swine finishing in winter) to 30.5 ± 2.0 µm (tom turkey in summer) and showed a significant seasonal effect. This finding affirmed that particulate matter (PM) released from CAFOs contains a significant portion of large particles. The measured particle size distribution (PSD) and the density of deposited particles (on average 1.65 ± 0.13 g cm⁻³) were used to estimate the mass fractions of PM10 and PM2.5 (PM ≤ 10 and ≤ 2.5 μm, respectively) in the collected TSP. The results showed that the PM10 fractions ranged from 12.7 ± 5.1% (tom turkey) to 21.1 ± 3.2% (swine finishing), whereas the PM2.5 fractions ranged from 3.4 ± 1.9% (tom turkey) to 5.7 ± 3.2% (swine finishing) and were smaller than 9.0% at all visited CAFOs. This study applied a filter-based method for PSD measurement and deposited particles as a surrogate to estimate the TSP's particle density. The limitations, along with the assumptions adopted during the calculation of PM mass fractions, must be recognized when comparing the findings to other studies. PMID:26151089

  1. Air Pollution. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

    This unit, designed for senior high school students, focuses on air pollution by examining its effect on man, plants and animals, the causes of air pollution, and possible solutions to the air pollution problems. It approaches each of these topics through both natural science and social science perspectives. The unit is divided into seven separate…

  2. An evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T. Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM )

    1993-02-01

    Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements and related facility design requirements. Air monitoring data, supplied by the Westinghouse Isolation Division, are analyzed. The WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) requires that the WIPP radiological facilities always have multiple confinement barriers to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material to the environment. The Waste Handling Building has standard confinement barriers that satisfy the regulatory requirements, but the underground confinement barriers.include a more complex system for filtering air in the event of-an accidental release. A continuous air monitor (CAM) is an integral part of the underground confinement barrier strategy. For the last four years'' the reliability and sensitivity of the CAMs have been the subject of numerous reports and meetings which are summarized in this report. Data supplied to the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) show that the Station A CAM, which monitors the underground.exhaust, does not satisfy the requirements of the FSAR. The CAM system is not fail-safe, and operations appear to be affected by high levels of salt aerosol and poor detector performance. Additional test information is needed to establish the limits of CAM performance. Findings and recommendations are also provided on alternative monitoring methods, procedures and calculations.

  3. An evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T. |

    1993-02-01

    Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements and related facility design requirements. Air monitoring data, supplied by the Westinghouse Isolation Division, are analyzed. The WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) requires that the WIPP radiological facilities always have multiple confinement barriers to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material to the environment. The Waste Handling Building has standard confinement barriers that satisfy the regulatory requirements, but the underground confinement barriers.include a more complex system for filtering air in the event of-an accidental release. A continuous air monitor (CAM) is an integral part of the underground confinement barrier strategy. For the last four years`` the reliability and sensitivity of the CAMs have been the subject of numerous reports and meetings which are summarized in this report. Data supplied to the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) show that the Station A CAM, which monitors the underground.exhaust, does not satisfy the requirements of the FSAR. The CAM system is not fail-safe, and operations appear to be affected by high levels of salt aerosol and poor detector performance. Additional test information is needed to establish the limits of CAM performance. Findings and recommendations are also provided on alternative monitoring methods, procedures and calculations.

  4. Bone, Calcium and Spaceflight: A Living Systems Experiment Relating Animals and Plants the Effects of Calcium on Plant Growth and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss-Bubenheim, Debra; Navarro, B. J.; Souza, Kenneth A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This educational outreach activity provided students with information about ARC's role in conducting life sciences research in space. Students were introduced to the scientific method while conducting a plant experiment that was correlated to the flight animal experiment. Students made daily observations, collected data and reported on their findings. This classroom experiment providing a hands-on learning opportunity about terrestrial and space biology in which exposed the students to new fields of study for future endeavors.

  5. Usefulness of sediment toxicity tests with estuarine plants and animals to indicate municipal and industrial effluent impact

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Weber, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    The environmental impact of municipal and industrial effluents has been predicted from results from single species toxicity tests. The goal of these tests is to ensure that water quality criteria and the designated use of the waterbody is not impacted. Recently, the focus of some effluent toxicity evaluation has centered on determining the effluent impact on the sediment in the receiving water. This study evaluated the toxicities of several sediment samples collected above and below six outfalls to the Pensacola Bay system. Toxicities were determined using three macrophytic plants and four animal species. The sediments, with few exceptions, exhibited a low level of toxicity. The mysid shrimp was more sensitive than Ampelisca, Leptocheirus and the sheepshead minnow. The sensitivities of the plants, Echinochloa crusgalli, Scirpus robustus and Sesbania macrocarpa, were comparable to those of the animal species. The toxicity of time sediment, when compared to that of the effluent, determined using standard single species of plants and animals was less. Overall, the sediment toxicity tests were useful in providing insight on the impact of effluents. However, the application and usefulness of this assessment tool is highly dependent upon a variety of factors, including the geomorphological characteristics of the receiving waters.

  6. Innovative open air brayton combined cycle systems for the next generation nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohuri, Bahman

    The purpose of this research was to model and analyze a nuclear heated multi-turbine power conversion system operating with atmospheric air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a molten salt, or liquid metal, to gas heat exchanger reaching a peak temperature of 660 0C. The effects of adding a recuperator or a bottoming steam cycle have been addressed. The calculated results are intended to identify paths for future work on the next generation nuclear power plant (GEN-IV). This document describes the proposed system in sufficient detail to communicate a good understanding of the overall system, its components, and intended uses. The architecture is described at the conceptual level, and does not replace a detailed design document. The main part of the study focused on a Brayton --- Rankine Combined Cycle system and a Recuperated Brayton Cycle since they offer the highest overall efficiencies. Open Air Brayton power cycles also require low cooling water flows relative to other power cycles. Although the Recuperated Brayton Cycle achieves an overall efficiency slightly less that the Brayton --- Rankine Combined Cycle, it is completely free of a circulating water system and can be used in a desert climate. Detailed results of modeling a combined cycle Brayton-Rankine power conversion system are presented. The Rankine bottoming cycle appears to offer a slight efficiency advantage over the recuperated Brayton cycle. Both offer very significant advantages over current generation Light Water Reactor steam cycles. The combined cycle was optimized as a unit and lower pressure Rankine systems seem to be more efficient. The combined cycle requires a lot less circulating water than current power plants. The open-air Brayton systems appear to be worth investigating, if the higher temperatures predicted for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant do materialize.

  7. Direct Air Capture of CO2 - an Overview of Carbon Engineering's Technology and Pilot Plant Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, G.; Corless, A.

    2014-12-01

    At Carbon Engineering, we are developing and commercializing technology to scrub CO2 directly from atmospheric air at industrial scale. By providing atmospheric CO2 for use in fuel production, we can enable production of transportation fuels with ultra-low carbon intensities, which command price premiums in the growing set of constrained fuels markets such as California's LCFS. We are a Calgary based startup founded in 2009 with 10 employees, and we are considered a global leader in the direct air capture (DAC) field. We will review CE's DAC technology, based on a wet-scrubbing "air contactor" which absorbs CO2 into aqueous solution, and a chemical looping "regeneration" component, which liberates pure CO2 from this aqueous solution while re-making the original absorption chemical. CE's DAC tecnology exports purified atmospheric CO2, combined with the combustion CO2 from plant energy usage, as the end product. We will also discuss CE's 2014-2015 end-to-end Pilot Demonstration Unit. This is a $7M technology demonstration plant that CE is building with the help of key industrial partners and equipment vendors. Vendor design and engineering requirements have been used to specify the pilot air contactor, pellet reactor, calciner, and slaker modules, as well as auxiliary systems. These modules will be run for several months to obtain the engineering and performance data needed for subsequent commercial plant design, as well as to test the residual integration risks associated with CE's process. By the time of the AGU conference, the pilot is expected to be in late stages of fabrication or early stages of site installation.

  8. Air pollution response to changing weather and power plant emissions in the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomer, Bryan Jaye

    Air pollution in the eastern United States causes human sickness and death as well as damage to crops and materials. NOX emission reduction is observed to improve air quality. Effectively reducing pollution in the future requires understanding the connections between smog, precursor emissions, weather, and climate change. Numerical models predict global warming will exacerbate smog over the next 50 years. My analysis of 21 years of CASTNET observations quantifies a climate change penalty. I calculate, for data collected prior to 2002, a climate penalty factor of ˜3.3 ppb O3/°C across the power plant dominated receptor regions in the rural, eastern U.S. Recent reductions in NOX emissions decreased the climate penalty factor to ˜2.2 ppb O3/°C. Prior to 1995, power plant emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOX were estimated with fuel sampling and analysis methods. Currently, emissions are measured with continuous monitoring equipment (CEMS) installed directly in stacks. My comparison of the two methods show CO 2 and SO2 emissions are ˜5% lower when inferred from fuel sampling; greater differences are found for NOX emissions. CEMS are the method of choice for emission inventories and commodity trading and should be the standard against which other methods are evaluated for global greenhouse gas trading policies. I used CEMS data and applied chemistry transport modeling to evaluate improvements in air quality observed by aircraft during the North American electrical blackout of 2003. An air quality model produced substantial reductions in O3, but not as much as observed. The study highlights weaknesses in the model as commonly used for evaluating a single day event and suggests areas for further investigation. A new analysis and visualization method quantifies local-daily to hemispheric-seasonal scale relationships between weather and air pollution, confirming improved air quality despite increasing temperatures across the eastern U.S. Climate penalty factors indicate

  9. Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning deactivation thermal analysis of PUREX Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.W.; Gregonis, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Thermal analysis was performed for the proposed Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant exhaust system after deactivation. The purpose of the analysis was to determine if enough condensation will occur to plug or damage the filtration components. A heat transfer and fluid flow analysis was performed to evaluate the thermal characteristics of the underground duct system, the deep-bed glass fiber filter No. 2, and the high-efficiency particulate air filters in the fourth filter building. The analysis is based on extreme variations of air temperature, relative humidity, and dew point temperature using 15 years of Hanford Site weather data as a basis. The results will be used to evaluate the need for the electric heaters proposed for the canyon exhaust to prevent condensation. Results of the analysis indicate that a condition may exist in the underground ductwork where the duct temperature can lead or lag changes in the ambient air temperature. This condition may contribute to condensation on the inside surfaces of the underground exhaust duct. A worst case conservative analysis was performed assuming that all of the water is removed from the moist air over the inside surface of the concrete duct area in the fully developed turbulent boundary layer while the moist air in the free stream will not condense. The total moisture accumulated in 24 hours is negligible. Water puddling would not be expected. The results of the analyses agree with plant operating experiences. The filters were designed to resist high humidity and direct wetting, filter plugging caused by slight condensation in the upstream duct is not a concern. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Enhanced animal productivity and health with improved manure management in 2nd Generation Environmentally Superior Technology in North Carolina: II. Air quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of improved manure management on air quality and the beneficial effect of a cleaner environment on animal productivity and health using a second generation of Environmentally Superior Technology. The second generation system combines solid-liquid sep...

  11. [Aspects of animal welfare and species protection in the international trade of ornamental fish and air transport to Germany].

    PubMed

    Wöhr, Anna-Caroline; Hildebrand, Heike; Unshelm, Jürgen; Erhard, Michael Helmut

    2005-01-01

    The number of ornamental fish kept in German aquariums is rising, but the supply of offspring is not sufficient to meet the needs of the fish enthusiasts. Therefore millions of ornamental fish from foreign countries are being imported to Germany. This provokes a number of new problems regarding the protection of species and the animals' welfare during transportation. For the assessment of the transport conditions, 1000 shipments of ornamental fishes were evaluated at the Rhein-Main-Airport Frankfurt, Germany. Water samples were taken from 100 shipments and were examined for anaesthetics. The results are disturbing: 41% of the shipments have total transportation times between 31-42 h resulting in an oxygen deficit in the transport bags (5.2%) and dead ornamental fish. Also damage of the transportation containers, high fish densities as well as drastic size differences amoung the fish in one transport bag were noticeable. In 99% of the cases, formal defects could be noted. The German association of pet stores has declared that fish belonging to three special fresh water families should not be kept in an aquarium, but 1 200 of such fish were imported. The HPLC analysis of the water samples revealed an additive. The non-declared anaesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol was present in all samples taken from shipments based out of Singapore. The results emphasize that improvements are urgently necessary in the control of the air transport and trade with Ornamental fish. PMID:15918482

  12. Ford Van Dyke: Compressed Air Management Program Leads to Improvements that Reduce Energy Consumption at an Automotive Transmission Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    Staff at the Ford Van Dyke Transmission Plant in Sterling Heights, Michigan, have increased the efficiency of the plant’s compressed air system to enhance its performance while saving energy and improving production.

  13. Assessment of genotoxicity of Lannate-90® and its plant and animal metabolites in human lymphocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Quintana, Rafael; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Sánchez-Alarcón, Juana; Milić, Mirta; Olivares, José Luis Gómez; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated direct and metabolic genotoxic effects caused by Lannate-90®, a methomyl-based formulation (90 % active ingredient), in human lymphocyte cultures using sister chromatid exchange assay (SCE). Two processes were used for the plant promutagens evaluation: in vivo activation, applying the insecticide systemically in plants for 4 h and subsequently adding plant metabolites containing extracts to lymphocyte cultures; and in vitro activation, where the insecticide was incubated with Vicia faba S10 mix plus human lymphocyte culture. Direct treatment with the insecticide significantly increased SCE frequency in human lymphocytes (250-750 mgL-1), with cellular death observed at 1000 mgL-1 concentration. Using the extracts of Vicia faba treated with Lannate-90® to treat human lymphocytes, a dose-response relationship was observed. In lymphocyte cultures treated directly with the insecticide for 2 h, a negative response was obtained. When S10 mix was added, SCE frequency did not change significantly. Meanwhile, a mixture of S9 mammalian metabolic mix and Lannate-90® increased the SCE frequency, with an observed concentration-dependent response. Although Lannate-90® induced cellular death at the highest concentrations, it did not cause a delay in cell proliferation in any of the treatments, confirming its genotoxic action. This study is one of the first to evaluate and compare the direct effect of Lannate-90® in two bioassays, animal and vegetal, and the effect of plant and animal metabolism on its genotoxic potential. PMID:27331299

  14. Plant resistance mechanisms to air pollutants: rhythms in ascorbic acid production during growth under ozone stress

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between ozone (O3) tolerance and leaf ascorbic acid concentrations in O3-susceptible (O3-S) 'Hark' and O3-resistant (O3-R) 'Hood' soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., cultivars were examined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Leaf samples were analyzed at 4 intervals during a 24 h period. Soybean cultivars grown in the greenhouse with charcoal filtered (CF) and nonfiltered (NF) air showed daily oscillations in ascorbic acid production. Highest ascorbic acid levels in leaves during light coincided with highest concentrations of photochemical oxidants in the atmosphere at 2:00 p.m. The resistant genotype produced more ascorbic acid in its trifoliate leaves than did the corresponding susceptible genotype. Under CF air (an O3-reduced environment) O3-S and O3-R cultivars showed rhythms in ascorbic acid production. In NF air (an O3 stress environment) the O3-R cultivar alone showed rhythms in ascorbic acid production. Results indicated that superior O3 tolerance in the Hood soybean cultivar (compared with Hark) was associated with a greater increase in endogenous levels of ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid may scavenge free radicals and thereby protect cells from injury by O3 or other oxyradical products. Plants defend themselves against photochemical oxidant stress, such as O3, by several mechanisms. Experimental evidence indicates that antioxidant defense systems existing in plant tissues may function to protect cellular components from deleterious effects of photochemical oxidants through endogenous and exogenous controls.

  15. Benefits of compressor inlet air cooling for gas turbine cogeneration plants

    SciTech Connect

    De Lucia, M.; Lanfranchi, C.; Boggio, V.

    1996-07-01

    Compressor inlet air cooling is an effective method for enhancing the performance of gas turbine plants. This paper presents a comparative analysis of different solutions for cooling the compressor inlet air for the LM6000 gas turbine in a cogeneration plant operated in base load. Absorption and evaporative cooling systems are considered and their performance and economic benefits compared for the dry low-NO{sub x} LM6000 version. Reference is made to two sites in Northern and Southern Italy, whose climate data series for modeling the variations in ambient temperature during the single day were used to account for the effects of climate in the simulation. The results confirmed the advantages of inlet air cooling systems. In particular, evaporative cooling proved to be cost effective, though capable of supplying only moderate cooling, while absorption systems have a higher cost but are also more versatile and powerful in base-load operation. An integration of the two systems proved to be able to give both maximum performance enhancement and net economic benefit.

  16. Non-fouling heat exchanger preheats plant make-up air: saves $13,000 in first year

    SciTech Connect

    Goss, J.

    1980-08-01

    Air exchanges to maintain a comfortable working environment at Gates Rubber Company in Denver, Colorado, involves general exhaust from V-belt vulcanization lines. A ventilation system without heat recovery or make-up air heaters had been in use, but the goal of the company was to install a sytem that could handle normal plant exhaust air without filtration and involve little or no mechanization. A counter-flow, air-to-air heat exchanger having no moving parts has been used successfully to recover heat from many dirty industrial process exhausts. Heat recovery efficiencies range from 50 to 80%. Four heat exchangers, arranged in parallel, were installed in one of the 30,000 scfm exhaust/make-up air systems at the Denver plant and savings amounted to $13,000 the first year.

  17. Rare and endangered species of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park; endangered, threatened, and rare animal, plant, and community handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Linda W.; Pratt, Thane K.; Foote, David; Marcos Gorresen, mgorresen@usgs.gov

    2011-01-01

    In some cases, HAVO offers the best opportunity to save these species and communities from extinction. Increasingly, the park has attempted to restore rare populations by conducting surveys to locate them, controlling threats such as feral livestock, and bolstering existing populations or creating new ones by planting nursery stock. To aid such efforts, our original intent was to publish an identification guide for researchers and field management personnel. Particularly, we wanted to familiarize the reader with the many rare plant species which otherwise are known mainly from the technical literature. Because we soon came to realize that this handbook would be useful to a much larger, general readership, our aim is to make this information available to anyone interested in endangered animals and plants at Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.

  18. Biological consilience of hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide in plants: Gases of primordial earth linking plant, microbial and animal physiologies.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hideo; Cohen, Michael F

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced in the mammalian body through the enzymatic activities of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). A growing number of studies have revealed that biogenic H2S produced in tissues is involved in a variety of physiological responses in mammals including vasorelaxation and neurotransmission. It is now evident that mammals utilize H2S to regulate multiple signaling systems, echoing the research history of the gaseous signaling molecules nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) that had previously only been recognized for their cytotoxicity. In the human diet, meats (mammals, birds and fishes) and vegetables (plants) containing cysteine and other sulfur compounds are the major dietary sources for endogenous production of H2S. Plants are primary producers in ecosystems on the earth and they synthesize organic sulfur compounds through the activity of sulfur assimilation. Although plant H2S-producing activities have been known for a long time, our knowledge of H2S biology in plant systems has not been updated to the extent of mammalian studies. Here we review recent progress on H2S studies, highlighting plants and bacteria. Scoping the future integration of H2S, NO and O2 biology, we discuss a possible linkage between physiology, ecology and evolutional biology of gas metabolisms that may reflect the historical changes of the Earth's atmospheric composition. PMID:27083071

  19. Air-dense medium fluidized bed dry beneficiation of coal: Results of 50 MTPH demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Qingru; Yang Yi; Liang Chuncheng; Tao Xiuxiang; Luo Zhenfu

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents the performance results of the 50 MTPH Coal Dry Beneficiation Demonstration Plant constructed in the Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China. The separating media used in this process consists of an air/dense medium (magnetite, or magnetic pearls, a remnant of coal combustion in power plants) fluidized bed controllable at specific gravities ranging from 1.3 to 2.0. That portion of the feedstock with a specific gravity less than the separating gravity floats to the top of the fluidized bed where it is recovered at one end of the vessel. That portion of the feedstock with a specific gravity higher than the separating gravity sinks and is discharged from the other end of the vessel. The process has separating efficiencies similar to a heavy media vessel or cyclone with the additional advantages of (1) can be utilized in an arid region containing insufficient water supply, (2) results in a dry product requiring no additional dewatering and coal slime treatment, and (3) as result of air flow will remove some surface moisture present in the feedstock. As a result of the magnetite used in the fluidized bed and the subsequent downstream recovery of this magnetite, the current demonstration plant utilizes a 6mm bottom size. The topsize of the feed is a function of the size of the system and the site specific ash liberation requirement. The Demonstration Plant commenced operation in September 1992. The mechanical processes of the system including coal feeding, sizing, gravity separation/beneficiation, and medium recovery, functioned as anticipated from the 10 MTPH pilot plant. Preliminary results with separating gravities in the range of 1.3--2.0 showed a probable error as low as 0.05 with magnetite losses of 0.5 kg/MT of feed.

  20. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and analysis of plasmid profiles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from human, animal and plant sources.

    PubMed

    Odumosu, Bamidele Tolulope; Ajetunmobi, Olabayo; Dada-Adegbola, Hannah; Odutayo, Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) constitute a major public health threat globally. Clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the most studied MDROs however there is paucity of information regarding the susceptibility of its animal and plants isolates to antipseudomonas drug in Nigeria. From a total of 252 samples consisting of plants, animals and clinical samples, 54, 24 and 22 P. aeruginosa were isolated from vegetables, animals and clinical sources respectively. All the isolates were identified by standard biochemical methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the 100 P. aeruginosa isolates against 7 antipseudomonal drugs was carried out by disk diffusion method, the phenotypic detection of ESBL was done by double disk synergy test (DDST) while plasmid extraction on 20 selected isolates based on their resistance to 2 or more classes of antibiotics was carried out by alkaline lysis method and analysed with Lambda DNA/Hind lll marker respectively. The AST results revealed highest resistance of 91 and 55 % to ceftazidime and carbenicillin respectively while highest susceptibilities of 99 % for piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem were recorded in overall assay. Fifteen out of 100 isolates specifically (10) from vegetables, (3) clinical and (2) poultry isolates showed synergy towards the beta-lactamase inhibitor indicating production of ESBL by DDST method. Detection of plasmids was among vegetable (n = 4), poultry (n = 4), cow (n = 3) and clinical isolates (n = 1). Plasmid profile for the selected isolates revealed 6 of the strains had one plasmids each while 5 strains possessed 2-4 plasmids and 1 strain had 5 plasmids. The sizes of the plasmid range from <1 to ≥23kbp. Detection of ESBL and Plasmids among the investigated isolates is suggestive of multiple interplay of resistance mechanism among the isolates. Plants and animal isolates of P. aeruginosa harbouring multiple mechanisms of resistance is of concern due to the

  1. 78 FR 21938 - Notice of Issuance of Final Air Permit; Architect of the Capitol-Capitol Power Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Issuance of Final Air Permit; Architect of the Capitol--Capitol Power Plant AGENCY... notice that on January 23, 2013, EPA issued a final air permit to the Architect of the Capitol for...

  2. Effects of Ambient Humidity on Plant Growth Enhancement by Atmospheric Air Plasma Irradiation to Plant Seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarinont, Thapanut; Amano, Takaaki; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Humidity is an important factor for plasma-bio applications because composition of species generated by atmospheric pressure plasmas significantly depends on the humidity. Here we have examined effects of humidity on the growth enhancement to study the mechanism. Experiments were carried out with a scalable DBD device. 10 seeds of Raphanus sativus L. were set for x = 5 mm and y = 3 mm below the electrodes. The humidity Hair was 10 - 90 %Rh. The ratio of length of plants with plasma irradiation to that of control increases from 1.2 for Hair = 10 %Rh to 2.5 for Hair = 50 %Rh. The ratio is 2.5 for Hair = 50-90 %Rh. This humidity dependence is similar to the humidity dependence of O2+-H2O,H3O*, NO2--H2Oand NO3--H2Odensities, whereas it is different from that of other species such as O3, NO, and so on. The similarity gives information on key species for the growth enhancement.

  3. Invasive rangeland plants in range and animal sciences and resources management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprising about 50% of the world’s land surface, rangelands are an important ecological and economic resource. Rangeland plant communities are changing. Even though the composition of plant communities in rangeland changes continually through the process of succession, in more recent years this c...

  4. [Implementation results of emission standards of air pollutants for thermal power plants: a numerical simulation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan-Shan; Pan, Li-Bo

    2014-03-01

    The emission inventory of air pollutants from the thermal power plants in the year of 2010 was set up. Based on the inventory, the air quality of the prediction scenarios by implementation of both 2003-version emission standard and the new emission standard were simulated using Models-3/CMAQ. The concentrations of NO2, SO2, and PM2.5, and the deposition of nitrogen and sulfur in the year of 2015 and 2020 were predicted to investigate the regional air quality improvement by the new emission standard. The results showed that the new emission standard could effectively improve the air quality in China. Compared with the implementation results of the 2003-version emission standard, by 2015 and 2020, the area with NO2 concentration higher than the emission standard would be reduced by 53.9% and 55.2%, the area with SO2 concentration higher than the emission standard would be reduced by 40.0%, the area with nitrogen deposition higher than 1.0 t x km(-2) would be reduced by 75.4% and 77.9%, and the area with sulfur deposition higher than 1.6 t x km(-2) would be reduced by 37.1% and 34.3%, respectively. PMID:24881370

  5. Analysis of air pollution from industrial plants by lichen indication on example of small town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, K. N.; Pietkova, I. R.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2015-09-01

    According to the research the species of lichens such as Parmelia sulcata, Parmeliopsis ambigua, Phiscia stellaris, Xanthoria parietina are founded on example of small town. Values of clear air index correlated with the average content of sulphur dioxide in the air. These measurement points correspond to residential areas and regions of the objects of food industry. Two zones zero projective coverage are selected. These most polluted zones corresponded to the location of the metallurgical industry and heat electropower station. The roof production and abrasive industry do not show a significant increase in the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the contiguous territory. By method lichen indication on example of small city two zones lichen deserts (sulfur dioxide concentration greater than 0.3 mg/m3) and one area of critical pollution (sulfur dioxide concentration of 0.1 -0.3 mg/m3) were founded. The largest area of air pollution allegedly linked to the activities of plants. Thus metallurgical industry and heat electropower station can be called major air pollutants in small towns.

  6. The organization structure and regulatory elements of Chlamydomonas histone genes reveal features linking plant and animal genes.

    PubMed

    Fabry, S; Müller, K; Lindauer, A; Park, P B; Cornelius, T; Schmitt, R

    1995-09-01

    The genome of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains approximately 15 gene clusters of the nucleosomal (or core) histone H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 genes and at least one histone H1 gene. Seven non-allelic histone gene loci were isolated from a genomic library, physically mapped, and the nucleotide sequences of three isotypes of each core histone gene species and one linked H1 gene determined. The core histone genes are organized in clusters of H2A-H2B and H3-H4 pairs, in which each gene pair shows outwardly divergent transcription from a short (< 300 bp) intercistronic region. These intercistronic regions contain typically conserved promoter elements, namely a TATA-box and the three motifs TGGCCAG-G(G/C)-CGAG, CGTTGACC and CGGTTG. Different from the genes of higher plants, but like those of animals and the related alga Volvox, the 3' untranslated regions contain no poly A signal, but a palindromic sequence (3' palindrome) essential for mRNA processing is present. One single H1 gene was found in close linkage to a H2A-H2B pair. The H1 upstream region contains the octameric promoter element GGTTGACC (also found upstream of the core histone genes) and two specific sequence motifs that are shared only with the Volvox H1 promoters. This suggests differential transcription of the H1 and the core histone genes. The H1 gene is interrupted by two introns. Unlike Volvox H3 genes, the three sequenced H3 isoforms are intron-free. Primer-directed PCR of genomic DNA demonstrated, however, that at least 8 of the about 15 H3 genes do contain one intron at a conserved position. In synchronized C. reinhardtii cells, H4 mRNA levels (representative of all core histone mRNAs) peak during cell division, suggesting strict replication-dependent gene control. The derived peptide sequences place C. reinhardtii core histones closer to plants than to animals, except that the H2A histones are more animal-like. The peptide sequence of histone H1 is closely related to the V. carteri VH1-II

  7. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Kinga Lemieszek, Marta; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-06-01

    Pantoea agglomerans, a bacterium associated with plants, is not an obligate infectious agent in humans. However, it could be a cause of opportunistic human infections, mostly by wound infection with plant material, or as a hospital-acquired infection, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. Wound infection with P. agglomerans usually follow piercing or laceration of skin with a plant thorn, wooden splinter or other plant material and subsequent inoculation of the plant-residing bacteria, mostly during performing of agricultural occupations and gardening, or children playing. Septic arthritis or synovitis appears as a common clinical outcome of exogenous infection with P. agglomerans, others include endophthalmitis, periostitis, endocarditis and osteomyelitis. Another major reason for clinical infection with P. agglomerans is exposure of hospitalized, often immunodeficient individuals to medical equipment or fluids contaminated with this bacterium. Epidemics of nosocomial septicemia with fatal cases have been described in several countries, both in adult and paediatric patients. In most cases, however, the clinical course of the hospital-acquired disease was mild and application of the proper antibiotic treatment led to full recovery. Compared to humans, there are only few reports on infectious diseases caused by Pantoea agglomerans in vertebrate animals. This species has been identified as a possible cause of equine abortion and placentitis and a haemorrhagic disease in dolphin fish (Coryphaena hippurus). P. agglomerans strains occur commonly, usually as symbionts, in insects and other arthropods. Pantoea agglomerans usually occurs in plants as an epi- or endophytic symbiont, often as mutualist. Nevertheless, this species has also also been identified as a cause of diseases in a range of cultivable plants, such as cotton, sweet onion, rice, maize, sorghum, bamboo, walnut, an ornamental plant called Chinese taro (Alocasia cucullata), and a grass called onion couch

  8. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Waste Composition and High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter Loading

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, B.D.

    2000-12-11

    This analysis evaluates the effect of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) waste isotopic composition on Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) accidents involving high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter failure in Double-Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs). The HEPA Filter Failure--Exposure to High Temperature or Pressure, and Steam Intrusion From Interfacing Systems accidents are considered. The analysis concludes that dose consequences based on the PFP waste isotopic composition are bounded by previous FSAR analyses. This supports USQD TF-00-0768.

  9. Lehigh Southwest Cement Company: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy at a Lehigh Southwest Cement Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    In 2001, Lehigh Southwest Cement Company improved the compressed air system at its cement plant in Tehachapi, California. Consequently, the system was able to operate more efficiently with less compressor capacity and at a lower system pressure. The project yielded total annual savings of 895,000 kWh and $199,000. The initial project cost was $417,000, but Southern California Edison provided a $90,000 incentive payment to reduce the cost to $327,000. Simple payback was about 20 months.

  10. Investigation of ground-water pollution at Air Force Plant Number 4, Fort Worth Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    Beginning in December 1982, an extensive investigation was conducted to determine the presence and extent of industrial chemical pollution at Air Force Plant No. 4. A major portion of this work was devoted to the testing of ground water flowing within the overburden. In addition, 16 wells were drilled to monitor for polluted ground water in the upper and middle zones of the Paluxy Formation. Paluxy ground water was monitored; trichloroethylene, 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene, and lesser amounts of other chlorinated hydrocarbons, and the existence of abnormally high water levels in the upper zone of the Paluxy Formation in well P-8(U) were discovered.

  11. Unusual animal-plant interaction: Feeding of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae) by ants

    SciTech Connect

    Rico-Gray, V. ); Barber, J.T.; Thien, L.B.; Ellgaard, E.G.; Toney, J.J. )

    1989-04-01

    The hollow pseudobulbs of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae; Central America) serve as domatia for many species of ants. The ants pack many of the pseudobulbs with debris including dead insects, plant material, and sand. Ants were fed {sup 14}C-labelled D-glucose in honey, killed, and placed in the pseudobulbs for up to eight weeks. Samples of plant tissue were harvested and tested for radioactivity after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The labelled material had moved into various parts of the plant and demonstrated direct nutrient uptake.

  12. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER AT AIR FORCE PLANT 4, CARSWELL, TEXAS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT (CD-ROM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 600 Cottonwood trees were planted over a shallow groundwater plume in an attempt to detoxify the tricWoroethylene (TCE) in a groundwater plume at a former Air Force facility. Two planting techniques were used: rooted stock about two years old, and 18 inch cuttings were insta...

  13. 77 FR 50651 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Hampshire; Hot Mix Asphalt Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Hampshire; Hot... Hampshire Hot Mix Asphalt Plant Rule at Env-A 2703.02(a). This rule establishes and requires limitations on visible emissions from all hot mix asphalt plants. This revision is consistent with the maintenance of...

  14. Stressed Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) excrete a protein fraction with specific cytotoxicity on plant and animal tumour cell.

    PubMed

    Griffaut, B; Debiton, E; Madelmont, J C; Maurizis, J C; Ledoigt, G

    2007-09-01

    Wounds from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers excrete bioactive metabolites from a variety of structural classes, including proteins. Here we describe a protein specifically active against tumour cells arising either from human, animal or plant tissues. The non-tumour animal cells or the plant callus cells are not sensitive to these excreta. The active product was only obtained after a wound-drought stress of plant tubers. The cytotoxicity varies according to the tumour cell type. For instance, some human tumour cell lines and especially the human mammary tumour cells MDA-MB-231 were shown to be very susceptible to the active product. The active agent is shown to contain an 18-kDa polypeptide with homology to a superoxide dismutase (SOD). A 28-kDa polypeptide, related to an alkaline phosphatase (AP), was shown to be tightly linked to this 18-kDa polypeptide. The excreted 28-kDa polypeptide also displayed a consensus sequence similar to the group of DING proteins, but with a smaller molecular weight. The superoxide dismutase polypeptide was shown to be involved in the antitumour activity, but the presence of smaller factors (MW<10 kDa), such as salicylic acid, can enhance this activity. PMID:17662535

  15. The Dust at Altitude Recovery Technology (DART) System was Developed to Recover Plant, Human, and Animal Pathogens in Asian and African Dust Storms over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Tench, B.; Nehr, A.; Emmons, T.; Valbuena, F.; Palaia, J.; Sugars, C.

    2014-12-01

    Dust emanates year-round from Africa and Asia and impacts air quality in North America. Asian dust plumes deliver up to 64 million tonnes of dust over the NW of the USA, and African dust storms deliver over 50 million tonnes of dust over Florida each year. Several recent studies have demonstrated that human and plant pathogens from Asian [1] African [2] aerosols can be transported to N. America in naturally occurring dust storms. What is unknown is whether these 'presumptive pathogens' impact human, plant, or animal health in the USA. In order to initiate a long-term monitoring program of pathogens in Asian and African dust plumes, we have developed a dust collection system called DART (Dust at Altitude Recovery Technology) (figure). The DART dust sampler can be mounted on a F104 Starfighter jet (figure) and a T6 Texan propeller driven airplane (not shown), and was test flown over FL in Dec. 2013 on the F104 and on the T6 in the summer of 2014. The DART system utilizes a high-volume pump to pass air through 6 separate filtration units where both aerosols and microbial cells are captured. The filtration systems exhibit flow rates from 25-142 L/min depending on the pore size and brand of filters used. Flow rates are directly correlated to increased air speed, and are inversely correlated to increased altitude. Filtration units can be turned on and off individually as required for specific science flight objectives. The DART dust sampler has performed nominally up to 7600 m, 0.92 Mach, and 3.5 +G's. During initial test flights in Dec. 2013, 5 of 8 genera of fungi recovered from the lower atmosphere over FL contained plant pathogens including species in the genera: Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Curvularia, and Fusarium. Numbers of recovered fungi, but not bacteria, increased significantly when 5 or 10 µm filters were used in the DART system compared to filter pore sizes ≤ 1.2 µm. Future sampling programs for both Asian and African dust events will be

  16. Mineral content of urban plants as an indicator of air sulphate pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ufimtseva, M.D.; Zaickina, L.I.

    1996-08-01

    Phytogeochemical indication constitutes one of the promising methods of urban environment monitoring. Usually the phytogeochemical assessment includes the estimation of heavy metal content in urban plants in reference to the regional background level. The indication, based on the diversity of the biological response reactions to the industrial contamination, allows us to use the other parameters for the characterization of current condition of the urban environment (and particularly the atmospheric contamination) as well. As it is well known, mineral phytolites which may constitute up to 85% of dry weight are formed in plant tissues. The mineral composition of plants does not seem to be studied well enough as yet, and the data on mineral complexes in urban plants are absent completely. The authors` attempt was to study the peculiarities of urban plant mineral content and to reveal the value of the quantitative proportion of different mineral compounds for the air pollution indication. Urban plant mineral composition was tested in the samples of ashes by means of the infrared (IR) spectroscopy method which is usually used for the estimation of mineral compounds in rock. The IR absorption spectra were taken for the samples of bark or leaf ashes, taken from the tree, shrub, and herbaceous species that were most common and widely distributed both throughout the industrial areas and in the areas without noticeable pollution. These spectra look like curves with a lot of peales with different range which evidently correspond not to clear substances but to the mixtures of different minerals. The variation of absorbtion intensities in the observed lands makes it possible to estimate the quantitative contribution of different minerals (carbonates, sulphates, phosphates, quartz, feldspar, etc.) to the general IR spectrum.

  17. Human and animal health risk assessment of metal contamination in soil and plants from Ait Ammar abandoned iron mine, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mohamed; Haddioui, Abdelmajid

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate metal pollution in food chain and assess the resulting health risks to native citizens in Ait Ammar village. The results showed that cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations in animal organs were above the metal concentration safety limit. Nevertheless, soils and plants from mining area were contaminated with iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and Cr, Cu, Zn respectively. Cd concentrations in almost animal organs were higher than the acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of this livestock meat and offal may pose a health risk. The estimated intake of Pb and Cd for Ait Ammar population could be a cause of concern because it exceeded the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) proposed by Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in this area. Thus, conducting regular periodic studies to assess the dietary intake of mentioned elements are recommended. PMID:26631396

  18. Motif types, motif locations and base composition patterns around the RNA polyadenylation site in microorganisms, plants and animals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The polyadenylation of RNA is critical for gene functioning, but the conserved sequence motifs (often called signal or signature motifs), motif locations and abundances, and base composition patterns around mRNA polyadenylation [poly(A)] sites are still uncharacterized in most species. The evolutionary tendency for poly(A) site selection is still largely unknown. Results We analyzed the poly(A) site regions of 31 species or phyla. Different groups of species showed different poly(A) signal motifs: UUACUU at the poly(A) site in the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi; UGUAAC (approximately 13 bases upstream of the site) in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; UGUUUG (or UGUUUGUU) at mainly the fourth base downstream of the poly(A) site in the parasite Blastocystis hominis; and AAUAAA at approximately 16 bases and approximately 19 bases upstream of the poly(A) site in animals and plants, respectively. Polyadenylation signal motifs are usually several hundred times more abundant around poly(A) sites than in whole genomes. These predominant motifs usually had very specific locations, whether upstream of, at, or downstream of poly(A) sites, depending on the species or phylum. The poly(A) site was usually an adenosine (A) in all analyzed species except for B. hominis, and there was weak A predominance in C. reinhardtii. Fungi, animals, plants, and the protist Phytophthora infestans shared a general base abundance pattern (or base composition pattern) of “U-rich—A-rich—U-rich—Poly(A) site—U-rich regions”, or U-A-U-A-U for short, with some variation for each kingdom or subkingdom. Conclusion This study identified the poly(A) signal motifs, motif locations, and base composition patterns around mRNA poly(A) sites in protists, fungi, plants, and animals and provided insight into poly(A) site evolution. PMID:25052519

  19. Research Advances. Image Pinpoints All 5 Million Atoms in Viral Coat; Bilirubin, "Animals-Only" Pigment, Found in Plants; New Evidence Shows Humans Make Salicylic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Angela G.

    2009-08-01

    Recent "firsts" in chemical research: image of a viral capsid pinpointing 5 million atoms; isolation and identification of an "animal" pigment, bilirubin, from a plant source; evidence that humans make salicylic acid.

  20. Transgenic plants and animals: Altered organisms from recombinant DNA technology. July 1982-July 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for July 1982-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the development and use of transgenic plants and animals. Topics include methods of induction of new genes and transgenetic expression in the organism, development of animal models of human diseases, and design of insect tolerant plants. Examples of transgenic organisms include mice, fish, chicken, pigs, rye, maize, tobacco, tomatoes, lettuce, and cotton. This information is of value for the increased production of food from animals by producing animal carcasses with reduced fat content. The information is also valuable for production of herbicide tolerant, virus resistant, and insect resistant crop plants, as well as the rapid production of transgenic plants with flowers and seeds. (Contains 383 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  1. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassaa, N.; Custer, T.; Song, W.; Pech, F.; Kesselmeier, J.; Williams, J.

    2010-08-01

    A solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS), 50/30 μm, divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS) and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethyl-siloxane (DVB-PDMS). Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m-2 s-1, respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  2. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassaa, N.; Custer, T.; Song, W.; Pech, F.; Kesselmeier, J.; Williams, J.

    2010-11-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS), 50/30 μm divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS) and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-PDMS). Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m-2 s-1 respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  3. Measurement of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xiu-Xiu; Bian, Lei; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2015-12-01

    Determination of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air is important to understand chemical communication between plants and insects and will aid the development of semiochemicals from plants for pest control. In this study, a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to measure ultra-trace levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. The desorption parameters of TD, including sorbent tube material, tube desorption temperature, desorption time, and cold trap temperature, were selected and optimized. In GC-MS analysis, the selected ion monitoring mode was used for enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. This method was sufficiently sensitive to detect part-per-trillion levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. Laboratory and field evaluation revealed that the method presented high precision and accuracy. Field studies indicated that the background odor of tea plantations contained some common volatile plant compounds, such as (Z)-3-hexenol, methyl salicylate, and (E)-ocimene, at concentrations ranging from 1 to 3400 ng m(-3). In addition, the background odor in summer was more abundant in quality and quantity than in autumn. Relative to previous methods, the TD-GC-MS method is more sensitive, permitting accurate qualitative and quantitative measurements of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. PMID:26493981

  4. Applications of carbon-13 and sodium-23 NMR in the study of plants, animal, and human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sillerud, L.O.; Heyser, J.W.; Han, C.H.; Bitensky, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon-13 and sodium-23 NMR have been applied to the study of a variety of plant, animal and human cell types. Sodium NMR, in combination with dysprosium shift reagents, has been used to monitor sodium transport kinetics in salt-adapted, and non-adapted cells of P. milliaceum and whole D. spicata plants. The sodium content of human erythrocytes and leukemic macrophages was measured. Carbon-13 NMR was used to determine the structure and metabolism of rat epididymal fat pad adipocytes in real time. Insulin and isoproterenol-stimulated triacylglycerol turnover could be monitored in fat cell suspensions. (1-/sup 13/C) glucose was used as a substrate to demonstrate futile metabolic cycling from glucose to glycerol during lypolysis. Cell wall polysaccharide synthesis was followed in suspensions of P. milliaceum cells using (1-/sup 13/C) glucose as a precursor. These results illustrate the wide range of living systems which are amenable to study with NMR. 14 refs., 21 figs.

  5. Colored nectar as an honest signal in plant-animal interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Larson-Rabin, Zachary; Li, De-Zhu; Wang, Hong

    2012-07-01

    Many flowering plants obtain the services of pollinators by using their floral traits as signals to advertise the rewards they offer to visitors-such as nectar, pollen and other food resources. Some plants use colorful pigments to draw pollinators' attention to their nectar, instead of relying on the appeal of nectar taste. Although this rare floral trait of colored nectar was first recorded by the Greek poet Homer in the Odyssey, it has only recently received the attention of modern science. This mini-review focuses on recent findings about some of the species that use colored nectar; topics include its function as an honest signal for pollinators, as well as the pigments responsible for the nectar coloration. Such research of the ecology and physiology of colored nectar expands our understanding of the role and evolution of pollinator signaling in plants. PMID:22751296

  6. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W. )

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Radioecology of Vertebrate Animals in the Area Adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Site in 1986-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan, E. B.; Gashchak, S. P.; Makliuk, Y. A.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    A widespread environmental contamination of the areas adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) site attracted a great deal of publicity to the biological consequences of the ChNPP catastrophe. However, only a few studies focused on a detailed analysis of radioactive contamination of the local wild fauna and most of them were published in Eastern European languages, making them poorly accessible for Western scientists. In addition, evaluation of this information appears difficult due to significant differences in raw data acquisition and analysis methodologies and final data presentation formats. Using an integrated approach to assessment of all available information, the International Radioecology Laboratory scientists showed that the ChNPP accident had increased the average values of the animals 137Cs and 90Sr contamination by a factor of thousands, followed by its decrease by a factor of tens, primarily resulting from a decrease in the biological accessibility of the radionuclides. However, this trend depended on many factors. Plant and bottom feeding fish species were the first to reach the maximum contamination levels. No data are available on other vertebrates, but it can be assumed that the same trend was true for all plant feeding animals and animals searching for food on the soil surface. The most significant decrease of the average values occurred during the first 3-5 years after the accident and it was the most pronounced for elks and plant and plankton feeding fish. Their diet included elements “alienated” from the major radionuclide inventory; for example, upper soil layers and bottom deposits where the fallout that had originally precipitated on plants, water and soils gradually migrated. Further radionuclide penetration into deeper layers of soils and its bonding with their mineral components intensified decontamination of the fauna. It took a while for the contamination of predatory fish and mammals (wolves) to reach the maximum

  8. Deep Sequencing of Plant and Animal DNA Contained within Traditional Chinese Medicines Reveals Legality Issues and Health Safety Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Coghlan, Megan L.; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Murray, Dáithí C.; White, Nicole E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica). Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety especially when

  9. House-plant placement for indoor air purification and health benefits on asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho-Hyun; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Jae-Young; Park, Jung-Won; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Lim, Byung-Seo; Lee, Geon-Woo; Lee, Si-Eun; Shin, Dong-Chun; Lim, Young-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Some plants were placed in indoor locations frequented by asthmatics in order to evaluate the quality of indoor air and examine the health benefits to asthmatics. Methods The present study classified the participants into two groups: households of continuation and households of withdrawal by a quasi-experimental design. The households of continuation spent the two observation terms with indoor plants, whereas the households of withdrawal passed the former observation terms with indoor plants and went through the latter observation term without any indoor plants. Results The household of continuation showed a continual decrease in the indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the entire observation period, but the household of withdrawal performed an increase in the indoor concentrations of VOCs, except formaldehyde and toluene during the latter observation term after the decrease during the former observation term. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) increased in the households of continuation with the value of 13.9 L/min in the morning and 20.6 L/ min in the evening, but decreased in the households of withdrawal with the value of -24.7 L/min in the morning and -30.2 L/min in the evening in the first experimental season. All of the households exhibited a decrease in the value of PEFR in the second experimental season. Conclusions Limitations to the generalizability of findings regarding the presence of plants indoors can be seen as a more general expression of such a benefit of human-environment relations. PMID:25384387

  10. A study of hazardous air pollutants at the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCD Program is a joint effort between government and industry to develop a new generation of coal utilization processes. In 1986, the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power (AEP), was awarded cofunding through the CCT program for the Tidd Pressure Fluidized Bed Combustor (PFBC) Demonstration Plant located in Brilliant, Ohio. The Tidd PFBC unit began operation in 1990 and was later selected as a test site for an advanced particle filtration (APF) system designed for hot gas particulate removal. The APF system was sponsored by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) through their Hot Gas Cleanup Research and Development Program. A complementary goal of the DOE CCT and METC R&D programs has always been to demonstrate the environmental acceptability of these emerging technologies. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) have focused that commitment toward evaluating the fate of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) associated with advanced coal-based and hot gas cleanup technologies. Radian Corporation was contacted by AEP to perform this assessment of HAPs at the Tidd PFBC demonstration plant. The objective of this study is to assess the major input, process, and emission streams at Plant Tidd for the HAPs identified in Title III of the CAAA. Four flue gas stream locations were tested: ESP inlet, ESP outlet, APF inlet, and APF outlet. Other process streams sampled were raw coal, coal paste, sorbent, bed ash, cyclone ash, individual ESP hopper ash, APF ash, and service water. Samples were analyzed for trace elements, minor and major elements, anions, volatile organic compounds, dioxin/furan compounds, ammonia, cyanide, formaldehyde, and semivolatile organic compounds. The particle size distribution in the ESP inlet and outlet gas streams and collected ash from individual ESP hoppers was also determined.

  11. The UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) superfamily expressed in humans, insects and plants: Animal-plant arms-race and co-evolution.

    PubMed

    Bock, Karl Walter

    2016-01-01

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II enzymes of a detoxification system evolved in all kingdoms of life. Lipophilic endobiotics such as hormones and xenobiotics including phytoalexins and drugs are conjugated by vertebrates mainly with glucuronic acid, by invertebrates and plants mainly with glucose. Plant-herbivore arms-race has been the major driving force for evolution of large UGT and other enzyme superfamilies. The UGT superfamily is defined by a common protein structure and signature sequence of 44 amino acids responsible for binding the UDP moiety of the sugar donor. Plants developed toxic phytoalexins stored as glucosides. Upon herbivore attack these conjugates are converted to highly reactive compounds. In turn, animals developed large families of UGTs in their intestine and liver to detoxify these phytoalexins. Interestingly, phytoalexins, exemplified by quercetin glucuronides and glucosinolate-derived isocyanates, are known insect attractant pigments in plants, and antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive compounds of humans. It is to be anticipated that phytochemicals may provide a rich source in beneficial drugs. PMID:26453144

  12. Precise marker excision system using an animal-derived piggyBac transposon in plants.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Endo, Masaki; Osakabe, Keishi; Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2014-02-01

    Accurate and effective positive marker excision is indispensable for the introduction of desired mutations into the plant genome via gene targeting (GT) using a positive/negative counter selection system. In mammals, the moth-derived piggyBac transposon system has been exploited successfully to eliminate a selectable marker from a GT locus without leaving a footprint. Here, we present evidence that the piggyBac transposon also functions in plant cells. To demonstrate the use of the piggyBac transposon for effective marker excision in plants, we designed a transposition assay system that allows the piggyBac transposition to be visualized as emerald luciferase (Eluc) luminescence in rice cells. The Eluc signal derived from piggyBac excision was observed in hyperactive piggyBac transposase-expressing rice calli. Polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analyses and sequencing revealed the efficient and precise transposition of piggyBac in these calli. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the excision of a selection marker from a reporter locus in T0 plants without concomitant re-integration of the transposon and at a high frequency (44.0% of excision events), even in the absence of negative selection. PMID:24164672

  13. Precise marker excision system using an animal-derived piggyBac transposon in plants

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Endo, Masaki; Osakabe, Keishi; Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and effective positive marker excision is indispensable for the introduction of desired mutations into the plant genome via gene targeting (GT) using a positive/negative counter selection system. In mammals, the moth-derived piggyBac transposon system has been exploited successfully to eliminate a selectable marker from a GT locus without leaving a footprint. Here, we present evidence that the piggyBac transposon also functions in plant cells. To demonstrate the use of the piggyBac transposon for effective marker excision in plants, we designed a transposition assay system that allows the piggyBac transposition to be visualized as emerald luciferase (Eluc) luminescence in rice cells. The Eluc signal derived from piggyBac excision was observed in hyperactive piggyBac transposase-expressing rice calli. Polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analyses and sequencing revealed the efficient and precise transposition of piggyBac in these calli. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the excision of a selection marker from a reporter locus in T0 plants without concomitant re-integration of the transposon and at a high frequency (44.0% of excision events), even in the absence of negative selection. PMID:24164672

  14. SEWAGE SLUDGE VIRAL AND PATHOGENIC AGENTS IN SOIL-PLANT-ANIMAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multidisciplinary study was carried out to determine the ultimate fate of various toxic elements or pathogens associated with Florida and Chicago municipal sludges when applied to soil-plant-water systems and to determine physiologic, pathologic, growth, and reproductive respon...

  15. Zinc hazards to plants and animals with emphasis on fishery and wildlife resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    1997-01-01

    Ecological and toxicological aspects of zinc in the environment are reviewed with emphasis on natural resources. Subtopics include sources and uses; chemical and biochemical properties; carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity; background concentrations in biological and nonbiological compartments; effects of zinc deficiency; toxic and sublethal effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic organisms, birds, and mammals; and recommendations for the protection of sensitive resources.

  16. Air Sample Conditioner Helps the Waste Treatment Plant Meet Emissions Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-02

    The air in three of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter off-gas discharge stacks will be hot and humid after passing through the train of emission abatement equipment. The off-gas temperature and humidity levels will be incompatible with the airborne emissions monitoring equipment required for this type of stack. To facilitate sampling from these facilities, an air sample conditioner system will be installed to introduce cool, dry air into the sample stream to reduce the temperature and dew point. This will avoid thermal damage to the instrumentation and problematic condensation. The complete sample transport system must also deliver at least 50% of the particles in the sample airstream to the sample collection and on-line analysis equipment. The primary components of the sample conditioning system were tested in a laboratory setting. The sample conditioner itself is based on a commercially-available porous tube filter design. It consists of a porous sintered metal tube inside a coaxial metal jacket. The hot gas sample stream passes axially through the porous tube, and the dry, cool air is injected into the jacket and through the porous wall of the inner tube, creating an effective sample diluter. The dilution and sample air mix along the entire length of the porous tube, thereby simultaneously reducing the dew point and temperature of the mixed sample stream. Furthermore, because the dilution air enters through the porous tube wall, the sample stream does not come in contact with the porous wall and particle deposition is reduced in this part of the sampling system. Tests were performed with an environmental chamber to supply air with the temperature and humidity needed to simulate the off-gas conditions. Air from the chamber was passed through the conditioning system to test its ability to reduce the temperature and dew point of the sample stream. To measure particle deposition, oil droplets in the range of 9 to 11 micrometer

  17. Ambient air quality at the site of a former manufactured gas plant.

    PubMed

    Collins, M J; Williams, P L; MacIntosh, D L

    2001-05-01

    Prior to the 1950's, manufactured gas was commercially produced from the pyrolysis of coal, coke, and oil at facilities that are termed manufactured gas plants (MGPs). The constituents of residual coal tar present on many MGP sites are an environmental health concern because of their toxicity and the possibility for their off-site migration via water and air. Atmospheric concentrations of five volatile organic compounds (VOCs, e.g., benzene), sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, e.g., naphthalene) and particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) were measured at the site of a former MGP. Air samples were obtained before, during, and after excavation of subterranean coal tar at the site. The results of this investigation indicate that subterranean coal tar was not a primary source of VOCs and PAHs in the local atmosphere before or after remediation of the site. However, excavation, treatment, blending, and transfer of the coal tar during remediation generated concentrations of selected aromatic and semi-volatile organic compounds that were substantially greater than typical ambient levels. In addition, these data suggest that blending and mixing of coal tars could lead to exceedance of the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM10, although additional research is required to fully evaluate this possibility. Nuisance odors associated with the site remediation were likely the result of naphthalene and possibly isomers of xylene. Air pollutant concentrations measured adjacent to the excavation area and at the site perimeter during remediation activities were less than the relevant occupational and environmental exposure limits. PMID:11411141

  18. Water vapor and air transport through ponds with floating aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Kirzhner, F; Zimmels, Y

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the evaporation rate in the purification of wastewater by aquatic plants with aeration. Evaporation of surface water is important in dewatering processes. In particular, this is true in arid climates, where evaporation rates are high. Aeration is known to enhance the wastewater purification process, but it increases concurrently the water evaporation rates. Evaporation and evapotranspiration rates were tested under field and laboratory conditions. Batch experiments were performed to study the levels of evaporation and evapotranspiration in free-water-surface, aquatic-plant systems. The experiments verified that, in these systems, the rate of evaporation increased as a result of aeration in the presence and absence of the aquatic plants. The evaporation rates resulting from aeration were found to be significant in the water balance governing the purification process. A preliminary model for description of the effect of rising air bubbles on the transport of water vapors was formulated. It is shown that aeration may account for a significant part of water losses that include surface evaporation. PMID:17059143

  19. The Detroit River: Effects of contaminants and human activities on aquatic plants and animals and their habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Kenaga, David

    1991-01-01

    Despite the extensive urbanization of its watershed, the Detroit River still supports diverse fish and wildlife populations. Conflicting uses of the river for waste disposal, water withdrawals, shipping, recreation, and fishing require innovative management. Chemicals added by man to the Detroit River have adversely affected the health and habitats of the river's plants and animals. In 1985, as part of an Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels Study sponsored by Environment Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, researchers exposed healthy bacteria, plankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, and birds to Detroit River sediments and sediment porewater. Negative impacts included genetic mutations in bacteria; death of macroinvertebrates; accumulation of contaminants in insects, clams, fish, and ducks; and tumor formation in fish. Field surveys showed areas of the river bottom that were otherwise suitable for habitation by a variety of plants and animals were contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals and occupied only by pollution-tolerant worms. Destruction of shoreline wetlands and disposal of sewage and toxic substances in the Detroit River have reduced habitat and conflict with basic biological processes, including the sustained production of fish and wildlife. Current regulations do not adequately control pollution loadings. However, remedial actions are being formulated by the U.S. and Canada to restore degraded benthic habitats and eliminate discharges of toxic contaminants into the Detroit River.

  20. Analysis of TALE superclass homeobox genes (MEIS, PBC, KNOX, Iroquois, TGIF) reveals a novel domain conserved between plants and animals.

    PubMed Central

    Bürglin, T R

    1997-01-01

    A new Caenorhabditis elegans homeobox gene, ceh-25, is described that belongs to the TALE superclass of atypical homeodomains, which are characterized by three extra residues between helix 1 and helix 2. ORF and PCR analysis revealed a novel type of alternative splicing within the homeobox. The alternative splicing occurs such that two different homeodomains can be generated, which differ in their first 25 amino acids. ceh-25 is an orthologue of the vertebrate Meis genes and it shares a new conserved domain of 130 amino acids with them. A thorough analysis of all TALE homeobox genes was performed and a new classification is presented. Four TALE classes are identified in animals: PBC, MEIS, TGIF and IRO (Iroquois); two types in fungi: the mating type genes (M-ATYP) and the CUP genes; and two types in plants: KNOX and BEL. The IRO class has a new conserved motif downstream of the homeodomain. For the KNOX class, a conserved domain, the KNOX domain, was defined upstream of the homeodomain. Comparison of the KNOX domain and the MEIS domain shows significant sequence similarity revealing the existence of an archetypal group of homeobox genes that encode two associated conserved domains. Thus TALE homeobox genes were already present in the common ancestor of plants, fungi and animals and represent a branch distinct from the typical homeobox genes. PMID:9336443

  1. Low Carbohydrate Diet From Plant or Animal Sources and Mortality Among Myocardial Infarction Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanshan; Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K.; Forman, John P.; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter C.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    Background The healthiest dietary pattern for myocardial infarction (MI) survivors is not known. Specific long‐term benefits of a low‐carbohydrate diet (LCD) are unknown, whether from animal or vegetable sources. There is a need to examine the associations between post‐MI adherence to an LCD and all‐cause and cardiovascular mortality. Methods and Results We included 2258 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 1840 men from the Health Professional Follow‐Up Study who had survived a first MI during follow‐up and provided a pre‐MI and at least 1 post‐MI food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to an LCD high in animal sources of protein and fat was associated with higher all‐cause and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratios of 1.33 [95% CI: 1.06 to 1.65] for all‐cause mortality and 1.51 [95% CI: 1.09 to 2.07] for cardiovascular mortality comparing extreme quintiles). An increase in adherence to an animal‐based LCD prospectively assessed from the pre‐ to post‐MI period was associated with higher all‐cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratios of 1.30 [95% CI: 1.03 to 1.65] for all‐cause mortality and 1.53 [95% CI: 1.10 to 2.13] for cardiovascular mortality comparing extreme quintiles). An increase in adherence to a plant‐based LCD was not associated with lower all‐cause or cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions Greater adherence to an LCD high in animal sources of fat and protein was associated with higher all‐cause and cardiovascular mortality post‐MI. We did not find a health benefit from greater adherence to an LCD overall after MI. PMID:25246449

  2. A novel preference for an invasive plant as a mechanism for animal hybrid speciation.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Dietmar; Shoemaker, Katrina D; Botteri, Nicole L; McPheron, Bruce A

    2007-02-01

    Homoploid hybrid speciation--speciation via hybridization without a change in chromosome number--is rarely documented and poorly understood in animals. In particular, the mechanisms by which animal homoploid hybrid species become ecologically and reproductively isolated from their parents are hypothetical and remain largely untested by experiments. For the many host-specific parasites that mate on their host, choosing the right host is the most important ecological and reproductive barrier between these species. One example of a host-specific parasite is the Lonicera fly, a population of tephritid fruit flies that evolved within the last 250 years likely by hybridization between two native Rhagoletis species following a host shift to invasive honeysuckle. We studied the host preference of the Lonicera fly and its putative parent species in laboratory experiments. The Lonicera fly prefers its new host, introduced honeysuckle, over the hosts of both parental species, demonstrating the rapid acquisition of preference for a new host as a means of behavioral isolation from the parent species. The parent taxa discriminate against each other's native hosts, but both accept honeysuckle fruit, leaving the potential for asymmetric gene flow from the parent species. Importantly, this pattern allows us to formulate hypotheses about the initial formation of the Lonicera fly. As mating partners from the two parent taxa are more likely to meet on invasive honeysuckle than on their respective native hosts, independent acceptance of honeysuckle by both parents likely preceded hybridization. We propose that invasive honeysuckle served as a catalyst for the local breakdown of reproductive isolation between the native parent species, a novel consequence of the introduction of an exotic weed. We describe behavioral mechanisms that explain the initial hybridization and subsequent reproductive isolation of the hybrid Lonicera fly. These results provide experimental support for a

  3. Distribution of the modified nucleoside Q and its derivatives in animal and plant transfer RNA's.

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, H; Kuchino, Y; Nihei, K; Nishimura, S

    1975-01-01

    The modified nucleoside, 7-(4,5-cis-dihydroxy-1-cyclopenten-3-yl-aminomethyl)-7-deazaguanosine, designated as Q, and its derivative, Q*, were found in tRNA's from various organisms, including several mammalian tissues, other animals such as starfish, lingula and hagfish, and wheat germ. Q isolated from rat liver tRNA was found to be identical with E. coli Q by mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography. Thus the rare modified nucleoside Q originally isolated from E. coli tRNA, is widely distributed in various organisms. Analysis of the mass spectrum of Q* suggested that it has a different side chain from Q. PMID:1187350

  4. Different sequence signatures in the upstream regions of plant and animal tRNA genes shape distinct modes of regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gong; Lukoszek, Radoslaw; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Ignatova, Zoya

    2011-04-01

    In eukaryotes, the transcription of tRNA genes is initiated by the concerted action of transcription factors IIIC (TFIIIC) and IIIB (TFIIIB) which direct the recruitment of polymerase III. While TFIIIC recognizes highly conserved, intragenic promoter elements, TFIIIB binds to the non-coding 5'-upstream regions of the tRNA genes. Using a systematic bioinformatic analysis of 11 multicellular eukaryotic genomes we identified a highly conserved TATA motif followed by a CAA-motif in the tRNA upstream regions of all plant genomes. Strikingly, the 5'-flanking tRNA regions of the animal genomes are highly heterogeneous and lack a common conserved sequence signature. Interestingly, in the animal genomes the tRNA species that read the same codon share conserved motifs in their upstream regions. Deep-sequencing analysis of 16 human tissues revealed multiple splicing variants of two of the TFIIIB subunits, Bdp1 and Brf1, with tissue-specific expression patterns. These multiple forms most likely modulate the TFIIIB-DNA interactions and explain the lack of a uniform signature motif in the tRNA upstream regions of animal genomes. The anticodon-dependent 5'-flanking motifs provide a possible mechanism for independent regulation of the tRNA transcription in various human tissues. PMID:21138970

  5. Different sequence signatures in the upstream regions of plant and animal tRNA genes shape distinct modes of regulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gong; Lukoszek, Radoslaw; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Ignatova, Zoya

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the transcription of tRNA genes is initiated by the concerted action of transcription factors IIIC (TFIIIC) and IIIB (TFIIIB) which direct the recruitment of polymerase III. While TFIIIC recognizes highly conserved, intragenic promoter elements, TFIIIB binds to the non-coding 5′-upstream regions of the tRNA genes. Using a systematic bioinformatic analysis of 11 multicellular eukaryotic genomes we identified a highly conserved TATA motif followed by a CAA-motif in the tRNA upstream regions of all plant genomes. Strikingly, the 5′-flanking tRNA regions of the animal genomes are highly heterogeneous and lack a common conserved sequence signature. Interestingly, in the animal genomes the tRNA species that read the same codon share conserved motifs in their upstream regions. Deep-sequencing analysis of 16 human tissues revealed multiple splicing variants of two of the TFIIIB subunits, Bdp1 and Brf1, with tissue-specific expression patterns. These multiple forms most likely modulate the TFIIIB–DNA interactions and explain the lack of a uniform signature motif in the tRNA upstream regions of animal genomes. The anticodon-dependent 5′-flanking motifs provide a possible mechanism for independent regulation of the tRNA transcription in various human tissues. PMID:21138970

  6. Eicosanoids and Related Compounds in Plants and Animals (Edited by A. F. Rowley, H. Kuhn, and T. Schewe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minderhout, Reviewed By Vicky

    2000-04-01

    I was intrigued with the title Eicosanoids and Related Compounds in Plants and Animals because of my interest in eicosanoid biochemistry and the fact that most biochemistry texts cover the mammalian component (briefly) but include nothing on plants or other eukaryotic systems. How do eicosanoids function in plants? I wanted to know. The driving force for this book was the session specifically devoted to Non-Mammalian Eicosanoids at each of the 8th, 9th, and 10th International Conferences on Prostaglandins and Related Compounds. This collection probably represents one of the first attempts to gather a broad cross-section of the work in this field. The editors do not wish to repeat material available in key reviews elsewhere. Instead, they provide a useful bibliography, including books, review articles and important works for further reading. Each chapter incorporates an extensive list of references and the book includes a subject index. The editors, judging by the numbers of recent publications, are active researchers in this field. The book is divided into two sections. The first covers the enzymes and factors involved in the biosynthesis of eicosanoids. There is an introductory chapter on pathways, which includes both animal and plant systems. The next five chapters examine the diversity and evolutionary aspects of several proteins: cyclooxygenases; lipooxygenases, both mammalian and plant; and 5-lipooxygenase-activating-protein. This section concludes with a chapter covering the production of oxygenated fatty acid derivatives that are produced by or are active in fungi, as broadly defined. The second section of the book covers the functional aspects of eicosanoids and related compounds. Two chapters dealing with lipoxygenases in plants are followed by three chapters on eicosanoids in invertebrates, amphibians, and fish. The second section was of the most interest to me personally because I was able find answers to my initial question. How do these eicosanoids

  7. Response of Plant Parasitic and Free Living Soil Nematodes to Composted Animal Manure Soil Amendments

    PubMed Central

    Renčo, M.; Kováčik, P.

    2012-01-01

    In an outside pot experiment, dry pig manure processed on pine sawdust litter and fermented for seven days by house fly larvae (fermented manure), and pine sawdust applied alone, and in combination with a spring application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine their effects on plant parasitic and free-living soil nematodes on sugar beets (cv. Antek). Non amended soil was used as a control. All treatments with fermented pig manure and sawdust with nitrogen fertilizer decreased number of plant parasitic nematodes and also root-fungal feeding nematodes compared to the untreated control. Sawdust applied alone had no effect on plant parasitic and root-fungal feeding nematode suppression. Free-living nematodes which were mainly bacteriovores and fungivores were significantly more abundant in soil amended with fermented pig manure, while the sawdust had no effect on these nematodes. The effect of all tested treatments on omnivores-predators was rather random, and in general, the number of these nematodes decreased after soil amendment applications compared to the untreated control. PMID:23482503

  8. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

    PubMed Central

    Cu, T. T. T.; Nguyen, T. X.; Triolo, J. M.; Pedersen, L.; Le, V. D.; Le, P. D.; Sommer, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg−1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam. PMID:25557826

  9. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    PubMed

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam. PMID:25557826

  10. UCD-SPI: Un-Collimated Detector Single-Photon Imaging System for Small Animal and Plant Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Katherine Leigh

    Medical imaging systems using single gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes implement collimators in order to form images. However, a tradeoff in sensitivity is inherent in the use of collimators, and modern preclinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems detect a very small fraction of emitted gamma-rays (<0.3%). We have built a collimator-less system, which can reach sensitivity of 40% for 99mTc imaging, while still producing images of sufficient spatial resolution for certain applications in "thin" objects such as mice, small plants, and well plates used for in vitro experiments. This flexible geometry un-collimated detector single-photon imaging (UCD-SPI) system consists of two large (5 cm x 10 cm), thin (3 mm and 5 mm), closely spaced, pixelated scintillation detectors of either NaI(Tl), CsI(Na), or BGO. The detectors are read out by two adjacent Hamamatsu H8500 multichannel photomultiplier tubes. The detector heads enable the interchange of scintillation detectors of different materials and thicknesses to optimize performance for a wide range of gamma-ray energies and imaging subjects. The detectors are horizontally oriented for animal imaging, and for plant imaging the system is rotated on its side to orient the detectors vertically. While this un-collimated detector system is unable to approach the sub-mm spatial resolution obtained by the most advanced preclinical pinhole SPECT systems, the high sensitivity could enable significant and new use in molecular imaging applications which do not require good spatial resolution- for example, screening applications for drug development (small animals), for material transport and sequestration studies for phytoremediation (plants), or for counting radiolabeled cells in vitro (well plates).

  11. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    PubMed

    2008-03-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular, compositional, phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart. The safety assessment is focussed on (i) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible

  12. PCDD/F emissions and distributions in Waelz plant and ambient air during different operating stages.

    PubMed

    Chi, Kai Hsien; Chang, Shu Hao; Chang, Moo Been

    2007-04-01

    Significant formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has been observed in a typical Waelz process plant. In 2005, the Waelz plant investigated was equipped with a dust settling chamber (DSC), a venturi cooling tower, a cyclone (CY), and baghouse filter (BF). In early 2006 activated carbon injection (ACI) was adopted to reduce PCDD/F emissions from the plant investigated. Samplings of flue gases and ash were simultaneously conducted at different sampling points in the Waelz plantto evaluate removal efficiency and partitioning of PCDD/Fs between the gas phase and particulates. As the operating temperature of the dust settling chamber (DSC) is increased from 480 to 580 degrees C, the PCDD/F concentration measured at the DSC outlet decreases from 1220 to 394 ng-l-TEQ/Nm3. By applying ACI, the PCDD/F concentrations of stack gas decrease from 139-194 to 3.38 ng-l-TEQ/ Nm(3) (a reduction of 97.6-98.3%) while the PCDD/F concentration of reacted ash increases dramatically from 0.97 to 29.4 ng-l-TEQ/g, as the activated carbon injection rate is controlled at 40 kg/h. Additionally, ambient air PCDD/F concentrations were measured in the vicinity of this facility during different operating stages (shutdown, and operation with and without ACI). The ambient PCDD/F concentration measured downwind and 2.5 km from the Waelz plant decreases from 568 to 206 fg-I-TEQ/m(3) after ACI has been applied to collect the dioxins. Due to the high PCDD/F removal efficiency achieved with ACI + BF, about 24.3 and 3980 ng-l-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated are discharged via stack gas and reacted ash, respectively, in this facility. PMID:17438809

  13. Long-term biobarriers to plant and animal intrusions of uranium tailings. [24% trifluralin, 18% carbon black, and 58% polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, J.F.; Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Skiens, W.E.; Gano, K.A.

    1982-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of physical and chemical barriers designed to prevent plant and animal breachment of uranium mill tailings containment systems for an extended period of time. A polymeric carrier/biocide delivery system was developed and tested in the laboratory, greenhouse and field. A continuous flow technique was established to determine the release rates of the biocides from the PCD systems; polymeric carrier specifications were established. Studies were conducted to determine effective biocide concentrations required to produce a phytotoxic response and the relative rates of phytotoxin degradation resulting from chemical and biological breakdown in soils. The final PCD system developed was a pelletized system containing 24% trifluralin, 18% carbon black and 58% polymer. Pellets were placed in the soil at the Grand Junction U-tailings site at one in. and two in. intervals. Data obtained in the field determined that the pellets released enough herbicide to the soil layer to stop root elongation past the barrier. Physical barriers to subsurface movement of burrowing animals were investigated. Small crushed stone (1 to 1 1/2 in. diameter) placed over asphalt emulsion and multilayer soil seals proved effective as barriers to a small mammal (ground squirrels) but were not of sufficient size to stop a larger animal (the prairie dog). No penetrations were made through the asphalt emulsion or the clay layer of the multilayer soil seals by either of the two mammals tested. A literature survey was prepared and published on the burrowing habits of the animals that may be found at U-tailings sites.

  14. Effect of an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant on ambient air densities of aerosols containing bacteria and viruses.

    PubMed

    Fannin, K F; Vana, S C; Jakubowski, W

    1985-05-01

    Bacteria- and virus-containing aerosols were studied during the late summer and fall seasons in a midwestern suburb of the United States before and during the start-up and operation of an unenclosed activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. The study showed that the air in this suburban area contained low-level densities of indicator microorganisms. After the plant began operating, the densities of total aerobic bacteria-containing particles, standard plate count bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, and coliphages increased significantly in the air within the perimeter of the plant. Before plant operations, bacteria were detected from five genera, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Salmonella, and Aeromonas. During plant operations, the number of genera identified increased to 11. In addition to those genera found before plant operations, Escherichia, Providencia, Citrobacter, Acinetobacter, Pasteurella, and Proteus, were also identified. Enteric viruses were detected in low densities from the air emissions of this plant. Only standard plate count bacteria remained at significantly higher than base-line densities beyond 250 m downwind from the center of the aeration tanks. Fecal streptococci and coliphages appeared to be more stable in aerosols than the other indicator microorganisms studied. In general, the densities of microorganism-containing aerosols were higher at night than during the day. The techniques used in this study may be employed to establish microorganism-containing aerosol exposure during epidemiological investigations. PMID:2988442

  15. Monitoring of Plant Light/Dark Cycles Using Air-coupled Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fariñas, M. D.; Sancho-Knapik, D.; Peguero-Pina, J.; Gil-Pelegrín, E.; Álvarez-Arenas, T. E. G.

    This work presents the application of a technique based on the excitation, sensing and spectral analysis of leaves thickness resonances using air-coupled and wide-band ultrasound to monitor variations in leaves properties due to the plant response along light/dark cycles. The main features of these resonances are determined by the tautness of the cells walls in such a way that small modifications produced by variations in the transpiration rate, stomata aperture or water potential have a direct effect on the thickness resonances that can be measured in a completely non-invasive and contactless way. Results show that it is possible to monitor leaves changes due to variations in light intensity along the diurnal cycle, moreover, the technique reveals differences in the leaf response for different species and also within the same species but for specimens grown under different conditions that present different cell structures at the tissue level.

  16. Development of an ambient air sampler that satisfies RF plant monitoring requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Nininger, R.C.; Pauley, B.J.

    1993-05-01

    EG&G Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is developing a new ambient air particulate sampler to replace units that have been in service for about twenty years. The new sampler is required to operate at a flow rate approximately twice that of the existing samplers and admit particles as large as 70 micrometers aerodynamic diameter. The sampler provides two size fractions with separation at 10 micrometers. using a single stage impactor designed at RFP and carrying a Department of Energy (DOE) patent. The sampler is modular for easy servicing in the field and its operation can be checked via radiotelemetry. The sampler, designed to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for PM-10 sampling, is currently being characterized in EPA`s laboratories at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

  17. Development of an ambient air sampler that satisfies RF plant monitoring requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Nininger, R.C.; Pauley, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    EG G Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is developing a new ambient air particulate sampler to replace units that have been in service for about twenty years. The new sampler is required to operate at a flow rate approximately twice that of the existing samplers and admit particles as large as 70 micrometers aerodynamic diameter. The sampler provides two size fractions with separation at 10 micrometers. using a single stage impactor designed at RFP and carrying a Department of Energy (DOE) patent. The sampler is modular for easy servicing in the field and its operation can be checked via radiotelemetry. The sampler, designed to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for PM-10 sampling, is currently being characterized in EPA's laboratories at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

  18. Auditing of sampling methods for air toxics at coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agbede, R.O.; Clements, J.L.; Grunebach, M.G.

    1995-11-01

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) with subcontract assistance from international Technology Corporation (IT) has provided external audit activities for Phase II of the Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s air emission test program. The objective of the audits is to help ensure that the data obtained from the emission tests are precise, accurate, representative, scientifically sound and legally defensible. This paper presents the criteria that were used to perform the external audits of the emission test program. It also describes the approach used by ATS and It in performing their audits. Examples of findings of the audits along with the actions take to correct problems and the subsequent effect of those actions on the test data are presented. The results of audit spikes performed at the Plant 1 test site are also discussed.

  19. Pollution prevention at Air Force Plant {number{underscore}sign}4

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E.D.; Brown, C.J.; Strukely, T.; Scott, W.D.

    1999-07-01

    Air Force Plant {number{underscore}sign}4 in Fort Worth, Texas is home to Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems (LMTAS). This multi-million square foot facility provides all of the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing capabilities necessary to produce the F-16 fighter and the center fuselage of the F-22 fighter. A large number of chemical products and processes are required to achieve the complex manufacturing goals. Since the early 1980s, a pollution prevention program has been in place at LMTAS to eliminate or minimize the use of hazardous chemicals and processes. The structure involves an interdepartmental teaming arrangement to determine satisfactory alternatives to existing procedures as well as development of environmentally friendly methods for new design. Many of the successes are a result of teaming arrangements between LMTAS and the USAF.

  20. Mitochondria, Chloroplasts in Animal and Plant Cells: Significance of Conformational Matching

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, George B.; Snyder, Christopher; Kream, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Many commonalities between chloroplasts and mitochondria exist, thereby suggesting a common origin via a bacterial ancestor capable of enhanced ATP-dependent energy production functionally linked to cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Accordingly, the molecular evolution/retention of the catalytic Qo quinol oxidation site of cytochrome b complexes as the tetrapeptide PEWY sequence functionally underlies the common retention of a chemiosmotic proton gradient mechanism for ATP synthesis in cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Furthermore, the dual regulatory targeting of mitochondrial and chloroplast gene expression by mitochondrial transcription termination factor (MTERF) proteins to promote optimal energy production and oxygen consumption further advances these evolutionary contentions. As a functional consequence of enhanced oxygen utilization and production, significant levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be generated within mitochondria and chloroplasts, which may effectively compromise cellular energy production following prolonged stress/inflammationary conditions. Interestingly, both types of organelles have been identified in selected animal cells, most notably specialized digestive cells lining the gut of several species of Sacoglossan sea slugs. Termed kleptoplasty or kleptoplastic endosymbiosis, functional chloroplasts from algal food sources are internalized and stored within digestive cells to provide the host with dual energy sources derived from mitochondrial and photosynthetic processes. Recently, the observation of internalized algae within embryonic tissues of the spotted salamander strongly suggest that developmental processes within a vertebrate organism may require photosynthetic endosymbiosis as an internal regulator. The dual presence of mitochondria and functional chloroplasts within specialized animal cells indicates a high degree of biochemical identity, stereoselectivity, and conformational matching that are the likely

  1. The lead content of plants and animals as indicators of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Adaudi, A.O.; Gbodi, T.A.; Aliu, Y.O. )

    1990-10-01

    Lead content of tissues from some edible plants, pigeons and a vulture, and from human and cattle blood were determined to gain insight into the extent of environmental lead contamination in Zaria and Kaduna environs of Kaduna state of Nigeria. The results suggest that environmental lead contamination in these areas was insignificant when compared to values from developed countries like US. However, there is need for more work of this nature on a regional basis to ascertain the true picture of total environmental lead pollution in Nigeria.

  2. Primary Hepatocellular Tumors in Animals Killed at Meat Packing Plants: Report of 11 cases

    PubMed Central

    Bundza, A.; Greig, A. S.; Dukes, T. W.

    1984-01-01

    Eight bovine, two ovine and one porcine primary hepatocellular neoplasms were found during a five year survey of tumors from meat packing plants. The tumors varied in size and usually were yellow-grey. Some were encapsulated and divided into lobules by fibrous septa. The tumor cells closely resembled normal hepatocytes and were arranged in a trabecular pattern or in sheets with caverns or were a mixture of the two. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions were present in one bovine and one ovine case. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:17422364

  3. Expression Atlas update—an integrated database of gene and protein expression in humans, animals and plants

    PubMed Central

    Petryszak, Robert; Keays, Maria; Tang, Y. Amy; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Barrera, Elisabet; Burdett, Tony; Füllgrabe, Anja; Fuentes, Alfonso Muñoz-Pomer; Jupp, Simon; Koskinen, Satu; Mannion, Oliver; Huerta, Laura; Megy, Karine; Snow, Catherine; Williams, Eleanor; Barzine, Mitra; Hastings, Emma; Weisser, Hendrik; Wright, James; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Huber, Wolfgang; Choudhary, Jyoti; Parkinson, Helen E.; Brazma, Alvis

    2016-01-01

    Expression Atlas (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/gxa) provides information about gene and protein expression in animal and plant samples of different cell types, organism parts, developmental stages, diseases and other conditions. It consists of selected microarray and RNA-sequencing studies from ArrayExpress, which have been manually curated, annotated with ontology terms, checked for high quality and processed using standardised analysis methods. Since the last update, Atlas has grown seven-fold (1572 studies as of August 2015), and incorporates baseline expression profiles of tissues from Human Protein Atlas, GTEx and FANTOM5, and of cancer cell lines from ENCODE, CCLE and Genentech projects. Plant studies constitute a quarter of Atlas data. For genes of interest, the user can view baseline expression in tissues, and differential expression for biologically meaningful pairwise comparisons—estimated using consistent methodology across all of Atlas. Our first proteomics study in human tissues is now displayed alongside transcriptomics data in the same tissues. Novel analyses and visualisations include: ‘enrichment’ in each differential comparison of GO terms, Reactome, Plant Reactome pathways and InterPro domains; hierarchical clustering (by baseline expression) of most variable genes and experimental conditions; and, for a given gene-condition, distribution of baseline expression across biological replicates. PMID:26481351

  4. Where Is My Food? Brazilian Flower Fly Steals Prey from Carnivorous Sundews in a Newly Discovered Plant-Animal Interaction.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Andreas; Rivadavia, Fernando; Gonella, Paulo M; Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Mengual, Ximo; Rojo, Santos

    2016-01-01

    A new interaction between insects and carnivorous plants is reported from Brazil. Larvae of the predatory flower fly Toxomerus basalis (Diptera: Syrphidae: Syrphinae) have been found scavenging on the sticky leaves of several carnivorous sundew species (Drosera, Droseraceae) in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states, SE Brazil. This syrphid apparently spends its whole larval stage feeding on prey trapped by Drosera leaves. The nature of this plant-animal relationship is discussed, as well as the Drosera species involved, and locations where T. basalis was observed. 180 years after the discovery of this flower fly species, its biology now has been revealed. This is (1) the first record of kleptoparasitism in the Syrphidae, (2) a new larval feeding mode for this family, and (3) the first report of a dipteran that shows a kleptoparasitic relationship with a carnivorous plant with adhesive flypaper traps. The first descriptions of the third instar larva and puparium of T. basalis based on Scanning Electron Microscope analysis are provided. PMID:27144980

  5. Where Is My Food? Brazilian Flower Fly Steals Prey from Carnivorous Sundews in a Newly Discovered Plant-Animal Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Rivadavia, Fernando; Gonella, Paulo M.; Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Mengual, Ximo; Rojo, Santos

    2016-01-01

    A new interaction between insects and carnivorous plants is reported from Brazil. Larvae of the predatory flower fly Toxomerus basalis (Diptera: Syrphidae: Syrphinae) have been found scavenging on the sticky leaves of several carnivorous sundew species (Drosera, Droseraceae) in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states, SE Brazil. This syrphid apparently spends its whole larval stage feeding on prey trapped by Drosera leaves. The nature of this plant-animal relationship is discussed, as well as the Drosera species involved, and locations where T. basalis was observed. 180 years after the discovery of this flower fly species, its biology now has been revealed. This is (1) the first record of kleptoparasitism in the Syrphidae, (2) a new larval feeding mode for this family, and (3) the first report of a dipteran that shows a kleptoparasitic relationship with a carnivorous plant with adhesive flypaper traps. The first descriptions of the third instar larva and puparium of T. basalis based on Scanning Electron Microscope analysis are provided. PMID:27144980

  6. Synthetic Cyclolipopeptides Selective against Microbial, Plant and Animal Cell Targets by Incorporation of D-Amino Acids or Histidine

    PubMed Central

    Vilà, Sílvia; Badosa, Esther; Montesinos, Emilio; Planas, Marta; Feliu, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Cyclolipopeptides derived from the antimicrobial peptide c(Lys-Lys-Leu-Lys-Lys-Phe-Lys-Lys-Leu-Gln) (BPC194) were prepared on solid-phase and screened against four plant pathogens. The incorporation at Lys5 of fatty acids of 4 to 9 carbon atoms led to active cyclolipopeptides. The influence on the antimicrobial activity of the Lys residue that is derivatized was also evaluated. In general, acylation of Lys1, Lys2 or Lys5 rendered the sequences with the highest activity. Incorporation of a D-amino acid maintained the antimicrobial activity while significantly reduced the hemolysis. Replacement of Phe with a His also yielded cyclolipopeptides with low hemolytic activity. Derivatives exhibiting low phytotoxicity in tobacco leaves were also found. Interestingly, sequences with or without significant activity against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi, but with differential hemolysis and phytotoxicity were identified. Therefore, this study represents an approach to the development of bioactive peptides with selective activity against microbial, plant and animal cell targets. These selective cyclolipopeptides are candidates useful not only to combat plant pathogens but also to be applied in other fields. PMID:27008420

  7. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  8. Richard Bradley: a unified, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants, animals, and humans in the first decades of the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Santer, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    During the years 1714 to 1721, Richard Bradley, who was later to become the first Professor of Botany at Cambridge University, proposed a unified, unique, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants and animals and the plague of humans. Bradley's agents included microscopic organisms, revealed by the studies of Robert Hooke and Antony van Leeuwenhoek. His theory derived from his experimental studies of plants and their diseases and from microscopic observation of animalcules in different naturally occurring and artificial environments. He concluded that there was a microscopic world of "insects" that lived and reproduced under the appropriate conditions, and that infectious diseases of plants were caused by such "insects." Since there are structural and functional similarities between plants and animals, Bradley concluded that microscopic organisms caused human and animal infectious diseases as well. However, his living agent cause of infectious diseases was not accepted by the contemporary scientific society. PMID:19855125

  9. Isolation and identification of plant phenolic compounds in birch leaves: Air pollution stress and leaf phenolics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loponen, Jyrki Mikael

    Chromatographic (analytical and preparative HPLC), chemical (hydrolysis) and spectroscopic (UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS) techniques proved to be suitable tools for the structure identification of plant phenolic compounds. More than 30 individual phenolic compounds were detected and quantified. Detailed information of the structures of individual compounds was determined after isolation from birch leaves. Ten flavonoid glycosides were identified. Two of them, myricetin-3-O-α-L-(acetyl)-rhamnopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-α-L-(4/prime'-O-acetyl)- rhamnopyranoside, have been rarely found in birch leaves. Further, some characterized major phenolics with non- flavonoid structures in our study were 1-O-galloyl- β-D-(2-O-acetyl)-glucopyranose, gallic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, cis- and trans-forms of 3- and 5-p-coumaroylquinic acids. The presence of gallotannin group was evidenced by strong positive correlations between concentrations of these gallotannins (preliminary identified by HPLC and UV spectra) and the protein precipitation capacity of extracts. Content of gallotannins decreased with leaf growth and maturation. It is known that concentrations of phenolic compounds regularly increase in slowly growing stressed plants and therefore, it is natural that they are also sensitive to different forms of air pollution. Total content and the contents of some individual phenolics correlated negatively with the distance from the pollution source in our study area. In addition to comparing absolute concentrations of compounds in question, the within-tree correlations or within-tree variations of the relevant compounds between polluted and control areas were an alternative approach. Differences in pairwise correlations between the investigated leaf phenolic compounds indicated the competition between some gallotannins and p-coumaroylquinic acids on the polluted but not on the control site. Air pollution seems to be a stress factor for birch trees associated with

  10. Direct effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction. Progress report, February 1, 1981-January 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.

    1982-10-07

    Direct effects of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ on plant sexual reproduction were studied including essential botanical research into modes of anthesis, pollination, pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Much of the present scientific knowledge of the direct in vivo effects of the major air pollutants, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/, on plant sexual reproduction is a direct result of studies accomplished under this DOE contract. It is our intention to carry this research forward to include similar assessment of a third major air pollutant, ozone.

  11. Air-quality impact analysis for Easton Utilities Commission Power Plant No. 2, units 23 and 24. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Timbre, K.; Pfeffer, N.; Kahler, M.

    1986-09-01

    This report examines the air-quality impact of the proposed addition of two new diesel units to the two existing diesel units at Easton Utilities Commission Power Plant No. 2. The EPA-approved Industrial Source Complex (ISC) dispersion model was used to predict ground-level concentration impacts from Power Plant No. 2. Five years (1968-1972) of meteorological data characteristic of the site were used for the analysis. It was concluded that the projected emissions from the proposed addition would not cause or contribute to violations of the applicable air-quality standards.

  12. Identification, quantification and treatment of fecal odors released into the air at two wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yubin; Hallis, Samantha A; Vitko, Tadeo; Suffet, Irwin H Mel

    2016-09-15

    Odorous emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are an annoyance for neighboring communities. This article, for the first time, quantitatively reports on an evaluation of the presence of fecal odorants identified in air samples from two exemplary WWTPs by the odor profile method (OPM) and chemical analysis. The fecal odorants indole and skatole were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The odor threshold concentration of skatole was determined to be 0.327 ng/L (60 pptV) in Teflon Bags by an expert panel. Skatole was found to be the primary chemical leading to fecal odor, due to its odor concentration to odor threshold concentration ratio that ranged from 2.8 to 22.5. The Weber-Fechner law was followed by pure skatole, but was not applicable when there was a mixture of fecal odorants and other odorant types present in WWTP air emission samples. This is probably caused by antagonism with other odorant types. Several existing odor control treatment methods for fecal odorants were evaluated at different wastewater treatment operations at two WWTPs by the OPM and chemical analysis for indole and skatole. Chemical scrubbing and biofiltration performed best in removing fecal odors among current control technologies. PMID:27235805

  13. Protected air-cooled condenser for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Louison, R.; Boardman, C.E.

    1981-05-29

    The long term residual heat removal for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is accomplished through the use of three protected air-cooled condensers (PACC's) each rated at 15M/sub t/ following a normal or emergency shutdown of the reactor. Steam is condensed by forcing air over the finned and coiled condenser tubes located above the steam drums. The steam flow is by natural convection. It is drawn to the PACC tube bundle for the steam drum by the lower pressure region in the tube bundle created from the condensing action. The concept of the tube bundle employs a unique patented configuration which has been commercially available through CONSECO Inc. of Medfore, Wisconsin. The concept provides semi-parallel flow that minimizes subcooling and reduces steam/condensate flow instabilities that have been observed on other similar heat transfer equipment such as moisture separator reheaters (MSRS). The improved flow stability will reduce temperature cycling and associated mechanical fatigue. The PACC is being designed to operate during and following the design basis earthquake, depressurization from the design basis tornado and is housed in protective building enclosure which is also designed to withstand the above mentioned events.

  14. Systematic NMR Analysis of Stable Isotope Labeled Metabolite Mixtures in Plant and Animal Systems: Coarse Grained Views of Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chikayama, Eisuke; Suto, Michitaka; Nishihara, Takashi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Hirayama, Takashi; Kikuchi, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Background Metabolic phenotyping has become an important ‘bird's-eye-view’ technology which can be applied to higher organisms, such as model plant and animal systems in the post-genomics and proteomics era. Although genotyping technology has expanded greatly over the past decade, metabolic phenotyping has languished due to the difficulty of ‘top-down’ chemical analyses. Here, we describe a systematic NMR methodology for stable isotope-labeling and analysis of metabolite mixtures in plant and animal systems. Methodology/Principal Findings The analysis method includes a stable isotope labeling technique for use in living organisms; a systematic method for simultaneously identifying a large number of metabolites by using a newly developed HSQC-based metabolite chemical shift database combined with heteronuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy; Principal Components Analysis; and a visualization method using a coarse-grained overview of the metabolic system. The database contains more than 1000 1H and 13C chemical shifts corresponding to 142 metabolites measured under identical physicochemical conditions. Using the stable isotope labeling technique in Arabidopsis T87 cultured cells and Bombyx mori, we systematically detected >450 HSQC peaks in each 13C-HSQC spectrum derived from model plant, Arabidopsis T87 cultured cells and the invertebrate animal model Bombyx mori. Furthermore, for the first time, efficient 13C labeling has allowed reliable signal assignment using analytical separation techniques such as 3D HCCH-COSY spectra in higher organism extracts. Conclusions/Significance Overall physiological changes could be detected and categorized in relation to a critical developmental phase change in B. mori by coarse-grained representations in which the organization of metabolic pathways related to a specific developmental phase was visualized on the basis of constituent changes of 56 identified metabolites. Based on the observed intensities of 13C atoms of

  15. DLGP: A database for lineage-conserved and lineage-specific gene pairs in animal and plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dapeng

    2016-01-15

    The conservation of gene organization in the genome with lineage-specificity is an invaluable resource to decipher their potential functionality with diverse selective constraints, especially in higher animals and plants. Gene pairs appear to be the minimal structure for such kind of gene clusters that tend to reside in their preferred locations, representing the distinctive genomic characteristics in single species or a given lineage. Despite gene families having been investigated in a widespread manner, the definition of gene pair families in various taxa still lacks adequate attention. To address this issue, we report DLGP (http://lcgbase.big.ac.cn/DLGP/) that stores the pre-calculated lineage-based gene pairs in currently available 134 animal and plant genomes and inspect them under the same analytical framework, bringing out a set of innovational features. First, the taxonomy or lineage has been classified into four levels such as Kingdom, Phylum, Class and Order. It adopts all-to-all comparison strategy to identify the possible conserved gene pairs in all species for each gene pair in certain species and reckon those that are conserved in over a significant proportion of species in a given lineage (e.g. Primates, Diptera or Poales) as the lineage-conserved gene pairs. Furthermore, it predicts the lineage-specific gene pairs by retaining the above-mentioned lineage-conserved gene pairs that are not conserved in any other lineages. Second, it carries out pairwise comparison for the gene pairs between two compared species and creates the table including all the conserved gene pairs and the image elucidating the conservation degree of gene pairs in chromosomal level. Third, it supplies gene order browser to extend gene pairs to gene clusters, allowing users to view the evolution dynamics in the gene context in an intuitive manner. This database will be able to facilitate the particular comparison between animals and plants, between vertebrates and arthropods, and

  16. Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants) and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients) with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000), based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. Results We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely (< 20 km2 to > 200,000 km2) across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a third of endemic

  17. Roles of Hsp70s in Stress Responses of Microorganisms, Plants, and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Anmin; Li, Ping; Tang, Ting; Wang, Jiancai; Chen, Yuan; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Hsp70s (heat shock protein 70s) are a class of molecular chaperones that are highly conserved and ubiquitous in organisms ranging from microorganisms to plants and humans. Most research on Hsp70s has focused on the mechanisms of their functions as molecular chaperones, but recently, studies on stress responses are coming to the forefront. Hsp70s play key roles in cellular development and protecting living organisms from environmental stresses such as heat, drought, salinity, acidity, and cold. Moreover, functions of human Hsp70s are related to diseases including neurological disorders, cancer, and virus infection. In this review, we provide an overview of the specific roles of Hsp70s in response to stress, particularly abiotic stress, in all living organisms. PMID:26649306

  18. miRNEST 2.0: a database of plant and animal microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Szczesniak, Michal W; Makalowska, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    Ever growing interest in microRNAs has immensely populated the number of resources and research papers devoted to the field and, as a result, it becomes more and more demanding to find miRNA data of interest. To mitigate this problem, we created miRNEST database (http://mirnest.amu.edu.pl), an integrative microRNAs resource. In its updated version, named miRNEST 2.0, the database is complemented with our extensive miRNA predictions from deep sequencing libraries, data from plant degradome analyses, results of pre-miRNA classification with HuntMi and miRNA splice sites information. We also added download and upload options and improved the user interface to make it easier to browse through miRNA records. PMID:24243848

  19. Assessment of cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of refinery waste effluent using plant, animal and bacterial systems.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Ahmad, Masood

    2012-01-30

    The work described here presents the toxic effect of Mathura refinery wastewater (MRWW) in plant (Allium cepa), bacterial (E. coli K12) and human (blood) system. The samples were collected from adjoining area of Mathura refinery, Dist. Mathura, U.P. (India). Chromosomal aberration test and micronucleus assay in (A. cepa) system, E. coli K12 survival assay as well as hemolysis assay in human blood were employed to assess the toxicity of MRWW. MRWW exposure resulted in the formation of micronuclei and bridges in chromosomes of A. cepa cells. A significant decline occurred in survival of DNA repair defective mutants of E. coli K12 exposed to MRWW. On incubation with MRWW, calf thymus DNA-EtBr fluorescence intensity decreased and percent hemolysis of human blood cells increased. An induction in the MDA levels of MRWW treated A. cepa roots indicated lipid peroxidation also. Collectively, the results demonstrate a significant genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of MRWW. PMID:22169142

  20. [Major Air Pollutant Emissions of Coal-Fired Power Plant in Yangtze River Delta].

    PubMed

    Ding, Qing-qing; Wei, Wei; Shen, Qun; Sun, Yu-han

    2015-07-01

    The emission factor method was used to estimate major air pollutant emissions of coal-fired power plant in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of the year 2012. Results showed that emissions of SO2, NOx, dust, PM10, PM2.5 were respectively 473 238, 1 566 195, 587 713, 348 773 and 179 820 t. For SO2 and NOx, 300 MW and above class units made contributions of 85% and 82% in emission; while in the respect of dust, PM10 and PM2.5 contribution rates of 100 MW and below class units were respectively 81%, 53% and 40%. Considering the regional distribution, Jiangsu discharged the most, followed by Zhejiang, Shanghai. According to discharge data of several local power plants, we also calculated and made a comparative analysis of emission factors in different unit levels in Shanghai, which indicated a lower emission level. Assuming an equal level was reached in whole YRD, SO2 emission would cut down 55. 8% - 65. 3%; for NOx and dust emissions were 50. 5% - 64. 1% and 3. 4% - 11. 3%, respectively. If technologies and pollution control of lower class units were improved, the emission cuts would improve. However, according to the pollution realities of YRD, we suggested to make a multiple-cuts plan, which could effectively improve the reaional atmospheric environment. PMID:26489303

  1. Indoor air quality in an automotive assembly plant in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Edimansyah, B A; Rusli, B N; Naing, L; Azwan, B A; Aziah, B D

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the indoor air quality (IAQ) status of an automotive assembly plant in Rawang, Selangor, Malaysia using selected IAQ parameters, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), temperature, relative humidity (RH) and respirable particulate matter (PM10). A cross-sectional study was conducted in the paint shop and body shop sections of the plant in March 2005. The Q-TRAK Plus IAQ Monitor was used to record the patterns of CO, CO2, RH and temperature; whilst PM10 was measured using DUSTTRAK Aerosol Monitor over an 8-hour time weight average (8-TWA). It was found that the average temperatures, RH and PM10 in the paint shop section and body shop sections exceeded the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH) standards. The average concentrations of RH and CO were slightly higher in the body shop section than in the paint shop section, while the average concentrations of temperature and CO2 were slightly higher in the paint shop section than in the body shop section. There was no difference in the average concentrations of PM10 between the two sections. PMID:19323052

  2. Air emission from the co-combustion of alternative derived fuels within cement plants: Gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Richards, Glen; Agranovski, Igor E

    2015-02-01

    Cement manufacturing is a resource- and energy-intensive industry, utilizing 9% of global industrial energy use while releasing more than 5% of global carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. With an increasing demand of production set to double by 2050, so too will be its carbon footprint. However, Australian cement plants have great potential for energy savings and emission reductions through the substitution of combustion fuels with a proportion of alternative derived fuels (ADFs), namely, fuels derived from wastes. This paper presents the environmental emissions monitoring of 10 cement batching plants while under baseline and ADF operating conditions, and an assessment of parameters influencing combustion. The experiential runs included the varied substitution rates of seven waste streams and the monitoring of seven target pollutants. The co-combustion tests of waste oil, wood chips, wood chips and plastic, waste solvents, and shredded tires were shown to have the minimal influence when compared to baseline runs, or had significantly reduced the unit mass emission factor of pollutants. With an increasing ADF% substitution, monitoring identified there to be no subsequent emission effects and that key process parameters contributing to contaminant suppression include (1) precalciner and kiln fuel firing rate and residence time; (2) preheater and precalciner gas and material temperature; (3) rotary kiln flame temperature; (4) fuel-air ratio and percentage of excess oxygen; and (5) the rate of meal feed and rate of clinker produced. PMID:25947054

  3. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Shared in Animal and Plant Tissues: Significance of Communication

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Christopher; Stefano, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria have long been recognized as the main source of energy production for the eukaryotic cell. Recent studies have found that the mitochondria have a variety of dynamic functions aside from the production of energy. It communicates bidirectionally with other organelles in order to modulate its energy balance efficiently, as well as maintain homeostasis, ultimately prolonging its own and the cell’s longevity. The mitochondria achieves this level of regulation via specific and common bidirectional chemical messengers, especially involving the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR), deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTP’s), ATP and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Its communication network is also involved in stress associated events. In this regard, the activation of the Bax family proteins and the release of cytochrome c occurs during cellular stress. The communication can also promote apoptosis of the cell. When mitochondrial abnormalities cannot be dealt with, there is an increased chance that major illnesses like type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer may occur. Importantly, functioning chloroplasts can be found in animals, suggesting conserved chemical messengers during its evolutionary path. The dynamic capacity of mitochondria is also noted by their ability to function anaerobically. Indeed, this latter phenomenon may represent a return to an earlier developmental stage of mitochondria, suggesting certain disorders result from its untimely appearance. PMID:26005853

  4. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

  5. Interim Report: Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants Improved Binary Cycle Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel S. Wendt; Greg L. Mines

    2010-09-01

    As geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop are utilized for power generation, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. This is expected to be the case with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) resources. These resources will likely require wells drilled to depths greater than encountered with hydrothermal resources, and will have the added costs for stimulation to create the subsurface reservoir. It is postulated that plants generating power from these resources will likely utilize the binary cycle technology where heat is rejected sensibly to the ambient. The consumptive use of a portion of the produced geothermal fluid for evaporative heat rejection in the conventional flash-steam conversion cycle is likely to preclude its use with EGS resources. This will be especially true in those areas where there is a high demand for finite supplies of water. Though they have no consumptive use of water, using air-cooling systems for heat rejection has disadvantages. These systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at the higher dry-bulb temperature), increased parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power generation on both a diurnal and annual basis (larger variation in the dry-bulb temperature). This is an interim report for the task ‘Air-Cooled Condensers in Next- Generation Conversion Systems’. The work performed was specifically aimed at a plant that uses commercially available binary cycle technologies with an EGS resource. Concepts were evaluated that have the potential to increase performance, lower cost, or mitigate the adverse effects of off-design operation. The impact on both cost and performance were determined for the concepts considered, and the scenarios identified where a particular concept is best suited. Most, but not all, of the concepts evaluated are associated with the rejection of heat. This report specifically addresses three of the concepts evaluated: the use of

  6. Emerging directions in the study of the ecology and evolution of plant-animal mutualistic networks: a review.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hao; Goodale, Eben; Chen, Jin

    2015-03-18

    The study of mutualistic plant and animal networks is an emerging field of ecological research. We reviewed progress in this field over the past 30 years. While earlier studies mostly focused on network structure, stability, and biodiversity maintenance, recent studies have investigated the conservation implications of mutualistic networks, specifically the influence of invasive species and how networks respond to habitat loss. Current research has also focused on evolutionary questions including phylogenetic signal in networks, impact of networks on the coevolution of interacting partners, and network influences on the evolution of interacting species. We outline some directions for future research, particularly the evolution of specialization in mutualistic networks, and provide concrete recommendations for environmental managers. PMID:25855224

  7. Emerging directions in the study of the ecology and evolution of plant-animal mutualistic networks: a review

    PubMed Central

    GU, Hao; GOODALE, Eben; CHEN, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The study of mutualistic plant and animal networks is an emerging field of ecological research. We reviewed progress in this field over the past 30 years. While earlier studies mostly focused on network structure, stability, and biodiversity maintenance, recent studies have investigated the conservation implications of mutualistic networks, specifically the influence of invasive species and how networks respond to habitat loss. Current research has also focused on evolutionary questions including phylogenetic signal in networks, impact of networks on the coevolution of interacting partners, and network influences on the evolution of interacting species. We outline some directions for future research, particularly the evolution of specialization in mutualistic networks, and provide concrete recommendations for environmental managers. PMID:25855224

  8. Characterisation of occupational exposure to air contaminants in a nitrate fertiliser production plant.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Kristin H; Thomassen, Yngvar; Skaugset, Nils Petter; Skyberg, Knut; Skogstad, Marit; Bakke, Berit

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise personal exposures to dust, acid vapours, and gases among workers in a Norwegian nitrate fertiliser production plant, as part of an ongoing epidemiological study. In total, 178 inhalable and 179 thoracic aerosol mass fraction samples were collected from randomly chosen workers (N = 141) from three compound fertiliser departments (A, B and C), a calcium nitrate fertiliser production department, nitric acid- and ammonia-production departments, and a shipping department. The overall median inhalable and thoracic aerosol mass concentrations were generally low (1.1 mg m(-3) (min-max: <0.93-45) and 0.21 mg m(-3) (min-max: <0.085-11), respectively). Workers at the compound fertiliser departments B and C had significantly higher inhalable aerosol mass air concentrations compared to the other departments (p < 0.05), except for compound fertiliser department A; however, the difference between the compound fertiliser department C and calcium nitrate department was slightly above the significant level. Workers at the compound fertiliser department A had significantly higher thoracic aerosol mass air concentrations compared to the other departments (p < 0.05), except for compound fertiliser departments B and C. The results indicate that the extrathoracic aerosol fraction of the aerosol compared to the thoracic fraction dominated in most departments. Measurement of the main constituents Ca, K, Mg, and P in the water-soluble and water-insoluble aerosol mass fractions showed that the air concentrations of these elements were low. There is, however, a shift towards more water-soluble species as the production goes from raw material with phosphate rock towards the final product of fertilisers. Overall, the arithmetic mean of water-soluble Ca in the thoracic mass fraction was 51% (min-max: 1-100). A total of 169 personal samples were analysed for HNO(3) vapour and HF. The highest median concentration of HNO(3) (0.63 mg m(-3)) was in the

  9. Exo70E2 is essential for exocyst subunit recruitment and EXPO formation in both plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yu; Wang, Juan; Chun Lai, John Ho; Ling Chan, Vivian Hoi; Wang, Xiangfeng; Cai, Yi; Tan, Xiaoyun; Bao, Yiqun; Xia, Jun; Robinson, David G; Jiang, Liwen

    2014-02-01

    In contrast to a single copy of Exo70 in yeast and mammals, the Arabidopsis genome contains 23 paralogues of Exo70 (AtExo70). Using AtExo70E2 and its GFP fusion as probes, we recently identified a novel double-membrane organelle termed exocyst-positive organelle (EXPO) that mediates an unconventional protein secretion in plant cells. Here we further demonstrate that AtExo70E2 is essential for exocyst subunit recruitment and for EXPO formation in both plants and animals. By performing transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts, we established that a number of exocyst subunits (especially the members of the Sec family) are unable to be recruited to EXPO in the absence of AtExo70E2. The paralogue AtExo70A1 is unable to substitute for AtExo70E2 in this regard. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirm the interaction between AtExo70E2 and Sec6 and Sec10. AtExo70E2, but not its yeast counterpart, is also capable of inducing EXPO formation in an animal cell line (HEK293A cells). Electron microscopy confirms the presence of double-membraned, EXPO-like structures in HEK293A cells expressing AtExo70E2. Inversely, neither human nor yeast Exo70 homologues cause the formation of EXPO in Arabidopsis protoplasts. These results point to a specific and crucial role for AtExo70E2 in EXPO formation. PMID:24307681

  10. Exo70E2 is essential for exocyst subunit recruitment and EXPO formation in both plants and animals

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yu; Wang, Juan; Chun Lai, John Ho; Ling Chan, Vivian Hoi; Wang, Xiangfeng; Cai, Yi; Tan, Xiaoyun; Bao, Yiqun; Xia, Jun; Robinson, David G.; Jiang, Liwen

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to a single copy of Exo70 in yeast and mammals, the Arabidopsis genome contains 23 paralogues of Exo70 (AtExo70). Using AtExo70E2 and its GFP fusion as probes, we recently identified a novel double-membrane organelle termed exocyst-positive organelle (EXPO) that mediates an unconventional protein secretion in plant cells. Here we further demonstrate that AtExo70E2 is essential for exocyst subunit recruitment and for EXPO formation in both plants and animals. By performing transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts, we established that a number of exocyst subunits (especially the members of the Sec family) are unable to be recruited to EXPO in the absence of AtExo70E2. The paralogue AtExo70A1 is unable to substitute for AtExo70E2 in this regard. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirm the interaction between AtExo70E2 and Sec6 and Sec10. AtExo70E2, but not its yeast counterpart, is also capable of inducing EXPO formation in an animal cell line (HEK293A cells). Electron microscopy confirms the presence of double-membraned, EXPO-like structures in HEK293A cells expressing AtExo70E2. Inversely, neither human nor yeast Exo70 homologues cause the formation of EXPO in Arabidopsis protoplasts. These results point to a specific and crucial role for AtExo70E2 in EXPO formation. PMID:24307681

  11. Vermicomposting of sludge from animal wastewater treatment plant mixed with cow dung or swine manure using Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dan; Wu, Weibing; Hao, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Xuewei; Bai, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Vermicomposting of animal wastewater treatment plant sludge (S) mixed with cow dung (CD) or swine manure (SM) employing Eisenia fetida was tested. The numbers, weights, clitellum development, and cocoon production were monitored for 60 days at a detecting interval of 15 days. The results indicated that 100 % of the sludge can be the suitable food for growth and fecundity of E. fetida, while addition of CD or SM in sludge significantly (P < 0.05) increased the worm biomass and reproduction. The sludge amended with 40 % SM can be a great medium for the growth of E. fetida, and the sludge amended with 40 % CD can be a suitable medium for the fecundity of E. fetida. The addition of CD in sludge provided a better environment for the fecundity of earthworm than SM did. Moreover, vermicomposts obtained in the study had lower pH value, lower total organic carbon (TOC), lower NH4 (+)-N, lower C/N ratio, higher total available phosphorous (TAP) contents, optimal stability, and maturity. NH4 (+)-N, pH and TAP of the initial mixtures explained high earthworm growth. The results provided the theory basic both for management of animal wastes and the production of earthworm proteins using E. fetida. PMID:26755173

  12. Non-indolyl cruciferous phytoalexins: Nasturlexins and tridentatols, a striking convergent evolution of defenses in terrestrial plants and marine animals?

    PubMed

    Pedras, M Soledade C; To, Q Huy

    2015-05-01

    Highly specialized chemical defense pathways are a particularly noteworthy metabolic characteristic of sessile organisms, whether terrestrial or marine, providing protection against pests and diseases. For this reason, knowledge of the metabolites involved in these processes is crucial to producing ecologically fit crops. Toward this end, the elicited chemical defenses of the crucifer watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), i.e. phytoalexins, were investigated and are reported. Almost three decades after publication of cruciferous phytoalexins derived from (S)-Trp, phytoalexins derived from other aromatic amino acids were isolated; their chemical structures were determined by analyses of their spectroscopic data and confirmed by synthesis. Nasturlexin A, nasturlexin B, and tridentatol C are hitherto unknown phenyl containing cruciferous phytoalexins produced by watercress under abiotic stress; tridentatol C is also produced by a marine animal (Tridentata marginata), where it functions in chemical defense against predators. The biosynthesis of these metabolites in both a terrestrial plant and a marine animal suggests a convergent evolution of unique metabolic pathways recruited for defense. PMID:25152450

  13. Naturally occurring toxic factors in plants and animals used as food.

    PubMed

    Strong, F M

    1966-03-19

    Toxic components of natural foodstuffs are discussed, with special reference to lathyrogens, pressor amines, azoxyglycosides, and labile sulfur compounds. The osteolathyrogen, gamma-glutamyl-beta-aminopropionitrile, in sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus) seeds induces skeletal deformities and aortic rupture, probably by interfering with normal maturation of collagen fibres. Neurolathyrism in man may be caused by beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid, a neurotoxin recently identified in Lathyrus sativus seeds. Histamine, tyramine, noradrenaline, serotonin and other pressor amines occur in fruits and fermented foods such as bananas, pineapples, cheese and wine. Consumption of such foods by patients taking monoamine oxidase-inhibiting drugs (e.g. tranylcypromine) may produce serious hypertensive crises. Cycad nuts, widely used as human food in tropical and subtropical areas, contain a potent carcinogen, methyl azoxymethanol, which is more or less removed prior to use by leaching in water. Consumption of plants of the onion, cabbage and cress families introduces into the body such toxic chemicals as benzyl cyanide, goitrin and thiocyanates. The lachrymatory substance in onions is propenyl sulfenic acid. PMID:5905948

  14. Land use imperils plant and animal community stability through changes in asynchrony rather than diversity.

    PubMed

    Blüthgen, Nico; Simons, Nadja K; Jung, Kirsten; Prati, Daniel; Renner, Swen C; Boch, Steffen; Fischer, Markus; Hölzel, Norbert; Klaus, Valentin H; Kleinebecker, Till; Tschapka, Marco; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gossner, Martin M

    2016-01-01

    Human land use may detrimentally affect biodiversity, yet long-term stability of species communities is vital for maintaining ecosystem functioning. Community stability can be achieved by higher species diversity (portfolio effect), higher asynchrony across species (insurance hypothesis) and higher abundance of populations. However, the relative importance of these stabilizing pathways and whether they interact with land use in real-world ecosystems is unknown. We monitored inter-annual fluctuations of 2,671 plant, arthropod, bird and bat species in 300 sites from three regions. Arthropods show 2.0-fold and birds 3.7-fold higher community fluctuations in grasslands than in forests, suggesting a negative impact of forest conversion. Land-use intensity in forests has a negative net impact on stability of bats and in grasslands on birds. Our findings demonstrate that asynchrony across species--much more than species diversity alone--is the main driver of variation in stability across sites and requires more attention in sustainable management. PMID:26869180

  15. Land use imperils plant and animal community stability through changes in asynchrony rather than diversity

    PubMed Central

    Blüthgen, Nico; Simons, Nadja K.; Jung, Kirsten; Prati, Daniel; Renner, Swen C.; Boch, Steffen; Fischer, Markus; Hölzel, Norbert; Klaus, Valentin H.; Kleinebecker, Till; Tschapka, Marco; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Gossner, Martin M.

    2016-01-01

    Human land use may detrimentally affect biodiversity, yet long-term stability of species communities is vital for maintaining ecosystem functioning. Community stability can be achieved by higher species diversity (portfolio effect), higher asynchrony across species (insurance hypothesis) and higher abundance of populations. However, the relative importance of these stabilizing pathways and whether they interact with land use in real-world ecosystems is unknown. We monitored inter-annual fluctuations of 2,671 plant, arthropod, bird and bat species in 300 sites from three regions. Arthropods show 2.0-fold and birds 3.7-fold higher community fluctuations in grasslands than in forests, suggesting a negative impact of forest conversion. Land-use intensity in forests has a negative net impact on stability of bats and in grasslands on birds. Our findings demonstrate that asynchrony across species—much more than species diversity alone—is the main driver of variation in stability across sites and requires more attention in sustainable management. PMID:26869180

  16. The Information Value of Non-Genetic Inheritance in Plants and Animals

    PubMed Central

    English, Sinead; Pen, Ido; Shea, Nicholas; Uller, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Parents influence the development of their offspring in many ways beyond the transmission of DNA. This includes transfer of epigenetic states, nutrients, antibodies and hormones, and behavioural interactions after birth. While the evolutionary consequences of such non-genetic inheritance are increasingly well understood, less is known about how inheritance mechanisms evolve. Here, we present a simple but versatile model to explore the adaptive evolution of non-genetic inheritance. Our model is based on a switch mechanism that produces alternative phenotypes in response to different inputs, including genes and non-genetic factors transmitted from parents and the environment experienced during development. This framework shows how genetic and non-genetic inheritance mechanisms and environmental conditions can act as cues by carrying correlational information about future selective conditions. Differential use of these cues is manifested as different degrees of genetic, parental or environmental morph determination. We use this framework to evaluate the conditions favouring non-genetic inheritance, as opposed to genetic determination of phenotype or within-generation plasticity, by applying it to two putative examples of adaptive non-genetic inheritance: maternal effects on seed germination in plants and transgenerational phase shift in desert locusts. Our simulation models show how the adaptive value of non-genetic inheritance depends on its mechanism, the pace of environmental change, and life history characteristics. PMID:25603120

  17. Global hotspots in the present-day distribution of ancient animal and plant lineages.

    PubMed

    Procheş, Şerban; Ramdhani, Syd; Perera, Sandun J; Ali, Jason R; Gairola, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The current distribution of biotic lineages that emerged in the deep time has both theoretical and practical implications, in particular for understanding the processes that have forged present-day biodiversity and informing local and regional-scale conservation efforts. To date however, there has been no examination of such patterns globally across taxa and geological time. Here we map the diversity of selected extant seed plant and tetrapod vertebrate lineages that were already in existence either in the latest Triassic or latest Cretaceous. For Triassic-age lineages, we find concentrations in several regions - both tropical and temperate - parts of North America, Europe, East and South-east Asia, northern South America, and New Zealand. With Cretaceous-age lineages, high values are relatively uniformly distributed across the tropics, with peak the values along the Andes, in South-east Asia and Queensland, but also in the temperate Cape Mountains. These patterns result from a combination of factors, including land area, geographic isolation, climate stability and mass extinction survival ability. While the need to protect many of these lineages has been long recognised, a spatially-explicit approach is critical for understanding and maintaining the factors responsible for their persistence, and this will need to be taken forward across finer scales. PMID:26498226

  18. Global hotspots in the present-day distribution of ancient animal and plant lineages

    PubMed Central

    Procheş, Şerban; Ramdhani, Syd; Perera, Sandun J.; Ali, Jason R.; Gairola, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The current distribution of biotic lineages that emerged in the deep time has both theoretical and practical implications, in particular for understanding the processes that have forged present-day biodiversity and informing local and regional-scale conservation efforts. To date however, there has been no examination of such patterns globally across taxa and geological time. Here we map the diversity of selected extant seed plant and tetrapod vertebrate lineages that were already in existence either in the latest Triassic or latest Cretaceous. For Triassic-age linages, we find concentrations in several regions – both tropical and temperate – parts of North America, Europe, East and South-east Asia, northern South America, and New Zealand. With Cretaceous-age lineages, high values are relatively uniformly distributed across the tropics, with peak the values along the Andes, in South-east Asia and Queensland, but also in the temperate Cape Mountains. These patterns result from a combination of factors, including land area, geographic isolation, climate stability and mass extinction survival ability. While the need to protect many of these lineages has been long recognised, a spatially-explicit approach is critical for understanding and maintaining the factors responsible for their persistence, and this will need to be taken forward across finer scales. PMID:26498226

  19. Impacts of Photovoltaic Power Plant Sitings and Distributed Solar Panels on Meteorology and Air Quality in Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, L. A.; Jin, L.; Brown, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    California's electric utility companies are required to use renewable energy to produce 20% of their power by 2010 and 33% by 2020. A main source of the power will be solar energy because photovoltaic technologies have advanced so much that large scale installations are being built and will be built in the future with even greater capacity. Rather than being a large emission source, these plants affect the ambient environment through albedo changes and by emission reductions associated with not burning fossil fuels to generate the same amount of electricity. Like conventional power plants, their impact on local meteorology and air quality depends on the specific technology, ambient atmospheric conditions, and the spatial location of the plant. Also, as solar panels on commercial and residential rooftops become even more common, the effect of distributed photovoltaic panels on meteorology and air quality is likely to become significant. In this study, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model at high resolution of 4 km x 4 km over several 5-day high-ozone episodes of the summer 2000 to assess the impact of photovoltaic panels on meteorology and air quality in Central California. We investigate the effect of locating a 1.0 Giga watt solar plant in different locations and the effect of distributed rooftop photovoltaic panels in major Californian cities, with a focus on peak and 8-hour average ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5.

  20. Glassy-winged sharpshooter feeding does not cause air embolisms in xylem of well-watered plants.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant xylem vessels are under negative hydrostatic pressure (tension) as evapotranspiration of water from the leaf surface pulls the column of water in xylem upwards. When xylem fluid flux is under extreme tension, any puncture or breakage of the xylem vessel wall can cause formation of air embolis...

  1. EFFECT OF AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT ON AMBIENT AIR DENSITIES OF AEROSOLS CONTAINING BACTERIA AND VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteria and virus-containing aerosols were studied during late summer and fall in a U.S. midwestern suburb before and during the start up and operation of an unenclosed activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. The air in this suburban area contained low-level densities of in...

  2. Gold concentrations in abiotic materials, plants, and animals: a synoptic review.

    PubMed

    Eisler, R

    2004-01-01

    Gold (Au) is ubiquitous in the environment and mined commercially at numerous locations worldwide. It is also an allergen that induces dermatitis in sensitive individuals. Gold concentrations were comparatively elevated in samples collected near gold mining and processing facilities, although no data were found for birds and non-human mammals. Maximum gold concentrations reported in abiotic materials were 0.001 microg L(-1) in rainwater; 0.0015 microg L(-1) in seawater near hydrothermal vents vs. < 0.00004-0.0007 microg L(-1) elsewhere; 5.0 microg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) in the Earth's crust; 19.0 microg L(-1) in a freshwater stream near a gold mining site; 440 microg kg(-1) DW in atmospheric dust near a high traffic road; 843 microg kg(-1) DW in alluvial soil near a Nevada gold mine vs. < 29 microg kg(-1) DW premining; 2.53 mg kg(-1) DW in snow near a Russian smelter vs. < 0.35 mg kg(-1) DW at a reference site; 4.5 mg kg(-1) DW in sewage sludge; 28.7 mg kg(-1) DW in polymetallic sulfides from the ocean floor; and 256.0 mg kg(-1) DW in freshwater sediments near a gold mine tailings pile vs. < 5 microg kg(-1) DW prior to mining. In plants, elevated concentrations of 19 microg Au kg(-1) DW were reported in terrestrial vegetation near gold mining operations vs. < 4 microg kg(-1) DW at a reference site; 37 microg kg(-1) DW in aquatic bryophytes downstream from a gold mine; 150 microg Au kg(-1) DW in leaves of beans grown in soil containing 170 microg kg(-1) DW; up to 1.06 mg kg(-1) DW in algal mats of rivers receiving gold mine wastes; and 0.1-100 mg kg(-1) DW in selected gold accumulator plants. Fish and aquatic invertebrates contained 0.1-38.0 microg Au kg(-1) DW. In humans, gold concentrations up to 1.1 microg L(-1) were documented in urine of dental technicians vs. 0.002-0.85 microg L(-1) in reference populations; 2.1 microg L(-1) in breast milk, attributed to gold dental fillings and jewelry of mothers; 1.4 mg kg(-1) DW in hair of goldsmiths vs. a normal range of 6

  3. Gold concentrations in abiotic materials, plants, and animals: a synoptic review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    Gold (Au) is ubiquitous in the environment and mined commercially at numerous locations worldwide. It is also an allergen that induces dermatitis in sensitive individuals. Gold concentrations were comparatively elevated in samples collected near gold mining and processing facilities, although no data were found for birds and non-human mammals. Maximum gold concentrations reported in abiotic materials were 0.001 ug/L in rainwater; 0.0015 ug/L in seawater near hydrothermal vents vs. <0.00004-0.0007 ug/L elsewhere; 5.0 ug/kg dry weight (DW) in the Earth's crust; 19.0 ug/L in a freshwater stream near a gold mining site; 440 ug/kg DW in atmospheric dust near a high traffic road; 843 ug/kg DW in alluvial soil near a Nevada gold mine vs. <29 ug/kg DW premining; 2.53 mg/kg DW in snow near a Russian smelter vs. <0.35 mg/kg DW at a reference site; 4.5 mg/kg DW in sewage sludge; 28.7 mg/kg DW in polymetallic sulfides from the ocean floor; and 256.0 mg/kg DW in freshwater sediments near a gold mine tailings pile vs. <5 ug/kg DW prior to mining. In plants, elevated concentrations of 19 ug Au/kg DW were reported in terrestrial vegetation near gold mining operations vs. <4 ug/kg DW at a reference site; 37 ug/kg DW in aquatic bryophytes downstream from a gold mine; 150 ug Au/kg DW in leaves of beans grown in soil containing 170 ug/kg DW; up to 1.06 mg/kg DW in algal mats of rivers receiving gold mine wastes; and 0.1-100 mg/kg DW in selected gold accumulator plants. Fish and aquatic invertebrates contained 0.1-38.0 ug Au/kg DW. In humans, gold concentrations up to 1.1 ug/L were documented in urine of dental technicians vs. 0.002-0.85 ug/L in reference populations; 2.1 ug/L in breast milk, attributed to gold dental fillings and jewelry of mothers; 1.4 mg/kg DW in hair of goldsmiths vs. a normal range of 6-880 ug/kg DW; 2.39 mg/L in whole blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving gold thiol drugs to reduce inflammation (chrysotherapy) vs. a normal range of 0.2-2.0 ug/L; and 60

  4. Egg Dispersal in the Phasmatodea: Convergence in Chemical Signaling Strategies Between Plants and Animals?

    PubMed

    Stanton, Anthony O; Dias, Daniel A; O'Hanlon, James C

    2015-08-01

    Numerous tree species' seeds contain an 'elaiosome' that acts as a food reward for ants and thus induces dispersal of the seeds. Many stick and leaf insect species appear to have evolved a convergent adaptation for dispersal whereby the egg 'capitulum' serves to induce ants to pick up and carry their eggs. Here, we investigated whether the capitulum facilitates egg dispersal by ants in the Australian stick insect Eurycnema goliath. The total fatty acid composition of E. goliath egg capsules and egg capitula were characterized to identify potential signaling compounds. Removing capitula from E. goliath eggs significantly reduced the likelihood of eggs being carried into the nests of Rhytidoponera metallica ants. Furthermore, attaching capitula to inert objects (polystyrene balls) resulted in these objects being carried into nests by R. metallica. Several fatty acids were present on the egg capsule surface in only trace amounts, whereas they made up over 10% of the dry weight of egg capitula. The fatty acid composition of egg capitula consisted mostly of palmitic acid (C16:0), linoleic acid (C18: 2n6c), oleic acid (C18:1n9c), linolenic acid (C18:3n3), and stearic acid (C18:0). Previously reported research has found that a diglyceride lipid species of oleic acid induces carrying behavior in R. metallica when added to inert artificial stimuli. Therefore, we propose that the dispersal mechanism of E. goliath eggs has converged upon the same chemical signaling pathway used by plants to exploit ant behavior. PMID:26245262

  5. Thermodynamic evaluation of supercritical oxy-type power plant with high-temperature three-end membrane for air separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Balicki, Adrian; Michalski, Sebastian

    2014-09-01

    Among the technologies which allow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, mainly of carbon dioxide, special attention deserves the idea of `zero-emission' technology based on boilers working in oxy-combustion technology. In the paper a thermodynamic analysis of supercritical power plant fed by lignite was made. Power plant consists of: 600 MW steam power unit with live steam parameters of 650 °C/30 MPa and reheated steam parameters of 670 °C/6 MPa; circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology; air separation unit and installation of the carbon dioxide compression. Air separation unit is based on high temperature membrane working in three-end technology. Models of steam cycle, circulation fluidized bed boiler, air separation unit and carbon capture installation were made using commercial software. After integration of these models the net electricity generation efficiency as a function of the degree of oxygen recovery in high temperature membrane was analyzed.

  6. An introduction to the design, commissioning and operation of nuclear air cleaning systems for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Xinliang Chen; Jiangang Qu; Minqi Shi

    1995-02-01

    This paper introduces the design evolution, system schemes and design and construction of main nuclear air cleaning components such as HEPA filter, charcoal adsorber and concrete housing etc. for Qinshan 300MW PWR Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP), the first indigenously designed and constructed nuclear power plant in China. The field test results and in-service test results, since the air cleaning systems were put into operation 18 months ago, are presented and evaluated. These results demonstrate that the design and construction of the air cleaning systems and equipment manufacturing for QNPP are successful and the American codes and standards invoked in design, construction and testing of nuclear air cleaning systems for QNPP are applicable in China. The paper explains that the leakage rate of concrete air cleaning housings can also be assured if sealing measures are taken properly and embedded parts are designed carefully in the penetration areas of the housing and that the uniformity of the airflow distribution upstream the HEPA filters can be achieved generally no matter how inlet and outlet ducts of air cleaning unit are arranged.

  7. Thin layer convective air drying of wild edible plant (Allium roseum) leaves: experimental kinetics, modeling and quality.

    PubMed

    Ben Haj Said, Leila; Najjaa, Hanen; Farhat, Abdelhamid; Neffati, Mohamed; Bellagha, Sihem

    2015-06-01

    The present study deals with the valorization of an edible spontaneous plant of the Tunisian arid areas: Allium roseum. This plant is traditionally used for therapeutic and culinary uses. Thin-layer drying behavior of Allium roseum leaves was investigated at 40, 50 and 60 °C drying air temperatures and 1 and l.5 m/s air velocity, in a convective dryer. The increase in air temperature significantly affected the moisture loss and reduced the drying time while air velocity was an insignificant factor during drying of Allium roseum leaves. Five models selected from the literature were found to satisfactorily describe drying kinetics of Allium roseum leaves for all tested drying conditions. Drying data were analyzed to obtain moisture diffusivity values. During the falling rate-drying period, moisture transfer from Allium roseum leaves was described by applying the Fick's diffusion model. Moisture diffusivity varied from 2.55 × 10(-12) to 8.83 × 10(-12) m(2)/s and increased with air temperature. Activation energy during convective drying was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation and ranged between 46.80 and 52.68 kJ/mol. All sulfur compounds detected in the fresh leaves were detected in the dried leaves. Convective air drying preserved the sulfur compounds potential formation. PMID:26028758

  8. Technical and economic assessment of the use of ammonia expanders for energy recovery in air-cooled power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, S. G.; Hane, G. J.; Johnson, B. M.

    1982-07-01

    Binary cycle power plants have been the subject of much discussion among engineers and scientists for nearly 100 years. Current economic and environmental concerns have stimulated new interest and research. Ammonia has been recommended by other studies as the leading contender for use as simply the heat rejection medium in an air-cooled power plant. This study investigates the technical feasibility and economic potential of including an expander in the heat rejection system of an air-cooled power plant. The expander would be used during certain parts of the year to increase the total output of the power plant. Five different plant locations (Miami, San Francisco, Bakersfield, Chicago, Anchorage) were investigated to show the effect which climate has on the economic potential of this ammonia bottoming cycle. The study shows that the expected energy costs for the bottoming cycle only will be less than 50 mills/kWh for any of the five plant locations. This cost assumes that an ammonia phase-change heat rejection system is already a part of the existing plant.

  9. Predicting plant uptake of organic chemicals from soil or air using octanol/water and octanol/air partition ratios and a molecular connectivity index

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdy, D.L.; McKone, T.E.

    1997-12-01

    A bioconcentration ratio (BCR) represents the ratio of the concentration of a chemical found in an exposed biological system, such as a plant or fish, to the concentration in the exposure medium (water, soil, or air). A comparison is made of the precision and accuracy of the molecular connectivity index (MCI) and the octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) as predictors of BCRs from the soil matrix into above- or below-ground vegetation tissues. Calculated octanol/air partition coefficient (K{sub oa}) values are compared with calculated K{sub ow} and MCI values as predictors of measured air-to-plant BCRs. Based on a statistical evaluation of explained variance, residual error, and cross-validation, this evaluation reveals that the MCI provides higher precision, greater ease of use, and a more cost-effective method for predicting the potential bioconcentration of a chemical from soil into above-ground vegetation. Statistical analyses of the various methods reveal that both the K{sub ow} and MCI approaches have a similar level of precision for predicting BCRs from soil solution into roots and, among MCI, K{sub oa} and K{sub ow}; K{sub oa} is somewhat more precise and valid than MCI and K{sub ow} for estimating uptake, but all have limited accuracy as bioconcentration predictors. These latter results are derived mainly from the paucity of both reliable K{sub oa} values and measured air-to-plant BCRs and indicate a need for more experimental measurements from which more accurate models may be developed.

  10. Environmental geophysics and sequential air photo study at Sunfish Lake Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Padar, C.A.; McGinnis, L.D.; Thompson, M.D.; Anderson, A.W.

    1996-11-01

    Geophysical and air photo studies at the Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant (TCAAP), Minnesota, were conducted to establish a chronology of dumping and waste disposal. This study was undertaken to aid in the assessment of the amount of remediation needed to reclaim a wetland area. An integrated analysis of electromagnetic, magnetic and ground-penetrating RADAR (GPR) measurements over a 25-acre site, provided the information necessary to define waste disposal events. These events are observed on a sequence of aerial photos taken between 1940 and 1993. The former southwestern embayment of the lake, filled in during the original construction of the base, has been clearly defined. Two burn cages and their surrounding debris have been delineated. The areal extent of another waste site has been defined along the northern shoreline. Depth estimates determined from EM-61 analysis, and depths to original lake bottom, derived from GPR, have yielded volumetric estimates of the amount of material that would need removal if excavation is required. Magnetic and electromagnetic data have pinpointed the locations of mounds, observed from historical air photos. Except for these areas along the Northwestern shore, there is no evidence of waste disposal along the shoreline or within the present-day lake margins. The ability to date the anomalous regions is significant, in that different production demands upon TCAAP, during the time periods of WWII, The Korean War, and The Vietnam Conflict, have resulted in different types of waste. The ability to categorize areas with distinct time periods of operation and waste disposal can greatly aid the environmental cleanup effort with regard to the type of contaminants that might be expected at these poorly documented disposal sites.

  11. Dietary sources of animal and plant protein intake among Flemish preschool children and the association with socio-economic and lifestyle-related factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to assess the intake of animal, plant and food group-specific protein, and to investigate their associations with socio-economic and lifestyle-related factors in Flemish preschoolers. Methods Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from 661 preschoolers aged 2.5-6.5 y (338 boys and 323 girls). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between animal, plant, and food group-specific protein intake and socio-economic and lifestyle factors. Results Animal proteins (mean 38 g/d) were the main source of total protein (mean 56 g/d), while mean plant protein intake amounted to 18 g/d. The group of meat, poultry, fish and eggs was the main contributor (51%) to animal protein intake, followed by milk and milk products (35%). Bread and cereals (41%) contributed most to the plant protein intake, followed by low-nutritious, energy-dense foods (21%). With higher educated fathers and mothers as reference, respectively, preschoolers with lower secondary and secondary paternal education had lower animal, dairy-, and meat-derived protein intakes, and those with lower secondary and secondary maternal education consumed less plant, and bread and cereal-derived proteins. Compared to children with high physical activity levels, preschoolers with low and moderate physical activity had lower animal and plant protein intakes. Significantly higher potatoes and grains-, and fish- derived proteins were reported for children of smoking mothers and fathers, respectively, compared to those of non-smoking mothers and fathers. Conclusions The total protein intake of Flemish preschoolers was sufficient according to the recommendations of the Belgian Superior Health Council. Parental level of education and smoking status might play a role in the sources of children's dietary proteins. PMID:21943312

  12. Mercury emission trend influenced by stringent air pollutants regulation for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2009-12-01

    Regulatory control of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources has become a global concern in the recent past. Coal-fired power plants are one of the largest sources of anthropogenic mercury emission into the atmosphere. This paper summarizes the current reducing trend of mercury emission as co-beneficial effect by more stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants with introducing test results from the commercial coal-fired facilities and suggesting a guideline for future regulatory development in Korea. On average, mercury emission concentrations ranged 16.3-2.7 μg Sm -3, 2.4-1.1 μg Sm -3, 3.1-0.7 μg Sm -3 from anthracite coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitator (ESP), bituminous coal-fired power plants with ESP + flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and bituminous coal-fired power plants with selective catalytic reactor (SCR) + cold side (CS) - ESP + wet FGD, respectively. Among the existing air pollution control devices, the best configuration for mercury removal in coal-fired power plants was SCR + CS - ESP + wet FGD, which were installed due to the stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants emission such as SO 2, NOx and dust. It was estimated that uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission from coal-fired power plants as 10.3 ton yr -1 and 3.2 ton yr -1 respectively. After the installation of ESP, FGD and SCR system, following the enforcement of the stringent regulation, 7.1 ton yr -1 of mercury emission has been reduced (nearly 69%) from coal-fired power plants as a co-benefit control. Based on the overall study, a sample guideline including emission limits were suggested which will be applied to develop a countermeasure for controlling mercury emission from coal-fired power plants.

  13. 40 CFR 52.2454 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality for Merck & Co., Inc.'s Stonewall Plant in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedures, and Food and Drug Administration Good Manufacturing Practice requirements (21 CFR parts 210 and... of air quality for Merck & Co., Inc.'s Stonewall Plant in Elkton, VA. 52.2454 Section 52.2454... air quality for Merck & Co., Inc.'s Stonewall Plant in Elkton, VA. (a) Applicability. (1) This...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2454 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality for Merck & Co., Inc.'s Stonewall Plant in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures, and Food and Drug Administration Good Manufacturing Practice requirements (21 CFR parts 210 and... of air quality for Merck & Co., Inc.'s Stonewall Plant in Elkton, VA. 52.2454 Section 52.2454... air quality for Merck & Co., Inc.'s Stonewall Plant in Elkton, VA. (a) Applicability. (1) This...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2454 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality for Merck & Co., Inc.'s Stonewall Plant in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures, and Food and Drug Administration Good Manufacturing Practice requirements (21 CFR parts 210 and... of air quality for Merck & Co., Inc.'s Stonewall Plant in Elkton, VA. 52.2454 Section 52.2454... air quality for Merck & Co., Inc.'s Stonewall Plant in Elkton, VA. (a) Applicability. (1) This...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2454 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality for Merck & Co., Inc.'s Stonewall Plant in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures, and Food and Drug Administration Good Manufacturing Practice requirements (21 CFR parts 210 and... of air quality for Merck & Co., Inc.'s Stonewall Plant in Elkton, VA. 52.2454 Section 52.2454... air quality for Merck & Co., Inc.'s Stonewall Plant in Elkton, VA. (a) Applicability. (1) This...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2454 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality for Merck & Co., Inc.'s Stonewall Plant in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures, and Food and Drug Administration Good Manufacturing Practice requirements (21 CFR parts 210 and... of air quality for Merck & Co., Inc.'s Stonewall Plant in Elkton, VA. 52.2454 Section 52.2454... air quality for Merck & Co., Inc.'s Stonewall Plant in Elkton, VA. (a) Applicability. (1) This...

  18. Moss biomonitoring of air pollution with heavy metals in the vicinity of a ferronickel smelter plant.

    PubMed

    Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče; Sajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the atmospheric deposition of various elements in the Kavadarci region, Republic of Macedonia (known for its ferronickel mining and metallurgical activities) using moss biomonitoring, and to determine whether the deposition is anthropogenic or from geogenic influences. The sampling network includes 31 moss samples evenly distributed over a territory of about 600 km(2). A total of 46 elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hg, Ho, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn, Zr) were determined by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS). Based on a distribution pattern of elements determined in moss, two anthropogenic geochemical associations (Co-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mg-Ni and As-Cd-Cu-Hg-Pb-Zn), were detected. The distribution of these elements shows an increased content (especially Ni, Co and Cr) in the moss samples from the surroundings of the smelter plant compared to the rest of the samples. Thus, the median value of Ni in moss samples from the whole region (40 mg kg(-1)) is much higher than the median for Macedonia (5.82 mg kg(-1)). Moreover, the median content of Ni in the moss samples from the polluted area (around the smelter) is 178 mg kg(-1) with an enrichment ratio in the moss samples of almost 5.5 times higher than the unpolluted areas (32 mg kg(-1)). This fact confirms the influence of the dust from the ferronickel plant to the air pollution in this region. PMID:22375548

  19. Complexities of nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry in plant-soil systems: implications for the study of ancient agricultural and animal management practices

    PubMed Central

    Szpak, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen isotopic studies have the potential to shed light on the structure of ancient ecosystems, agropastoral regimes, and human-environment interactions. Until relatively recently, however, little attention was paid to the complexities of nitrogen transformations in ancient plant-soil systems and their potential impact on plant and animal tissue nitrogen isotopic compositions. This paper discusses the importance of understanding nitrogen dynamics in ancient contexts, and highlights several key areas of archaeology where a more detailed understanding of these processes may enable us to answer some fundamental questions. This paper explores two larger themes that are prominent in archaeological studies using stable nitrogen isotope analysis: (1) agricultural practices (use of animal fertilizers, burning of vegetation or shifting cultivation, and tillage) and (2) animal domestication and husbandry (grazing intensity/stocking rate and the foddering of domestic animals with cultigens). The paucity of plant material in ancient deposits necessitates that these issues are addressed primarily through the isotopic analysis of skeletal material rather than the plants themselves, but the interpretation of these data hinges on a thorough understanding of the underlying biogeochemical processes in plant-soil systems. Building on studies conducted in modern ecosystems and under controlled conditions, these processes are reviewed, and their relevance discussed for ancient contexts. PMID:25002865

  20. Plant and animal glycolate oxidases have a common eukaryotic ancestor and convergently duplicated to evolve long-chain 2-hydroxy acid oxidases.

    PubMed

    Esser, Christian; Kuhn, Anke; Groth, Georg; Lercher, Martin J; Maurino, Veronica G

    2014-05-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GOX) is a crucial enzyme of plant photorespiration. The encoding gene is thought to have originated from endosymbiotic gene transfer between the eukaryotic host and the cyanobacterial endosymbiont at the base of plantae. However, animals also possess GOX activities. Plant and animal GOX belong to the gene family of (L)-2-hydroxyacid-oxidases ((L)-2-HAOX). We find that all (L)-2-HAOX proteins in animals and archaeplastida go back to one ancestral eukaryotic sequence; the sole exceptions are green algae of the chlorophyta lineage. Chlorophyta replaced the ancestral eukaryotic (L)-2-HAOX with a bacterial ortholog, a lactate oxidase that may have been obtained through the primary endosymbiosis at the base of plantae; independent losses of this gene may explain its absence in other algal lineages (glaucophyta, rhodophyta, and charophyta). We also show that in addition to GOX, plants possess (L)-2-HAOX proteins with different specificities for medium- and long-chain hydroxyacids (lHAOX), likely involved in fatty acid and protein catabolism. Vertebrates possess lHAOX proteins acting on similar substrates as plant lHAOX; however, the existence of GOX and lHAOX subfamilies in both plants and animals is not due to shared ancestry but is the result of convergent evolution in the two most complex eukaryotic lineages. On the basis of targeting sequences and predicted substrate specificities, we conclude that the biological role of plantae (L)-2-HAOX in photorespiration evolved by co-opting an existing peroxisomal protein. PMID:24408912