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Sample records for air plasma-sprayed conventional

  1. Microstructure of Suspension Plasma Spray and Air Plasma Spray Al2O3-ZrO2 Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dianying; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice

    2009-09-01

    Al2O3-ZrO2 coatings were deposited by the suspension plasma spray (SPS) molecularly mixed amorphous powder and the conventional air plasma spray (APS) Al2O3-ZrO2 crystalline powder. The amorphous powder was produced by heat treatment of molecularly mixed chemical solution precursors below their crystallization temperatures. Phase composition and microstructure of the as-synthesized and heat-treated SPS and APS coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM. XRD analysis shows that the as-sprayed SPS coating is composed of α-Al2O3 and tetragonal ZrO2 phases, while the as-sprayed APS coating consists of tetragonal ZrO2, α-Al2O3, and γ-Al2O3 phases. Microstructure characterization revealed that the Al2O3 and ZrO2 phase distribution in SPS coatings is much more homogeneous than that of APS coatings.

  2. Hot Corrosion Resistance and Mechanical Behavior of Atmospheric Plasma Sprayed Conventional and Nanostructured Zirconia Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saremi, Mohsen; Keyvani, Ahmad; Heydarzadeh Sohi, Mahmoud

    Conventional and nanostructured zirconia coatings were deposited on In-738 Ni super alloy by atmospheric plasma spray technique. The hot corrosion resistance of the coatings was measured at 1050°C using an atmospheric electrical furnace and a fused mixture of vanadium pent oxide and sodium sulfate respectively. According to the experimental results nanostructured coatings showed a better hot corrosion resistance than conventional ones. The improved hot corrosion resistance could be explained by the change of structure to a dense and more packed structure in the nanocoating. The evaluation of mechanical properties by nano indentation method showed the hardness (H) and elastic modulus (E) of the YSZ coating increased substantially after hot corrosion.

  3. Failure of thick, low density air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helminiak, Michael Aaron

    This research was directed at developing fundamental understandings of the variables that influence the performance of air plasma sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBC). Focus was placed on understanding how and why each variable influenced the performance of the TBC system along with how the individual variables interacted with one another. It includes research on the effect of surface roughness of NiCoCrAlY bond coats deposited by argon-shrouded plasma spraying, the interdiffusion behavior of bond coats coupled to commercial superalloys, and the microstructural and compositional control of APS topcoats to maximize the coating thicknesses that can be applied without spallation. The specimens used for this research were prepared by Praxair Surface Technologies and have been evaluated using cyclic oxidation and thermal shock tests. TBC performance was sensitive to bond coat roughness with the rougher bond coats having improved cyclic performance than the smoother bond coats. The explanation being the rough bond coat surface hindered the propagation of the delamination cracks. The failure mechanisms of the APS coatings were found to depend on a combination of the topcoat thickness, topcoat microstructure and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between the superalloy and topcoat. Thinner topcoats tended to fail at the topcoat/TGO interface due to bond coat oxidation whereas thicker topcoats failed within the topcoat due to the strain energy release rate of the thicker coating exceeding the fracture strength of the topcoat. Properties of free-standing high and conventional purity YSZ topcoats of both a lowdensity (LD) and dense-vertically fissure (DVF) microstructures were evaluated. The densification rate and phase evolution were sensitive to the YSZ purity and the starting microstructure. Increasing the impurity content resulted in enhanced sintering and phase decomposition rates, with the exception of the

  4. In-situ formation of multiphase air plasma sprayed barrier coatings for turbine components

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2001-01-01

    A turbine component (10), such as a turbine blade, is provided which is made of a metal alloy (22) and a base, planar-grained thermal barrier layer (28) applied by air plasma spraying on the alloy surface, where a heat resistant ceramic oxide overlay material (32') covers the bottom thermal barrier coating (28), and the overlay material is the reaction product of the precursor ceramic oxide overlay material (32) and the base thermal barrier coating material (28).

  5. A model for residual stress evolution in air-plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, B. G.; Singh, J. P.; Grimsditch, M.

    2000-02-28

    Ruby fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that residual stress in air-plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings is a function of the local interface geometry. The stress profile of a simulated rough interface characterized by ``peaks'' and ``valleys'' was modeled with a finite-element approach that accounted for thermal mismatch, oxide scale growth, and top coat sintering. Dependence of the stress profile on interface geometry and microstructure was investigated, and the results were compared with measured stresses.

  6. Factors affecting the microstructural stability and durability of thermal barrier coatings fabricated by air plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Helminiak, M A; Yanar, N M; Pettit, F S; Taylor, T A; Meier, G H

    2012-10-01

    The high-temperature behavior of high-purity, low-density (HP-LD) air plasma sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with NiCoCrAlY bond coats deposited by argon-shrouded plasma spraying is described. The high purity yttria-stabilized zirconia resulted in top coats which are highly resistant to sintering and transformation from the metastable tetragonal phase to the equilibrium mixture of monoclinic and cubic phases. The thermal conductivity of the as-processed TBC is low but increases during high temperature exposure even before densification occurs. The porous topcoat microstructure also resulted in good spallation resistance during thermal cycling. The actual failure mechanisms of the APS coatings were found to depend on topcoat thickness, topcoat density, and the thermal cycle frequency. The failure mechanisms are described and the durability of the HP-LD coatings is compared with that of state-of-the-art electron beam physical vapor deposition TBCs.

  7. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Conventional and Nanostructured Plasma-Sprayed WC-Co Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, E.; Bannier, E.; Salvador, M. D.; Bonache, V.; García, J. C.; Morgiel, J.; Grzonka, J.

    2010-09-01

    WC-12%Co coatings were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying using conventional and nanostructured powders and two secondary plasmogenous gases (He and H2). Coating microstructure and phase composition were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray diffraction techniques (XRD) techniques. This study examined wear and friction properties of the coatings under dry friction conditions. SEM was used to analyze abraded surface microstructure. Coating microhardness and fracture toughness were also determined. All coatings displayed strong decarburization as a result of WC decomposition, which gave rise to the formation of secondary phases (W2C and W). A very fine undissolved WC crystalline dispersion coexisted with these new phases. TEM observation confirmed that the matrix was predominantly amorphous and filled with block-type, frequently dislocated crystallites. Wear was observed to follow a three-body abrasive mechanism, since debris between the ball and the coating surface was detected. The main wear mechanism was based on subsurface cracking, owing to the arising debris. WC grain decomposition and dissolution were concluded to be critical factors in wear resistance. The level of decomposition and dissolution could be modified by changing the plasmogenous gas or feed powder grain size. The influence of the plasmogenous gas on wear resistance was greater than the influence of feedstock particle size.

  8. Laser Cladding to Improve Oxidation Behavior of Air Plasma-Sprayed Ni-20Cr Coating on Stainless Steel Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, M. Mudassar; Shahid, Muhammad; Nusair Khan, A.; Mehmood, K.

    2015-09-01

    Air plasma-sprayed Ni-20Cr coating on stainless steel (AISI-304) substrate was re-melted using CO2 laser to remove the inherent defects, i.e., porosity, splat boundaries, and oxides of air plasma-sprayed coating. The (1) uncoated, (2) air plasma-sprayed, and (3) laser-re-melted specimens were exposed to cyclic oxidation at 900 °C for a hundred cycles run. The oxidation products were characterized using XRD and SEM. Weight changes were determined after every 4th cycle; Uncoated samples showed severe oxidation indicated by substantial weight loss, whereas air plasma-coated samples demonstrated noticeable weight gain. However, oxidation resistance of laser-cladded samples was found to be significantly improved as the samples showed negligible weight change; porosity within the coating was minimized with an improvement in interface quality causing reduction in delamination damage.

  9. COMPARISON OF THERMAL PROPERTIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATING DEPOSITED ON IN738 USING STANDARD AIR PLASMA SPRAY WITH 100HE PLASMA SPRAY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Uppu, N.; Mensah, P.F.; Ofori, D.

    2006-07-01

    A typical blade material is made of Nickel super alloy and can bear temperatures up to 950°C. But the operating temperature of a gas turbine is above the melting point of super alloy nearly at 1500°C. This could lead to hot corrosions, high temperature oxidation, creep, thermal fatigue may takes place on the blade material. Though the turbine has an internal cooling system, the cooling is not adequate to reduce the temperature of the blade substrate. Therefore to protect the blade material as well as increase the efficiency of the turbine, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be used. A TBC coating of 250 μm thick can reduce the temperature by up to 200° C. Air Plasma Spray Process (APS) and High Enthalpy Plasma Spray Process (100HE) were the processes used for coating the blades with the TBCs. Because thermal conductivity increases with increase in temperature, it is desired that these processes yield very low thermal conductivities at high temperatures in order not to damage the blade. An experiment was carried out using Flash line 5000 apparatus to compare the thermal conductivity of both processes.The apparatus could also be used to determine the thermal diffusivity and specific heat of the TBCs. 75 to 2800 K was the temperature range used in the experimentation. It was found out that though 100HE has high deposition efficiency, the thermal conductivity increases with increase in temperatures whiles APS yielded low thermal conductivities.

  10. The behavior of high-purity, low-density air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Helminiak, Yanar NM

    2009-12-01

    Research on the behavior of high-purity, low-density (85%) air plasma sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coatings (TBC) with NiCoCrAlY bond coats deposited by argon-shrouded plasma spraying is described. The microstructure of the APS topcoats is one variable in this study intended to maximize the coating thicknesses that can be applied without spallation and to minimize the thermal conduction through the YSZ layer. The specimens were evaluated using cyclic oxidation tests and important properties of the TBCs, such as resistance to sintering and phase transformation, were determined. The high purity resulted in top coats which are highly resistant to sintering and transformation from the metastable tetragonal phase to the equilibrium mixture of monoclinic and cubic phases. The porous topcoat microstructure also resulted in significant durability during thermal cycling. The actual failure mechanisms of the APS coatings were found to depend on topcoat thickness, CTE of the superalloy substrate and the nature of the thermal exposure.

  11. An investigation of particle trajectories and melting in an air plasma sprayed zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Neiser, R.A.; Roemer, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    The partially stabilized zirconia powders used to plasma spray thermal barrier coatings typically exhibit broad particle-size distributions. There are conflicting reports in the literature about the extent of injection-induced particle-sizing effects in air plasma-sprayed materials. If significant spatial separation of finer and coarser particles in the jet occurs, then one would expect it to play an important role in determining the microstructure and properties of deposits made from powders containing a wide range of particle sizes. This paper presents the results of a study in which a commercially available zirconia powder was fractionated into fine, medium, and coarse cuts and sprayed at the same torch conditions used for the ensemble powder. Diagnostic measurements of particle surface temperature, velocity, and number-density distributions in the plume for each size-cut and for the ensemble powder are reported. Deposits produced by traversing the torch back and forth to produce a raised bead were examined metallographically to study their shape and location with respect to the torch centerline and to look at their internal microstructure. The results show that, for the torch conditions used in this study, the fine, medium, and coarse size-cuts all followed the same mean trajectory. No measureable particle segregation effects were observed. Considerable differences in coatings microstructure were observed. These differences can be explained by the different particle properties measured in the plume.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Amorphous Alumina-Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings by Air Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xuemei; Suhonen, Tomi; Varis, Tommi; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin; Zeng, Yi

    2014-12-01

    Almost fully amorphous coatings of near-eutectic alumina-yttria-stabilized zirconia (Al2O3-YSZ) were prepared by air plasma spraying using Al2O3 and 8 mol.% YSZ crystalline-mixed powders. The coatings consist of mostly an amorphous phase with a small amount of nanocrystals. Various characterization techniques were used to understand coating formation and the origins of the different phases within the coatings. The formation of the mostly amorphous structure is attributed to the high glass-forming ability of Al2O3-YSZ and the appropriate plasma spraying conditions. A small number of nanocrystals are produced during crystallization of the incoming molten droplets or by recrystallization of the solidified splats by accumulated heat. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the coatings have a dense, layered structure with low porosity, and bright-field transmission electron microscopy images indicate sharp interface rather than grit-blasted wavy surface between splats and substrates in the coatings. The as-sprayed amorphous coatings crystallized at around 920 °C and micro-hardness of the as-sprayed amorphous coatings was 8.12 GPa.

  13. The surface cracking behavior in air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system incorporating interface roughness effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. X.; Fan, X. L.; Wang, T. J.

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this work is to understand the effect of interface roughness on the strain energy release rate and surface cracking behavior in air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system. This is achieved by a parameter investigation of the interfacial shapes, in which the extended finite element method (XFEM) and periodic boundary condition are used. Predictions for the stress field and driving force of multiple surface cracks in the film/substrate system are presented. It is seen that the interface roughness has significant effects on the strain energy release rate, the interfacial stress distribution, and the crack propagation patterns. One can see the completely different distributions of stress and strain energy release rate in the regions of convex and concave asperities of the substrate. Variation of the interface asperity is responsible for the oscillatory characteristics of strain energy release rate, which can cause the local arrest of surface cracks. It is concluded that artificially created rough interface can enhance the durability of film/substrate system with multiple cracks.

  14. Microstructural study of as sprayed and heat treated Ni3Al coatings deposited by air plasma spraying technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, K.; Rafiq, M. A.; Nusair Khan, A.; Rauf, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    Air plasma spraying system was utilized to deposit Ni3Al coatings on AISI 321 steel samples. After plasma spraying the coatings were heat treated at different temperatures i.e. 500 °C to 800 °C for 10 to 100 hours. The characterization tools such as, X-Ray diffraction analysis, optical and scanning electron microscopy were used. By comparing the XRD scan data of as sprayed and heat treated coating, it was observed that the formation of NiO increases drastically with time and temperature. Due to the formation of NiO, hardness was also enhanced. The oxidation behavior was observed by using optical microscope and when it was studied that the oxidation was increasing with time and temperature. Further, the SEM tool was utilized to study the detail microstructural behavior such as shrinkage cavity and oxide particles. The other phases like alumina and spinel phases were determined by using Energy dispersive spectrometer method.

  15. Arc-Cathode Coupling in the Modeling of a Conventional DC Plasma Spray Torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaya, M.; Chazelas, C.; Mariaux, G.; Vardelle, A.

    2015-01-01

    The plasma torch is the basis of the plasma spray process and understanding of the electric arc dynamics within the plasma torch is necessary for better control of torch and process instabilities. Numerical simulation is a useful tool for investigating the effect of the torch geometry and operating parameters on the electric arc characteristics provided that the model of arc dynamics is reliable and the boundary conditions of the computational domain are well founded. However, such a model should also address the intricate transient and 3D interactions between the electrically conducting fluid and electromagnetic, thermal, and acoustics phenomena. Especially, the description of the electrode regions where the electric arc connects with solid material is an important part of a realistic model of the plasma torch operation as the properties of electric arcs at atmospheric pressure depend not only on the arc plasma medium, but also on the electrodes. This paper describes the 3D and time-dependent numerical simulation of a plasma arc and is focused on the cathode boundary conditions. This model was used to investigate the differences in arc characteristics when the cathode is included into the numerical domain and coupled with the arc. The magnetic and thermal coupling between the cathode and arc made it possible to get rid of the current density boundary condition at the cathode tip that is delicate to predetermine. It also allowed a better prediction of the cathode flow jet generated by the pumping action induced by the interaction of the self-magnetic field with the electric current and so it allowed a better description of the dynamics of arc. It should be a necessary step in the development of a fully predictive model of DC plasma torch operation.

  16. Parametric study of Al and Al 2O 3 ceramic coatings deposited by air plasma spray onto polymer substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanhong, Sun; Xiaodong, He; Jiuxing, Jiang; Yue, Sun

    2011-06-01

    Aluminum and ceramic (Al 2O 3) coatings were deposited onto the polymer substrate by air plasma spray (APS) to improve the mechanical properties of the polymer surface. The effect of spray parameters (current and spray distance in this paper) on the phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated. Shear adhesion strength between the coatings and the substrates was also examined. The results indicate that the deposition parameters have a significant effect on the phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of as-spayed coatings. The maximum shear adhesion strength of the bond coats was 5.21 MPa with the current of 180 A and 190 mm spray distance.

  17. Plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Douglas S.; Folser, George R.

    2006-01-10

    A plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer is provided. The interlayer has particular application in connection with a solid oxide fuel cell used within a power generation system. The fuel cell advantageously comprises an air electrode, a plasma sprayed interlayer disposed on at least a portion of the air electrode, a plasma sprayed electrolyte disposed on at least a portion of the interlayer, and a fuel electrode applied on at least a portion of the electrolyte.

  18. Low friction stainless steel coatings graphite doped elaborated by air plasma sprayed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harir, A.; Ageorges, H.; Grimaud, A.; Fauchais, P.; Platon, F.

    2004-10-01

    A new process has been developed to incorporate graphite particles into a stainless steel coating during its formation. Four means have been tested to inject the graphite particles outside the plasma jet and its plume: graphite suspension, a graphite rod rubbed on the rotating sample, powder injection close to the substrate with an injector, or a specially designed guide. The last process has been shown to be the most versatile and the most easily controllable. It allows the incorporation of between 2 and 12 vol.% of graphite particles (2 15 µm) within the plasma sprayed stainless steel coatings. A volume fraction of 2% seems to give the best results with a slight decrease (6%) of the coating hardness. This volume fraction also gave the best results in dry friction on the pin-on-disk apparatus. Depending on the sliding velocity (0.1 0.5 m/s) and loads (3.7 28 N), the dry friction coefficient against a 100C6 pin is reduced by between 1.5 and 4 compared with that obtained with plasma sprayed stainless steel.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Air Plasma Sprayed Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Bradley; Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis; Wadley, Haydn

    2015-01-01

    Development work in Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) for Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) has focused considerably on the identification of materials systems and coating architectures to meet application needs. The evolution of these systems has occurred so quickly that modeling efforts and requisite data for modeling lag considerably behind development. Materials property data exists for many systems in the bulk form, but the effects of deposition on the critical properties of strength and fracture behavior are not well studied. We have plasma sprayed bulk samples of baseline EBC materials (silicon, ytterbium disilicate) and tested the mechanical properties of these materials to elicit differences in strength and toughness. We have also endeavored to assess the mixed-mode fracture resistance, Gc, of silicon in a baseline EBC applied to SiCSiC CMC via four point bend test. These results are compared to previously determined properties of the comparable bulk material.

  20. Process-Property Relationship for Air Plasma-Sprayed Gadolinium Zirconate Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Gopal; Tan, Yang; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay

    2015-02-01

    The continuous need of elevating operating temperature of gas turbine engines has introduced several challenges with the current state-of-the-art yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), requiring examination of new TBC material with high temperature phase stability, lower thermal conductivity, and resistance to environmental ash particles. Gadolinium zirconate (Gd2Zr2O7) (GDZ) has been shown to meet many of these requirements, and has, in fact, been successfully implemented in to engine components. However, several fundamental issues related to the process-ability, toughness, and microstructural differences for GDZ when compared to equivalent YSZ coating. This study seeks to critically address the process-structure-property correlations for plasma-sprayed GDZ coating subjected to controlled parametric exploration. Use of in-flight diagnostics coupled with in situ and ex situ coating property monitoring allows examination and comparison of the process-property interplay and the resultant differences between the two TBC compositions. The results indicate that it is feasible to retain material chemistry and fabricate relevant microstructures of interest with GDZ with concomitant performance advantages such as low conductivity, mechanical compliance, sintering resistance, and suppression of environmentally induced damage from ash particles. This study provides a framework for optimal design and manufacturing of emergent multi-layer and multi-material TBCs.

  1. Phase Evolution upon Aging of Air-Plasma Sprayed t'-Zirconia Coatings: I-Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, Don M; Krogstad, Jessica A; Gao, Yan; Johnson, Curtis A; Nelson, Warren A; Levi, Carlos G

    2012-10-08

    Phase evolution accompanying the isothermal aging of free-standing air-plasma sprayed (APS) 7–8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is described. Aging was carried out at temperatures ranging from 982°C to 1482°C in air. The high-temperature kinetics of the phase evolution from the metastable t' phase into a mixture of transformable Y-rich (cubic) and Y-lean (tetragonal) phases are documented through ambient temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization. A Hollomon–Jaffe parameter (HJP), T[27 + ln(t)], was used to satisfactorily normalize the extent of phase decomposition over the full range of times and temperatures. Comparison to vapor deposited TBCs reveal potential differences in the destabilization mechanism in APS coatings. Furthermore, the lattice parameters extracted from Rietveld refinement of the XRD patterns were used to deduce the stabilizer concentrations of the respective phases, which suggest a retrograde tetragonal solvus over the temperature range studied. In concert with a complementary microstructural study presented in Part II, this effort offers new insights into the mechanisms governing the phase evolution and raises implications for the high-temperature use of 8YSZ ceramics.

  2. Characterization and Wear Behavior of Heat-treated Ni3Al Coatings Deposited by Air Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, K.; Rafiq, M. A.; Nusair Khan, A.; Ahmed, F.; Mudassar Rauf, M.

    2016-07-01

    Air plasma spraying was utilized to deposit Ni3Al coatings on AISI-321 steel substrate. The deposited coatings were isothermally heat-treated at various temperatures from 500 to 800 °C for 10, 30, 60, and 100 h. The x-ray diffraction analysis revealed NiO formation in Ni3Al at 500 °C after 100 h, and the percentage of NiO increased with increasing exposure time and temperature. The hardness of the coating increased with the formation of NiO. The DSC test showed the formation of minor phases, Al3Ni and Al3Ni2, within the coating along with the major phase Ni3Al. TGA revealed a slowing down of the oxidation rate upon surface oxide formation. The pin-on-disk wear test on the as-sprayed and heat-treated coatings showed that wear rate and coefficient of friction decreased with an increase in the NiO phase content.

  3. Air jet erosion test on plasma sprayed surface by varying erodent impingement pressure and impingement angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Ajit; Behera, Asit; Mishra, S. C.; Pani, S.; Parida, P.

    2015-02-01

    Fly-ash premixed with quartz and illmenite powder in different weight proportions are thermal sprayed on mild steel and copper substrates at various input power levels of the plasma torch ranging from 11 kW to 21 kW DC. The erosion test has done using Air Jet erosion test Reg (As per ASTM G76) with silica erodent typically 150-250 pm in size. Multiple tests were performed at increasing the time duration from 60 sec to 180 sec with increasing pressure (from 1 bar to 2.5 bar) and angle (60° & 90°). This study reveals that the impact velocity and impact angle are two most significant parameters among various factors influencing the wear rate of these coatings. The mechanisms and microstructural changes that arise during erosion wear are studied by using SEM. It is found that, when erodent are impacting the fresh un-eroded surface, material removal occurs by the continuous evolution of craters on the surface. Upper layer splats are removed out after 60 sec and second layer splat erosion starts. Based on these observations Physical models are developed. Some graphs plotted between mass loss-rate versus time period/impact Pressure/impact Angle gives good correlation with surface features observed.

  4. Electrochemical Evaluation of Thin-Film Li-Si Anodes Prepared by Plasma Spraying

    SciTech Connect

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; SCHARRER,GREGORY L.

    1999-09-08

    Thin-film electrodes of a plasma-sprayed Li-Si alloy were evaluated for use as anodes in high-temperature thermally activated (thermal) batteries. These anodes were prepared using 44% Li/56% Si (w/w) material as feed material in a special plasma-spray apparatus under helium or hydrogen, to protect this air- and moisture-sensitive material during deposition. Anodes were tested in single cells using conventional pressed-powder separators and lithiated pyrite cathodes at temperatures of 400 to 550 C at several different current densities. A limited number of 5-cell battery tests were also conducted. The data for the plasma-sprayed anodes was compared to that for conventional pressed-powder anodes. The performance of the plasma-sprayed anodes was inferior to that of conventional pressed-powder anodes, in that the cell emfs were lower (due to the lack of formation of the desired alloy phases) and the small porosity of these materials severely limited their rate capability. Consequently, plasma-sprayed Li-Si anodes would not be practical for use in thermal batteries.

  5. Preliminary study of cyclic thermal shock resistance of plasma-sprayed zirconium oxide turbine outer air seal shrouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.; Wisander, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Several experimental concepts representing potential high pressure turbine seal material systems were subjected to cyclic thermal shock exposures similar to those that might be encountered under severe engine start-up and shut-down sequences. All of the experimental concepts consisted of plasma-sprayed yttria stabilized ZrO2 on the high temperature side of the blade tip seal shroud. Between the ZrO2 and a cooled, dense metal backing, various intermediate layer concepts intended to mitigate thermal stresses were incorporated. Performance was judged on the basis of the number of thermal shock cycles required to cause loss of seal material through spallation. The most effective approach was to include a low modulus, sintered metal pad between the ZrO2 and the metallic backing. It was also found that reducing the density of the ZrO2 layer significantly improved the performance of specimens with plasma-sprayed metal/ceramic composite intermediate layers.

  6. Plasma-Spray Metal Coating On Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranston, J.

    1994-01-01

    Molds, forms, and other substrates made of foams coated with metals by plasma spraying. Foam might be ceramic, carbon, metallic, organic, or inorganic. After coat applied by plasma spraying, foam left intact or removed by acid leaching, conventional machining, water-jet cutting, or another suitable technique. Cores or vessels made of various foam materials plasma-coated with metals according to method useful as thermally insulating containers for foods, liquids, or gases, or as mandrels for making composite-material (matrix/fiber) parts, or making thermally insulating firewalls in automobiles.

  7. Friction and wear of plasma-sprayed coatings containing cobalt alloys from 25 deg to 650 deg in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.; Jacobson, T. P.

    1980-01-01

    Four different compositions of self-lubricating, plasma-sprayed, composite coatings with calcium fluoride dispersed throughout cobalt alloy-silver matrices were evaluated on a friction and wear apparatus. In addition, coatings of the cobalt alloys alone and of one coating with a nickel alloy-silver matrix were evaluated for comparison. The wear specimens consisted of two, diametrically opposed, flat rub shoes sliding on the coated, cylindrical surface of a rotating disk. Two of the cobalt composite coatings gave a friction coefficient of about 0.25 and low wear at room temperature, 400 and 650 C. Wear rates were lower than those of the cobalt alloys alone or the nickel alloy composite coating. However, oxidation limited the maximum useful temperature of the cobalt composite coating to about 650 C compared to about 900 C for the nickel composite coating.

  8. Friction and wear of plasma-sprayed coatings containing cobalt alloys from 25 deg to 650 deg in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.; Jacobson, T. P.

    1979-01-01

    Four different compositions of self-lubricating, plasma-sprayed, composite coatings with calcium fluoride dispersed throughout cobalt alloy-silver matrices were evaluated on a friction and wear apparatus. In addition, coatings of the cobalt alloys alone and one coating with a nickel alloy-silver matrix were evaluated for comparison. The wear specimens consisted of two, diametrically opposed, flat rub shoes sliding on the coated, cylindrical surface of a rotating disk. Two of the cobalt composite coatings gave a friction coefficient of about 0.25 and low wear at room temperature, 400 and 650 C. Wear rates were lower than those of the cobalt alloys alone or the nickel alloy composite coating. However, oxidation limited the maximum useful temperature of the cobalt composite coating to about 650 C compared to about 900 C for the nickel composite coating.

  9. Thermal Shock Behavior of Air Plasma Sprayed CoNiCrAlY/YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zi Wei; Wu, Wei; Hua, Jia Jie; Lin, Chu Cheng; Zheng, Xue Bin; Zeng, Yi

    2014-07-01

    The structural changes and failure mechanism of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) during thermal shock cycling were investigated. TBCs consisting of CoNiCrAlY bond coat and partially yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) on a nickel-based alloy substrate and its thermal shock resistance performance was evaluated. TBCs were heated at 1100°C for 15 min followed by cold water quenching to ambient temperature. Microstructural evaluation and elemental analysis of TBCs were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The crack features of YSZ coatings in TBCs during thermal shock cycling, including those of horizontal (parallel to the substrate) and vertical cracks (perpendicular to the substrate), were particularly investigated by means of SEM and image analysis. Results show that horizontal and vertical cracks have different influences on the thermal shock resistance of the coatings. Horizontal cracks that occur at the interface of YSZ and thermally growth oxidation (TGO) cause partial or large-area spalling of coatings. When vertical and horizontal cracks encounter, network segments are formed which lead to partial spalling of the coatings.

  10. Study of the microstructure of plasma sprayed coatings obtained from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–13TiO{sub 2} nanostructured and conventional powders

    SciTech Connect

    Góral, A.; Żórawski, W.; Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, L.

    2014-10-15

    The microstructure of coatings obtained from nanostructured or conventional Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–13TiO{sub 2} powders and deposited by plasma spraying technique on low-carbon steel was examined by transmission electron microscopy techniques. The dominating phase in both coatings was γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. It has been observed that the grains of γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grew in various shapes and sizes, that are particularly visible in the case of coating sprayed from nanostructured powder. The coatings obtained from the fully melted conventional powders exhibited a typical lamellar microstructure, into which the strips of TiO{sub 2} phase were extended. The microstructure of coatings produced from agglomerates of nanostructured particles also revealed the regions consisting of partially melted α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders surrounded by the net-like structure formed from fully melted oxides that improved the coating properties. Along with the observed morphology diversity some changes in the chemical composition on the cross sections of obtained coatings have been also noticed. - Highlights: • Plasma sprayed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–13TiO{sub 2} coatings reveal diversity of microstructure. • Microstructure of conventional coating was formed from fully melted crushed powders. • Nanostructured coating contains completely and partially melted initial agglomerates.

  11. Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

  12. Microstructure studies of air-plasma-spray-deposited CoNiCrAlY coatings before and after thermal cyclic loading for high-temperature application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dipak; Pandey, K. N.; Das, Dipak Kumar

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, bond-coats for thermal barrier coatings were deposited via air plasma spraying (APS) techniques onto Inconel 800 and Hastelloy C-276 alloy substrates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to investigate the phases and microstructure of the as-sprayed, APS-deposited CoNiCrAlY bond-coatings. The aim of this work was to study the suitability of the bond-coat materials for high temperature applications. Confirmation of nanoscale grains of the γ/γ'-phase was obtained by TEM, high-resolution TEM, and AFM. We concluded that these changes result from the plastic deformation of the bond-coat during the deposition, resulting in CoNiCrAlY bond-coatings with excellent thermal cyclic resistance suitable for use in high-temperature applications. Cyclic oxidative stability was observed to also depend on the underlying metallic alloy substrate.

  13. Improvement in the properties of plasma-sprayed metallic, alloy and ceramic coatings using dry-ice blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shujuan; Song, Bo; Hansz, Bernard; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2011-10-01

    Dry-ice blasting, as an environmental-friendly method, was introduced into atmospheric plasma spraying for improving properties of metallic, alloy and ceramic coatings. The deposited coatings were then compared with coatings plasma-sprayed using conventional air cooling in terms of microstructure, temperature, oxidation, porosity, residual stress and adhesion. It was found that a denser steel or CoNiCrAlY alloy coating with a lower content of oxide can be achieved with the application of dry-ice blasting during the plasma spraying. In addition, the adhesive strength of Al 2O 3 coating deposited with dry-ice blasting exceeded 60 MPa, which was nearly increased by 30% compared with that of the coating deposited with conventional air cooling. The improvement in properties of plasma-sprayed metallic, alloy and ceramic coatings caused by dry-ice blasting was attributed to the decrease of annulus-ringed disk like splats, the better cooling efficiency of dry-ice pellets and even the mechanical effect of dry-ice impact.

  14. A structural investigation of a plasma sprayed Ni--Cr based alloy coating

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, S.; Neiser, R.A.; Herman, H. ); Kirkland, J.P.; Elam, W.T. )

    1993-01-01

    A Ni--Cr based hardfacing alloy has been plasma sprayed in ambient and low pressure atmospheres onto mild steel substrates. These coatings exhibit excellent wear and corrosion resistance; however, the significance of microstructure on properties has not been reported. This study relates the structure of the sprayed coatings to the processing conditions. X-ray diffraction results indicate phase separation in air plasma sprayed deposits, while low pressure plasma sprayed deposits exhibit a single supersaturated solid solution. Annealing of the air plasma sprayed coating shows dissolution of the bcc chromium phase, confirming its metastable nature. These results were confirmed using Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) analysis, which further suggests a highly disordered structure, with partial oxidation of selected alloying elements, such as chromium. Transmission electron microscopy indicates a wide variety of microstructures in the air plasma sprayed deposit. In the case of low pressure sprayed deposit, the microstructures are homogeneous and uniform.

  15. Interaction of surface laser treatment upon ZrO2-Y2O3 ceramic coating structure obtained by means of air plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobylanska-Szkaradek, Krystyna

    2003-10-01

    The subject of the analysis and examination is the structure and utilitarian properties of thin ceramic layers placed on the nickel base heat-resistant alloy by plasma spraying method, which later on underwent laser remelting. Examined materials consisting of outer coating ZrO2+8%wt.Y2O3 and NiCrAlY laser are to be used as thermal barriers and protection against high temperature corrosion of heating-resisting alloy on nickel base, applied in internal combustion turbine blades and other construction elements working under stress in high temperature conditions.

  16. Plasma Spray-PVD: A New Thermal Spray Process to Deposit Out of the Vapor Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Niessen, Konstantin; Gindrat, Malko

    2011-06-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is a low pressure plasma spray technology recently developed by Sulzer Metco AG (Switzerland). Even though it is a thermal spray process, it can deposit coatings out of the vapor phase. The basis of PS-PVD is the low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS) technology that has been well established in industry for several years. In comparison to conventional vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) or low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS), the new proposed process uses a high energy plasma gun operated at a reduced work pressure of 0.1 kPa (1 mbar). Owing to the high energy plasma and further reduced work pressure, PS-PVD is able to deposit a coating not only by melting the feed stock material which builds up a layer from liquid splats but also by vaporizing the injected material. Therefore, the PS-PVD process fills the gap between the conventional physical vapor deposition (PVD) technologies and standard thermal spray processes. The possibility to vaporize feedstock material and to produce layers out of the vapor phase results in new and unique coating microstructures. The properties of such coatings are superior to those of thermal spray and electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) coatings. In contrast to EB-PVD, PS-PVD incorporates the vaporized coating material into a supersonic plasma plume. Owing to the forced gas stream of the plasma jet, complex shaped parts such as multi-airfoil turbine vanes can be coated with columnar thermal barrier coatings using PS-PVD. Even shadowed areas and areas which are not in the line of sight of the coating source can be coated homogeneously. This article reports on the progress made by Sulzer Metco in developing a thermal spray process to produce coatings out of the vapor phase. Columnar thermal barrier coatings made of Yttria-stabilized Zircona (YSZ) are optimized to serve in a turbine engine. This process includes not only preferable coating properties such as strain tolerance and erosion

  17. Feedback enhanced plasma spray tool

    DOEpatents

    Gevelber, Michael Alan; Wroblewski, Donald Edward; Fincke, James Russell; Swank, William David; Haggard, Delon C.; Bewley, Randy Lee

    2005-11-22

    An improved automatic feedback control scheme enhances plasma spraying of powdered material through reduction of process variability and providing better ability to engineer coating structure. The present inventors discovered that controlling centroid position of the spatial distribution along with other output parameters, such as particle temperature, particle velocity, and molten mass flux rate, vastly increases control over the sprayed coating structure, including vertical and horizontal cracks, voids, and porosity. It also allows improved control over graded layers or compositionally varying layers of material, reduces variations, including variation in coating thickness, and allows increasing deposition rate. Various measurement and system control schemes are provided.

  18. Modelling the Plasma Jet in Multi-Arc Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Schein, J.; Zimmermann, S.; Möhwald, K.; Lummer, C.

    2016-08-01

    Particle in-flight characteristics in atmospheric plasma spraying process are determined by impulse and heat energy transferred between the plasma jet and injected powder particles. One of the important factors for the quality of the plasma-sprayed coatings is thus the distribution of plasma gas temperatures and velocities in plasma jet. Plasma jets generated by conventional single-arc plasma spraying systems and their interaction with powder particles were subject matter of intensive research. However, this does not apply to plasma jets generated by means of multi-arc plasma spraying systems yet. In this study, a numerical model has been developed which is designated to dealing with the flow characteristics of the plasma jet generated by means of a three-cathode spraying system. The upstream flow conditions, which were calculated using a priori conducted plasma generator simulations, have been coupled to the plasma jet simulations. The significances of the relevant numerical assumptions and aspects of the models are analyzed. The focus is placed on to the turbulence and diffusion/demixing modelling. A critical evaluation of the prediction power of the models is conducted by comparing the numerical results to the experimental results determined by means of emission spectroscopic computed tomography. It is evident that the numerical models exhibit a good accuracy for their intended use.

  19. Tailoring the Spray Conditions for Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joulia, A.; Duarte, W.; Goutier, S.; Vardelle, M.; Vardelle, A.; Rossignol, S.

    2015-01-01

    The plasma spray process using suspensions as liquid feedstock allows the deposition of finely structured coatings with improved properties compared to that of coatings deposited by the conventional plasma spray techniques. The evaporation of the solvent, acceleration, heating, and melting of the fine solid particles within the plasma jet take place in a shorter time, as the substrate is located closer to the plasma torch when a mono-cathode mono-anode plasma torch is used, while the liquid material processing globally consumes more energy than a powder material. Therefore, achieving a coating with the expected properties requires a broad understanding of the process. In this study, a large range of plasma spray conditions have been used to achieve yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings by suspension plasma spraying. The properties of the plasma jet (velocity, enthalpy, and stability) as well as those of droplets (trajectories, number, and size) and particles (velocity) were measured and correlated to the coating microstructure. The operating conditions necessary for obtaining disk-shape splats and achieving homogeneous coatings are described including the plasma jet properties and substrate parameters.

  20. Heat transfer in plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijikata, Kunio; Mitui, Kenzi

    A Bi2Te3 film was directly coated by a plasma spraying and its heat transfer process was experimentally investigated. A new thermal probe for measuring the temperature field was developed and its accuracy was checked from a structure of coated film. The Seebeck coefficients of Bi2Te3 films made under different ambient conditions were compared, and it was determined that the cooling condition during film deposition had a great effect on the thermoelectric performance of the film, especially of Bi2Te3 films. It was also shown that a thick thermoelectric film is able to be directly coated on the heat transfer pipe, which may bring about a large improvement in the conversion efficiency caused by the contact resistance between the thermoelectric elements and a heat source.

  1. Plasma sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coating for NiAl-based intermetallic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Doychak, Joseph (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating system consists of two layers of a zirconia-yttria ceramic. The first layer is applied by low pressure plasma spraying. The second layer is applied by conventional atmospheric pressure plasma spraying. This facilitates the attachment of a durable thermally insulating ceramic coating directly to the surface of a highly oxidation resistant NiAl-based intermetallic alloy after the alloy has been preoxidized to promote the formation of a desirable Al2O3 scale.

  2. Deposition of Hard Chrome Coating onto Heat Susceptible Substrates by Low Power Microwave Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redza, Ahmad; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    Microwave plasma spray requires relatively low power, which is lower than 1 kW in comparison to other plasma spraying method. Until now, we are able to deposit Cu and Hydroxyapatite coating onto heat susceptible substrate, CFRP which are difficult for conventional plasma spray due to the excessive heat input. In this paper, a hard chromium coating was deposited onto SUS304 and CFRP by a low power microwave plasma spray technique. By controlling the working gas flow rate and spraying distance, a hard chrome coating with thickness of approximately 30 μm was successfully deposited onto CFRP substrate with hardness of 1110 Hv0.05. Furthermore, the coating produced here is higher than that produced by hard chrome plating.

  3. Creep of plasma sprayed zirconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, R. F.; Logan, W. R.; Adams, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 1000, 2000, and 3500 psi and temperatures of 1100 C, 1250 C, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, magnesia, and two different concentrations of yttria. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate. The creep rate for 20% Y2O3-80% ZrO2 was 1/3 to 1/2 that of 8% Y2O3-92% ZrO2. Both magnesia and calcia stabilized ZrO2 crept at a rate 5 to 10 times that of the 20% Y2O3 material. A near proportionality between creep rate and applied stress was observed. The rate controlling process appeared to be thermally activated, with an activation energy of approximately 100 cal/gm mole K. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

  4. Graded plasma spraying of premixed metalceramic powders on metallic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, C. R. C.; Trevisan, R.-E.

    1997-06-01

    The mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of ceramics and metals and the differential stresses it causes at the interface create problems in metal to ceramic joining. Research has been con-ducted to solve this problem in thermal barrier coating technology. Previous studies have considered met-al-ceramic multilayers or graded-coatings, which include a metallic bond coat. In this study, a graded plasma-sprayed metal-ceramic coating is developed using the deposition of premixed metal and ceramic powders without the conventional metallic bond coat. Influences of thickness variations, number, and composition of the layers are investigated. Coatings are prepared by atmospheric plasma-spraying on In-conel 718 superalloy substrates. Ni-Cr-Al and ZrO2 -8 % Y2O3 powders are used for plasma spraying. Ad-hesive and cohesive strength of the coatings are determined. The concentration profile of the elements is determined by x-ray energy-dispersive analysis. The microstructure and morphology of the coatings are investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that the mixed metal-ce-ramic coating obtained with the deposition of premixed powders is homogeneous. The morphology and microstructure of the coatings are considered satisfactory.

  5. Suspension Plasma Spraying: Process Characteristics and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaßen, Robert; Kaßner, Holger; Mauer, Georg; Stöver, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) offers the manufacture of unique microstructures which are not possible with conventional powdery feedstock. Due to the considerably smaller size of the droplets and also the further fragmentation of these in the plasma jet, the attainable microstructural features like splat and pore sizes can be downsized to the nanometer range. Our present understanding of the deposition process including injection, suspension plasma plume interaction, and deposition will be outlined. The drawn conclusions are based on analysis of the coating microstructures in combination with particle temperature and velocity measurements as well as enthalpy probe investigations. The last measurements with the water cooled stagnation probe gives valuable information on the interaction of the carrier fluid with the plasma plume. Meanwhile, different areas of application of SPS coatings are known. In this paper, the focus will be on coatings for energy systems. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for modern gas turbines are one important application field. SPS coatings offer the manufacture of strain-tolerant, segmented TBCs with low thermal conductivity. In addition, highly reflective coatings, which reduce the thermal load of the parts from radiation, can be produced. Further applications of SPS coatings as cathode layers in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and for photovoltaic (PV) applications will be presented.

  6. High Anatase Rate Titanium Dioxide Coating Deposition by Low Power Microwave Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redza, Ahmad; Kondo, Toshiki; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide is a promising photocatalyst material because of the magnificent properties of this material where it is able to remove the air pollution substance and the deodorizing function. Generally, the deposition method of a titanium dioxide coating is carried out by an organic system binder but the powerful photocatalytic reaction will degrades the binder. Therefore, thermal spray is considered to be the alternative method but this method will induce crystallization transformation of titanium dioxide from anatase phase with high photocatalytic activity to rutile phase with low photocatalyst which caused by high heat input. Since our microwave plasma spraying device is operable at low power comparing with conventional high power plasma spray, the reduce effect of the heat input onto the particles at the time of spraying can be achieved and coating deposition with high rate of anatase phase is expected. Therefore, in this research, the coating deposition by controlling the heat input into the spray particle which can be resulted in high rate of anatase phase with high photocatalytic activity was conducted. By controlled condition, coating with optimum anatase rate of 83% is able to be fabricated by this method.

  7. Nanostructured photocatalytic titania coatings formed by suspension plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, Filofteia-Laura; Bertrand, Ghislaine; Klein, Didier; Coddet, Christian; Meunier, Cathy

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes formation of titanium dioxide coatings designed for photocatalytic applications, obtained by suspension plasma spraying (SPS), an alternative of the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) technique in which the material feedstock is a suspension of the material to be sprayed. Two different TiO2 powders were dispersed in distilled water and ethanol and injected in Ar-H2 or Ar-H2-He plasma under atmospheric conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed to study the microstructure of the titania coatings. Photocatalytic efficiency of the elaborated samples was evaluated from the conversion ratio of different air pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The morphology and crystalline structure of the deposits depended mainly on the nature of the solvent (water or alcohol) used in the preparation of the slurries. Dense coatings were obtained starting from aqueous suspensions and porous deposits were elaborated by plasma spraying of a PC105 alcoholic suspension. A significant phase transformation from anatase to rutile occurred when ethanol was used as a solvent. Different photocatalytic performances were observed as a function of the nature of the liquid material feed-stock, the spraying parameters, and the nature of the pollutant.

  8. Study on the Mechanism of Adhesion Improvement Using Dry-Ice Blasting for Plasma-Sprayed Al2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shujuan; Song, Bo; Hansz, Bernard; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2013-03-01

    The mechanisms of adhesion improvement of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings using dry-ice blasting were investigated. In this study, the change of substrate surface characteristics in both the topography and the wettability due to the treatment of dry-ice blasting was mainly studied. The effect of dry-ice blasting on Al2O3 splat morphology with different treatment durations was also examined. The residual stress of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings using dry-ice blasting was measured by curvature method and compared to that of coatings deposited with conventional air cooling. Based on these numerous assessment tests, it could be concluded that the adhesion improvement of Al2O3 coatings could be attributed to the cleaning effect of dry-ice blasting on different organic substances adsorbed on the substrates and the peening effect.

  9. New generation of plasma-sprayed mullite coatings on silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1995-01-01

    Mullite is promising as a protective coating for silicon-based ceramics in aggressive high-temperature environments. Conventionally plasma-sprayed mullite on SiC tends to crack and debond on thermal cycling. It is shown that this behavior is due to the presence of amorphous mullite in the conventionally sprayed mullite. Heating the SiC substrate during the plasma spraying eliminated the amorphous phase and produced coatings with dramatically improved properties. The new coating exhibits excellent adherence and crack resistance under thermal cycling between room temperature and 1000 to 1400 C. Preliminary tests showed good resistance to Na2CO3-induced hot corrosion.

  10. Use of plasma sprayed coatings as surface treatments for aluminum adherends

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.D.; Whisnant, P.L.; Groff, G.B.

    1996-12-31

    Surface treatments for metal adherends prior to adhesive bonding typically use chromates and/or strong acids and bases. Such materials are hazardous to personnel and harmful to the environment following disposal. To reduce release of these substances into the environment and lower disposal costs, plasma spray treatments are being developed as surface treatments for aluminum adherends. These treatments eliminate liquid and gaseous wastes and provide bond strength and durability comparable to that provided by the conventional chemical treatments. They have other potential advantages of being more suited for repair/refurbishment and less sensitive to metallurgical differences from alloy to alloy. Plasma sprayed coatings are used in a variety of applications where a coating tailored for specific properties is needed that may or may not be chemically or structurally similar to the base substrate. Plasma spraying has been shown to provide excellent high-temperature bond performance with titanium (unlike conventional oxidation treatments) and durability approaching that of phosphoric acid anodization for aluminum. Success has also been reported using other coatings on aluminum, titanium, and steel. Plasma spraying has the important advantage of versatility. A wide range of coatings (metals, ceramics, and polymers) can be deposited onto an equally wide range of substrates, and the coating properties can be optimized for a given application, independent of the substrate. Because of this versatility, plasma-sprayed coatings have been used for wear resistance, thermal barriers, EMI/RF shielding, corrosion resistance, slip/slide resistance, and biocompatibility in addition to adhesion.

  11. Stress rupture and creep behavior of a low pressure plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY coating alloy in air and vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, M. G.; Miner, R. V.

    1987-01-01

    The creep behavior of a NiCoCrAlY coating alloy in air and vacuum at 660 and 850 C is studied. The microstructure of the coating alloy is described. Analysis of the creep curves reveal that the secondary creep rates, the transition from secondary to tertiary creep, and the strain-to-failure are affected by the environment, preexposure, stress, and temperature. It is observed that the rupture lives of the NiCoCrAlY alloy at 660 and 850 C are greater in air than in vacuum. Several mechanisms that may explain the lack of crack growth from surface-connected pores during tests in air are proposed.

  12. Specific Measurements of In-Flight Droplet and Particle Behavior and Coating Microstructure in Suspension and Solution Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, M.; Goutier, S.; Vardelle, A.

    2015-12-01

    The plasma spraying of suspensions of sub-micro- or nano-sized particles and of solutions of chemicals precursors produces finely structured coatings that have generally enhanced properties compared to conventional plasma-sprayed coatings. However, most techniques used in conventional plasma spraying are no more adapted to experimentally observe the behavior of the liquid feedstock in the plasma jet and investigate the effect of the operating conditions on liquid fragmentation in droplets, solid particles released by solvent evaporation or formed from the chemical precursors. Also, specific techniques have to be used to study the coating formation and characterize its microstructure. This paper aims to present the main techniques developed or adapted, up to now, to study the plasma-liquid feedstock interactions and characterize the coatings achieved by suspension and solution plasma spraying.

  13. Development and evaluation of suspension plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia coatings as thermal barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Every, Kent J.

    The insulating effects from thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbine engines allow for increased operational efficiencies and longer service lifetimes. Consequently, improving TBCs can lead to enhanced gas turbine engine performance. This study was conducted to investigate if yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings, the standard industrial choice for TBCs, produced from nano-sized powder could provide better thermal insulation than current commericial YSZ coatings generated using micron-sized powders. The coatings for this research were made via the recently developed suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process. With SPS, powders are suspended in a solvent containing dispersing agents; the suspension is then injected directly into a plasma flow that evaporates the solvent and melts the powder while transporting it to the substrate. Although related to the industrial TBC production method of air plasma spraying (APS), SPS has two important differences---the ability to spray sub-micron diameter ceramic particles, and the ability to alloy the particles with chemicals dissolved in the solvent. These aspects of SPS were employed to generate a series of coatings from suspensions containing ˜100 nm diameter YSZ powder particles, some of which were alloyed with neodymium and ytterbium ions from the solvent. The SPS coatings contained columnar structures not observed in APS TBCs; thus, a theory was developed to explain the formation of these features. The thermal conductivity of the coatings was tested to evaluate the effects of these unique microstructures and the effects of the alloying process. The results for samples in the as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions were compared to conventional YSZ TBCs. This comparison showed that, relative to APS YSZ coatings, the unalloyed SPS samples typically exhibited higher as-sprayed and lower heat-treated thermal conductivities. All thermal conductivity values for the alloyed samples were lower than conventional YSZ TBCs

  14. Feasibility study of plasma sprayed Al2O3 coatings as diffusion barrier on CFC components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, Kirsten; Zhao, Lidong; Kopp, Nils; Warda, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced carbon (CFC) materials are increasingly applied as sample carriers in modern furnaces. Only their tendency to react with different metals at high temperatures by C-diffusion is a disadvantage, which can be solved by application of diffusion barriers. Within this study the feasibility of plasma sprayed Al2O3 coatings as diffusion barrier was studied. Al2O3 coatings were prepared by air plasma spraying (APS). The coatings were investigated in terms of their microstructure, bonding to CFC substrates and thermal stability. The results showed that Al2O3 could be well deposited onto CFC substrates. The coatings had a good bonding and thermal shock behavior at 1060°C. At higher temperature of 1270°C, crack network formed within the coating, showing that the plasma sprayed Al2O3 coatings are limited regarding to their application temperatures as diffusion barrier on CFC components.

  15. Oxidation and degradation of a plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, J.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Porter, W.D.

    1996-04-01

    The isothermal oxidation behavior of thermal barrier coating (TBC) specimens consisting of single-crystal superalloy substrates, vacuum plasma-sprayed Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y bond coatings and air plasma-sprayed 7.5 wt.% yttria stabilized zirconia top coatings was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis at 1150{degrees}C for up to 200 hours. Coating durability was assessed by furnace cycling at 1150{degrees}C. Coatings and reaction products were identified by x-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy.

  16. Investigation on the suitability of plasma sprayed Fe Cr Al coatings as tritium permeation barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, C.; Stein-Fechner, K.; Serra, E.; Glasbrenner, H.; Benamati, G.

    1999-08-01

    Results on the fabrication of a tritium permeation barrier by spraying Fe-Cr-Al powders are described. The sprayed coatings were deposited at temperatures below the Ac1 temperature of the ferritic-martensitic steel substrate and no post-deposition heat treatment was applied. The aim of the investigation was the determination of the efficiency of the coatings to act as tritium permeation barrier. Metallurgical investigations as well as hydrogen isotope permeation measurements were carried out onto the produced coatings. The depositions were performed on ferritic-martensitic steels by means of three types of spray techniques: high velocity oxy fuel, air plasma spray and vacuum plasma spray.

  17. Air Plasma-Sprayed Yttria and Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings Subjected to Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenshuai; Zhao, Huayu; Zhong, Xinghua; Wang, Liang; Tao, Shunyan

    2014-08-01

    Yttria (Y2O3) and zirconia (ZrO2) stabilized by 8 and 20 wt.%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) subjected to calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS) have been investigated. Free-standing Y2O3, 8 and 20 wt.%YSZ coatings covered with synthetic CMAS slurry were heated at 1300 °C in air for 24 h in order to assess the effect of Y2O3 on the corrosion resistance of the coatings subjected to CMAS. The microstructures and phase compositions of the coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD, RS, and TEM. TBCs with higher Y2O3 content exhibited better CMAS corrosion resistance. Phase transformation of ZrO2 from tetragonal (t) to monoclinic (m) occurred during the interaction of 8YSZ TBCs and CMAS, due to the depletion of Y2O3 in the coating. Some amounts of original c-ZrO2 still survived in 20YSZ TBCs along with a small amount of m-ZrO2 that appeared after reaction with CMAS. Furthermore, Y2O3 coating was found to be particularly highly effective in resisting the penetration of molten CMAS glass at high temperature (1300 °C). This may be ascribed to the formation of sealing layers composed of Y-apatite phase [based on Ca4Y6 (SiO4)6O and Y4.67(SiO4)3O] by the high-temperature chemical interactions of Y2O3 coating and CMAS glass.

  18. Thermophysical properties of plasma sprayed coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, K. E.; Lagedrost, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of plasma sprayed materials were determined for the following plasma sprayed materials: CaO - stabilized ZrO2, Y2O3 - stabilized ZerO2, Al2O3, HfO2 Mo, nichrome, NiAl, Mo-ZrO2, and MoAl2O3 mixtures. In all cases the thermal conductivity of the as-sprayed materials was found to be considerably lower than that of the bulk material. The flash-laser thermal diffusivity technique was used both for diffusivity determination of single-layer materials and to determine the thermal contact resistance at the interface of two-layer specimens.

  19. Behavior of plasma-sprayed coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Christopher C.

    1984-01-01

    The microstructural development of plasma sprayed oxide coatings is described with particualr reference to aluminum oxide coatings and thermal barrier coatings of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The microstructural features of these coatings, observed by optical and electron microscopy, are related to their mechanical behavior. The adhesion of the coatings is also investigated using fracture toughness and tensile tests. It is noted that acoustic emission is valuable in formulating possible fracture mechanisms for YSZ coatings.

  20. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    DOEpatents

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  1. Superior Thermal Barrier Coatings Using Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, E. H.; Xie, L.; Gell, M.; Padture, N. P.; Cetegen, B.; Ozturk, A.; Ma, X.; Roth, J.; Xiao, T. D.; Bryant, P. E. C.

    2004-03-01

    A novel process, solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS), is presented for depositing thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), in which aqueous chemical precursors are injected into a standard direct current plasma spray system. The resulting coatings microstructure has three unique features: (1) ultra fine splats (1 µm), (2) nanometer and micron-sized interconnected porosity, and (3) closely spaced, through-thickness cracks. Coatings over 3 mm thick can be readily deposited using the SPPS process. Coating durability is excellent, with SPPS coatings showing, in furnace cycling tests, 2.5 times the spallation life of air plasma coatings (APS) and 1.5 times the life of electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) coatings. The conductivity of SPPS coatings is lower than EB-PVD coatings and higher than the best APS coatings. Manufacturing cost is expected to be similar to APS coatings and much lower than EB-PVD coatings. The SPPS deposition process includes droplet break-up and material arriving at the deposition surface in various physical states ranging from aqueous solution, gel phase, to fully-molten ceramic. The relation between the arrival state of the material and the microstructure is described.

  2. Development of plasma spray coated cylinder liners

    SciTech Connect

    Tricard, M.; Hagan, J.; Redington, P.; Subramanian, K.; Haselkorn, M.

    1996-09-01

    Improved fuel economy and reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, such insulation will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150 C to over 300 C. Since existing ring/liner materials cannot withstand these higher operating temperatures alternatives are needed for this critical tribological interface. This paper describes the development of a cost effective ID grinding technique for machining the bores of plasma sprayed diesel engine cylinder liners.

  3. Porosity in plasma sprayed alumina coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Ilavsky, J.; Herman, H.; Berndt, C.C.; Goland, A.N.; Long, G.G.; Krueger, S.; Allen, A.J.

    1994-03-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to study the porosity of plasma sprayed deposits of alumina in as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions. SANS results were compared with mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and water immersion techniques. Multiple small-angle neutron scattering yields a volume-weighted effective pore radius (R{sub eff}), for pores with sizes between 0.08 and 10{mu}m, the pore volume in this size region, and from the Porod region, the surface area of pores of all sizes.

  4. Modeling of evaporation and oxidation phenomena in plasma spraying of metal powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hanwei

    Plasma spraying of metals in air is usually accompanied by evaporation and oxidation of the sprayed material. Optimization of the spraying process must ensure that the particles are fully molten during their short residence time in the plasma jet and prior to hitting the substrate, but not overheated to minimize evaporation losses. In atmospheric plasma spraying (ASP), it is also clearly desirable to be able to control the extent of oxide formation. The objective of this work to develop an overall mathematical model of the oxidization and volatilization phenomena involved in the plasma-spraying of metallic particles in air atmosphere. Four models were developed to simulate the following aspects of the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process: (a) the particle trajectories and the velocity and temperature profiles in an Ar-H 2 plasma jet, (b) the heat and mass transfer between particles and plasma jet, (c) the interaction between the evaporation and oxidation phenomena, and (d) the oxidation of liquid metal droplets. The resulting overall model was generated by adapting the computational fluid dynamics code FIDAP and was validated by experimental measurements carried out at the collaborating plasma laboratory of the University of Limoges. The thesis also examined the environmental implications of the oxidization and volatilization phenomena in the plasma spraying of metals. The modeling results showed that the combination of the standard k-s model of turbulence and the Boussinesq eddy-viscosity model provided a more accurate prediction of plasma gas behavior. The estimated NOx generation levels from APS were lower than the U.S.E.P.A. emission standard. Either enhanced evaporation or oxidation can occur on the surface of the metal particles and the relative extent is determined by the process parameters. Comparatively, the particle size has the greatest impact on both evaporation and oxidation. The extent of particle oxidation depends principally on gas

  5. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal barrier coatings to aircraft and stationary gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical positioning subsystem incorporating two interlaced six degree of freedom assemblies (one for coating deposition and one for coating thickness monitoring); a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem (for in process gaging of the coating thickness buildup at specified points on the specimen); a microprocessor based adaptive system controller (to achieve the desired overall thickness profile on the specimen); and commerical plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage aircraft turbine blade specimens, ten W501B utility turbine blade specimens and dozens of cylindrical specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary turbine blade specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of 53 micrometers (2.1 mils), much better than is achievable manually. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were performed. One of the preliminary turbine blade evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation. Some cylindrical specimens coated with the APS process survived up to 2000 cycles in subsequent burner rig testing.

  6. Failure modes of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Kevin Walter

    Conventional plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are known to fail by spallation of the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) topcoat exposing the underlying metal to high temperatures. Failure takes place by crack propagation in the YSZ just above the YSZ/thermally grown oxide (TGO) interface. Compressive stress in the TGO due to thermal expansion coefficient mismatch and oxidation is believed to play a key role in the failure. However, non-destructive measurement of the compressive stress in the TGO has been challenging due to the overlying ceramic top layer. In this study, TBC samples coated to current industrial specifications were thermally cycled to various fractions of their life to determine the failure mechanisms. The technique of Cr3+ piezospectroscopy was successfully applied to the plasma-sprayed samples for the first time in an effort to measure compressive stress in the TGO through the ceramic top layer. In addition, a new nano-grained plasma-sprayed TBC was studied in order to develop a next generation TBC with enhanced properties. Results from observations on cross-sections and spalled surfaces have identified two competing failure mechanisms for TBCs: (1) cracking along asperity tips at the TGO/bond coat interface, and (2) cracking in the ceramic between the asperity tips. TGO residual compressive stress was found to increase in the first 1 to 10 cycles and then decrease with increasing number of cycles. The standard deviation of the stress measurement, which is a measure of damage accumulation in the TGO layer, was found to increase at higher numbers of cycles. Measurement of compressive stress in the TGO using Cr3+ piezo-spectroscopy was limited to YSZ thicknesses of <50 mum due to an impurity present in the YSZ layer. When no impurity was present the limiting thickness was <170 mum due to scattering by microstructural defects such as solute, porosity, and most importantly splat boundaries. A new nano-grained TBC was fabricated with a

  7. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum 4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 {mu}m) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications.

  8. Plasma Spraying of Ceramics with Particular Difficulties in Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauer, G.; Schlegel, N.; Guignard, A.; Jarligo, M. O.; Rezanka, S.; Hospach, A.; Vaßen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging new applications and growing demands of plasma-sprayed coatings initiate the development of new materials. Regarding ceramics, often complex compositions are employed to achieve advanced material properties, e.g., high thermal stability, low thermal conductivity, high electronic and ionic conductivity as well as specific thermo-mechanical properties and microstructures. Such materials however, often involve particular difficulties in processing by plasma spraying. The inhomogeneous dissociation and evaporation behavior of individual constituents can lead to changes of the chemical composition and the formation of secondary phases in the deposited coatings. Hence, undesired effects on the coating characteristics are encountered. In this work, examples of such challenging materials are investigated, namely pyrochlores applied for thermal barrier coatings as well as perovskites for gas separation membranes. In particular, new plasma spray processes like suspension plasma spraying and plasma spray-physical vapor deposition are considered. In some cases, plasma diagnostics are applied to analyze the processing conditions.

  9. Plasma Spraying of Ceramics with Particular Difficulties in Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauer, G.; Schlegel, N.; Guignard, A.; Jarligo, M. O.; Rezanka, S.; Hospach, A.; Vaßen, R.

    2014-09-01

    Emerging new applications and growing demands of plasma-sprayed coatings initiate the development of new materials. Regarding ceramics, often complex compositions are employed to achieve advanced material properties, e.g., high thermal stability, low thermal conductivity, high electronic and ionic conductivity as well as specific thermo-mechanical properties and microstructures. Such materials however, often involve particular difficulties in processing by plasma spraying. The inhomogeneous dissociation and evaporation behavior of individual constituents can lead to changes of the chemical composition and the formation of secondary phases in the deposited coatings. Hence, undesired effects on the coating characteristics are encountered. In this work, examples of such challenging materials are investigated, namely pyrochlores applied for thermal barrier coatings as well as perovskites for gas separation membranes. In particular, new plasma spray processes like suspension plasma spraying and plasma spray-physical vapor deposition are considered. In some cases, plasma diagnostics are applied to analyze the processing conditions.

  10. Process for producing plasma sprayed carbide-based coatings with minimal decarburization and near theoretical density

    SciTech Connect

    Lenling, W.J. ); Smith, M.F.; Henfling, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Plasma spray deposition of carbide/metal hardcoatings is difficult because complex chemical transformations can occur while spraying, especially in the presence of oxygen. A commercial plasma spray torch has been modified to simultaneously inject carbide powder and a metal alloy powder at two different locations in the plasma stream. Composite hardcoatings of tungsten carbide/cobalt with a nickel-base alloy matrix have been produce with this dual-injection spray process and compared to coatings sprayed with a conventional plasma spray process. X-ray diffraction revealed very little change in the carbide phase composition of dual-injection coatings as compared to the original composition of the carbide spray powder. Conversely, the conventionally sprayed coatings showed significant transformation of the WC phase to the less desirable W{sub 2}C phase, and secondary oxy- carbide phases were also clearly evident. Porosity in the dual- injection coatings was consistently less than 2%, as measured by image analysis of polished metallographic samples. Microhardness results for the dual injection coatings also compared very favorably with values for the conventional coatings. Preliminary results from an ongoing abrasive wear study indicate that the dual-injection coatings are more wear resistant than the conventional coatings, but further research is needed. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of plasma-sprayed CoS{sub 2} cathodes for thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.

    1999-12-22

    Conventional electroactive stack components in thermal batteries are constructed from pressed-powder parts. These include the anode, separator, and cathode pellets (discs). Pressing parts that are less than 0.010 inch thick is difficult. The use of plasma spray to deposit thin CoS{sub 2} cathode films onto a stainless steel substrate was examined as an alternative to pressed-powder cathodes. The plasma-sprayed electrodes were tested in single cells under isothermal conditions and constant-current discharge over a temperature range of 400 C to 550 C using standard LiSi anodes and separators based on the LiCl-KCl eutectic. Similar tests were conducted with cells built with conventional pressed-powder cathodes, which were tested under the same conditions for comparative purposes. This paper presents the results of those tests.

  12. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. . Thermal Spray Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of Plasma Spray Processing'' is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  13. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P.

    1991-12-31

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of ``Plasma Spray Processing`` is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  14. Thermal barrier coatings on turbine blades by plasma spraying with improved cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosack, T.; Pawlowski, L.; Schneiderbanger, S.; Sturlese, S.

    1992-06-01

    Turbine blades were coated with a thermal barrier coating system consisting of an MCrAlY bond coat about 100 micron thick deposited by Low Pressure Plasma Spraying (LPPS) and a 300 micron thick ZrO2-7 wt pct Y2O3 top coat. The latter was manufactured by both Atmosphere and Temperature Controlled Spraying (ATCS) and Air Plasma Spraying using internal air cooling through the cooling holes of the turbine blades. Coated blades were submitted to thermal cycling tests in a burner rig with hot gas temperature of 1485 C. In the case of ATCS coated blades the number of cycles until the first spallation at the leading edge of the blade was between 350 and 2400. The number of cycles of the thermal barrier coatings sprayed with internal cooling was between 1200 and 1800.

  15. Thermal Shock Properties of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Deposited Using Low-Energy Very Low Pressure Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Nannan; Bolot, Rodolphe; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings have been frequently used as a thermal protective layer on the metal or alloy component surfaces. In the present study, ZrO2-7%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were successfully deposited by DC (direct current) plasma spray process under very low pressure conditions (less than 1 mbar) using low-energy plasma guns F4-VB and F100. The experiments were performed to evaluate the thermal shock resistance of different TBC specimens which were heated to 1373 K at a high-temperature cycling furnace and held for 0.5 h, followed by air cooling at room temperature for 0.2 h. For comparison, a corresponding atmospheric plasma spray (APS) counterpart was also elaborated to carry out the similar experiments. The results indicated that the very low pressure plasma spray (VLPPS) coatings displayed better thermal shock resistance. Moreover, the failure mechanism of the coatings was elucidated.

  16. Thin and Dense Ceramic Coatings by Plasma Spraying at Very Low Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauer, Georg; Vaßen, Robert; Stöver, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    The very low pressure plasma spray (VLPPS) process operates at a pressure range of approximately 100 Pa. At this pressure, the plasma jet interaction with the surrounding atmosphere is very weak. Thus, the plasma velocity is almost constant over a large distance from the nozzle exit. Furthermore, at these low pressures the collision frequency is distinctly reduced and the mean free path is strongly increased. As a consequence, at low pressure the specific enthalpy of the plasma is substantially higher, but at lower density. These particular plasma characteristics offer enhanced possibilities to spray thin and dense ceramics compared to conventional processes which operate in the pressure range between 5 and 20 kPa. This paper presents some examples of gas-tight and electrically insulating coatings with low thicknesses <50 μm for solid oxide fuel cell applications. Furthermore, plasma spraying of oxygen conducting membrane materials such as perovskites is discussed.

  17. Vacuum Plasma Spray Forming of Copper Alloy Liners for Regeneratively Cooled Liquid Rocket Combustion Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spray (VPS) has been demonstrated as a method to form combustion chambers from copper alloys NARloy-Z and GRCop-84. Vacuum plasma spray forming is of particular interest in the forming of CuCrNb alloys such as GRCop-84, developed by NASA s Glenn Research Center, because the alloy cannot be formed using conventional casting and forging methods. This limitation is related to the levels of chromium and niobium in the alloy, which exceed the solubility limit in copper. Until recently, the only forming process that maintained the required microstructure of CrNb intermetallics was powder metallurgy formation of a billet from powder stock, followed by extrusion. This severely limits its usefulness in structural applications, particularly the complex shapes required for combustion chamber liners. This paper discusses the techniques used to form combustion chambers from CuCrNb and NARloy-Z, which will be used in regeneratively cooled liquid rocket combustion chambers.

  18. Latest Researches Advances of Plasma Spraying: From Splat to Coating Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, M.; Goutier, S.

    2016-08-01

    The plasma spray process with solid feedstock, mainly ceramics powders, studied since the sixties is now a mature technology. The plasma jet and particle in-flight characterizations are now well established. The use of computer-aided robot trajectory allows spraying on industrial parts with complex geometries. Works about splat formation have shown the importance of: the substrate preheating over the transition temperature to get rid of adsorbates and condensates, substrate chemistry, crystal structure and substrate temperature during the whole coating process. These studies showed that coating properties strongly depend on the splat formation and layering. The first part of this work deals with a summary of conventional plasma spraying key points. The second part presents the current knowledge in plasma spraying with liquid feedstock, technology developed for about two decades with suspensions of particles below micrometers or solutions of precursors that form particles a few micrometers sized through precipitation. Coatings are finely structured and even nanostructured with properties arousing the interest of researchers. However, the technology is by far more complex than the conventional ones. The main conclusions are that models should be developed further, plasma torches and injection setups adapted, and new measuring techniques to reliably characterize these small particles must be designed.

  19. Self-lubricating plasma-sprayed composites for sliding contact bearings to 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed composites which have good oxidation-resistance and self-lubricating characteristics to 900 C were developed. The composites are a Nichrome matrix containing dispersed glass for oxidation protection and calcium fluoride for lubrication. They are applied to bearing surfaces in layers about 0.050 cm thick by plasma-spraying; the layers are then machined to a thickness of 0.025 cm. Oscillating bearing tests were performed in air to 900 C at unit radial loads up to 3.5 times 10 to the 7th power Newtons per square meter (5000 psi) and a thrust load of 1960 Newtons (440 lb). Bearings with a composite liner in the bore were in good condition after over 50,000 oscillating cycles accumulated during repeated bearing temperature cycles between 25 and 900 C.

  20. Performance of thermal cells and batteries made with plasma-sprayed cathodes and anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidotti, R. A.; Reinhardt, F. W.; Dai, J.; Reisner, D. E.

    Cathodes for thermally activated ("thermal") batteries based on CoS 2 and LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolyte and FeS 2 (pyrite) and LiCl-KCl eutectic were prepared by thermal spraying catholyte mixtures onto graphite-paper substrates. Composite separator-cathode deposits were also prepared in the same manner by sequential thermal spraying of LiCl-KCl-based separator material onto a pyrite-cathode substrate. These materials were then tested in single cells over a temperature range of 400-600 °C and in 5-cell and 15-cell batteries. A limited number of battery tests were conducted with the separator-cathode composites and plasma-sprayed Li(Si) anodes-the first report of an all-plasma-sprayed thermal battery. Thermal-spraying offers distinct advantages over conventional pressed-powder parts for fabrication of thin electrodes for short-life thermal batteries. The plasma-sprayed electrodes have lower impedances than the corresponding pressed-powder parts due to improved particle-particle contact.

  1. The Solution Precursor Plasma Spray (SPPS) Process: A Review with Energy Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Eric H.; Jiang, Chen; Gell, Maurice

    2015-10-01

    Solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) is a coating deposition process that uses conventional plasma spray equipment, and solution precursors, rather than ceramic or metal powders, as starting materials. Because the process is exposed to oxygen at high temperatures, nearly all coatings, to date, are oxide ceramics. In this review, both the advantages and the disadvantages of the SPPS process and some comparisons made to the suspension plasma spray (SPS) process will be discussed. The advantages of the SPPS process include rapid exploration of compositions and fabrication of advanced coatings with unique microstructural features. Examples presented span densities from porous thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to dense TiO2 coatings. Two TBCs are in an advanced development stage: (1) a low thermal conductivity YSZ TBC and (2) a high-temperature yttrium aluminum garnet TBC. As for disadvantages, there are (1) the additional development work for each new precursor and (2) a lower standoff distance and deposition rate than the APS process, related to the evaporation of the solvent. The SPS process shares the same disadvantages. In developing new coatings, a number of factors should be considered and understood, which would help to shorten future development efforts. Future directions of the SPPS process will also be discussed.

  2. Microstructure and thermal behaviour of plasma sprayed zirconia/alumina composite coating.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, A; Ando, Y; Kurokawa, K; Hejwowski, T

    2011-10-01

    In thermal barrier coatings (TBC), failure occurs near or at the interface between the metallic bondcoat and topcoat. On high temperature conditions, an oxide scale which is named thermally grown oxide (TGO) occurs along the bond/topcoat interface. For diminishing the creation of TGO, a dense coating with low residual stress and thermal stress buffer layer was preferable. High hardness ceramic coatings could be obtained by gas tunnel type plasma spraying, and the deposited coating had superior property in comparison with those deposited by conventional type plasma spray method. In this study, the gas tunnel type plasma spraying system was utilized to produce a zirconia/alumina functionally graded thermal barrier coating and discussed its physical and mechanical properties, thermal behavior and high temperature oxidation resistance of the coating are discussed. Consequently, the proposed system exhibited superior mechanical properties and oxidation resistance at the expenses of a slightly lower thermal insulating effect. This interlayer is preferred in order to minimize the detrimental effect of the phase transformation of gamma-Al2O3 to alpha-Al2O3.

  3. Modeling of Micro- and Nanoparticle Characteristics in DC Suspension Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xue-ming; Zhang, Kai; Xiong, Hong-bing

    2015-02-01

    Suspension plasma spray is a promising technology for surface coatings. In this work, a comprehensive numerical model was developed to investigate the multiphase flow of suspension droplets and nanoparticles in direct-current (DC) plasma spraying. A three-dimensional computational model was developed to describe the plasma jet flow fields coupled with the axial injection of suspension droplets in which the zirconia micro- and nanoparticles were dispersed. The suspension droplets were tracked using Lagrangian coordinates, considering particle heating, melting, and evaporation. After evaporation of the solvent surrounding the particle, the nanoparticles were discharged into the plasma flow. In addition to the viscous force exerted by the flow on the micrometer-sized particles, the Brownian force and the Saffman lift force were taken into account. The effects of the noncontinuum on particle momentum transfer and evaporation on heat transfer were also considered. The numerical predictions of gas flow temperature were compared with experimental data and numerical data obtained with a different computational fluid dynamics code. The agreement was reasonable. The trajectories, velocity, and temperature of nanoparticles were calculated, and compared with those of microparticles. The results showed that the Brownian force plays a major role in acceleration and heating of nanoparticles. Compared with the conventional plasma spray process with micrometer-sized feedstock, the nanoparticles in suspension plasma spraying were found to have a wider spatial distribution and higher temperature. The effects of operating parameters, such as the power input to the plasma gas and plasma gas composition, on the gas velocity and temperature were investigated. The parameters that have a significant effect on the heat and momentum transfer to the particles injected in the plasma jet were identified.

  4. Mechanical and Tribological Behavior of Ni(Al)-Reinforced Nanocomposite Plasma Spray Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movahedi, B.

    2014-02-01

    The mechanical and tribological behavior and microstructural evolutions of the Ni(Al)-reinforced nanocomposite plasma spray coatings were studied. At first, the feedstock Ni(Al)-15 wt.% (Al2O3-13% TiO2) nanocomposite powders were prepared using low-energy mechanical milling of the pure Ni and Al powders as well as Al2O3-13% TiO2 nanoparticle mixtures. The characteristics of the powder particles and the prepared coatings depending on their microstructures were examined in detail. The results showed that the feedstock powders after milling contained only α-Ni solid solution with no trace of the intermetallic phase. However, under the air plasma spraying conditions, the NiAl intermetallic phase in the α-Ni solid solution matrix appeared. The lack of nickel aluminide formation during low-energy ball milling is beneficial hence, the exothermic reaction can occur between Ni and Al during plasma spraying, improving the adhesive strength of the nanocomposite coatings. The results also indicated that the microhardness of the α-Ni phase was 3.91 ± 0.23 GPa and the NiAl intermetallic phase had a mean microhardness of 5.69 ± 0.12 GPa. The high microhardness of the nanocomposite coatings must be due to the presence of the reinforcing nanoparticles. Due to the improvement in mechanical properties, the Ni(Al) nanocomposite coatings showed significant modifications in wear resistance with low frictional coefficient.

  5. Thermal Expansion of Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S V.; Palczer, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Metallic Cu-8%Cr, Cu-26%Cr, Cu-8%Cr-1%Al, NiAl and NiCrAlY monolithic coatings were fabricated by vacuum plasma spray deposition processes for thermal expansion property measurements between 293 and 1223 K. The corrected thermal expansion, (DL/L(sub 0) varies with the absolute temperature, T, as (DL/L(sub 0) = A(T - 293)(sup 3) + BIT - 293)(sup 2) + C(T - 293) + D, where, A, B, C and D are thermal, regression constants. Excellent reproducibility was observed for all of the coatings except for data obtained on the Cu-8%Cr and Cu-26%Cr coatings in the first heat-up cycle, which deviated from those determined in the subsequent cycles. This deviation is attributed to the presence of residual stresses developed during the spraying of the coatings, which are relieved after the first heat-up cycle. In the cases of Cu-8%Cr and NiAl, the thermal expansion data were observed to be reproducible for three specimens. The linear expansion data for Cu-8% Cr and Cu-26%Cr agree extremely well with rule of mixture (ROM) predictions. Comparison of the data for the Cu-8%Cr coating with literature data for Cr and Cu revealed that the thermal expansion behavior of this alloy is determined by the Cu-rich matrix. The data for NiAl and NiCrAlY are in excellent agreement with published results irrespective of composition and the methods used for processing the materials. The implications of these results on coating GRCop-84 copper alloy combustor liners for reusable launch vehicles are discussed.

  6. Thermomechanical processing of plasma sprayed intermetallic sheets

    DOEpatents

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Scorey, Clive; Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  7. Filter media properties of mineral fibres produced by plasma spray.

    PubMed

    Prasauskas, Tadas; Matulevicius, Jonas; Kliucininkas, Linas; Krugly, Edvinas; Valincius, Vitas; Martuzevicius, Dainius

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the properties of fibrous gas filtration media produced from mineral zeolite. Fibres were generated by direct current plasma spray. The paper characterizes morphology, chemical composition, geometrical structure of elementary fibres, and thermal resistance, as well as the filtration properties of fibre media. The diameter of the produced elementary fibres ranged from 0.17 to 0.90 μm and the length ranged from 0.025 to 5.1 mm. The release of fibres from the media in the air stream was noticed, but it was minimized by hot-pressing the formed fibre mats. The fibres kept their properties up to the temperature of 956°C, while further increase in temperature resulted in the filter media becoming shrunk and brittle. The filtration efficiency of the prepared filter mats ranged from 95.34% to 99.99% for aerosol particles ranging in a size between 0.03 and 10.0 μm. Unprocessed fibre media showed the highest filtration efficiency when filtering aerosol particles smaller than 0.1 µm. Hot-pressed filters were characterized by the highest quality factor values, ranging from 0.021 to 0.064 Pa(-1) (average value 0.034 Pa(-1)).

  8. Characterization of plasma sprayed and explosively consolidated simulated lunar soil

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, S.J.; Inal, O.T.; Smith, M.F.

    1997-06-01

    Two methods for the use of lunar materials for the construction of shelters on the Moon are being proposed: explosive consolidation of the soil into structural components and plasma spraying of the soil to join components. The plasma-sprayed coating would also provide protection from the intense radiation. In this work, a mare simulant was plasma-sprayed onto a stainless steel substrate. Deposition of a 0.020 inch coating using power inputs of 23, 25, 27 and 29 kW were compared. Hardness of the coatings increased with each increase of power to the system, while porosity at the interface decreased. All coatings exhibited good adhesion. Simultaneously, an explosively consolidated sample was similarly characterized to afford a comparison of structural features associated with each mode of proposed use.

  9. Reflectivity and laser irradiation of plasma sprayed Al coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lihong; Ma, Zhuang; Wang, Fuchi; Li, Wenzhi

    2015-05-01

    It's well known that Al has a very high reflectivity in the visible/near-infrared range, which makes it become a promising anti-laser material. But for a plasma sprayed coating, there are usually many defects, such as pores, cracks and interfaces among particles, which lead to properties difference with its bulk material. In this paper, the reflectivity of plasma sprayed Al coating and its laser irradiation effect were investigated. Its reflectivity, surface roughness, porosity, microstructure, and cross-section microstructure were characterized. The results show that a high reflectivity (98.1% at CO2 laser 10.6μm wavelength) of plasma sprayed Al coating, which is comparable with bulk material, could be obtained. Its optical laser damage threshold is 2×104W/cm2 that makes its reflectivity obviously decrease. Its damage mechanism is oxidation.

  10. Phase analysis of plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, N. R.; Berndt, C. C.; Herman, H.

    1983-01-01

    Phase analysis of plasma-sprayed 8 wt pct-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings and powders was carried out by X-ray diffraction. Step scanning was used for increased peak resolution. Plasma spraying of the YSZ powder into water or onto a steel substrate to form a coating reduced the cubic and monoclinic phases with a simultaneous increase in the tetragonal phase. Heat treatment of the coating at 1150 C for 10 h in an Ar atmosphere increased the amount of cubic and monoclinic phases. The implications of these transformations on coating performance and integrity are discussed.

  11. Metallurgy and properties of plasma spray formed materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckechnie, T. N.; Liaw, Y. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Poorman, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental metallurgy of vacuum plasma spray formed materials is the key to enhancing and developing full material properties. Investigations have shown that the microstructure of plasma sprayed materials must evolve from a powder splat morphology to a recrystallized grain structure to assure high strength and ductility. A fully, or near fully, dense material that exhibits a powder splat morphology will perform as a brittle material compared to a recrystallized grain structure for the same amount of porosity. Metallurgy and material properties of nickel, iron, and copper base alloys will be presented and correlated to microstructure.

  12. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, Kendall J; Pena, Maria I

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  13. Smart Coating Technology by Gas Tunnel Type Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, A.

    2008-07-01

    Nano-science & technology is one of the most important scientific fields, and the material processing using the nano-technology is now advanced towards more precise and controllable smart stage. Regarding thermal processing, an important key should be the the performance of the applied heat source. A plasma is fundamentally the most superior heat source, because of high temperature, high energy density, easy controllable, etc. Therefore more precious plasma system has been expected for smart thermal processing. The gas tunnel type plasma system developed by the author has high energy density and also high efficiency. The concept and the feature of this plasma system are explained and the applications to the various thermal processing are described in this report. One practical application is plasma spraying of ceramics such as Al_2O_3 and ZrO_2. The characteristics of these ceramic coatings were superior to the conventional ones. The ZrO_2 composite coating has the possibility of the development of high functionally graded TBC (thermal barrier coating). Another application of gas tunnel type plasma is surface modification of metals. For example the TiN films were formed in a very short time of 5 s. Now, advanced plasma application of spraying methods as a smart coating technology is expected to obtain the desired characteristics of ceramics such as corrosion resistance, thermal resistance, and wear resistance by reducing the porosity and increasing the coating density. One application of the smart coating technology is a formation of the metallic glass coating with high function, and another is Hydroxiapatite coating for bio-medical application. The formation process of those coatings and the coating characteristics were investigated in this study.

  14. Preventing Clogging In A Vacuum Plasma Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotz, Phillip D.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.; Davis, William M.

    1994-01-01

    Modification of powder-injection ports enables lengthy, high-temperature deposition operations. Graphite inserts prevent clogging of ports through which copper powder injected into vacuum plasma spray (VPS) gun. Graphite liners eliminate need to spend production time refurbishing VPS gun, reducing cost of production and increasing productivity. Concept also applied to other material systems used for net-shape fabrication via VPS.

  15. Alignment Fixtures For Vacuum-Plasma-Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Fixtures for alignment of vacuum-plasma-spray guns built. Each fixture designed to fit specific gun and holds small, battery-powered laser on centerline of gun. Laser beam projects small red dot where centerline intersects surface of workpiece to be sprayed. After laser beam positioned on surface of workpiece, fixture removed from gun and spraying proceeds.

  16. Mechanical and physical properties of plasma-sprayed stabilized zirconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. A.; Mehan, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Physical and mechanical properties were determined for plasma-sprayed MgO- or Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 thermal barrier coatings. Properties were determined for the ceramic coating in both the freestanding condition and as-bonded to a metal substrate. The properties of the NiCrAlY bond coating were also investigated.

  17. The magnetic properties of plasma-sprayed thick-film manganese zinc ferrite (MZF) and nickel iron alloy (Permalloy) composites

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, S.; Gambino, R. J.; Sampath, S.; Raja, M. M.

    2006-04-15

    MnZn ferrite/Permalloy composites have potential in high frequency magnetic applications and can be made into thick-film devices by air plasma spray. The as-sprayed composites have lower saturation magnetization than the starting powder. After annealing below 600 deg. C, the magnetic properties and electrical resistivity improve significantly. The changes in magnetic and electrical properties were correlated to structural changes and studied by x-ray-diffraction analysis, vibrating-sample magnetometer measurements, and microstructural analysis.

  18. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) of Ceramics for Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, Bryan J.; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    In order to generate advanced multilayer thermal and environmental protection systems, a new deposition process is needed to bridge the gap between conventional plasma spray, which produces relatively thick coatings on the order of 125-250 microns, and conventional vapor phase processes such as electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) which are limited by relatively slow deposition rates, high investment costs, and coating material vapor pressure requirements. The use of Plasma Spray - Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) processing fills this gap and allows thin (< 10 microns) single layers to be deposited and multilayer coatings of less than 100 microns to be generated with the flexibility to tailor microstructures by changing processing conditions. Coatings of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were applied to NiCrAlY bond coated superalloy substrates using the PS-PVD coater at NASA Glenn Research Center. A design-of-experiments was used to examine the effects of process variables (Ar/He plasma gas ratio, the total plasma gas flow, and the torch current) on chamber pressure and torch power. Coating thickness, phase and microstructure were evaluated for each set of deposition conditions. Low chamber pressures and high power were shown to increase coating thickness and create columnar-like structures. Likewise, high chamber pressures and low power had lower growth rates, but resulted in flatter, more homogeneous layers

  19. Phase distributions in plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Garlick, R. G.; Smialek, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of phases in plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria has been determined over a range of yttria levels from 0 to 26.1 molpct YO(1.5) using room temperature X-ray diffractometry. Pure, plasma-sprayed zirconia is composed almost entirely of the monoclinic phase. At levels of yttria between 4 and 10 percent, a quenched-in tetragonal phase predominates, and at higher levels the cubic phase predominates. The phase distributions are compared with previously reported test lives of thermal barrier coatings formed from these materials. Regions of optimal lives were found to correlate with regions having high amounts of the tetragonal phase, small but nonzero amounts of the monoclinic phase, and little or none of the cubic phase. Possible relationships between phase composition and coating performance are discussed.

  20. Effects of plasma spray parameters on two layer thermal barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1981-01-01

    The power level and the type of arc gas used during plasma spraying of a two layer thermal barrier system (TBS) were found to affect the life of the system. Life at 1095 C in a cyclic furnace test was improved by about 140 percent by increasing the power during plasma spray applications of the bond and thermal barrier coatings. This improvement is due to increases in the densities of the bond and thermal barrier coatings by 3 and 5 percent, respectively. These increases in densities are equivalent to about 45 and 30 percent reduction in mean porosities, respectively. The addition of hydrogen to the argon arc gas had the same effect as the reduction in power level and caused a reduction in TBS life.

  1. Characterization of Plasma Sprayed Beryllium ITER First Wall Mockups

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Richard G.; Vaidya, Rajendra U.; Hollis, Kendall J.

    1997-12-31

    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/sq m without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface.

  2. Electrochemical Evaluation of Pyrite Films Prepared by Plasma Spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1998-10-30

    Thermally activated batteries use electrodes that are typically fabricated by cold pressing of powder. In the LiSi/FeS2 system, natural (mineral) pyrite is used for the cathode. In an effort to increase the energy density and specific energy of these batteries, flame and plasma spraying to form thin films of pyrite cathodes were evaluated. The films were deposited on a 304 stainless steel substrate (current collector) and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray dlfllaction. The films were electrochemically tested in single cells at 5000C and the petiormance compared to that of standard cells made with cold-pressed powders. The best results were obtained with material deposited by de-arc plasma spraying with a proprietq additive to suppress thermal decomposion of the pyrite.

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of plasma sprayed HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Khor, K A; Gu, Y W; Pan, D; Cheang, P

    2004-08-01

    Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on titanium alloy substrate have been used extensively due to their excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, the erratic bond strength between HA and Ti alloy has raised concern over the long-term reliability of the implant. In this paper, HA/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings that possess superior mechanical properties to conventional plasma sprayed HA coatings were developed. Ti-6Al-4V powders coated with fine YSZ and HA particles were prepared through a unique ceramic slurry mixing method. The so-formed composite powder was employed as feedstock for plasma spraying of the HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V coatings. The influence of net plasma energy, plasma spray standoff distance, and post-spray heat treatment on microstructure, phase composition and mechanical properties were investigated. Results showed that coatings prepared with the optimum plasma sprayed condition showed a well-defined splat structure. HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V solid solution was formed during plasma spraying which was beneficial for the improvement of mechanical properties. There was no evidence of Ti oxidation from the successful processing of YSZ and HA coated Ti-6Al-4V composite powders. Small amount of CaO apart from HA, ZrO(2) and Ti was present in the composite coatings. The microhardness, Young's modulus, fracture toughness, and bond strength increased significantly with the addition of YSZ. Post-spray heat treatment at 600 degrees C and 700 degrees C for up to 12h was found to further improve the mechanical properties of coatings. After the post-spray heat treatment, 17.6% increment in Young's modulus (E) and 16.3% increment in Vicker's hardness were achieved. The strengthening mechanisms of HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings were related to the dispersion strengthening by homogeneous distribution of YSZ particles in the matrix, the good mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V and the formation of solid solution among HA

  4. Plasma-sprayed metal-glass and metal-glass fluoride coatings for lubrication to 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed composites, which have good oxidation-resistance and self-lubricating characteritics to 900 C, were developed. The composites are a nichrome matrix containing dispersed glass for oxidation protection and calcium fluoride for lubrication; they are applied to bearing surfaces by plasma spraying layers about 0.050 centimeters thick which are then machined to 0.025 centimeters. Oscillating bearing tests were performed in air to 900 C at unit radial loads up to 3.5 x 10 to the 7th power N/sq M (5000 psi) and a thrust load of 1960N (440 lbs). Bearings with a composite liner in the bore were in good condition after over 50,000 oscillating cycles accumulated during repeated, bearing temperatures cycles between 25 and 900 C.

  5. Plasma-sprayed metal-glass and metal-glass fluoride coatings for lubrication to 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed composites, which have good oxidation resistance and self-lubricating characteristics to 900 C, were developed. The composites are a nichrome matrix containing dispersed glass for oxidation protection and calcium fluoride for lubrication; they are applied to bearing surfaces by plasma spraying layers about 0.050 cm thick which are then machined to 0.025 cm. Oscillating bearing tests were performed in air to 900 C at unit radial loads up to 5000 psi and a thrust load of 440 lb. Bearings with a composite liner in the bore were in good condition after over 50,000 oscillating cycles accumulated during repeated bearing temperature cycles between 25 and 900 C.

  6. Low Thermal Conductivity Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings Using the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Eric H.; Jiang, Chen; Roth, Jeffrey; Gell, Maurice

    2014-06-01

    The primary function of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is to insulate the underlying metal from high temperature gases in gas turbine engines. As a consequence, low thermal conductivity and high durability are the primary properties of interest. In this work, the solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process was used to create layered porosity, called inter-pass boundaries, in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) TBCs. IPBs have been shown to be effective in reducing thermal conductivity. Optimization of the IPB microstructure by the SPPS process produced YSZ TBCs with a thermal conductivity of 0.6 W/mK, an approximately 50% reduction compared to standard air plasma sprayed (APS) coatings. In preliminary tests, SPPS YSZ with IPBs exhibited equal or greater furnace thermal cycles and erosion resistance compared to regular SPPS and commercially made APS YSZ TBCs.

  7. Corrosion behavior of magnetic ferrite coating prepared by plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi; Wei, Shicheng Tong, Hui; Tian, Haoliang; Liu, Ming; Xu, Binshi

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of the ferrite coating is 34.417 emu/g while the M{sub s} value of the ferrite powder is 71.916 emu/g. It can be seen that plasma spray process causes deterioration of the room temperature soft magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Spinel ferrite coatings have been prepared by plasma spraying. • The coating consists of nanocrystalline grains. • The saturation magnetization of the ferrite coating is 34.417 emu/g. • Corrosion behavior of the ferrite coating was examined in NaCl solution. - Abstract: In this study, spray dried spinel ferrite powders were deposited on the surface of mild steel substrate through plasma spraying. The structure and morphological studies on the ferrite coatings were carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy. It was showed that spray dried process was an effective method to prepare thermal spraying powders. The coating showed spinel structure with a second phase of LaFeO{sub 3}. The magnetic property of the ferrite samples were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of the ferrite coating was 34.417 emu/g. The corrosion behavior of coating samples was examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. EIS diagrams showed three corrosion processes as the coating immersed in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results suggested that plasma spraying was a promising technology for the production of magnetic ferrite coatings.

  8. Improved Small-Particle Powders for Plasma Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, QuynhGiao, N.; Miller, Robert A.; Leissler, George W.

    2005-01-01

    Improved small-particle powders and powder-processing conditions have been developed for use in plasma spray deposition of thermal-barrier and environmental barrier coatings. Heretofore, plasma-sprayed coatings have typically ranged in thickness from 125 to 1,800 micrometers. As explained below, the improved powders make it possible to ensure complete coverage of substrates at unprecedently small thicknesses of the order of 25 micrometers. Plasma spraying involves feeding a powder into a hot, high-velocity plasma jet. The individual powder particles melt in the plasma jet as they are propelled towards a substrate, upon which they splat to build up a coating. In some cases, multiple coating layers are required. The size range of the powder particles necessarily dictates the minimum thickness of a coating layer needed to obtain uniform or complete coverage. Heretofore, powder particle sizes have typically ranged from 40 to 70 micrometers; as a result, the minimum thickness of a coating layer for complete coverage has been about 75 micrometers. In some applications, thinner coatings or thinner coating layers are desirable. In principle, one can reduce the minimum complete-coverage thickness of a layer by using smaller powder particles. However, until now, when powder particle sizes have been reduced, the powders have exhibited a tendency to cake, clogging powder feeder mechanisms and feed lines. Hence, the main problem is one of synthesizing smaller-particle powders having desirable flow properties. The problem is solved by use of a process that begins with a spray-drying subprocess to produce spherical powder particles having diameters of less than 30 micrometers. (Spherical-particle powders have the best flow properties.) The powder is then passed several times through a commercial sifter with a mesh to separate particles having diameters less than 15 micrometers. The resulting fine, flowable powder is passed through a commercial fluidized bed powder feeder into a

  9. Vacuum plasma spray applications on liquid fuel rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKechnie, T. N.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Bryant, M. A.

    1992-07-01

    The vacuum plasma spray process (VPS) has been developed by NASA and Rocketdyne for a variety of applications on liquid fuel rocket engines, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine. These applications encompass thermal barrier coatings which are thermal shock resistant for turbopump blades and nozzles; bond coatings for cryogenic titanium components; wear resistant coatings and materials; high conductivity copper, NaRloy-Z, combustion chamber liners, and structural nickel base material, Inconel 718, for nozzle and combustion chamber support jackets.

  10. Study of fracture and erosive wear of plasma sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, D.Z.; Wang, L.J. )

    1993-09-01

    It is experimentally established that both the double-cantilever and short-bar methods are able to ascertain the G(Ic) of plasma-sprayed coatings. WC-Co- and ZrO2-base coatings are examined by these means; the G(Ic) of the former is found to be higher than that of the latter, and WC-Co coatings are also found to be the more erosion-resistant of the two. 15 refs.

  11. Chromium diboride powder as the material for plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Nechepurenko, A.; Klinskaya, N.; Kopysov, V.; Poznensky, S.

    1994-12-31

    The increase of the service life of the machinery parts and apparatus is a very important problem in the industry. One of the ways to achieve that objective is by increasing the wear resistance of these parts. Plasma spraying of engine parts with the scuff-resistant materials, such as chrome-nickel alloys, is a known technology. However, at the high temperatures the wear resistance of chrome-nickel alloys is not high enough to assure the long service life of parts. High melting point additives to the chrome-nickel based alloy make the plasma sprayed coating more abrasion-resistance. The substantial effect of metal boride powders on wear resistance is well known. This paper is concerned with the studies of the particular formation of the plasma spray coatings based on self-fluxing Ni-Cr-B-Si (H70X16C3P3 and HC67X18C5P5) alloys. These alloys contained the refractory constituent in the form of chromium diboride with less than 100 mcm particle size.

  12. Steam chemical reactivity of plasma-sprayed beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Anderl, R.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R.; Castro, R.G.

    1998-07-01

    Plasma-spraying with the potential for in-situ repair makes beryllium a primary candidate for plasma facing and structural components in experimental magnetic fusion machines. Deposits with good thermal conductivity and resistance to thermal cycling have been produced with low pressure plasma-spraying (LPPS). A concern during a potential accident with steam ingress is the amount of hydrogen produced by the reactions of steam with hot components. In this study the authors measure the reaction rates of various deposits produced by LPPS with steam from 350 C to above 1,000 C. They correlate these reaction rates with measurements of density, open porosity and BET surface areas. They find the reactivity to be largely dependent upon effective surface area. Promising results were obtained below 600 C from a 94% theoretical dense (TD) deposit with a BET specific surface area of 0.085 m{sup 2}/g. Although reaction rates were higher than those for dense consolidated beryllium they were substantially lower, i.e., about two orders of magnitude, than those obtained from previously tested lower density plasma-sprayed deposits.

  13. Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of Supersonic Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yu; Ding, Chunhua; Li, Hongqiang; Han, Zhihai; Ding, Bingjun; Wang, Tiejun; Yu, Lie

    2013-10-01

    In this work, Y2O3 stabilized zirconia-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were deposited by conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) and high efficiency supersonic atmospheric plasma spraying (SAPS), respectively. The effect of Al2O3 layer stability on the isothermal growth behavior of thermally grown oxides (TGOs) was studied. The results revealed that the Al2O3 layer experienced a three-stage change process, i.e., (1) instantaneous growth stage, (2) steady-state growth stage, and (3) depletion stage. The thickness of Al2O3 scale was proved to be an important factor for the growth rate of TGOs. The SAPS-TBCs exhibited a higher Al2O3 stability and better oxidation resistance as compared with the APS-TBCs. Additionally, it was found that inner oxides, especially nucleated on the top of the crest, continually grew and swallowed the previously formed Al2O3 layer, leading to the granulation and disappearance of continuous Al2O3 scale, which was finally replaced by the mixed oxides and spinel.

  14. Suspension Plasma Spraying of Sub-micron Silicon Carbide Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarok, F.; Espallargas, N.

    2015-06-01

    Thermal spraying of silicon carbide (SiC) material is a challenging task since SiC tends to decompose during atmospheric spraying process. The addition of metal or ceramic binders is necessary to facilitate the bonding of SiC particles, allowing SiC composite coating to be deposited. In the conventional procedures, the binders are added through mechanical mixing of powder constituents, making it difficult to achieve homogeneous distribution. In the new procedure proposed in this work, the binder is delivered as a nano-film of the surface of the individual SiC particles through co-precipitation treatment. Suspension plasma spray (SPS) coating technique has been used with the aim at avoiding the decomposition of SiC typically expected with atmospheric techniques, such as atmospheric plasma spray. The deposited SiC coatings by SPS showed identical SiC phase peak as identified in the suspension feedstock, indicating that the nano-film binder was able to protect SiC particles from decomposition. Further analysis by XPS revealed that SiC particles underwent some minor oxidation. Unfortunately, all the SiC coatings exhibited poor mechanical performance due to low cohesive strength, high porosity, and powdery structure making the coatings vulnerable to grain pull-out. This was due to the absence of sintering process during the spraying process contributing to the low performance of SiC SPS coatings.

  15. Piezospectroscopic measurements capturing the evolution of plasma spray-coating stresses with substrate loads.

    PubMed

    Freihofer, Gregory; Fugon-Dessources, Daniela; Ergin, Emrecan; Van Newkirk, Amy; Gupta, Ankur; Seal, Sudipta; Schülzgen, Axel; Raghavan, Seetha

    2014-02-12

    Plasma-spray coatings have a unique microstructure composed of various types of microcracks and weakly bonded interfaces which dictate their nonlinear mechanical properties. The intrinsic photo-luminescence (PL) characteristics of alpha-alumina (α-Al2O3) within these coatings offer a diagnostic functionality, enabling these properties to be probed experimentally at the microscale, under substrate loading. The piezospectroscopic (PS) measurements from the coatings are capable of revealing microstructural stress at high spatial resolution. Here, for the first time, the evolution of stresses within air plasma spray (APS) coatings under increasing substrate loads were captured using piezospectroscopy. With mechanical cycling of the substrate, the PS properties revealed anelastic and inelastic behavior and a relaxation of residual tensile stress within the APS coatings. With decreasing substrate thickness, the coating was observed to sustain more stress, as the substrate's influence on the mechanical behavior decreased. The findings provide an insight into the microstructural response that can serve as the basis for model validation and subsequently drive the design process for these coatings.

  16. Preparation of Aluminum Coatings by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying and Dry-Ice Blasting and Their Corrosion Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shu-Juan; Song, Bo; Zhou, Gen-Shu; Li, Chang-Jiu; Hansz, Bernard; Liao, Han-Lin; Coddet, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Aluminum coating, as an example of spray coating material with low hardness, was deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying while dry-ice blasting was applied during the deposition process. The deposited coatings were characterized in terms of microstructure, porosity, phase composition, and the valence states. The results show that the APS aluminum coatings with dry-ice blasting present a porosity of 0.35 ± 0.02%, which is comparable to the bulk material formed by the mechanical compaction. In addition, no evident oxide has been detected, except for the very thin and impervious oxide layer at the outermost layer. Compared to plasma-sprayed Al coatings without dry-ice blasting, the adhesion increased by 52% for Al substrate using dry-ice blasting, while 25% for steel substrate. Corrosion behavior of coated samples was evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous using electrochemistry measurements. The electrochemical results indicated that APS Al coating with dry-ice blasting was more resistant to pitting corrosion than the conventional plasma-sprayed Al coating.

  17. Plasma Sprayed Dense MgO-Y2O3 Nanocomposite Coatings Using Sol-Gel Combustion Synthesized Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiwen; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice

    2010-09-01

    MgO-Y2O3 nanostructured composite powder (volume ratio of 50:50) was synthesized by a sol-gel combustion process which generated crystal sizes in the 10-20 nm range. The MgO-Y2O3 nanopowder was plasma sprayed using a conventional, DC arc plasma spray system. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the as-sprayed MgO-Y2O3 coating is composed of cubic MgO and Y2O3 phases and has ~95% density. Microstructure characterization by SEM reveals that the as-sprayed coating has fine grain sizes of 100-300 nm as a result of rapid solidification. The hardness of the coating, 7.5 ± 0.6 GPa, is higher than that of coarse-grained, dense MgO, and Y2O3 ceramics. This approach demonstrates the potential of plasma spray processes for making thick, dense MgO-Y2O3 nanocomposite performs for applications as durable, infrared windows.

  18. The effect of thermal aging on the thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed and EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, R.B.; Beecher, S.C.; Porter, W.D.; Nagaraj, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBCs is of primary importance. Electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EV-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The density of the APS coatings was controlled by varying the spray parameters. The low density APS yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (yttria-PSZ) coatings yielded a thermal conductivity that is lower than both the high density APS coatings and the EB-PVD coatings. The thermal aging of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia are compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposure to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the EB-PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, results suggest that they typically have a higher thermal conductivity than APS coatings before thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia have been found to be less than for plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia coatings.

  19. Performance of air plasma spraying parameters in the fabrication of ZrO2-10%Y2O3-18% TiO2 thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liscano, S.; Gil, L.

    2013-11-01

    In this research, ZrO2-10%Y2O3-18% TiO2 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were sprayed by employing an air plasma thermal spray (APS) technique following a 23 factorial design experiment in order to obtain the best favorable spraying conditions able to enhance their properties. The effect of the spraying parameters on the porosity, microhardness, microstructure and morphology were determined by using different techniques such as optical microscopy (OP), image analysis, Vickers indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique, this latter coupled with X-Ray microanalysis (EDS). It was found that both the arc voltage and the powder feed rate, as well as their interaction had a significant effect on the values of the reported hardness and these results were related to the existing level of porosity in the coatings. It was concluded that the best coatings properties, for the level of the variables studied in this work, could be obtained if the arc voltage is maintained at 36 V, the arc current at 900 A and the powder feed rate to 24 g/min.

  20. Plasma-sprayed lead zirconate titanate-glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrit, S.; Savin, C.R.; Wiederick, H.D.; Mukherjee, B.K. . Dept. of Physics); Prasad, S.E. )

    1994-07-01

    A plasma-spray process was used to produce piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-glass composite thick films. The films were found to have the same crystal structure as the PZT (Navy-type V) and lead-based glass starting powder mixture. The films showed good adhesion to stainless steel and silver-coated glass slides and poor adhesion to aluminum substrates. The dielectric constant of the films varied between 58 and 20 with dissipations between 0.019 and 0.032. The films were poled, and their piezoelectric charge coefficient, d[sub 33], was 1.1 pC/N.

  1. Plasma-sprayed dual density ceramic turbine seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clingman, D. L.; Schechter, B.; Cross, K. R.; Cavanagh, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Dual density, plasma sprayed ceramic coating systems were investigated for possible application as abradable turbine tip seal systems in small gas turbine engines. Abradability, erosion resistance, internal leakage, and microstructural characterization were investigated for polyester and cenosphere filled zirconium oxide composites. Results indicate the polyester system is more abradable but displays significantly less erosion resistance than the cenosphere system. It is also stated that the absence of significant blade tip damage during abradability testing of both systems suggests additional effort may result in a more nearly optimum balance of abradability and erosion resistance.

  2. Superhydrophobic Ceramic Coatings by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuxuan; Coyle, Thomas W.; Azimi, Gisele; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a novel coating technique to manufacture ceramic superhydrophobic coatings rapidly and economically. A rare earth oxide (REO) was selected as the coating material due to its hydrophobic nature, chemical inertness, high temperature stability, and good mechanical properties, and deposited on stainless steel substrates by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS). The effects of various spraying conditions including standoff distance, torch power, number of torch passes, types of solvent and plasma velocity were investigated. The as-sprayed coating demonstrated a hierarchically structured surface topography, which closely resembles superhydrophobic surfaces found in nature. The water contact angle on the SPPS superhydrophobic coating was up to 65% higher than on smooth REO surfaces.

  3. Suspension plasma sprayed composite coating using amorphous powder feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dianying; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice

    2009-03-01

    Al 2O 3-ZrO 2 composite coatings were deposited by the suspension plasma spray process using molecularly mixed amorphous powders. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the as-sprayed coating is composed of α-Al 2O 3 and tetragonal ZrO 2 phases with grain sizes of 26 nm and 18 nm, respectively. The as-sprayed coating has 93% density with a hardness of 9.9 GPa. Heat treatment of the as-sprayed coating reveals that the Al 2O 3 and ZrO 2 phases are homogeneously distributed in the composite coating.

  4. Functionally Graded Materials using Plasma Spray with Nano Structured Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioh, E. L.; Tok, A. I. Y.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, nano structured FGM was fabricated using DC plasma spray technique. Nano structured and micro structured powder were used as the feeding powder with steel substrate. The spray parameters was optimized and characterisation of nano-ceramic FGM and micro-ceramic FGM were done using bending test and micro-hardness test. Experimental results have shown that the nano-structured FGM exhibit 20% improvement flexure strength and 10% in hardness. A comparison was made between sintered micro ceramic tile and nano ceramic FGM using simple drop test method.

  5. Effect of Zr on microstructure of metallic glass coatings prepared by gas tunnel type plasma spraying.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, A; Kuroda, T; Kimura, H; Inoue, A

    2012-06-01

    Metallic glass is one of the most attractive advanced materials, and many researchers have conducted various developmental research works. Metallic glass is expected to be used as a functional material because of its excellent physical and chemical functions such as high strength and high corrosion resistance. However, the application for small size parts has been carried out only in some industrial fields. In order to widen the industrial application fields, a composite material is preferred for the cost performance. In the coating processes of metallic glass with the conventional deposition techniques, there is a difficulty to form thick coatings due to their low deposition rate. Thermal spraying method is one of the potential candidates to produce metallic glass composites. Metallic glass coatings can be applied to the longer parts and therefore the application field can be widened. The gas tunnel plasma spraying is one of the most important technologies for high quality ceramic coating and synthesizing functional materials. As the gas tunnel type plasma jet is superior to the properties of other conventional type plasma jets, this plasma has great possibilities for various applications in thermal processing. In this study, the gas tunnel type plasma spraying was used to form the metallic glass coatings on the stainless-steel substrate. The microstructure and surface morphology of the metallic glass coatings were examined using Fe-based metallic glass powder and Zr-based metallic glass powder as coating material. For the mechanical properties the Vickers hardness was measured on the cross section of both the coatings and the difference between the powders was compared.

  6. Effect of Zr on microstructure of metallic glass coatings prepared by gas tunnel type plasma spraying.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, A; Kuroda, T; Kimura, H; Inoue, A

    2012-06-01

    Metallic glass is one of the most attractive advanced materials, and many researchers have conducted various developmental research works. Metallic glass is expected to be used as a functional material because of its excellent physical and chemical functions such as high strength and high corrosion resistance. However, the application for small size parts has been carried out only in some industrial fields. In order to widen the industrial application fields, a composite material is preferred for the cost performance. In the coating processes of metallic glass with the conventional deposition techniques, there is a difficulty to form thick coatings due to their low deposition rate. Thermal spraying method is one of the potential candidates to produce metallic glass composites. Metallic glass coatings can be applied to the longer parts and therefore the application field can be widened. The gas tunnel plasma spraying is one of the most important technologies for high quality ceramic coating and synthesizing functional materials. As the gas tunnel type plasma jet is superior to the properties of other conventional type plasma jets, this plasma has great possibilities for various applications in thermal processing. In this study, the gas tunnel type plasma spraying was used to form the metallic glass coatings on the stainless-steel substrate. The microstructure and surface morphology of the metallic glass coatings were examined using Fe-based metallic glass powder and Zr-based metallic glass powder as coating material. For the mechanical properties the Vickers hardness was measured on the cross section of both the coatings and the difference between the powders was compared. PMID:22905546

  7. Modelling and diagnostics of multiple cathodes plasma torch system for plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, Kirsten; Bagcivan, Nazlim; Zhao, Lidong; Petkovic, Ivica; Schein, Jochen; Hartz-Behrend, Karsten; Kirner, Stefan; Marqués, José-Luis; Forster, Günter

    2011-09-01

    Usage of a multiple-arcs system has significantly improved process stability and coating properties in air plasma spraying. However, there are still demands on understanding and controlling the physical process to determine process conditions for reproducible coating quality and homogeneity of coating microstructure. The main goal of this work is the application of numerical simulation for the prediction of the temperature profiles at the torch outlet for real process conditions. Behaviour of the gas flow and electric arcs were described in a three-dimensional numerical model. The calculated results showed the characteristic triangular temperature distribution at the torch nozzle outlet caused by three electric arcs. These results were compared with experimentally determined temperature distributions, which were obtained with specially developed computed tomography equipment for reconstructing the emissivity and temperature distribution of the plasma jet close to the torch exit. The calculated results related to temperature values and contours were verified for the most process parameters with experimental ones.

  8. Fully plasma-sprayed compliant backed ceramic turbine seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.; Wisander, D. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A seal with a high temperature abradable lining material which encircles the tips of turbine blades in turbomachinery was designed. The seal is directed to maintaining the minimum operating clearances between the blade tips and the lining of a high pressure turbine. A low temperature easily decomposable material in powder form is blended with a high temperature oxidation resistant metal powder. The two materials are simultaneously deposited on a substrate formed by the turbine casing. Alternately, the polymer powder may be added to the metal powder during plasma spraying. A ceramic layer is then deposited directly onto the metal-polymer composite. The polymer additive mixed with the metal is then completely volatilized to provide a porous layer between the ceramic layer and the substrate. Thermal stresses are reduced by the porous structure which gives a cushion effect. No brazing is required by using only plasma spraying for depositing both the powders of the metal and polymer material as well as the ceramic powder.

  9. Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Patterns for Enhancing Early Cell Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunqi; Xie, Youtao; Pan, Houhua; Zheng, Xuebin; Huang, Liping; Ji, Fang; Li, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Titanium coating has been widely used as a biocompatible metal in biomedical applications. However, the early cell responses and long-term fixation of titanium implants are not satisfied. To obviate these defects, in this paper, micro-post arrays with various widths (150-1000 μm) and intervals (100-300 μm) were fabricated on the titanium substrate by template-assisted plasma spraying technology. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited significantly higher osteogenic differentiation as well as slightly improved adhesion and proliferation on the micro-patterned coatings compared with the traditional one. The cell number on the pattern with 1000 µm width reached 130% after 6 days of incubation, and the expressions of osteopontin (OPN) as well as osteocalcin (OC) were doubled. No obvious difference was found in cell adhesion on various size patterns. The present micro-patterned coatings proposed a new modification method for the traditional plasma spraying technology to enhance the early cell responses and convenience for the bone in-growth.

  10. Failure analysis of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, C. C.; Miller, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Thermally induced failure processes of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings are examined. Cracking processes give rise to noise which was monitored by acoustic emission (AE) techniques. The sequential failure of coatings was examined from samples which were thermally cycled. Coatings of yttria-stabilized zirconia with and without a NiCrAlZr bond coat were plasma-sprayed onto U700 alloy rod. In some cases the substrate was intentionally overheated during deposition of the thermal protection system to check how this process variable influenced the AE response of the specimen. In this way a qualitative appraisal of how process variables affect coating integrity could be discerned in terms of cracking behavior. Results from up to seven consecutive thermal cycles are reported here. Coating failure was observed in all cases. Failure of the thermal protection system is progressive, since cracking and crack growth were observed prior to ultimate failure. Thus castastrophic failure occurs at some stage when there is a transformation from the microcrack to a macrocrack network.

  11. Pulsed laser treatment of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Cheang, P; Khor, K A; Teoh, L L; Tam, S C

    1996-10-01

    Plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have complex microstructures. There are often variations in phase, structure and chemical composition among the starting material and coating. Some of these changes may not be acceptable for biomedical applications. Attaining all the requirements for a functional coating in a single spraying process is not easily achieved. Additional post-treatment may be necessary. This study examines the use of a pulsed laser to enhance the coating characteristics of plasma-sprayed HA coatings. Preliminary results show the laser-treated coatings having a modified microstructure with crack networks and pores in the size range 5-30 microns. The pores and cracks were quantified by an image analyser. The crack network is less significant in coatings that are treated at lower energy intensity and this could be interesting in that the laser can be used to alter the surface phase composition as well as the morphology. However, repetitive passes with the pulsed laser did not help to seal the cracks that formed.

  12. Vacuum Plasma Spray Forming of Tungsten Lorentz Force Accelerator Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank R.

    2001-01-01

    The Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and demonstrated a fabrication technique using the VPS process to form anode sections for a Lorentz force accelerator from tungsten. Lorentz force accelerators are an attractive form of electric propulsion that provides continuous, high-efficiency propulsion at useful power levels for such applications as orbit transfers or deep space missions. The VPS process is used to deposit refractory metals such as tungsten onto a graphite mandrel of the desired shape. Because tungsten is reactive at high temperatures, it is thermally sprayed in an inert environment where the plasma gun melts and accelerates the metal powder onto the mandrel. A three-axis robot inside the chamber controls the motion of the plasma spray torch. A graphite mandrel acts as a male mold, forming the required contour and dimensions of the inside surface of the anode. This paper describes the processing techniques, design considerations, and process development associated with the VPS forming of the Lorentz force accelerator.

  13. Vacuum Plasma Spray Forming of Tungsten Lorentz Force Accelerator Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank R.

    2004-01-01

    The Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, working with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has developed and demonstrated a fabrication technique using the VPS process to form anode and cathode sections for a Lorentz force accelerator made from tungsten. Lorentz force accelerators are an attractive form of electric propulsion that provides continuous, high-efficiency propulsion at useful power levels for such applications as orbit transfers or deep space missions. The VPS process is used to deposit refractory metals such as tungsten onto a graphite mandrel of the desired shape. Because tungsten is reactive at high temperatures, it is thermally sprayed in an inert environment where the plasma gun melts and deposits the molten metal powder onto a mandrel. A three-axis robot inside the chamber controls the motion of the plasma spray torch. A graphite mandrel acts as a male mold, forming the required contour and dimensions for the inside surface of the anode or cathode of the accelerator. This paper describes the processing techniques, design considerations, and process development associated with the VPS forming of Lorentz force accelerator components.

  14. Robotic air vehicle. Blending artificial intelligence with conventional software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnulty, Christa; Graham, Joyce; Roewer, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The Robotic Air Vehicle (RAV) system is described. The program's objectives were to design, implement, and demonstrate cooperating expert systems for piloting robotic air vehicles. The development of this system merges conventional programming used in passive navigation with Artificial Intelligence techniques such as voice recognition, spatial reasoning, and expert systems. The individual components of the RAV system are discussed as well as their interactions with each other and how they operate as a system.

  15. Al2O3-ZrO2 Finely Structured Multilayer Architectures from Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingaud, Olivier; Montavon, Ghislain; Denoirjean, Alain; Coudert, Jean-François; Rat, Vincent; Fauchais, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is an alternative to conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) aiming at manufacturing thinner layers (i.e., 10-100 μm) due to the specific size of the feedstock particles, from a few tens of nanometers to a few micrometers. The staking of lamellae and particles, which present a diameter ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 μm and an average thickness from 20 to 300 nm, permits to manufacture finely structured layers. Moreover, it appears as a versatile process able to manufacture different coating architectures according to the operating parameters (suspension properties, injection configuration, plasma properties, spray distance, torch scan velocity, scanning step, etc.). However, the different parameters controlling the properties of the coating, and their interdependences, are not yet fully identified. Thus, the aim of this paper is, on the one hand, to better understand the influence of operating parameters on the coating manufacturing mechanisms (in particular, the plasma gas mixture effect) and, on the other hand, to produce Al2O3-ZrO2 finely structured layers with large varieties of architectures. For this purpose, a simple theoretical model was used to describe the plasma torch operating conditions at the nozzle exit, based on experimental data (mass enthalpy, arc current intensity, thermophysical properties of plasma forming gases, etc.) and the influences of the spray parameters were determined by mean of the study of sizes and shapes of spray beads. The results enabled then to reach a better understanding of involved phenomena and their interactions on the final coating architectures permitting to manufacture several types of microstructures.

  16. Calcium phosphate coating on titanium using laser and plasma spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Mangal

    Though calcium phosphate (CaP) coated implants are commercially available, its acceptance is still not wide spread due to challenges related to weaker interfacial bonding between metal and ceramic, and low crystallinity of hydroxyapatite (HA). The objectives of this research are to improve interfacial strength, crystallinity, phase purity and bioactivity of CaP coated metallic implants for orthopaedic applications. The rationale is that forming a diffuse and gradient metal-ceramic interface will improve the interfacial strength. Moreover, reducing CaP particles exposure to high temperature during coating preparation, can lead to improvement in both crystallinity and phase purity of CaP. In this study, laser engineered net shaping (LENS(TM)) was used to coat Ti metal with CaP. LENS(TM) processing enabled generation of Ti+TCP (tricalcium phosphate) composite coating with diffused interface, that also increased the coating hardness to 1049+/-112 Hv compared to a substrate hardness of 200+/-15 Hv. In vitro bone cell-material interaction studies confirmed the bioactivity of TCP coatings. Antimicrobial properties of the TCP coatings were improved by silver (Ag) electrodeposition. Along with LENS(TM), radio frequency induction plasma spray, equipped with supersonic plasma nozzle, was used to prepare HA coatings on Ti with improved crystallinity and phase purity. The coating was made of multigrain HA particles of ˜200 nm in size, which consisted of 15--20 nm HA grains. In vitro bone cell-material interaction and in vivo rat model studies confirmed the HA coatings to be bioactive. Furthermore, incorporation of Sr2+ improved bone cell of HA coatings interaction. A combination of LENS(TM) and plasma spray was used to fabricate a compositionally graded HA coatings on Ti where the microstructure varied from pure HA at the surface to pure Ti substrate with a diffused Ti+TCP composite region in between. The plasma spray system was used to synthesize spherical HA nano powder from

  17. Acoustic emission evaluation of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic emission techniques have recently been used in a number of studies to investigate the performance and failure behavior of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings. Failure of the coating is a complex phenomena, especially when the composite nature of the coating is considered in the light of possible failure mechanisms. Thus it can be expected that both the metal and ceramic components (i.e., the bond coat and ceramic overlay) of a composite thermal protection system influence the macroscopic behavior and performance of the coating. The aim of the present work is to summarize the 'state-of-the-art' in terms of this initial work and indicate where future progress may be made.

  18. Plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings for protection against molten metal.

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, K. J.; Peters, M. I.; Bartram, B. D.

    2002-01-01

    Molten metal environments pose a special demand on materials due to the high temperature corrosion effects and thermal expansion mismatch induced stress effects. A solution that has been successfully employed is the use of a base material for the mechanical strength and a coating material for the chemical compatibility with the molten metal. The work described here used such an approach coating tungsten rods with aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttrium oxide, and erbium oxide deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying. The ceramic materials were deposited under varying conditions to produce different structures. Measurement of particle characteristics was performed to correlate to material properties. The coatings were tested in a thermal cycling environment to simulate the metal melting cycle expected in service. Results of the testing indicate the effect of material composition and spray conditions on the thermal cycle crack resistance of the coatings.

  19. Superhydrophobic Ceramic Coatings by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuxuan; Coyle, Thomas W; Azimi, Gisele; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a novel coating technique to manufacture ceramic superhydrophobic coatings rapidly and economically. A rare earth oxide (REO) was selected as the coating material due to its hydrophobic nature, chemical inertness, high temperature stability, and good mechanical properties, and deposited on stainless steel substrates by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS). The effects of various spraying conditions including standoff distance, torch power, number of torch passes, types of solvent and plasma velocity were investigated. The as-sprayed coating demonstrated a hierarchically structured surface topography, which closely resembles superhydrophobic surfaces found in nature. The water contact angle on the SPPS superhydrophobic coating was up to 65% higher than on smooth REO surfaces. PMID:27091306

  20. Superhydrophobic Ceramic Coatings by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuxuan

    Superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit superior water repellent properties, and they have remarkable potential to improve current energy infrastructure. Substantial research has been performed on the production of superhydrophobic coatings. However, superhydrophobic coatings have not yet been adopted in many industries where potential applications exist due to the limited durability of the coating materials and the complex and costly fabrication processes. Here presented a novel coating technique to manufacture ceramic superhydrophobic coatings rapidly and economically. A rare earth oxide (REO) was selected as the coating material due to its hydrophobic nature and strong mechanical properties, and deposited on stainless steel substrates by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS). The as-sprayed coating demonstrated a hierarchically structured coating topography, which closely resembles superhydrophobic surfaces in nature. Compared to smooth REO surfaces, the SPPS superhydrophobic coating improved the water contact angle by as much as 65° after vacuum treatment at 1 Pa for 48 hours.

  1. Caracterisation of Titanium Nitride Layers Deposited by Reactive Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roşu, Radu Alexandru; Şerban, Viorel-Aurel; Bucur, Alexandra Ioana; Popescu, Mihaela; Uţu, Dragoş

    2011-01-01

    Forming and cutting tools are subjected to the intense wear solicitations. Usually, they are either subject to superficial heat treatments or are covered with various materials with high mechanical properties. In recent years, thermal spraying is used increasingly in engineering area because of the large range of materials that can be used for the coatings. Titanium nitride is a ceramic material with high hardness which is used to cover the cutting tools increasing their lifetime. The paper presents the results obtained after deposition of titanium nitride layers by reactive plasma spraying (RPS). As deposition material was used titanium powder and as substratum was used titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Macroscopic and microscopic (scanning electron microscopy) images of the deposited layers and the X ray diffraction of the coatings are presented. Demonstration program with layers deposited with thickness between 68,5 and 81,4 μm has been achieved and presented.

  2. [Study on the fluctuation phenomena of arc plasma spraying jet].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-hua; Liu, Di; Tian, Kuo

    2002-08-01

    The turbulence phenomenon is one of the most attractive characteristics of a DC arc plasma spraying jet. Most of the previous investigations believe that there is a laminar flow region in core of the jet. A spectrum diagnostic system has been built up in this paper to investigate these effects with the aid of high-speed digital camera. The FFT method has been applied to the analysis on the arc voltage and light signals. The influence of the arc behavior and the power supply on the jet is full-scale. It seems that there is not a laminar flow region in core of the jet. Moreover, from the light dynamic variation graph, the jet fluctuation due to the arc voltage behavior maybe is the dominant characteristic of the jet behavior.

  3. Identification of Desirable Precursor Properties for Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muoto, Chigozie K.; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice; Aindow, Mark

    2011-06-01

    In solution precursor plasma spray chemical precursor solutions are injected into a standard plasma torch and the final material is formed and deposited in a single step. This process has several attractive features, including the ability to rapidly explore new compositions and to form amorphous and metastable phases from molecularly mixed precursors. Challenges include: (a) moderate deposition rates due to the need to evaporate the precursor solvent, (b) dealing on a case by case basis with precursor characteristics that influence the spray process (viscosity, endothermic and exothermic reactions, the sequence of physical states through which the precursor passes before attaining the final state, etc.). Desirable precursor properties were identified by comparing an effective precursor for yttria-stabilized zirconia with four less effective candidate precursors for MgO:Y2O3. The critical parameters identified were a lack of major endothermic events during precursor decomposition and highly dense resultant particles.

  4. Superhydrophobic Ceramic Coatings by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yuxuan; Coyle, Thomas W.; Azimi, Gisele; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a novel coating technique to manufacture ceramic superhydrophobic coatings rapidly and economically. A rare earth oxide (REO) was selected as the coating material due to its hydrophobic nature, chemical inertness, high temperature stability, and good mechanical properties, and deposited on stainless steel substrates by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS). The effects of various spraying conditions including standoff distance, torch power, number of torch passes, types of solvent and plasma velocity were investigated. The as-sprayed coating demonstrated a hierarchically structured surface topography, which closely resembles superhydrophobic surfaces found in nature. The water contact angle on the SPPS superhydrophobic coating was up to 65% higher than on smooth REO surfaces. PMID:27091306

  5. Plasma spray nozzle with low overspray and collimated flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beason, Jr., George P. (Inventor); McKechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor); Power, Christopher A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An improved nozzle for reducing overspray in high temperature supersonic plasma spray devices comprises a body defining an internal passageway having an upstream end and a downstream end through which a selected plasma gas is directed. The nozzle passageway has a generally converging/diverging Laval shape with its upstream end converging to a throat section and its downstream end diverging from the throat section. The upstream end of the passageway is configured to accommodate a high current cathode for producing an electrical arc in the passageway to heat and ionize the gas flow to plasma form as it moves along the passageway. The downstream end of the nozzle is uniquely configured through the methodology of this invention to have a contoured bell-shape that diverges from the throat to the exit of the nozzle. Coating material in powder form is injected into the plasma flow in the region of the bell-shaped downstream end of the nozzle and the powder particles become entrained in the flow. The unique bell shape of the nozzle downstream end produces a plasma spray that is ideally expanded at the nozzle exit and thus virtually free of shock phenomena, and that is highly collimated so as to exhibit significantly reduced fanning and diffusion between the nozzle and the target. The overall result is a significant reduction in the amount of material escaping from the plasma stream in the form of overspray and a corresponding improvement in the cost of the coating operation and in the quality and integrity of the coating itself.

  6. Derivation of vertical air velocity from conventional Radiosonde ascents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manguttathil Gopalakrishnan, Manoj; Mohanakumar, Kesavapillai; Samson, Titu; Kottayil, Ajil; Varadarajan, Rakesh; Rebello, Rejoy

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we devise a method to estimate air vertical velocity from ascending radiosondes similar to that described in published results, but with certain differences in deriving the balloon parameters and the drag coefficient, while not considering explicitly the heat exchange between the balloon and the environment. We basically decompose the observed balloon ascent rate into vertical velocity in still air due to buoyancy force and that due to vertical air motion. The first part is computed from basic hydrodynamical principles and the vertical velocity is derived as the difference between observed ascent rate and the estimated still air vertical velocity. The derived values agree reasonably well (r=0.66) with vertical velocities observed with a collocated wind profiler radar, and the sources of uncertainties are discussed. Since vertical velocity is a difficult quantity to measure directly without expensive methods, derivation of the same from the conventional radiosonde ascents could be of great importance to the meteorological communities.

  7. Kinetic Study of the Solid-State Transformation of Vacuum-Plasma-Sprayed Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimijazi, H. R.; Mousavi, Z. A.; Golozar, M. A.; Mostaghimi, J.; Coyle, T.

    2014-01-01

    Because of the nature of the plasma spraying process, the physical and mechanical properties of vacuum-plasma-sprayed structures of Ti-6Al-4V alloy are completely different from those of conventionally manufactured alloys such as bulk materials from casting and forging. To obtain desired mechanical and physical properties, vacancy and internal defects must be reduced, splat boundaries must be eliminated, and optimal phase compositions should be obtained through postdeposition heat treatments. To determine appropriate heat treatment processes, one needs to study the kinetic behavior of the as-sprayed microstructure at elevated temperatures. In the current study, the kinetics of the solid transformations found in Ti-6Al-4V alloys produced during the vacuum plasma spraying process was studied based on the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami theory. For the kinetic behavior of this alloy, the nonconstant temperature dependence of the transformation rate constant exhibits an irregularity at 900 °C, marking a change in the transformation mechanism. For the lower-temperature (<900 °C) curves, the constant gradient indicates a lack of change in the transformation mechanism, including homogeneous nucleation, with growth of α phase. For higher temperatures (>900 °C), a gradient change indicates a change in the transformation mechanism. The first mechanism was the formation of α-phase grain boundary, and the second mechanism was α-plate nucleation and growth from grain boundaries. The value of the transformation rate constant in the kinetics study of as-sprayed Ti-6Al-4V alloy was much higher than for material produced by the casting method. Using the results obtained from the kinetics of the phase transformation at different constant temperatures, a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for as-sprayed Ti-6Al-4V alloy was developed.

  8. Phase transformation and wear studies of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia coatings containing various mol% of yttria

    SciTech Connect

    Aruna, S.T. Balaji, N.; Rajam, K.S.

    2011-07-15

    Plasma sprayable grade zirconia powders doped with various mol% of yttria (0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12 mol%) were synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation route. The coprecipitation conditions were adjusted such that the powders possessed good flowability in the as calcined condition and thus avoiding the agglomeration step like spray drying. Identical plasma spray parameters were used for plasma spraying all the powders on stainless steel plates. The powders and plasma sprayed coatings were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Zirconia powders are susceptible to phase transformations when subjected to very high temperatures during plasma spraying and XRD is insensitive to the presence of some non crystalline phases and hence Raman spectroscopy was used as an important tool. The microstructure of the plasma sprayed coatings showed a bimodal distribution containing fully melted and unmelted zones. The microhardness and wear resistance of the plasma sprayed coatings were determined. Among the plasma sprayed coatings, 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia coating containing pure tetragonal zirconia showed the highest wear resistance. - Research Highlights: {yields} Preparation plasma sprayable YSZ powders without any agglomeration process and plasma spraying {yields} Phase transformation studies of plasma sprayed YSZ coatings by XRD and Raman spectroscopy {yields} Microstructure of the plasma sprayed coatings exhibited bimodal distribution {yields} Plasma sprayed 3 mol% YSZ coating exhibited the highest wear resistance {yields} Higher wear resistance is due to the higher fracture toughness of tetragonal 3 mol% YSZ phase.

  9. Ceramic plasma-sprayed coating of melting crucibles for casting metal fuel slugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Chong Tak; Lee, Chan Bock; Fielding, R. S.; Kennedy, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    Thermal cycling and melt reaction studies of ceramic coatings plasma-sprayed on Nb substrates were carried out to evaluate the performance of barrier coatings for metallic fuel casting applications. Thermal cycling tests of the ceramic plasma-sprayed coatings to 1450 °C showed that HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y2O3 coating had good cycling characteristics with few interconnected cracks even after 20 cycles. Interaction studies by 1550 °C melt dipping tests of the plasma-sprayed coatings also indicated that HfN and Y2O3 do not form significant reaction layer between U-20 wt.% Zr melt and the coating layer. Plasma-sprayed Y2O3 coating exhibited the most promising characteristics among HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y2O3 coating.

  10. Plasma-sprayed metal-glass fluoride coatings for lubrication to 1170 K (1650 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma spray of Nichrome matrix composite contains dispersed glass for oxidation protection and calcium fluoride for lubrication. Coatings can be applied to bearing journals and bearing bores. Coating was easily machinable and had excellent bond strength on substrate metal.

  11. The development of beryllium plasma spray technology for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Elliott, K.E.; Hollis, K.J.; Bartlett, A.H.; Watson, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    Over the past five years, four international parties, which include the European Communities, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States, have been collaborating on the design and development of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the next generation magnetic fusion energy device. During the ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA), beryllium plasma spray technology was investigated by Los Alamos National Laboratory as a method for fabricating and repairing and the beryllium first wall surface of the ITER tokamak. Significant progress has been made in developing beryllium plasma spraying technology for this application. Information will be presented on the research performed to improve the thermal properties of plasma sprayed beryllium coatings and a method that was developed for cleaning and preparing the surface of beryllium prior to depositing plasma sprayed beryllium coatings. Results of high heat flux testing of the beryllium coatings using electron beam simulated ITER conditions will also be presented.

  12. Ceramic plasma-sprayed coating of melting crucibles for casting metal fuel slugs

    SciTech Connect

    K.H. Kim; C.T. Lee; C.B. Lee; R.S. Fielding; J.R. Kennedy

    2013-10-01

    Thermal cycling and melt reaction studies of ceramic coatings plasma-sprayed on Nb substrates were carried out to evaluate the performance of barrier coatings for metallic fuel casting applications. Thermal cycling tests of the ceramic plasma-sprayed coatings to 1450 degrees C showed that HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y2O3 coating had good cycling characteristics with few interconnected cracks even after 20 cycles. Interaction studies by 1550 degrees C melt dipping tests of the plasma-sprayed coatings also indicated that HfN and Y2O3 do not form significant reaction layer between U–20 wt.% Zr melt and the coating layer. Plasma-sprayed Y2O3 coating exhibited the most promising characteristics among HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y2O3 coating.

  13. Life modeling of atmospheric and low pressure plasma-sprayed thermal-barrier coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Argarwal, P.; Duderstadt, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The cycles-to-failure vs cycle duration data for three different thermal barrier coating systems, which consist of atmospheric pressure plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8 percent Y2O3 over similarly deposited or low pressure plasma sprayed Ni-base alloys, are presently analyzed by means of the Miller (1980) oxidation-based life model. Specimens were tested at 1100 C for heating cycle lengths of 1, 6, and 20 h, yielding results supporting the model's value.

  14. Electrocatalytically Active Nickel-Based Electrode Coatings Formed by Atmospheric and Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghasibeig, M.; Mousavi, M.; Ben Ettouill, F.; Moreau, C.; Wuthrich, R.; Dolatabadi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ni-based electrode coatings with enhanced surface areas, for hydrogen production, were developed using atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and suspension plasma spray (SPS) processes. The results revealed a larger electrochemical active surface area for the coatings produced by SPS compared to those produced by APS process. SEM micrographs showed that the surface microstructure of the sample with the largest surface area was composed of a large number of small cauliflower-like aggregates with an average diameter of 10 μm.

  15. Plasma Sprayed Bondable Stainless Surface (BOSS) Coatings for Corrosion Protection and Adhesion Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, G. D.; Groff, G. B.; Rooney, M.; Cooke, A. V.; Boothe, R.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed Bondable Stainless Surface (BOSS) coatings are being developed under the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program's (SPIP) Bondlines Package. These coatings are designed as a steel case preparation treatment prior to insulation lay-up. Other uses include the exterior of steel cases and bonding surfaces of nozzle components. They provide excellent bondability - rubber insulation and epoxy bonds fail cohesively within the polymer - for both fresh surfaces and surfaces having undergone natural and accelerated environmental aging. They have passed the MSFC requirements for protection of inland and sea coast environment. Because BOSS coatings are inherently corrosion resistant, they do not require preservation by greases or oils. The reduction/elimination of greases and oils, known bondline degraders, can increase SRM reliability, decrease costs by reducing the number of process steps, and decrease environmental pollution by reducing the amount of methyl chloroform used for degreasing and thus reduce release of the ozone-depleting chemical in accordance with the Clean Air Act and the Montreal Protocol. The coatings can potential extend the life of RSRM case segments and nozzle components by eliminating erosion due to multiple grit blasting during each use cycle and corrosion damage during marine recovery. Concurrent work for the Air Force show that other BOSS coatings give excellent bondline strength and durability for high-performance structures of aluminum and titanium.

  16. Method of forming a plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Spengler, Charles J.; Folser, George R.; Vora, Shailesh D.; Kuo, Lewis; Richards, Von L.

    1995-01-01

    A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles doped with an element selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by plasma spraying doped LaCrO.sub.3 powder, preferably compensated with chromium as Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 and/or dopant element, preferably by plasma arc spraying; and, (C) heating the doped and compensated LaCrO.sub.3 layer to about 1100.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. to provide a dense, substantially gas-tight, substantially hydration-free, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell.

  17. Method of forming a plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Spengler, C.J.; Folser, G.R.; Vora, S.D.; Kuo, L.; Richards, V.L.

    1995-06-20

    A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles doped with an element selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by plasma spraying doped LaCrO{sub 3} powder, preferably compensated with chromium as Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and/or dopant element, preferably by plasma arc spraying; and, (C) heating the doped and compensated LaCrO{sub 3} layer to about 1100 C to 1300 C to provide a dense, substantially gas-tight, substantially hydration-free, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell. 6 figs.

  18. Optimal Design of Nozzle for Supersonic Atmosphere Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying; Zhao, Guangxi; Bai, Y.; Tan, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Through numerical simulation, key issues concerning the plasma jet features as well as the sizes of nozzle for supersonic atmosphere plasma spraying (SAPS) were analyzed in this paper. Numerical results were compared with the experimental measurements and a good agreement has been achieved. Due to the effect of mechanical compression, the increasing sizes of r1, r2, r3 and r4 (r1, r2, r3 and r4 are the sizes of nozzle) lead to a decrease in temperature and velocity of plasma jet. But large size of r5 can increase the external temperature and velocity of plasma jet, which benefit particles accelerating at the far downstream region. A new nozzle was designed based on the simulation results. Compared to the temperature and velocity of plasma jet in the original nozzle, the maximum temperature and velocity of plasma jet in new structure are increased by about 9.8% and 44.5%, which is a benefit to the particles to reach a higher speed and surface temperature.

  19. Engineering the Microstructure of Solution Precursor Plasma-Sprayed Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolissi, G.; Chazelas, C.; Bolelli, G.; Lusvarghi, L.; Vardelle, M.; Vardelle, A.

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the fundamental reactions that occur in-flight during the solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) of solutions containing Zr- and Y-based salts in water or ethanol solvent. The effect of plasma jet composition (pure Ar, Ar-H2 and Ar-He-H2 mixtures) on the mechanical break-up and thermal treatment of the solution, mechanically injected in the form of a liquid stream, was investigated. Observation of the size evolution of the solution droplets in the plasma flow by means of a laser shadowgraphy technique, showed that droplet break-up was more effective and solvent evaporation was faster when the ethanol-based solution was injected into binary or ternary plasma gas mixtures. In contrast with water-based solutions, residual liquid droplets were always detected at the substrate location. The morphology and structure of the material deposited onto stainless steel substrates during single-scan experiments were characterised by SEM, XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy and were shown to be closely related to in-flight droplet behaviour. In-flight pyrolysis and melting of the precursor led to well-flattened splats, whereas residual liquid droplets at the substrate location turned into non pyrolysed inclusions. The latter, although subsequently pyrolysed by the plasma heat during the deposition of entire coatings, resulted in porous "sponge-like" structures in the deposit.

  20. Predicting radiative transport properties of plasma sprayed porous ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B. X.; Zhao, C. Y.

    2016-03-01

    The typical yttria-stabilized zirconia material for making the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is intrinsically semitransparent to thermal radiation, and the unique disordered microstructures in TBCs make them surprisingly highly scattering. To quantitatively understand the influence of disordered microstructures, this paper presents a quantitative prediction on the radiative properties, especially the transport scattering coefficient of plasma sprayed TBC based on microstructure analysis and rigorous electromagnetic theory. The impact of the porosity, shape, size, and orientation of different types of voids on transport scattering coefficient is comprehensively investigated under the discrete dipole approximation. An inverse model integrating these factors together is then proposed to quantitatively connect transport scattering coefficient with microstructural information, which is also validated by available experimental data. Afterwards, an optimization procedure is carried out based on this model to obtain the optimal size and orientation distribution of the microscale voids to achieve the maximal radiation insulation performance at different operating temperatures, providing guidelines for practical coating design and fabrication. This work suggests that the current model is effective and also efficient for connecting scattering properties to microstructures and can be implemented as a quantitative tool for further studies like non-destructive infrared imaging as well as micro/nanoscale thermal design of TBCs.

  1. Characterizing Suspension Plasma Spray Coating Formation Dynamics through Curvature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidambaram Seshadri, Ramachandran; Dwivedi, Gopal; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay

    2016-10-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) enables the production of variety of microstructures with unique mechanical and thermal properties. In SPS, a liquid carrier (ethanol/water) is used to transport the sub-micrometric feedstock into the plasma jet. Considering complex deposition dynamics of SPS technique, there is a need to better understand the relationships among spray conditions, ensuing particle behavior, deposition stress evolution and resultant properties. In this study, submicron yttria-stabilized zirconia particles suspended in ethanol were sprayed using a cascaded arc plasma torch. The stresses generated during the deposition of the layers (termed evolving stress) were monitored via the change in curvature of the substrate measured using an in situ measurement apparatus. Depending on the deposition conditions, coating microstructures ranged from feathery porous to dense/cracked deposits. The evolving stresses and modulus were correlated with the observed microstructures and visualized via process maps. Post-deposition bi-layer curvature measurement via low temperature thermal cycling was carried out to quantify the thermo-elastic response of different coatings. Lastly, preliminary data on furnace cycle durability of different coating microstructures were evaluated. This integrated study involving in situ diagnostics and ex situ characterization along with process maps provides a framework to describe coating formation mechanisms, process parametrics and microstructure description.

  2. Residual stresses determination in textured substrates for plasma sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capek, J.; Pala, Z.; Kovarik, O.

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution, we have striven to respond to the desire of obtaining the residual stress tensor in the both cold-rolled and hot-rolled substrates designated for deposition of thermal coatings by plasma spraying. Residual stresses play an important role in the coating adhesion to the substrate and, as such, it is a good practice to analyse them. Prior to spraying, the substrate is often being grit blasted. Residual stresses and texture were quantitatively assessed in both virgin and grit blasted sample employing three attitudes. Firstly without taking preferred orientation into account, secondly from measurements of interplanar lattice spacings of planes with high Miller indices using MoKα radiation. And eventually, by calculating anisotropic elastic constants as a weighted average between single-crystal and X-ray elastic constants with weighting being done according to the amount of textured and isotropic material in the irradiated volume. In the ensuing verification analyses, it was established that the latter approach is suitable for materials with either very strong or very weak presence of texture.

  3. Young's Moduli of Cold and Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Metallic Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Pawlik, R.; Loewenthal, W.

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic metallic copper alloy and NiCrAlY coatings were fabricated by either the cold spray (CS) or the vacuum plasma spray (VPS) deposition processes. Dynamic elastic modulus property measurements were conducted on these monolithic coating specimens between 300 K and 1273 K using the impulse excitation technique. The Young's moduli decreased almost linearly with increasing temperature at all temperatures except in the case of the CS Cu-23%Cr-5%Al and VPS NiCrAlY, where deviations from linearity were observed above a critical temperature. It was observed that the Young's moduli for VPS Cu-8%Cr were larger than literature data compiled for Cu. The addition of 1%Al to Cu- 8%Cr significantly increased its Young's modulus by 12 to 17% presumably due to a solid solution effect. Comparisons of the Young s moduli data between two different measurements on the same CS Cu- 23%Cr-5%Al specimen revealed that the values measured in the first run were about 10% higher than those in the second run. It is suggested that this observation is due to annealing of the initial cold work microstructure resulting form the cold spray deposition process.

  4. Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) Material Applications for Thruster Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra; Holmes, Richard; Hickman, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A variety of vacuum plasma spray (VPS) material systems have been successfully applied to injector and thrust chamber components. VPS offers a versatile fabrication process with relatively low costs to produce near net shape parts. The materials available with VPS increase operating margins and improve component life by providing superior thermal and oxidation protection in specific engine environments. Functional gradient materials (FGM) formed with VPS allow thrust chamber liners to be fabricated with GRCop-84 (an alloy of copper, chrome, and niobium) and a protective layer of NiCrAlY on the hot wall. A variety of thrust chamber liner designs have been fabricated to demonstrate the versatility of the process. Hot-fire test results have confined the improved durability and high temperature performance of the material systems for thrust chamber liners. Similar FGM s have been applied to provide superior thermal protection on injector faceplates with NiCrAlY and zirconia coatings. The durability of the applied materials has been demonstrated with hot-fire cycle testing on injector faceplates in high temperature environments. The material systems can benefit the components used in booster and main engine propulsion systems. More recent VPS efforts are focused on producing rhenium based material systems for high temperature applications to benefit in-space engines like reaction control system (RCS) thrusters.

  5. Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) Material Applications for Thruster Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra; Holmes, Richard; Hickman, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A variety of vacuum plasma spray (VPS) material systems have been successfully applied to injector and thrust chamber components. VPS offers a versatile fabrication process with relatively low costs to produce near net shape parts. The materials available with VPS increase operating margins and improve component life by providing superior thermal and oxidation protection in specific engine environments. Functional gradient materials (FGM) formed with VPS allow thrust chamber liners to be fabricated with GRCop-84 (an alloy of copper, chrome, and niobium) and a protective layer of NiCrAlY on the hot wall. A variety of thrust chamber liner designs have been fabricated to demonstrate the versatility of the process. Hot-fire test results have confirmed the improved durability and high temperature performance of the material systems for thrust chamber liners. Similar FGM s have been applied to provide superior thermal protection on injector faceplates with NiCrAlY and zirconia coatings. The durability of the applied materials has been demonstrated with hot-fire cycle testing on injector faceplates in high temperature environments. The material systems can benefit the components used in booster and main engine propulsion systems. More recent VPS efforts are focused on producing rhenium based material systems for high temperature applications to benefit in-space engines like reaction control system (RCS) thrusters.

  6. Tunable elastic stiffness of plasma-sprayed zirconia coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberg, Joachim; Schwaminger, Christian

    1999-07-01

    Plasma-sprayed zirconia is widely used in aero-engines as thermal barrier coating material. The material has an open porosity and a network of very thin microcracks. The porosity and the microcracks give rise to the low elastic stiffness. When the plasm sprayed zirconia is immersed in a liquid the microcracks can be filled with the liquid by capillary forces. Although there is only a small amount of infiltrated material the zirconia shows a strong increase in elastic stiffness. We have measured the elastic behavior after infiltration and as function of temperature by ultrasonic pulse echo technique. It could be observed that the solidification of the infiltrated fluid at lower temperatures leads to a further increase of the elastic stiffness. The temperature controlled liquid-solid phase transition can therefore be used to change reversibly the elastic properties of this ceramic material. The desired switching temperature can be chosen by appropriate fluids. A possible application of this material is the vibration damping of coated structures by temperature controlled changing of resonance frequencies.

  7. Atomized BaF2-CaF7 for Better-Flowing Plasma-Spray Feedstock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2008-01-01

    Atomization of a molten mixture of BaF2 and CaF2 has been found to be superior to crushing of bulk solid BaF2- CaF2 as a means of producing eutectic BaF2-CaF2 powder for use as an ingredient of the powder feedstock of a high-temperature solid lubricant material known as PS304. Developed to reduce friction and wear in turbomachines that incorporate foil air bearings, PS304 is applied to metal substrates by plasma spraying. The constituents of PS304 are: a) An alloy of 80 weight percent Ni and 20 weight percent Cr, b) Cr2O3, c) Ag, and d) The BaF2-CaF2 eutectic, specifically, 62 weight percent BaF2 and 38 weight percent CaF2. The superiority of atomization as a means of producing the eutectic BaF2-CaF2 powder lies in (1) the shapes of the BaF2-CaF2 particles produced and (2) the resulting flow properties of the PS304 feedstock powder: The particles produced through crushing are angular, whereas those produced through atomization are more rounded. PS304 feedstock powder containing the more rounded BaF2-CaF2 particles flows more freely and more predictably, as is preferable for plasma spraying.

  8. Splat Morphology and Influence of Feeding Rate During Reactive Plasma Spray of Aluminum Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Fabrication of aluminum nitride (AlN) coatings using conventional plasma spraying processes directly has been deemed impossible. It is attributed to the thermal decomposition of the AlN feedstock particles during spraying without a stable melting phase. Using the reactivity of the plasma (reactive plasma spraying: RPS) showed a promising consideration for in situ formation of AlN thermally sprayed coatings. Several AlN-based coatings were fabricated through the RPS of aluminum powders in the N2/H2 plasma. The focus of this study is in discussing the morphology of splat deposition during the nitriding of Al particles. Furthermore, the influence of the feeding rate during the RPS and nitriding of Al powders will be investigated. The nitride content, as well as the unreacted molten Al phase, strongly influences splat deposition and morphology during the RPS of Al. The collected splats can be divided into reacted, partially reacted, and unreacted splats. The reacted splats tend to show a disk or egg-shell shape. The partially reacted mainly had outside nitride shells and an unreacted molten Al part in the center. The unreacted splats tended to show a splash shape. The main controlling factor is the time of the droplet impact on the substrate during the reaction sequence. The particle size and spray distance showed significant effects on the splat formation due to their effect on the nitriding conversion and the melting behavior of the particles during RPS nitriding. The powder feeding rate was investigated through increasing the injection rate and by using a low carrier gas flow rate. Increasing the powder feeding rate significantly improved the coating thickness. However, it suppressed the nitriding conversion of the large Al particles. Thus, with increasing the amount of the powder in the plasma, the Al molten particles are easily aggregated and agglomerate together upon colliding on the substrate with an AlN shell on the surface. This prevents the N2 from having

  9. Plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings with flame-spheroidized feedstock: microstructure and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Kweh, S W; Khor, K A; Cheang, P

    2000-06-01

    Flame-spheroidized feedstock, with excellent known heat transfer and consistent melting capabilities, were used to produce hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings via plasma spraying. The characteristics and inherent mechanical properties of the coatings have been investigated and were found to have direct and impacting relationship with the feedstock characteristics, processing parameters as well as microstructural deformities. Processing parameters such as particle sizes (SHA: 20-45, 45-75 and 75-125 microm) and spray distances (10, 12 and 14 cm) have been systematically varied in the present study. It was found that the increase of particle sizes and spray distances weakened the mechanical properties (microhardness, modulus, fracture toughness and bond strength) and structural stability of the coatings. The presence of inter- and intralamellar thermal microcracks, voids and porosities with limited true contact between lamellae were also found to degrade the mechanical characteristics of the coatings, especially in coatings produced from large-sized HA particles. An effort was made to correlate the effects of microstructural defects with the resultant mechanical properties and structural integrity of the plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings. The effects of different heat treatment temperatures (600, 800 and 900 degrees C) on the mechanical properties of the coatings were also studied. It was found that a heat treatment temperature of 800 degrees C does enhance the microhardness and elastic modulus of the coatings significantly (P < 0.05) whereas a further increment in heat treatment temperature to 900 degrees C did not show any discernable improvements (P > 0.1). The elastic response behaviour and fracture toughness of both the as-sprayed and heat-treated HA coatings using Knoop and Vickers indentations at different loadings have been investigated. Results have shown that the mechanical properties of the coatings have improved significantly despite increasing crack

  10. Assessment of plasma sprayed coatings to modify surface friction for railroad applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Heidi Lynn

    For the past hundred years, railroads have been an important means of transportation for passengers and freight. Over the years train traffic, speeds, and loads have increased steadily leading to a more severe wheel/rail environment that exceeds the design limits of the steels thus causing increased wear, decreased rail life, and higher maintenance costs. The cost of controlling friction and the resulting damage is an area of ever-increasing concern. One potential method of modifying friction is by changing the surface properties of the rail. The work reported herein was carried out as part of a larger effort to modify surface friction of rails. The original focus of this research was to use high velocity air plasma spraying to develop friction enhancing coatings for the rail surface. Using the methodology developed at the Oregon Graduate Institute, the plasma spray parameters were optimized and the coatings were tested on the Amsler machine under rolling/sliding wear conditions to determine viability prior to full scale testing. Stainless steel and composite 1080 steel were investigated as potential materials for increasing friction. Poor results with these coatings shifted the research focus to understanding the durability of the coatings and to failure analysis of initial 1080 steel full scale samples tested by the Facility for Accelerated Service Testing that had failed prematurely. After re-optimization of parameters and preparation methodologies further full scale samples (1080 steel/nylon) were tested and failure analysis was performed. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of coatings from the tested samples. The laboratory scale Amsler test did not appear to be a good indicator of the performance of the coating in full scale tests, because variations in microstructure were caused by differences in sample size, geometry and spraying methods when scaling up from a small Amsler roller to a large rail sample. The

  11. Characterization of gas tunnel type plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite-nanostructure titania composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugeswaran, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Ucisik, A. Hikmet; Subramanian, B.

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated onto metal implants as a ceramic biocompatible coating to bridge the growth between implants and human tissue. Meanwhile many efforts have been made to improve the mechanical properties of the HA coatings without affecting its bioactivity. In the present study, nanostructure titania (TiO2) was mixed with HA powder and HA-nanostructure TiO2 composite coatings were produced by gas tunnel type plasma spraying torch under optimized spraying conditions. For this purpose, composition of 10 wt% TiO2 + 90 wt% HA, 20 wt% TiO2 + 80 wt% HA and 30 wt% TiO2 + 70 wt% HA were selected as the feedstock materials. The phase, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coatings were characterized. The obtained results validated that the increase in weight percentage of nanostructure TiO2 in HA coating significantly increased the microhardness, adhesive strength and wear resistance of the coatings. Analysis of the in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were done using conventional simulated body fluid (c-SBF) solution and cultured green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled marrow stromal cells (MSCs) respectively. The bioactivity results revealed that the composite coating has bio-active surface with good cytocompatibility.

  12. Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings with Enhanced Splat Bonding for CMAS and Corrosion Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Yao, Shu-Wei; Wang, Li-Shuang; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2016-01-01

    The infiltration of molten CMAS in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) at high temperature is significantly affected by the microstructure of the ceramic coating. Enhancing the bonding ratio between splats can reduce the interconnected pores and suppress the infiltration of the molten CMAS into the coating. In this study, a dual-layered (DL) TBC with the dense 8YSZ on the top of the conventional porous 8YSZ was proposed to enhance CMAS corrosion of atmospheric plasma-sprayed YSZ. The dense YSZ coating with improved lamellar bonding was deposited at a higher deposition temperature. The microstructure of the coatings before and after CMAS attack test was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It was clearly revealed that by adjusting the microstructure and applying a dense ceramic layer with the improved interface bonding on the top of porous TBC, the infiltration of CMAS into porous YSZ coating can be effectively suppressed. Moreover, by designing DL TBCs, the thermal conductivity of the TBC system exhibits a limited increase. Thus with the design of DL structure, the TBCs with high CMAS corrosion resistance and low thermal conductivity can be achieved.

  13. High Temperature Multilayer Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited Via Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, Bryan James; Zhu, Dongming; Schmitt, Michael P.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Si-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments to avoid rapid material loss. Candidate EBC materials have use temperatures only marginally above current technology, but the addition of a columnar oxide topcoat can substantially increase the durability. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) allows application of these multilayer EBCs in a single process. The PS-PVD technique is a unique method that combines conventional thermal spray and vapor phase methods, allowing for tailoring of thin, dense layers or columnar microstructures by varying deposition conditions. Multilayer coatings were deposited on CMC specimens and assessed for durability under high heat flux and load. Coated samples with surface temperatures ranging from 2400-2700F and 10 ksi loads using the high heat flux laser rigs at NASA Glenn. Coating morphology was characterized in the as-sprayed condition and after thermomechanical loading using electron microscopy and the phase structure was tracked using X-ray diffraction.

  14. Nano-structural bioactive gradient coating fabricated by computer controlled plasma-spraying technology.

    PubMed

    Ning, C Y; Wang, Y J; Lu, W W; Qiu, Q X; Lam, R W M; Chen, X F; Chiu, K Y; Ye, J D; Wu, G; Wu, Z H; Chow, S P

    2006-10-01

    The poor mechanical property of hydroxyapatite was the major problem for load bearing and implant coating in clinical applications. To overcome this weakness, a bioactive gradient coating with a special design composition of hydroxyapatite (HA), ZrO2, Ti, bioglass was developed. This 120 microm coating with an upper layer of 30-50 microm porous HA produced by computer controlled plasma spraying which maintained energy level of the plasma which ensure proper melting of powder. The crystal size of the coating was 18.6-26.2 nm. Transformation of t-ZrO2 to m-ZrO2 reduced the thermal stress that weakened the coating and lowered down interfacial strength of the coating and metal substrate. Thermal stress of sprayed coating was 16.4 MPa which was much smaller than the sample without thermal treatment of 67.1 MPa. Interfacial strength between the coating and metal substrate was 53 MPa which is much higher than conventional Hydroxyapatite coating. Based on XRD analysis crystallinity of HA approached 98%. Therefore, high temperature treatment improved long term stability of the coating through improved crystallinity of hydroxyapatite and reduced other impure calcium phosphate phase.

  15. Plasma-sprayed, self-lubricating coatings for use from cryogenic temperatures to 870 deg C (1600 deg F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    A plasma-sprayed coating is described with good lubricating properties over a wide temperature range. The coating, designated NASA LUBE PS101, contains silver, nichrome, calcium fluoride, and an oxidation protective glass. Oscillating tests were conducted of self-aligning, plain cylindrical bearings, in which the bore was lined with 0.025 cm (0.010 in.) thick coatings of PS101; these were conducted at a radial load of 3.5 x 10 to the 7th power N/sq m (5000 psi) in nitrogen gas at -107 C (-160 F), in vacuum at room temperature, and in air from room temperature to 870 C (1600 F). Friction coefficients were less than 0.25 in all cases and wear rates were low. The coating is not brittle, and it has adequate oxidation resistance in air to at least 870 C.

  16. Plasma sprayed rutile titania-nanosilver antibacterial coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jinjin; Zhao, Chengjian; Zhou, Jingfang; Li, Chunxia; Shao, Yiran; Shi, Chao; Zhu, Yingchun

    2015-11-01

    Rutile titania (TiO2) coatings have superior mechanical properties and excellent stability that make them preferential candidates for various applications. In order to prevent infection arising from bacteria, significant efforts have been focused on antibacterial TiO2 coatings. In the study, titania-nanosilver (TiO2/Ag) coatings with five different kinds of weight percentages of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by plasma spray. The feedstock powders, which had a composition of rutile TiO2 powders containing 1-10,000 ppm AgNPs, were double sintered and deposited on stainless steel substrates with optimized spraying parameters. X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to analysize the phase composition and surface morphology of TiO2/Ag powders and coatings. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were employed to examine the antibacterial activity of the as-prepared coatings by bacterial counting method. The results showed that silver existed homogeneously in the TiO2/Ag coatings and no crystalline changed happened in the TiO2 structure. The reduction ratios on the TiO2/Ag coatings with 10 ppm AgNPs were as high as 94.8% and 95.6% for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively, and the TiO2/Ag coatings with 100-1000 ppm AgNPs exhibited 100% bactericidal activity against E. coli and S. aureus, which indicated the TiO2/Ag coatings with more than 10 ppm AgNPs had strong antibacterial activity. Moreover, the main factors influencing the antibacterial properties of TiO2/Ag coatings were discussed with grain size and the content of silver as well as the microstructure of the coatings.

  17. Wear and microstructural integrity of ceramic plasma sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Lynn C.

    1999-10-01

    In this work a series of ceramic plasma sprayed (PS) coatings, both alumina- and chromia-based, were sprayed according to a matrix of deposition parameters in order to produce a broad range of microstructures. To investigate the effect of splat size on the coating response, a series of mono-crystalline a -alumina powders with very narrow particle size ranges, nominally 5, 10 and 18 microns in diameter, was sprayed. The coatings were extensively characterized for a variety of microstructural features, including porosity, the angular distribution and density of microcracks as well as the lamellar, or splat, dimensions, using techniques of metallurgical analysis and electron microscopy. The coatings were then evaluated using a series of micromechanical techniques, including indentation, controlled scratch testing, abrasion and dry particle erosion, to investigate their response to different contact situations. It was found that the microstructural features with the most influence on the behaviour of ceramic PS coatings during contact, or wear, by hard particles include, in order of importance: (1) macro-porosity, (2) horizontal crack density, (3) degree of flattening of the splats and (4) volume of unmelted particles, which are all linked to the level and strength of interlamellar bonding in the coating. The major effect of the inter-lamellar bonding in ceramic PS coatings was seen in the wear mechanism transitions. As the level of inter-splat bonding in the coating decreases, the contact load at which the transition from plastic deformation to splat fracture and debonding occurs does as well. However, the load at which catastrophic brittle fracture and spalling occur is increased. All of the micromechanical and wear methods evaluated in the present work were sensitive to differences in the coating microstructures to varying degrees. The low load abrasion results showed the most sensitivity to the microstructural differences of the coatings, followed by controlled

  18. The ultrastructure of the plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite-bone interface predisposing to bone bonding.

    PubMed

    Porter, A E; Hobbs, L W; Rosen, V Benezra; Spector, M

    2002-02-01

    The deposition of biological apatite and subsequent formation of bone on hydroxyapatite implants depends on the partial dissolution of the implant surface and the reprecipitation of carbonated apatite from the biological milieu. Previous investigations in vitro have shown that the degree of dissolution and reprecipitation decreases as the coating crystallinity increases. These findings prompted the current study of the effects of coating crystallinity on the mechanism of bone bonding. The process of mineralization of bone associated with a hydroxyapatite coating was compared to the normal process of ossification. Plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (PSHA) coated titanium alloy (6% Al-4% V) rods as received and annealed for 0.7 h at 600 degrees C in air to increase the coating crystallinity were implanted in the proximal and distal femora and proximal tibiae of adult mongrel dogs for 3 h, 3 and 10 days. Bony sites containing the implant were prepared for ultramicrotomy and transmission electron microscopy using an anhydrous embedding procedure: fixation in ethylene glycol and embedment in Spurr's resin. The results demonstrated the precipitation of biological apatite crystallites on non-annealed PSHA coatings in vivo within 3 h of implantation. After 3 and 10 days there were differences in the ultrastructure of the mineral phase on the surfaces of non-annealed and annealed surfaces. Observations showed that there was little difference in the mechanism of mineralization of bone associated with HA-coated prostheses and the normal process of ossification. PMID:11771693

  19. Development and the Implementation of High-Temperature Reliable Heaters in Plasma Spray Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudenziati, Maria

    2008-06-01

    Many problems have been encountered during development of reliable high-temperature heaters by means of atmospheric plasma spray and procedures commonly adopted in thermal spray technology, especially due to poor steel substrate corrosion resistance, notably affected by grit-blasting operations, but also deriving from contamination of insulating layers, dielectric arcs, and failures due to hot spots in the heating elements. While seeking the origin of these problems, a close scrutiny of every single step of the preparation process and analyses of the coatings were carried out using laser confocal scanning microscopy, optical and electronic microscopy, fluorescence analysis, X-ray diffraction, and ancillary techniques. The electrical properties of both alumina layers and metal strips prepared with Ni, NiCr, NiAl commercial powders for the heating elements were studied and cross-related to the failures in the heaters. The article reports the main results of these investigations, delineates the innovations introduced to overcome or circumvent the problems, and underlines the distinct characteristics of new heaters, whose reliability has been proven up to now with temperatures of up to 600 °C in air.

  20. Plasma sprayed manganese-cobalt spinel coatings: Process sensitivity on phase, electrical and protective performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Su Jung; Pala, Zdenek; Sampath, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    Manganese cobalt spinel (Mn1.5Co1.5O4, MCO) coatings are prepared by the air plasma spray (APS) process to examine their efficacy in serving as protective coatings from Cr-poisoning of the cathode side in intermediate temperature-solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). These complex oxides are susceptible to process induced stoichiometric and phase changes which affect their functional performance. To critically examine these effects, MCO coatings are produced with deliberate modifications to the spray process parameters to explore relationship among process conditions, microstructure and functional properties. The resultant interplay among particle thermal and kinetic energies are captured through process maps, which serve to characterize the parametric effects on properties. The results show significant changes to the chemistry and phase composition of the deposited material resulting from preferential evaporation of oxygen. Post deposition annealing recovers oxygen in the coatings and allows partial recovery of the spinel phase, which is confirmed through thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and magnetic hysteresis measurements. In addition, coatings with high density after sintering show excellent electrical conductivity of 40 S cm-1 at 800 °C while simultaneously providing requisite protection characteristics against Cr-poisoning. This study provides a framework for optimal evaluation of MCO coatings in intermediate temperature SOFCs.

  1. Process maps for plasma spray: Part 1: Plasma-particle interactions

    SciTech Connect

    GILMORE,DELWYN L.; NEISER JR.,RICHARD A.; WAN,YUEPENG; SAMPATH,SANJAY

    2000-01-26

    This is the first paper of a two part series based on an integrated study carried out at Sandia National Laboratories and the State University of New York at Stony Brook. The aim of the study is to develop a more fundamental understanding of plasma-particle interactions, droplet-substrate interactions, deposit formation dynamics and microstructural development as well as final deposit properties. The purpose is to create models that can be used to link processing to performance. Process maps have been developed for air plasma spray of molybdenum. Experimental work was done to investigate the importance of such spray parameters as gun current, auxiliary gas flow, and powder carrier gas flow. In-flight particle diameters, temperatures, and velocities were measured in various areas of the spray plume. Samples were produced for analysis of microstructures and properties. An empirical model was developed, relating the input parameters to the in-flight particle characteristics. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations of the plasma gas flow field and in-flight particles under different operating conditions were also performed. In addition to the parameters which were experimentally investigated, the effect of particle injection velocity was also considered. The simulation results were found to be in good general agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Sintering and Creep Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Zirconia and Hafnia Based Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The sintering and creep of plasma-sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coatings under high temperature conditions are complex phenomena. Changes in thermomechanical and thermophysical properties and in the stress response of these coating systems as a result of the sintering and creep processes are detrimental to coating thermal fatigue resistance and performance. In this paper, the sintering characteristics of ZrO2-8wt%y2O3, ZrO2-25wt%CeO2-2.5wt%Y2O3, ZrO2-6w%NiO- 9wt%Y2O3, ZrO2-6wt%Sc2O3-2wt%y2O3 and HfO2-27wt%y2O3 coating materials were investigated using dilatometry. It was found that the HfO2-Y2O3 and baseline ZrO2-Y2O3 exhibited the best sintering resistance, while the NiO-doped ZrO2-Y2O3 showed the highest shrinkage strain rates during the tests. Higher shrinkage strain rates of the coating materials were also observed when the specimens were tested in Ar+5%H2 as compared to in air. This phenomenon was attributed to an enhanced metal cation interstitial diffusion mechanism under the reducing conditions. It is proposed that increased chemical stability of coating materials will improve the material sintering resistance.

  3. Effect of Sintering on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of sintering on mechanical and physical properties of free-standing plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined by annealing them at 1316 C in air. Mechanical and physical properties of the TBCs, including strength, modes I and II fracture toughness, elastic modulus, Poisson s response, density, microhardness, fractography, and phase stability, were determined at ambient temperature as a function of annealing time ranging from 0 to 500 h. All mechanical and physical properties, except for the amount of monoclinic phase, increased significantly in 5 to 100 h and then reached a plateau above 100 h. Annealing resulted in healing of microcracks and pores and in grain growth, accompanying densification of the TBC s body due to the sintering effect. However, an inevitable adverse effect also occurred such that the desired lower thermal conductivity and good expansivity, which makes the TBCs unique in thermal barrier applications, were degraded upon annealing. A model was proposed to assess and quantify all the property variables in response to annealing in a normalized scheme. Directionality of as-sprayed TBCs appeared to have an insignificant effect on their properties, as determined via fracture toughness, microhardness, and elastic modulus measurements.

  4. Oxidation Control of Atmospheric Plasma Sprayed FeAl Intermetallic Coatings Using Dry-Ice Blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bo; Dong, Shujuan; Coddet, Pierre; Hansz, Bernard; Grosdidier, Thierry; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2013-03-01

    The performance of atmospheric plasma sprayed FeAl coatings has been remarkably limited because of oxidation and phase transformation during the high-temperature process of preparation. In the present work, FeAl intermetallic coatings were prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying combined with dry-ice blasting. The microstructure, oxidation, porosity, and surface roughness of FeAl intermetallic coatings were investigated. The results show that a denser FeAl coating with a lower content of oxide and lower degree of phase transformation can be achieved because of the cryogenic, the cleaning, and the mechanical effects of dry-ice blasting. The surface roughness value decreased, and the adhesive strength of FeAl coating increased after the application of dry-ice blasting during the atmospheric plasma spraying process. Moreover, the microhardness of the FeAl coating increased by 72%, due to the lower porosity and higher dislocation density.

  5. Plasma-sprayed coating of hydroxyapatite on metal implants--a review.

    PubMed

    Talib, R J; Toff, M R M

    2004-05-01

    Metal implants such as titanium, stainless steel and Co-Cr-Mo are used for load bearing purposes such as hip joint prostheses, fixing plates and dental root implants. For practical application, plasma-sprayed coatings of hydroxyapatite (HA) on metal implants are applied to promote early formation of strong bonds between metal implant and living bone. Plasma spray coating involves heating of HA material to a semi-molten or molten state and then propels its to a metal substrate. The plasma flame temperature is in the range of 6,000 degrees C to 16,000 degrees C but the surface temperature of the substrate rarely exceeds 150 degrees C. The HA materials are feed into the spray gun in the form of powders. Furthermore, this paper will discuss the processes of plasma-sprayed coating of HA on various types of metal implants.

  6. A sputtered zirconia primer for improved thermal shock resistance of plasma-sprayed ceramic turbine seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.; Sovey, J.; Allen, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the application of sputtered Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) primer in plasma-sprayed YSZ ceramic-coated turbine blades results in an improvement, by a factor of 5-6, in the thermal shock life of specimens with a sprayed, porous, Ni-Cr-Al-Y intermediate layer. Species with and without the primer were found to be able to survive 1000 cycles when the intermediate layer was used, but reduced laminar cracking was observed in the specimen with the primer. It is suggested that the sputtered YZS primer-induced properties are due to (1) more effective wetting and adherence of the plasma-sprayed YZS particles to the primer, and (2) the primer's retardation of impinging, molten plasma sprayed particles solidification rates, which result in a less detrimental residual stress distribution.

  7. In Situ Monitoring of Plasma Spraying Process by Laser Acoustic Emission Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kaita; Enoki, Manabu; Watanabe, Makoto; Kuroda, Seiji

    Estimation of microfractures in ceramic coating layer during plasma spraying process is critical for its reliability. Acoustic emission (AE) method enables in-process monitoring of such microfractures. Laser AE method was adopted to realize the monitoring of plasma spraying process by non-contact detection of AE with laser interferometer. Also a high performance method for noise reduction of laser AE waveform was investigated. In this new method, laser AE signal was continuously sampled and transformed into spectrogram by time-frequency analysis to cut out noise component effectively. After this noise reduction process, inverse transform was applied to obtain a clear AE signals in time domain. Whole these processes can be done in real time. The effectiveness of this method was confirmed by a detection test of simulated AE and successfully applied to the monitoring of plasma spraying process. Two types of AE events with different duration time range were found and the sources of these AE were presumed.

  8. Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Coatings Synthesized by the Liquid Precursor Plasma Spraying Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yanfeng; Song, Lei; Liu, Xiaoguang; Huang, Yi; Huang, Tao; Chen, Jiyong; Wu, Yao; Wu, Fang

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the liquid precursor plasma spraying process was used to manufacture P2O5-Na2O-CaO-SiO2 bioactive glass-ceramic coatings (BGCCs), where sol and suspension were used as feedstocks for plasma spraying. The effect of precursor and spray parameters on the formation and crystallinity of BGCCs was systematically studied. The results indicated that coatings with higher crystallinity were obtained using the sol precursor, while nanostructured coatings predominantly consisting of amorphous phase were synthesized using the suspension precursor. For coatings manufactured from suspension, the fraction of the amorphous phase increased with the increase in plasma power and the decrease in liquid precursor feed rate. The coatings synthesized from the suspension plasma spray process also showed a good in vitro bioactivity, as suggested by the fast apatite formation when soaking into SBF.

  9. Microstructures and bond strengths of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on porous titanium substrates.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ik-Hyun; Nomura, N; Chiba, A; Murayama, Y; Masahashi, N; Lee, Byong-Taek; Hanada, S

    2005-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating was carried out by plasma spraying on bulk Ti substrates and porous Ti substrates having a Young's modulus similar to that of human bone. The microstructures and bond strengths of HA coatings were investigated in this study. The HA coatings with thickness of 200-250 microm were free from cracks at interfaces between the coating and Ti substrates. XRD analysis revealed that the HA powder used for plasma spraying had a highly crystallized apatite structure, while the HA coating contained several phases other than HA. The bond strength between the HA coating and the Ti substrates evaluated by standard bonding test (ASTM C633-01) were strongly affected by the failure behavior of the HA coating. A mechanism to explain the failure is discussed in terms of surface roughness of the plasma-sprayed HA coatings on the bulk and porous Ti substrates.

  10. Morphological Evaluation of Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings using Cavitation Erosion Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uematsu, Susumu; Tani, Kazumi; Sugasawa, Shinobu; Kawanami, Yasutaka; Namba, Yoshio; Takabatake, Tsuyoshi; Yoshioka, Masaru; Ishihara, Yasuaki

    The microstructure of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings is characterized by the existence of splats along with other morphological features such as interlamellar and globular pores, intrasplat microcracks and splat boundaries. These various process-dependant micro- defects extremely influence physical and mechanical properties such as thermal conductivity and elastic modulus and then influence coating behavior. In this approach, the process involved in the cavitation erosion of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings have been studied using the ultrasonic vibratory technique. The weight loss occurring during fifteen minute intervals of exposure to cavitational erosion was determined, the surface of specimens and the wear debris were examined by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results suggest that the improvement in coating performance could be achieved by controlling the effective contact between lamellae of which the coating is made up using the plasma spray conditions, such as sufficient preheat, short standoff distance and slow gun traversing movement.

  11. Characterisation of the TiO2 coatings deposited by plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, M. L.; Benea, L. P.

    2016-02-01

    Plasma spraying of materials such as ceramics and non-metals, which have high melting points, has become a well-established commercial process. Such coatings are increasingly used in aerospace, automobile, textile, medical, printing and electrical industries to impart proprieties such as corrosion resistance, thermal resistance, wear resistance, etc. One of the most important characteristics of thermal barrier coatings is the ability to undergo fast temperature changes without failing, the so called thermal shock resistance. The formation of residual stresses in plasma sprayed ceramic and metallic coatings is a very complex process. Several factors, such as substrate material, substrate thickness, physical properties of both the substrate and the coating material, deposition rate, relative velocity of the plasma torch, etc. determine the final residual stress state of the coating at room temperature. Our objective is to characterize the titanium oxide and aluminium oxide coatings deposited by plasma spraying in structural terms, the resistance to thermal shock and residual stresses.

  12. Direct morphological comparison of vacuum plasma sprayed and detonation gun sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings for orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Gledhill, H C; Turner, I G; Doyle, C

    1999-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates were produced using two thermal spray techniques vacuum plasma spraying and detonation gun spraying. X-ray diffraction was used to compare crystallinity and residual stresses in the coatings. Porosity was measured using optical microscopy in conjunction with an image analysis system. Scanning electron microscopy and surface roughness measurements were used to characterise the surface morphologies of the coatings. The vacuum plasma sprayed coatings were found to have a lower residual stress, a higher crystallinity and a higher level of porosity than the detonation gun coatings. It is concluded that consideration needs to be given to the significance of such variations within the clinical context.

  13. The Tribological Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Al-Si Composite Coatings Reinforced with Nanodiamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Mingdong; Zhang, Cheng; Lahiri, Debrupa; Agarwal, Arvind

    2012-06-01

    Al-Si composite coatings reinforced with 0 vol.%, 0.5 vol.%, and 2 vol.% nanodiamond were synthesized by plasma spraying. The effect of the addition of nanodiamond on the microstructure, hardness, and tribological performance of the composite coatings is investigated. The addition of 2 vol.% nanodiamond results in 45% improvement in the wear resistance of Al-Si coating. Al-Si coating with 0.5 vol.% nanodiamond exhibited lower coefficient of friction (0.45) with a 12% improvement in the wear resistance. Plasma-sprayed AlSi coatings with nanodiamond have excellent potential as wear-resistant coatings in automotive applications.

  14. Microstructures of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite-coated Ti-6Al-4V dental implants.

    PubMed

    Tufekci, E; Brantley, W A; Mitchell, J C; McGlumphy, E A

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the microstructure of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings and the elemental composition near the coating-substrate interface for two commercial implants, using the scanning electron microscope. Both coating surfaces and cross-sectioned specimens were examined. The results indicated that while the surface microstructures of both implants were consistent with the plasma-spraying process, the scale of the constituents was much finer for one product. In cross-section, both coatings exhibited minimal porosity and intimate contact with the titanium alloy substrate. It was found that limited interdiffusion of titanium and calcium occurred near the interface.

  15. Vacuum Plasma Spray of CuCrNb Alloy for Advanced Liquid - Fuel Combustion Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The copper-8 atomic percent chromium-4 atomic percent niobium (CuCrNb) alloy was developed by Glenn Research Center (formally Lewis Research Center) as an improved alloy for combustion chamber liners. In comparison to NARloy-Z, the baseline (as in Space Shuttle Main Engine) alloy for such liners, CuCrNb demonstrates mechanical and thermophysical properties equivalent to NARloy-Z, but at temperatures 100 C to 150 C (180 F to 270 F) higher. Anticipated materials related benefits include decreasing the thrust cell liner weight 5% to 20%, increasing the service life at least two fold over current combustion chamber design, and increasing the safety margins available to designers. By adding an oxidation and thermal barrier coating to the liner, the combustion chamber can operate at even higher temperatures. For all these benefits, however, this alloy cannot be formed using conventional casting and forging methods because of the levels of chromium and niobium, which exceed their solubility limit in copper. Until recently, the only forming process that maintains the required microstructure of CrNb intermetallics is powder metallurgy formation of a billet from powder stock, followed by extrusion. This severely limits its usefulness in structural applications, particularly the complex shapes required for combustion chamber liners. Vacuum plasma spray (VPS) has been demonstrated as a method to form structural articles including small combustion chambers from the CuCrNb alloy. In addition, an oxidation and thermal barrier layer can be formed integrally on the hot wall of the liner that improve performance and extend service life. This paper discusses the metallurgy and thermomechanical properties of VPS formed CuCrNb versus the baseline powder metallurgy process, and the manufacturing of small combustion chamber liners at Marshall Space Flight Center using the VPS process. The benefits to advanced propulsion initiatives of using VPS to fabricate combustion chamber liners

  16. Effects of arc current on the life in burner rig thermal cycling of plasma sprayed ZrOsub2-Ysub2Osub3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mcdonald, G.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of thermal cycle life data for four sets of eight thermal barrier coated specimens representing arc currents (plasma gun power) of 525, 600, 800, or 950 amps is presented. The ZrO2-8Y2O3/NiCrAlY plasma spray coated Rene 41 rods were thermal cycled to 1040 C in a Mach 0.3-Jet A/air burner flame. The experimental results indicate the existance of a minimum or threshold power level which coating life expectancy is less than 500 cycles. Above the threshold power level, coating life expectancy more than doubles and increases with arc current.

  17. The effect of annealing on the creep of plasma sprayed ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mcdonald, G.; Mullen, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The creep of plasma sprayed ZrO2-8Y2O3 was measured at temperatues from 98 to 1250 C (180 to 220 F), and compared to creep of identical samples after annealing at temperatures from 98 to 1316 C (1800 to 2400 F). Loads and temperatures which produced significant creep of as sprayed ceramics produced no creep after annealing.

  18. Vacuum Plasma Spray of Cu-8Cr-4Nb for Advanced Liquid-Fuel Combustion Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, F.; Elam, S.; Ellis, D.; Miller, H.; McKechnie, T.; Hickman, R.

    2001-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spray (VPS) formed Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy, with low oxygen, exhibits higher strength at room and elevated temperature than material formed by extrusion. The VPS formed material exhibits slightly lower ductility than the extruded material. VPS forming of Cu-8Cr-4Nb can be used to produce near net structures with mechanical properties comparable to current extruded material.

  19. A sputtered zirconia primer for improved thermal shock resistance of plasma sprayed ceramic turbine seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.; Sovey, J.; Allen, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    The development of plasma-sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramic turbine blade tip seal components is discussed. The YSZ layers are quite thick (0.040 to 0.090 in.). The service potential of seal components with such thick ceramic layers is cyclic thermal shock limited. The most usual failure mode is ceramic layer delamination at or very near the interface between the plasma sprayed YSZ layer and the NiCrAlY bondcoat. Deposition of a thin RF sputtered YSZ primer to the bondcoat prior to deposition of the thick plasma sprayed YSZ layer was found to reduce laminar cracking in cyclic thermal shock testing. The cyclic thermal shock life of one ceramic seal design was increased by a factor of 5 to 6 when the sputtered YSZ primer was incorporated. A model based on thermal response of plasma sprayed YSZ particles impinging on the bondcoat surface with and without the sputtered YSZ primer provides a basis for understanding the function of the primer.

  20. T55-L-712 turbine engine compressor housing refurbishment-plasma spray project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leissler, George W.; Yuhas, John S.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of reclaiming T55-L-712 turbine engine compressor housings with an 88 wt percent aluminum to 12 wt percent silicon alloy applied by a plasma spray process. Tensile strength testing was conducted on as-sprayed and thermally cycled test specimens which were plasma sprayed with 0.020 to 0.100 in. coating thicknesses. Satisfactory tensile strength values were observed in the as-sprayed tensile specimens. There was essentially no decrease in tensile strength after thermally cycling the tensile specimens. Furthermore, compressor housings were plasma sprayed and thermally cycled in a 150-hr engine test and a 200-hr actual flight test during which the turbine engine was operated at a variety of loads, speeds and torques. The plasma sprayed coating system showed no evidence of degradation or delamination from the compressor housings. As a result of these tests, a procedure was designed and developed for the application of an aluminum-silicon alloy in order to reclaim T55-L-712 turbine engine compressor housings.

  1. Reactive Atmospheric Plasma Spraying of AlN Coatings: Influence of Aluminum Feedstock Particle Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2011-03-01

    Feedstock powder characteristics (size distribution, morphology, shape, specific mass, and injection rate) are considered to be one of the key factors in controlling plasma-sprayed coatings microstructure and properties. The influence of feedstock powder characteristics to control the reaction and coatings microstructure in reactive plasma spraying process (RPS) is still unclear. This study, investigated the influence of feedstock particle size in RPS of aluminum nitride (AlN) coatings, through plasma nitriding of aluminum (Al) feedstock powders. It was possible to fabricate AlN-based coatings through plasma nitriding of all kinds of Al powders in atmospheric plasma spray (APS) process. The nitriding ratio was improved with decreasing the particle size of feedstock powder, due to improving the nitriding reaction during flight. However, decreasing the particle size of feedstock powder suppressed the coatings thickness. Due to the loss of the powder during the injection, the excessive vaporization of fine Al particles and the completing nitriding reaction of some fine Al particles during flight. The feedstock particle size directly affects on the nitriding, melting, flowability, and the vaporization behaviors of Al powders during spraying. It concluded that using smaller particle size powders is useful for improving the nitriding ratio and not suitable for fabrication thick AlN coatings in reactive plasma spray process. To fabricate thick AlN coatings through RPS, enhancing the nitriding reaction of Al powders with large particle size during spraying is required.

  2. Fatigue testing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C. F.

    1990-01-01

    A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating for diesel engines were fatigue tested. Candidate thermal barrier coating materials were fatigue screened and a data base was generated for the selected candidate material. Specimen configurations are given for the bend fatigue tests, along with test setup, specimen preparation, test matrix and procedure, and data analysis.

  3. Mechanical, In Vitro Antimicrobial and Biological Properties of Plasma Sprayed Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Coating

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Mangal; Fielding, Gary A.; Beyenal, Haluk; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2012-01-01

    Implant related infection is one of the key concerns in total joint hip arthroplasties. In order to reduce bacterial adhesion, silver (Ag) / silver oxide (Ag2O) doping was used in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on titanium substrate. HA powder was doped with 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 wt% Ag, heat treated at 800 °C and used for plasma spray coating using a 30 kW plasma spray system, equipped with supersonic nozzle. Application of supersonic plasma nozzle significantly reduced phase decomposition and amorphous phase formation in the HA coatings as evident by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis. Adhesive bond strength of more than 15 MPa ensured the mechanical integrity of the coatings. Resistance against bacterial adhesion of the coatings was determined by challenging them against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (PAO1). Live/Dead staining of the adherent bacteria on the coating surfaces indicated a significant reduction in bacterial adhesion due to the presence of Ag. In vitro cell-material interactions and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) protein expressions were evaluated by culturing human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). Present results suggest that the plasma sprayed HA coatings doped with an optimum amount of Ag can have excellent antimicrobial property without altering mechanical property of the Ag doped HA coatings. PMID:22313742

  4. Mechanical, in vitro antimicrobial, and biological properties of plasma-sprayed silver-doped hydroxyapatite coating.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mangal; Fielding, Gary A; Beyenal, Haluk; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2012-03-01

    Implant-related infection is one of the key concerns in total joint hip arthroplasties. To reduce bacterial adhesion, we used silver (Ag)/silver oxide (Ag(2)O) doping in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on titanium substrate. HA powder was doped with 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 wt % Ag, heat-treated at 800 °C and used for plasma spray coating using a 30 kW plasma spray system, equipped with supersonic nozzle. Application of supersonic plasma nozzle significantly reduced phase decomposition and amorphous phase formation in the HA coatings as evident by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis. Adhesive bond strength of more than 15 MPa ensured the mechanical integrity of the coatings. Resistance against bacterial adhesion of the coatings was determined by challenging them against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1). Live/dead staining of the adherent bacteria on the coating surfaces indicated a significant reduction in bacterial adhesion due to the presence of Ag. In vitro cell-material interactions and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) protein expressions were evaluated by culturing human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). Our results suggest that the plasma-sprayed HA coatings doped with an optimum amount of Ag can have excellent antimicrobial property without altering mechanical property of the Ag-doped HA coatings.

  5. Analysis of processes in DC arc plasma torches for spraying that use air as plasma forming gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V.; Ivanov, D.; Toropchin, A.

    2014-11-01

    Developed in Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University technological processes of air-plasma spraying of wear-resistant, regenerating, hardening and decorative coatings used in number of industrial areas are described. The article contains examples of applications of air plasma spraying of coatings as well as results of mathematical modelling of processes in air plasma torches for spraying.

  6. Impact of new technology weapons on SAC (Strategic Air Command) conventional air operations. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodenheimer, C.E.

    1983-06-01

    Chapter I introduces the issue of conventional-response capability. The point stressed first is that the strategic bomber's primary mission is in support of the single integrated operations plan (SIOP) as a nuclear weapons delivery vehicle. However, as cited by Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, we must have a rapid deployment conventional capability to areas where there are small if any U.S. forces present. The SAC strategic projection force (SPF) is available but with gravity weapons of World War II vintage. New technology can provide answers to the problem by providing highly accurate long-range conventional standoff weapons. Chapter II gives a basic historical perspective on the use of the strategic bomber in past wars. It discusses the development of strategy, weapons, and targets in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Chapter III presents a very brief look at current US policy, strategy, and guidance. Chapter IV covers the aircraft attrition issue in today's highly lethal defensive environment. Chapter V describes the development of air-to-ground weapons. Chapter VI addresses the potential for the future in the shifting balance of Soviet and US technology. The final chapter makes the point that a decision must be made on weapons-acquisition programs and bomber force structure. New technology-standoff conventional weapons could make AAA and SAM defenses a modern Maginot Line.

  7. Improvement in mechanical properties of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings by Al2O3 reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Manoj; Nath, S K; Prakash, Satya

    2013-07-01

    Thermal sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings suffer from poor mechanical properties like tensile strength, wear resistance, hardness, toughness and fatigue. The mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite coatings can be enhanced via incorporation of secondary bioinert reinforcement material. In this study an attempt has been made to improve the mechanical properties of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite by reinforcing it with 10, 20 and 30% Al2O3. The plasma sprayed coatings have been characterized using FE-SEM/EDAX, XRD, AFM and FTIR spectroscopy. Corrosion studies have been done in simulated body fluid and abrasive wear studies have been performed on flat specimens on a disk wear tester. Microhardness, tensile strength and wear resistance are found to be increased with increasing Al2O3 content. All types of coatings show superior resistance against corrosion in simulated body fluid.

  8. Enhanced ingrowth of porous-coated CoCr implants plasma-sprayed with tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Chae, J C; Collier, J P; Mayor, M B; Surprenant, V A; Dauphinais, L A

    1992-01-01

    Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) is an osteo-conductive bioceramic which, when applied to a porous-coated prosthesis, may enhance osseous ingrowth and mechanical stability. TCP plasma-sprayed and unsprayed porous-coated tibial intramedullary rods were bilaterally implanted in seven adult rabbits. All rabbits were killed at 12 weeks. Pull-out tests were performed on 4 rabbits while all were evaluated histologically for osseous response and adverse tissue reaction. TCP-sprayed implants showed significantly greater osseous ingrowth in comparison to unsprayed implants. Neither implant type exhibited adverse tissue reactions. Average pull-out strengths were 69 lb for treated rods and 72 lb for controls (p greater than 0.05); quality of fit for all pull-out specimens except one was deemed poor. We conclude that plasma-sprayed TCP enhances osseous ingrowth into porous-coated devices. However, our data further suggest that enhanced ingrowth may not always lead to enhanced fixation.

  9. Fabrication of Nanosized Lanthanum Zirconate Powder and Deposition of Thermal Barrier Coating by Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Jagdeesh, N.; Pathak, L. C.

    2016-07-01

    The present manuscript discusses our findings on fabrication of nanosized lanthanum zirconate powder for thermal barrier coating application and its coating by plasma spray on nickel-based superalloy substrate. Single-phase La2Zr2O7 coating of thickness of the order of 45 µm on the Ni-Cr-Al bond coat coated Ni-based superalloy substrate was deposited by plasma spray process. The layers at the interface did not show spallation and inter diffusion was very less. The microstructure, interface, porosity, and mechanical properties of different layers are investigated. The lanthanum zirconate hardness and modulus were 10.5 and 277 GPa, respectively. The load depth curve for lanthanum zirconate showed good elastic recovery around 74%.

  10. Effects of humidity on the flow characteristics of a composite plasma spray powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    The effects of environmental humidity on the flow characteristics of a multicomponent (composite) plasma spray powder have been investigated. Angular and spherical BaF2-CaF2 powder was fabricated by comminution and by atomization, respectively. The fluorides were blended with nichrome, chromia, and silver powders to produce a composite plasma spray feedstock. The tap density, apparent density, and angle of repose were measured at 50% relative humidity (RH). The flow of the powder was studied from 2 to 100% RH. The results suggest that the feedstock flow is only slightly degraded with increasing humidity below 66% RH and is more affected above 66% RH. There was no flow above 90% RH except with narrower particle size distributions of the angular fluorides, which allowed flow up to 95% RH. These results offer guidance that enhances the commercial potential for this material system.

  11. The structure, properties and performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.

    1995-09-01

    Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasma-spray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H{sub 2} gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and transferred-arc cleaning to improve the bonding between the beryllium coatings and the underlying surface. Information will also be presented on thermal fatigue tests which were done on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10 sec cycle times with 60 sec cooldowns and an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant divertor heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m{sup 2}.

  12. Investigation of plasma-sprayed laminates for high-temperature melting operations

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, E.L.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1991-12-06

    Melting of reactive metals, such as zirconium (Zr), is normally accomplished either by vacuum-arc skull melting using consumable electrodes or by vaccum-induction melting, which is limited to small castings using water-cooled copper crucibles. An alternate process is being proposed to vacuum-induction melt large castings in a coated graphite crucible. The laminated coating would consist of plasma-sprayed layers of metal and ceramic that are designed to withstand temperatures approaching 2000{degrees}C while maintaining enough integrity to prevent contamination of the melt with carbon (C). This paper describes the selection process, experimental results, and feasibility of using laminated coatings that are plasma sprayed on graphite crucibles for melting Zr.

  13. Development of improved-durability plasma sprayed ceramic coatings for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, I. E.; Ruckle, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    As part of a NASA program to reduce fuel consumption of current commercial aircraft engines, methods were investigated for improving the durability of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings for use on vane platforms in the JT9D turbofan engine. Increased durability concepts under evaluation include use of improved strain tolerant microstructures and control of the substrate temperature during coating application. Initial burner rig tests conducted at temperatures of 1010 C (1850 F) indicate that improvements in cyclic life greater than 20:1 over previous ceramic coating systems were achieved. Three plasma sprayed coating systems applied to first stage vane platforms in the high pressure turbine were subjected to a 100-cycle JT9D engine endurance test with only minor damage occurring to the coatings.

  14. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Plasma Sprayed Ni-Based Metallic Glass Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Akira; Kuroda, Toshio; Kimura, Hisamichi; Inoue, Akihisa

    2010-10-01

    Various developmental research works on the metallic glass have been conducted in order to broaden its application field. Thermal spraying method is one of the potential techniques to enhance the excellent properties such as high toughness and corrosion resistance of the metallic glass material. The gas tunnel type plasma spraying is useful to obtain high quality ceramic coatings such as Al2O3 and ZrO2 coatings. In this study, the Ni-based metallic glass coatings were produced by the gas tunnel type plasma spraying under various experimental conditions, and their microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. At the plasma current of 200-300 A, the Ni-based metallic glass coatings of more than 200 μm in thickness were formed densely with Vickers hardness of about Hv = 600.

  15. Plasma Spraying of Copper by Hybrid Water-Gas DC Arc Plasma Torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavka, T.; Matějíček, J.; Ctibor, P.; Mašláni, A.; Hrabovský, M.

    2011-06-01

    Water-stabilized DC arc plasma torches offer a good alternative to common plasma sources used for plasma spraying applications. Unique properties of the generated plasma are determined by a specific plasma torch construction. This article is focused on a study of the plasma spraying process performed by a hybrid torch WSP500®-H, which combines two principles of arc stabilization—water vortex and gas flow. Spraying tests with copper powder have been carried out in a wide range of plasma torch parameters. First, analyses of particle in-flight behavior for various spraying conditions were done. After, particles were collected in liquid nitrogen, which enabled analyses of the particle in-flight oxidation. A series of spraying tests were carried out and coatings were analyzed for their microstructure, porosity, oxide content, mechanical, and thermal properties.

  16. Effect of laser melting on plasma-sprayed aluminum oxide coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yao; Samant, Anoop; Balani, Kantesh; Dahotre, Narendra B.; Agarwal, Arvind

    2009-03-01

    The effect of laser melting on the microstructure and mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed aluminum oxide composite coating reinforced with 4 wt% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is reported. Laser-melted layer consists of dense, coarse columnar microstructure which is significantly different from plasma-sprayed coating that consists of splats and porosity. CNTs retained their original cylindrical graphitic structure after undergoing laser irradiation. Three dimensional heat flow model has been developed to estimate temperature variation in the laser-melted composite layer. Laser-melted layers show an increase in the microhardness at the expanse of degradation of fracture toughness. Nanoindentation study indicates an increase in the elastic modulus and yield strength of the laser-melted layer which is attributed to dense microstructure with absence of weak-bonding splats and porosity.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Sprayed ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3 Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical behavior of free standing, plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings, including strength, fracture toughness, fatigue, constitutive relation, elastic modulus, and directionality, has been determined under various loading-specimen configurations. This report presents and describes a summary of mechanical properties of the plasma-sprayed coating material to provide them as a design database.

  18. The effect of annealing on the creep of plasma-sprayed ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mcdonald, G.; Mullen, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The creep of plasma sprayed ZrO2-8Y2O3 was measured at temperatures from 98 to 1250 C (180 to 220 F), and compared to creep of identical samples after annealing at temperatures from 98 to 1316 C (1800 to 2400 F). Loads and temperatures which produced significant creep of as sprayed ceramics produced no creep after annealing. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24799

  19. Monitoring Delamination of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings by Reflectance-Enhanced Luminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Bencic, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Highly scattering plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) present a challenge for optical diagnostic methods to monitor TBC delamination because scattering attenuates light transmitted through the TBC and usually degrades contrast between attached and delaminated regions of the TBC. This paper presents a new approach where reflectance-enhanced luminescence from a luminescent sublayer incorporated along the bottom of the TBC is used to identify regions of TBC delamination. Because of the higher survival rate of luminescence reflecting off the back surface of a delaminated TBC, the strong scattering exhibited by plasma-sprayed TBCs actually accentuates contrast between attached and delaminated regions by making it more likely that multiple reflections of luminescence off the back surface occur before exiting the top surface of the TBC. A freestanding coating containing sections designed to model an attached or delaminated TBC was prepared by depositing a luminescent Eu-doped or Er-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) luminescent layer below a plasma-sprayed undoped YSZ layer and utilizing a NiCr backing layer to represent an attached substrate. For specimens with a Eu-doped YSZ luminescent sublayer, luminescence intensity maps showed excellent contrast between unbacked and NiCr-backed sections even at a plasma-sprayed overlayer thickness of 300 m. Discernable contrast between unbacked and NiCr-backed sections was not observed for specimens with a Er-doped YSZ luminescent sublayer because luminescence from Er impurities in the undoped YSZ layer overwhelmed luminescence originating form the Er-doped YSZ sublayer.

  20. Microstructures and Dielectric Properties of PZT Coatings Prepared by Supersonic Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guolu; Gu, Linsong; Wang, Haidou; Xing, Zhiguo; Zhu, Lina

    2014-02-01

    This paper studied the microstructures and dielectric properties of PZT coatings prepared by supersonic plasma spraying. Samples of the PZT coatings were evaluated by various techniques. The phases and microstructures of the coatings were investigated by XRD, SEM, and TEM, respectively. The results showed that the coatings deposited on steel substrate had a dense microstructure, and there was no phase transformation during spraying. Additionally, the Curie temperature of the PZT coatings was about 370 °C by the investigation of dielectric constant.

  1. dc-plasma-sprayed electronic-tube device

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.

    1982-01-29

    An electronic tube and associated circuitry which is produced by dc plasma arc spraying techniques is described. The process is carried out in a single step automated process whereby both active and passive devices are produced at very low cost. The circuitry is extremely reliable and is capable of functioning in both high radiation and high temperature environments. The size of the electronic tubes produced are more than an order of magnitude smaller than conventional electronic tubes.

  2. Plasma Spray and Pack Cementation Process Optimization and Oxidation Behaviour of Novel Multilayered Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng

    The hot section components in gas turbines are subjected to a harsh environment with the temperature being increased continuously. The higher temperature has directly resulted in severe oxidation of these components. Monolithic coatings such as MCrAIY and aluminide have been traditionally used to protect the components from oxidation; however, increased operating temperature quickly deteriorates the coatings due to accelerated diffusion of aluminum in the coatings. To improve the oxidation resistance a group of multilayered coatings are developed in this study. The multilayered coatings consist of a Cr-Si co-deposited layer as the diffusion barrier, a plasma sprayed NiCrA1Y coating as the middle layer and an aluminized top layer. The Cr-Si and aluminized layers are fabricated using pack cementation processes and the NiCrA1Y coatings are produced using the Mettech Axial III(TM) System. All of the coating processes are optimized using the methodology of Design of Experiments (DOE) and the results are analyzed using statistical method. The optimal processes are adopted to fabricate the multilayered coatings for oxidation tests. The coatings are exposed in air at 1050°C and 1150°C for 1000 hr. The results indicate that a Cr layer and a silicon-rich barrier layer have formed on the interface between the Cr-Si coating and the NiCrA1Y coating. This barrier layer not only prevents aluminum and chromium from diffusing into the substrate, but also impedes the diffusion of other elements from the substrate into the coating. The results also reveal that, for optimal oxidation resistance at 1050°C, the top layer in a multilayered coating should have at least Al/Ni ratio of one; whereas the multilayered coating with the All Ni ratio of two in the top layer exhibits the best oxidation resistance at 1150°C. The DOE methodology provides an excellent means for process optimization and the selection of oxidation test matrix, and also offers a more thorough understanding of the

  3. The durability of adhesively bonded titanium: Performance of plasma-sprayed polymeric coating pretreatments

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, F.; Dillard, J.; Dillard, D.

    1996-12-31

    The role of a surface treatment of an adherend is to promote highly stable adhesive-adherend interactions; high stability is accomplished by making the chemistry of the adherend and adhesive compatible. The common surface preparations used to enhance durability include grit blasting, chromic acid or sodium hydroxide anodization, and other chemical treatments for titanium. As interest has grown in the development of environmentally benign surface treatments, other methods have been explored. In this study, plasma-sprayed polymeric materials have been evaluated as a surface coating pretreatment for adhesively bonding titanium alloy. Polyimide and polyether powders were plasm-sprayed onto grit-blasted titanium-6Al-4V. The alloy was adhesively bonded using a high performance polyimide adhesive. The coating was characterized using surface sensitive analytical measurements. The durability performance of the plasma-sprayed adherends was compared to the performance for chromic acid anodized titanium. Among the plasma-sprayed coatings, a LaRC-TPI polyimide-based coating exhibited performance comparable to that for chromic acid anodized specimens.

  4. Comparison of Physical-chemical and Mechanical Properties of Chlorapatite and Hydroxyapatite Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Demnati, Imane; Grossin, David; Marsan, Olivier; Bertrand, Ghislaine; Collonges, Gérard; Combes, Christèle; Parco, Maria; Braceras, Inigo; Alexis, Joel; Balcaen, Yannick; Rey, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Chlorapatite can be considered a potential biomaterial for orthopaedic applications. Its use as plasma-sprayed coating could be of interest considering its thermal properties and particularly its ability to melt without decomposition unlike hydroxyapatite. Chlorapatite (ClA) was synthesized by a high-temperature ion exchange reaction starting from commercial stoichiometric hydroxyapatites (HA). The ClA powder showed similar characteristics as the original industrial HA powder, and was obtained in the monoclinic form. The HA and ClA powders were plasma-sprayed using a low-energy plasma spraying system with identical processing parameters. The coatings were characterized by physical-chemical methods, i.e. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, including distribution mapping of the main phases detected such as amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), oxyapatite (OA), and HA or ClA. The unexpected formation of oxyapatite in ClA coatings was assigned to a side reaction with contaminating oxygenated species (O2, H2O). ClA coatings exhibited characteristics different from HA, showing a lower content of oxyapatite and amorphous phase. Although their adhesion strength was found to be lower than that of HA coatings, their application could be an interesting alternative, offering, in particular, a larger range of spraying conditions without formation of massive impurities. PMID:25893015

  5. Improved plasma sprayed MCrAlY coatings for aircraft gas turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennisi, F. J.; Gupta, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Eighteen plasma sprayed coating systems, nine based on the NiCoCrAlY chemistry and nine based on the CoCrAlY composition, were evaluated to identify coating systems which will provide equivalent or superior life to that shown by the electron beam physical vapor deposited NiCoCrAlY and CoCrAlY coatings respectively. NiCoCrAlY-type coatings were examined on a single crystal alloy and the CoCrAlY based coatings were optimized on the B1900 + Hf alloy. Cyclic burner rig oxidation and hot corrosion and tensile ductility tests were used to evaluate the various coating candidates. For the single crystal alloy, a low pressure chamber plasma sprayed NiCoCrAlY + Si coating exhibited a 2X oxidation life improvement at 1121 C (2050 F) over the vapor deposited NiCoCrAlY material while showing equivalent tensile ductility. A silicon modified low pressure chamber plasma sprayed CoCrAlY coating was found to be more durable than the baseline vapor deposited CoCrAlY coating on the B1900 + Hf alloy.

  6. In vitro bioactivity and phase stability of plasma-sprayed nanostructured 3Y-TZP coatings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guocheng; Liu, Xuanyong; Gao, Jianhua; Ding, Chuanxian

    2009-07-01

    In this work, plasma-sprayed nanostructured zirconia coatings stabilized with 3mol.% yttria (3Y-TZP) were deposited on Ti substrates. The microstructure and phase composition of coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro bioactivity of coatings was evaluated by examining the formation of bone-like apatite on its surface in simulated body fluid. MG63 cell lines were cultured on the coating to investigate its cytocompatibility. The crystalline phase of the as-sprayed coating was tetragonal zirconia, and no monoclinic zirconia was detected. The size of the grains on the as-sprayed coating surface was less than 100nm. The apatite could precipitate on the surface of the coating immersed in simulated body fluid for 28days while no apatite was formed on the surface of 3Y-TZP ceramic control, indicating that the bioactivity of the coating is superior to the ceramic with the same composition. It also revealed that the polished coating whose nanostructural outmost layer was removed was bioinert, implying the significance of the nanosized grains for its bioactivity. MG63 cells could adhere, grow and proliferate well on the coating surface, indicating that the coating had good cytocompatibility. Phase stability of plasma-sprayed 3Y-TZP coating was evaluated under hydrothermal conditions at 134 degrees C. It revealed that the plasma-sprayed nanostructured zirconia coating was more sensitive to aging than that of zirconia ceramics.

  7. XPS and bioactivity study of the bisphosphonate pamidronate adsorbed onto plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Kate; Kumar, Sunil; Smart, Roger St. C.; Dutta, Naba; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Anderson, Gail I.; Sekel, Ron

    2006-12-01

    This paper reports the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate bisphosphonate (BP) adsorption onto plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings commonly used for orthopaedic implants. BPs exhibit high binding affinity for the calcium present in HA and hence can be adsorbed onto HA-coated implants to exploit their beneficial properties for improved bone growth at the implant interface. A rigorous XPS analysis of pamidronate, a commonly used nitrogenous BP, adsorbed onto plasma sprayed HA-coated cobalt-chromium substrates has been carried out, aimed at: (a) confirming the adsorption of this BP onto HA; (b) studying the BP diffusion profile in the HA coating by employing the technique of XPS depth profiling; (c) confirming the bioactivity of the adsorbed BP. XPS spectra of plasma sprayed HA-coated discs exposed to a 10 mM aqueous BP solution (pamidronate) for periods of 1, 2 and 24 h showed nitrogen and phosphorous photoelectron signals corresponding to the BP, confirming its adsorption onto the HA substrate. XPS depth profiling of the 2 h BP-exposed HA discs showed penetration of the BP into the HA matrix to depths of at least 260 nm. The bioactivity of the adsorbed BP was confirmed by the observed inhibition of osteoclast (bone resorbing) cell activity. In comparison to the HA sample, the HA sample with adsorbed BP exhibited a 25-fold decrease in primary osteoclast cells.

  8. Broadband Plasma-Sprayed Anti-reflection Coating for Millimeter-Wave Astrophysics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, O.; Lee, A.; Raum, C.; Suzuki, A.

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a plasma-sprayed anti-reflection (AR) coating technology for millimeter-wave astrophysics experiments with cryogenic optics which achieves minimal dissipative loss and broad bandwidth and is easily and accurately applied. Plasma spraying is a coating process through which melted or heated materials are sprayed onto a substrate. The dielectric constants of the plasma-sprayed coatings were tuned between 2.7 and 7.9 by mixing hollow ceramic microspheres with alumina powder as the base material and varying the plasma energy of the spray. By spraying low loss ceramic materials with a tunable dielectric constant, we can apply multiple layers of AR coating for broadband millimeter-wave detection. At 300 K, we achieved a fractional bandwidth of 106 over 90% transmission using a three-layer AR coating. Applying ceramic coatings on ceramic lenses offers an additional benefit of preventing cryogenic delamination of the coatings. We report on methodology of coating application and measurement of uniformity, repeatability, transmission property, and cryogenic adhesion performance.

  9. Tailored plasma sprayed MCrAlY coatings for aircraft gas turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennisi, F. J.; Gupta, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Eighteen plasma sprayed coating systems, nine based on the NiCoCrAly chemistry and nine based on the CoCrAly composition, were evaluated to identify coating systems which provide equivalent or superior life to that shown by the electron beam physical vapor deposited NiCoCrAly and CoCrAly coatings respectively. NiCoCrAly type coatings were examined on a single crystal alloy and the CoCrAly based coatings were optimized on the B1900+ Hf alloy. Cyclic burner rig oxidation and hot corrosion and tensile ductility tests used to evaluate the various coating candidates. For the single crystal alloy, a low pressure chamber plasma sprayed NiCoCrAly + Si coating exhibited a 2x oxidation life improvement at 1394 K (2050 F) over the vapor deposited NiCoCrAly material while showing equivalent tensile ductility. A silicon modified low pressure chamber plasma sprayed CoCrAly coating was found to be more durable than the baseline vapor deposited CoCrAly coating on the B1900+ Hf alloy.

  10. Neural network analysis for erosion wear of nickel-aluminide coatings on steel by plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. C.; Chaithanya, M.; Satapathy, Alok; Ananthapadmanabhan, P. V.; Sreekumar, K. P.

    2010-02-01

    In the present investigation plasma spray inter metallic coating of Nickel-aluminide was deposited on mild steel substrates. The response of plasma sprayed nickel-aluminide coatings to the impingement of such solid particles has been presented in this work. Nickel pre-mixed with alumina powder is deposited on mild steel substances by atmospheric plasma spraying at various operating power level. The coatings are subjected to erosion wear test. An erosion test setup developed in our laboratory is used to simulate real time erosive situations. Dry silica sand of average particle size 400 micron is used as the erodent. The erosion rate is calculated on the basis of 'coating mass losses. The erosion studies are made and different velocities and impingement angles. A computational technique (ANN analysis) is used to predict the rate of erosion wear under various operational conditions. This technique involves database training to predict property parameter evolutions in process having large number of interdependent variables. This paper presents the database construction, implementation protocol and also the set of predicted results related to the erosion wear rate of nickel-aluminide coating. It is shown that the erosion wear is strongly influenced by the angle of impact. The test is conducted at room temperature i.e.27°C and 60% RH. Ni3Al coatings deposited at different power levels (10, 12, 16, 20, 24 kW) are found to exhibit different wear rate under similar test conditions.

  11. Recent Trends in Newly Developed Plasma-Sprayed and Sintered Coatings for Implant Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bsat, Suzan; Speirs, Andrew; Huang, Xiao

    2016-08-01

    The current paper aims to review recent trends (2011 to 2015) in newly developed plasma-sprayed and sintered coatings for implant applications. Recent developments in plasma-sprayed and sintered coatings have focused on improving biological performance, bacterial growth resistance, and mechanical properties, predominantly of HA and glass ceramics. The majority of these improvements are attributed to the addition of dopants. To improve biological performance, trace elements, such as Zn and Mg, both of which are found in bone, were added to replicate the functions they provide for the skeletal system. Though bacterial growth resistance is traditionally improved by Ag dopant, the addition of new dopants such as CeO2 and Zn were explored as well. Great effort has also been made to improve coating adherence and reduce stresses by minimizing coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the coating and substrate through the addition of elements such as Zn and Mg or the inclusion of a buffer layer. For sintering process in particular, there was an emphasis on reducing sintering temperature through modification of 45S5 Bioglass. New plasma spray and sintering technologies aimed at reducing high-temperature exposure are briefly introduced as well. These include microplasma spray and spark plasma sintering.

  12. Bond-coating in plasma-sprayed calcium-phosphate coatings.

    PubMed

    Oktar, F N; Yetmez, M; Agathopoulos, S; Lopez Goerne, T M; Goller, G; Peker, I; Ipeker, I; Ferreira, J M F

    2006-11-01

    The influence of bond-coating on the mechanical properties of plasma-spray coatings of hydroxyatite on Ti was investigated. Plasma-spray powder was produced from human teeth enamel and dentine. Before processing the main apatite coating, a very thin layer of Al2O3/TiO2 was applied on super clean and roughened, by Al2O3 blasting, Ti surface as bond-coating. The experimental results showed that bond-coating caused significant increase of the mechanical properties of the coating layer: In the case of the enamel powder from 6.66 MPa of the simple coating to 9.71 MPa for the bond-coating and in the case of the dentine powder from 6.27 MPa to 7.84 MPa, respectively. Both tooth derived powders feature high thermal stability likely due to their relatively high content of fluorine. Therefore, F-rich apatites, such those investigated in this study, emerge themselves as superior candidate materials for calcium phosphate coatings of producing medical devices. The methods of apatite powder production and shaping optimization of powder particles are both key factors of a successful coating. The methods used in this study can be adopted as handy, inexpensive and reliable ways to produce high quality of powders for plasma spray purposes.

  13. Role of carbon nanotube dispersion in fracture toughening of plasma sprayed aluminum oxide-carbon nanotube nanocomposite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balani, Kantesh

    Aluminum oxide (Al2O3, or alumina) is a conventional ceramic known for applications such as wear resistant coatings, thermal liners, heaters, crucibles, dielectric systems, etc. However applications of Al 2O3 are limited owing to its inherent brittleness. Due to its excellent mechanical properties and bending strength, carbon nanotubes (CNT) is an ideal reinforcement for Al2O3 matrix to improve its fracture toughness. The role of CNT dispersion in the fracture toughening of the plasma sprayed Al2O3-CNT nanocomposite coating is discussed in the current work. Pretreatment of powder feedstock is required for dispersing CNTs in the matrix. Four coatings namely spray dried Al2O 3 (A-SD), Al2O3 blended with 4wt.% CNT (A4C-B), composite spray dried Al2O3-4wt.% CNT (A4C-SD) and composite spray dried A1203-8wt.% CNT (A8C-SD), are synthesized by plasma spraying. Owing to extreme temperatures and velocities involved in the plasma spraying of ceramics, retention of CNTs in the resulting coatings necessitates optimizing plasma processing parameters using an inflight particle diagnostic sensor. A bimodal microstructure was obtained in the matrix that consists of fully melted and resolidified structure and solid state sintered structure. CNTs are retained both in the fully melted region and solid-state sintered regions of processed coatings. Fracture toughness of A-SD, A4C-B, A4C-SD and A8C-SD coatings was 3.22, 3.86, 4.60 and 5.04 MPa m1/2 respectively. This affirms the improvement of fracture toughness from 20% (in A4C-B coating) to 43% (in A4C-SD coating) when compared to the A-SD coating because of the CNT dispersion. Fracture toughness improvement from 43% (in A4C-SD) to 57% (in A8C-SD) coating is evinced because of the CNT content. Reinforcement by CNTs is described by its bridging, anchoring, hook formation, impact alignment, fusion with splat, and mesh formation. The Al2O3/CNT interface is critical in assisting the stress transfer and utilizing excellent mechanical

  14. Metal supported tubular solid oxide fuel cells fabricated by suspension plasma spray and suspension high velocity oxy-fuel spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Yeong; Wang, Youliang; Deng, Xiaohua; Singh, Devinder; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel

    2012-10-01

    Low temperature (LT) metal supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have many advantages in comparison to conventional electrode or electrolyte supported type SOFCs. NRC has demonstrated high performance LT metal supported planar SOFCs fabricated by either wet colloidal spray/sintering or suspension thermal spray. The combination of tubular configuration and metal supported SOFCs may produce more unique and very attractive advantages such as easy and inexpensive sealing method and materials, high specific and volumetric power density, cost-effective fabrication, enhanced robustness, rapid start up, red-ox cycle tolerance and potential use for a pressurized integrated system. In this paper, thin film solid electrolyte of Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.90 (SDC) and NiO-SDC composite anode on sintered porous tubular metal supports were deposited by suspension HVOF spray and suspension plasma spray, respectively on sintered porous tubular metal support. La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) cathode on the SDC electrolyte was formed by wet colloidal spray and subsequent sintering process as the final fabrication step. The detailed investigation of suspension and process-related parameters for suspension thermal spray was performed in order to produce thin and crack-free SDC thin film coatings. The electrochemical performance of single cells was demonstrated.

  15. A titanium plasma-sprayed cup with and without hydroxyapatite-coating: a randomised radiostereometric study of stability and osseointegration.

    PubMed

    Munzinger, Urs; Guggi, Thomas; Kaptein, Bart; Persoon, Marion; Valstar, Edward; Doets, H Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    We present a prospective, two-centre radiostereometric analysis (RSA) regarding the stability of a flattened pole titanium press-fit cup (EP-FIT PLUS), and whether additional hydroxyapatite coating leads to faster bone ingrowth into the porous coating. Forty-two postmenopausal female patients (44 hips) undergoing total hip arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis, selected to avoid hormonal factors influencing bone metabolism, were randomised to receive this cup with a titanium-plasma-sprayed surface with or without an additional hydroxyapatite coating. RSA was used to measure cup translation and rotation along three cardinal axes with respect to the host bone at the following time points: immediately postoperatively, at 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The most pronounced translation was proximal (0.11 mm) and posterior tilt (-0.27°). No difference in translation and rotation could be detected between the two groups. With the exception of one cup with an isolated radiolucent line <2 mm in zone 1, all cups showed complete osseointegration on conventional radiographs. The flattened pole cup provided excellent early stability and no advantage could be detected with additional hydroxyapatite coating.

  16. Oxidation and Ablation Resistance of Low Pressure Plasma-Sprayed ZrB2-Si Composite Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yaran; Wang, Hongyan; Huang, Liping; Li, Hong; Liu, Xuanyong; Zheng, Xuebin; Ding, Chuanxian

    2014-02-01

    In the present work, ZrB2-based coating containing Si additive was prepared by low pressure plasma spray process. The chemical composition and microstructure of the ZrB2-Si coating were characterized by XRD, EDS and SEM. The oxidation behavior of the coating was investigated in ambient air for different duration time. The ablation-resistant property of the coating was carried out using a plasma flame. The results obtained indicate that the ZrB2-Si composite coating exhibited compact lamellar microstructure with a porosity less than 5%. The silicon phase was uniformly distributed in the ZrB2 matrix. The composite coating presented excellent oxidation-resistance at high temperature of 1500 °C, which resulted from the formed continuous and dense glassy silicon oxide film on its surface. The ablation resistance of the ZrB2-Si coating has been proved to be excellent, which could withstand the plasma flame (above 2000 °C, atmosphere) for 10 min.

  17. Thermal barrier coating life and isothermal oxidation of low-pressure plasma-sprayed bond coat alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, W. J.; Miller, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper investigates the isothermal oxidation kinetics of Ni-35Cr-6Al-0.95Y, Ni-18Cr-12Al-0.3Y, and Ni-16Cr-6Al-0.3Y low-pressure plasma-sprayed bond coat alloys and examines the effect of these alloys on the thermal barrier coating (TBC) cyclic life. TBC life was examined by cycling substrates coated with the different bond coats and a ZrO2-7 wt pct Y2O3 TBC in an air-rich burner rig flame between 1150 C and room temperature. The oxidation kinetics of the three bond coat alloys was examined by isothermal oxidation of monolithic NJiCrAlY coupons at 1083 C. The Ni-35Cr-6Al-0.95Y alloy exhibits comparatively high isothermal oxidation weight gains and provides the longest TBC life, whereas the Ni-16Cr-6Al-0.3Y alloy had the lowest weight gains and provided the shortest TBC life. The results show that, although bond coat oxidation is known to have a strong detrimental effect on TBC life, it is not the only bond coat factor that determines TBC life.

  18. Improvement in tribological properties of atmospheric plasma-sprayed WC-Co coating followed by Cu electrochemical impregnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Yingchun; Zheng, Xuebing; Ruan, Qichao; Ji, Heng

    2009-06-01

    The WC-Co coating obtained by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) was modified by Cu electrochemical impregnation. The copper has infiltrated into and filled up the pores in WC-Co coating. The tribological properties of the coating against the stainless steel ball as sliding pairs were investigated with a ball-on-disc (BOD) configuration in air at room temperature. The as-prepared samples were characterized by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the frictional behavior of the WC-Co coating followed by Cu electrochemical impregnation was superior to that of WC-Co coating. The wear mechanism of the WC-Co coating followed by Cu electrochemical impregnation was microcutting, whilst that of a WC-Co coating was the fatigue wear. The improvement in tribological properties of the WC-Co coating followed by Cu electrochemical impregnation was attributed to the formation of self-lubricating Cu film on the wear surface which induces the transformation of wear mechanism.

  19. Generation of the first layers of a zirconia plasma sprayed coating: Correlation between splat layering and spraying parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Haddadi, A.; Nardou, F.; Grimaud, A.; Fauchais, P.

    1995-12-31

    Fused and crushed partially stabilized zirconia particles (8 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were plasma sprayed with an Ar-H{sub 2} plasma jet (45 slm Ar, 15 slm H{sub 2}, 600 A, nozzle i.d. 7 mm, internal injection). The study was devoted to the splat, beads and passes (maximum 8 passes) formation. The particles were sprayed on cast iron or stainless steel substrates at which temperature was kept as constant as possible either at 75 or at 350 C with the help of air jets either blown orthogonally to the plasma jet or to the substrate surface. The splat shape and morphology was examined by OM and image analysis, the beads and passes cross sections as well as fractured sections were examined by SEM and their phases determined by XRD. These examinations have shown the drastic influence of the substrate temperature on the splat shapes and contacts with underlying layers, columnar structure growth within one bead or one pass and macrocracks network within the beads and passes.

  20. Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.; Epstein, M.; Gould, L.; Botros, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

  1. Mathematical analysis of thermoelastic characteristics in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings.

    PubMed

    Go, Jaegwi; Jungo, Yeon-Gil; Kim, Seokchan; Ali, Md Afsar; Paik, Ungyu

    2012-02-01

    The thermoelastic characteristics of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been analyzed using mathematical modeling. Two types of TBC model, cylinder and circular disk which are commercial plasma-sprayed TBCs, subjecting to symmetric temperature distribution to the radial and longitudinal directions, respectively, were taken into consideration. Based on the thermoelastic theories, a second order ordinary differential equation was derived for the cylinder model and a pair of partial differential equations were set up for the circular disk model. The analytic solution was obtained from the ordinary differential equation, while a finite volume method was developed for numerical solutions to the pair of partial differential equations due to the complexity of governing equations. The thermoelastic characteristics of TBC models, such as temperature distributions, displacements, and stresses, were displayed according to the obtained solutions. The rate of heat conduction in the section of the top coat is relatively slow in comparison with the substrate, and no profound difference appears in the temperature distribution between two TBC models. The highest longitudinal tensile stress is expressed at the bond coat of both models, and the substrate is under the compressive stresses to the circumferential direction. While the cylinder expands to the positive longitudinal direction only, the expansion in the circular disk occurs to both the positive and negative longitudinal directions. Relatively large displacement and stresses exhibit in the cylinder as compared with the circular disk. In the circular disk, the stresses to the radial direction undulate at each section, and the displacement profile displays that the width of the circular disk is slightly narrowed. The results demonstrate that the mechanical and thermal properties of the top and bond coats are the crucial factors to be considered in controlling the thermoelastic characteristics of plasma-sprayed

  2. Process, properties, and environmental response of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results are shown which demonstrate that the properties of plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia are strongly influenced by the process parameters. Properties of the coatings in the as-sprayed condition are shown to be additionally influenced by environmental exposure. This behavior is dependent on raw material considerations and processing conditions as well as exposure time and temperature. Process control methodology is described which can take into consideration these complex interactions and help to produce thermal barrier coatings in a cost effective way while meeting coating technical requirements.

  3. Plasma-sprayed zirconia gas path seal technology: A state-of-the-art review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    The benefits derived from application of ceramic materials to high pressure turbine gas path seal components are described and the developmental backgrounds of various approaches are reviewed. The most fully developed approaches are those employing plasma sprayed zirconium oxide as the ceramic material. Prevention of cracking and spalling of the zirconium oxide under cyclic thermal shock conditions imposed by the engine operating cycle is the most immediate problem to be solved before implementation is undertaken. Three promising approaches to improving cyclic thermal shock resistance are described and comparative rig performance of each are reviewed. Advanced concepts showing potential for performance improvements are described.

  4. Process, properties and environmental response of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results are shown which demonstrate that the properties of plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia are strongly influenced by the process parameters. Properties of the coatings in the as-sprayed condition are shown to be additionally influenced by environmental exposure. This behavior is dependent on raw material considerations and processing conditions as well as exposure time and temperature. Process control methodology is described which can take into consideration these complex interactions and help to produce thermal barrier coatings in a cost effective way while meeting coating technical requirements.

  5. Physical, mechanical, and tribological properties of quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe coatings prepared by plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepeshev, A. A.; Rozhkova, E. A.; Karpov, I. V.; Ushakov, A. V.; Fedorov, L. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    The physical, mechanical, and tribological properties of quasicrystalline coatings based on the Al65Cu23Fe12 alloy prepared by plasma spraying have been investigated. The specific features of the phase formation due to the competitive interactions of the icosahedral ψ and cubic β phases have been elucidated. A correlation between the microhardness and the content of the icosahedral phase in the coating has been determined. The decisive role of the quasicrystalline phase in the formation of high tribological characteristics of the coatings has been revealed and tested.

  6. The use of a macroscopic formulation describing the effects of dynamic compaction and porosity on plasma sprayed copper

    SciTech Connect

    Arrigoni, M.; Boustie, M.; Bolis, C.; Berthe, L.; Barradas, S.; Jeandin, M.

    2008-04-15

    Coatings processed by thermal deposition techniques involve porosity. The Laser adhesion test developed for testing bond strength of a coating on its substrate requires a good knowledge of shock wave propagation in such media. Experiments carried out on plasma sprayed copper samples, about 14% porous, with velocity interferometer system for any reflector measurements display the discrepancy of previously used models. Hence, a one-dimensional formulation of the compaction process, based on a simple P-{alpha} model, is proposed to improve the correlation between experimental and computed data signals obtained on a plasma sprayed copper under dynamic loading. Besides, this improvement allows the estimation of the bond strength of a plasma sprayed copper on aluminum substrate.

  7. Method of forming a leak proof plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, L.J.H.; Vora, S.D.

    1995-02-21

    A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by: (A) providing an electrode structure; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, an interconnection layer having the general formula La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}y}N{sub y}O{sub 3}, where M is a dopant selected from the group of Ca, Sr, Ba, and mixtures thereof, and where N is a dopant selected from the group of Mg, Co, Ni, Al, and mixtures thereof, and where x and y are each independently about 0.075--0.25, by thermally spraying, preferably plasma arc spraying, a flux added interconnection spray powder, preferably agglomerated, the flux added powder comprising flux particles, preferably including dopant, preferably (CaO){sub 12}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 7} flux particles including Ca and Al dopant, and LaCrO{sub 3} interconnection particles, preferably undoped LaCrO{sub 3}, to form a dense and substantially gas-tight interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure by a single plasma spraying step; and (C) heat treating the interconnection layer at from about 1,200 to 1,350 C to further densify and heal the micro-cracks and macro-cracks of the thermally sprayed interconnection layer. The result is a substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure. The electrode structure can be an air electrode, and a solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and further a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell for generation of electrical power. 4 figs.

  8. Method of forming a leak proof plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, Lewis J. H.; Vora, Shailesh D.

    1995-01-01

    A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by: (A) providing an electrode structure; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, an interconnection layer having the general formula La.sub.1-x M.sub.x Cr.sub.1-y N.sub.y O.sub.3, where M is a dopant selected from the group of Ca, Sr, Ba, and mixtures thereof, and where N is a dopant selected from the group of Mg, Co, Ni, Al, and mixtures thereof, and where x and y are each independently about 0.075-0.25, by thermally spraying, preferably plasma arc spraying, a flux added interconnection spray powder, preferably agglomerated, the flux added powder comprising flux particles, preferably including dopant, preferably (CaO).sub.12. (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3).sub.7 flux particles including Ca and Al dopant, and LaCrO.sub.3 interconnection particles, preferably undoped LaCrO.sub.3, to form a dense and substantially gas-tight interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure by a single plasma spraying step; and, (C) heat treating the interconnection layer at from about 1200.degree. to 1350.degree. C. to further densify and heal the micro-cracks and macro-cracks of the thermally sprayed interconnection layer. The result is a substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure. The electrode structure can be an air electrode, and a solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and further a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell for generation of electrical power.

  9. Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxylapatite-Based Coatings: Chemical, Mechanical, Microstructural, and Biomedical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimann, Robert B.

    2016-06-01

    This contribution discusses salient properties and functions of hydroxylapatite (HA)-based plasma-sprayed coatings, including the effect on biomedical efficacy of coating thickness, phase composition and distribution, amorphicity and crystallinity, porosity and surface roughness, cohesion and adhesion, micro- and nano-structured surface morphology, and residual coating stresses. In addition, it will provide details of the thermal alteration that HA particles undergo in the extremely hot plasma jet that leads to dehydroxylated phases such as oxyhydroxylapatite (OHA) and oxyapatite (OA) as well as thermal decomposition products such as tri-(TCP) and tetracalcium phosphates (TTCP), and quenched phases such as amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). The contribution will further explain the role of ACP during the in vitro interaction of the as-deposited coatings with simulated body fluid resembling the composition of extracellular fluid (ECF) as well as the in vivo responses of coatings to the ECF and the host tissue, respectively. Finally, it will briefly describe performance profiles required to fulfill biological functions of osteoconductive bioceramic coatings designed to improve osseointegration of hip endoprostheses and dental root implants. In large parts, the content of this contribution is a targeted review of work done by the author and his students and coworkers over the last two decades. In addition, it is considered a stepping stone toward a standard operation procedure aimed at depositing plasma-sprayed bioceramic implant coatings with optimum properties.

  10. Effect of Powder Injection on the Interfacial Fracture Toughness of Plasma-Sprayed Zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okajima, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Toshio; Sampath, Sanjay

    2013-03-01

    Adhesive strength of the plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating is one of the most important parameters which influence their durability and reliability during service. While many methods exist to measure the adhesive strength, in general, they require cumbersome and time-consuming specimen preparation. Furthermore, considerations of the adhesion strength from the point-of-view of fracture toughness or for that matter, their systematic correlation to both processing variances are limited. Consequently, there is an opportunity to both simplify the measurement procedure and establish correlations among methods and linkages between processing parameters and interfacial fracture toughness. In this paper, we report results on adhesion strength of plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating on aluminum substrates based on both interfacial indentation test (to measure interfacial fracture toughness) and the modified tensile adhesive test. Carrier gas flow for powder injection into the plasma torch was systematically varied to introduce variances in particle melting with concomitant impact on the measured adhesive strength. The results indicate the correlation between the particle melting index and the measured interfacial fracture toughness.

  11. Electrochemical Impedance Studies on Tribocorrosion Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Al2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe; Chu, Zhenhua; Chen, Xueguang; Dong, Yanchun; Yang, Yong; Li, Yingzhen; Yan, Dianran

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the tribocorrosion of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings in simulated seawater was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique, complemented by scanning electron microscopy to observe the morphology of the tribocorrosion attack. Base on EIS of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings undergoing long-time immersion in simulated seawater, the corrosion process of Al2O3 coatings can be divided into the earlier stage of immersion (up to 20 h) and the later stage (beyond 20 h). Then, the wear tests were carried out on the surface of Al2O3 coating undergoing different times of immersion to investigate the influence of wear on corrosion at different stages. The coexistence of wear and corrosion condition had been created by a boron nitride grinding head rotating on the surface of coatings corroded in simulated seawater. The measured EIS and the values of the fitting circuit elements showed that wear accelerated corrosion at the later stage, meanwhile, corrosion accelerated wear with the immersion time increasing.

  12. Osseointegration of atmospheric plasma-sprayed titanium implants: Influence of the native oxide layer.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Alexandre; Renz, Renata Pedrolli; Blando, Eduardo; de Oliveira, Rogério Belle; Hübler, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo the influence of the native oxide layer on osseointegration and new bone formation on the surface of atmospheric plasma-sprayed porous titanium coatings. Porous titanium coatings were deposited on all implant surfaces, and half of the samples were subsequently submitted to oxide layer removal treatment. Samples were implanted onto the cortical bone of sheep (tibia) and evaluated at 30 and 60 days. Implants were removed en bloc and the attachment of bone to implants was examined by tensile pull-out test (osseointegration assessment), light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (histological analysis), and instrumented hardness tests (mechanical properties of mature and newly formed bone tissue). Coatings submitted to oxide layer treatment presented higher osseointegration values at both healing periods and showed more mature and mineralized bone tissue when compared with nontreated coatings. Our findings showed that the use of acid-etching in association with atmospheric plasma spraying techniques improves osseointegration of titanium implants.

  13. Columnar-Structured Mg-Al-Spinel Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) by Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, N.; Ebert, S.; Mauer, G.; Vaßen, R.

    2015-01-01

    The suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process has been developed to permit the feeding of sub-micrometer-sized powder into the plasma plume. In contrast to electron beam-physical vapor deposition and plasma spray-physical vapor deposition, SPS enables the cost-efficient deposition of columnar-structured coatings. Due to their strain tolerance, these coatings play an important role in the field of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). In addition to the cost-efficient process, attention was turned to the TBC material. Nowadays, yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used as standard TBC material. However, its long-term application at temperatures higher than 1200 °C is problematic. At these high temperatures, phase transitions and sintering effects lead to the degradation of the TBC system. To overcome those deficits of YSZ, Mg-Al-spinel was chosen as TBC material. Even though it has a lower melting point (~2135 °C) and a higher thermal conductivity (~2.5 W/m/K) than YSZ, Mg-Al-spinel provides phase stability at high temperatures in contrast to YSZ. The Mg-Al-spinel deposition by SPS resulted in columnar-structured coatings, which have been tested for their thermal cycling lifetime. Furthermore, the influence of substrate cooling during the spraying process on thermal cycling behavior, phase composition, and stoichiometry of the Mg-Al-spinel has been investigated.

  14. Sintering and Interface Strain Tolerance of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Leissler, George W.; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot section SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. A coating system consisting of a zirconia-based oxide topcoat (thermal barrier) and a mullite/BSAS silicate inner coat (environmental barrier) is often considered a model system for the CMC applications. However, the coating sintering, and thermal expansion mismatch between the zirconia oxide layer and the silicate environmental barrier/CMC substrate will be of major concern at high temperature and under thermal cycling conditions. In this study, the sintering behavior of plasma-sprayed freestanding zirconia-yttria-based thermal barrier coatings and mullite (and/or barium-strontium-aluminosilicate, i.e., BSAS) environmental barrier coatings was determined using a dilatometer in the temperature range of 1200-1500 C. The effects of test temperature on the coating sintering kinetics were systematically investigated. The plasma-sprayed zirconia-8wt.%yttria and mullite (BSAS) two-layer composite coating systems were also prepared to quantitatively evaluate the interface strain tolerance of the coating system under thermal cycling conditions based on the dilatomentry. The cyclic response of the coating strain tolerance behavior and interface degradation as a function of cycle number will also be discussed.

  15. Better Quality Control: Stochastic Approaches to Optimize Properties and Performance of Plasma-Sprayed Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimann, Robert B.

    2010-06-01

    Statistical design of experiment (SDE) methodology applied to design and performance testing of plasma-sprayed coatings follows an evolutionary path, usually starting with classic multiparameter screening designs (Plackett-Burman), and progressing through factorial (Taguchi) to limited response surface designs (Box-Behnken). Modern designs of higher dimensionality, such as central composite and D-optimal designs, will provide results with higher predictive power. Complex theoretical models relying on evolutionary algorithms, and application of artificial neuronal networks (ANNs) and fuzzy logic control (FLC) allow estimating the behavior of the complex plasma spray environment through validation either by key experiments or first-principle calculations. In this review, paper general principles of SDE will be discussed and examples be given that underscore the different powers of prediction of individual statistical designs. Basic rules of ANN and FLC will be briefly touched on, and their potential for increased reliability of coating performance through stringent quality control measures assessed. Salient features will be reviewed of studies performed to optimize thermal coating properties and processes reported in the pertinent literature between 2000 and the present.

  16. Flow characteristic of in-flight particles in supersonic plasma spraying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying; Zhao, Guangxi; Du, Jun; Bai, Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a computational model based on supersonic plasma spraying (SAPS) is developed to describe the plasma jet coupled with the injection of carrier gas and particles for SAPS. Based on a high-efficiency supersonic spraying gun, the 3D computational model of spraying gun was built to study the features of plasma jet and its interactions with the sprayed particles. Further the velocity and temperature of in-flight particles were measured by Spray Watch 2i, the shape of in-flight particles was observed by scanning electron microscope. Numerical results were compared with the experimental measurements and a good agreement has been achieved. The flight process of particles in plasma jet consists of three stages: accelerated stage, constant speed stage and decelerated stage. Numerical and experimental indicates that the H2 volume fraction in mixture gas of Ar + H2 should keep in the range of 23-26 %, and the distance of 100 mm is the optimal spraying distance in Supersonic atmosphere plasma spraying. Particles were melted and broken into small child particles by plasma jet and the diameters of most child particles were less than 30 μm. In general, increasing the particles impacting velocity and surface temperature can decrease the coating porosity.

  17. Characterization of Microstructure and Thermal Properties of YSZ Coatings Obtained by Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying (ASPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganvir, Ashish; Curry, Nicholas; Björklund, Stefan; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Nylén, Per

    2015-10-01

    The paper aims at demonstrating various microstructures which can be obtained using the suspension spraying technique and their respective significance in enhancing the thermal insulation property of a thermal barrier coating. Three different types of coating microstructures are discussed which were produced by the Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying. Detailed characterization of coatings was then performed. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were utilized for microstructure evaluations; x-ray diffraction for phase analysis; water impregnation, image analysis, and mercury intrusion porosimetry for porosity analysis, and laser flash analysis for thermal diffusivity measurements were used. The results showed that Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying can generate vertically cracked, porous, and feathery columnar-type microstructures. Pore size distribution was found in micron, submicron, and nanometer range. Higher overall porosity, the lower density of vertical cracks or inter-column spacing, and higher inter-pass porosity favored thermal insulation property of the coating. Significant increase in thermal diffusivity and conductivity was found at higher temperature, which is believed to be due to the pore rearrangement (sintering and pore coarsening). Thermal conductivity values for these coatings were also compared with electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) thermal barrier coatings from the literature and found to be much lower.

  18. Neutron and X-ray diffraction of plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, N. R.; Herman, H.; Singhal, S. P.; Berndt, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    ZrO2-7.8mol. pct. YO1.5, a fused powder, and ZrO2-8.7mol. pct. YO1.5, a prereacted powder, were plasma-sprayed onto steel substrates. Neutron diffraction and X-ray diffraction of the as-received powder, the powder plasma sprayed into water, as-sprayed coatings, and coatings heat-treated for 10 and 100 h were carried out to study phase transformations and ordering of the oxygen ions on the oxygen sublattice. The as-received fused powder has a much lower monoclinic percentage than does the pre-reacted powder, this resulting in a much lower monoclinic percentage in the coating. Heat treatment increases the percentages of the cubic and monoclinic phases, while decreasing the tetragonal content. An ordered tetragonal phase is detected by the presence of extra neutron diffraction peaks. These phase transformations and ordering will result in volume changes. The implications of these transformations on the performance of partially stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings is discussed.

  19. Tribological behavior of plasma spray coatings for marine diesel engine piston ring and cylinder liner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jong-Hyun; Han, Myoung-Seoup; Kim, Dae-Young; Youn, Joong-Geun

    2006-06-01

    High-temperature wear characteristics between plasma spray coated piston rings and cylinder liners were investigated to find the optimum combination of coating materials using the disc-on-plate reciprocating wear test in dry conditions. The disc and plate represented the piston ring and the cylinder liner, respectively. Coating materials studied were Cr2O3-NiCr, Cr2O3-NiCr-Mo, and Cr3C2-NiCr-Mo. Plasma spray conditions for the coating materials were established adjusting stand-off distance to obtain a coating with a porosity content of ˜5%. It was found that a dissimilar coating combination of Cr2O3-NiCr-Mo and Cr3C2-NiCr-Mo provided the best antiwear performance. The addition of molybdenum was found to be beneficial to improve the wear resistance of the coating. Hardness differences between mating surfaces were also important factors in determining the wear characteristics, so that it should be controlled below 300 in Vickers hardness under dry conditions. Adhesive wear accompanying with metal transfer was a dominant wear mechanism for dry conditions.

  20. Fabrication and Wear Behavior of Nanostructured Plasma-Sprayed 6061Al-SiCp Composite Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailor, Satish; Mohanty, R. M.; Sharma, V. K.; Soni, P. R.

    2014-10-01

    6061Al powder with 15 wt.% SiC particulate (SiCp) reinforcement was mechanically alloyed (MA) in a high-energy attrition mill. The MA powder was then plasma sprayed onto weathering steel (Cor-Ten A242) substrate using an atmospheric plasma spray process. Results of particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy show that the addition of SiC particles as the reinforcement influences on the matrix grain size and morphology. XRD studies revealed embedment of SiCp in the MA-processed composite powder, and nanocrystals in the MA powder and the coating. Microstructural studies showed a uniform distribution of reinforced SiC particles in the coating. The porosity level in the coating was as low as 2% while the coating hardness was increased to 232VHN. The adhesion strength of the coatings was high and this was attributed to higher degree of diffusion at the interface. The wear rate in the coatings was evaluated using a pin-on-disk type tribometer and found to decrease by 50% compared to the 6061Al matrix coating. The wear mechanism in the coating was delamination and oxidative type.

  1. Thermal stability studies of plasma sprayed yttrium oxide coatings deposited on pure tantalum substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, A.; Anupama, P.; Mukherjee, Jaya; Sreekumar, K. P.; Satpute, R. U.; Padmanabhan, P. V. A.; Gantayet, L. M.

    2010-02-01

    Plasma sprayed Yttrium oxide is used for coating of crucibles and moulds that are used at high temperature to handle highly reactive molten metals like uranium, titanium, chromium, and beryllium. The alloy bond layer is severely attacked by the molten metal. This commonly used layer contributes to the impurity addition to the pure liquid metal. Yttrium oxide was deposited on tantalum substrates (25 mm × 10mm × 1mm thk and 40 mm × 8mm × 1mm thk) by atmospheric plasma spray technique with out any bond coat using optimized coating parameters. Resistance to thermal shock was evaluated by subjecting the coated specimens, to controlled heating and cooling cycles between 300K to 1600K in an induction furnace in argon atmosphere having <= 0.1ppm of oxygen. The experiments were designed to examine the sample tokens by both destructive and non-destructive techniques, after a predetermined number of thermal cycles. The results upto 24 thermal cycles of 25 mm × 10mm × 1mm thk coupons and upto 6 cycles of 40 mm × 8mm × 1mm thk coupons are discussed. The coatings produced with the optimized parameters were found to exhibit excellent thermal shock resistance.

  2. Metallurgical characterization of plasma-sprayed tungsten carbide-cobalt coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rangaswamy, S.

    1987-01-01

    Four commercial WC-Co powders prepared from different manufacturing techniques and having variations in binder metal content (11-20% wt), and WC grain size (1-15 ..mu.. m). Using identical process parameters, these powders were plasma sprayed, and the resulting coatings were characterized for changes in chemistry, phase content, and microstructural parameters. Finally, the coatings were evaluated for resistance to abrasion, sliding wear, particle erosion, and cavitation erosion. It was found that, in all cases, the plasma-spray process resulted in substantial loss of carbon leading to a decrease in the monocarbide content and an increase in subcarbides such as W/sub 2/C, and WC/sub 1-x/. The combined effects of carbon loss and high temperatures in the plasma resulted in the formation of several Co/sub x/ W/sub y/C/sub z/ phases, among which Co/sub 3/W/sub 3/C was predominant. The extent to which such reactions occur was found to depend on several factors including starting chemistry, powder size, initial phase content, and carbide grain size. In general, finer size powders containing coarser WC grains tend to lose more carbon, whereas powders containing W/sub 2/C tend to lose somewhat less carbon. Wear properties of WC-Co coatings depend on porosity, carbon content, mean diameter of carbide grains and mean free path of the matrix phase in the microstructure.

  3. Development of a plasma sprayed ceramic gas path seal for high pressure turbine application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiembob, L. T.

    1978-01-01

    Development of the plasma sprayed graded, layered ZRO2/CoCrAlY seal system for gas turbine engine blade tip seal applications up to 1589 K (2400 F) surface temperature was continued. The effect of changing ZRO2/CoCrAlY ratios in the intermediate layers on thermal stresses was evaluated analytically with the goal of identifying the materials combinations which would minimize thermal stresses in the seal system. Three methods of inducing compressive residual stresses in the sprayed seal materials to offset tensile thermal stresses were analyzed. The most promising method, thermal prestraining, was selected based upon potential, feasibility and complexity considerations. The plasma spray equipment was modified to heat, control and monitor the substrate temperature during spraying. Specimens were fabricated and experimentally evaluated to: (1) substantiate the capability of the thermal prestrain method to develop compressive residual stresses in the sprayed structure and (2) define the effect of spraying on a heated substate on abradability, erosion and thermal shock characteristics of the seal system. Thermal stress analysis, including residual stresses and material properties variations, was performed and correlated with thermal shock test results. Seal system performance was assessed and recommendations for further development were made.

  4. Development of a plasma sprayed ceramic gas path seal for high pressure turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiembob, L. T.

    1977-01-01

    The plasma sprayed graded layered yittria stabilized zirconia (ZrO2)/metal(CoCrAlY) seal system for gas turbine blade tip applications up to 1589 K (2400 F) seal temperatures was studied. Abradability, erosion, and thermal fatigue characteristics of the graded layered system were evaluated by rig tests. Satisfactory abradability and erosion resistance was demonstrated. Encouraging thermal fatigue tolerance was shown. Initial properties for the plasma sprayed materials in the graded, layered seal system was obtained, and thermal stress analyses were performed. Sprayed residual stresses were determined. Thermal stability of the sprayed layer materials was evaluated at estimated maximum operating temperatures in each layer. Anisotropic behavior in the layer thickness direction was demonstrated by all layers. Residual stresses and thermal stability effects were not included in the analyses. Analytical results correlated reasonably well with results of the thermal fatigue tests. Analytical application of the seal system to a typical gas turbine engine application predicted performance similar to rig specimen thermal fatigue performance. A model for predicting crack propagation in the sprayed ZrO2/CoCrAlY seal system was proposed, and recommendations for improving thermal fatigue resistance were made. Seal system layer thicknesses were analytically optimized to minimize thermal stresses in the abradability specimen during thermal fatigue testing. Rig tests on the optimized seal configuration demonstrated some improvement in thermal fatigue characteristics.

  5. Manufacture of thick chromium coatings by R.F. plasma spraying for PVD sputter targets

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.; Heimann, R.B.; Gitzhofer, F.; Boulos, M.I.

    1995-12-31

    The production of plasma-sprayed thick chromium coatings on copper substrates for PVD sputter targets contains a number of technological challenges which were tried to be addressed using r.f. plasma spray technology. The efforts were focused on several objectives. The coatings should be as dense as possible. Their residual stresses should be low enough to avoid strong substrate bending and to prevent failure in adhesion or cohesion of the coating. The deposition efficiency during spraying should be as high as possible. Different spraying parameters were varied in order to find the optimum conditions for the spraying process. Two different powder grain sizes were used. First a spheroidization study was performed which gave evidence about the optimum chamber pressure, the optimum plasma power, and a manageable range of the powder feed rate. During spraying of the coatings the power feed was further optimized. Also the spraying distance, the substrate roughness and the substrate cooling were optimized. The substrates were respectively non-cooled, gas-cooled or directly water-cooled. The water-cooled samples showed no substrate bending. However, the thermal stresses were strong enough to cause failure in adhesion or cohesion of the coating. The non-cooled samples showed the best adhesion while the substrate bending could be kept in acceptable limits. Powder feed rates up to about 55 g/min yielded the densest coatings with optimum deposition efficiency.

  6. Effect of aluminum phosphate additions on composition of three-component plasma-sprayed solid lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, T. P.; Young, S. G.

    1982-01-01

    Image analysis (IA) and electron microprobe X-ray analysis (EMXA) were used to characterize a plasma-sprayed, self-lubricating coating, NASA LUBE PS106, specified by weight percent as 35NiCr-35Ag-30CaF2. To minimize segregation of the powder mixture during the plasma-spraying procedure, monoaluminum phosphate was added to form agglomerate particles. Three concentrations of AlPO4 were added to the mixtures: 1.25, 2.5, and 6.25 percent by weight. Analysis showed that 1.25 wt% AlPO4 yielded a CaF2 deficiency, 2.5 wt% kept the coating closest to specification, and 6.25 wt% yielded excess CaF2 as well as more impurities and voids and a deficiency in silver. Photomicrographs and X-ray maps are presented. The methods of IA and EMXA complement each other, and the reasonable agreement in the results increases the confidence in determining the coating composition.

  7. Effect of Solid Shield on Coating Properties in Atmospheric Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting; Zheng, Lili; Zhang, Hui

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the impact of shrouded shield structure on plasma spray processes and the selection of optimal shield structure. Response of plasma flame characteristics to solid shield structures is studied first, and experimental investigations are then performed for both atmospheric (APS) and shrouded (SPS) plasma spray processes. It is found that the usage of conical shield (divergence angle 5.5°) with 90 mm in length is effective to form a low-oxygen (<2%) and high-temperature (>3000 K) region in the plasma flame and this region can cover the majority area for particles passing by. The average particle temperature is higher in SPS than in APS with the given conditions, and such behavior is intensified as solid shield length increases. Using the SPS process, more disk-shaped splats are obtained, and the oxygen concentration in coating is significantly reduced. The degree of the oxidation in the coatings is further reduced as the length of the solid shield increases from 50 to 90 mm. Applying solid shield will lead to high flame temperature and low oxidation; however, the substrate overheating and velocity reduction may occur. For the cases studied, the optimal shield length is around 90 mm.

  8. What Do We Know, What are the Current Limitations of Suspension Plasma Spraying?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, M.; Vardelle, A.; Goutier, S.

    2015-10-01

    Nano-structured coatings should exhibit better properties than micro-structured coatings because of a high volume fraction of internal interfaces. Since the mid-nineties a large body of works have been devoted to suspension and solution plasma spraying for the deposition of finely and even nanometer-structured coatings. The aim of this paper is to take stock of our present knowledge in the field of suspension plasma spraying that is, at the moment, essentially used for oxide ceramic coatings. It will first tackle the injection of the suspension in the plasma jet and the behavior of nano or sub-micro-meter particles processed in the plasma jet core involving the liquid breakup and vaporization that releases the solid particles from the solvent droplets. It will, then, deal with the plasma torches and liquid feeding systems available to suspension spraying. It will finally discuss the key characteristics of suspensions (solvent, dispersant, and particle morphologies), designing of coating microstructure, and potential industrial applications, with the developments requested to cope with these applications.

  9. Synthesis and microstructure observation of titanium carbonitride nanostructured coatings using reactive plasma spraying in atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; He, Jining; Yan, Dianran; Xiao, Lisong; Dong, Yanchun; Zhang, Jianxin; Liao, Hanlin

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, nanostructured titanium carbonitride (TiCN) coatings were successfully deposited by reactive plasma spraying (RPS) technology using a self-designed gas tunnel mounted on a normal plasma spray torch. The phase composition and microstructure of the TiCN coatings were characterised by XRD, SEM and TEM. The results indicated that the main phase of the coatings was FCC TiC 0.2N 0.8 with a small amount of Ti 3O. The coating that was deposited using 35 kW displayed better microstructure and properties. The coating exhibited a typical nanostructure including 90 nm diamertrical equiaxed grains and 400 nm long columnar grains by TEM images. The SEM observation further revealed that the equiaxed grains in parallel direction to the substrate surface in TEM images were actually the columnar grains perpendicular to the substrate surface. The formation mechanism of the nanostructured coatings was also discussed. The measured microhardness value of the coating was approximately 1659 Hv 100 g , and the calculated crack extension force was about 34.9 J/m 2.

  10. Microstructure and Tribological Property of TiC-Mo Composite Coating Prepared by Vacuum Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoqian; Niu, Yaran; Huang, Liping; Ji, Heng; Zheng, Xuebin

    2012-09-01

    TiC-based composite coating using Mo as an additive has been fabricated by vacuum plasma-spraying, and then the phase composition and microstructure of TiC-Mo composite coating were investigated. Wear resistance of the TiC-Mo composite coating was comparatively studied with pure TiC coating. The experimental results showed that the microstructure of the TiC-Mo composite coating was relatively homogeneous and compact, exhibiting typical lamellar structure of plasma-sprayed coating. Orientated columnar grains of TiC can be found in the composite coating, and a (Ti, Mo)C transition phase was also observed. Due to the formation of (Ti, Mo)C transition phase, strong interface between TiC and Mo splats was obtained, which positively influenced the wear performance of the composite coating. As compared with pure TiC coating, the TiC-Mo composite coating exhibited improved wear resistance both at low and high loads. Wear mechanisms for the TiC coatings have been changed by adding Mo element.

  11. Nano Structured Plasma Spray Coating for Wear and High Temperature Corrosion Resistance Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, D.; Shukla, A. K.; Roy, H.

    2014-04-01

    The nano structured coating is a major challenge today to improve the different mechanical properties, wear and high temperature corrosion resistance behaviour of different industrial alloys. This paper is a review on synthesis of nano powder, plasma spraying methods, techniques of nano structured coating by plasma spray method, mechanical properties, tribological properties and high temperature corrosion behaviour of nano structured coating. Nano structured coatings of ceramic powders/composites are being developed for wide variety of applications like boiler, turbine and aerospace industries, which requires the resistance against wear, corrosion, erosion etc. The nano sized powders are subjected to agglomeration by spray drying, after which nano structured coating can be successfully applied over the substrate. Nano structured coating shows improved mechanical wear resistance and high temperature corrosion resistance. The significant improvement of wear and corrosion resistance is mainly attributed to formation of semi molten nano zones in case of nano structured coatings. The future scope of application of nano structured coating has also been highlighted in this paper.

  12. Tribological Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed CoNiCrAlY-BN Abradable Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irissou, E.; Dadouche, A.; Lima, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    The processing conditions, microstructural and tribological characterizations of plasma-sprayed CoNiCrAlY-BN high temperature abradable coatings are reported in this manuscript. Plasma spray torch parameters were varied to produce a set of abradable coatings exhibiting a broad range of porosity levels (34-62%) and superficial Rockwell hardness values (0-78 HR15Y). Abradability tests have been performed using an abradable-seal test rig, capable of simulating operational wear at different rotor speeds and seal incursion rates (SIRs). These tests allowed determining the rubbing forces and quantifying the blade and seal wear characteristics for slow and fast SIRs. Erosion wear performance and ASTM C633 coating adhesion strength test results are also reported. For optimal abradability performance, it is shown that coating hardness needs to be lower than 70 and 50 HR15Y for slow and fast blade incursion rate conditions, respectively. It is shown that the erosion wear performance, as well as, the coating cohesive strength is a function of the coating hardness. The current results allow defining the coating specifications in terms of hardness and porosity for targeted applications.

  13. Slurry and Plasma-spray Coating of Selective Emitting Rare-earth Oxides on High Temperature Resistant Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobler, W. J.; Durisch, W.

    2007-02-01

    Selective emitting coatings of the rare-earth oxides Yb2O3 and Yb-doped garnet have been applied on SiC by slurry coating and on the high refractory intermetallic compound MoSi2 by vacuum plasma-spraying. The TPV emitters produced are fully operable in oxygen atmosphere at high temperatures > 1500 °C. The novel technique of pairing MoSi2 substrate with plasma-sprayed rare-earth oxide results in highly thermal shock stable emitters due to an ideal match of the thermal expansion coefficients of intermetallic compound and ceramics.

  14. Reactive Plasma-Sprayed Aluminum Nitride-Based Coating Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Fukumoto, Masahiro; Egota, Kazumi; Okamoto, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    Recently, thick aluminum nitride/alumina (AlN/Al2O3) composite coatings were successfully fabricated through the reactive plasma spraying of fine Al2O3/AlN mixture in the N2/H2 atmospheric plasma. The coatings consist of AlN, Al5O6N, γ-Al2O3, and α-Al2O3 phases. This study will evaluate the thermal conductivity of these complicated plasma-sprayed coatings and optimize the controlling aspects. Furthermore, the influence of the process parameters on the coatings thermal conductivity will be investigated. The fabricated coatings showed very low thermal conductivity (2.43 W/m K) compared to the AlN sintered compacts. It is attributed to the phase composition of the fabricated coatings, oxide content, and porosity. The presence of Al2O3, Al5O6N and the high coating porosity decreased its thermal conductivity. The presence of oxygen in the AlN lattice creates Al vacancies which lead to phonon scattering and therefore suppressed the thermal conductivity. The formation of γ-Al2O3 phase in the coating leads to further decrease in its conductivity, due to its lower density compared to the α-phase. Moreover, the high porosity of the coating strongly suppressed the conductivity. This is due to the complicated microstructure of plasma spray coatings (splats, porosity, and interfaces, particularly in case of reactive spray process), which obviously lowered the conductivity. Furthermore, the measured coating density was lower than the AlN value and suppressed the coating conductivity. In addition, the spraying parameter showed a varied effect on the coating phase composition, porosity, density, and therefore on its conductivity. Although the N2 gas flow improved the nitride content, it suppressed the thermal conductivity gradually. It is attributed to the further increase in the porosity and further decrease in the density of the coatings with the N2 gas. Furthermore, increasing the arc did not show a significant change on the coating thermal conductivity. On the other hand

  15. Patient preference: conventional rotary handpieces or air abrasion for cavity preparation.

    PubMed

    Malmström, Hans S; Chaves, Yvette; Moss, Mark E

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that patients should accept the use of the air abrasion technique over the conventional handpiece due to the reduced need for anesthesia. Technologies for both air abrasion and the conventional rotary handpiece have, in recent decades, seen major improvements, but there are no recent scientific publications that evaluate the patient's preference for these two technologies when performing a cavity preparation. This study determined the patient's preference for air abrasion or the rotary handpiece for removing occlusal fissure carious lesions in mandibular premolars. Ten healthy subjects 18 years of age or older were recruited from the General Dentistry Clinic of the University of Rochester Eastman Dental Center, with fissure caries at a DEJ depth of similar size (determined by radiographs and clinical examination) in any two mandibular premolars in opposite quadrants. Within each subject, the two methods of caries removal were randomly assigned. In one premolar, air abrasion was used for cavity preparation, and in the other premolar, a conventional rotary handpiece was used. At each visit prior to treatment, the patients were instructed to complete the Emotional Status (ES) questionnaire (SUNY University at Buffalo Craniofacial Pain Clinic) to assess differences in their emotional status between appointments. At each appointment, when the restorative treatment was completed, patients were instructed to rate their pain on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A technique preference questionnaire was given after the second appointment. The subjects rated the perception of pain as significantly lower (p < 0.05) when using air abrasion (6.0 mm versus 29.6 mm). All of the patients preferred air abrasion over conventional rotary handpieces. None of the patients required anesthesia and there was no indication that the emotional status influenced the result. Air abrasion was the preferred method of cavity preparation when removing fissural caries in

  16. Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed MCrAlY-Cr2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Huang, Chuanbing; Lan, Hao; Du, Lingzhong; Zhang, Weigang

    2016-08-01

    The oxidation and hot corrosion behavior of two atmospheric plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY-Cr2O3 and CoNiCrAlY-Cr2O3 coatings, which are primarily designed for wear applications at high temperature, were investigated in this study. The two coatings were exposed to air and molten salt (75%Na2SO4-25%NaCl) environment at 800 °C under cyclic conditions. Oxidation and hot corrosion kinetic curves were obtained by thermogravimetric technique. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry were employed to characterize the coatings' microstructure, surface oxides, and composition. The results showed that both coatings provided the necessary oxidation resistance with oxidation rates of about 1.03 × 10-2 and 1.36 × 10-2 mg/cm2 h, respectively. The excellent oxidation behavior of these two coatings is attributed to formation of protective (Ni,Co)Cr2O4 spinel on the surface, while as-deposited Cr2O3 in the coatings also acted as a barrier to diffusion of oxidative and corrosive substances. The greater presence of Co in the CoNiCrAlY-Cr2O3 coating restrained internal diffusion of sulfur and slowed down the coating's degradation. Thus, the CoNiCrAlY-Cr2O3 coating was found to be more protective than the NiCoCrAlY-Cr2O3 coating under hot corrosion condition.

  17. Predictive Validity of Conventional and Adaptive Tests in an Air Force Training Environment. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sympson, James B.; And Others

    Conventional Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery-7 (ASVAB) Arithmetic Reasoning and Word Knowledge tests, were compared with computer-administered adaptive tests as predictors of performance in an Air Force Jet Engine Mechanic training course (n=495). Results supported earlier research in showing somewhat longer examinee response times for…

  18. Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings at High Temperature Determined by Ultrasonic Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qin; Zhu, Jianguo; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    The mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are of great scientific and technological significance for the design and fabrication of TBC systems. The ultrasonic method combined with a sing-around method for mechanical properties measurement of TBC is deduced and the elastic modulus can be determined in the spray, or longitudinal, direction, and the transverse direction. Tested specimens of plasma-sprayed TBC are detached from the substrate and treated with thermal exposure at 1400 °C. The elastic moduli along the longitudinal and transverse directions of the TBCs are measured by different types of ultrasonic waves combined with a sing-around method, while the Poisson's ratio is also obtained simultaneously. The experimental results indicate that the magnitude of longitudinal elastic modulus is larger than that of the transverse one, and thus the plasma-sprayed TBC has an anisotropic mechanical property. Moreover, the elastic moduli along both longitudinal and transverse directions change with high-temperature exposure time, which consists of a rapid increasing stage followed by a slow decreasing stage. In addition, the magnitude of Poisson's ratio increases slightly from 0.05 to 0.2 with the high-temperature exposure time. Generally, the microstructures in the plasma-sprayed coatings and their evolution in a high-temperature environment are the main causes of the varying anisotropic mechanical properties.

  19. A design of experiment study of plasma sprayed alumina-titania coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Steeper, T.J.; Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.; Riggs, W.L. II; Rotolico, A.J.; Nerz, J.E.

    1992-08-01

    An experimental study of the plasma spraying of alumina-titania powder is presented in this paper. This powder system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic testing. Coating experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical spray parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of plasma processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness and electrical tests, image analysis, and optical metallography. Coating qualities are discussed with respect to dielectric strength, hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The attributes of the coatings are correlated with the changes in operating parameters.

  20. A design of experiment study of plasma sprayed alumina-titania coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Steeper, T.J. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Lab.); Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C. ); Riggs, W.L. II ); Rotolico, A.J.; Nerz, J.E. )

    1992-01-01

    An experimental study of the plasma spraying of alumina-titania powder is presented in this paper. This powder system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic testing. Coating experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical spray parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of plasma processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness and electrical tests, image analysis, and optical metallography. Coating qualities are discussed with respect to dielectric strength, hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The attributes of the coatings are correlated with the changes in operating parameters.

  1. Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings Using the Knoop Indentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Fahad; Wang, James; Berndt, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    The microhardness and elastic modulus of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings were evaluated using Knoop indentation on the cross section and on the top surface. The effects of indentation angle, testing direction, measurement location and applied load on the microhardness and elastic modulus were investigated. The variability and distribution of the microhardness and elastic modulus data were statistically analysed using the Weibull modulus distribution. The results indicate that the dependence of microhardness and elastic modulus on the indentation angle exhibits a parabolic shape. Dependence of the microhardness values on the indentation angle follows Pythagoras's theorem. The microhardness, Weibull modulus of microhardness and Weibull modulus of elastic modulus reach their maximum at the central position (175 µm) on the cross section of the coatings. The Weibull modulus of microhardness revealed similar values throughout the thickness, and the Weibull modulus of elastic modulus shows higher values on the top surface compared to the cross section.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and physical properties of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystalline plasma sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, S.

    1995-11-09

    Our lab has been working with plasma spraying of both high pressure gas atomized (HPGA) and cast and crushed quasicrystal powders. A major component of this research includes comparative studies of PAS coatings formed with starting powders prepared by both techniques. In addition, a thorough investigation of the effects of starting powder particle size on coating microstructure is included. During the course of the overall research, an interest developed in forming Al-Cu-Fe materials with finer grain sizes. Therefore, a brief study was performed to characterize the effect of adding boron to Al-Cu-Fe materials prepared by different techniques. In addition to characterizing the microstructural features of the above materials, oxidation and wear behavior was also examined.

  3. Net Shaped Component Fabrication of Refractory Metal Alloys using Vacuum Plasma Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; ODell, S.; Gorti, S.; Litchford, R.

    2006-01-01

    The vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) technique was employed to produce dense and net shaped components of a new tungsten-rhenium (W-Re) refractory metal alloy. The fine grain size obtained using this technique enhanced the mechanical properties of the alloy at elevated temperatures. The alloy development also included incorporation of thermodynamically stable dispersion phases to pin down grain boundaries at elevated temperatures and thereby circumventing the inherent problem of recrystallization of refractory alloys at elevated temperatures. Requirements for such alloys as related to high temperature space propulsion components will be discussed. Grain size distribution as a function of cooling rate and dispersion phase loading will be presented. Mechanical testing and grain growth results as a function of temperature will also be discussed.

  4. Plasma sprayed coatings for containment of Cu-Mg-Si metallic phase change material

    DOE PAGES

    Withey, Elizabeth Ann; Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Andraka, Charles E.; Gibbs, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance of Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ), Y2O3, and Al2O3 plasma sprayed coatings are investigated for their ability to prevent attack of Haynes 230 by a near-eutectic Cu-Mg-Si metallic phase change material (PCM) in a closed environment at 820 °C. Areas where coatings failed were identified with optical and scanning electron microscopy, while chemical interactions were clarified through elemental mapping using electron microprobe analysis. Despite its susceptibility to reduction by Mg, the Al2O3 coating performed well while the YSZ and Y2O3 coating showed clear areas of attack. These results are attributed to the evolution of gaseous Mg atmore » 820 °C leading to the formation of MgO and MgAl2O4.« less

  5. Development of a plasma sprayed ceramic gas path seal for high pressure turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiembob, L. T.; Hyland, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    Development of the plasma sprayed graded, layered ZrO2/CoCrAlY seal system for gas turbine engine blade tip seal application up to 1589 K (2400 F) surface temperature was continued. Methods of improvement of the cyclic thermal shock resistance of the sprayed zirconia seal system were investigated. The most promising method, reduction of the ceramic thickness and metallic substrate stiffness were selected based upon potential and feasibility. Specimens were fabricated and experimentally evaluated to: (1) substantiate the capacity of the geometry changes to reduce operating stresses in the sprayed structure; and (2) define the abradability, erosion, thermal shock and physical property characteristic for the sprayed ceramic seal system. Thermal stress analysis was performed and correlated with thermal shock test results.

  6. Effect of Deposition Rate on the Stress Evolution of Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Kentaro; Colmenares-Angulo, Jose; Valarezo, Alfredo; Sampath, Sanjay

    2012-12-01

    The deposition rate plays an important role in determining the thickness, stress state, and physical properties of plasma-sprayed coatings. In this article, the effect of the deposition rate on the stress evolution during the deposition (named evolving stress) of yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings was systematically studied by varying the powder feed rate and the robot-scanning speed. The evolving stress during the deposition tends to increase with the increased deposition rate, and this tendency was less significant at a longer spray distance. In some cases, the powder feed rate had more significant influence on the evolving stress than the robot speed. This tendency can be associated with a deviation of a local deposition temperature at a place where sprayed particles are deposited from an average substrate temperature. At a further higher deposition rate, the evolving stress was relieved by introduction of macroscopic vertical cracks as well as horizontal branching cracks.

  7. Microstructure of Nanostructured TIO2 Coating Prepared by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying and its Photocatalytic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qinghe; Huang, Hui; Zhou, Chungen

    The starting nano-TiO2 feedstock was agglomerated by spray-drying process. Nano-TiO2 coatings on transparent glasses were prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The variation of the anatase content, porosity and grain size with the arc current is investigated extensively. Result shows that the nano-TiO2 phase is composed of anatase and rutile phase. The content of anatase in the sprayed coatings decreased and the grain size increased with the arc current increasing, and the porosity first increased and then decreased. As-sprayed nano-TiO2 coatings obtained at the spraying current of 400 A have the best photocatalytic property due to the synergistic effect of the fractions of anatase phase and the rate of porosity.

  8. COMMENT: Comment on Nemchinsky's analysis of the 'rocket' effect under conditions of thermal plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi

    2007-07-01

    In a recent paper, Nemchinsky presents an analysis of the 'rocket' effect on the particle dynamics under conditions of thermal plasma spraying and claims that this effect is quite substantial with iron particles evaporating in an argon plasma flow as the calculation example. The same problem is re-examined in this communication by considering the intense evaporation of particles as a combined heat and mass transfer process and treating the 'rocket' force as a part of the total drag force acting on the evaporating particle. It is shown that the 'rocket' force caused by the non-uniform distribution of the evaporated-mass efflux from the evaporating particle makes up only a small percentage of the total drag force and thus is not important in determining the particle dynamics for the studied case.

  9. The effect of processing parameters on plasma sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Jacobson, L.A.; Cowgill, D.F.; Snead, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    Plasma spraying is being investigated as a potential coating technique for applying thin (0.1--5mm) layers of beryllium on plasma facing surfaces of blanket modules in ITER and also as an in-situ repair technique for repairing eroded beryllium surfaces in high heat flux divertor regions. High density spray deposits (>98% of theoretical density) of beryllium will be required in order to maximize the thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. A preliminary investigation was done to determine the effect of various processing parameters (particle size, particle morphology, secondary gas additions and reduced chamber pressure) on the as-deposited density of beryllium. The deposits were made using spherical beryllium feedstock powder which was produced by centrifugal atomization at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Improvements in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the beryllium spray deposits will be discussed along with the corresponding thermal conductivity and outgassing behavior of these deposits.

  10. Microstructure and Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Fe-Si Nanocomposite Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xi; Meng, Xinjing; Zhong, Qingdong; Yang, Jian; Shu, Mingyong; Han, Hongbo; Bui, QuocBinh

    2016-06-01

    In this study, Fe-Si nanoparticle composite coating (FSN) and Fe-Si microparticle composite coating (FSM) were prepared via atmospheric plasma spraying, and FSN was thermally treated under hydrogen atmosphere at 1120 °C for holding time of 2.5 h (TFSN). Under transmission electron microscopy, many unmelted nanoscale particles were observed in FSN, while no substantial particles were found in TFSN. On scanning electron microscopy analysis, pores and cracks were observed in FSM and FSN, while no defects were found in TFSN. Scanning electrochemical microscopy testing in 3.5 wt.% NaCl for 5 h revealed that FSM underwent severe pitting corrosion, FSN showed relatively minor pitting corrosion, and TFSN had no pitting corrosion.

  11. Low Pressure Plasma Sprayed Overlay Coatings for GRCop-84 Combustion Chamber Liners for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Barrett, C.; Ghosn, L. J.; Lerch, B.; Robinson,; Thorn, G.

    2005-01-01

    An advanced Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb alloy developed at NASA's Glenn Research Center, and designated as GRCop-84, is currently being considered for use as combustor chamber liners and nozzle ramps in NASA s future generations of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). However, past experience has shown that unprotected copper alloys undergo an environmental attack called "blanching" in rocket engines using liquid hydrogen as fuel and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Potential for sulfidation attack of the liners in hydrocarbon-fueled engines is also of concern. Protective overlay coatings alloys are being developed for GRCop-84. The development of this coatings technology has involved a combination of modeling, coatings development and characterization, and process optimization. Coatings have been low pressure plasma sprayed on GRCop-84 substrates of various geometries and shapes. Microstructural, mechanical property data and thermophysical results on the coated substrates are presented and discussed.

  12. Wide-temperature-spectrum self-lubricating coatings prepared by plasma spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Self-lubricating, multicomponent coatings, which lubricate over a wide range of operating conditions, are described. The coatings were successfully applied by plasma-spraying mixed powders onto superalloy substrates. They were evaluated in friction and wear experiments, and in sliding contact bearing tests. These coatings are wear resistant by virtue of their self lubricating characteristics rather than because of extreme hardness; a further benefit is low friction. Experiments with simple pin on disk sliding specimens and oscillating plain cylindrical bearing tests were performed to evaluate the tribological properties of the coatings. It was shown that coatings of nichrome, glass and calcium fluoride are self-lubricating from about 500 to 900 C, but give high friction at the lower temperatures. The addition of silver to the coating composition improved the low temperature bearing properties and resulted in coatings which are self-lubricating from cryogenic temperatures to at least 870 C; they are therefore, wide temperature spectrum, self-lubricating compositions.

  13. In Situ Particle Behavior of Cast Iron Powder by Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekmen, C.; Iwata, K.; Tsunekawa, Y.; Okumiya, M.

    2010-01-01

    An important issue for atmospheric plasma sprayed metal coatings is the oxidation involved during processing that significantly affects its phase composition and microstructure and thus the overall coating properties. In this study, suspension thermal spraying was used to manufacture cast iron coatings with high amounts of graphite carbon as solid-lubricant, because graphite structure is considerably diminished in molten droplets of the spray material due to the dissolution into molten iron and/or the oxidation. Additional graphite formation based on the soot reaction of liquid hydrocarbon was observed. Oxidation strongly affects the soot reaction during suspension thermal spraying. Therefore, setting-up of a shroud around the plasma plume is quite effective to prevent the oxidation of hydrocarbon.

  14. Repulsive Interaction of Sulfide Layers on Compressor Impeller Blades Remanufactured Through Plasma Spray Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y.; Zhou, D.; Wang, Y. L.; Huang, H. H.

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the repulsive interaction of sulfide layers on compressor impeller blades remanufactured through plasma spray welding (PSW). Sulfide layers on the blades made of FV(520)B steel were prepared through multifarious corrosion experiments, and PSW was utilized to remanufacture blade specimens. The specimens were evaluated through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, 3D surface topography, x-ray diffraction, ImageJ software analysis, Vicker's micro-hardness test and tensile tests. Results showed a large number of sulfide inclusions in the fusion zone generated by sulfide layers embodied into the molten pool during PSW. These sulfide inclusions seriously degraded the mechanical performance of the blades remanufactured through PSW.

  15. Electrochemical polarisation studies on plasma-sprayed nickel-based superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Adam

    2015-08-01

    The plasma-sprayed NiCr-Cr2O3 and Al2O3-40 % TiO2 powders are deposited as coating on nickel-based superalloy. The electrochemical polarisation studies were carried out with 1.0 M H2SO4 solution as a corrosive medium. The corrosion current density of the coated sample was found to be decreased and exhibits better corrosion resistance than bare metal. The characterisation studies on the exposed sample result reveal that the bare metal has undergone severe intergranular attack and segregation on austenitic phase. The corrosion products formed are in the form of sulphides, and contribution of sulphur was noticed through EDS analysis.

  16. Effect of Processing Conditions on the Anelastic Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Vaishak

    2011-12-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic materials contain an assortment of micro-structural defects, including pores, cracks, and interfaces arising from the droplet based assemblage of the spray deposition technique. The defective architecture of the deposits introduces a novel "anelastic" response in the coatings comprising of their non-linear and hysteretic stress-strain relationship under mechanical loading. It has been established that this anelasticity can be attributed to the relative movement of the embedded defects under varying stresses. While the non-linear response of the coatings arises from the opening/closure of defects, hysteresis is produced by the frictional sliding among defect surfaces. Recent studies have indicated that anelastic behavior of coatings can be a unique descriptor of their mechanical behavior and related to the defect configuration. In this dissertation, a multi-variable study employing systematic processing strategies was conducted to augment the understanding on various aspects of the reported anelastic behavior. A bi-layer curvature measurement technique was adapted to measure the anelastic properties of plasma sprayed ceramic. The quantification of anelastic parameters was done using a non-linear model proposed by Nakamura et.al. An error analysis was conducted on the technique to know the available margins for both experimental as well as computational errors. The error analysis was extended to evaluate its sensitivity towards different coating microstructure. For this purpose, three coatings with significantly different microstructures were fabricated via tuning of process parameters. Later the three coatings were also subjected to different strain ranges systematically, in order to understand the origin and evolution of anelasticity on different microstructures. The last segment of this thesis attempts to capture the intricacies on the processing front and tries to evaluate and establish a correlation between them and the anelastic

  17. Nanostructured bioactive glass-ceramic coatings deposited by the liquid precursor plasma spraying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yanfeng; Song, Lei; Liu, Xiaoguang; Huang, Yi; Huang, Tao; Wu, Yao; Chen, Jiyong; Wu, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramic coatings have great potential in dental and orthopedic medical implant applications, due to its excellent bioactivity, biocompatibility and osteoinductivity. However, most of the coating preparation techniques either produce only thin thickness coatings or require tedious preparation steps. In this study, a new attempt was made to deposit bioactive glass-ceramic coatings on titanium substrates by the liquid precursor plasma spraying (LPPS) process. Tetraethyl orthosilicate, triethyl phosphate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate solutions were mixed together to form a suspension after hydrolysis, and the liquid suspension was used as the feedstock for plasma spraying of P 2O 5-Na 2O-CaO-SiO 2 bioactive glass-ceramic coatings. The in vitro bioactivities of the as-deposited coatings were evaluated by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 4 h, 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively. The as-deposited coating and its microstructure evolution behavior under SBF soaking were systematically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that P 2O 5-Na 2O-CaO-SiO 2 bioactive glass-ceramic coatings with nanostructure had been successfully synthesized by the LPPS technique and the synthesized coatings showed quick formation of a nanostructured HCA layer after being soaked in SBF. Overall, our results indicate that the LPPS process is an effective and simple method to synthesize nanostructured bioactive glass-ceramic coatings with good in vitro bioactivity.

  18. Plasma Sprayed Pour Tubes and Other Melt Handling Components for Use in Gas Atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, David; Rieken, Joel; Heidloff, Andy; Besser, Matthew; Anderson, Iver

    2011-04-01

    Ames Laboratory has successfully used plasma sprayed ceramic components made from yttria stabilized zirconia as melt pouring tubes for gas atomization for many years. These tubes have proven to be strong, thermal shock resistant and versatile. Various configurations are possible both internally and externally. Accurate dimensions are achieved internally with a machined fugitive graphite mandrel and externally by diamond grinding. The previous study of the effect of spray parameters on density was extended to determine the effect of the resulting density on the thermal shock characteristics on down-quenching and up-quenching. Encouraging results also prompted investigation of the use of plasma spraying as a method to construct a melt pour exit stopper that is mechanically robust, thermal shock resistant, and not susceptible to attack by reactive melt additions. The Ames Laboratory operates two close-coupled high pressure gas atomizers. These two atomizers are designed to produce fine and coarse spherical metal powders (5{mu} to 500{mu} diameter) of many different metals and alloys. The systems vary in size, but generally the smaller atomizer can produce up to 5 kg of powder whereas the larger can produce up to 25 kg depending on the charge form and density. In order to make powders of such varying compositions, it is necessary to have melt systems capable of heating and containing the liquid charge to the desired superheat temperature prior to pouring through the atomization nozzle. For some metals and alloys this is not a problem; however for some more reactive and/or high melting materials this can pose unique challenges. Figure 1 is a schematic that illustrates the atomization system and its components.

  19. Effect of steam treatment during plasma spraying on the microstructure of hydroxyapatite splats and coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Khor, K. A.; Cheang, P.

    2006-12-01

    The major problems with plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings for hard tissue replacement are severe HA decomposition and insufficient mechanical properties of the coatings. Loss of crystalline HA after the high-temperature spraying is due mainly to the loss of OH- in terms of water. The current study used steam to treat HA droplets and coatings during both in-flight and flattening stages during plasma spraying. The microstructure of the HA coatings and splats was characterized using scanning electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Results showed that a significant increase in crystallinity of the HA coating was achieved through the steam treatment (e.g., from 58 to 79%). In addition, the effects were dependent on particle sizes of the HA feedstock, more increase in crystallinity of the coatings made from smaller powders was revealed. The Raman spectroscopy analyses on the individual splats and coatings indicate that the mechanism involves entrapping of water molecules by the individual HA droplets upon their impingement. It further suggests that the HA decomposition has already taken place before the impingement of the droplets on precoating or substrate. The improvement in crystallinity and phases, for example, from tricalcium phosphate and amorphous calcium phosphate to HA, was achieved by reversing the HA decomposition through providing extra OH-. Furthermore, the steam treatment during the spraying also accounts for remarkably increased adhesion strength from 9.09 to 23.13 MPa. The in vitro testing through immersing the HA coatings in simulated body fluid gives further evidence that the economic and simple steam treatment is promising in improving HA coating structure.

  20. Antibacterial and biological characteristics of plasma sprayed silver and strontium doped hydroxyapatite coatings

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, Gary A.; Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Infection in primary total joint prostheses is estimated to occur in up to 3% of all surgeries. As a measure to improve the antimicrobial properties of implant materials, silver (Ag) was incorporated into plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings. To offset potential cytotoxic effects of Ag in the coatings, strontium (Sr) was also added as a binary dopant. HA powder were doped with 2.0 wt% Ag2O, 1.0 wt% SrO and the powder was then heat treated at 800° C. Titanium substrates were coated using a 30 kW plasma spray system equipped with a supersonic nozzle. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the phase purity and high crystallinity of the coatings. Samples were evaluated for mechanical stability by adhesive bond strength testing. Results show that the addition of dopants did not affect the overall bond strength of the coatings. The antibacterial efficacies of the coatings were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Samples that contained the Ag2O dopant were found to be highly effective against the bacterial colonization. In vitro cell-material interactions using human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells were characterized by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for cell viability, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) for cell morphology and confocal imaging for the important differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Our results showed evidence of cytotoxic effects in the Ag-HA coatings, characterized by poor cellular morphology and cell death and nearly complete impediment of functional ALP activity. The addition of SrO to Ag-HA coatings was able to effectively offset these negative effects and improve the performance when compared to pure HA coated samples. PMID:22487928

  1. Plasma-sprayed CaTiSiO5 ceramic coating on Ti-6Al-4V with excellent bonding strength, stability and cellular bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chengtie; Ramaswamy, Yogambha; Liu, Xuanyong; Wang, Guocheng; Zreiqat, Hala

    2008-01-01

    Novel Ca-Si-Ti-based sphene (CaTiSiO5) ceramics possess excellent chemical stability and cytocompatibility. The aim of this study was to prepare sphene coating on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) for orthopaedic applications using the plasma spray method. The phase composition, surface and interface microstructure, coating thickness, surface roughness and bonding strength of the plasma-sprayed sphene coating were analysed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and the standard mechanical testing of the American Society for Testing and Materials, respectively. The results indicated that sphene coating was obtained with a uniform and dense microstructure at the interface of the Ti-6Al-4V surface and the thickness and surface roughness of the coating were approximately 150 and 10 μm, respectively. Plasma-sprayed sphene coating on Ti-6Al-4V possessed a significantly improved bonding strength and chemical stability compared with plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating. Plasma-sprayed sphene coating supported human osteoblast-like cell (HOB) attachment and significantly enhanced HOB proliferation and differentiation compared with plasma-sprayed HAp coating and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V. Taken together, plasma-sprayed sphene coating on Ti-6Al-4V possessed excellent bonding strength, chemical stability and cellular bioactivity, indicating its potential application for orthopaedic implants. PMID:18664431

  2. Plasma-sprayed CaTiSiO5 ceramic coating on Ti-6Al-4V with excellent bonding strength, stability and cellular bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengtie; Ramaswamy, Yogambha; Liu, Xuanyong; Wang, Guocheng; Zreiqat, Hala

    2009-02-01

    Novel Ca-Si-Ti-based sphene (CaTiSiO5) ceramics possess excellent chemical stability and cytocompatibility. The aim of this study was to prepare sphene coating on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) for orthopaedic applications using the plasma spray method. The phase composition, surface and interface microstructure, coating thickness, surface roughness and bonding strength of the plasma-sprayed sphene coating were analysed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and the standard mechanical testing of the American Society for Testing and Materials, respectively. The results indicated that sphene coating was obtained with a uniform and dense microstructure at the interface of the Ti-6Al-4V surface and the thickness and surface roughness of the coating were approximately 150 and 10 microm, respectively. Plasma-sprayed sphene coating on Ti-6Al-4V possessed a significantly improved bonding strength and chemical stability compared with plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating. Plasma-sprayed sphene coating supported human osteoblast-like cell (HOB) attachment and significantly enhanced HOB proliferation and differentiation compared with plasma-sprayed HAp coating and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V. Taken together, plasma-sprayed sphene coating on Ti-6Al-4V possessed excellent bonding strength, chemical stability and cellular bioactivity, indicating its potential application for orthopaedic implants.

  3. Thermal control of a lidar laser system using a non-conventional ram air heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killough, Brian D.; Alexander, William, Jr.; Swofford, Doyle P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and performance testing of a uniquely designed external heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is attached externally to an aircraft and is used to cool a laser system within the fuselage. Estimates showed insufficient cooling capacity with a conventional staggered tube array in the limited space available. Thus, a non-conventional design wes developed with larger tube and fin area exposed to the ram air to increase the heat transfer performance. The basic design consists of 28 circular finned aluminum tubes arranged in two parallel banks. Wind tunnel tests were performed to simulate air and liquid flight conditions for the non-conventional parallel bank arrangement and the conventional staggered tube arrangement. Performance comparisons of each of the two designs are presented. Test results are used in a computer model of the heat exchanger to predict the operating performance for the entire flight profile. These analyses predict significantly improved performance over the conventional design and show adequate thermal control margins.

  4. Thermal control of a lidar laser system using a non-conventional ram air heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killough, Brian D.; Alexander, William, Jr.; Swofford, Doyle P.

    1990-10-01

    This paper describes the analysis and performance testing of a uniquely designed external heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is attached externally to an aircraft and is used to cool a laser system within the fuselage. Estimates showed insufficient cooling capacity with a conventional staggered tube array in the limited space available. Thus, a non-conventional design wes developed with larger tube and fin area exposed to the ram air to increase the heat transfer performance. The basic design consists of 28 circular finned aluminum tubes arranged in two parallel banks. Wind tunnel tests were performed to simulate air and liquid flight conditions for the non-conventional parallel bank arrangement and the conventional staggered tube arrangement. Performance comparisons of each of the two designs are presented. Test results are used in a computer model of the heat exchanger to predict the operating performance for the entire flight profile. These analyses predict significantly improved performance over the conventional design and show adequate thermal control margins.

  5. Thermal Conductivity and Erosion Durability of Composite Two-Phase Air Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Zhu, Dongming; Dorfman, Mitchell R.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance efficiency of gas turbines, new thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be designed which improve upon the thermal stability limit of 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ), approximately 1200 C. This tenant has led to the development of new TBC materials and microstructures capable of improved high temperature performance. This study focused on increasing the erosion durability of cubic zirconia based TBCs, traditionally less durable than the metastable t' zirconia based TBCs. Composite TBC microstructures composed of a low thermal conductivity/high temperature stable cubic Low-k matrix phase and a durable t' Low-k secondary phase were deposited via APS. Monolithic coatings composed of cubic Low-k and t' Low-k were also deposited, in addition to a 7YSZ benchmark. The thermal conductivity and erosion durability were then measured and it was found that both of the Low-k materials have significantly reduced thermal conductivities, with monolithic t' Low-k and cubic Low-k improving upon 7YSZ by approximately 13 and approximately 25%, respectively. The 40 wt% t' Low-k composite (40 wt% t' Low-k - 60 wt% cubic Low-k) showed a approximately 22% reduction in thermal conductivity over 7YSZ, indicating even at high levels, the t' Low-k secondary phase had a minimal impact on thermal in the composite coating. It was observed that a mere 20 wt% t' Low-k phase addition can reduce the erosion of a cubic Low-k matrix phase composite coating by over 37%. Various mixing rules were then investigated to assess this non-linear composite behavior and suggestions were made to further improve erosion durability.

  6. Indoor air quality in green vs conventional multifamily low-income housing.

    PubMed

    Colton, Meryl D; MacNaughton, Piers; Vallarino, Jose; Kane, John; Bennett-Fripp, Mae; Spengler, John D; Adamkiewicz, Gary

    2014-07-15

    Indoor air quality is an important predictor of health, especially in low-income populations. It is unclear how recent trends in "green" building affect the indoor exposure profile. In two successive years, we conducted environmental sampling, home inspections, and health questionnaires with families in green and conventional (control) apartments in two public housing developments. A subset of participants was followed as they moved from conventional to green or conventional to conventional housing. We measured particulate matter less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nicotine, carbon dioxide (CO2), and air exchange rate (AER) over a seven-day sampling period coincident with survey administration. In multivariate models, we observed 57%, 65%, and 93% lower concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, and nicotine (respectively) in green vs control homes (p=0.032, p<0.001, p=0.003, respectively), as well as fewer reports of mold, pests, inadequate ventilation, and stuffiness. Differences in formaldehyde and CO2 were not statistically significant. AER was marginally lower in green buildings (p=0.109). Participants in green homes experienced 47% fewer sick building syndrome symptoms (p<0.010). We observed significant decreases in multiple indoor exposures and improved health outcomes among participants who moved into green housing, suggesting multilevel housing interventions have the potential to improve long-term resident health. PMID:24941256

  7. Effect of Water Vapor on the 1100oC Oxidation Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed TBCs with HVOF NiCoCrAlX Bond Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, James A; Unocic, Kinga A; Pint, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    With the goal of investigating the reported detrimental effect of water vapor on thermal barrier coating (TBC) performance, furnace cycle experiments were conducted in dry O2 and air with 10 and 50% water vapor at 1100 C. The TBC systems evaluated were air plasma-sprayed (APS), yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coatings with high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF)-deposited NiCoCrAlY or NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coating. Average TBC lifetime was reduced by ~30% in air with 10% water vapor compared to cycling in dry O2, using 1h cycle durations. Superalloy substrates with Y and La additions also were investigated but showed no statistical change in the average TBC lifetime compared to the base CMSX4 superalloy. In all cases, the bond coating with Hf and Si additions increased YSZ lifetime by 20% or more. Experiments that increased water vapor to 50% showed no further decrease in TBC lifetime. Increasing the cycle frequency to 100h resulted in a large increase in TBC lifetime, especially for the NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coatings. Co-doping the NiCoCrAl bond coat with Y and Hf was beneficial to TBC lifetime, but did not mitigate the detrimental impact of water vapor.

  8. On the Anelastic Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings: Observations, Characterizations and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Gopal

    Plasma sprayed ceramic materials contain an assortment of microstructural defects, including pores, cracks, and interfaces arising from the droplet based assemblage of the spray deposition technique. The defective architecture of the deposits introduces a novel "anelastic" response in the coatings comprising of their non-linear and hysteretic stress-strain relationship under mechanical loading. It has been established that this anelasticity can be attributed to the relative movement of the embedded defects under varying stresses; while the non-linear response of the coatings arises from the opening/closure of defects, hysteresis is produced by the frictional sliding among defect surfaces. Recent studies have indicated that anelastic behavior of coatings can be a unique descriptor of their mechanical behavior and related to the defect configuration. In this dissertation, a multi-variable study employing systematic processing strategies was conducted to augment the understanding on various aspects of the reported anelastic behavior. Enhancements to bi-layer curvature measurement technique allowed for reliable and repeatable quantification of the anelastic response, enabling extraction of three anelastic parameters; elastic modulus, non-linear degree and hysteresis degree. This allowed for further exploration of the process space enabling controlled introduction of anelasticity in thermal sprayed ceramic coatings. This dissertation reports on these findings by first describing the experimental advancements in bilayer curvature measurements via thermal cycling of a coated beam. This experimental development allowed assessment of sensitivity and repeatability of the obtained anelastic parameters to varying microstructures imposed by processing excursions. Subsequently, controlled modification of anelasticity was achieved through material and process parameters as well as through extrinsic modification of the defects within the microstructure. The results suggest that

  9. Control of interparticle cohesion in PS304 plasma spray deposited solid lubricant coating powder feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanford, Malcolm Keith

    The effects of eutectic barium fluoride - calcium fluoride particle morphology, particle size, size distribution and relative humidity level on PS304 powder feedstock flowability have been investigated in an effort to optimize the plasma spray deposition process. The eutectic fluorides were fabricated by comminution (angular particle morphology) and by gas atomization (spherical particle morphology). The angular fluorides were classified by screening to obtain 38--45mum, 45--106mum, 63--106mum, 45--53mum, 63--75mum and 90--106mum particle size distributions and the spherical fluorides were screened to obtain 45--106mum particles. The fluorides were added incrementally to the other powder constituents of the PS304 feedstock: nichrome, chromia, and silver powders. A linear relationship between feedstock flow rate and concentration of the fluorides was found from 0--10wt% using a Hall flowmeter. For the angular fluorides, the flow rate of the feedstock decreased linearly with increasing fluoride concentration. Flow of feedstock containing spherical fluorides was independent of fluoride concentration. Flow was degraded with decreasing fluoride particle size and with increasing particle size distribution due to interparticle friction. The angle of repose was distinct with respect to physical properties of the fluorides. The Hausner Ratio was less sensitive, though these data behaved predictably. Feedstock containing 10wt% 45--53mum and 90--106mum angular fluorides and 45--106mum angular and spherical fluorides were dried in a vacuum oven and cooled to room temperature under dry nitrogen. The flow of these powders was studied from 2--100% relative humidity (RH). The flow rate was only slightly degraded with increasing humidity below 66%RH, and a greater effect was apparent above 66%RH. No flow was observed above 88%RH for feedstock containing 45--106mum fluorides. The feedstock with narrower fluoride particle size distributions allowed flow up to 95%RH. These results

  10. Simulation on change of generic satellite radar cross section via artificially created plasma sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Shen Shou Max; Chuang, Yu-Chou

    2016-06-01

    Recent advancements in antisatellite missile technologies have proven the effectiveness of such attacks, and the vulnerability of satellites in such exercises inspires a new paradigm in RF Stealth techniques suitable for satellites. In this paper we examine the possibility of using artificially created plasma sprays on the surface of the satellite’s main body to alter its radar cross section (RCS). First, we briefly review past research related to RF Stealth using plasma. Next, we discuss the physics between electromagnetic waves and plasma, and the RCS number game in RF Stealth design. A comparison of RCS in a generic satellite and a more complicated model is made to illustrate the effect of the RCS number game, and its meaning for a simulation model. We also run a comparison between finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) and multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM) codes, and find the RCS results are very close. We then compare the RCS of the generic satellite and the plasma-covered satellite. The incident radar wave is a differentiated Gaussian monopulse, with 3 dB bandwidth between 1.2 GHz and 4 GHz, and we simulate three kinds of plasma density, with a characteristic plasma frequency ω P  =  0.1, 1, and 10 GHz. The electron-neutral collision frequency ν en is set at 0.01 GHz. We found the RCS of plasma-covered satellite is not necessarily smaller than the originally satellite. When ω P is 0.1 GHz, the plasma spray behaves like a dielectric, and there is minor reduction in the RCS. When ω P is 1 GHz, the X-Y cut RCS increases. When ω P is 10 GHz, the plasma behaves more like a metal to the radar wave, and stronger RCS dependency to frequency appears. Therefore, to use plasma as an RCS adjustment tool requires careful fine-tuning of plasma density and shape, in order to achieve the so-called plasma stealth effect.

  11. PLASMA SPRAYED Ni-Al COATINGS FOR SAFE ENDING HEAT EXCHANGER TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    ALLAN,M.L.; OTTERSON,D.; BERNDT,C.C.

    1998-11-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed thermally conductive composite liners for corrosion and scale protection in heat exchanger tubes exposed to geothermal brine. The liners cannot withstand roller expansion to connect the tubes to the tubesheet. It is not possible to line the ends of the tubes with the same material after roller expansion due to the nature of the current liner application process. It was requested that BNL evaluate plasma sprayed Ni-Al coatings for safe ending heat exchanger tubes exposed to geothermal brine. The tubes of interest had an internal diameter of 0.875 inches. It is not typical to thermal spray small diameter components or use such small standoff distances. In this project a nozzle extension was developed by Zatorski Coating Company to spray the tube ends as well as flat coupons for testing. Four different Ni-Al coatings were investigated. One of these was a ductilized Ni-AIB material developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The coatings were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and subjected to corrosion, tensile adhesion, microhardness and field tests in a volcanic pool in New Zealand. It was determined that the Ni-Al coatings could be applied to a depth of two inches on the tube ends. When sprayed on flat coupons the coatings exhibited relatively high adhesion strength and microhardness. Polarization curves showed that the coating performance was variable. Measured corrosion potentials indicated that the Ni-Al coatings are active towards steel coated with thermally conductive polymers, thereby suggesting preferential corrosion. Corrosion also occurred on the coated coupons tested in the volcanic pool. This may have been exacerbated by the difficulty in applying a uniform coating to the coupon edges. The Ni-Al coatings applied to the tubes had significant porosity and did not provide adequate corrosion protection. This is associated with

  12. Reduction of deuterium permeation through DIN 1.4914 stainless steel (MANET) by plasma-spray deposited aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perujo, A.; Forcey, K. S.; Sample, T.

    1993-12-01

    The paper describes the formation of a permeation barrier on DIN 1.4914 (MANET) martensitic stainless steel by plasma spraying aluminium on the surface of the steel, followed by heat treatment of the sample to form Al 3Fe and Al 5Fe 2. Vacuum plasma spraying was chosen because it ensures that the sample will be exposed to low temperatures during the Al layer deposition and will not interfere with the heat treatment that MANET has to undergo in order to produce a homogeneous, fully martensitic structure. Measurements of the permeation rate of deuterium in the bare and aluminium-deposited MANET were performed by a gas permeation technique over the temperature range 573-743 K and for driving deuterium pressures in the range 3-50 kPa. Such measurements showed a reduction of the permeation rate between two and three orders of magnitude and there was evidence that surface reactions were the rate governing process.

  13. In Situ Visualization of Impacting Phenomena of Plasma-Sprayed Zirconia: From Single Splat to Coating Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Kentaro; Murakami, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Seiji; Takehara, Kohsei; Oki, Sachio

    2008-12-01

    The authors have developed an in situ monitoring system for particle impacts under atmospheric dc plasma spraying conditions. This system utilized a high-speed video camera coupled with a long-distance microscope, and was capable of capturing the particle-impinging phenomena at one million frames per second. To understand the coating formation mechanism, two approaches were attempted, i.e., observation of the single splat formation and the subsequent coating formation. In the former case, the deformation and cooling processes of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) droplets impinging on substrates were successfully captured. In the latter case, multiple-droplet-impacting phenomena were observed as an ensemble treatment. Representing the coating process, the tower formation (0-dimensional) and bead formation (1-dimensional) were observed under typical plasma spray conditions for thermal barrier coatings using a triggering system coupled with the motion of a robot. The obtained images clearly showed the coating formation resulting from the integration of single splats.

  14. Implications of electronic short circuiting in plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cells on electrode performance evaluation by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, B. D.; Kesler, O.

    Electronic short circuiting of the electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arising from flaws in the plasma spray fabrication process has been found to have a significant effect on the perceived performance of the electrodes, as evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The presence of a short circuit has been found to lead to the underestimation of the electrode polarization resistance (R p) and hence an overestimation of electrode performance. The effect is particularly noticeable when electrolyte resistance is relatively high, for example during low to intermediate temperature operation, leading to an obvious deviation from the expected Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of R p. A method is developed for determining the real electrode performance from measurements of various cell properties, and strategies for eliminating the occurrence of short circuiting in plasma sprayed cells are identified.

  15. Very low pressure plasma sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coating using a low-energy plasma gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Nannan; Bolot, Rodolphe; Planche, Marie-Pierre; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, a more economical low-energy plasma source was used to perform a very low pressure plasma-spray (VLPPS) process. The plasma-jet properties were analyzed by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Moreover, yttria-stabilized zirconia coating (YSZ) was elaborated by a F100 low-power plasma gun under working pressure of 1 mbar, and the substrate specimens were partially shadowed by a baffle-plate during plasma spraying for obtaining different coating microstructures. Based on the SEM observation, a column-like grain coating was deposited by pure vapor deposition at the shadowed region, whereas, in the unshadowed region, the coating exhibited a binary microstructure which was formed by a mixed deposition of melted particles and evaporated particles. The mechanical properties of the coating were also well under investigation.

  16. Al2O3/Al Cermets by Plasma Spraying: Optical Response of Experimental and Numerically Represented Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toru, D.; Echegut, R.; Quet, A.; De Sousa Meneses, D.; del Campo, L.; Piombini, H.; Echegut, P.; Bianchi, L.

    2016-01-01

    Optical properties of plasma-sprayed coatings and numerically represented samples were studied at wavelengths ranging from visible to mid-infrared. The paper focuses on Al2O3 and Al2O3/Al cermet coatings with different metal concentrations. Microstructure and composition of the samples were characterized in order to explain their optical response that is highly dependent on volume and/or surface scattering as a function of the wavelength range. 2D scanning electron microscopy and 3D x-ray microtomography images were exploited to get statistical data in order to numerically represent simplified samples from the complex microstructure of plasma-sprayed coatings. A Monte Carlo ray-tracing model, based on geometrical optical laws, was then applied to reproduce experimental trends of the acquired optical spectra. Good agreement with the experimental data was obtained.

  17. The structure and thermal properties of plasma-sprayed beryllium for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Bartlett, A.; Elliott, K.E.; Hollis, K.J.

    1996-09-01

    Plasma spraying is being studied for in situ repair of damaged Be and W plasma facing surfaces for ITER, the next generation magnetic fusion energy device, and is also being considered for fabricating Be and W plasma-facing components for the first wall of ITER. Investigators at LANL`s Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility have concentrated on investigating the structure-property relation between as-deposited microstructures of plasma sprayed Be coatings and resulting thermal properties. In this study, the effect of initial substrate temperature on resulting thermal diffusivity of Be coatings and the thermal diffusivity at the coating/Be substrate interface (interface thermal resistance) was investigated. Results show that initial Be substrate temperatures above 600 C can improve the thermal diffusivity of the Be coatings and minimize any thermal resistance at the interface between the Be coating and Be substrate.

  18. An Assessment of the Residual Stresses in Low Pressure Plasma Sprayed Coatings on an Advanced Copper Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Ghosn, L. J.; Agarwal, A.; Lachtrupp, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Modeling studies were conducted on low pressure plasma sprayed (LPPS) NiAl top coat applied to an advanced Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb alloy (GRCop-84) substrate using Ni as a bond coat. A thermal analysis suggested that the NiAl and Ni top and bond coats, respectively, would provide adequate thermal protection to the GRCop-84 substrate in a rocket engine operating under high heat flux conditions. Residual stress measurements were conducted at different depths from the free surface on coated and uncoated GRCop-84 specimens by x-ray diffraction. These data are compared with theoretically estimated values assessed by a finite element analysis simulating the development of these stresses as the coated substrate cools down from the plasma spraying temperature to room temperature.

  19. Microstructure and properties of in-flight rare-earth doped thermal barrier coatings prepared by suspension plasma spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Stephanie

    Thermal barrier coatings with lower thermal conductivity improve the efficiency of gas turbine engines by allowing higher operating temperatures. Recent studies were shown that coatings containing a pair of rare-earth oxides with equal molar ratio have lower thermal conductivity and improved sintering resistance compared to the undoped 4-4.5 mol.% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). In the present work, rare-earth doped coatings were fabricated via suspension plasma spray by spraying YSZ powder-ethanol suspensions that contained dissolved rare-earth nitrates. The compositions of the coatings determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy verified that 68 +/- 8% of the rare-earth nitrates added into the suspension was incorporated into the coatings. Two coatings containing different concentrations of the same dopant pair (Nd2O3/Yb2O3), and three coatings having similar concentrations of different dopant pairs (Nd 2O3/Yb2O3, Nd2O3/Gd 2O3, and Gd2O3/Yb2O 3) were produced and compared. The effect of dopant concentration and dopant pair type on the microstructure and properties of the coatings in the as-sprayed and heat treated conditions were investigated using XRD, SEM, TEM, STEM-EDX, and the laser flash method. The cross-sectional morphology of all coatings displayed columnar structure. The porosity content of the coating was found to increase with increasing dopant concentration, but did not significantly change with dopant pairs. Similarly, increasing the Nd2O3/Yb2O 3 concentration lowered the thermal conductivity of the as-sprayed coatings. Although the effect of changing dopant pair type is not as significant as increasing the dopant concentration, the coating that contained Gd2O 3/Yb2O3 exhibited the lowest conductivity compared to coatings that had other dopant pairs. Thermal conductivity measurement performed on the heat treated coatings indicated a larger conductivity increase for the rare-earth doped coatings. A detailed study on the

  20. The properties and fracture behavior of ion plasma sprayed TiN coating on stainless steel substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, Dina V.; Goncharenko, Igor M.; Danilov, Vladimir I.; Lobach, Maxim I.; Danilova, Lidiya V.; Shlyakhova, Galina V.

    2015-10-01

    The wear resistance and fracture behavior of ion plasma sprayed TiN coating were studied; the results are presented. The coating was applied to the stainless steel substrate using a vacuum arc method. The samples were tested by active loading. With varying coating thickness, its characteristics were found to change. Multiple cracking would occur in the deformed sample, with fragment borders aligned normal to the extension axis.

  1. The convention on long-range transboundary air pollution`s sulfur protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Leaf, D.

    1995-12-31

    The US is a signatory to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe`s Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air pollution (LRTAP). The signatories to the LRTAP Convention include most European countries, as well as the US and Canada. Over the past decade two Sulfur Protocols have been negotiated under the auspices of LRTAP; both were based on acidification concerns. The first, signed in 1985, committed countries to a 30% decrease in sulfur emissions relative to a 1980 baseline. The second, signed in 1994, committed countries to a 50--80% reduction in sulfur emissions. The latest protocol was based on the effects-based concept of critical loads of sulfur for protecting ecosystems from the effects of acidification. The US did not sign either sulfur protocol, but has participated in discussions leading up to both. This paper will present a discussion of the LRTAP Convention, the two sulfur protocols, the NO{sub x} Protocol, the US-Canada relationship on acid rain, the critical loads concept, and US participation in the LRTAP process (including the relationship between the sulfur protocols and Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990). The focus will be on key scientific and policy issues.

  2. The effect on bone growth enhancement of implant coatings with hydroxyapatite and collagen deposited electrochemically and by plasma spray.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, Henrik; Elmengaard, Brian; Bechtold, Joan E; Jensen, Thomas; Soballe, Kjeld

    2010-03-01

    Skeletal bone consists of hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)] and collagen type I, both of which are osseoconductive. The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable long-lasting fixation between bone and an implant surface. In this study, we evaluated the mechanical fixation and tissue distribution surrounding implants coated with three surfaces: plasma-sprayed HA coating, thinner coating of electrochemical-assisted deposition of HA, and an identical thin coating with a top layer of mineralized collagen. Uncoated plasma-sprayed titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) served as negative control. The electrochemical-assisted deposition was performed near physiological conditions. We used a canine experimental joint replacement model with four cylindrical implants (one of each treatment group) inserted in the humeri cancellous metaphyseal bone in a 1 mm gap. Observation time was 4 weeks. The mechanical fixation was quantified by push-out test to failure, and the peri-implant tissue formation by histomorphometric evaluation. HA coatings deposited by plasma spray technique or electrochemically, increased the mechanical fixation and bone ongrowth, but there was no statistical difference between the individual HA applications. Addition of collagen to the mineralized phase of the coating to create a more bone natural surface did not improve the osseoconductive effect of HA.

  3. Characterization of Nanostructured NbSi2 Intermetallic Coatings Obtained by Plasma Spraying of Mechanically Alloyed Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, Zohreh; Karimzadeh, Fathallah; Abbasi, Mohammad-Hasan

    2015-08-01

    Nanostructured NbSi2 powders plasma sprayed on to Ti-6Al-4V substrates were characterized in this research. After preparation of the nanostructured NbSi2 powders by mechanical alloying of an Nb-Si powder mixture, agglomeration was performed to obtain a particle size suitable for spraying. The agglomerated powders were then sprayed by atmospheric plasma spraying. Structural transformation of the powders and morphological and mechanical changes of the coatings were examined by use of x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and microhardness testing. During milling, NbSi2 intermetallic with a grain size of approximately 15 nm was gradually formed. After plasma spraying, a coating of hardness 550 ± 8 HV with a uniform nanocrystalline structure, low oxide content, low porosity, and a good adhesion to the substrate was obtained. No phase change occurred after spraying and the NbSi2 compound remained nanostructured with a grain size of approximately 82 nm.

  4. The influence of pore formers on the microstructure of plasma-sprayed NiO-YSZ anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Michael; Kesler, Olivera

    2012-07-01

    Four types of pore formers: high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK), mesocarbon-microbead (MCMB) carbon powder, and baking flour, are processed and characterized, then incorporated with NiO-YSZ nano-agglomerate powder to produce plasma sprayed SOFC anode coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the coating microstructure, gas permeability measurements, and porosity determinations by image analysis are used to evaluate the effectiveness of each potential pore former powder. Under the spray conditions studied, the flour and MCMB pore former powders are effective as plasma sprayed pore formers, increasing the permeability of the coatings by factors of four and two, respectively, compared to a similarly sprayed NiO-YSZ coating without pore formers. The HDPE powder is unable to survive the plasma spray process and does not contribute to the final coating porosity. The PEEK pore former, though ineffective with the current powder characteristics and spray parameters, exhibits the highest relative deposition efficiency and the most favorable thermal characteristics.

  5. Studies on the Sliding Wear Performance of Plasma Spray Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Maninder; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Balraj; Singh, Bhupinder

    2010-01-01

    Two metallic powders namely Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al were coated on AISI 309 SS steel by shrouded plasma spray process. The wear behavior of the bare, Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al-coated AISI 309 SS steel was investigated according to ASTM Standard G99-03 on a Pin-on-Disc Wear Test Rig. The wear tests were carried out at normal loads of 30 and 50 N with a sliding velocity of 1 m/s. Cumulative wear rate and coefficient of friction (μ) were calculated for all the cases. The worn-out surfaces were then examined by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Both the as-sprayed coatings exhibited typical splat morphology. The XRD analysis indicated the formation of Ni phase for the Ni-20Cr coating and Ni3Al phase for the Ni3Al coating. It has been concluded that the plasma-sprayed Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al coatings can be useful to reduce the wear rate of AISI 309 SS steel. The coatings were found to be adherent to the substrate steel during the wear tests. The plasma-sprayed Ni3Al coating has been recommended as a better choice to reduce the wear of AISI 309 SS steel, in comparison with the Ni-20Cr coating.

  6. Effect of Spraying Parameters on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Micro-Plasma Sprayed Alumina-Titania Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gu; Wang, Liuying; Chen, Guiming; Wei, Wanning; Hua, Shaochun; Zhu, Erlei

    2011-08-01

    Electrical property of a micro-plasma spray system with different working-gas feeding schemes was tested to optimize the plasma spray process. The arc voltage with an integrated gas injection mode is higher than that with radial injection or axial injection modes. Thus, an integrated gas injection mode with an excellent electrical characteristic was adopted to deposit alumina-titania coating. The microstructure, bonding strength and hardness of the plasma sprayed alumina-titania coating, as a function of the spraying parameters, e.g., plasma current, gas flow rate and gas pressure, were studied. It was shown that the spraying parameters affected remarkably on the microstructure of the coating. Different tendencies in bonding strength and hardness were also shown for different spraying parameters. At an arc current of 250 A, a gas flow rate of 20 L/min and a gas pressure of 0.5 MPa, the bonding strength and micro-hardness of the coatings reach 40.6 MPa and HV1406.1, respectively.

  7. Plasma sprayed coatings for containment of Cu-Mg-Si metallic phase change material

    SciTech Connect

    Withey, Elizabeth Ann; Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Andraka, Charles E.; Gibbs, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance of Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ), Y2O3, and Al2O3 plasma sprayed coatings are investigated for their ability to prevent attack of Haynes 230 by a near-eutectic Cu-Mg-Si metallic phase change material (PCM) in a closed environment at 820 °C. Areas where coatings failed were identified with optical and scanning electron microscopy, while chemical interactions were clarified through elemental mapping using electron microprobe analysis. Despite its susceptibility to reduction by Mg, the Al2O3 coating performed well while the YSZ and Y2O3 coating showed clear areas of attack. These results are attributed to the evolution of gaseous Mg at 820 °C leading to the formation of MgO and MgAl2O4.

  8. Adhesive and cohesive properties by indentation method of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Z.; Ziaei-Moayyed, A. A.; Mesgar, A. Sheikh-Mehdi

    2007-03-01

    Adhesive and cohesive properties of the plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings, deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrates by varying the plasma power level and spray distance (SD), were evaluated by an indentation method. The crystallinity and the porosity decreased with increasing both of these two parameters. The microhardness value, Young's modulus ( E) and coating fracture toughness ( KC) were found to increase with a combinational increase in spray power and SD. The Knoop and Vickers indentation methods were used to estimate E and KC, respectively. The critical point at which no crack appears at the interface was determined by the interface indentation test. This was used to define the apparent interfacial toughness ( KCa) which is representative of the crack initiation resistance of the interface. It was found that KCa reaches to a maximum at a medium increase in both spray power and SD, while other mechanical properties of the coatings reaches to the highest value with further increase in these two plasma parameters. The tensile adhesion strength of the coatings, measure by the standard adhesion test, ISO 13779-4, was shown to alter in the same manner with KCa results. It was deduced that a combinational increase in spray power and SD which leads to a higher mechanical properties in the coatings, does not necessarily tends to a better mechanical properties at the interface.

  9. Plasma Sprayed Metal-Ceramic Coatings and Modification of Their Structure with Pulsed Electron Beam Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solonenko, O. P.; Ovcharenko, V. E.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Golovin, A. A.

    2011-06-01

    Composite powder obtained from mechanically crushed titanium carbide—metal binder cermet compacts deserves special mention for plasma spraying of wear-resistant coatings. However, cermet coatings sprayed using this powder have comparatively high porosity. The porosity causes the mechanical strength of the coating to largely deteriorate, and it also lowers the strength of the bond between the coating and the substrate. Computational and physical experiments were performed in this area to reveal the possibilities offered by pulsed electron beam irradiation for structural modification of 70 vol.%TiC-(Ni-Cr) powder coatings. The authors evaluated optimal values of process parameters for suitability in implementing a controlled thermal treatment of coatings under conditions of solid-liquid interaction of components in the cermet composition with each other and with the steel substrate. Evolution of the structure and physical properties of the cermet coatings under rapid heating and following cooling in a wide range of temperatures typical of pulsed irradiation conditions have been examined.

  10. Quasistatic vs. Dynamic Modulus Measurements Of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, J. I.; Morscher, G. N.; Choi, S. R.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed 8wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been demonstrated to exhibit nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior by quasistatic cyclic compression and cylindrical punch indentation measurements. In particular, the instantaneous (tangential) elastic modulus increases with applied stress and exhibits significant hysteresis during cycling. Sound velocity (dynamic) measurements also show an increase in TBC modulus with applied compressive stress, but in contrast show no significant hysteresis for the modulus during cycling. The nonlinear elastic behavior of the TBCs evidenced by these tests is attributed to coating compaction and internal sliding. The differences between the quasistatic and dynamic measurements are explained by the relative absence of the effect of internal sliding in the dynamic modulus measurements. By incorporating short load reversals into the larger loading cycle and measuring the instantaneous modulus at the start of each load reversal, the effects of internal sliding can be substantially reduced in the quasistatic measurements, and the resulting modulus values show good agreement with the modulus values determined by dynamic sound velocity measurements.

  11. Characterization of High-Velocity Single Particle Impacts on Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiilakoski, Jarkko; Lindroos, Matti; Apostol, Marian; Koivuluoto, Heli; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani; Vuoristo, Petri

    2016-08-01

    High-velocity impact wear can have a significant effect on the lifetime of thermally sprayed coatings in multiple applications, e.g., in the process and paper industries. Plasma-sprayed oxide coatings, such as Cr2O3- and TiO2-based coatings, are often used in these industries in wear and corrosion applications. An experimental impact study was performed on thermally sprayed ceramic coatings using the High-Velocity Particle Impactor (HVPI) at oblique angles to investigate the damage, failure, and deformation of the coated structures. The impact site was characterized by profilometry, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the connection between the microstructural details and impact behavior was studied in order to reveal the damage and failure characteristics at a more comprehensive level. Differences in the fracture behavior were found between the thermally sprayed Cr2O3 and TiO2 coatings, and a concept of critical impact energy is presented here. The superior cohesion of the TiO2 coating inhibited interlamellar cracking while the Cr2O3 coating suffered greater damage at high impact energies. The HVPI experiment has proven to be able to produce valuable information about the deformation behavior of coatings under high strain rates and could be utilized further in the development of wear-resistant coatings.

  12. Synthesis of Tribologically Favorable Coatings for Hot Extrusion Tools by Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erne, M.; Kolar, D.; Hübsch, C.; Möhwald, M.; Bach, Fr.-W.

    2012-06-01

    Up to now, no coating systems have been marketed in the field of direct hot extrusion, which provide both surface protection of the parts in contact with the billet (i.e., container and die) as well as a significant reduction of the frictional losses induced by the billet passing over the container walls. To dispense with the use of lubricants and to enhance the usable forming capacity and therefore the efficiency of the process, different oxide ceramics were prepared in one suspension and plasma sprayed to produce coatings. The aim was to reach a sufficient level of feedstock mixing to obtain deterministic solid solutions of the oxide phases in coatings resulting in a reduction of their coefficient of friction under dry sliding conditions. To achieve this objective, the high specific surface area of nanosized feedstock with primary particle sizes below 100 nm was used. By means of x-ray diffraction it could be proven, that the desired phases could be synthesized to varying ratios regarding the different coating systems considered here. Besides the experimental work, the fundamentals of the mixing process of different oxides are discussed with regard to the crystallographic aspects.

  13. Numerical simulation of zirconia splat formation and cooling during plasma spray deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, YeMeng; Zheng, YunZhai; Zheng, ZhengHuan; Li, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    The adhesion/cohesion of plasma-sprayed coatings depends strongly on the flattening and solidification of individual splat, taking place in a few microseconds. Such a short time makes it difficult to thoroughly study the splat formation. A three-dimensional numerical model incorporating the substrate melting and solidification was developed using CFD method to simulate the flattening and cooling of zirconia splat involving the influence of interface thermal contact resistance. On smooth substrate where the thermal contact resistance is zero, the splat has a cooling rate of 1.7 × 108 K/s, resulting in substrate melting, and a disk-like splat is formed with a spread factor of approximately 3.5. While on substrate with thermal contact resistance of 10-7 m2 K/W, corresponding cooling rate is 3.17 × 108 K/s and a central splat surrounded by satellite droplets is formed due to the rapid solidification of the splat edges.

  14. Effect of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on the osteoconductivity of commercially pure titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Strnad, Z; Strnad, J; Povýsil, C; Urban, K

    2000-01-01

    Formation of a calcium phosphate layer was studied on the surfaces of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (PSHA) and sandblasted commercially pure (cp) titanium in simulated body fluid with ion concentrations similar to those of human blood plasma. The PSHA surface induced the formation of calcium phosphate surface layers, while the precipitation of calcium phosphate on sandblasted cp titanium was not detected. Histologic evaluation of in vivo tests demonstrated that implants with a PSHA coating enabled the growth of bone tissue into gaps with a depth of up to 1 mm without significant formation of intermediate fibrous tissue. In comparison to sandblasted cp titanium, implants with PSHA coating exhibited greater tolerance to unfavorable conditions during healing, such as gaps at the interface or primary instability of the implant. In the case of good primary stability of the implant, filling of the gap with fibrous tissue was observed for sandblasted cp titanium implants over the greater part of the surface of gaps with a depth of 0.3 mm. Direct contact of cp titanium implants with bone was achieved only when the press-fit implantation model was used. PMID:10960980

  15. In vivo evaluation of plasma-sprayed titanium coating after alkali modification.

    PubMed

    Xue, Weichang; Liu, Xuanyong; Zheng, XueBin; Ding, Chuanxian

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, plasma-sprayed titanium coatings were modified by alkali treatment. The changes in chemical composition and structure of coatings were examined by SEM and AES. The results obtained indicated that a net-like microscopic texture feature, which was full of the interconnected fine porosity, appeared on the surface of alkali-modified titanium coatings. The surface chemical composition was also altered by alkali modification. A sodium titanate compound was formed on the surface of the titanium coating and replaced the native passivating oxide layer. Its thickness was measured as about 150 nm which was about 10 times of that of the as-sprayed coating. The bone bonding ability of titanium coatings were investigated using a canine model. The histological examination and SEM observation demonstrated that more new bone was formed on the surface of alkali-modified implants and grew more rapidly into the porosity. The alkali-modified implants were found to appose directly to the surrounding bone. In contrast, a gap was observed at the interface between the as-sprayed implants and bone. The push-out test showed that alkali-modified implants had a higher shear strength than as-sprayed implants after 1 month of implantation. An interfacial layer, containing Ti, Ca and P, was found to form at the interface between bone and the alkali-modified implant by EDS analysis.

  16. Low-Energy Plasma Spray (LEPS) Deposition of Hydroxyapatite/Poly-ɛ-Caprolactone Biocomposite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Alonso, Diana; Parco, Maria; Stokes, Joseph; Looney, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Thermal spraying is widely employed to deposit hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-based biocomposites on hip and dental implants. For thick HA coatings (>150 μm), problems are generally associated with the build-up of residual stresses and lack of control of coating crystallinity. HA/polymer composite coatings are especially interesting to improve the pure HA coatings' mechanical properties. For instance, the polymer may help in releasing the residual stresses in the thick HA coatings. In addition, the selection of a bioresorbable polymer may enhance the coatings' biological behavior. However, there are major challenges associated with spraying ceramic and polymeric materials together because of their very different thermal properties. In this study, pure HA and HA/poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) thick coatings were deposited without significant thermal degradation by low-energy plasma spraying (LEPS). PCL has never been processed by thermal spraying, and its processing is a major achievement of this study. The influence of selected process parameters on microstructure, composition, and mechanical properties of HA and HA/PCL coatings was studied using statistical design of experiments (DOE). The HA deposition rate was significantly increased by the addition of PCL. The average porosity of biocomposite coatings was slightly increased, while retaining or even improving in some cases their fracture toughness and microhardness. Surface roughness of biocomposites was enhanced compared with HA pure coatings. Cell culture experiments showed that murine osteoblast-like cells attach and proliferate well on HA/PCL biocomposite deposits.

  17. Suspension Plasma Spray Fabrication of Nanocrystalline Titania Hollow Microspheres for Photocatalytic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Kun; Liu, Yi; He, Xiaoyan; Li, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Hollow inorganic microspheres with controlled internal pores in close-cell configuration are usually constructed by submicron-sized particles. Fast and efficient large-scale production of the microspheres with tunable sizes yet remains challenging. Here, we report a suspension plasma spray route for making hollow microspheres from nano titania particles. The processing permits most nano particles to retain their physiochemical properties in the as-sprayed microspheres. The microspheres have controllable interior cavities and mesoporous shell of 1-3 μm in thickness. Spray parameters and organic content in the starting suspension play the key role in regulating the efficiency of accomplishing the hollow sphere structure. For the ease of collecting the spheres for recycling use, ferriferous oxide particles were used as additives to make Fe3O4-TiO2 hollow magnetic microspheres. The spheres can be easily recycled through external magnetic field collection after each time use. Photocatalytic anti-bacterial activities of the hollow spheres were assessed by examining their capability of degrading methylene blue and sterilizing Escherichia coli bacteria. Excellent photocatalytic performances were revealed for the hollow spheres, giving insight into their potential versatile applications.

  18. Low cycle fatigue behaviour of a plasma-sprayed coating material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Miner, R. V.

    1986-01-01

    Single crystal nickel-base superalloys employed in turbine blade applications are often used with a plasma spray coating for oxidation and hot corrosion resistance. These coatings may also affect fatigue life of the superalloy substrate. As part of a large program to understand the fatigue behavior of coated single crystals, fully reversed, total strain controlled fatigue tests were run on a free standing NiCoCrAlY coating alloy, PWA 276, at 0.1 Hz. Fatigue tests were conducted at 650 C, where the NiCoCrAlY alloy has modest ductility, and at 1050 C, where it is extremely ductile, showing tensile elongation in excess of 100 percent. At the lower test temperature, deformation induced disordering softened the NiCoCrAlY alloy, while at the higher test temperature cyclic hardening was observed which was linked to gradual coarsening of the two phase microstructure. Fatigue life of the NiCoCrAlY alloy was significantly longer at the higher temperature. Further, the life of the NiCoCrAlY alloy exceeds that of coated, /001/-oriented PWA 1480 single crystals at 1050 C but at 650 C the life of the coated crystal is greater than that of the NiCoCrAlY alloy on a total strain basis.

  19. The low cycle fatigue behavior of a plasma-sprayed coating material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Single crystal nickel-base superalloys employed in turbine blade applications are often used with a plasma spray coating for oxidation and hot corrosion resistance. These coatings may also affect fatigue life of the superalloy substrate. As part of a large program to understand the fatigue behavior of coated single crystals, fully reversed, total strain controlled fatigue tests were run on a free standing NiCoCrAlY coating alloy, PWA 276, at 0.1 Hz. Fatigue tests were conducted at 650 C, where the NiCoCrAlY alloy has modest ductility, and at 1050 C, where it is extremely ductile, showing tensile elongation in excess of 100 percent. At the lower test temperature, deformation induced disordering softened the NiCoCrAlY alloy, while at the higher test temperature cyclic hardening was observed which was linked to gradual coarsening of the two phase microstructure. Fatigue life of the NiCoCrAlY alloy was significantly longer at the higher temperature. Further, the life of the NiCoCrAlY alloy exceeds that of coated, /001/-oriented PWA 1480 single crystals at 1050 C, but at 650 C the life of the coated crystal is greater than that of the NiCoCrAlY alloy on a total strain basis.

  20. Surface characterization and cytotoxicity analysis of plasma sprayed coatings on titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Zia Ur; Shabib, Ishraq; Haider, Waseem

    2016-10-01

    In the realm of biomaterials, metallic materials are widely used for load bearing joints due to their superior mechanical properties. Despite the necessity for long term metallic implants, there are limitations to their prolonged use. Naturally, oxides of titanium have low solubilities and form passive oxide film spontaneously. However, some inclusion and discontinuity spots in oxide film make implant to adopt the decisive nature. These defects heighten the dissolution of metal ions from the implant surface, which results in diminishing bio-integration of titanium implant. To increase the long-term metallic implant stability, surface modifications of titanium alloys are being carried out. In the present study, biomimetic coatings of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite and titanium were applied to the surface of commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V. Surface morphology and surface chemistry were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were carried out in order to study their electrochemical behavior. Moreover, cytotoxicity analysis was conducted for osteoblast cells by performing MTS assay. It is concluded that both hydroxyapatite and titanium coatings enhance corrosion resistance and improve cytocompatibility.

  1. Preparation of Nanocomposite GDC/LSCF Cathode Material for IT-SOFC by Induction Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yan; Almeida, Veronica Alexandra B.; Gitzhofer, François

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneous mixtures of Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC) and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF) nanopowders were successfully synthesized using induction plasma by axial injection of a solution. The resulting nanocomposite powders consisted of two kinds of nanopowders with different mass ratio of GDC/LSCF, such as 3/7 and 6/4. The morphological features, crystallinity, and the phases of the synthesized powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), local energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The nanopowders are almost globular in shape with a diameter smaller than 100 nm and their BET specific areas are around 20 m2 g-1. The GDC and LSCF phases are well distributed in the nanopowders. In addition, suspensions, made with the as-synthesized composite nanopowders and ethanol, were used to deposit cathode coatings using suspension plasma spray (SPS). Micro-nanostructures of the coatings are discussed. The coatings are homogeneous and porous (51% porosity) with cauliflower structures.

  2. Fracture toughness of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier ceramics: Influence of processing, microstructure, and thermal aging

    DOE PAGES

    Dwivedi, Gopal; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay; Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2014-06-09

    Fracture toughness has become one of the dominant design parameters that dictates the selection of materials and their microstructure to obtain durable thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Much progress has been made in characterizing the fracture toughness of relevant TBC compositions in bulk form, and it has become apparent that this property is significantly affected by process-induced microstructural defects. In this investigation, a systematic study of the influence of coating microstructure on the fracture toughness of atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) TBCs has been carried out. Yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings were fabricated under different spray process conditions inducing different levelsmore » of porosity and interfacial defects. Fracture toughness was measured on free standing coatings in as-processed and thermally aged conditions using the double torsion technique. Results indicate significant variance in fracture toughness among coatings with different microstructures including changes induced by thermal aging. Comparative studies were also conducted on an alternative TBC composition, Gd2Zr2O7 (GDZ), which as anticipated shows significantly lower fracture toughness compared to YSZ. Furthermore, the results from these studies not only point towards a need for process and microstructure optimization for enhanced TBC performance but also a framework for establishing performance metrics for promising new TBC compositions.« less

  3. Characterization of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Low-Pressure Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Peng-jiang; Yin, Shuo; Song, Chen; Lapostolle, Frédéric; Liao, Han-lin

    2016-02-01

    The research presented here aimed to apply plasma spraying at a low pressure of 100 Pa for fabricating the columnar structure or dense coatings. These coatings with different structures were elaborated from the vapor condensation and molten droplets, respectively, using the agglomerated YSZ powders and a relatively low power commercial F4-VB torch. It was shown that the crystallite size of coating deposited from the vapor condensation at a spraying distance of 200 mm was reduced to 17.1 nm from 43.7 nm of the feedstock. Observations indicated that a thin columnar structured coating was produced out of the line of sight of projection. In the line of sight of projection, the hybrid structured coating was obtained. The relatively dense coating was fabricated using a specifically designed extended nozzle. Investigations by means of optical emission spectroscopy were performed to analyze the nature of the plasma jet with YSZ powders. The Vickers microhardness was also conducted. It was found that the relatively dense coating showed a higher value in comparison to the hybrid structure coating, up to 1273 ± 56 Hv100g.

  4. Improvement of Coating Properties in Three-Cathode Atmospheric Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Kopp, N.; Warda, T.; Petković, I.; Zimmermann, S.; Hartz-Behrend, K.; Landes, K.; Forster, G.; Kirner, S.; Marqués, J.-L.; Schein, J.; Prehm, J.; Möhwald, K.; Bach, Fr.-W.

    2013-04-01

    The main aim of this study is to improve the coating properties of three-cathode atmospheric plasma-sprayed coatings with respect to porosity and residual stresses. This was done by means of numerical simulation coupled with advanced diagnostic methods. A numerical model for the triple injection of alumina feedstock, as well as acceleration and heating of the powder particles in the characteristic threefold symmetrical plasma jet cross section produced by a three-cathode-plasma torch, was developed. The modeling results for the standard injector's position "0" were calculated and experimentally verified by laser Doppler anemometry. Based on the criteria defined for the concentrated feedstock transport and homogeneous thermal treatment of powder particles in the plasma jet, the optimal injection position was found. In the next step, a previously developed, coupled CFD-FEM-simulation model was used for simulations of the coating build-up, describing flattening, solidification, and deformation due to shrinkage for alumina particles on a rough substrate surface.

  5. Effect of substrate preheating temperature and coating thickness on residual stress in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dapei

    2015-07-01

    A thermal-mechanical coupling model was developed based on thermal-elastic- plastic theory according the special process of plasma spraying Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating upon Ti-6Al-4V substrate. On the one hand, the classical Fourier transient heat conduction equation was modified by introducing the effect item of deformation on temperature, on the other hand, the Johnson-Cook model, suitable for high temperature and high strain rate conditions, was used as constitutive equation after considering temperature softening effect, strain hardening effect and strain rate reinforcement effect. Based on the above coupling model, the residual stress field within the HA coating was simulated by using finite element method (FEM). Meanwhile, the substrate preheating temperature and coating thickness on the influence of residual stress components were calculated, respectively. The failure modes of coating were also preliminary analyzed. In addition, in order to verify the reliability of calculation, the material removal measurement technique was applied to determine the residual stress of HA coating near the interface. Some important conclusions are obtained.

  6. Phase Composition, Microstructure, and Tribological Property of Plasma-Sprayed TiC-BASED Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shibin; Zou, Zengda; Liu, Xuemei; Shi, Hanchao

    TiC-based wear resistant coating was prepared by plasma spraying using reconstituted composite powders doped with ultra-fine carbide. Phase composition and microstructure of as-sprayed coating were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizing backscattered imaging mode (BSE), and electron probe micro-analysis. Wear test was performed by using a ring-on-block tester under dry sliding condition. Results show that the coating adheres well to the substrate and no delamination appears. TiC content underwent pronounced reduction because of oxidation, reaction, and physical loss. Reactions between TiC and Mo and probably between dissociated C and Mo lead to the formation of Mo2C. Wear resistance of NiCrMo-TiC coating is about 4-8 times higher than that of substrate under different applied force. This work shed light on the reconstitution of spraying powder doped with ultra-fine reinforce phase particles, and the present results are important for the preparation of nano-doped TiC-based coatings.

  7. Fabrication of gas turbine water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware employing plasma spray process

    DOEpatents

    Schilke, Peter W.; Muth, Myron C.; Schilling, William F.; Rairden, III, John R.

    1983-01-01

    In the method for fabrication of water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware for high temperature gas turbines, a high thermal conductivity copper alloy is applied, employing a high velocity/low pressure (HV/LP) plasma arc spraying process, to an assembly comprising a structural framework of copper alloy or a nickel-based super alloy, or combination of the two, and overlying cooling tubes. The copper alloy is plamsa sprayed to a coating thickness sufficient to completely cover the cooling tubes, and to allow for machining back of the copper alloy to create a smooth surface having a thickness of from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.150 inch (3.18 mm) or more. The layer of copper applied by the plasma spraying has no continuous porosity, and advantageously may readily be employed to sustain a pressure differential during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding of the overall structure to enhance bonding by solid state diffusion between the component parts of the structure.

  8. On characterisation of wire-arc-plasma-sprayed Ni on alumina substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Laik, A.; Chakravarthy, D.P.; Kale, G.B. . E-mail: gbkale@apsara.barc.ernet.in

    2005-08-15

    A study was carried out on metal-ceramic bonding produced by the technique of wire-arc-plasma spraying of Ni on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. The Ni layer and the Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface were characterised using optical and electro-optic techniques. The plasma-deposited Ni layer shows a uniform lamellar microstructure throughout the cross-section. The metal-ceramic interface was found to be well bonded with no pores, flaws or cracks in the as-sprayed condition. The optical metallography and concentration profiles established with the help of an electron probe microanalyser confirmed the absence of any intermediate phase at the interface. An annealing treatment at 1273 K for 24 h on the plasma-coated samples did not result in formation of any intermetallic compound or spinel at the Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. This indicates that the oxygen picked up by Ni during the spraying operation is less than the threshold value required to form the spinel NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  9. Fabrication and Tribological Evaluation of Vacuum Plasma-Sprayed B4C Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huiying; Niu, Yaran; Lin, Chucheng; Huang, Liping; Ji, Heng; Zheng, Xuebin

    2012-12-01

    B4C coating was fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying and the tribological properties of the coating against WC-Co alloy were evaluated by sliding wear tests. Al2O3 coating, one of the most commonly used wear-resistant coatings, was employed as comparison in the tribological evaluation. The results obtained show that, the B4C coating is composed of a large amount of nanostructured particles along with some amorphous phases. Both of the friction coefficient and wear rate of the B4C coating are much lower than those of the Al2O3 coating, and the tribological evaluation reveals a decreasing trend for the B4C coating in friction coefficient as well as wear rate with increasing normal load, which is explained in terms of the formation of a protective transfer layer on its worn surface. Tribofilm wear is found to be the dominant wear mechanism involved in the B4C/WC-Co alloy friction pair.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Yttria- and Ceria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Obtained by Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łatka, Leszek; Cattini, Andrea; Chicot, Didier; Pawłowski, Lech; Kozerski, Stefan; Petit, Fabrice; Denoirjean, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Plasma generated by the SG-100 torch was applied to spray suspension formulated with the use of ZrO2 + 8 wt.% Y2O3 (8YSZ) and ZrO2 + 24 wt.% CeO2 + 2.5 wt.% Y2O3 (24CeYSZ) as solid phases. The suspensions were formulated with the use of 20 wt.% solid phase, 40 wt.% water, and 40 wt.% ethanol. The plasma spray parameters were optimized by keeping constant: (a) the electric power of 40 kW and (b) the working gas compositions of 45 slpm for Ar and 5 slpm for H2. On the other hand, the spray distance was varied from 40 to 60 mm and the torch linear speed was varied from 300 to 500 mm/s. The coatings were sprayed onto stainless steel substrates, and their thicknesses were in the range from 70 to 110 μm. The coating microstructures were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope. Mechanical properties were tested with the different methods including the indentation and scratch tests. The indentation test, carried out with various loads ranging from 100 to 10,000 mN, enabled to determine elastic modulus and Martens microhardness. Young's modulus of the coatings was in the range of 71-107 GPa for 8YSZ and 68-130 GPa for 24CeYSZ coatings. The scratch test enabled the authors to find the scratch macrohardness.

  11. Neutron diffraction and ferromagnetic resonance studies on plasma-sprayed MnZn ferrite films

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Q.Y.; Gambino, R.J.; Sampath, S.; Huang, Q.

    2005-02-01

    The magnetic properties of MnZn ferrites are affected by the plasma spray process. It is found that improvements can be made by annealing the ferrite films at 500 deg. C - 800 deg. C. The annealing induced magnetic property changes are studied by neutron diffraction and ferromagnetic resonance techniques. The increase of the saturation magnetization is attributed to the cation ordering within the spinel lattice, which increases the magnetic moment per ferrite formula. The refinements on the neutron diffraction data suggest that the redistribution of the cation during annealing neither starts from a fully disordered state nor ends to a fully ordered state. The decrease of the coercivity is analyzed with the domain wall pinning model. The measurements on the magnetostriction and residual stress indicate that coercive mechanisms arising from the magnetoelastic energy term are not dominant in these ferrite films. The decrease of the coercivity for annealed ferrite films is mainly attributed to the decrease of the effective anisotropic field, which may result from the homogenization of the film composition and the reduction of the microstructural discontinuity (e.g., cracks, voids, and splat boundaries)

  12. Analytical interpretation of arc instabilities in a DC plasma spray torch: the role of pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rat, V.; Coudert, J. F.

    2016-06-01

    Arc instabilities in a plasma spray torch are investigated experimentally and theoretically thanks to a linear simplified analytical model. The different parameters that determine the useful properties of the plasma jet at the torch exit, such as specific enthalpy and speed, but also pressure inside the torch and time variations of the flow rate are studied. The work is particularly focused on the link between the recorded arc voltage and the pressure in the cathode cavity. A frequency analysis of the recorded voltage and pressure allows the separation of different contributions following their spectral characteristics and highlights a resonance effect due to Helmholtz oscillations; these oscillations are responsible for the large amplitude fluctuations of all the parameters investigated. The influence of heat transfer, friction forces and residence time of the plasma in the nozzle are taken into account, thanks to different characteristics’ times. The volume of the cathode cavity in which the cold gas is stored before entering the arc region appears to be of prime importance for the dynamics of instabilities, particularly for the non-intuitive effect that induces flow-rate fluctuations in spite of the fact that the torch is fed at a constant flow rate.

  13. Electromagnetic and Mechanical Properties of Silica-Aluminosilicates Plasma Sprayed Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipri, F.; Bartuli, C.; Valente, T.; Casadei, F.

    2007-12-01

    The physico-chemical and thermo-mechanical properties of aluminosilicate ceramics (high-melting point, low thermal expansion coefficient, excellent thermal shock resistance, low-density and good corrosion resistance) make this class of materials a good option for high-temperature structural applications. Al2O3-SiO2 compounds show an excellent refractory behavior allowing a wide use as wear-resistant thermal barrier coatings, in metallurgical and glass plants and in high temperature heat exchangers. Moreover, the low values of thermal expansion coefficient and of complex permittivity allow to extend the use of this ceramic for microelectronic devices, radome for antennas and electromagnetic windows for microwaves and infrared. The present article presents the results of an extensive experimental activity carried out to produce thick aluminosilicate coatings by plasma-spray technique. The APS deposition parameters were optimized on the basis of a surface response approach, as specified by design of experiments (DoE) methodologies. Samples were tested for phase composition, total porosity, microstructure, microhardness, deposition efficiency, fracture toughness, and modulus of rupture. Finally, coatings were characterized for their particularly interesting electromagnetic properties: complex permittivity was measured at microwave frequency using a network analyzer with wave guide.

  14. Thermal Barrier Coatings Made by the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gell, Maurice; Jordan, Eric H.; Teicholz, Matthew; Cetegen, Baki M.; Padture, Nitin P.; Xie, Liangde; Chen, Dianying; Ma, Xinqing; Roth, Jeffrey

    2008-03-01

    The solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process is a relatively new and flexible thermal spray process that can produce a wide variety of novel materials, including some with superior properties. The SPPS process involves injecting atomized droplets of a precursor solution into the plasma. The properties of resultant deposits depend on the time-temperature history of the droplets in the plasma, ranging from ultra-fine splats to unmelted crystalline particles to unpyrolized particles. By controlling the volume fraction of these three different constituents, a variety of coatings can be produced, all with a nanograin size. In this article, we will be reviewing research related to thermal barrier coatings, emphasizing the processing conditions necessary to obtain a range of microstructures and associated properties. The SPPS process produces a unique strain-tolerant, low-thermal conductivity microstructure consisting of (i) three-dimensional micrometer and nanometer pores, (ii) through-coating thickness (vertical) cracks, (iii) ultra-fine splats, and (iv) inter-pass boundaries. Both thin (0.12 mm) and thick (4 mm) coatings have been fabricated. The volume fraction of porosity can be varied from 10% to 40% while retaining the characteristic microstructure of vertical cracks and ultra-fine splats. The mechanism of vertical crack formation will be described.

  15. Design of a circular cascaded arc torch array for plasma spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, T.; Horenstein, M.

    2003-12-01

    A new concept has been verified for a plasma spray electrode system that improves plasma plume uniformity over that of a single arc torch. A six-electrode, circular, arc-cascade discharge was formed by mounting seven tungsten-rod electrodes radially around a stream of argon gas. To maintain the plasma plume, the cascade-arc discharge was repetitively triggered using a cascaded high-voltage spark initiated by a secondary spark gap. The typical cascade arc voltage and current were 130 V and 20 A. Results show that the cascaded arc array system can create a ring-shaped plasma plume having near-uniform electrical energy in the circular direction. This feature suggests that the configuration may have future use in plasma torch systems requiring uniform circular symmetry. In such a system, spray particles can be injected into the center of the plasma ring. At the same time, such an arrangement also could provide a lower-cost alternative to systems that use multiple two-electrode plasma torches arranged in a circular configuration. In the latter system, each two-electrode plasma torch is fed by a separate power supply.

  16. Effect of Substrate and Its Shape on in-Flight Particle Characteristics in Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourang, K.; Moreau, C.; Dolatabadi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining a uniform coating on curved mechanical parts such as gas turbine blades is one of the industrial challenges in suspension plasma spraying. Through a three dimensional numerical analysis, this study is aimed at providing a better understanding of the effect of substrate curvature on in-flight particle temperature, velocity, and trajectory. The high temperature and high velocity plasma flow is simulated inside the plasma torch using a uniform volumetric heat source in the energy equation. The suspension of yttria-stabilized zirconia particles is molded as a multicomponent droplet while catastrophic breakup regime is considered for simulating the secondary break up when the suspension interacts with the plasma flow. A two-way coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach along with a stochastic discrete model was used to track the particle trajectory. Particle size distribution in the vicinity of the substrate at different stand-off distances has been investigated. The results show that sub-micron particles obtain higher velocity and temperature compared to the larger particles. However, due to the small Stokes number associated with sub-micron particles, they are more sensitive to the change of the gas flow streamlines in the vicinity of a curved substrate.

  17. Vapors and Droplets Mixture Deposition of Metallic Coatings by Very Low Pressure Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vautherin, B.; Planche, M.-P.; Bolot, R.; Quet, A.; Bianchi, L.; Montavon, G.

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, the very low pressure plasma-spraying (VLPPS) process has been intensely developed and implemented to manufacture thin, dense and finely structured ceramic coatings for various applications, such as Y2O3 for diffusion barriers, among other examples. This paper aims at presenting developments carried out on metallic coatings. Aluminum was chosen as a demonstrative material due to its "moderate" vaporization enthalpy (i.e., 38.23 KJ cm-3) compared to the one of copper (i.e., 55.33 KJ cm-3), cobalt (i.e., 75.03 KJ cm-3), or even tantalum (i.e., 87.18 KJ cm-3). The objective of this work is primarily to better understand the behavior of a solid precursor injected into the plasma jet leading to the formation of vapors and to better control the factors affecting the coating structure. Nearly dense aluminum coatings were successfully deposited by VLPPS at 100 Pa with an intermediate power plasma torch (i.e., Sulzer Metco F4 type gun with maximum power of 45 kW). Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was implemented to study and analyze the vapor behavior into the plasma jet. Simplified CFD modeling allowed better understanding of some of the thermo-physical mechanisms. The effect of powder-size distribution, substrate temperature and spray distance were studied. The phase composition and microstructural features of the coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM. Moreover, Vickers microhardness measurements were implemented.

  18. Plasma Sprayed Ni-Al Coatings for Safe Ending Heat Exchanger Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.L.; Berndt, C.C.; Otterson, D.

    1998-11-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed thermally conductive composite liners for corrosion and scale protection in heat exchanger tubes exposed to geothermal brine. The liners cannot withstand roller expansion to connect the tubes to the tubesheet. It is not possible to line the ends of the tubes with the same material after roller expansion due to the nature of the current liner application process. It was requested that BNL evaluate plasma sprayed Ni-Al coatings for safe ending heat exchanger tubes exposed to geothermal brine. The tubes of interest had an internal diameter of 0.875 inches. It is not typical to thermal spray small diameter components or use such small standoff distances. In this project a nozzle extension was developed by Zatorski Coating Company to spray the tube ends as well as flat coupons for testing. Four different Ni-Al coatings were investigated. One of these was a ductilized Ni-AlB material developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The coatings were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and subjected to corrosion, tensile adhesion, microhardness and field tests in a volcanic pool in New Zealand.

  19. Reactive Plasma Spraying of Fine Al2O3/AlN Feedstock Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) is a promising technology for in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) coatings. Recently, AlN-based coatings were fabricated by RPS of alumina (Al2O3) powder in N2/H2 thermal plasma. This study investigated the feasibility of RPS of a fine Al2O3/AlN mixture and the influence of the plasma gases (N2, H2) on the nitriding conversion, and coating microstructure and properties. Thick AlN/Al2O3 coatings with high nitride content were successfully fabricated. The coatings consist of h-AlN, c-AlN, Al5O6N, γ-Al2O3, and a small amount of α-Al2O3. Use of fine particles enhanced the nitriding conversion and the melting tendency by increasing the surface area. Furthermore, the AlN additive improved the AlN content in the coatings. Increasing the N2 gas flow rate improved the nitride content and complete crystal growth to the h-AlN phase, and enhanced the coating thickness. On the other hand, though the H2 gas is required for plasma nitriding of the Al2O3 particles, increasing its flow rate decreased the nitride content and the coating thickness. Remarkable influence of the plasma gases on the coating composition, microstructure, and properties was observed during RPS of the fine particles.

  20. Microstructure Characteristics and Oxidation Behavior of Molybdenum Disilicide Coatings Prepared by Vacuum Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yaran; Fei, Xiaoai; Wang, Hongyan; Zheng, Xuebin; Ding, Chuanxian

    2013-03-01

    In this study, molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) coatings were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying technology. Their morphology, composition, and microstructure characteristics were intensively investigated. The oxidation behavior of MoSi2 coatings was also explored. The results show that the MoSi2 coatings are compact with porosity less than 5%. Their microstructure exhibits typical lamellar character and is mainly composed of tetragonal and hexagonal MoSi2 phases. A small amount of tetragonal Mo5Si3 phase is randomly distributed in the MoSi2 matrix. A rapid weight gain is found between 300 and 800 °C. The MoSi2 coatings exhibit excellent oxidation-resistant properties at temperatures between 1300 and 1500 °C, which results from the continuous dense glassy SiO2 film formed on their surface. A thick layer composed of Mo5Si3 is found to be present under the SiO2 film for the MoSi2 coatings treated at 1700 °C, suggesting that the phenomenon of continuous oxidation took place.

  1. Acoustic emission responses of plasma sprayed ceramics during four point bend tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chung-Kwei; Leigh, S.H.; Berndt, C.C.

    1996-12-31

    Free standing ceramics including alumina-13 wt.% titania (AT13), alumina-3 wt.% titania (AT3), alumina-40 wt.% zirconia (AZ40), and calcia-stabilized zirconia (CSZ), were produced by water-stabilized plasma spraying. Four point bend tests were performed in the in-plane direction (i.e., spray direction) to obtain the modulus of rupture of the materials. In situ acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was used to detect cracking during the tests. The AE characteristics such as ring down counts, event duration, peak amplitude, and energy were recorded and analyzed to evaluate different cracking mechanisms. The AE responses versus time for individual tests were evaluated and two basic types of cracking mechanisms; i.e., catastrophic failure and microcracking before failure, can be observed. AT3 and AZ40 tend to exhibit microcracking before failure and CSZ shows catastrophic failure. However, both mechanisms can be observed for AT13. For the total AE responses, the amplitude distributions are skewed to the right and the energy distributions show multi-modal distributions. Micro-, transitional, and macro-cracks can be better distinguished by the energy distribution. The relative proportion of these cracks was also determined.

  2. Fracture toughness of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier ceramics: Influence of processing, microstructure, and thermal aging

    SciTech Connect

    Dwivedi, Gopal; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay; Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2014-06-09

    Fracture toughness has become one of the dominant design parameters that dictates the selection of materials and their microstructure to obtain durable thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Much progress has been made in characterizing the fracture toughness of relevant TBC compositions in bulk form, and it has become apparent that this property is significantly affected by process-induced microstructural defects. In this investigation, a systematic study of the influence of coating microstructure on the fracture toughness of atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) TBCs has been carried out. Yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings were fabricated under different spray process conditions inducing different levels of porosity and interfacial defects. Fracture toughness was measured on free standing coatings in as-processed and thermally aged conditions using the double torsion technique. Results indicate significant variance in fracture toughness among coatings with different microstructures including changes induced by thermal aging. Comparative studies were also conducted on an alternative TBC composition, Gd2Zr2O7 (GDZ), which as anticipated shows significantly lower fracture toughness compared to YSZ. Furthermore, the results from these studies not only point towards a need for process and microstructure optimization for enhanced TBC performance but also a framework for establishing performance metrics for promising new TBC compositions.

  3. Interaction Studies of Ceramic Vacuum Plasma Spraying for the Melting Crucible Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jong Hwan Kim; Hyung Tae Kim; Yoon Myung Woo; Ki Hwan Kim; Chan Bock Lee; R. S. Fielding

    2013-10-01

    Candidate coating materials for re-usable metallic nuclear fuel crucibles, TaC, TiC, ZrC, ZrO2, and Y2O3, were plasmasprayed onto a niobium substrate. The microstructure of the plasma-sprayed coatings and thermal cycling behavior were characterized, and U-Zr melt interaction studies were carried out. The TaC and Y2O3 coating layers had a uniform thickness, and high density with only a few small closed pores showing good consolidation, while the ZrC, TiC, and ZrO2 coatings were not well consolidated with a considerable amount of porosity. Thermal cycling tests showed that the adhesion of the TiC, ZrC, and ZrO2 coating layers with niobium was relatively weak compared to the TaC and Y2O3 coatings. The TaC and Y2O3 coatings had better cycling characteristics with no interconnected cracks. In the interaction studies, ZrC and ZrO2 coated rods showed significant degradations after exposure to U-10 wt.% Zr melt at 1600 degrees C for 15 min., but TaC, TiC, and Y2O3 coatings showed good compatibility with U-Zr melt.

  4. Furnace Cyclic Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Zirconia-Yttria and Multi-Component Rare Earth Oxide Doped Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Nesbitt, James A.; McCue, Terry R.; Barrett, Charles A.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings will play an increasingly important role in advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to enable further increases in engine temperatures. However, the coating performance and durability become a major concern under the increasingly harsh thermal cycling conditions. Advanced zirconia- and hafnia-based cluster oxide thermal barrier coatings with lower thermal conductivity and improved thermal stability are being developed using a high-heat-flux laser-rig based test approach. Although the new composition coatings were not yet optimized for cyclic durability, an initial durability screening of numerous candidate coating materials was carried out using conventional furnace cyclic tests. In this paper, furnace thermal cyclic behavior of the advanced plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria-based thermal barrier coatings that were co-doped with multi-component rare earth oxides was investigated at 1163 C using 45 min hot cycles. The ceramic coating failure mechanisms were studied by using scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray diffraction phase analysis after the furnace tests. The coating cyclic lifetime will be discussed in relation to coating phase structures, total dopant concentrations, and other properties.

  5. Characterization of Plasma Jet in Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition of YSZ Using a <80 kW Shrouded Torch Based on Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qing-Yu; Peng, Xiao-Zhuang; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2015-08-01

    During plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings, evaporation of the YSZ powder is essential, but quite difficult when using a commercial <80 kW plasma torch. In this study, a shrouded plasma torch was examined to improve the YSZ evaporation. The plasma characteristics were diagnosed using optical emission spectroscopy. Results showed that the electron number density in the plasma jet was maintained at an order of magnitude of 1014 cm-3, indicating local thermal equilibrium of the plasma jet. Compared with a conventional torch, the shrouded torch resulted in much higher plasma temperature and much lower electron number density. With the shrouded torch, more energy of the plasma was transferred to the YSZ material, leading to more evaporation of the YSZ powder and thereby a much higher deposition rate of the YSZ coating. These results show that use of a shrouded torch is a simple and effective approach to improve the evaporation of feedstock material during PS-PVD.

  6. Atmospheric reactive plasma sprayed Fe-Al 2 O 3 -FeAl 2 O 4 composite coating and its property evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; He, Jining; Yan, Dianran; Dong, Yanchun; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Xiangzhi; Liao, Hanlin

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, Fe-Al2O3-FeAl2O4 composite coatings were successfully deposited by reactive plasma sprayed Al/Fe2O3 agglomerated powder. Phase composition and microstructure of the coatings were determined by XRD and SEM. The results indicated that the composite coatings were principally composed of three different phases, i.e. FeAl2O4 phase as main framework, dispersed ball-like Fe-rich phase, and small splats of Al2O3 phase, and it was thought that the in situ synthesized metal phase was helpful to toughen the coating matrix. According to the results of the indentation and frictional wear tests, the composite coating exhibited excellent toughness and anti-friction properties in comparison with conventional Al2O3 monophase coating, though its microhardness value was a little lower than that of Al2O3 coating. The formation mechanism and the toughening mechanism of the composite coating were clarified in detail.

  7. Fabrication of High-Temperature Heat Exchangers by Plasma Spraying Exterior Skins on Nickel Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeez, P.; Yugeswaran, S.; Chandra, S.; Mostaghimi, J.; Coyle, T. W.

    2016-06-01

    Thermal-sprayed heat exchangers were tested at high temperatures (750 °C), and their performances were compared to the foam heat exchangers made by brazing Inconel sheets to their surface. Nickel foil was brazed to the exterior surface of 10-mm-thick layers of 10 and 40 PPI nickel foam. A plasma torch was used to spray an Inconel coating on the surface of the foil. A burner test rig was built to produce hot combustion gases that flowed over exposed face of the heat exchanger. Cooling air flowed through the foam heat exchanger at rates of up to 200 SLPM. Surface temperature and air inlet/exit temperature were measured. Heat transfer to air flowing through the foam was significantly higher for the thermally sprayed heat exchangers than for the brazed heat exchangers. On an average, thermally sprayed heat exchangers show 36% higher heat transfer than conventionally brazed foam heat exchangers. At low flow rates, the convective resistance is large (~4 × 10-2 m2 K/W), and the effect of thermal contact resistance is negligible. At higher flow rates, the convective resistance decreases (~2 × 10-3 m2 K/W), and the lower contact resistance of the thermally sprayed heat exchanger provides better performance than the brazed heat exchangers.

  8. Deposition of nanostructured photocatalytic zinc ferrite films using solution precursor plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Dom, Rekha; Sivakumar, G.; Hebalkar, Neha Y.; Joshi, Shrikant V.; Borse, Pramod H.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly economic solution precursor route capable of producing films/coating even for mass scale production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pure spinel phase ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} porous, immobilized films deposited in single step. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parameter optimization yields access to nanostructuring in SPPS method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ecofriendly immobilized ferrite films were active under solar radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such magnetic system display advantage w.r.t. recyclability after photocatalyst extraction. -- Abstract: Deposition of pure spinel phase, photocatalytic zinc ferrite films on SS-304 substrates by solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) has been demonstrated for the first time. Deposition parameters such as precursor solution pH, concentration, film thickness, plasma power and gun-substrate distance were found to control physico-chemical properties of the film, with respect to their crystallinity, phase purity, and morphology. Alkaline precursor conditions (7 < pH {<=} 10) were found to favor oxide film formation. The nanostructured films produced under optimized conditions, with 500 mM solution at pH {approx} 8.0, yielded pure cubic phase ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} film. Very high/low precursor concentrations yielded mixed phase, less adherent, and highly inhomogeneous thin films. Desired spinel phase was achieved in as-deposited condition under appropriately controlled spray conditions and exhibited a band gap of {approx}1.9 eV. The highly porous nature of the films favored its photocatalytic performance as indicated by methylene blue de-coloration under solar radiation. These immobilized films display good potential for visible light photocatalytic applications.

  9. Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger

    2012-06-01

    Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

  10. Recent Developments in Suspension Plasma Sprayed Titanium Oxide and Hydroxyapatite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, R.; Pawlowski, L.; Pierlot, C.; Roudet, F.; Kozerski, S.; Petit, F.

    2010-01-01

    The paper aims at reviewing of the recent studies related to the development of suspension plasma sprayed TiO2 and Ca5(PO4)3OH (hydroxyapatite, HA) coatings as well as their multilayer composites obtained onto stainless steel, titanium and aluminum substrates. The total thickness of the coatings was in the range 10 to 150 μm. The suspensions on the base of distilled water, ethanol and their mixtures were formulated with the use of fine commercial TiO2 pigment crystallized as rutile and HA milled from commercial spray-dried powder or synthesized from calcium nitrate and ammonium phosphate in an optimized reaction. The powder was crystallized as hydroxyapatite. Pneumatic and peristaltic pump liquid feeders were applied. The injection of suspension to the plasma jet was studied carefully with the use of an atomizer injector or a continuous stream one. The injectors were placed outside or inside of the anode-nozzle of the SG-100 plasma torch. The stream of liquid was tested under angle right or slightly backwards with regard to the torch axis. The sprayed deposits were submitted to the phase analysis by the use of x-ray diffraction. The content of anatase and rutile was calculated in the titanium oxide deposits as well as the content of the decomposition phases in the hydroxyapatite ones. The micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to visualize the area of appearance of some phases. Scratch test enabled to characterize the adhesion of the deposits, their microhardness and friction coefficient. The electric properties including electron emission, impedance spectroscopy, and dielectric properties of some coatings were equally tested.

  11. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Cu-8Cr-4Nb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard; Ellis, David; McKechnie, Timothy; Hickman, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This paper compares the tensile properties of Cu-8Cr-4Nb material produced by VPS to material previously produced by extrusion. The microstructure of the VPS material is also presented. The combustion chamber liner of rocket motors represents an extreme materials application. The liner hot wall is exposed to a 2760 C (5000 F) flame while the cold side is exposed to cryogenic hydrogen liquid. Materials for use in the combustion chamber liner require a combination of high temperature strength, creep resistance, and low cycle fatigue resistance along with high thermal conductivity. The hot side is also subject to localized cycles between reducing and oxidizing environments that degrade the liner by a process called blanching. A new Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at% Nb (Cu-8Cr-4Nb) alloy has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center as a replacement for the currently used alloy, NARloy-z (Cu-3 wt.% Ag-0.5 wt.% Zr). The alloy is strengthened by a fine dispersion of Cr2Nb particles. The alloy has better mechanical properties than NARloy-Z while retaining most of the thermal conductivity of pure copper. The alloy has been successfully consolidated by extrusion and hot isostatic pressing (HIPing). However, vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) offers several advantages over prior consolidation methods. VPS can produce a near net shape piece with the profile of the liner. In addition, oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings can be incorporated as an integral part of the liner hot wall during the VPS deposition. The low oxygen VPS Cu-8Cr-4Nb exhibits a higher strength than Cu-8Cr-4Nb produced by extrusion at elevated temperatures and a comparable strength at room temperature. Moduli and ductility were not significantly different. However, the ability to produce parts to near-net shape and maintain the good elevated temperature tensile properties of the extruded Cu-8Cr-4Nb makes VPS an attractive processing method for fabricating rocket engine combustion liners.

  12. Advanced Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) for a Robust, Longlife and Safe Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Elam, Sandra K.; McKechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1984, the Vacuum Plasma Spray Lab was built at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center for applying durable, protective coatings to turbine blades for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure fuel turbopump. Existing turbine blades were cracking and breaking off after five hot fire tests while VPS coated turbine blades showed no wear or cracking after 40 hot fire tests. Following that, a major manufacturing problem of copper coatings peeling off the SSME Titanium Main Fuel Valve Housing was corrected with a tenacious VPS copper coating. A patented VPS process utilizing Functional Gradient Material (FGM) application was developed to build ceramic lined metallic cartridges for space furnace experiments, safely containing gallium arsenide at 1260 degrees centigrade. The VPS/FGM process was then translated to build robust, long life, liquid rocket combustion chambers for the space shuttle main engine. A 5K (5,000 Lb. thrust) thruster with the VPS/FGM protective coating experienced 220 hot firing tests in pristine condition with no wear compared to the SSME which showed blanching (surface pulverization) and cooling channel cracks in less than 30 of the same hot firing tests. After 35 of the hot firing tests, the injector face plates disintegrated. The VPS/FGM process was then applied to spraying protective thermal barrier coatings on the face plates which showed 50% cooler operating temperature, with no wear after 50 hot fire tests. Cooling channels were closed out in two weeks, compared to one year for the SSME. Working up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level) to establish the VPS/FGM process as viable technology, a 40K thruster was built and is currently being tested. Proposed is to build a J-2X size liquid rocket engine as the final step in establishing the VPS/FGM process TRL for space flight.

  13. Early apatite deposition and osteoblast growth on plasma-sprayed dicalcium silicate coating.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuanyong; Xie, Youtao; Ding, Chuanxian; Chu, Paul K

    2005-09-01

    Dicalcium silicate coating was deposited onto a Ti-6Al-4V substrate using plasma-spraying technology. The coating was immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h to investigate early apatite formation on the coating. Osteoblasts were also seeded onto the surface of the dicalcium silicate coating to evaluate its biocompatibility. Cold field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry were used to evaluate the morphologies and determine the chemical composition of the coatings. The surface structural changes caused by immersion in SBF were analyzed using thin-film X-ray diffraction. After the dicalcium silicate coating was soaked in SBF solution 1-6 h, two types of particles containing calcium and phosphorus were formed on the surface. One type consisted of relatively larger particles (P1) precipitated on the surface of the coating from the precursor cluster formed in the SBF solution. The second type was composed of particles (P2) nucleated on the surface of the coating. With increasing immersion time, the particles coalesced to form a surface Ca-P layer. The Ca-P layer was composed of amorphous calcium phosphate that was not transformed to crystalline apatite until the immersion time in SBF exceeded 24 h. The formation mechanism of the Ca-P layer and apatite on the surface of the coating is believed to be involved in the formation of the Si 3-ring active surface site with negative charge. The cell-seeding test revealed that osteoblasts grew and proliferated very well on the surface of the dicalcium silicate coating.

  14. Acoustic emission and fatigue damage induced in plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating layers.

    PubMed

    Laonapakul, Teerawat; Otsuka, Yuichi; Nimkerdphol, Achariya Rakngarm; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2012-04-01

    In order to improve the adhesive strength of hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings, grit blasting with Al(2)O(3) powder and then wet blasting with HAp/Ti mixed powders was carried out on a commercially pure Ti (cp-Ti) substrate. Subsequently, an HAp/Ti bond coat layer and HAp top coat layer were deposited by plasma spraying. Fatigue tests of the HAp-coated specimens were carried out under four-point bending. Acoustic emission (AE) signals during the entire fatigue test were monitored to investigate the fatigue cracking behavior of the HAp-coated specimens. The HAp-coated specimens could survive up to 10(7) cycles without spallation of the HAp coating layers at the stress amplitude of 120 MPa. The HAp-coated specimens without HAp/Ti bond coat layer showed shorter fatigue life and easy crack nucleation compared to the HAp-coated specimens with HAp/Ti bond coat layer. The delamination and spallation of the HAp top coat with HAp/Ti bond coat on cp-Ti was not observed until the crack propagated into the cp-Ti during the final fracture stage of the fatigue cycle. Therefore, the HAp/Ti bond coat layer was found to greatly improve the fatigue damage resistance of the HAp coating layer. Three stages of the fatigue failure behavior of the HAp top coat with HAp/Ti bond coat on a cp-Ti substrate can be clearly estimated by the AE monitoring technique. These stages are cracks nucleating and propagating in the coating layer, cracks propagating in the substrate, and cracks propagating unstably to final fracture.

  15. CMAS-Resistant Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Based on Y2O3-Stabilized ZrO2 with Al3+ and Ti4+ Solute Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senturk, Bilge S.; Garces, Hector F.; Ortiz, Angel L.; Dwivedi, Gopal; Sampath, Sanjay; Padture, Nitin P.

    2014-04-01

    The higher operating temperatures in gas-turbine engines made possible by thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are engendering a new problem: environmentally ingested airborne silicate particles (sand, ash) melt on the hot TBC surfaces and form calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS) glass deposits. The molten CMAS glass degrades the TBCs, leading to their premature failure. Here, we demonstrate the use of a commercially manufactured feedstock powder, in conjunction with air plasma spray process, to deposit CMAS-resistant yttria-stabilized zirconia-based TBCs containing Al3+ and Ti4+ in solid solution. Results from the characterization of these new TBCs and CMAS/TBCs interaction experiments are presented. The CMAS mitigation mechanisms in these new TBCs involve the crystallization of the anorthite phase. Raman microscopy is used to generate large area maps of the anorthite phase in the CMAS-interacted TBCs demonstrating the potential usefulness of this method for studying CMAS/TBCs interactions. The ubiquity of airborne sand/ash particles and the ever-increasing demand for higher operating temperatures in future high efficiency gas-turbine engines will necessitate CMAS resistance in all hot-section components of those engines. In this context, the versatility, ease of processing, and low cost offered by the process demonstrated here could benefit the development of these new CMAS-resistant TBCs.

  16. Model I, Mode II, and Mixed-Mode Fracture of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    The mixed-mode fracture behavior of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined in air at 25 and 1316°C in asymmetric four-point flexure with single edge v-notched beam (SEVNB) test specimens. The mode I fracture toughness was found to be K Ic=1.15±0.07 and 0.98±0.13 MPa sqrt m , respectively, at 25 and 1316°C. The respective mode II fracture toughness values were K IIc=0.73±0.10 and 0.65±0.04 MPa sqrt m . Hence, there was an insignificant difference in either K Ic or K IIc between 25 and 1316°C for the coating material, whereas there was a noticeable distinction between K Ic and K IIc, resulting in K IIc/K Ic=0.65 at both temperatures. The empirical mixed-mode fracture criterion best described the coatings' mixed-mode fracture behavior among the four mixed-mode fracture theories considered. The angle of crack propagation was in reasonable agreement with the minimum strain energy density criterion. The effect of the directionality of the coating material in on K Ic was observed to be insignificant, while its sintering effect at 1316°C on K Ic was significant.

  17. Study of the Porosity in Plasma-Sprayed Alumina through an Innovative Three-Dimensional Simulation of the Coating Buildup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvais, S.; Guipont, V.; Jeandin, M.; Jeulin, D.; Robisson, A.; Saenger, R.

    2008-11-01

    Porosity is a key feature of a thermally sprayed coating microstructure. Within ceramic coatings, porosity is made of pores and cracks of various shapes, dimensions, and orientations. Cracks can be intralamellar or interlamellar due to the buildup of the coating, which leads to piled-up lamellae from impinging and the additional rapid solidification of liquid droplets. Pores are interconnected with cracks, which results in a three-dimensional (3-D) porosity network. Direct observation of this network is an intricate task and current attempts remain somewhat limited. A 3-D simulation of this network was, therefore, developed in this work, based on a stochastic approach to the building up of simulated lamellae in the sprayed microstructure. A library of mathematical objects was achieved from morphological measurements, using confocal microscopy of actual isolated flattened lamellae, i.e., “splats” and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This stochastic approach to the simulation of hundreds of lamellae also involves the random distribution of cracks and pores. Simulation fit parameters were selected according to the overall characteristics of porosity ( i.e., content, orientation, size, etc.) that were determined from the thorough quantitative image analysis (QIA) of cross-sectioned plasma-sprayed alumina coatings. Two plasma modes that varied the atmosphere in a controlled-atmosphere plasma spraying (CAPS) chamber were applied, to produce the microstructures of two different alumina coatings. The 3-D random modeling tool allowed the processing of a volume of digital material through a 3-D simulated binary image of a two-phased composite material. Using one 3-D image result of the simulation, finite element (FE) calculations were performed, in order to study the overall dielectric properties of a plasma-sprayed alumina as a function of porosity. The influence of anisotropy is discussed, in particular, and both analytical and numerical predicted values were

  18. A systematic review on the long-term success of calcium phosphate plasma-spray-coated dental implants.

    PubMed

    van Oirschot, B A J A; Bronkhorst, E M; van den Beucken, J J J P; Meijer, G J; Jansen, J A; Junker, R

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of the current review were (1) to systematically appraise, and (2) to evaluate long-term success data of calcium phosphate (CaP) plasma-spray-coated dental implants in clinical trials with at least 5 years of follow-up. To describe the long-term efficacy of functional implants, the outcome variables were (a) percentage annual complication rate (ACR) and (b) cumulative success rate (CSR), as presented in the selected articles. The electronic search yielded 645 titles. On the basis of the inclusion criteria, 8 studies were finally included. The percentage of implants in function after the first year was estimated to be 98.4 % in the maxilla and 99.2 % in the mandible. The estimates of the weighted mean ACR-percentage increased over the years up to 2.6 (SE 0.7) during the fifth year of function for the maxilla and to 9.4 (SE 8.4) for the mandible in the tenth year of function. After 10 years, the mean percentage of successful implants was estimated to be 71.1 % in the maxilla and 72.2 % in the mandible. The estimates seem to confirm the proposed, long-term progressive bone loss pattern of CaP-ceramic-coated dental implants. Within the limits of this meta-analytic approach to the literature, we conclude that: (1) published long-term success data for calcium phosphate plasma-spray-coated dental implants are limited, (2) comparison of the data is difficult due to differences in success criteria among the studies, and (3) long-term CSRs demonstrate very weak evidence for progressive complications around calcium phosphate plasma-spray-coated dental implants.

  19. Some adhesion/cohesion characteristics of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 under tensile loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, Robert L.; Vlcek, Brian L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Mcdonald, Glen

    1987-01-01

    A set of 12.7 mm diameter stainless steel tubes were coated with ceramic and expanded. The bond cast was 0.08 to 0.13 mm NiCrAlY with 0.38 mm of ZrO2-8Y2O3 ceramic. Upon pressurization, the tube substrate yielded and overstressed the coatings in tension. The coatings cracked (i.e., they failed) but did not come off the tube. These results demonstrate that tensile failure of plasma-sprayed coatings is not catastrophic as is compressive failure, which leads to spallation.

  20. Challenges Upon Reactive Plasma Spray Nitriding: Al Powders and Fabrication of AlN Coatings as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-06-01

    Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) is a promising technology for the in situ formation of several ceramic coatings. The focus of this paper is to summarize the state of our current knowledge about the RPS process and using the nitriding of Al particles and the fabrication of aluminum nitride coatings, as a case study. The aspects and challenges in this process such as the influence of the plasma power, in-flight time, particle size, nitriding mechanism, splat morphology, in-flight particle diagnostics, N2 plasma gas, and the feeding rate on the RPS process are analyzed and discussed.

  1. Air gasification of rice husk in bubbling fluidized bed reactor with bed heating by conventional charcoal.

    PubMed

    Makwana, J P; Joshi, Asim Kumar; Athawale, Gaurav; Singh, Dharminder; Mohanty, Pravakar

    2015-02-01

    An experimental study of air gasification of rice husk was conducted in a bench-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) having 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. Heating of sand bed material was performed using conventional charcoal fuel. Different operating conditions like bed temperature, feeding rate and equivalence ratio (ER) varied in the range of 750-850 °C, 25-31.3 kg/h, and 0.3-0.38, respectively. Flow rate of air was kept constant (37 m(3)/h) during FBG experiments. The carbon conversion efficiencies (CCE), cold gas efficiency, and thermal efficiency were evaluated, where maximum CCE was found as 91%. By increasing ER, the carbon conversion efficiency was decreased. Drastic reduction in electric consumption for initial heating of gasifier bed with charcoal compared to ceramic heater was ∼45%. Hence rice husk is found as a potential candidate to use directly (without any processing) in FBG as an alternative renewable energy source from agricultural field. PMID:25446789

  2. Air gasification of rice husk in bubbling fluidized bed reactor with bed heating by conventional charcoal.

    PubMed

    Makwana, J P; Joshi, Asim Kumar; Athawale, Gaurav; Singh, Dharminder; Mohanty, Pravakar

    2015-02-01

    An experimental study of air gasification of rice husk was conducted in a bench-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) having 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. Heating of sand bed material was performed using conventional charcoal fuel. Different operating conditions like bed temperature, feeding rate and equivalence ratio (ER) varied in the range of 750-850 °C, 25-31.3 kg/h, and 0.3-0.38, respectively. Flow rate of air was kept constant (37 m(3)/h) during FBG experiments. The carbon conversion efficiencies (CCE), cold gas efficiency, and thermal efficiency were evaluated, where maximum CCE was found as 91%. By increasing ER, the carbon conversion efficiency was decreased. Drastic reduction in electric consumption for initial heating of gasifier bed with charcoal compared to ceramic heater was ∼45%. Hence rice husk is found as a potential candidate to use directly (without any processing) in FBG as an alternative renewable energy source from agricultural field.

  3. The air quality impacts of road closures associated with the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jonathan I; Baxter, Lisa K; Clougherty, Jane E

    2006-01-01

    Background The Democratic National Convention (DNC) in Boston, Massachusetts in 2004 provided an opportunity to evaluate the impacts of a localized and short-term but potentially significant change in traffic patterns on air quality, and to determine the optimal monitoring approach to address events of this nature. It was anticipated that the road closures associated with the DNC would both influence the overall air pollution level and the distribution of concentrations across the city, through shifts in traffic patterns. Methods To capture these effects, we placed passive nitrogen dioxide badges at 40 sites around metropolitan Boston before, during, and after the DNC, with the goal of capturing the array of hypothesized impacts. In addition, we continuously measured elemental carbon at three sites, and gathered continuous air pollution data from US EPA fixed-site monitors and traffic count data from the Massachusetts Highway Department. Results There were significant reductions in traffic volume on the highway with closures north of Boston, with relatively little change along other highways, indicating a more isolated traffic reduction rather than an across-the-board decrease. For our nitrogen dioxide samples, while there was a relatively small change in mean concentrations, there was significant heterogeneity across sites, which corresponded with our a priori classifications of road segments. The median ratio of nitrogen dioxide concentrations during the DNC relative to non-DNC sampling periods was 0.58 at sites with hypothesized traffic reductions, versus 0.88 for sites with no changes hypothesized and 1.15 for sites with hypothesized traffic increases. Continuous monitors measured slightly lower concentrations of elemental carbon and nitrogen dioxide during road closure periods at monitors proximate to closed highway segments, but not for PM2.5 or further from major highways. Conclusion We conclude that there was a small but measurable influence of DNC

  4. Effect of Samarium Oxide on the Electrical Conductivity of Plasma-Sprayed SOFC Anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, S. N.; Samadi, H.; Nemati, A.

    2016-10-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are rapidly becoming recognized as a new alternative to traditional energy conversion systems because of their high energy efficiency. From an ecological perspective, this environmentally friendly technology, which produces clean energy, is likely to be implemented more frequently in the future. However, the current SOFC technology still cannot meet the demands of commercial applications due to temperature constraints and high cost. To develop a marketable SOFC, suppliers have tended to reduce the operating temperatures by a few hundred degrees. The overall trend for SOFC materials is to reduce their service temperature of electrolyte. Meanwhile, it is important that the other components perform at the same temperature. Currently, the anodes of SOFCs are being studied in depth. Research has indicated that anodes based on a perovskite structure are a more promising candidate in SOFCs than the traditional system because they possess more favorable electrical properties. Among the perovskite-type oxides, SrTiO3 is one of the most promising compositions, with studies demonstrating that SrTiO3 exhibits particularly favorable electrical properties in contrast with other perovskite-type oxides. The main purpose of this article is to describe our study of the effect of rare-earth dopants with a perovskite structure on the electrical behavior of anodes in SOFCs. Sm2O3-doped SrTiO3 synthesized by a solid-state reaction was coated on substrate by atmospheric plasma spray. To compare the effect of the dopant on the electrical conductivity of strontium titanate, different concentrations of Sm2O3 were used. The samples were then investigated by x-ray diffraction, four-point probe at various temperatures (to determine the electrical conductivity), and a scanning electron microscope. The study showed that at room temperature, nondoped samples have a higher electrical resistance than doped samples. As the temperature was increased, the electrical

  5. Effect of Samarium Oxide on the Electrical Conductivity of Plasma-Sprayed SOFC Anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, S. N.; Samadi, H.; Nemati, A.

    2016-05-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are rapidly becoming recognized as a new alternative to traditional energy conversion systems because of their high energy efficiency. From an ecological perspective, this environmentally friendly technology, which produces clean energy, is likely to be implemented more frequently in the future. However, the current SOFC technology still cannot meet the demands of commercial applications due to temperature constraints and high cost. To develop a marketable SOFC, suppliers have tended to reduce the operating temperatures by a few hundred degrees. The overall trend for SOFC materials is to reduce their service temperature of electrolyte. Meanwhile, it is important that the other components perform at the same temperature. Currently, the anodes of SOFCs are being studied in depth. Research has indicated that anodes based on a perovskite structure are a more promising candidate in SOFCs than the traditional system because they possess more favorable electrical properties. Among the perovskite-type oxides, SrTiO3 is one of the most promising compositions, with studies demonstrating that SrTiO3 exhibits particularly favorable electrical properties in contrast with other perovskite-type oxides. The main purpose of this article is to describe our study of the effect of rare-earth dopants with a perovskite structure on the electrical behavior of anodes in SOFCs. Sm2O3-doped SrTiO3 synthesized by a solid-state reaction was coated on substrate by atmospheric plasma spray. To compare the effect of the dopant on the electrical conductivity of strontium titanate, different concentrations of Sm2O3 were used. The samples were then investigated by x-ray diffraction, four-point probe at various temperatures (to determine the electrical conductivity), and a scanning electron microscope. The study showed that at room temperature, nondoped samples have a higher electrical resistance than doped samples. As the temperature was increased, the electrical

  6. Deposition of solid oxide fuel cell electrodes by solution precursor plasma spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youliang

    Porous La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSM) perovskite cathodes and Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ)-Nickel (Ni) anodes were successfully deposited by direct current arc solution precursor plasma spray (DC-SPPS), in which a solution precursor of the product material was injected into DC plasma jet. The deposition mechanisms, such as the changes in the solution precursor with the increase of temperature and the evolution of the droplet as it moved along the plasma jet, as well as the impact of the synthesized particles onto the substrate, were investigated. The effects of processing parameters on the microstructure and phase composition of the fabricated LSM cathode and Ni-YSZ anode were examined systematically using TGA/TDA, XRD and SEM. Coating deposition efficiencies and porosities as a function of processing parameters were analyzed by statistical experimental design techniques, based on which the deposition processes were optimized. In addition, the hardness and electrical resistance of the fabricated coatings were measured. From the theoretical and experimental analyses conducted, a comprehensive description of the DC-SPPS process was developed. The precursor solution droplets undergo breakup; solvent evaporation and precursor salt precipitation and crystallization; precursor salt melting and decomposition; nucleation and growth of particles of the product phase; agglomeration, sintering, and perhaps melting of these particles; and impact onto the substrate. The breakup of droplets can only occur in the short period of time after the droplets are injected into the plasma jet. Agglomeration of droplets or particles may occur at any point along the plasma plume. This work has clearly established: (a) the critical importance of droplet breakup and the agglomeration of precursors or synthesized particles in-flight in the plasma jet in determining the structure of the deposited coating, and (b) the basis of the low deposition efficiencies obtained in DC-SPPS. The microstructure and

  7. Effect of Dry-Ice Blasting on Structure and Magnetic Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Fe-40Al Coating from Nanostructured Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bo; Dong, Shujuan; Hansz, Bernard; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous and nanocrystalline materials have attracted much interest in the field of new materials design because of their excellent mechanical and physical properties as well as their magnetic properties. In this work, Fe-40Al coatings were prepared from a nanostructured feedstock by atmospheric plasma spray combined with dry-ice blasting. The scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, tensile test, and magnetic measurements were used to investigate microstructure, phase structure, adhesion, and magnetic properties of the deposited coatings. The results showed that after using dry-ice blasting, the oxidation and porosity decreased and the atmospheric plasma-sprayed Fe-40Al coatings exhibited a soft ferromagnetic character with lower coercivity and higher saturation magnetization due to their lower degree of order. The plasma-sprayed Fe-40Al coating from the nanostructured feedstock has a very high adhesive strength.

  8. One-Step Synthesis of Pt/Graphene Composites from Pt Acid Dissolved Ethanol via Microwave Plasma Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Eun Hee; Chang, Hankwon; Kim, Sun Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Park, Su-Ryeon; Lee, Chong Min; Jang, Hee Dong

    2016-09-01

    Pt nanoparticles-laden graphene (Pt/GR) composites were synthesized in the gas phase from a mixture of ethanol and Pt precursor by microwave plasma spray pyrolysis. The morphology of Pt/GR composites has the shape of wrinkled sheets of paper, while Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) that are less than 2.6 nm in the mean diameter are uniformly well deposited on the surface of GR sheets stacked in only three layers. The Pt/GR composite prepared with 20 wt% of Pt had the highest specific surface area and electrochemical surface area of up to 402 m2 g‑1 and 77 m2 g‑1 (Pt), respectively. In addition, the composite showed superior electrocatalytic activity compared with commercial Pt-carbon black. The excellent electrocatalytic activity was attributed to the high specific surface area and electrochemical surface area of the Pt/GR composite directly produced by microwave plasma spray pyrolysis. Thus, it is clearly expected that the Pt/GR composite is a promising material for DMFC catalysts.

  9. One-Step Synthesis of Pt/Graphene Composites from Pt Acid Dissolved Ethanol via Microwave Plasma Spray Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eun Hee; Chang, Hankwon; Kim, Sun Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Park, Su-Ryeon; Lee, Chong Min; Jang, Hee Dong

    2016-09-13

    Pt nanoparticles-laden graphene (Pt/GR) composites were synthesized in the gas phase from a mixture of ethanol and Pt precursor by microwave plasma spray pyrolysis. The morphology of Pt/GR composites has the shape of wrinkled sheets of paper, while Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) that are less than 2.6 nm in the mean diameter are uniformly well deposited on the surface of GR sheets stacked in only three layers. The Pt/GR composite prepared with 20 wt% of Pt had the highest specific surface area and electrochemical surface area of up to 402 m(2) g(-1) and 77 m(2) g(-1) (Pt), respectively. In addition, the composite showed superior electrocatalytic activity compared with commercial Pt-carbon black. The excellent electrocatalytic activity was attributed to the high specific surface area and electrochemical surface area of the Pt/GR composite directly produced by microwave plasma spray pyrolysis. Thus, it is clearly expected that the Pt/GR composite is a promising material for DMFC catalysts.

  10. One-Step Synthesis of Pt/Graphene Composites from Pt Acid Dissolved Ethanol via Microwave Plasma Spray Pyrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Eun Hee; Chang, Hankwon; Kim, Sun Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Park, Su-Ryeon; Lee, Chong Min; Jang, Hee Dong

    2016-01-01

    Pt nanoparticles-laden graphene (Pt/GR) composites were synthesized in the gas phase from a mixture of ethanol and Pt precursor by microwave plasma spray pyrolysis. The morphology of Pt/GR composites has the shape of wrinkled sheets of paper, while Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) that are less than 2.6 nm in the mean diameter are uniformly well deposited on the surface of GR sheets stacked in only three layers. The Pt/GR composite prepared with 20 wt% of Pt had the highest specific surface area and electrochemical surface area of up to 402 m2 g−1 and 77 m2 g−1 (Pt), respectively. In addition, the composite showed superior electrocatalytic activity compared with commercial Pt-carbon black. The excellent electrocatalytic activity was attributed to the high specific surface area and electrochemical surface area of the Pt/GR composite directly produced by microwave plasma spray pyrolysis. Thus, it is clearly expected that the Pt/GR composite is a promising material for DMFC catalysts. PMID:27622908

  11. Nanostructured Si, Mg, CO3 2- Substituted Hydroxyapatite Coatings Deposited by Liquid Precursor Plasma Spraying: Synthesis and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Xiao, Yanfeng; Wang, Shanling; Huang, Yi; Liu, Xiaoguang; Wu, Fang; Gu, Zhongwei

    2011-06-01

    In this study, a novel liquid precursor plasma spraying (LPPS) process was used to deposit Si, Mg, CO3 2- substituted hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings (alone and cosubstituted) onto Ti-6Al-4V substrates. Salts of silicon, magnesium, and carbonate elements were directly added into the HA liquid precursor for subsequent plasma spraying. The phase composition, structure, and morphology of all HA coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the trace elements were successfully incorporated into the HA structure and nanostructured coatings were obtained for all doped HA formulations. The incorporation of trace elements into the HA structure reduced its crystallinity, especially when silicon, magnesium and carbonate ions entered simultaneously into the HA structure. FTIR spectra showed that the Si-HA and Mg-HA coatings had decreased intensities in both the O-H and P-O bands and that the CO3 2--HA coating was mainly a B-type carbonate-substituted HA. The results showed that the LPPS process is an effective and simple method to synthesize trace element substituted biomimetic HA coatings with nanostructure.

  12. Chemical Stability and Biological Properties of Plasma-Sprayed CaO-SiO2-ZrO2 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Xie, Youtao; Ji, Heng; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin

    2010-12-01

    In this work, calcia-stabilized zirconia powders were coated by silica derived from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) hydrolysis. After calcining at 1400 °C, decalcification of calcia-stabilized zirconia by silica occurred and powders composed of Ca2SiO4, ZrO2, and CaZrO3 were prepared. We produced three kinds of powders with different Ca2SiO4 contents [20 wt.% (denoted as CZS2), 40 wt.% (denoted as CZS4), and 60 wt.% (denoted as CZS6)]. The obtained powders were sprayed onto Ti-6Al-4V substrates using atmospheric plasma spraying. The microstructure of the powders and coatings were analyzed. The dissolution rates of the coatings were assessed by monitoring the ions release and mass losses after immersion in Tris-HCl buffer solution. Results showed that the chemical stability of the coatings were significantly improved compared with pure calcium silicate coatings, and increased with the increase of Zr contents. The CZS4 coating showed not only good apatite-formation ability in simulated body fluid, but also well attachment and proliferation capability for the canine bone marrow stem cells. Results presented here indicate that plasma-sprayed CZS4 coating has medium dissolution rate and good biological properties, suggesting its potential use as bone implants.

  13. La2NiO4+δ Infiltration of Plasma-Sprayed LSCF Coating for Cathode Performance Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Zhang, Shan-Lin; Li, Cheng-Xin; Wei, Tao; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Chang-Jiu; Liu, Meilin

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite-structured (La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3) LSCF has been widely studied as a cathode material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells. However, the application of LSCF cathode is likely to be limited by its sluggish surface catalytic properties and long-term stability issues. Oxygen hyper-stoichiometric La2NiO4+δ with K2NiF4 structure exhibits higher catalytic properties, ionic conductivity, and stability in comparison with LSCF cathode. Due to the good chemical compatibility of these two cathode materials, it is possible to prepare a composite cathode by the infiltration of La2NiO4+δ in the porous LSCF. This composite structure fully utilizes the advantages of the two cathodes and enhances the LSCF cathode performance. In this study, the LSCF cathode was deposited by using an atmospheric plasma spray technique, and the porous LSCF cathode was then infiltrated by La2NiO4+δ. The atmospheric plasma spray technique was used to reduce the SOFC manufacturing cost. The microstructure of coatings was characterized by SEM and EDS. The cathode polarization resistance was found to decrease by ~40% after the La2NiO4+δ infiltration. Also, the activation energy decreased from 1.53 to 1.40 eV.

  14. Investigations on the Initial Stress Evolution During Atmospheric Plasma Spraying of YSZ by In Situ Curvature Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, Markus; Mauer, Georg; Mücke, Robert; Vaßen, Robert; Back, Hyoung Chul; Gibmeier, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The residual stresses within plasma-sprayed coatings are an important factor that can influence the lifetime as well as the performance in operation. The investigation of stresses evolving during deposition and post-deposition cooling for atmospheric plasma spraying of yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings using in situ measurement of the samples curvature is a powerful tool for identifying the factors that contribute to stress generation. Under various spray conditions, the first deposition pass leads to a significantly larger increase in samples curvature than the subsequent passes. It is shown in this work that the amount of curvature change at the onset of spraying is significantly influenced by the spray conditions, as well as by the substrate material. More information on the origin of this steep curvature increase at the onset of spraying was obtained by single splat experiments, which yielded information on the splat bonding behavior under various conditions. A comparison of the compressive yield strength for different substrate materials indicated the influence of substrate residual stress relaxation. Residual stress measurements using the incremental hole-drilling method and x-ray diffraction confirmed that the coating deposition affects the substrate residual stress level. The yield strength data were combined with the substrate near-surface temperature during deposition, obtained by finite element simulations, and with the measured residual stress-profile. This revealed that residual stress relaxation is the key factor for the initial curvature increase.

  15. Influence of Oxidation Behavior of Feedstock on Microstructure and Ablation Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed Zirconium Carbide Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Cui; Ge, Xuelian; Niu, Yaran; Li, Hong; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin; Sun, Jinliang

    2015-10-01

    Plasma spray is one of the suitable technologies to deposit carbide coatings with high melting point, such as ZrC. However, in the spray processes performed under atmosphere, oxidation of the carbide powder is inevitable. To investigate the influence of the oxidation behavior of feedstock on microstructure and ablation resistance of the deposited coating, ZrC coatings were prepared by atmospheric and vacuum plasma spray (APS and VPS) technologies, respectively. SiC-coated graphite was applied as the substrate. The obtained results showed that the oxidation of ZrC powder in APS process resulted in the formation of ZrO and Zr2O phases. Pores and cracks were more likely to be formed in the as-sprayed APS-ZrC coating. The VPS-ZrC coating without oxides possessed denser microstructure, higher thermal diffusivity, and lower coefficients of thermal expansion as compared with the APS-ZrC coating. A dense ZrO2 layer would be formed on the surface of the VPS-ZrC-coated sample during the ablation process and the substrate can be protected sufficiently after being ablated in high temperature plasma jet. However, the ZrO2 layer, formed by oxidation of the APS-ZrC coating having loose structure, was easy to be washed away by the shearing action of the plasma jet.

  16. Modeling the impact, flattening and solidification of a molten droplet on a solid substrate during plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y. Z.; Li, Q.; Zheng, Z. H.; Zhu, J. F.; Cao, P. L.

    2014-10-01

    It is quite important to clearly understand the dynamic process of single splat formation for optimizing the plasma spraying process. In present study, a three-dimensional model including heat transfer and phase change was developed on Ansys Fluent 14 platform to simulate the impact, flattening and solidification of a molten droplet on a solid substrate during plasma spraying. The phase, contact pressure, temperature and velocity fields at different spreading times were presented to gain an insight into splat formation mechanism. The predicted splat morphology was in good agreement with the experimental photos. The effect of mushy zone constant, a parameter dominating the solidification behavior of fluid in Fluent, on the flattening of droplet was further investigated. Through comparing the calculated spread factor from present model with the experimental value, a mushy zone constant of 108 or 109 was found to be more appropriate for simulation on the solidification problem occurring in high-speed impact and flattening process, instead of the range of 104-107 recommended in Fluent.

  17. Microstructures of Metallic NiCrBSi Coatings Manufactured via Hybrid Plasma Spray and In Situ Laser Remelting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serres, Nicolas; Hlawka, Françoise; Costil, Sophie; Langlade, Cécile; Machi, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with coating alternatives to hard chromium plating. Thermal spraying is already used in industry, but results are not always satisfactory for reasons of porosity and microstructures. In this study, atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) and in situ laser irradiation by diode laser processes were combined to modify the structural characteristics of thick NiCrBSi alloy layers. The microstructure evolution was studied, and results show that in situ laser remelting induced the growth of a dendritic structure, which strongly decreased the porosity of as-sprayed coatings and increased the adhesion on the substrate. Moreover, no phase transition after laser treatment was observed. Lastly, a mechanical investigation demonstrated that the combination between plasma spray and in situ melting with a diode laser could result in very good mechanical properties. The increase of the laser incident power involved an increase of the mean contact pressure, along with coating hardness. The hybrid process appears to be a possible alternative to hard chromium plating, in order to protect mechanical parts, because of the improved mechanical properties of the NiCrBSi layer.

  18. Effect of intersplat interface bonding on the microstructure of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Er-Juan; Li, Chang-Jiu; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Takahashi, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    The interface bonding between lamellae dominates the properties and performance of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings. In this study, the interlamellar interface bonding and its effect on the splat microstructure were examined using TEM analysis of the microstructure of a plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coating. The obtained results revealed that the intersplat interface microstructure depends significantly on the intersplat bonding. An amorphous phase was observed in the interface region in which the bonding was formed, while the γ-Al2O3 phase was observed at the interface where no bonding was formed. In addition, it was found that the interface bonding significantly influenced the interface microstructure of the coating. After heat treatment, the phase of the bonding between adjacent splats was transformed from amorphous to γ-Al2O3. In the interface region in which the amorphous phase recrystallization occurred, nanosized pores evolved owing to the volume shrinkage accompanying the transformation of alumina from the amorphous to the γ-Al2O3 phase.

  19. Thin Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Low-Energy Plasma Spraying Under Very Low Pressure Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Nannan; Sun, Fu; Bolot, Rodolphe; Planche, Marie-Pierre; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2011-09-01

    In recent decades, very low pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS) technology (less than 10 mbar), as a next-generation coating process, has been extensively studied, because it can fully evaporate the materials to deposit dense, thin, and columnar grain coatings. This research aims at applying VLPPS with low-energy plasma source to melt or evaporate ceramic materials to develop high-quality thermal barrier coatings. Thin and homogeneous yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings were deposited successfully on a stainless steel substrate using low-power plasma spraying torch F100 (23 kW maximal) under very low pressure (1 mbar). The optical emission spectroscopy was used to analyze the properties of the plasma jet. The phase composition and the microstructure of the coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the YSZ powder was fully melted and partially evaporated, and the coatings had a hybrid microstructure that was combined with the condensation of the YSZ vapor and the melted particles. In addition, the porosity and microhardness of the coatings were evaluated.

  20. Ultrasonic and electromagnetic enhancement of a culture of human SAOS-2 osteoblasts seeded onto a titanium plasma-spray surface.

    PubMed

    Fassina, Lorenzo; Saino, Enrica; Sbarra, Maria Sonia; Visai, Livia; Cusella De Angelis, Maria Gabriella; Mazzini, Giuliano; Benazzo, Francesco; Magenes, Giovanni

    2009-06-01

    Several studies suggest that the surface coating of titanium could play an important role in bone tissue engineering. In the present study, we have followed a particular biomimetic strategy where ultrasonically or electromagnetically stimulated SAOS-2 human osteoblasts proliferated and built their extracellular matrix on a titanium plasma-spray surface. In comparison with control conditions, the ultrasonic stimulation (average power, 149 mW; frequency, 1.5 MHz) and the electromagnetic stimulation (magnetic field intensity, 2 mT; frequency, 75 Hz) caused higher cell proliferation, and increased surface coating with decorin, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and type I collagen together with higher incorporation of calcium and phosphorus inside the extracellular matrix. The immunofluorescence related to the preceding bone matrix proteins showed their colocalization in the cell-rich areas. The use of the two physical stimulations aimed at obtaining the coating of the rough titanium plasma-spray surface in terms of cell colonization and deposition of extracellular matrix. The superficially cultured biomaterial could be theoretically used, in clinical applications, as an implant for bone repair.

  1. One-Step Synthesis of Pt/Graphene Composites from Pt Acid Dissolved Ethanol via Microwave Plasma Spray Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eun Hee; Chang, Hankwon; Kim, Sun Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Park, Su-Ryeon; Lee, Chong Min; Jang, Hee Dong

    2016-01-01

    Pt nanoparticles-laden graphene (Pt/GR) composites were synthesized in the gas phase from a mixture of ethanol and Pt precursor by microwave plasma spray pyrolysis. The morphology of Pt/GR composites has the shape of wrinkled sheets of paper, while Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) that are less than 2.6 nm in the mean diameter are uniformly well deposited on the surface of GR sheets stacked in only three layers. The Pt/GR composite prepared with 20 wt% of Pt had the highest specific surface area and electrochemical surface area of up to 402 m(2) g(-1) and 77 m(2) g(-1) (Pt), respectively. In addition, the composite showed superior electrocatalytic activity compared with commercial Pt-carbon black. The excellent electrocatalytic activity was attributed to the high specific surface area and electrochemical surface area of the Pt/GR composite directly produced by microwave plasma spray pyrolysis. Thus, it is clearly expected that the Pt/GR composite is a promising material for DMFC catalysts. PMID:27622908

  2. The visual air quality predicted by conventional and scanning teleradiometers and an integrating nephelometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, William; Pitchford, Ann; Tree, Roger; Walther, Eric; Pearson, Mike; Archer, Scott

    Many Class I areas have unique vistas which require an observer to look over complex terrain containing basins, valleys and canyons. These topographic features tend to form pollution "basins" and "corridors" that trap and funnel air pollutants under certain meteorological conditions. For example, on numerous days, layers of haze in the San Juan River Basin obscure various vista elements including the Chuska Mountains as viewed from Mesa Verde National Park, CO. Measurements by an integrating nephelometer and a conventional teleradiometer at one location in Mesa Verde do not quantify the inhomogeneities. In this paper, data from these instruments are compared to data derived from scanning teleradiometer measurements of photographic slide images. The slides, surrogates of the real three-dimensional scene, were projected and scanned to determine relative sky and vista radiance at 40 points within a vertical slice of the vista. Comparison of the corresponding visual range data sets for each instrument for September and December 1979 demonstrates the utility of the scanning teleradiometer.

  3. Cluster model of amorphized particles formation by plasma spraying of metallic powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakhtin, Boris K.; Nesterova, E. V.

    1999-05-01

    Multifunctional coatings from materials with amorphized microcrystalline or nano-phase structure cause a considerable scientific and practical interest. With their help it is to manufacture heat resistant neutralizers of harmful ejections, to produce ecologically clean sources of electric current, to design electromagnetic protective shields and to fabricate a lot of other technical products. The variety of application and a unique complex of operating characteristics (ductility, strength, magnetic and chemical properties) are governed by the basic peculiarity of material in amorphized state - its thermodynamic instability. In comparison with traditional thermodynamically equilibrium metallic alloys, the kinetics of structure changes in amorphous materials is quite different. Thus, it is suggested, that they have peculiar defects (phasonics) which are not typical of materials in crystalline state, they have no translational symmetry and elementary cells. In the process of coatings forming with non-equilibrium structure states can be realized in them, which are characterized by a fluctuation type of origin, entropy export, appearance of space or temporary symmetry uncertainty of the transition direction 'order $ARLR disorder' in bifurcation points. The aforesaid explains a great scientific (not only practical) interest in the structure study of disordered medium. Functional coatings with amorphized, nano- and microcrystalline structure components formed on copper substrate by plasma spraying of dispersed (to 50 mcm) Ni-Al powder. According to the constitutional diagram it was expected to obtain a mixture from equilibrium intermetallide phases NiAl3 + Ni2Al3. The experimental results and investigations performed by X-ray structure, X-ray spectrum and electron microscopy techniques have shown it is possible to obtain phases of variable composition (Ni)m(Al)n with Ni content from 25 to 75 vol.%, including NiAl. It turned out that in the process of spraying the

  4. Mode I, Mode II, and Mixed-Mode Fracture of Plasma-sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The mixed-mode fracture behavior of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined in air at 25 and 1316 C in asymmetric four-point flexure with single edge v-notched beam (SEVNB) test specimens. The mode I fracture toughness was found to be K(sub Ic) = 1.15 plus or minus 0.07 and 0.98 plus or minus 0.13 MPa the square root of m, respectively, at 25 and 1316 C. The respective mode II fracture toughness values were K(sub IIc) = 0.73 plus or minus 0.10 and 0.65 plus or minus 0.04 MPa the square root of m. Hence, there was an insignificant difference in either K(sub Ic or K(sub IIc) between 25 and 1316 C for the coating material, whereas there was a noticeable distinction between K(sub Ic) and K(sub IIc), resulting in K(sub IIc) per K(sub Ic) = 0.65 at both temperatures. The empirical mixed-mode fracture criterion best described the coatings' mixed-mode fracture behavior among the four mixed-mode fracture theories considered. The angle of crack propagation was in reasonable agreement with the minimum strain energy density criterion. The effect of the directionality of the coating material in on K(sub Ic) was observed to be insignificant, while its sintering effect at 1316 C on K(sub Ic) was significant.

  5. Friction and Wear Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Al2O3-13 wt.%TiO2 Coatings Under the Lubrication of Liquid Paraffin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoqin; An, Yulong; Hou, Guoliang; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin

    2014-04-01

    Two types of ceramic composite coatings (denoted as N-AT13 coating and M-AT13 coating) were fabricated on 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel substrate from ultra-fine and coarse Al2O3-13%TiO2 feedstocks by air plasma spraying. The friction and wear behavior of as-prepared coatings sliding against Al2O3 and stainless steel balls under the lubrication of liquid paraffin was evaluated with an SRV friction and wear tester (Optimol, Germany). The fractured and worn surfaces of the coatings were observed using a scanning electron microscope and a field-emission scanning electron microscope; and the wear mechanisms of the coatings were discussed based on scanning electron microscopic analysis and energy dispersive spectrometric analysis. Results show that N-AT13 coating possesses a unique microstructure and strong inter-splat bonding, thereby showing increased microhardness and bonding strength as well as much better friction-reduction and wear resistance than M-AT13 coating. Moreover, there exist differences in the wear mechanisms of N-AT13 and M-AT13 coatings which slide against ceramic and stainless steel balls under the lubrication of liquid paraffin. Namely, with the increase of normal load, the burnishing of N-AT13 coating coupled with Al2O3 ball is gradually transformed to grain-abrasion and deformation, while M-AT13 coating is dominated by grain-pullout and brittle fracture in the whole range of tested normal load.

  6. Influence of NH4Cl Powder Addition for Fabrication of Aluminum Nitride Coating in Reactive Atmospheric Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Reactive plasma spray is the key to fabricating aluminum nitride (AlN) thermally sprayed coatings. It was possible to fabricate AlN/Al composite coatings using atmospheric plasma spray process through plasma nitriding of Al powders (Al 30 μm). The nitriding reaction and the AlN content could be improved by controlling the spray distance and the feedstock powder particle size. Increasing the spray distance and/or using smaller particle size of Al powders improved the in-flight nitriding reaction. However, it was difficult to fabricate thick and dense AlN coatings with an increase in the spray distance and/or when using fine particles. Thus, the coatings thickness was suppressed because of the complete nitriding of some particles (formation of AlN particles) during flight, which prevents the particle deposition. Furthermore, the excessive vaporization of Al fine particles (due to increased particle temperature) decreased the deposition efficiency. To fabricate thick AlN coatings in the reactive plasma spray process, improving the nitriding reaction of the large Al particles at short spray distance is required to decrease the vaporization of Al particles during flight. This study investigated the influence of adding ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) powders on the nitriding process of large Al powders and on the microstructure of the fabricated coatings. It was possible to fabricate thick AlN coatings at 100 mm spray distance with small addition of NH4Cl powders to the Al feedstock powders (30 μm). Addition of NH4Cl to the starting Al powders promoted the formation of AlN through changing the reaction path to vapor-phase nitridation chlorination-nitridation sequences as confirmed by the thermodynamic analysis of possible intermediate reactions. This changes the nitriding reaction to a mild way, so it is more controlled with no explosive mode and with relatively low heating rates. Thus, NH4Cl acts as a catalyst, nitrogen source, and diluent agent. Furthermore, the evolved

  7. Development of self-supporting air electrode SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, M.; Iwasawa, C.; Yamaoka, S.; Seino, Y.; Ono, M.

    1995-12-31

    The authors are studying a self-supporting SOFC using the spray coating method, etc. A high-performance self-supporting air electrode has successfully been produced by the extrusion-sintering method, and a cell with its electrolyte and fuel electrode manufactured by the plasma spray coating method on the air electrode proved to have good performance. The maximum output density of a single cell is 0.31W/cm{sup 2}. Furthermore, the authors are developing a FGM (Functionally Gradient Material) film as the fuel electrode produced by the plasma spray coating method.

  8. Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Henry C.; Han, Taewon; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Tschudi, William F.

    2011-07-17

    There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: closed and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percent age of the recirculation air is make-up air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both closed and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups: (1) Outside - coupons sheltered, located near or at the supply air inlet, but located before any filtering, (2) Supply - starting just after initial air filtering continuing inside the plenums and ducts feeding the data center rooms, and (3) Inside located inside the data center rooms near the IT equipment. Each coupon was exposed for thirty days and then sent to a laboratory for a corrosion rate measurement analysis. The goal of this research was to investigate whether gaseous contamination is a concern for U.S. data center operators as it relates to the reliability of IT equipment. More specifically, should there be an increased concern if outside air for IT equipment cooling is used To begin to answer this question limited exploratory measurements of corrosion rates in operating data centers in various locations were undertaken. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the precision of the measurements (2) What are the approximate statistical

  9. Optimizing Compliance and Thermal Conductivity of Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings via Controlled Powders and Processing Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yang; Srinivasan, Vasudevan; Nakamura, Toshio; Sampath, Sanjay; Bertrand, Pierre; Bertrand, Ghislaine

    2012-09-01

    The properties and performance of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are strongly dependent on the microstructural defects, which are affected by starting powder morphology and processing conditions. Of particular interest is the use of hollow powders which not only allow for efficient melting of zirconia ceramics but also produce lower conductivity and more compliant coatings. Typical industrial hollow spray powders have an assortment of densities resulting in masking potential advantages of the hollow morphology. In this study, we have conducted process mapping strategies using a novel uniform shell thickness hollow powder to control the defect microstructure and properties. Correlations among coating properties, microstructure, and processing reveal feasibility to produce highly compliant and low conductivity TBC through a combination of optimized feedstock and processing conditions. The results are presented through the framework of process maps establishing correlations among process, microstructure, and properties and providing opportunities for optimization of TBCs.

  10. High-temperature erosion of plasma-sprayed, yttria-stabilized zirconia in a simulated turbine environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    A series of rig calibration and high temperature tests simulating gas path seal erosion in turbine engines were performed at three impingement angles and at three downstream locations. Plasma sprayed, yttria stabilized zirconia specimens were tested. Steady state erosion curves presented for 19 test specimens indicate a brittle type of material erosion despite scanning electron microscopy evidence of plastic deformation. Steady state erosion results were not sensitive to downstream location but were sensitive to impingement angle. At different downstream locations specimen surface temperature varied from 1250 to 1600 C (2280 to 2900 F) and particle velocity varied from 260 to 320 m/s (850 to 1050 ft/s). The mass ratio of combustion products to erosive grit material was typically 240.

  11. Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2006-06-01

    Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

  12. Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, B.S.; Prakash, S.

    2006-06-15

    Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10A1-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

  13. Induction of osteoconductivity by BMP-2 gene modification of mesenchymal stem cells combined with plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiang; Guo, Ying-qiang; Yin, Guang-fu; Chen, Huai-qing; Kang, Yunqing

    2008-11-01

    Success in bone implant depends greatly on the composition and surface features of the implant. The surface-modification measures not only favor the implant's osteoconductivity, but also promote both bone anchoring and biomechanical stability. This paper reports an approach to combine a hydroxyapatite (HA) coated substrate with a cellular vehicle for the delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) synergistically enhancing the osteoconductivity of implant surfaces. We examined the attachment, growth and osteoinductive activity of transfected BMP-producing bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on a plasma-sprayed HA coated substrate. It was found that the HA coated substrate could allow the attachment and growth of BMP-2 gene modified BMSCs, and this combined application synergistically enhanced osteconductivity of the substrate surface. This synergistic method may be of osseointegration value in orthopedic and dental implant surgery.

  14. High-temperature erosion of plasma-sprayed, yttria-stabilized zirconia in a simulated turbine environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanschuh, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    A series of rig calibration and high temperature tests simulating gas path seal erosion in turbine engines were performed at three impingement angles and at three downstream locations. Plasma sprayed, yttria stablized zirconia specimens were tested. Steady state erosion curves presented for 19 test specimens indicate a brittle type of material erosion despite scanning electron microscopy evidence of plastic deformation. Steady state erosion results were not sensitive to downstream location but were sensitive to impingement angle. At difference downstream locations specimen surface temperature varied from 1250 to 1600 C (2280 to 2900 F) and particle velocity varied from 260 to 320 m/s (850 to 1050 ft/s). The mass ratio of combustion products to erosive grit material was typically 240.

  15. Parametric appraisal of process parameters for adhesion of plasma sprayed nanostructured YSZ coatings using Taguchi experimental design.

    PubMed

    Mantry, Sisir; Mishra, Barada K; Chakraborty, Madhusudan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the Taguchi experimental design in developing nanostructured yittria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings by plasma spraying process. This paper depicts dependence of adhesion strength of as-sprayed nanostructured YSZ coatings on various process parameters, and effect of those process parameters on performance output has been studied using Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array design. Particle velocities prior to impacting the substrate, stand-off-distance, and particle temperature are found to be the most significant parameter affecting the bond strength. To achieve retention of nanostructure, molten state of nanoagglomerates (temperature and velocity) has been monitored using particle diagnostics tool. Maximum adhesion strength of 40.56 MPa has been experimentally found out by selecting optimum levels of selected factors. The enhanced bond strength of nano-YSZ coating may be attributed to higher interfacial toughness due to cracks being interrupted by adherent nanozones.

  16. Effect of Microstructure on the Thermal Conductivity of Plasma-Sprayed Al2O3-YSZ Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xuemei; Liu, Ziwei; Kong, Mingguang; Wang, Yongzhe; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin; Zeng, Yi

    2016-04-01

    The microstructures of three atmospheric plasma-sprayed (APS) Al2O3-ZrO2 coatings were investigated using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The differences in the microstructures of the three Al2O3-ZrO2 coatings, including their phase compositions, cracks, pores, grain sizes, and solid solutions, were analyzed in detail. A close relationship was observed between the thermal conductivities of the coatings and the microstructures, and the Al2O3-YSZ coatings with more spherical pores, fewer vertical cracks, and finer grains exhibited the lowest thermal conductivity of 0.91 W/m·K. Compared with YSZ coatings, Al2O3-YSZ coatings can exhibit lower thermal conductivity, which may be attributed to the formation of an amorphous phase, smaller grains, and Al2O3-YSZ solid solution.

  17. Microstructure and Oxidation Resistance of NiCoCrAlYTa Coating by Low Pressure Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.-H.; Zhou, K. S.; Liu, M.; Hong, R. J.; Deng, C. G.; Luo, S.; Chen, Z. K.

    The NiCoCrAlYTa coating was prepared on Ni-based single crystal super-alloys by low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS). The phases and microstructures for the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and the fracture toughness and micro-hardness for both coatings and substrate were also investigated. The relationship between coating properties and oxidation was analyzed. The result shows that elementary distribution of NiCoCrAlYTa coatings, which consists of γ-Ni, β-NiAl, γ'-Ni3Al, and CrCoTa phases, is much homogeneous. The composition changes with depth from the surface to substrate for the coatings. The micro-hardness of coatings is 350.8 HV0.3 and fracture toughness is 2.73 MPa m1/2. The oxidation resistance of coatings excelled than Ni-based single crystal super-alloys.

  18. Response surface regression analysis on FeCrBSi particle in-flight properties by plasma spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Runbo; Dong, Lihong; Wang, Haidou; Chen, Shuying; Xing, Zhiguo

    2016-09-01

    This work discusses the interactive effects between every two of argon flow rate, voltage, and spray distance on in-flight particles by plasma spray and constructs models that can be used in predicting and analyzing average velocity and temperature. Results of the response surface methodology show that the interactive effects between voltage and spray distance on particle inflight properties are significant. For a given argon flow rate, particle velocity and temperature response surface are obviously bending, and a saddle point exists. With an increase in spray distance, the interactive effects between voltage and argon flow rate on particle in-flight properties appear gradually and then weaken. With an increase in voltage, the interactive effects between spray distance and argon flow rate on particle in-flight properties change from appearing to strengthening and then to weakening.

  19. Apatite formation on alkaline-treated dense TiO2 coatings deposited using the solution precursor plasma spray process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dianying; Jordan, Eric H; Gell, Maurice; Wei, Mei

    2008-05-01

    A dense titania (TiO2) coating was deposited from an ethanol-based solution containing titanium isopropoxide using the solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process. XRD and Raman spectrum analyses confirmed that the coating is exclusively composed of rutile TiO2. SEM micrographs show the as-sprayed coating is dense with a uniform thickness and there are no coarse splat boundaries. The as-sprayed coating was chemically treated in 5M NaOH solution at 80 degrees C for 48 h. The bioactivity of as-sprayed and alkaline-treated coatings was investigated by immersing the coatings in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14-28 days, respectively. After 28 days immersion, there is a complete layer of carbonate-containing apatite formed on the alkaline-treated TiO2 coating surface, but none formed on the as-sprayed coating.

  20. The Structure and Properties of Plasma Sprayed Iron Oxide Doped Manganese Cobalt Oxide Spinel Coatings for SOFC Metallic Interconnectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puranen, Jouni; Lagerbom, Juha; Hyvärinen, Leo; Kylmälahti, Mikko; Himanen, Olli; Pihlatie, Mikko; Kiviaho, Jari; Vuoristo, Petri

    2011-01-01

    Manganese cobalt oxide spinel doped with Fe2O3 was studied as a protective coating on ferritic stainless steel interconnects. Chromium alloying causes problems at high operation temperatures in such oxidizing conditions where chromium compounds evaporate and poison the cathode active area, causing the degradation of the solid oxide fuel cell. In order to prevent chromium evaporation, these interconnectors need a protective coating to block the chromium evaporation and to maintain an adequate electrical conductivity. Thermal spraying is regarded as a promising way to produce dense and protective layers. In the present work, the ceramic Mn-Co-Fe oxide spinel coatings were produced by using the atmospheric plasma spray process. Coatings with low thickness and low amount of porosity were produced by optimizing deposition conditions. The original spinel structure decomposed because of the fast transformation of solid-liquid-solid states but was partially restored by using post-annealing treatment.

  1. Atmospheric Plasma Sprayed Forsterite (Mg2SiO4) Coatings: An Investigation of the Processing-Microstructure-Performance Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojocaru, C. V.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Legoux, J.-G.; Marple, B. R.

    2013-03-01

    Evaluating and understanding the relationship between processing, microstructure and performance of a dielectric coating is essential for its practical usage and reliable application. In this study, the role of the powder feedstock on the properties of atmospheric plasma sprayed forsterite (Mg2SiO4) dielectric coatings was investigated by using different forsterite powder granulometries. The microstructural and porosity characteristics of the coatings associated with the spray conditions employed were assessed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis. The phase composition of the coatings was studied via x-ray diffraction and their crystallinity index determined. The electrical insulating characteristics were investigated using the dielectric breakdown test and impedance spectroscopy measurements. The electrical properties obtained were correlated with the microstructural characteristics and a performance comparison between forsterite and other dielectric coatings is presented.

  2. Elastic and Conductive Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings in Relation to Their Microstructure: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevostianov, Igor; Kachanov, Mark

    2009-12-01

    This article focuses on micromechanics-based models that explicitly express the elastic and conductive properties of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings in terms of relevant microstructural parameters. These parameters reflect, in an integral way, the density and the orientation distribution of microcracks; they apply to strongly oblate pores as well. On the other hand, the porosity parameter usually plays a secondary role. Partial contacts between crack faces—a factor of major importance—are reflected via appropriate reduction of crack densities. The effect of various “irregularities” of crack shapes is discussed. Case studies of YSZ coatings demonstrate how the micromechanics-based modeling can be used and directly interfaced with 2-D image data.

  3. Combined Mode I and Mode II Fracture of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The mode I, mode II, and combined mode I-mode II fracture behavior of ZrO2 - 8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined in asymmetric flexure loading at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Precracks were introduced in test specimens using the single-edge-v-notched beam (SEVNB) method incorporated with final diamond polishing to achieve sharp crack tips. A fracture envelope of KI versus KII was determined for the coating material at ambient and elevated temperatures. Propagation angles of fracture as a function of KI/KII were also determined. The mixed-mode fracture behaviors of the coating material were compared with those of monolithic advanced ceramics determined previously. The mixed-mode fracture behavior of the plasma- sprayed thermal barrier coating material was predicted in terms of fracture envelope and propagation angle using mixed-mode fracture theories.

  4. Combined Mode I and Mode II Fracture of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The mode I, mode II, and combined mode I-mode II fracture behavior of ZrO2- 8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined in asymmetric flexure loading at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Precracks were introduced in test specimens using the single-edge-v-notched beam (SEVNB) method incorporated with final diamond polishing to achieve sharp crack tips. A fracture envelope of KI versus KII was determined for the coating material at ambient and elevated temperatures. Propagation angles of fracture as a function of K(sub I)/K(sub II) were also determined. The mixed-mode fracture behaviors of the coating material were compared with those of monolithic advanced ceramics determined previously. The mixed-mode fracture behavior of the plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating material was predicted in terms of fracture envelope and propagation angle using mixed-mode fracture theories.

  5. Effects of Substrate Roughness on Splat Formation for Ni-Cr Particles Plasma Sprayed onto Aluminum Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossard, S.; Munroe, P. R.; Tran, A. T. T.; Hyland, M. M.

    2010-09-01

    Roughening of the substrate, for instance by grit-blasting or etching, is often used before plasma spraying in order to provide a high degree of roughness that promotes mechanical interlocking of the sprayed coating and consequently improved adhesion. This study investigates the morphology and microstructure of NiCr splats formed on such rough Al substrates, where roughness was generated by a number of methods including grinding and etching. Cross sections of the splats and the splat-substrate interface were examined using a range of electron microscopy techniques. Localized substrate melting and chemical mixing with the splat material was observed, forming very particular structures. The formation of various oxides phases and voids was also noted and found to increase, along with the degree of the substrate melting, with increasing substrate roughness. The structures observed were related to the spray conditions and substrate morphology.

  6. Parametric Appraisal of Process Parameters for Adhesion of Plasma Sprayed Nanostructured YSZ Coatings Using Taguchi Experimental Design

    PubMed Central

    Mantry, Sisir; Mishra, Barada K.; Chakraborty, Madhusudan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the Taguchi experimental design in developing nanostructured yittria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings by plasma spraying process. This paper depicts dependence of adhesion strength of as-sprayed nanostructured YSZ coatings on various process parameters, and effect of those process parameters on performance output has been studied using Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array design. Particle velocities prior to impacting the substrate, stand-off-distance, and particle temperature are found to be the most significant parameter affecting the bond strength. To achieve retention of nanostructure, molten state of nanoagglomerates (temperature and velocity) has been monitored using particle diagnostics tool. Maximum adhesion strength of 40.56 MPa has been experimentally found out by selecting optimum levels of selected factors. The enhanced bond strength of nano-YSZ coating may be attributed to higher interfacial toughness due to cracks being interrupted by adherent nanozones. PMID:24288490

  7. The addition of a hydroxyapatite coating changes the immediate postoperative stability of a plasma-sprayed femoral stem.

    PubMed

    Race, Amos; Heffernan, Christopher D; Sharkey, Peter F

    2011-02-01

    Nonbiologic and mechanical effects of hydroxyapatite coatings have received little evaluation. Hydroxyapatite coatings give porous metal the appearance of decreased roughness. We hypothesized that this apparent decrease in surface roughness would result in diminished initial implant stability. We measured the initial stability of titanium plasma sprayed press-fit femoral stems with and without HA. Stems were implanted into cadaver and synthetic femora and subjected to aggressive stair-climbing loads. Migrations (retroversion and subsidence) and cyclic motions were recorded. Hydroxyapatite coating significantly reduced retroversion (P = .0007) and cyclic subsidence (P = .0086). Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed that HA coating appeared to have reduced roughness on a millimeter scale but increased roughness on a micrometer scale. We concluded that HA coating improves initial stability through mechanical means, before biological action.

  8. Ten years after entry into force of the Stockholm Convention: What do air monitoring data tell about its effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Wöhrnschimmel, Henry; Scheringer, Martin; Bogdal, Christian; Hung, Hayley; Salamova, Amina; Venier, Marta; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Hites, Ronald A; Hungerbuhler, Konrad; Fiedler, Heidelore

    2016-10-01

    More than a decade ago, the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), one of the multilateral environmental agreements administered by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), entered into force. The objective of this Convention is to protect human health and the environment by controlling the releases of POPs. According to its Article 16, the effectiveness of the Stockholm Convention shall be evaluated using comparable monitoring data on the presence of POPs as well as their regional and global environmental transport. Here, we present a time series analysis on atmospheric POP concentrations from 15 monitoring stations in North America and Europe that provide long-term data and have started operations between 1990 and 2003. We systematically searched for temporal trends and significant structural changes in temporal trends that might result from the provisions of the Stockholm Convention. We find that such structural changes do occur, but they are related mostly to effects of national regulations enforced prior to the implementation of the Stockholm Convention, rather than to the enforcement of the provisions laid out in the Convention. One example is that concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, many of which started to decrease rapidly during the 1990s. Also effects of chemical transport and fate, for instance the re-volatilization of POPs from secondary sources, are thought to be a cause of some of the observed structural changes. We conclude that a decade of air monitoring data has not been sufficient for detecting general and statistically significant effects of the Stockholm Convention. Based on these lessons, we present recommendations for the future operation of existing monitoring programs and advocate for a stricter enforcement of the provisions of the Stockholm Convention, in the current absence of proof for its effectiveness. PMID:27015905

  9. High-pressure combustor exhaust emissions with improved air-atomizing and conventional pressure-atomizing fuel nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    A high-pressure combustor segment 0.456 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was tested with specially designed air-atomizing and conventional pressure-atomizing fuel nozzles at inlet-air temperatures of 340 to 755 k (610 deg to 1360 R), reference velocities of 12.4 to 26.1 meters per second (41 to 86 ft/sec), and fuel-air ratios of 0.008 to 0.020. Increasing inlet-air pressure from 4 to 20 atmospheres generally increased smoke number and nitric oxide, but decreased carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon concentrations with air-atomizing and pressure-atomizing nozzles. Emission indexes for carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were lower at 4, 10, and 20 atmospheres, and nitric oxide emission indexes were lower at 10 and 20 atmospheres with air-atomizing than with pressure-atomizing nozzles.

  10. Cost characteristics of tilt-rotor, conventional air and high speed rail short-haul intercity passenger service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoendorfer, David L.; Morlok, Edward K.

    1985-01-01

    The cost analysis done to support an assessment of the potential for a small tilt-rotor aircraft to operate in short-haul intercity passenger service is described in detail. Anticipated costs of tilt-rotor air service were compared to the costs of two alternatives: conventional air and high speed rail (HSR). Costs were developed for corridor service, varying key market characteristics including distance, passenger volumes, and minimum frequency standards. The resulting cost vs output information can then be used to compare modal costs for essentially identical service quality and passenger volume or for different service levels and volumes for each mode, as appropriate. Extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. The cost-output features of these technologies are compared. Tilt-rotor is very attractive compared to HSR in terms of costs over the entire range of volume. It also has costs not dramatically different from conventional air, but tilt-rotor costs are generally higher. Thus some of its other advantages, such as the VTOL capability, must offset the cost disadvantage for it to be a preferred or competitive mode in any given market. These issues are addressed in the companion report which considers strategies for tilt-rotor development in commercial air service.

  11. Effect of Liquid Feed-Stock Composition on the Morphology of Titanium Dioxide Films Deposited by Thermal Plasma Spray.

    PubMed

    Adán, C; Marugán, J; van Grieken, R; Chien, K; Pershin, L; Coyle, T; Mostaghimi, J

    2015-09-01

    Titanium dioxide coatings were deposited on the surface of titanium foils by Thermal Plasma Spray (TPS) process. Three different TiO2 coatings were prepared using the commercial TiO2-P25 nanopowder and titanium isopropoxide precursor solution as feed-stocks. Structure and morphology of the TiO2-P25 powder and the plasma sprayed coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, UV-visible spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). XRD and Raman results indicate that the TiO2 coatings were composed of an anatase/rutile mixture that is conditioned by the suspension composition used to be sprayed. Coatings prepared from TiO2-P25 nanoparticles in water suspension (NW-P25) and titanium isopropoxide solution suspension (NSP-P25) are incorporated into the coatings without phase transformation and their anatase/rutile ratio percentage remains very similar to the starting TiO2-P25 powder. On the contrary, when titanium isopropoxide solution is used for spraying (SP), the amount of rutile increases in the final TiO2 coating. SEM analysis also reveals different microstructure morphology, coating thickness, density and porosity of the three TiO2 films that depend significantly on the type of feed-stock employed. Interestingly, we have observed the role of titanium isopropoxide in the formation of more porous and cohesive layers of TiO2. The NSP-P25 coating, prepared with a mix of titanium isopropoxide solution based on TiO2 nanoparticles, presents higher deposition efficiencies and higher coating thickness than the film prepared with nanoparticles suspended in water (NW-P25) or with titanium isopropoxide solutions (SP). This is due to the precursor solution is acting as the cement between TiO2 nanoparticles, improving the cohesive strength of the coating. In sum, NSP-P25 and NW-P25 coatings display a good photocatalytic potential, based on their light absorption properties and mechanical stability. Band gap of

  12. Effect of Liquid Feed-Stock Composition on the Morphology of Titanium Dioxide Films Deposited by Thermal Plasma Spray.

    PubMed

    Adán, C; Marugán, J; van Grieken, R; Chien, K; Pershin, L; Coyle, T; Mostaghimi, J

    2015-09-01

    Titanium dioxide coatings were deposited on the surface of titanium foils by Thermal Plasma Spray (TPS) process. Three different TiO2 coatings were prepared using the commercial TiO2-P25 nanopowder and titanium isopropoxide precursor solution as feed-stocks. Structure and morphology of the TiO2-P25 powder and the plasma sprayed coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, UV-visible spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). XRD and Raman results indicate that the TiO2 coatings were composed of an anatase/rutile mixture that is conditioned by the suspension composition used to be sprayed. Coatings prepared from TiO2-P25 nanoparticles in water suspension (NW-P25) and titanium isopropoxide solution suspension (NSP-P25) are incorporated into the coatings without phase transformation and their anatase/rutile ratio percentage remains very similar to the starting TiO2-P25 powder. On the contrary, when titanium isopropoxide solution is used for spraying (SP), the amount of rutile increases in the final TiO2 coating. SEM analysis also reveals different microstructure morphology, coating thickness, density and porosity of the three TiO2 films that depend significantly on the type of feed-stock employed. Interestingly, we have observed the role of titanium isopropoxide in the formation of more porous and cohesive layers of TiO2. The NSP-P25 coating, prepared with a mix of titanium isopropoxide solution based on TiO2 nanoparticles, presents higher deposition efficiencies and higher coating thickness than the film prepared with nanoparticles suspended in water (NW-P25) or with titanium isopropoxide solutions (SP). This is due to the precursor solution is acting as the cement between TiO2 nanoparticles, improving the cohesive strength of the coating. In sum, NSP-P25 and NW-P25 coatings display a good photocatalytic potential, based on their light absorption properties and mechanical stability. Band gap of

  13. Dielectric properties of Al2O3 coatings deposited via atmospheric plasma spraying and dry-ice blasting correlated with microstructural characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shujuan; Song, Bo; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In this work, atmospheric plasma spraying combined with dry-ice blasting have been used to prepare alumina (Al2O3) coatings designed for insulating applications. The microstructural characteristics and dielectric properties of Al2O3 coatings were presented. The electrical insulating properties, i.e., dielectric strength and breakdown voltage, were investigated by dielectric breakdown test using direct current and alternating current. Relationships between dielectric properties and coating characteristics were discussed. The results showed that dry-ice blasting used during atmospheric plasma spray process allowed the production of coatings with better dielectric properties than those prepared without dry-ice blasting. The dielectric properties were correlated with the microstructural characteristics, not with phase composition.

  14. Effect of TiO2 addition on the microstructure and nanomechanical properties of Al2O3 Suspension Plasma Sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannier, E.; Vicent, M.; Rayón, E.; Benavente, R.; Salvador, M. D.; Sánchez, E.

    2014-10-01

    Alumina-titania coatings are widely used in industry for wear, abrasion or corrosion protection components. Such layers are commonly deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) using powder as feedstock. In this study, both Al2O3 and Al2O3-13 wt% TiO2 coatings were deposited on austenitic stainless steel coupons by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). Two commercial suspensions of nanosized Al2O3 and TiO2 particles were used as starting materials. The coatings microstructure and phase composition were fully characterised using FEG-SEM and XRD techniques. Nanoindentation technique was used to determine the coatings hardness and elastic modulus properties. Results have shown that the addition of titania to alumina SPS coatings causes different crystalline phases and a higher powder melting rate is reached. The higher melted material achieved, when titania is added leads to higher hardness and elastic modulus when the same spraying parameters are used.

  15. Study of the Splat Microstructure and the Effects of Substrate Heating on the Splat Formation for Ni-Cr Particles Plasma Sprayed onto Stainless Steel Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossard, S.; Munroe, P. R.; Tran, A. T.; Hyland, M. M.

    2010-09-01

    The plasma spraying process is still poorly understood in term of the processes by which the coating is built up, especially coating interactions with the substrate. This present study enhances this understanding by studying, through a range of electron microscopy techniques, single NiCr splats plasma sprayed onto stainless steel substrates, which were first exposed to different heat treatments. The microstructure of the splats, particularly the splat-substrate interface, was characterized, and the formation of the observed features is discussed. Evidence of localized substrate melting and inter-mixing with the splat material was found, showing metallurgical bonding. The structures observed were also correlated to the treatment of the substrate, demonstrating how such treatments can influence the properties of the fully deposited coating by modifying the splat formation process. Most notably, heating the substrate during spraying was found to significantly modify splat formation by reducing splashing and increasing the extent of substrate melting.

  16. The response of SiC fibres to vacuum plasma spraying and vacuum hot pressing during the fabrication of titanium matrix composites

    PubMed

    Baker; Grant; Jenkins

    1999-11-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) and vacuum hot pressing (VHP) have been used to fabricate Ti-6Al-4V matrix composite material reinforced longitudinally with DERA Sigma C coated SiC 1140+ fibres. VPS of Ti-6Al-4V onto Sigma 1140+ SiC fibres caused no fibre/matrix interfacial reaction. During VHP a fibre/matrix reaction occurred, producing a mixture of fine (< 50 nm) TiCx (x conventional foil-fibre foil processing, but the matrix coated fibre/hot isostatic pressing process led to a slightly thicker reaction layer. The TiCx reaction product acted as a diffusion barrier, inhibiting further reaction more effectively than in experiments on earlier SiC fibres having a C coating. Surface damage was shown to be a factor in lowering 1140+ SiC fibre failure stress. Surface damage to 1140+ fibres resulted from both VPS and VHP, the former causing a slight reduction in mean ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and a large reduction in the bend strain to failure Weibull modulus. This damage was caused by both fibre winding and by deposition of metal during VPS, giving rise to coating flaws, and is not in itself considered to be a major problem. Surface damage increased after VHP, reducing the mean UTS and tensile Weibull modulus, and the mean bend strain to failure. This damage arose from bending and flattening of the rough monotapes, and from the fibre/matrix reaction caused by thermal exposure. The level of damage to 1140+ SiC fibre from VHP was reduced by modification of the process path. Increasing the VHP temperature and lowering the pressure ramp rate reduced fibre damage sufficiently to enable a macroscopic composite UTS of 95% of the theoretical maximum to be achieved

  17. In vivo testing of canine prosthetic femoral components with HA-Ti ladder-type coating on vacuum plasma-sprayed Ti substrate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xian-lin; Li, Jing-feng; Yang, Shu-hua; Zheng, Qi-xin; Zou, Zhen-wei

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the structure and functional change of the bone-coating-prosthesis interface in vivo and to evaluate the histocompatibility of self-made prosthetic femoral components in the body and the degree of their bonding with the surrounding bone tissues as well as their stability. Six mature beagle dogs underwent bilateral hip replacement with prosthetic femur components. Three groups were established in terms of different coating of prothesis (four joints in each group): atmosphere (A) plasma-sprayed pure titanium (Ti) prosthetic joint with hydroxyapatite (HA) coating (HA+Ti+A group); vacuum (V) plasma-sprayed pure Ti prosthetic joint with HA coating (HA+Ti+V group); vacuum plasma-sprayed pure Ti prosthetic joint with Ti-HA stepped coating (Ti+HAG+Ti+V group). The hip joints were functionally evaluated, and subjected to X-ray examination, biomechanics inspection, and histological examination. As a result, X-ray imaging revealed all prosthetic joints were in a good location and no dislocation of joint was found. Shear strength of interface was significantly higher in Ti+HAG+Ti+V group than in HA+Ti+V group (P<0.05) and HA+Ti+A group (P<0.05) at 28th week. Histological examination showed the amount of newborn bone in Ti+HAG+Ti+V group was more than in HA+Ti+V group and HA+Ti+A group after 28 weeks. It was suggested that vacuum plasma-sprayed pure Ti prosthetic joint with TI-HA stepped coating could improve the bonding capacity of bone-prosthesis, enhance the stability of prosthesis, and increase the fixion of prosthetic femoral components because of better bone growth. This new type of biological material in prosthetic femoral components holds promises for application in clinical practice.

  18. Role of process conditions on the microstructure, stoichiometry and functional performance of atmospheric plasma sprayed La(Sr)MnO3 coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Su Jung; Chen, Yikai; Sampath, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    Strontium doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) perovskite coatings were produced via atmospheric plasma spray technique to examine their applicability as electrically conductive coatings to protect chromium-poisoning of cathode side metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells. Various plasma spray process conditions were manipulated including plasma power, total gas flow and content of H2 in the plasma gas in order to understand their effects on coating properties as well as efficacy as a protectant against Cr-poisoning. In-flight temperatures and velocities of spray particles were monitored for the various plasma spray conditions enabling assessment of thermal and kinetic energies of LSM particles. As anticipated, coating density improves with increasing thermal and/or kinetic energies of the LSM particles. However, the LSM particles also experienced significant phase decomposition at higher thermal exposure and longer residence time conditions. Due to preferential loss of oxygen and manganese, La2O3 phase is also formed under certain processing regimes. The resultant mixed-phase coating is ineffective both from electrical transport and as a protective coating for the metallic interconnect. Concomitantly, coatings with limited decomposition show excellent conductivity and protection characteristics demonstrating the need for mechanism driven process optimization for these functional oxide coatings.

  19. AI-Li/SiCp composites and Ti-AI alloy powders and coatings prepared by a plasma spray atomization (PSA) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khor, K. A.; Boey, F. Y. C.; Murakoshi, Y.; Sano, T.

    1994-06-01

    There has been increasing use of Al-Li alloys in the aerospace industry, due mainly to the low density and high elastic modulus of this material. However, the problem of low ductility and fracture toughness of this material has limited its present application to only weight- and stiffness-critical components. Development of Al-Li/ceramic composites is currently being investigated to enhance the service capabilities of this material. The Ti-Al alloy is also of interest to aerospace-type applications, engine components in particular, due to its attractive high-temperature properties. Preparation of fine powders by plasma melting of composite feedstock and coatings formed by plasma spraying was carried out to examine the effect of spray parameters on the microstructure and properties of these materials. Characterization of the powders and coatings was performed using the scanning electron microscope and image analyzer. Examination of the plasma-sprayed powders and coatings has shown that in the Al-Li/SiC composite there is melting of both materials to form a single composite particle. The SiC reinforcement was in the submicron range and contributed to additional strengthening of the composite body, which was formed by a cold isostatic press and consolidated by hot extrusion or hot forging processes. The plasma-sprayed Ti-Al powder showed four categories of microstructures: featureless, dendritic, cellular, and martensite-like.

  20. Effect of Processing Parameters on Plasma Jet and In-flight Particles Characters in Supersonic Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying; Zhao, Guangxi; Bai, Y.; Tan, Chao

    2016-09-01

    In supersonic plasma spraying system (SAPS), heat transfer from arc plasma is characterized by several distinct features, such as transport of dissociation and ionization energy and of electrical charges in addition to mass transport. The thermodynamic and transport properties of plasma jet were influenced by several main parameters such as primary gas flow rate, the H2 vol.% and current intensity A. This paper first analyzes the effect of these parameters on the temperature and velocity of plasma jet theoretically. Further, the loading particles were melted and accelerated by plasma jet. Effects of several main parameters such as carrier gas flow rate, the H2 vol.%, the current intensity, the voltage and the spraying distance on temperature and velocity of in-flight particle were studied experimentally. The average maximum temperature and velocity of in-flight particle at any given parameters were systematically quantified. Optimal SAPS process parameters were given in this paper. In general, increasing the particles impacting velocity and surface temperature can improve the maximum spreading factor and decrease the coating porosity.

  1. Early bone apposition in vivo on plasma-sprayed and electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Eliaz, Noam; Xiang, Zhou; Hsu, Hu-Ping; Spector, Myron; Hobbs, Linn W

    2006-08-01

    Three different implants, bare Ti-6Al-4V alloy, Ti-6Al-4V alloy coated with plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (PSHA), and Ti-6Al-4V alloy coated with electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite (EDHA), were implanted into canine trabecular bone for 6 h, 7, and 14 days, respectively. Environmental scanning electron microscopy study showed that PSHA coatings had higher bone apposition ratios than those exhibited by bare Ti-6Al-4V and EDHA coatings after 7 days; however, at 14 days after implantation, EDHA and PSHA coatings exhibited similar bone apposition ratios, much higher than that for bare Ti-6Al-4V. The ultrastructure of the bone/implant interface observed by transmission electron microscope showed that the earliest mineralization (6 h-7 days) was in the form of nano-ribbon cluster mineral deposits with a Ca/P atomic ratio lower than that of hydroxyapatite. Later-stage mineralization (7-14 days) resulted in bone-like tissue with the characteristic templating of self-assembled collagen fibrils by HA platelets. Though adhesion of EDHA coatings to Ti-6Al-4V substrate proved problematical and clearly needs to be addressed through appropriate manipulation of electrodepositon parameters, the finely textured microstructure of EDHA coatings appears to provide significant advantage for the integration of mineralized bone tissue into the coatings. PMID:16618502

  2. Porous tantalum coatings prepared by vacuum plasma spraying enhance bmscs osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ze; Xie, Youtao; Yang, Fei; Huang, Yan; Wang, Chuandong; Dai, Kerong; Zheng, Xuebin; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    Tantalum, as a potential metallic implant biomaterial, is attracting more and more attention because of its excellent anticorrosion and biocompatibility. However, its significantly high elastic modulus and large mechanical incompatibility with bone tissue make it unsuitable for load-bearing implants. In this study, porous tantalum coatings were first successfully fabricated on titanium substrates by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), which would exert the excellent biocompatibility of tantalum and alleviate the elastic modulus of tantalum for bone tissue. We evaluated cytocompatibility and osteogenesis activity of the porous tantalum coatings using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and its ability to repair rabbit femur bone defects. The morphology and actin cytoskeletons of hBMSCs were observed via electron microscopy and confocal, and the cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of hBMSCs were examined quantitatively by PrestoBlue assay, Ki67 immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR technology and ALP staining. For in vivo detection, the repaired femur were evaluated by histomorphology and double fluorescence labeling 3 months postoperation. Porous tantalum coating surfaces promoted hBMSCs adhesion, proliferation, osteogenesis activity and had better osseointegration and faster new bone formation rate than titanium coating control. Our observation suggested that the porous tantalum coatings had good biocompatibility and could enhance osseoinductivity in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The porous tantalum coatings prepared by VPS is a promising strategy for bone regeneration.

  3. Cyclic delamination behavior of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrates in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Hayato; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of a simulated body fluid (SBF) on the cyclic delamination behavior of a plasma-sprayed hydroxapatite (HAp) coating. A HAp coating is deposited on the surfaces of surgical metallic materials in order to enhance the bond between human bone and such surfaces. However, the HAp coating is susceptible to delamination by cyclic loading from the patient's gait. Although hip joints are subjected to both positive and negative moments, only the effects of tensile bending stresses on vertical crack propagation behavior have been investigated. Thus, the cyclic delamination behavior of a HAp coating was observed at the stress ratio R=-1 in order to determine the effects of tensile/compressive loading on the delamination behavior. The delamination growth rate increased with SBF immersion, which decreased the delamination life. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the selective phase dissolution in the HAp coating was promoted at interfaces. Finite element analysis revealed that the energy release rate Gmax showed a positive value even in cases with compressive loading, which is a driving force for the delamination of a HAp coating. A prediction model for the delamination growth life was developed that combines a fracture mechanics parameter with the assumed stress-dependent dissolution rate. The predicted delamination life matched the experimental data well in cases of lower stress amplitudes with SBF. PMID:27287152

  4. Degradation behavior of Ni3Al plasma-sprayed boiler tube steels in an energy generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2005-06-01

    Boiler steels, namely, low-C steel, ASTM-SA210-Grade A1 (GrA1), 1Cr-0.5Mo steel, ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11) and 2.25Cr-1Mo steel, ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22) were plasma sprayed with Ni3Al. The alloy powder was prepared by mixing Ni and Al in the stoichiometric ratio of 3 to 1. The Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y alloy powder was used as a bond coat, with a 150 µm thick layer sprayed onto the surface before applying the 200 µm coating of Ni3Al. Exposure studies have been performed in the platen superheater zone of a coal-fired boiler at around 755 °C for 10 cycles, each of 100 h duration. The protection to the base steel was minimal for the three steels. Scale spallation and the formation of a porous and nonadherent NiO scale were probably the main reasons for the lack of protection. In the case of T22-coated steel, cracks in the coatings have been observed after the first 100 h exposure cycle.

  5. High temperature tensile and creep behaviour of low pressure plasma-sprayed Ni-Co-Cr-Al-Y coating alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, M. G.; Miner, R. V.

    1986-01-01

    The high temperature tensile and creep behavior of low pressure plasma-sprayed plates of a typical Ni-Co-Cr-Al-Y alloy has been studied. From room temperature to 800 K, the Ni-Co-Cr-Al-Y alloy studied has nearly a constant low ductility and a high strength. At higher temperatures, it becomes weak and highly ductile. At and above 1123 K, the behavior is highly dependent on strain rate and exhibits classic superplastic characteristics with a high ductility at intermediate strain rates and a strain rate sensitivity of about 0.5. At either higher or lower strain rates, the ductility decreases and the strain rate sensitivities are about 0.2. In the superplastic deformation range, the activation energy for creep is 120 + or - 20 kJ/mol, suggesting a diffusion-aided grain boundary sliding mechanism. Outside the superplastic range, the activation energy for creep is calculated to be 290 + or - 20 kJ/mol.

  6. Wear resistance and microstructural properties of Ni–Al/h-BN/WC–Co coatings deposited using plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, W.T.; Su, C.Y.; Huang, T.S.; Liao, W.H.

    2013-05-15

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and tungsten carbide cobalt (WC–Co) were added to nickel aluminum alloy (Ni–Al) and deposited as plasma sprayed coatings to improve their tribological properties. The microstructure of the coatings was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Following wear test, the worn surface morphologies of the coatings were analyzed using a SEM to identify their fracture modes. The results of this study demonstrate that the addition of h-BN and WC–Co improved the properties of the coatings. Ni–Al/h-BN/WC–Co coatings with high hardness and favorable lubrication properties were deposited. - Highlights: • We mixed Ni–Al, h-BN and WC–Co powders and deposited them as composite coatings. • Adding WC–Co was found to increase the hardness and reduce the wear volume loss. • Adding h-BN was found to decrease the hardness and reduce the friction coefficient. • This composite coating was shown to have improved wear properties at 850 °C.

  7. The Influence of Process Equipment on the Properties of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, Michael; Waldbillig, David; Kesler, Olivera

    2013-03-01

    Suspension plasma-sprayed YSZ coatings were deposited at lab-scale and production-type facilities to investigate the effect of process equipment on coating properties. The target application for these coatings is solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolytes; hence, dense microstructures with low permeability values were preferred. Both facilities had the same torch but different suspension feeding systems, torch robots, and substrate holders. The lab-scale facility had higher torch-substrate relative speeds compared with the production-type facility. On porous stainless steel substrates, permeabilities and microstructures were comparable for coatings from both facilities, and no segmentation cracks were observed. Coating permeability was further reduced by increasing substrate temperatures during deposition or reducing suspension feed rates. On SOFC cathode substrates, coatings made in the production-type facility had higher permeabilities and more segmentation cracks compared with coatings made in the lab-scale facility. Increased cracking in coatings from the production-type facility was likely caused mainly by its lower torch-substrate relative speed.

  8. Cyclic delamination behavior of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrates in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Hayato; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of a simulated body fluid (SBF) on the cyclic delamination behavior of a plasma-sprayed hydroxapatite (HAp) coating. A HAp coating is deposited on the surfaces of surgical metallic materials in order to enhance the bond between human bone and such surfaces. However, the HAp coating is susceptible to delamination by cyclic loading from the patient's gait. Although hip joints are subjected to both positive and negative moments, only the effects of tensile bending stresses on vertical crack propagation behavior have been investigated. Thus, the cyclic delamination behavior of a HAp coating was observed at the stress ratio R=-1 in order to determine the effects of tensile/compressive loading on the delamination behavior. The delamination growth rate increased with SBF immersion, which decreased the delamination life. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the selective phase dissolution in the HAp coating was promoted at interfaces. Finite element analysis revealed that the energy release rate Gmax showed a positive value even in cases with compressive loading, which is a driving force for the delamination of a HAp coating. A prediction model for the delamination growth life was developed that combines a fracture mechanics parameter with the assumed stress-dependent dissolution rate. The predicted delamination life matched the experimental data well in cases of lower stress amplitudes with SBF.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Double-Layer and Graded Composite Coatings of YSZ Obtained by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpio, Pablo; Rayón, Emilio; Salvador, María Dolores; Lusvarghi, Luca; Sánchez, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    Double-layer and graded composite coatings of yttria-stabilized zirconia were sprayed on metallic substrates by atmospheric plasma spray. The coating architecture was built up by combining two different feedstocks: one micro- and one nanostructured. Microstructural features and mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) of the coatings were determined by FE-SEM microscopy and nanoindentation technique, respectively. Additional adherence and scratch tests were carried out in order to assess the failure mechanisms occurring between the layers comprising the composites. Microstructural inspection of the coatings confirms the two-zone microstructure. This bimodal microstructure which is exclusive of the layer obtained from the nanostructured feedstock negatively affects the mechanical properties of the whole composite. Nanoindentation tests suitably reproduce the evolution of mechanical properties through coatings thickness on the basis of the position and/or amount of nanostructured feedstock used in the depositing layer. Adhesion and scratch tests show the negative effect on the coating adhesion of layer obtained from the nanostructured feedstock when this layer is deposited on the bond coat. Thus, the poor integrity of this layer results in lower normal stresses required to delaminate the coating in the adhesion test as well as minor critical load registered by using the scratch test.

  10. Analysis of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings With Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Bond Coats Under Spatially Uniform Cyclic Thermal Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Aboudi, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a numerical investigation into the spallation mechanism in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings observed under spatially-uniform cyclic thermal loading. The analysis focuses on the evolution of local stress and inelastic strain fields in the vicinity of the rough top/bond coat interface during thermal cycling, and how these fields are influenced by the presence of an oxide film and spatially uniform and graded distributions of alumina particles in the metallic bond coat aimed at reducing the top/bond coat thermal expansion mismatch. The impact of these factors on the potential growth of a local horizontal delamination at the rough interface's crest is included. The analysis is conducted using the Higher-Order Theory for Functionally Graded Materials with creep/relaxation constituent modeling capabilities. For two-phase bond coat microstructures, both the actual and homogenized properties are employed in the analysis. The results reveal the important contributions of both the normal and shear stress components to the delamination growth potential in the presence of an oxide film, and suggest mixed-mode crack propagation. The use of bond coats with uniform or graded microstructures is shown to increase the potential for delamination growth by increasing the magnitude of the crack-tip shear stress component.

  11. Effect of Graphite Addition on Structure and Properties of Ti(CN) Coatings Deposited by Reactive Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Pengbo; He, Jining; Zhao, Hongjian; Ni, Zenglei; Ye, Fuxing

    2016-10-01

    Ti(CN) coatings with graphite addition ranging from 0 to 50 wt.% were prepared using reactive plasma spraying technology and their microstructure, mechanical, and tribological properties were investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Vickers microhardness testing, and block-on-ring wear testing. The results showed that graphite addition resulted in crystallite size refinement and an increase in the amount of amorphous phase. The Ti(CN) coatings consisted of a mixture of Ti(CN), graphite, CN x , and amorphous phases. The hardness first increased then decreased as the graphite content was increased, with a maximum of 1450 HV0.2 for 30 wt.% graphite addition. The fracture toughness decreased from 4.38 MPa m1/2 to 2.76 MPa m1/2 with increasing graphite content. The friction coefficient decreased due to unreacted graphite embedded in the matrix. Also, the wear rate first decreased then increased, with a minimum value of 2.65 × 10-6 mm3 N-1 m-1 for 30 wt.% graphite addition. The wear mechanisms of the Ti(CN) coatings included abrasive, adhesive, and oxidation wear.

  12. Effect of Spray Distance on Microstructure and Tribological Performance of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite-Titania Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Xu, Haifeng; Geng, Xin; Wang, Jingjing; Xiao, Jinkun; Zhu, Peizhi

    2016-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-titania (TiO2) composite coatings prepared on Ti6Al4V alloy surface can combine the excellent mechanical property of the alloy substrate and the good biocompatibility of the coating material. In this paper, HA-TiO2 composite coatings were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates using suspension plasma spray (SPS). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier infrared absorption spectrometry and friction tests were used to analyze the microstructure and tribological properties of the obtained coatings. The results showed that the spray distance had an important influence on coating microstructure and tribological performance. The amount of decomposition phases decreased as the spray distance increased. The increase in spray distance from 80 to 110 mm improved the crystalline HA content and decreased the wear performance of the SPS coatings. In addition, the spray distance had a big effect on the coating morphology due to different substrate temperature resulting from different spray distance. Furthermore, a significant presence of OH- and CO3 2- was observed, which was favorable for the biomedical applications.

  13. Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed Molybdenum Coating Reinforced by MoSi2 Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jianhui; He, Zheyu; Wang, Yi; Qiu, Jingwen; Wang, Yueming

    2016-10-01

    Mo coatings with or without incorporated MoSi2 were fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying, and their microstructure, microhardness, bond strength, and wear resistance were compared. Two kinds of spray powder, i.e., pure Mo and a blend of Mo and MoSi2, were sprayed onto low-carbon steel. Microstructural analysis of the MoSi2-Mo coating showed MoSi2 homogeneously distributed in a Mo matrix. Addition of MoSi2 particles increased the microhardness of the as-sprayed Mo coating. The adhesion strength of the Mo coating was better than that of the MoSi2-Mo coating. Wear test results showed that the wear rate and friction coefficient of the two coatings increased with increasing load, and the friction coefficient of the MoSi2-Mo coating was lower than that of the Mo coating. The MoSi2-Mo composite coating exhibited better wear resistance than the Mo coating. The wear failure mechanisms of the two coatings were local plastic deformation, delamination, oxidation, and adhesion wear.

  14. Microstructures and properties of plasma sprayed FeAl/CeO 2/ZrO 2 nano-composite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Bin; Liu, Guang; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin; Yan, Fengyuan

    2010-04-01

    Commercial FeAl powders and ZrO 2 nano-particles as well as CeO 2 additive were reconstituted into a novel multi-compositional feedstock powders via spray drying. The resulting feedstock powders were used to deposit FeAl/CeO 2/ZrO 2 nano-composite coating by plasma spraying on 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel. An X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS), and a field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (FESEM/EDS) were employed to characterize the microstructure of the as-prepared feedstock powders and nano-composite coating. At the same time, the mechanical properties and friction and wear behavior of the nano-composite coating and pure FeAl coating were comparatively evaluated by using a Vickers microindentation tester and ball-on-disk sliding wear tribotester, respectively. And the wear mechanisms for the two types of coatings are discussed in terms of their microstructure and mechanical properties. Results indicate that the nano-composite coating has a much higher hardness and fracture toughness as well as drastically increased wear resistance than pure FeAl coating, which could be mainly attributed to the reinforcing effect of ZrO 2 nano-particles and partially attributed to the refining effect of CeO 2 in the nano-composite coating.

  15. Thermal Shock and Ablation Behavior of Tungsten Nozzle Produced by Plasma Spray Forming and Hot Isostatic Pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. M.; Xiong, X.; Zhao, Z. W.; Xie, L.; Min, X. B.; Yan, J. H.; Xia, G. M.; Zheng, F.

    2015-08-01

    Tungsten nozzle was produced by plasma spray forming (PSF, relative density of 86 ± 2%) followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing, 97 ± 2%) at 2000 °C and 180 MPa for 180 min. Scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffractometer, Archimedes method, Vickers hardness, and tensile tests have been employed to study microstructure, phase composition, density, micro-hardness, and mechanical properties of the parts. Resistance of thermal shock and ablation behavior of W nozzle were investigated by hot-firing test on solid rocket motor (SRM). Comparing with PSF nozzle, less damage was observed for HIPed sample after SRM test. Linear ablation rate of nozzle made by PSF was (0.120 ± 0.048) mm/s, while that after HIPing reduced to (0.0075 ± 0.0025) mm/s. Three types of ablation mechanisms including mechanical erosion, thermophysical erosion, and thermochemical ablation took place during hot-firing test. The order of degree of ablation was nozzle throat > convergence > dilation inside W nozzle.

  16. Effect of Spray Distance on Microstructure and Tribological Performance of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite-Titania Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Xu, Haifeng; Geng, Xin; Wang, Jingjing; Xiao, Jinkun; Zhu, Peizhi

    2016-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-titania (TiO2) composite coatings prepared on Ti6Al4V alloy surface can combine the excellent mechanical property of the alloy substrate and the good biocompatibility of the coating material. In this paper, HA-TiO2 composite coatings were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates using suspension plasma spray (SPS). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier infrared absorption spectrometry and friction tests were used to analyze the microstructure and tribological properties of the obtained coatings. The results showed that the spray distance had an important influence on coating microstructure and tribological performance. The amount of decomposition phases decreased as the spray distance increased. The increase in spray distance from 80 to 110 mm improved the crystalline HA content and decreased the wear performance of the SPS coatings. In addition, the spray distance had a big effect on the coating morphology due to different substrate temperature resulting from different spray distance. Furthermore, a significant presence of OH- and CO3 2- was observed, which was favorable for the biomedical applications.

  17. Vacuum plasma sprayed coatings using ionic silver doped hydroxyapatite powder to prevent bacterial infection of bone implants.

    PubMed

    Guimond-Lischer, Stefanie; Ren, Qun; Braissant, Olivier; Gruner, Philipp; Wampfler, Bruno; Maniura-Weber, Katharina

    2016-03-10

    Fast and efficient osseointegration of implants into bone is of crucial importance for their clinical success; a process that can be enhanced by coating the implant surface with hydroxyapatite (HA) using the vacuum plasma spray technology (VPS). However, bacterial infections, especially the biofilm formation on implant surfaces after a surgery, represent a serious complication. With ever-increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, there is great interest in silver (Ag) as an alternative to classical antibiotics due to its broad activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. In the present study, silver ions were introduced into HA spray powder by ion exchange and the HA-Ag powder was applied onto titanium samples by VPS. The Ag-containing surfaces were evaluated for the kinetics of the silver release, its antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus as well as Escherichia coli, and possible cytotoxicity against human bone cells. The HA-Ag coatings with different concentrations of Ag displayed mechanical and compositional properties that fulfill the regulatory requirements. Evaluation of the Ag release kinetic showed a high release rate in the first 24 h followed by a decreasing release rate over the four subsequent days. The HA-Ag coatings showed no cytotoxicity to primary human bone cells while exhibiting antibacterial activity to E. coli and S. aureus.

  18. Porous Tantalum Coatings Prepared by Vacuum Plasma Spraying Enhance BMSCs Osteogenic Differentiation and Bone Regeneration In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ze; Xie, Youtao; Yang, Fei; Huang, Yan; Wang, Chuandong; Dai, Kerong; Zheng, Xuebin; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    Tantalum, as a potential metallic implant biomaterial, is attracting more and more attention because of its excellent anticorrosion and biocompatibility. However, its significantly high elastic modulus and large mechanical incompatibility with bone tissue make it unsuitable for load-bearing implants. In this study, porous tantalum coatings were first successfully fabricated on titanium substrates by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), which would exert the excellent biocompatibility of tantalum and alleviate the elastic modulus of tantalum for bone tissue. We evaluated cytocompatibility and osteogenesis activity of the porous tantalum coatings using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and its ability to repair rabbit femur bone defects. The morphology and actin cytoskeletons of hBMSCs were observed via electron microscopy and confocal, and the cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of hBMSCs were examined quantitatively by PrestoBlue assay, Ki67 immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR technology and ALP staining. For in vivo detection, the repaired femur were evaluated by histomorphology and double fluorescence labeling 3 months postoperation. Porous tantalum coating surfaces promoted hBMSCs adhesion, proliferation, osteogenesis activity and had better osseointegration and faster new bone formation rate than titanium coating control. Our observation suggested that the porous tantalum coatings had good biocompatibility and could enhance osseoinductivity in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The porous tantalum coatings prepared by VPS is a promising strategy for bone regeneration. PMID:23776648

  19. Microstructural Characteristics of Y2O3-MgO Composite Coatings Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muoto, Chigozie K.; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice; Aindow, Mark

    2012-12-01

    Dense composite Y2O3-MgO coatings have been deposited by suspension plasma spray. Ethanol-based suspensions of powders synthesized by thermal decomposition of precursor solutions containing yttrium nitrate (Y[n]) and magnesium nitrate (Mg[n]) or magnesium acetate (Mg[a]) were selected as the feedstock; this gave powders with both phases in each particle, to inhibit phase segregation during solvent evaporation. The influence of powder characteristics on the microstructures of the coatings was investigated. The Y[n]Mg[a] suspension was more stable, with a better dispersion of the component phases than the Y[n]Mg[n] suspension. The coatings deposited using each suspension type exhibited lamellar structures comprising Y2O3 and MgO phases in wavy alternating streaks, with unmelted/semi-melted particles entrapped in the lamellae; this indicates that phase segregation still occurred in the molten state. Eutectic structures were formed in the coating generated using the Y[n]Mg[a] suspension, resulting from improved mixing of the component phases in the suspension powder.

  20. Double-Layer Gadolinium Zirconate/Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings Deposited by the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chen; Jordan, Eric H.; Harris, Alan B.; Gell, Maurice; Roth, Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with lower thermal conductivity, increased resistance to calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS), and improved high-temperature capability, compared to traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) TBCs, are essential to higher efficiency in next generation gas turbine engines. Double-layer rare-earth zirconate/YSZ TBCs are a promising solution. From a processing perspective, solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process with its unique and beneficial microstructural features can be an effective approach to obtaining the double-layer microstructure. Previously durable low-thermal-conductivity YSZ TBCs with optimized layered porosity, called the inter-pass boundaries (IPBs) were produced using the SPPS process. In this study, an SPPS gadolinium zirconate (GZO) protective surface layer was successfully added. These SPPS double-layer TBCs not only retained good cyclic durability and low thermal conductivity, but also demonstrated favorable phase stability and increased surface temperature capabilities. The CMAS resistance was evaluated with both accumulative and single applications of simulated CMAS in isothermal furnaces. The double-layer YSZ/GZO exhibited dramatic improvement in the single application, but not in the continuous one. In addition, to explore their potential application in integrated gasification combined cycle environments, double-layer TBCs were tested under high-temperature humidity and encouraging performance was recorded.

  1. Influence of internal cold gas flow and of nozzle contour on spray properties of an atmospheric plasma spray torch

    SciTech Connect

    Henne, R.H.; Borck, V.; Mayr, W.; Landes, K.; Reusch, A.

    1995-12-31

    With an automated Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) equipment trajectories, distributions and velocities of spray particles were measured operating a plasma spray torch under atmospheric pressure conditions. For this purpose a standard APS torch (PT F4) was used, applying different gas distribution rings and nozzle modifications to study the influence of internal plasma gas flow and of plasma jet formation. The main results are: (1) An inclined injection of the plasma cold gas results in a considerable spin of the plasma jet and a significant deviation of the particle trajectories around the plasma jet center. (2) With a plasma cold gas injection parallel to the torch axis no spin is observable, but torch voltage and the plasma jet enthalpy show considerably diminished values. (3) The flow of injected powder may be split up, if it is injected too fast. (4) In comparison with cylindrical nozzles, specially developed nozzles with a controlled expanding contour, lead to broader temperature profiles across the plasma jet and hence to better melting conditions for the particles.

  2. Effect of Atmospheric Plasma Spraying Power on Microstructure and Properties of WC-(W,Cr)2C-Ni Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Guoliang; An, Yulong; Liu, Guang; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin; Chen, Zujun

    2011-12-01

    WC-(W,Cr)2C-Ni coatings were prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) with different spraying powers. The effect of spraying power on microstructure, phase composition, hardness, fracture toughness, and oscillating dry friction and wear behaviors of the coatings were studied. Simultaneously, the microstructure and properties of the as-sprayed coatings were compared with those of WC-17Co coating prepared under the optimal spraying power. It was found that spraying power had significant effect on the molten degree of feedstock powder and phase composition as well as microstructure and properties of WC-(W,Cr)2C-Ni coatings. WC-(W,Cr)2C-Ni coating deposited at a moderate spraying power of 22.5 kW had the highest fracture toughness and the best wear resistance. WC-17Co coating obtained under the moderate spraying power had poor fracture toughness and wear resistance. Moreover, the four kinds of coatings were all dominated by subsurface cracking and removal of materials when sliding against Si3N4 ball under unlubricated conditions.

  3. Microstructure and Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Mixture of Cr2O3 and TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ctibor, P.; Píš, I.; Kotlan, J.; Pala, Z.; Khalakhan, I.; Štengl, V.; Homola, P.

    2013-10-01

    Rutile TiO2 and Eskolaite Cr2O3 powders were mechanically mixed and fed into the plasma jet simultaneously. The influence of the ratio of components on behavior of the plasma-sprayed coatings was observed using two different compositions, both at two different feeding distances. The produced coatings were analyzed by XRD, SEM, XPS, and light microscopy. Electrical resistivity was measured at voltages from 1 to 100 V. Photocatalytic decomposition of butane on the coatings was studied using visible light together with a setup typically used for UV-light tests. For the coatings with high TiO2 content, besides rutile, low anatase content was identified. The coatings with predominant Cr2O3 exhibited lower porosity and higher hardness. All coatings are relatively efficient photocatalysts for butane decomposition. Moreover, they have good mechanical properties governed predominantly by Cr2O3 content as the harder component. It was proven that the spray process led to obtaining of robust photocatalytically active coatings.

  4. Study on the preparation and electrical properties of NTC thick film thermistor deposited by supersonic atmospheric plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Sen; Zhang, Xiao; Bai, Yu; Han, ZhiHai; Yang, Jianfeng

    2011-09-01

    In the present work, a series of thick Ni0.6Mg0.3Mn1.5-xAl0.6+xO4(x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6) films (50 ± 10 μm) with negative temperature coefficient (NTC) were firstly deposited by newly developed high efficiency supersonic atmospheric plasma spray (SAPS) method. The phase, microstructure and electrical properties of films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and two-probe technique. The results showed that all the films were composed of cubic spinel structure, and the MgAl2O4 phase increased with increasing the Al2O3 content in the original powders. In addition, the films showed a dense and smooth surface with some pores in the grain boundaries. All the as-sprayed films showed a linear relationship between ln resistivity and reciprocal of absolute temperature (1/T) in the temperature range from 25 °C to 220 °C, which indicated a NTC characteristic.

  5. PLASMA SPRAYED FUNCTIONALLY GRADED AND LAYERED MoSi2-A1203 COMPOSITES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SENSOR SHEATH APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. VAIDYA; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    Protective sensor sheaths are required in the glass industry for sensors that are used to measure various properties of the melt. Molten glass presents an extremely corrosive elevated temperature environment, in which only a few types of materials can survive. Molybdenum disilicide (MoSi{sub 2}) has been shown to possess excellent corrosion resistance in molten glass, and is thus a candidate material for advanced sensor sheath applications. Plasma spray-forming techniques were developed to fabricate molybdenum dilicide-alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) laminate and functionally graded composite tubes with mechanical properties suitable for sensor sheath applications. These functionally graded materials (FGMs) were achieved by manipulating the powder hoppers and plasma torch translation via in-house created computer software. Molybdenum disilicide and alumina are thermodynamically stable elevated temperature materials with closely matching thermal expansion coefficients. Proper tailoring of the microstructure of these MoSi{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites can result in improved strength, toughness, and thermal shock resistance. This study focuses on the mechanical performance of these composite microstructures.

  6. Production of Nano-composite Si-M powders by plasma spraying for next generation lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambara, Makoto; Gerile, Naren; Kaga, Mashiro; Hideshima, Tasuku; Dept. Mater. Eng., University of Tokyo Team

    2013-09-01

    We have attempted plasma spraying to produce nano Si powders for lithium ion batteries at the industrial compatible throughputs. Several 100 nm nano-composite powders are typically produced from metallurgical grade Si powders, and its improved battery capacity has been revealed. When doped with >10 mol%Ni, several SiNix alloy particles, that are the congruent phases with relatively high melting temperature in the Si-Ni binary system, were produced. The battery performance of these powders was not as good as that with Si powders only. In contrast, at 5 mol%Ni addition, NiSi2 phase was only detected apart from Si. Importantly, the battery performance was improved. Since NiSi2 is an incongruent phase that forms through peritectic reaction, it plausibly nucleates heterogeneously on surface of Si particles that nucleate in advance. In fact, TEM analysis revealed that NiSi2 was present on Si surface not as individual particles. Therefore, such a composite structure, not a simple mixture of foreign particles, is considered to improve the battery performance possibly by increasing the particle mechanical integrity as well as the electric conductivity of the electrode. This work was partly supported by the Funding Program for Next Generation World-Leading Researchers (NEXT Program) of Japan.

  7. In Situ Observation of Creep and Fatigue Failure Behavior for Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Harada, Yoshio

    In order to investigate crack initiation sites and the crack propagation behavior in connection with the microstructure of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems under creep and fatigue loadings, the failure behavior was observed in situ for plasma-sprayed TBC systems by optical microscopy, as a first step for elucidating the thermo-mechanical failure mechanism. Two types of TBC systems with differing top-coat (TC) microstructures were prepared by changing the processing conditions. The mechanical failure behavior of TBC system was found to depend strongly on the loading conditions. Under static creep loading, many segmentation cracks in the TC widened with increasing creep strain in the substrate. However, the propagation of these cracks into the bond-coat (BC) and alloy substrate was prevented due to the stress relief induced by plastic flow in the BC layer at elevated temperatures. As a result, the TBC system exhibited typical creep rupture behavior with nucleation and coalescence of microcracks in the alloy substrate interior regardless of the TC microstructure. Under dynamic fatigue loading, on the other hand, many fatigue cracks initiated not only from the tips of segmentation cracks in the TC layer but also from the TC/BC interface. Furthermore, it was found that the fatigue cracks propagated into the BC and alloy substrate even at elevated temperatures above the ductile-brittle transition temperature of the BC; the fatigue failure behavior under dynamic fatigue loading was dependent on the TC microstructure and the properties of the TC/BC interface.

  8. Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite composite coating by using vacuum-plasma spraying and its interaction with human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng-Juan; Peng, Lei; Zhang, Ying; Yun, Li-Jiang

    2009-08-01

    The incorporation of silicon can improve the bioactivity of hydroxyapatite (HA). Silicon-substituted HA (Ca(10)(PO(4))(6-x )(SiO(4))( x )(OH)(2-x ), Si-HA) composite coatings on a bioactive titanium substrate were prepared by using a vacuum-plasma spraying method. The surface structure was characterized by using XRD, SEM, XRF, EDS and FTIR. The bond strength of the coating was investigated and XRD patterns showed that Ti/Si-HA coatings were similar to patterns seen for HA. The only different XRD pattern was a slight trend toward a smaller angle direction with an increase in the molar ratio of silicon. FTIR spectra showed that the most notable effect of silicon substitution was that -OH group decreased as the silicon content increased. XRD and EDS elemental analysis indicated that the content of silicon in the coating was consistent with the silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite used in spraying. A bioactive TiO(2) coating was formed on an etched surface of Ti, and the etching might improve the bond strength of the coatings. The interaction of the Ti/Si-HA coating with human serum albumin (HSA) was much greater than that of the Ti/HA coating. This might suggest that the incorporation of silicon in HA can lead to significant improvements in the bioactive performance of HA.

  9. Plasma sprayed cerium oxide coating inhibits H2O2-induced oxidative stress and supports cell viability.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Xie, Youtao; You, Mingyu; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin

    2016-06-01

    Oxidative stress is a risk factor in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and plays a major role in bone regeneration of osteoporotic patients. Cerium oxide (CeO2) ceramics have the unique ability to protect various types of cells from oxidative damage, making them attractive for biomedical applications. In this study, we developed a plasma sprayed CeO2 coating with a hierarchical topography where ceria nanoparticles were superimposed in the micro-rough coating surface. The protective effects of the CeO2 coating on the response of osteoblasts to H2O2-induced oxidative stress have been demonstrated in terms of cell viability, apoptosis and differentiation. The CeO2 coating reversed the reduced superoxide dismutase activity, decreased reactive oxygen species production and suppressed malondialdehyde formation in H2O2-treated osteoblasts. It indicated that the CeO2 coating can preserve the intracellular antioxidant defense system. The cytocompatibility of the CeO2 coating was further assessed in vitro by cell viability assay and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Taken together, the CeO2 coating could provide an opportunity to be utilized as a potential candidate for bone regeneration under oxidative stress.

  10. Antibacterial mechanism of plasma sprayed Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Xie, Youtao; Huang, Liping; Ji, Heng; Zheng, Xuebin

    2013-01-01

    In our previous work, antibacterial activity of plasma sprayed Ca(2)ZnSi(2)O(7) coating has been demonstrated. However, antibacterial mechanism of Ca(2)ZnSi(2)O(7) coating still remains undefined. In this study, Escherichia coli (E. coli), a kind of Gram-negative bacteria, was chosen to investigate the interactions between the bacterium and Ca(2)ZnSi(2)O(7) coating. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy micrographs exhibited that the morphologies of E. coli on the coating changed with treatment time, from initial slight disturbance to the disruption of cell wall and drastic distortion of bacterial interior where a remarkable material-light region was formed in the center and condensed deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules were found. Disturbances of cytoplasmic membrane were observed by two-photon confocal microscopy and confirmed by leakage of intracellular potassium ion (K(+)). Results suggest that the destruction of cell wall and the loss of replication ability of DNA molecules are two major reasons causing death of E. coli.

  11. Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed Molybdenum Coating Reinforced by MoSi2 Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jianhui; He, Zheyu; Wang, Yi; Qiu, Jingwen; Wang, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    Mo coatings with or without incorporated MoSi2 were fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying, and their microstructure, microhardness, bond strength, and wear resistance were compared. Two kinds of spray powder, i.e., pure Mo and a blend of Mo and MoSi2, were sprayed onto low-carbon steel. Microstructural analysis of the MoSi2-Mo coating showed MoSi2 homogeneously distributed in a Mo matrix. Addition of MoSi2 particles increased the microhardness of the as-sprayed Mo coating. The adhesion strength of the Mo coating was better than that of the MoSi2-Mo coating. Wear test results showed that the wear rate and friction coefficient of the two coatings increased with increasing load, and the friction coefficient of the MoSi2-Mo coating was lower than that of the Mo coating. The MoSi2-Mo composite coating exhibited better wear resistance than the Mo coating. The wear failure mechanisms of the two coatings were local plastic deformation, delamination, oxidation, and adhesion wear.

  12. Chemical stability and antimicrobial activity of plasma sprayed bioactive Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Yu, Jiangming; Xie, Youtao; Huang, Liping; Ye, Xiaojian; Zheng, Xuebin

    2011-12-01

    Calcium silicate ceramic coatings have received considerable attention in recent years due to their excellent bioactivity and bonding strength. However, their high dissolution rates limit their practical applications. In this study, zinc incorporated calcium silicate based ceramic Ca(2)ZnSi(2)O(7) coating was prepared on Ti-6Al-4V substrate via plasma spraying technology aiming to achieve higher chemical stability and additional antibacterial activity. Chemical stability of the coating was assessed by monitoring mass loss and ion release of the coating after immersion in the Tris-HCl buffer solution and examining pH value variation of the solution. Results showed that the chemical stability of zinc incorporated coating was improved significantly. Antimicrobial activity of the Ca(2)ZnSi(2)O(7) coating was evaluated, and it was found that the coating exhibited 93% antibacterial ratio against Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility were confirmed for the Ca(2)ZnSi(2)O(7) coating by simulated body fluid test, MC3T3-E1 cells adhesion investigation and cytotoxicity assay.

  13. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of plasma-sprayed Mg(2)SiO(4) coating on titanium alloy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Youtao; Zhai, Wanyin; Chen, Lei; Chang, Jiang; Zheng, Xuebin; Ding, Chuanxian

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, chemically synthesized Mg(2)SiO(4) (MS) powder was plasma-sprayed onto a titanium alloy substrate to evaluate its application potentials in biomedicine. The phase composition and surface morphology of the MS coating were analyzed. Results showed that the MS coating was composed mainly of Mg(2)SiO(4) phase, with a small amount of MgO and glass phases. Mechanical testing showed that the coating exhibited good adhesion strength to the substrate due to the close thermal expansion coefficient between the MS ceramic and the titanium alloy substrate. The measured bonding strength was as high as 41.5+/-5.3MPa, which is much higher than the traditional HA coating. In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation of the MS coating was performed using canine bone marrow stem cells (MSCs). The MSCs exhibited good adhesion, proliferation and differentiation behavior on the MS coating surface, which can be explained by the high protein adsorption capability of the MS coating, as well as the stimulatory effects of Mg and Si ions released from the coating. The proliferation rate of the MSCs on MS coating was very close to that on the hydroxylapatite (HA) coating. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis demonstrated that the ALP level of the MSCs on the MS coating remained high even after 21days, implying that the surface characteristics of the coating are beneficial for the differentiation of MSCs. In summary, our results suggest that MS coating might be a new approach to prepare bone implants.

  14. Friction and Wear Characteristics of a Modified Composite Solid Lubricant Plasma Spray Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, M. K.; DellaCorte, C.

    2004-01-01

    LCR304 is a solid lubricant coating composed of Ni-10Cr, Cr2O3, BaF2-CaF2 and Ag and developed for dimensional stability in high temperature air. This coating is a modification of PS304, which differs in that the Ni-Cr constituent contains 20wt% Cr. The tribological characteristics of LCR304 were evaluated by pin-on-disk and foil air bearing rig testing from 25 to 650 C and compared to previous test results with PS304. For both tests, the friction coefficient decreased as temperature increased from 25 to 650 C. Wear generally decreased with increasing temperature for all pin-on-disk tests. LCR304 coated components produced the least wear of Inconel X-750 counterface materials at 427 and 650 C. These results indicate that the LCR304 coating has potential as a replacement for PS304 in, for example, low cycle (minimum wear) applications where dimensional stability is imperative.

  15. Improvement of surface properties of SLM parts by atmospheric plasma spraying coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baicheng; Zhu, Lin; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2012-12-01

    Although selective laser melting (SLM) provides many advantages compared to conventional forming methods, limited surface quality is one of the major drawbacks restricting its application. As a remedy, the ceramic coating was deposited on the SLM parts surface in order to improve surface quality in this study. Furthermore, the combination of SLM and APS makes a great possibility to obtain special function material for special application. In this work, the bonding condition between ceramic coating and stainless steel parts were observed by optical microscope and SEM. The surface morphology and roughness were measured by a 3D-profilemeter. The microhardness and bonding strength of the ceramic coating were also measured. This paper presents two types of bonding mechanisms between ceramic coating and SLM parts with horizontal/vertical surface. It can be found that the bonding strength of the coating on the vertical surface was approximately 40 MPa, but the bonding strength of coating on the horizontal surface is relatively weaker.

  16. Cooling on the Front of an Air-cooled Engine Cylinder in a Conventional Engine Cowling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, M J; Joyner, U T

    1939-01-01

    Measurements were made of the cooling on the fronts of model cylinders in a conventional cowling for cooling in both the ground and the cruising conditions. The mechanisms of front and rear cooling are essentially different. Cooling on the rear baffled part of the cylinders continually increases with increasing fin width. For the front of the cylinder, an optimum fin width was found to exist beyond which an increase in width reduced the heat transfer. The heat transfer coefficient on the front of the cylinders was larger on the side of the cylinder facing the propeller swirl than on the opposite side. This effect became more pronounced as the fin width was increased. These results are introductory to the study of front cooling and show the general effect of several test parameters.

  17. Preliminary analysis on the MD-4® plasma-sprayed titanium acetabular component☆

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo Loures, Elmano; Simoni, Leandro Furtado; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves; Loures, Daniel Naya; Loures, Clarice Naya

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the short-term performance of a type of implant manufactured in Brazil. Methods This study analyzed a cohort of 60 patients who underwent implantation of MD-4® acetabular components during primary hip arthroplasty procedures performed between January 1, 2010, and August 1, 2012. The patients were studied retrospectively with regard to clinical behavior, stability and radiological osseointegration. The patients were followed up for a minimum of 12 months and a maximum of 42 months (mean: 27) and were evaluated by means of the Harris Hip Score, SF-36 questionnaire and serial conventional radiographs. Results All the components were radiologically stable, without evidence of migration or progressive radiolucency lines. On average, the Harris Hip Score evolved from 36.1 to 92.1 (p < 0.001) and the SF-36 showed significant increases in all its domains (p < 0.001). No differences were observed among patients with osteoarthrosis, osteonecrosis, hip dysplasia or other conditions. Conclusions The short-term results showed clinical and radiological signs of stability and osseointegration of the implants, which may represent a predictive factor regarding medium-term survival of this acetabular component. PMID:26229918

  18. Determination of Scattering and Absorption Coefficients for Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Spuckler, Charles M.; Markham, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the scattering and absorption coefficients for a set of freestanding plasma-sprayed 8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined at temperatures up to 1360 C in a wavelength range from 1.2 micrometers up to the 8YSZ absorption edge. The scattering and absorption coefficients were determined by fitting the directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance values calculated by a four-flux Kubelka Munk method to the experimentally measured hemispherical-directional reflectance and transmittance values obtained for five 8YSZ thicknesses. The scattering coefficient exhibited a continuous decrease with increasing wavelength and showed no significant temperature dependence. The scattering is primarily attributed to the relatively temperature-insensitive refractive index mismatch between the 8YSZ and its internal voids. The absorption coefficient was very low (less than 1 per centimeter) at wavelengths between 2 micrometers and the absorption edge and showed a definite temperature dependence that consisted of a shift of the absorption edge to shorter wavelengths and an increase in the weak absorption below the absorption edge with increasing temperature. The shift in the absorption edge with temperature is attributed to strongly temperature-dependent multiphonon absorption. While TBC hemispherical transmittance beyond the absorption edge can be predicted by a simple exponential decrease with thickness, below the absorption edge, typical TBC thicknesses are well below the thickness range where a simple exponential decrease in hemispherical transmittance with TBC thickness is expected. [Correction added after online publication August 11, 2009: "edge to a shorter wavelengths" has been updated as edge to shorter wavelengths."

  19. Investigations of some aspects of the spray process in a single wire arc plasma spray system using high speed camera.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, N; Sahasrabudhe, S N; Tak, A K; Barve, D N; Das, A K

    2012-02-01

    A high speed camera has been used to record and analyze the evolution as well as particle behavior in a single wire arc plasma spray torch. Commercially available systems (spray watch, DPV 2000, etc.) focus onto a small area in the spray jet. They are not designed for tracking a single particle from the torch to the substrate. Using high speed camera, individual particles were tracked and their velocities were measured at various distances from the spray torch. Particle velocity information at different distances from the nozzle of the torch is very important to decide correct substrate position for the good quality of coating. The analysis of the images has revealed the details of the process of arc attachment to wire, melting of the wire, and detachment of the molten mass from the tip. Images of the wire and the arc have been recorded for different wire feed rates, gas flow rates, and torch powers, to determine compatible wire feed rates. High speed imaging of particle trajectories has been used for particle velocity determination using time of flight method. It was observed that the ripple in the power supply of the torch leads to large variation of instantaneous power fed to the torch. This affects the velocity of the spray particles generated at different times within one cycle of the ripple. It is shown that the velocity of a spray particle depends on the instantaneous torch power at the time of its generation. This correlation was established by experimental evidence in this paper. Once the particles leave the plasma jet, their forward speeds were found to be more or less invariant beyond 40 mm up to 500 mm from the nozzle exit.

  20. New ZrO2-Yb2O3 plasma-sprayed coatings for thermal barrier applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, Stephan

    1987-01-01

    New thermal barrier coatings, whose compositions were chosen on the basis of a limited study of the ZrO2-Yb2O3 system, were evaluated by cyclic testing in a furnace at 1120 C. On Ni-16.2Cr-5.9Al-0.15Y bond coating, ZrO2-12.4Yb2O3, ZrO2-14.7Yb2O3 and ZrO2-17.4Yb2O3 coatings have respectively 60, 30, and 15 percent longer lives than the near-optimum ZrO2-6.1Y2O3 coating. On Ni-18.3Cr-6.4Al-0.22Yb coating, ZrO2-12.4Yb2O3 has about 40 percent longer life than the ZrO2-6.1Y2O3 coating. The optimum Yb2O3 concentration in ZrO2 at which the maximum life is obtained is believed to be between 12.4 and 14.7 wt pct. The ZrO2-Yb2O3 thermal barrier systems failed through the formation of a crack or cracks in the thermal barrier coating near the bond coating interface. As-received ZrO2-Yb2O3 plasma spray powders had a nonhomogeneous distribution of Yb2O3. Monoclinic, cubic, and tetragonal phases in addition to Zr3Yb4O12 and an unknown phase were present.

  1. Multi-step approach for comparing the local air pollution contributions of conventional and innovative MSW thermo-chemical treatments.

    PubMed

    Ragazzi, M; Rada, E C

    2012-10-01

    In the sector of municipal solid waste management the debate on the performances of conventional and novel thermo-chemical technologies is still relevant. When a plant must be constructed, decision makers often select a technology prior to analyzing the local environmental impact of the available options, as this type of study is generally developed when the design of the plant has been carried out. Additionally, in the literature there is a lack of comparative analyses of the contributions to local air pollution from different technologies. The present study offers a multi-step approach, based on pollutant emission factors and atmospheric dilution coefficients, for a local comparative analysis. With this approach it is possible to check if some assumptions related to the advantages of the novel thermochemical technologies, in terms of local direct impact on air quality, can be applied to municipal solid waste treatment. The selected processes concern combustion, gasification and pyrolysis, alone or in combination. The pollutants considered are both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic. A case study is presented concerning the location of a plant in an alpine region and its contribution to the local air pollution. Results show that differences among technologies are less than expected. Performances of each technology are discussed in details. PMID:22795304

  2. TSARINA: A computer model for assessing conventional and chemical attacks on air bases

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, D.E.; Wegner, L.H.

    1990-09-01

    This Note describes the latest version of the TSARINA (TSAR INputs using AIDA) airbase damage assessment computer program that has been developed to estimate the on-base concentration of toxic agents that would be deposited by a chemical attack and to assess losses to various on-base resources from conventional attacks, as well as the physical damage to runways, taxiways, buildings, and other facilities. Although the model may be used as a general-purpose, complex-target damage assessment model, its primary role in intended to be in support of the TSAR (Theater Simulation of Airbase Resources) aircraft sortie generation simulation program. When used with TSAR, multiple trials of a multibase airbase-attack campaign can be assessed with TSARINA, and the impact of those attacks on sortie generation can be derived using the TSAR simulation model. TSARINA, as currently configured, permits damage assessments of attacks on an airbase (or other) complex that is compassed of up to 1000 individual targets (buildings, taxiways, etc,), and 2500 packets of resources. TSARINA determines the actual impact points (pattern centroids for CBUs and container burst point for chemical weapons) by Monte Carlo procedures-i.e., by random selections from the appropriate error distributions. Uncertainties in wind velocity and heading are also considered for chemical weapons. Point-impact weapons that impact within a specified distance of each target type are classed as hits, and estimates of the damage to the structures and to the various classes of support resources are assessed using cookie-cutter weapon-effects approximations.

  3. Air sampling sensors, the Open Skies Treaty, and verifying the chemical weapons convention. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, G.D.

    1995-12-01

    This thesis examines a novel proposal to join two separate arms control measures to achieve unique counterproliferation benefits. The Open Skies Treaty (OST) is a confidence-building measure between the states of NATO and the former Warsaw Pact. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) attempts to eliminate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction. OST overflights could be used to verify the CWC, aiding CWC inspectors to plan their inspections. This cross-treaty measure could be enhanced further with the addition of air sampling sensors capable of testing for chemical weapons production, creating inter-treaty synergy. Obstacles for this inter-treaty coordination include the lack of formal mechanisms in either treaty for a complementary role and the lack of political impetus to effect it.

  4. Influence of Spraying Parameters on the Microstructure and Properties of Plasma-sprayed Al2O3/40%TiO2 Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J. J.; Xu, B. S.; Wang, H. D.; Wang, C. B.

    In this paper, the influences of parameters such as spraying voltage, spraying current, primary gas feed rate and spraying distance on the properties of plasma-sprayed Al2O3-40 wt.%TiO2 composite ceramic coating were studied by using orthogonal experimental design. The influence sequences of the parameters on the properties of plasma-sprayed Al2O3-40 wt.%TiO2 coating are: spraying distance, spraying voltage, spraying current, argon gas flow rate. The optimum parameters were determined: spraying distance 100 mm, spraying current 440 A, spraying voltage 120 V, and argon gas flow rate 3.0 m3/h. Scanning electronic microscope was used to observe the surface and cross-section morphologies of the Al2O3-40 wt.%TiO2 coating prepared by using the optimum parameters. The phase structure was analyzed by X ray diffraction. The through-thickness microhardness was measured by microhardness instrument. The bonding strength between the coating and substrate was determined by dual tensile test method. The porosity was measured by image analysis method. The results showed that the plasma-sprayed Al2O3-40 wt.%TiO2 composite ceramic coating has a dense structure with the porosity of 1.5%. In addition, the coating has typical layered structure. Al2O3-rich area and TiO2-rich area exhibiting different colors have homogeneous distribution and good combination. Due to the function of NiAl/AlSi bond coating, the bonding strength between the Al2O3- 40 wt.% TiO2 coating and substrate reaches 45 MPa. The coating is mainly composed of γ-Al2O3 metastable phase, α-Al2O3 stable phase, Ti8O15 and Al2TiO5.

  5. Effect of Coating Process Condition on High-Temperature Oxidation and Mechanical Failure Behavior for Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Yoshiba, Masayuki; Harada, Yoshio

    In order to clarify the thermal and/or mechanical failure behavior of the plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) system in connection with their coating characteristics depending on the coating process condition, two kinds of the failure analytical tests were conducted for TBC systems processed under different conditions. One was the high-temperature oxidation test, which was conducted at 1100°C under both the isothermal and thermal cycle conditions. The other was the in-situ observation of mechanical failure behavior, which was conducted under the static loadings at ambient temperature; as the most fundamental aspect, by means of an optical microscopy. It was found that the thermal and mechanical failure behavior of TBC system depends strongly on the top-coat (TC)/bond-coat (BC) interfacial condition, the reheat-treatment (RHT) after spraying and so on. For the TBC system with vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) BC as well as for that with atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) BC, in particular, the RHT at an appropriate temperature in Ar atmosphere was found to be effective for improving the oxidation property. For the TBC system with APS-BC, however, it was impossible to prevent the crack growth into the BC interior under the tensile loading in spite of conducting the RHT, since the microdefects such as oxides within the APS-BC tend to provide an easy crack propagation path. Furthermore, it was clarified that the smoothening process on the BC surface is able to prevent perfectly the occurrence of the wart-like oxide during oxidation, but at the same time increases also the risk of the TC spalling under the mechanical loading.

  6. Experience of high-nitrogenous steel powder application in repairs and surface hardening of responsible parts for power equipment by plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpakov, A. S.; Kardonina, N. I.

    2016-02-01

    The questions of the application of novel diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders for repair and surface hardening of responsible parts of power equipment by plasma spraying are considered. The appropriateness of the method for operative repair of equipment and increasing its service life is justified. General data on the structure, properties, and manufacture of nitrogen-, aluminum-, and chromium-containing steel powders that are economically alloyed using diffusion are described. It is noted that the nitrogen release during the decomposition of iron nitrides, when heating, protects the powder particles from oxidation in the plasma jet. It is shown that the coating retains 50% of nitrogen that is contained in the powder. Plasma spraying modes for diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders are given. The service properties of plasma coatings based on these powders are analyzed. It is shown that the high-nitrogenous steel powders to a nitrogen content of 8.9 wt % provide the necessary wear resistance and hardness of the coating and the strength of its adhesion to the substrate and corrosion resistance to typical aggressive media. It is noted that increasing the coating porosity promotes stress relaxation and increases its thickness being limited with respect to delamination conditions in comparison with dense coatings on retention of the low defectiveness of the interface and high adhesion to the substrate. The examples of the application of high-nitrogenous steel powders in power engineering during equipment repairs by service companies and overhaul subdivisions of heat power plants are given. It is noted that the plasma spraying of diffusion-alloyed high-nitrogenous steel powders is a unique opportunity to restore nitrided steel products.

  7. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.

  8. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-01-01

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles. PMID:25512510

  9. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tessum, Christopher W; Hill, Jason D; Marshall, Julian D

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration-response, and economic health impact modeling for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or "grid average" electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles. PMID:25512510

  10. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tessum, Christopher W; Hill, Jason D; Marshall, Julian D

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration-response, and economic health impact modeling for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or "grid average" electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.

  11. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    DOE PAGES

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozonemore » (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.« less

  12. Study of the Splat-Substrate Interface for a PEEK Coating Plasma-Sprayed onto Aluminum Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Munroe, P. R.; Withy, B.; Hyland, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    The quality of coatings made using thermal spray processes depends greatly on the degree of adhesion between the substrate and its coating. Yet the bonding mechanisms between a substrate and coating are not well understood. In this study, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) powder was plasma-sprayed to form single splats on aluminum substrates, which had undergone various surface treatments, including boiled (BT), etched (E, ET), and polished (PT), all of which had also been thermally treated to remove water from the substrate surface, with the exception of one etched aluminum substrate. Scanning electron microscopy was used to give an overview of the surface and splat morphology. The splat-substrate interfaces were studied in detail using focused ion beam imaging and transmission electron microscopy, to characterize microstructural features within the splat-substrate interface, including inter/intrasplat pores, pores along the splat-substrate interface, level of contact between the splat and the substrate, etc. The results showed that the splat-substrate interface for the BT and the E substrate surface had poor level of contact, with a high number of small pores (<1 μm) along the splat-substrate interface for the BT splat-substrate interface, and the formation of a near-continuous crevice between the PEEK splat and the aluminum substrate for the E substrate surface. The presence of the fine needle-like network of oxide layer on the BT substrate surface may have restricted the flow of the molten PEEK on the aluminum substrate, and the possible presence of physisorbed and chemisorbed water on the E substrate surface may have reduced the level of contact between the PEEK and the aluminum substrate. In contrast, specimens which had undergone thermal treatment to minimize the presence of water on the substrate surface, such as the ET and PT substrate surface, exhibited high level of contact at the splat-substrate interface. The number of pores for the ET and the PT splat

  13. Characterisations Of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-13% Wt TiO{sub 2} Deposition On Mild Steel Via Plasma Spray Method

    SciTech Connect

    Yusoff, N. H.; Isa, M. C.; Daud, A. R.

    2011-01-17

    To date, plasma sprayed alumina titania have been widely used as wear resistance coatings in textile, machinery and printing industries. Previous studies showed that the coating microstructures and properties were strongly depended on various parameters such as ceramic composition, grain size powders and spray parameters, thus, influencing the melting degree of the alumina titania during the deposition process. The aim of this study focuses on the evolution of the micron sizes of alumina-13%wt titania at different plasma spray power, ranging from 20kW to 40kW. It was noted that the coating porosity of alumina-13%wt titania were decreased from 6.2% to 4% by increasing the plasma power from 20 to 40 kW. At lower power value, partially melted powders were deposited, generating over 6% porosity within the microstructures. Percentage of porosity about 5.6% gave the best ratio of bi-modal structures, providing the highest microhardness value. Furthermore, the effect of microstructure and porosity formation on wear resistance was also discussed. Coatings with less porosity exhibited better resistance to wear, in which the wear resistance of coated mild steel possessed only {approx}5 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup 3}/Nm with 4% of porosity.

  14. The Influence of Temperature on Frictional Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed NiAl-Cr2O3 Based Self-Adaptive Nanocomposite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazani, M.; Ashrafizadeh, F.; Mozaffarinia, R.

    2013-10-01

    Frictional behavior of nano and hybrid-structured NiAl-Cr2O3-Ag-CNT-WS2 adaptive self-lubricant coatings was evaluated at a range of temperatures, from room temperature to 700 °C. For this purpose, hybrid structured (HS) and nanostructured (NS) composite powders with the same nominal compositions were prepared by spray drying and heat treatment techniques. A series of HS and NS coating samples were deposited on steel substrate by an atmospheric plasma spraying process. The tribological behavior of both coatings was studied from room temperature to 700 °C at 100° intervals using a custom designed high temperature wear test machine. Scanning electron microscopy was employed for the evaluation of the composite coatings and worn surfaces. Experimental results indicated that the hybrid coating had inferior tribological properties when compared to the nanostructured coating, showing the attractive frictional behavior on the basis of low friction and high wear resistance; the NS coating possessed a more stable friction coefficient in the temperature range of 25-700 °C against alumina counterface. Microstructural examinations revealed more uniformity in NS plasma-sprayed coatings.

  15. Investigation into the diffusion and oxidation behavior of the interface between a plasma-sprayed anode and a porous steel support for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan-Lin; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu; Liu, Meilin; Yang, Guan-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Porous metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have attracted much attention because their potential to dramatically reduce the cost while enhancing the robustness and manufacturability. In particular, 430 ferritic steel (430L) is one of the popular choice for SOFC support because of its superior performance and low cost. In this study, we investigate the oxidation and diffusion behavior of the interface between a Ni-based anode and porous 430L support exposed to a humidified (3% H2O) hydrogen atmosphere at 700 °C. The Ni-GDC (Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-δ) cermet anodes are deposited on the porous 430L support by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The effect of exposure time on the microstructure and phase structure of the anode and the supports is studied and the element diffusion across the support/anode interface is characterized. Results indicate that the main oxidation product of the 430L support is Cr2O3, and that Cr and Fe will diffuse to the anode and the diffusion thickness increases with the exposure time. The diffusion thickness of Cr and Fe reach about 5 and 2 μm, respectively, after 1000 h exposure. However, the element diffusion and oxidation has little influence on the area-specific resistance, indicating that the porous 430L steel and plasma sprayed Ni-GDC anode are promising for durable SOFCs.

  16. Characterization of atmospheric plasma-sprayed La 0.8Sr 0.2Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 3 electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Xin; Xie, Ying-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu; Yang, Guan-Jun

    La 0.8Sr 0.2Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 3 (LSGM) deposit in free standing planar shape was prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) to examine the coating microstructure and electrical conductivity to aim at applying APS LSGM to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The electrical conductivity of the plasma-sprayed LSGM coating was investigated. The coating microstructure was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The result showed that a fraction amorphous phase was present in the as-sprayed LSGM deposit, which starts to recrystallize at the temperature of 785 °C. The electrical conductivities of the LSGM with recrystallization treatment are 0.04 and 0.09 S cm -1 at 1000 °C at the directions perpendicular and parallel to the coating surfaces, respectively. The electrical conductivity at perpendicular direction is about one-tenth that of sintered bulk at 1000 °C. This result is due to the lamellar structure feature with the limited interface bonding which dominates the electrical conductivity of APS coatings. The activation energy for ion conduction within APS-deposited LSGM deposit depends on temperature range. The change of activation energy indicates that the ion transportation dominant changes with temperature.

  17. Effect of Dispersed TiC Content on the Microstructure and Thermal Expansion Behavior of Shrouded-Plasma-Sprayed FeAl/TiC Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Li-Hui; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu; Yang, Guan-Jun

    2012-06-01

    FeAl intermetallic matrix composites reinforced by ceramic particles such as titanium carbide have attracted much attention in recent years. In this study, shrouded plasma spraying with nitrogen as a protective gas was employed to deposit FeAl/TiC composite coatings. Fe-35Al powder and Fe-35Al/TiC composite powders containing 35 and 45 vol.% TiC prepared by mechanical alloying were used as feedstock powders. The microstructures of the ball-milled powders and the as-sprayed coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The mean coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of FeAl and FeAl/TiC were measured. The results showed that dense FeAl and FeAl/TiC coatings with low oxide inclusions were deposited by shrouded plasma spraying. The mean CTEs measured in the present study were reasonably consistent with those calculated based on the formula. As a result, the mean CTE of FeAl-based composite coating can be properly controlled by adjusting TiC content in the composite coating to match with those of different substrate materials.

  18. Characterisations Of Al2O3-13% Wt TiO2 Deposition On Mild Steel Via Plasma Spray Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, N. H.; Ghazali, M. J.; Isa, M. C.; Daud, A. R.; Muchtar, A.; Forghani, S.

    2011-01-01

    To date, plasma sprayed alumina titania have been widely used as wear resistance coatings in textile, machinery and printing industries. Previous studies showed that the coating microstructures and properties were strongly depended on various parameters such as ceramic composition, grain size powders and spray parameters, thus, influencing the melting degree of the alumina titania during the deposition process. The aim of this study focuses on the evolution of the micron sizes of alumina-13%wt titania at different plasma spray power, ranging from 20kW to 40kW. It was noted that the coating porosity of alumina-13%wt titania were decreased from 6.2% to 4% by increasing the plasma power from 20 to 40 kW. At lower power value, partially melted powders were deposited, generating over 6% porosity within the microstructures. Percentage of porosity about 5.6% gave the best ratio of bi-modal structures, providing the highest microhardness value. Furthermore, the effect of microstructure and porosity formation on wear resistance was also discussed. Coatings with less porosity exhibited better resistance to wear, in which the wear resistance of coated mild steel possessed only ˜5 x 10-4 cm3/Nm with 4% of porosity.

  19. Chemical compatibility and properties of suspension plasma-sprayed SrTiO3-based anodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan-Lin; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2014-10-01

    La-doped strontium titanate (LST) is a promising, redox-stable perovskite material for direct hydrocarbon oxidation anodes in intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). In this study, nano-sized LST and Sm-doped ceria (SDC) powders are produced by the sol-gel and glycine-nitrate processes, respectively. The chemical compatibility between LST and electrolyte materials is studied. A LST-SDC composite anode is prepared by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). The effects of annealing conditions on the phase structure, microstructure, and chemical stability of the LST-SDC composite anode are investigated. The results indicate that the suspension plasma-sprayed LST-SDC anode has the same phase structure as the original powders. LST exhibits a good chemical compatibility with SDC and Mg/Sr-doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM). The anode has a porosity of ∼40% with a finely porous structure that provides high gas permeability and a long three-phase boundary for the anode reaction. Single cells assembled with the LST-SDC anode, La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3 electrolyte, and La0.8Sr0.2CoO3-SDC cathode show a good performance at 650-800 °C. The annealing reduces the impedances due to the enhancement in the bonding between the particles in the anode and interface of anode and LSGM electrolyte, thus improving the output performance of the cell.

  20. Effect of Vacuum Annealing on the Characteristics of Plasma Sprayed Al2O3-13wt.%TiO2 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingjing, Zhang; Zehua, Wang; Pinghua, Lin; Hongbin, Yuan; Zehua, Zhou; Shaoqun, Jiang

    2012-09-01

    Adhesion strength is one of the critical properties for plasma-sprayed coating. In this study, the plasma-sprayed Al2O3-13wt.%TiO2/NiCrAl coatings were annealed at 300-900 °C for 6 h in vacuum. The tensile bond strength and porosity of the coatings were investigated. The microstructure and the fracture were studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. It was found that the tensile bond strength of coatings increased with the increase of annealing temperature until 500 °C, reaching the maximum value of 41.2 MPa, and then decreased as the annealing temperature continues to increase. All coatings presented a brittle fracture and the fracture occurred inside the ceramic coatings except for the coating annealed at 500 °C, which had a brittle-ductile mixed fracture and the fracture occurred at the interface of bond coating and the substrate.