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Sample records for air pollutants national

  1. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  2. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  3. 76 FR 15266 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Pollutants; Notice of Reconsideration AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... aspects of the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional...

  4. 76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AN33 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for..., the proposed rule, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and... regarding the EPA's proposed national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants, including data,...

  5. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  6. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  7. 77 FR 16547 - Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction... modification of sources subject to the Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  8. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  9. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  10. 1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    1999-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  11. 76 FR 14636 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410). The EPA is extending the deadline for written... Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was published February 17, 2011 (76 FR 9410). EPA has established the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ42 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  12. 76 FR 21692 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410). The EPA is extending the deadline for written... Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was published February 17, 2011 (76 FR 9410). EPA has established the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ43 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  13. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  14. 75 FR 67676 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...Pursuant to section 112(l) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, EPA is proposing to grant delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to Clark County,...

  15. 77 FR 41146 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Gila...

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation’s site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale “background levels” or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile

  17. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  18. [Air pollution].

    PubMed

    Bauters, Christophe; Bauters, Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. Chronic exposure to PM is also associated with cardiovascular risk. Myocardial infarction and heart failure are the most common cardiovascular events associated with PM pollution. The pathophysiological mechanisms related to PM pollution are inflammation, thrombosis, vasomotion abnormalities, progression of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure, and cardiac remodeling. A decrease in PM exposure may be particularly beneficial in subjects with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26547674

  19. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  20. 76 FR 80597 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...On March 21, 2011, the EPA promulgated national emission standards for the control of hazardous air pollutants from new and existing industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters at major sources of hazardous air pollutants. On that same day, the EPA also published a notice announcing its intent to reconsider certain provisions of the final rule. The EPA subsequently......

  1. 77 FR 11476 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories; Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October...

  2. 76 FR 38591 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting (76 FR 29032... current rule. DATES: Comments on the proposed rule published May 19, 2011 (76 FR 29032) must be received... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting, was published May 19, 2011 (76 FR...

  3. THE NATIONAL AIR POLLUTION BACKGROUND NETWORK 1976-1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service has established a network of air monitoring stations designed to measure levels of ozone in remote areas within the contiguous 48 states. There are currently eight sites, at various National Fore...

  4. POPULATION-BASED EXPOSURE MODELING FOR AIR POLLUTANTS AT EPA'S NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has been developing, applying, and evaluating population-based exposure models to improve our understanding of the variability in personal exposure to air pollutants. Estimates of population variability are needed for E...

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Technical Services

    2007-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically-contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration.

  6. Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Green, Donna

    2014-04-01

    This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia.

  7. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ..., was published on January 9, 2012 (77 FR 1268). EPA has established the public docket for the proposed...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols Production... pollutants: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and...

  8. 76 FR 28318 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is denying in part and granting in part the petitions to reconsider the final revised National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants emitted by the Portland Cement Industry and the New Source Performance Standards for Portland Cement Plants issued under sections 112(d) and 111(b) of the Clean Air Act, respectively. The EPA is also......

  9. 77 FR 42367 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ...The EPA is proposing amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland cement industry for Portland cement plants issued under sections 112(d) of the Clean Air Act. Specifically, the EPA is proposing to amend the existing and new source standards for particulate matter (PM). The EPA is also proposing amendments with respect to issues on which it......

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. F. Grossman

    2000-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km{sup 2} (1,375 mi{sup 2}), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart Black; Yvonne Townsend

    1999-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,500 km2 (1,350 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi)north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a

  13. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  14. 77 FR 555 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ...This action finalizes the residual risk and technology review conducted for the secondary lead smelting source category regulated under national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants. These final amendments include revisions to the emissions limits for lead compounds; revisions to the standards for fugitive emissions; the addition of total hydrocarbon and dioxin and furan emissions......

  15. 76 FR 78872 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ...The EPA published in the Federal Register on November 25, 2011, the proposed rules, ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing.'' The EPA was asked to hold a public hearing only on the wool fiberglass rule. Therefore, EPA is making two announcements: first, a public hearing for the proposed Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing......

  16. 75 FR 65067 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...This action proposes how EPA will address the residual risk and technology reviews conducted for two national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP), and this action is a supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking for an October 2008 action that proposed how EPA would address the residual risk and technology reviews for four NESHAP. The six NESHAP include 16 source......

  17. 77 FR 58219 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ...This action finalizes the residual risk and technology review conducted for the following source categories regulated under two national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP): hard and decorative chromium electroplating and chromium anodizing tanks, and steel pickling--HCl process facilities and hydrochloric acid regeneration plants. On October 21, 2010, EPA proposed......

  18. 75 FR 67625 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to delegate the authority to implement and enforce specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to Clark County, Nevada. The preamble outlines the process that Clark County will use to receive delegation of any future NESHAP, and identifies the NESHAP categories to be delegated by today's action. EPA has reviewed Clark County's......

  19. 75 FR 28227 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ..., 2010, when EPA published the proposed rule (75 FR 22470). Several parties requested that EPA extend the... provided in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of the April 28, 2010 (75 FR 22470) Federal Register... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 63 RIN 2060-AP48 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  20. 76 FR 80531 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...On March 21, 2011, the EPA promulgated national emission standards for the control of hazardous air pollutants from two area source categories: industrial boilers, and commercial and institutional boilers. On that same date, the EPA announced that it was convening a proceeding for reconsideration of certain portions of those final emission standards. After promulgation, the Administrator......

  1. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ....gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-07/pdf/2012-13193.pdf and also in the docket identified below. The public... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... proposed rule, ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating...

  2. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  5. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants submittal -- 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1997-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing. Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in 1996 were releases from the following: evaporation of tritiated water from containment ponds that receive drainage from E tunnel and from wells used for site characterization studies; onsite radioanalytical laboratories; the Area 5 RWMS facility; and diffuse sources of tritium and resuspension of plutonium. Section 1 describes these sources on the NTS. Section 2 tabulates the air emissions data for the NTS. These data are used to calculate the effective dose equivalents to offsite residents. Appendices describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources listed.

  6. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, June 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Grossman

    2005-06-01

    The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS. The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) underground testing between 1951 and 1992, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing (DOE, 1996a). No nuclear tests have been conducted since September 23,1992 (DOE, 2000), however; radionuclides remaining on the soil surface in many NTS areas after several decades of radioactive decay are re-suspended into the atmosphere at concentrations that can be detected by air sampling. Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (formerly called the Hazardous Materials Spill Center), private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses; handling, transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices or radioactive targets for the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) gas gun; and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE, 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in calendar year (CY) 2004 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and water pumped from wells used to characterize the aquifers at the sites of past underground nuclear tests, (2) onsite radioanalytical laboratories, (3) the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS facilities, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium (H{sup 3}) and re-suspension of plutonium ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium ({sup 241}Am) at the sites of past nuclear tests. The following

  7. 75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... air pollutants for reciprocating internal combustion engines and requesting public comment on one.... List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 63 Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution...

  8. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  9. Mortality Associations with Long-Term Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution in a National English Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Iain M.; Kent, Andrew J.; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cook, Derek G.; Anderson, H. Ross

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Cohort evidence linking long-term exposure to outdoor particulate air pollution and mortality has come largely from the United States. There is relatively little evidence from nationally representative cohorts in other countries. Objectives: To investigate the relationship between long-term exposure to a range of pollutants and causes of death in a national English cohort. Methods: A total of 835,607 patients aged 40–89 years registered with 205 general practices were followed from 2003–2007. Annual average concentrations in 2002 for particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 (PM10) and less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) at 1 km2 resolution, estimated from emission-based models, were linked to residential postcode. Deaths (n = 83,103) were ascertained from linkage to death certificates, and hazard ratios (HRs) for all- and cause-specific mortality for pollutants were estimated for interquartile pollutant changes from Cox models adjusting for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, and area-level socioeconomic status markers. Measurements and Main Results: Residential concentrations of all pollutants except ozone were positively associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.02, 1.03, and 1.04 for PM2.5, NO2, and SO2, respectively). Associations for PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 were larger for respiratory deaths (HR, 1.09 each) and lung cancer (HR, 1.02, 1.06, and 1.05) but nearer unity for cardiovascular deaths (1.00, 1.00, and 1.04). Conclusions: These results strengthen the evidence linking long-term ambient air pollution exposure to increased all-cause mortality. However, the stronger associations with respiratory mortality are not consistent with most US studies in which associations with cardiovascular causes of death tend to predominate. PMID:23590261

  10. Air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Although the Environmental Protection Agency proposed controls in the early 1970s, marine vessel emissions remain largely unregulated, in part, because industry, the Coast Guard, and the Maritime Administration questioned the safety, cost, and effects on interstate commerce. The Coast Guard and EPA attempted to resolve some of these issues but discontinued their efforts when EPA reduced its overall budget and the Coast Guard perceived no state interest in regulating vessel emissions. Efforts resumed when the Coast Guard became aware of a growing state movement to regulate vessel emissions; it then requested a study by the National Research Council. The study found that additional operating experience, testing, and studies were necessary. The Coast Guard then began developing safety standards in 1987 and EPA proposed a national ozone strategy.

  11. DEVELOPMENTS IN NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE METEOROLOGICAL DATA COLLECTION PROGRAMS AS RELATED TO EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) AIR POLLUTION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the next decade, the National Weather Service (NWS) will be upgrading its meteorological instrumentation and data dissemination procedures. Because these changes will affect the operation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) air pollution models, the project...

  12. Development, enhancement, and evaluation of aircraft measurement techniques for national ambient air quality standard criteria pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brent, Lacey Cluff

    The atmospheric contaminants most harmful to human health are designated Criteria Pollutants. To help Maryland attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for Criteria Pollutants, and to improve our fundamental understanding of atmospheric chemistry, I conducted aircraft measurements in the Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling Prediction Program (RAMMPP). These data are used to evaluate model simulations and satellite observations. I developed techniques for improving airborne observation of two NAAQS pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While structure and composition of organic aerosol are important for understanding PM formation, the molecular speciation of organic ambient aerosol remains largely unknown. The spatial distribution of reactive nitrogen is likewise poorly constrained. To examine water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA) during an air pollution episode, I designed and implemented a shrouded aerosol inlet system to collect PM onto quartz fiber filters from a Cessna 402 research aircraft. Inlet evaluation conducted during a side-by-side flight with the NASA P3 demonstrated agreement to within 30%. An ion chromatographic mass spectrometric method developed using the NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust, as a surrogate material resulted in acidic class separation and resolution of at least 34 organic acids; detection limits approach pg/g concentrations. Analysis of aircraft filter samples resulted in detection of 8 inorganic species and 16 organic acids of which 12 were quantified. Aged, re-circulated metropolitan air showed a greater number of dicarboxylic acids compared to air recently transported from the west. While the NAAQS for NO2 is rarely exceeded, it is a precursor molecule for ozone, America's most recalcitrant pollutant. Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy employing a light emitting diode (LED), I measured vertical profiles of NO2 (surface to 2.5 km) west (upwind) of the Baltimore

  13. 76 FR 14839 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Categories; State of Arizona, Maricopa County Air Quality Department; State of California, Santa Barbara... Department on May 6, 2010, and December 14, 2010, and to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control... Quality Department, and the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District. In the Rules...

  14. Summer-time distribution of air pollutants in Sequoia National Park, California.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Tausz, Michael; Alonso, Rocio; Jones, David; Johnson, Ronald; Grulke, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of air pollutants were monitored during the May November 1999 period on a network of forested sites in Sequoia National Park, California. Measurements were conducted with: (1) active monitors for nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3); (2) honeycomb denuder/filter pack systems for nitric acid vapor (HNO3), nitrous acid vapor (HNO2), ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and sulfate (SO4(2-)); and (3) passive samplers for O3, HNO3 and NO2. Elevated concentrations of O3 (seasonal means 41-71 ppb), HNO3 (seasonal means 0.4-2.9 microg/m3), NH3 (seasonal means 1.6-4.5 microg/m3), NO3 (1.1-2.0 microg/m3) and NH4+ (1.0-1.9 microg/m3) were determined. Concentrations of other pollutants were low. With increasing elevation and distance from the pollution source area of O3, NH3 and HNO3 concentrations decreased. Ammonia and NH4+ were dominant N pollutants indicating strong influence of agricultural emissions on forests and other ecosystems of the Sequoia National Park. PMID:11939282

  15. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  16. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  17. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  18. A NATIONAL STUDY TO ASSESS SUSCEPTIBILITY, VULNERABILITY, AND EFFECT MODIFICATION OF AIR POLLUTION HEALTH RISKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying factors that explain heterogeneity of risks will help to identify: 1) the populations that are more susceptible/vulnerable to air pollution; and 2) the emission sources, pollutants and pollutant mixtures that are more toxic. The characterization of susceptibility f...

  19. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  20. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  1. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  2. Evaluation of national emissions inventories of anthropogenic air pollutants for Brunei Darussalam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotse, Sam-Quarcoo; Dagar, Lalit; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; De Silva, Liyanage C.

    2016-05-01

    Haze and other air pollution related problems are getting more significant in Brunei Darussalam but till date there is absence of comprehensive national emission inventory for Brunei Darussalam. Although there are few regional and global inventories available for Brunei Darussalam, large variations in the emission estimates exist in these datasets. Therefore, there is an important need for an updated inventory, based on data available from government and other sources. This study presents a sector-wise anthropogenic emission estimates and trends (2001-2012) for the pollutants CO2, CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, SOX, and PM10. The results suggest no significant contributions from residential sector (<1%) whilst road transport is the main contributor for most of the pollutants. CO2 is largely emitted by power plants (∼72% in 2001 and∼ 62% in 2012) and the main source of CH4 is Solid waste disposal and wastewater handling (∼92%). There were also significant contributions from industrial processes and solvent use to NMVOC and PM10 emissions (∼74% and ∼45% respectively).

  3. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines'' (77 FR 33812). The June 7, 2012... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines...

  4. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  5. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  6. 78 FR 66107 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Residual Risk and Technology Review for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Reporting Tool FPUF Flexible Polyurethane Foam FR Federal Register HAP hazardous air pollutants HCl hydrogen... Sources Under Section 112(c)(1) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990'' (see 57 FR 31576, July 16, 1992... Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By-Product Recovery Plants (Benzene NESHAP) (54 FR...

  7. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  8. IMMUNOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common ubiquitous air pollutants, as well as some point source (e.g. metals) air pollutants, decrease the function of pulmonary host defense mechanisms against infection. Most of this knowledge is based on animal studies and involves cellular antibacterial defenses such ...

  9. The Crisis in Air Pollution Manpower Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Dade W.

    1974-01-01

    Three studies conducted by the National Air Pollution Manpower Development Advisory Committee concluded there is a crisis in air pollution manpower development within the United States today. The studies investigated the existing federal manpower program, air pollution educational requirements and the quality of graduate level university programs.…

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP

  11. "The Incorporation of National Emission Inventories into Version 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants Inventory"

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s National Emission Inventory has been incorporated into the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research-Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants (EDGAR-HTAP) version 2. This work involves the creation of a detailed mapping of EPA Source Classification Codes (SCC) to the...

  12. The incorporation of the US national emission inventory into version 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of air Pollutants inventory

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's 2008 national emission inventory has been incorporated into version 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants Inventory. This work involves the creation of a detailed mapping of EPA Source Classification Codes (SCC) to the International Nomenclature for Reporting Sy...

  13. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Grossman; Ronald Warren

    2008-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS from radionuclides emitted to air from the NTS. This limit does not include the radiation doses that members of the public may receive through the intake of radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities, such as those that come from naturally occurring elements in the environment (e.g., naturally occurring radionuclides in soil or radon gas from the earth or natural building materials), or from other man-made sources (e.g., medical treatments). The NTS demonstrates compliance using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole

  14. Savannah River Site radionuclide air emissions annual report for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, I.K.

    1993-12-31

    The radiological air emission sources at the SRS have been divided into three categories, Point, Grouped and Non-Point, for this report. Point sources, analyzed individually, are listed with a listing of the control devices, and the control device efficiency. The sources listed have been grouped together either for security reasons or where individual samples are composited for analytical purposes. For grouped sources the listed control devices may not be on all sources within a group. Point sources that did not have continuous effluent monitoring/sampling in 1993 are noted. The emissions from these sources was determined from Health Protection smear data, facility radionuclide content or other calculational methods, including process knowledge, utilizing existing analytical data. This report also contain sections on facility descriptions, dose assessment, and supplemental information.

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  18. Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Collard, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease. PMID:25846532

  19. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs), Subpart H

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.; Biermann, A

    2000-06-27

    As a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility whose operations involve the use of radionuclides, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 61, the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). Subpart H of this Regulation establishes standards for exposure of the public to radionuclides (other than radon) released from DOE Facilities (Federal Register, 1989). These regulations limit the emission of radionuclides to ambient air from DOE facilities (see Section 2.0). Under the NESHAPs Subpart H Regulation (hereafter referred to as NESHAPs), DOE facilities are also required to establish a quality assurance program for radionuclide emission measurements; specific requirements for preparation of a Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) are given in Appendix B, Method 114 of 40 CFR 61. Throughout this QAPP, the specific Quality Assurance Method elements of 40 CFR 61 Subpart H addressed by a given section are identified. In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (US EPA, 1994a) published draft requirements for QAPP's prepared in support of programs that develop environmental data. We have incorporated many of the technical elements specified in that document into this QAPP, specifically those identified as relating to measurement and data acquisition; assessment and oversight; and data validation and usability. This QAPP will be evaluated on an annual basis, and updated as appropriate.

  20. Investigating Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  1. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  2. 76 FR 72507 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Reporting Tool FR Federal Register gr/dscf grains per dry standard cubic foot HAP hazardous air pollutants...-Product Recovery Plants (Benzene NESHAP) (54 Federal Register (FR) 38044, September 14, 1989). The first... is no higher than approximately one in 10 thousand, that risk level is considered acceptable.'' 54...

  3. 75 FR 22469 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ..., EPA published a list of section 112(c)(6) categories (63 FR 17838, April 10, 1998). At that time... Ore Processing and Production Area Source Category and Addition to Source Category List for Standards... Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production Area Source Category and Addition to...

  4. 77 FR 16987 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... for hazardous air pollutants for secondary aluminum production (77 FR 8576). The EPA is extending the... the proposed rule published February 14, 2012, (77 FR 8576) is being extended for 14 days to April 13... Aluminum Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of extension of...

  5. 77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production were promulgated on June 1, 1999 (64 FR... Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By-Product Recovery Plants (Benzene NESHAP), 54 FR 38044... thousand, that risk level is considered acceptable.'' 54 FR 38045. We discussed the maximum...

  6. 77 FR 22847 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ..., 2007 (72 FR 2930), the EPA promulgated NESHAP for new and existing PVC production area sources in 40... (67 FR 45886, July 10, 2002) (referred to as the ``part 63 NESHAP''). In that rulemaking, the EPA... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal...

  7. 77 FR 2677 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants'' is being extended for 12 days. DATES: Comments. The public comment period for the proposed rule published December 6, 2011, (76 FR... Aluminum Reduction Plants; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  8. 76 FR 80261 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Prepared...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... published on January 5, 2010, (75 FR 522) if adverse comments are received on this direct final rule. If we.... V. What amendments are being made to this rule? On January 5, 2010 (75 FR 522), the EPA promulgated... Air Pollutant (HAP) emissions control (75 FR 533). We added the 95-percent design...

  9. 78 FR 10005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Reporting Tool FR Federal Register gr/dscf grains per dry standard cubic foot HAP hazardous air pollutants...) (d,w) parts per million (by volume) (dry, wet) RATA Relative Accuracy Test Audit RfD reference dose... Information Document. On July 18, 2012 (77 FR 42368), the EPA proposed to amend the Portland...

  10. 76 FR 57913 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... direct final rule published at 76 FR 35750 on June 20, 2011. ADDRESSES: Docket: All documents in the... Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating and Polishing'' which was published on June 20, 2011 (76 FR... (76 FR 35806) published on the same day as a direct final rule, EPA will not institute a...

  11. 76 FR 42613 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production is being extended for 14 days. DATES: Comments. The public comment period for the proposed rule published May 20, 2011 (76 FR... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental...

  12. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

  13. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  14. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  15. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Warren and Robert F. Grossman

    2009-06-30

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to under-ground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by winds) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF), an NTS support complex in the city of North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2008a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from other man-made sources such as medical treatments. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Ciucci, John

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  17. Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a number of Federal Reference Method (FRM) and Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) systems used to monitor the six criteria air pollutants (Lead [Pb], Carbon Monoxide [CO], Sulfur Dioxide [SO2], Nitrogen Dioxide [NO2], Ozone [O3], Particulate Matter [PM]) to determine if an...

  18. Effects of Air Pollutants on Lichens of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory National Environmental Research Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, R. C.; Forman, A.; Crawford, R.; Tyler, T.

    2001-12-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is a (2300 square km) National Environmental Research Park that has been used for research and operational support of nuclear power. The Park includes scattered industrial operations and provides an ideal setting to study effects of industry on semi-arid environments. One of the facilities on the Research Park is the Idaho Nuclear Technology Center (INTEC). This facility reprocessed spent nuclear fuel from the US Navy, and its operations included heating acidic solutions to convert wastes to a solid form. The conversion released nitrogen oxides, low levels of other gases (including HF), and small amounts of solid particles through a facility stack. A fossil-fuel power plant also contributed airborne contaminants including sulfur dioxide. A 1985 study identified the effects of INTEC operations on the health of lichens Xanthoria polycarpa (quantified using electrolyte leakage), on levels of trace metals in the lichens X. polycarpa and Rhizoplaca melanophthalma, and on the levels of trace metals in higher plants and soils. The study concluded that operations impacted the physiological health of X. polycarpa southwest of the plant, and that lead was significantly higher downwind of the plant relative to other locations. Effects of the plant were re-examined in 1999 as part of an Environmental Impact Statement to evaluate the environmental effects of measures available to deal with radioactive waste at INTEC. Sulfur dioxide emissions from the facility decreased from approximately 375 tonsyear to approximately 10 tonsyear between the two studies. The re-examination of lichens showed that the measure of physiological health used in the previous study (conductivity of rinsates collected from lichen thalli) correlated well to the levels of potassium measured in rinsates collected from thalli. There, however, was no correlation between the levels of potassium/conductivity of such rinsates and the levels of total

  19. Basis to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Stand-off Experiments Range

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Sandvig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,” (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.

  20. Air pollution-induced health impacts on the national economy of China: demonstration of a computable general equilibrium approach.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yue; Yang, Hongwei; Masui, Toshihiko

    2005-01-01

    At the present time, ambient air pollution is a serious public health problem in China. Based on the concentration-response relationship provided by international and domestic epidemiologic studies, the authors estimated the mortality and morbidity induced by the ambient air pollution of 2000. To address the mechanism of the health impact on the national economy, the authors applied a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, named AIM/Material China, containing 39 production sectors and 32 commodities. AIM/Material analyzes changes of the gross domestic product (GDP), final demand, and production activity originating from health damages. If ambient air quality met Grade II of China's air quality standard in 2000, then the avoidable GDP loss would be 0.38%o of the national total, of which 95% was led by labor loss. Comparatively, medical expenditure had less impact on national economy, which is explained from the aspect of the final demand by commodities and the production activities by sectors. The authors conclude that the CGE model is a suitable tool for assessing health impacts from a point of view of national economy through the discussion about its applicability. PMID:16121834

  1. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  2. Evaluation and Application of Alternative Air Pollution Exposure Metrics in Air Pollution Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Periodic review, revision and subsequent implementation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants rely upon various types of scientific air quality, exposure, toxicological dose-response and epidemiological information. Exposure assessmen...

  3. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  4. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, NON-CRITERIA POLLUTANT INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In conjunction with the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) being conducted in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region (AQCR), an inventory of non-criteria pollutants was assembled for point sources. The inventory was based on the following data: (1) The National Emissions Data ...

  5. Maternal Exposure to Criteria Air Pollutants and Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: Results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Luben, Thomas J.; Daniels, Julie L.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Richardson, David B.; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Herring, Amy H.; Anderka, Marlene; Botto, Lorenzo; Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Langlois, Peter H.; Mosley, Bridget; Shaw, Gary M.; Siffel, Csaba; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic literature suggests that exposure to air pollutants is associated with fetal development. Objectives: We investigated maternal exposures to air pollutants during weeks 2–8 of pregnancy and their associations with congenital heart defects. Methods: Mothers from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a nine-state case–control study, were assigned 1-week and 7-week averages of daily maximum concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide and 24-hr measurements of fine and coarse particulate matter using the closest air monitor within 50 km to their residence during early pregnancy. Depending on the pollutant, a maximum of 4,632 live-birth controls and 3,328 live-birth, fetal-death, or electively terminated cases had exposure data. Hierarchical regression models, adjusted for maternal demographics and tobacco and alcohol use, were constructed. Principal component analysis was used to assess these relationships in a multipollutant context. Results: Positive associations were observed between exposure to nitrogen dioxide and coarctation of the aorta and pulmonary valve stenosis. Exposure to fine particulate matter was positively associated with hypoplastic left heart syndrome but inversely associated with atrial septal defects. Examining individual exposure-weeks suggested associations between pollutants and defects that were not observed using the 7-week average. Associations between left ventricular outflow tract obstructions and nitrogen dioxide and between hypoplastic left heart syndrome and particulate matter were supported by findings from the multipollutant analyses, although estimates were attenuated at the highest exposure levels. Conclusions: Using daily maximum pollutant levels and exploring individual exposure-weeks revealed some positive associations between certain pollutants and defects and suggested potential windows of susceptibility during pregnancy. Citation: Stingone JA, Luben TJ

  6. Assessment of air quality benefits from the national pollution control policy of thermal power plants in China: A numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanshan; Pan, Libo; Li, Yunting; Zhang, Dawei; Ma, Jin; Sun, Feng; Xu, Wenshuai; Wang, Xingrun

    2015-04-01

    In 2010, an emission inventory of air pollutants in China was created using the Chinese Bulletin of the Environment, the INTEX-B program, the First National Pollution Source Census, the National Generator Set Manual, and domestic and international research studies. Two emission scenarios, the standard failed emission scenario (S1) and the standard successful emission scenario (S2), were constructed based upon the Instructions for the Preparation of Emission Standards for Air Pollutants from Thermal Power Plants (second draft). The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) and the U.S. EPA Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model were applied to China to study the air quality benefits from Emission Standards for Air Pollutants from Thermal Power Plants GB13223-2011. The performance of MM5 and CMAQ was evaluated with meteorological data from Global Surface Data from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and the daily Air Pollution Index (API) reported by Chinese local governments. The results showed that the implementation of the new standards could reduce the concentration of air pollutants and acid deposition in China by varying degrees. The new standards could reduce NO2 pollution in China. By 2020, for the scenario S2, the area with an NO2 concentration higher than the second-level emission standard, and the average NO2 concentration in 31 selected provinces would be reduced by 55.2% and 24.3%, respectively. The new standards could further reduce the concentration of declining SO2 in China. By 2020, for S2, the area with an SO2 concentration higher than the second-level emission standard and the average SO2 concentration in the 31 selected provinces would be reduced by 40.0% and 31.6%, respectively. The new standards could also reduce PM2.5 pollution in China. By 2020, for S2, the area with a PM2.5 concentration higher than the second-level emission standard and the average concentration of PM2.5 in the 31 selected provinces would be

  7. Testing for Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Artice

    Three experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to provide the teacher with some fundamental air pollution activities. The first experiment involved particulates, the second deals with microorganisms, and the third looks at gases in the atmosphere. Each activity outlines introductory information, objectives, materials required, procedure…

  8. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  9. Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    You, Mingqing

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly. PMID:24982994

  10. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for ethylene oxide commercial sterilization and fumigation operations--EPA. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    Today's action suspends the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization and Fumigation Operations (EO NESHAP) requirements for chamber exhaust and aeration room vents. The suspension allows affected sources subject to the EO NESHAP to defer compliance with the NESHAP requirements for chamber exhaust and aeration room vents for one year until December 6, 1999. This suspension does not affect the requirement for sources subject to the EO NESHAP to comply with provisions for sterilizer vents by December 6, 1998. This action does not change the level of the standards or the intent of the NESHAP promulgated in 1994. PMID:10338881

  11. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

  12. Remote air pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

  13. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  14. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  15. In Search of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckendorf, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

  16. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  17. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION - HOME PAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (APPCD), located in Research Triangle Park, NC, is part of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), which is headquartered in Cincinnati, OH. APPCD researches, develops, anddemonstrates air pollution prevention a...

  18. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  19. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants 8 Table 8 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous Organic...

  20. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants 7 Table 7 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous...

  1. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  2. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petitions Process, Lesser Quantity...

  3. 75 FR 521 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Prepared...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... provision in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy, (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999). Specifically... the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999). A primary goal of the...

  4. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  5. PLANT RESPONSE TO AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. ince leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbo...

  6. Children, Pediatricians, and Polluted Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    Explored are children's vulnerability and the pediatrician's role in relation to the problems posed by air pollution. Research is noted to have included a search of biomedical literature over the past 10 years; attendance at medical meetings; conferences with air pollution researchers, environmental protection administrators, and specialists in…

  7. Air Pollution and Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

  8. ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

  9. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  10. Allergic diseases and air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation. PMID:23956961

  11. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    PubMed Central

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. PMID:22726103

  12. 76 FR 15553 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Electronic Reporting Tool FR Federal Register GACT Generally Available Control Technology HAP Hazardous Air... implemented this provision in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (Strategy), (64 FR 38715, July..., commercial coal combustion, commercial oil combustion, and commercial wood combustion. (See 63 FR...

  13. 75 FR 8888 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Categories; State of Arizona, Maricopa County Air Quality Department; State of Nevada, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Washoe County District Health Department AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... County Air Quality Department on April 28, 2009, to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection...

  14. 77 FR 46371 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ..., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Sector Policies... rule (77 FR 42368, July 18, 2012) should be addressed to Ms. Sharon Nizich, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards; Sector Policies and Programs Division, Minerals and Manufacturing Group...

  15. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  16. Comparison of remote sensing and fixed-site monitoring approaches for examining air pollution and health in a national study population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prud'homme, Genevieve; Dobbin, Nina A.; Sun, Liu; Burnett, Richard T.; Martin, Randall V.; Davidson, Andrew; Cakmak, Sabit; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Lamsal, Lok N.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Peters, Paul A.; Johnson, Markey

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) has emerged as a cutting edge approach for estimating ground level ambient air pollution. Previous studies have reported a high correlation between ground level PM2.5 and NO2 estimated by RS and measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites. The current study examined associations between air pollution and adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes using multi-year averages of NO2 and PM2.5 from RS and from regulatory monitoring. RS estimates were derived using satellite measurements from OMI, MODIS, and MISR instruments. Regulatory monitoring data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. Self-reported prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, allergies, and chronic bronchitis were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (a national sample of individuals 12 years of age and older). Multi-year ambient pollutant averages were assigned to each study participant based on their six digit postal code at the time of health survey, and were used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution. RS derived estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with 6-10% increases in respiratory and allergic health outcomes per interquartile range (3.97 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 1.03 ppb for NO2) among adults (aged 20-64) in the national study population. Risk estimates for air pollution and respiratory/allergic health outcomes based on RS were similar to risk estimates based on regulatory monitoring for areas where regulatory monitoring data were available (within 40 km of a regulatory monitoring station). RS derived estimates of air pollution were also associated with adverse health outcomes among participants residing outside the catchment area of the regulatory monitoring network (p < 0.05). The consistency between risk estimates based on RS and regulatory monitoring as well as the associations between air pollution and health among participants living outside the catchment area for

  17. Comparison of Remote Sensing and Fixed-Site Monitoring Approaches for Examining Air Pollution and Health in a National Study Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Genevieve; Dobbin, Nina A.; Sun, Liu; Burnet, Richard T.; Martin, Randall V.; Davidson, Andrew; Cakmak, Sabit; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Lamsal, Lok N.; vanDonkelaar, Aaron; Peters, Paul A.; Johnson, Markey

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) has emerged as a cutting edge approach for estimating ground level ambient air pollution. Previous studies have reported a high correlation between ground level PM2.5 and NO2 estimated by RS and measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites. The current study examined associations between air pollution and adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes using multi-year averages of NO2 and PM2.5 from RS and from regulatory monitoring. RS estimates were derived using satellite measurements from OMI, MODIS, and MISR instruments. Regulatory monitoring data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. Self-reported prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, allergies, and chronic bronchitis were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (a national sample of individuals 12 years of age and older). Multi-year ambient pollutant averages were assigned to each study participant based on their six digit postal code at the time of health survey, and were used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution. RS derived estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with 6e10% increases in respiratory and allergic health outcomes per interquartile range (3.97 mg m3 for PM2.5 and 1.03 ppb for NO2) among adults (aged 20e64) in the national study population. Risk estimates for air pollution and respiratory/ allergic health outcomes based on RS were similar to risk estimates based on regulatory monitoring for areas where regulatory monitoring data were available (within 40 km of a regulatory monitoring station). RS derived estimates of air pollution were also associated with adverse health outcomes among participants residing outside the catchment area of the regulatory monitoring network (p < 0.05).

  18. 76 FR 81903 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production'' is being extended for 22 days. DATES: Comments. The public comment period for the proposed rule published November 23, 2011 (76 FR 72508), is being extended for 22 days to... Production; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed...

  19. Comparison of European national legislation efficiency on the reduction of air pollutant emissions.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Ricardo; Ferreira, Joana; Lopes, Myriam; Borrego, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    Since 1995, the Institute for Environment and Development in Portugal has obtained >300 stack samples from various point sources of Portuguese industries. A coherent database was made with the collected results. The limit values fixed by several European legal documents consulted, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian, and Dutch emission legislation, were applied to the Institute for Environment and Development stack sampling inventory (from 1995 to 2000) to evaluate the efficiency of these standards in promoting the control and reduction of atmospheric pollutants emissions, especially regarding nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter. The conclusion was that the original Portuguese legislation was not restrictive enough and not very efficient regarding emissions reduction. In contrast, the Dutch and Italian legislations are quite restrictive but very efficient concerning emission control for the three pollutants analyzed. One of the outcomes of this study was the publication of a new law in Portugal regulating the emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The strategy of this emissions control law follows the conclusions found in this study including the concept of a mass flow threshold and different approaches depending on source dimension. PMID:16573194

  20. Exposures to fine particulate air pollution and respiratory outcomes in adults using two national datasets: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Relationships between chronic exposures to air pollution and respiratory health outcomes have yet to be clearly articulated for adults. Recent data from nationally representative surveys suggest increasing disparity by race/ethnicity regarding asthma-related morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the relationship between annual average ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and respiratory outcomes for adults using modeled air pollution and health outcome data and to examine PM2.5 sensitivity across race/ethnicity. Methods Respondents from the 2002-2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were linked to annual kriged PM2.5 data from the USEPA AirData system. Logistic regression was employed to investigate increases in ambient PM2.5 concentrations and self-reported prevalence of respiratory outcomes including asthma, sinusitis and chronic bronchitis. Models included health, behavioral, demographic and resource-related covariates. Stratified analyses were conducted by race/ethnicity. Results Of nearly 110,000 adult respondents, approximately 8,000 and 4,000 reported current asthma and recent attacks, respectively. Overall, odds ratios (OR) for current asthma (0.97 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.87-1.07)) and recent attacks (0.90 (0.78-1.03)) did not suggest an association with a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5. Stratified analyses revealed significant associations for non-Hispanic blacks [OR = 1.73 (1.17-2.56) for current asthma and OR = 1.76 (1.07-2.91) for recent attacks] but not for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. Significant associations were observed overall (1.18 (1.08-1.30)) and in non-Hispanic whites (1.31 (1.18-1.46)) for sinusitis, but not for chronic bronchitis. Conclusions Non-Hispanic blacks may be at increased sensitivity of asthma outcomes from PM2.5 exposure. Increased chronic PM2.5 exposures in adults may contribute to population sinusitis burdens. PMID:22490087

  1. Air pollution and plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Treshow, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book addresses air pollution's sources and movement; biochemical, cellular, and whole-plant effects, impacts on agricultural and natural systems; and control. The effects of convective turbulence and atmospheric stability are well illustrated. The diagnosis of air pollution injury to plants and mimicking symptoms are discussed. The environmental and source variables that affect pollutant dispersion are explained by use of the Gaussian dispersion model. An overview is presented of the effects of sulfur dioxide, photochemical oxidants, and fluoride on stomatal function, photosynthesis, respiration, and metabolic processes and products. Information is discussed concerning combinations of air pollutants, impacts on lichens, and effects of trace metals on plants. The relationship between air pollutants and diseases or other stress factors is evaluated.

  2. Air-pollution effects on biodiversity

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.R.; Tingey, D.T.

    1992-04-01

    To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institute convened a workshop to evaluate current knowledge, identify information gaps, provide direction to research and assess policy issues. In order to obtain the most current and authoritative information possible, air pollution and biodiversity experts were invited to participate in a workshop and author the papers that make up this report. Each paper was presented and discussed, then collected in this document. The material has been organized into four parts: an introduction, an overview of air pollution exposure and effects, the consequences of air pollution on biodiversity, and policy issues and research needs.

  3. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  4. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  5. 76 FR 29527 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... provision in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (Strategy), (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999... the CAA (57 FR 31576). A major source of HAP is a stationary source that has the potential to emit 10...)(B)(ii) of the CAA (67 FR ] 43112). An area source is a stationary source of HAP that is not a...

  6. 75 FR 54969 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... major and area sources, and for hydrochloric acid (HCl) from new and existing kilns located at major... requirements through the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999).\\2\\ \\1\\ An area... Industry (64 FR 31898, June 14, 1999) included emission limits based on performance of MACT for the...

  7. 75 FR 31895 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... implemented this provision in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (Strategy), (64 FR 38715, July... combustion. See 63 FR 17849. We listed these source categories under CAA section 112(c)(6) based on the.... Both source categories were included in the area source list published on July 19, 1999 (64 FR...

  8. 77 FR 4522 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    .... On October 29, 2009 (74 FR 56008), the EPA issued the NESHAP for the nine chemical manufacturing area... in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy, (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999) (Strategy... requirement in 2011 (76 FR 15308, March 21, 2011). The chemical manufacturing area source categories...

  9. Study of air pollutant detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

    1974-01-01

    The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

  10. 75 FR 42030 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... are we making to this rule? On January 5, 2010 (75 FR 522), the EPA promulgated the national emission... action'' under the terms of Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and is, therefore, not... not impose any additional costs over those in the final rule published on January 5, 2010 (75 FR...

  11. 75 FR 41991 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... are we making to this rule? On January 5, 2010 (75 FR 522), the EPA promulgated the national emission... Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and is, therefore, not subject to review under the Executive... over those in the final rule published on January 5, 2010 (75 FR 522). D. Unfunded Mandates Reform...

  12. 75 FR 51569 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ...: Background Information Document. On March 5, 2009 (71 FR 9698), EPA proposed national emission standards for... sources on June 15, 2004 (69 FR 33474). EPA promulgated NESHAP for new and reconstructed stationary RICE... on January 18, 2008 (73 FR 3568). On March 3, 2010, EPA promulgated NESHAP for existing...

  13. 76 FR 2832 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... amendments? On September 9, 2010 (75 FR 54970), EPA issued final amendments to National Emission Standards... production if significant adverse comments are filed. II. What are the changes to the final rules (75 FR... Register for the particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbons (THC), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and...

  14. 76 FR 9449 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... February 17, 2011 Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 9 and 63 National Emission... / Thursday, February 17, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9...: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is adding the gold mine ore...

  15. FOREST RESPONSE PROGRAM: NATIONAL RESEARCH ON FOREST DECLINE AND AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Forest Response Program (FRP) is a major research undertaking. t is fortunate to have the support of many of the nation's top scientists. he involvement of the Forest Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the broader scientific community gives the program a unique...

  16. 75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... published in the Federal Register on March 3, 2010 (75 FR 9674) a document amending the national emission... Order Reviews Under Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993... specified in Executive Order 13132, Federalism (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999). This action does...

  17. 75 FR 9647 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Information Document. On March 5, 2009 (71 FR 9698), EPA proposed national..., and reconstructed stationary RICE greater than 500 HP located at major sources on June 15, 2004 (69 FR... than or equal to 500 HP that are located at major sources of HAP emissions on January 18, 2008 (73...

  18. 76 FR 12863 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... the amendments? On August 20, 2010 (75 FR 51570), EPA issued final amendments to the National Emission... Review (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), this action is not a ``significant regulatory action'' and is.... Executive Order 13132: Federalism Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999) requires EPA...

  19. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  20. Western forests and air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses.

  1. Air pollution injury to plants

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The injuries to plants by oxidant air pollution can be used as biological indicators of pollution episodes. Bel W3 tobacco is often used as an indicator organism. Dogwood is another potential indicator organism. Specific growing procedures used for indicator organisms are described, as are diagnostic criteria for the type and extent of injuries.

  2. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  3. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  4. Indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    This factsheet reviews what is currently known about pollutant sources, abatement and control equipment and techniques for poorly ventilated houses. Radon, formaldehyde, tobacco smokes, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates, bacteria, fungi and viruses are addressed. (PSB)

  5. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants application for approval to stabilize the 105N Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces-to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin is a reinforced unlined concrete structure 150 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 24 feet deep. The basin is segregated into seven areas sharing a common pool of water; the Discharge/Viewing (``D``) Pit, the fuel segregation pit (including a water tunnel that connects the ``D`` pit and segregation pit), two storage basins designated as North Basin and South Basin, two cask load-out pits, and a fuel examination area. The North Basin floor is entirely covered and the South Basin is partly covered by a modular array of cubicles formed by boron concrete posts and boron concrete panels.

  6. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-04

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company`s management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring.

  7. Reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPÉ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prenni, A. J.; Benedict, K. B.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Zhou, Y.; Sullivan, A.; Day, D.; Sive, B. C.; Zondlo, M. A.; Schichtel, B. A.; Vimont, J.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) took place in July-August 2014. This collaborative study was aimed at characterizing those processes which control air quality along Colorado's Front Range. Although the study was largely focused on ozone, an additional goal of the study included characterizing contributions from Front Range sources and long-range transport to total reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). Import of reactive nitrogen into ROMO and other pristine, high elevation areas has the potential to negatively impact terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We present measurements of reactive nitrogen species measured within ROMO during FRAPPÉ, and compare these data to measurements made in the surrounding areas. At our monitoring site in ROMO, co-located with IMPROVE and CASTNet monitoring, measurements of NO, NO2, NOx, NOy, NH3, and total reactive nitrogen (TNx) were made at high time resolution. Additional measurements of NH3, HNO3 and PM2.5 ions were made at hourly resolution using a MARGA and also at 24-hour time resolution using URG denuder-filter pack sampling. Precipitation samples also were collected to quantify wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen. Finally, measurements of organic gases were made using online gas chromatography and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. Preliminary results for ammonia show both a diel pattern, with concentrations increasing each morning, and a strong dependence on wind direction, implicating the importance of transport. Higher concentrations of NOx and NOy also were observed in the daytime, but in general these patterns differed from that of ammonia. Several upslope events were observed during the measurement period during which NOx, NH3, 2-propylnitrate, 2-butylnitrate, ethane, butane, and pentane were observed to increase in concentration along with ozone.

  8. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  9. AIR POLLUTION AND RESPIRATORY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern about polluted air in our urban and industrial areas began gathering momentum shortly after World War II. At that time it seemed obvious that clean air, like clean water, clean food, and a clean body, was a worth while goal in itself, requiring no further justification. B...

  10. Lung cancer and air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A J; Pope, C A

    1995-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years suggest rather consistently that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, may be responsible for increased rates of lung cancer. This evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30 to 50% increases in lung cancer rates associated with exposure to respirable particles. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the United States continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. It is not known how many people in the United States are exposed to levels of fine respirable particles that have been associated with lung cancer in recent epidemiologic studies. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the United States based largely on the results of animal studies, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution among the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer associated with air pollution. PMID:8741787

  11. Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A Benefit-Cost Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupnick, Alan J.; Portney, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The pros and cons of air pollution control efforts are discussed. Both national and regional air pollution control plans are described. Topics of discussion include benefit-cost analysis, air quality regulation, reducing ozone in the urban areas, the Los Angeles plan, uncertainties, and policy implications. (KR)

  12. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques available for source identification are reviewed: remote sensing, injected tracers, and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of the large number of trace elements in the ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed. Trace constituents are determined by sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive, multielement analytical methods such as instrumental neutron activation and charged particle X-ray fluorescence. The application to a large data set of pairwise correlation, the more advanced pattern recognition-cluster analysis approach with and without training sets, enrichment factors, and pollutant concentration rose displays for each element is described. It is shown that elemental constituents are related to specific source types: earth crustal, automotive, metallurgical, and more specific industries. A field-ready source identification system based on time and wind direction resolved sampling is described.

  13. Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

  14. Air pollution and plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Treshow, M.

    1984-01-01

    The publication of this volume could hardly have been more timely, for concern about the damage to plants from air pollution has grown rapidly in the last few years. The book comprises eighteen chapters by contributors of high repute. Three early chapters deal with Dispersion and Fate of Atmospheric Pollutants, Long Range Transport and Monitoring Levels and Effects of Air Pollutants. They provide essential reading for those working on effects in the field, and they set the scene for a contribution from the Volume Editor on the problems of diagnosis. The central chapters (7 to 11) provide, in considerable depth, a summary of the knowledge of the mechanism of action of pollutants on plants, in terms of physiology, biochemistry, and ultrastructure. Particularly valuable is the essay entitled Impact of Air Pollutant Combinations on Plants, which concludes that even though few generalizations are possible, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest that interactions between some pollutants (e.g. SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/) may seriously damage some plants.

  15. [Air pollution and population health].

    PubMed

    Kristoforović-Ilić, Miroslava; Ilić, Miroslav

    2006-10-01

    In the last few decades, there has been increased population concern for quality of environment, for it is, after life style, the second risk factor of disease development. Particular problem is that a large majority of serious impairments of health is manifested only after a long latent period, so it is not always possible to establish clear association with environmental factors. It is considered today that around 40% of lethal cases are caused by polluted environment in various ways, while environment is the most important etiologic factor in 5% of disease incidence. Problems arising due to environment pollution are most frequently related to air pollution. The World Resource Institute, Washington, has developed the indicators for evaluation of risk of environment pollution to population health. There is one common indicator both for developed and developing countries--air pollution. EPA recommended new standards for some polluting substances. The document reviewed these standards and their implementation in our community. New Law on Environment Protection ("Official Gazette of RS" No. 135/2004) from December 20th, 2004, followed by relevant documents on air quality, should be beneficial to experts at the level of subtle diagnostics and proposal of adequate measures with a view to improve the quality of life. PMID:18172966

  16. Contemporary threats and air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopke, Philip K.

    It is now well understood that air pollution produces significant adverse health effects in the general public and over the past 60 years, there have been on-going efforts to reduce the emitted pollutants and their resulting health effects. There are now shifting patterns of industrialization with many heavily polluting industries moving from developed countries with increasingly stringent air quality standards to the developing world. However, even in decreasing concentrations of pollutants, health effects remain important possibly as a result of changes in the nature of the pollutants as new chemicals are produced and as other causes of mortality and morbidity are reduced. In addition, there is now the potential for deliberate introduction of toxic air pollutants by local armed conflicts and terrorists. Thus, there are new challenges to understand the role of the atmospheric environment on public health in this time of changing economic and demographic conditions overlaid with the willingness to indirectly attack governments and other established entities through direct attacks on the general public.

  17. Air pollution in China: Scientific and Public Policy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sever air pollution in China has in recent years caused intensive public, media and governmental attention. Many questions need to be answered about the air pollution in China, such as how harmful is the air pollution, especially PM2.5? Why suddenly so many reports about sever air pollution, is the air in China getting more polluted? How to design a policy that can control the air pollution most efficiently? After updated the national Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012 and included PM2.5 as one of the critical air pollutants, in 2013, Chinese central government released for the first time the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan". The plan has set goals to reduce annual mean concentration of PM2.5 up to 25% in 2017 in different regions in China. If the ambitious goals were achieved, this could be the most significant air pollution reduction in such a short time that affects so many people in human history. To achieve these goals, however, there are enormous scientific and public policy challenges to deal with. For example: Identify the key components, size fraction of PM that have the largest health effects; and identify the sources of PM that has the most harmful effects on human health and ecosystem. Reduce the uncertainty in health risk assessment. Understand complicate chemical transformation processes in air pollution formation with intensive emissions from industry, power plant, vehicles, agriculture. Interactions between air pollution, PBL, and atmospheric circulation at different scales. The accountability, feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of air pollution control policies. Integrate multi-pollutant control and achieve co-benefit with climate and energy policy. Regional coordinated air pollution control. The largest challenge in China for air pollution control remains how to strength the link between science and policy.

  18. Monitoring Global Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Koning, H. W.; Kohler, A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the United Nations Environment Program which is composed of the World Health Organization project (including 42 participating countries) and the World Meteorological Organization Network which includes 60 countries. (BB)

  19. In Brief: Air pollution app

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled “Visibility.” Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the application is available for free download at http://robotics.usc.edu/˜mobilesensing/Projects/AirVisibilityMonitoring. An iPhone application may be introduced soon. Smartphone users can take a picture of the sky and then compare it with models of sky luminance to estimate visibility. While conventional air pollution monitors are costly and thinly deployed in some areas, the smartphone application potentially could help fill in some blanks in existing air pollution maps, according to USC computer science professor Gaurav Sukhatme.

  20. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  1. Phytotoxicity of Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Olszyk, David M.; Tingey, David T.

    1984-01-01

    Pisum sativum L. cv Alsweet (garden pea) and Lycopersicon esculentum flacca Mill. (tomato) were used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of SO2 and O3 in the light and dark. Plants were grown in controlled environment chambers and exposed to SO2 or O3 in the light or dark at the same environmental conditions at which they were grown. The pea plants were treated with fusicoccin to ensure open stomata in the dark; the stomata of the tomato mutant remained open in the dark. Both species exhibited 64% to 80% less foliar necrosis following exposure to SO2 (0.5 to 1.0 microliter per liter for 2 hours) in the light than in the dark. The decrease in SO2 injury for light versus dark exposed plants was greater in fully expanded than expanding leaves. Both species exhibited 30% greater foliar necrosis following exposure to O3 (0.2 microliter per liter for 2 hours) in the light than dark. The increase in O3 injury in the light versus dark was similar for leaves at all stages of expansion. Leaf conductance to water vapor was 7% to 11% and 23% higher in the light than dark for fusicoccin-treated peas and tomato plants, respectively, indicating greater foliar uptake of both pollutants in the light than dark. Thus, the decreased SO2 toxicity in the light was not associated with pollutant uptake, but rather the metabolism of SO2. In contrast, the increased toxicity of O3 in the light was at least in part associated with increased uptake or could not be separated from it. PMID:16663549

  2. ECONOMICS AND PERFORMANCE MODELING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) is active in the development, refinement, and maintenance of economic and performance evaluation models that provide agency-wide support for estimating costs for air pollution preventio...

  3. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Barry A; Brook, Robert; Arden Pope, C

    2015-05-01

    An escalating body of epidemiologic and clinical research provides compelling evidence that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease and the triggering of acute cardiac events. There are 3 potential mediating pathways that have been implicated, including "systemic spillover," autonomic imbalance, and circulating particulate matter constituents. Further support that the increased morbidity and mortality attributed to air pollution comes from studies demonstrating the adverse cardiovascular effects of even brief periods of exposure to secondhand smoke. Accordingly, persons with known or suspected cardiovascular disease, the elderly, diabetic patients, pregnant women, and those with pulmonary disease should be counseled to limit leisure-time outdoor activities when air pollution is high. Recognizing the insidious and pervasive nature of air pollution, and the associated odds ratios and population attributable fractions for this widely underappreciated chemical trigger of acute cardiovascular events, may serve to maximize the potential for cardiovascular risk reduction by addressing at least a portion of the 10%-25% incidence of coronary disease that is unexplained by traditional risk factors. PMID:25882781

  4. Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Joe O.

    Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology…

  5. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  6. Physician's Guide to Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Mel

    Prepared at the request of the American Medical Association Council on Environmental and Public Health, this pamphlet on air pollution is one of a series of publications published by the Council as part of its continuing responsibility to provide current information on environmental health problems to the physician, the medical society, the…

  7. Air Pollution Control, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,…

  8. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  9. An innovative approach that was used to assess the air quality impacts of a large complex facility (Los Alamos National Laboratory) that has the potential to emit hundreds of toxic air pollutants in small quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Soden, J.; Kogan, V.; Gorman-Bates, K.

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy is preparing a Sitewide EIS for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of its evaluation of future use for the facility. An air quality analysis is required to estimate the potential impacts of the release of air pollutants from a facility that uses hundreds of toxic chemicals. These chemicals are currently used in 30 separately managed groups of operations or laboratory complexes--known as Technical Areas (TAs). Emission data and stack parameter information are currently not available. Undertaking an emission inventory, which would have been required for a conventional air quality impact analysis, would have been both costly and time consuming. An innovative and cost-effective methodology was therefore developed to assess the potential air quality impacts of the emissions of toxic air pollutants released from this facility. This methodology is based on the use of threshold emission values (TEVs), which are, for the purpose of this study, the maximum rates of each pollutant that could be emitted into the atmosphere from each TA that would not contravene health-related guideline values. TEVs unique to each TA were developed for each of the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic toxic pollutants emitted from facility using EPA`s ISC3 dispersion model, and prototypical stack and building parameters. Once the TEVs were established for each TA, comparisons were made on a pollutant-specific basis between these values and conservatively estimated potential emissions rates that were based primarily on the purchase rates of these chemicals to identify those pollutants which may cause potentially significant adverse air quality impacts. This approach allowed over 95 percent of the toxic air pollutants to be eliminated from further consideration, and enabled the detailed analysis to focus on the remaining 5 percent.

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities Rule: Operational and economic impacts at U.S. Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) installations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.C.; Durand, G.P.; Senn, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The recently promulgated Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), found in 40 CFR 63 Subpart GG, is expected to significantly impact operations at US Air Force (USAF) bases. At the request of the USAF`s Air Combat Command (ACC), Armstrong Laboratory`s Air Quality Branch performed a compliance assessment for all ACC bases in the summer of 1996 to determine more clearly the rule`s impact on operations at these bases. This assessment included first determining the base`s current major source standing for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), as defined by Title III of the Clean Air Act. In addition, this assessment ascertained the volatile organic compound (VOC) and HAP content levels for both the primers and topcoats currently being used in base aircraft maintenance operations. Finally, the survey determined the type of solvents used in cleaning aerospace parts, as well as the types of control equipment currently in place at each base. The results of the compliance assessment suggest a prohibitive impact on operations at ACC bases, including total potential direct monetary costs of up to $25M. Additional personnel requirements will be incurred as a result of increased monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting. Substitution of low VOC/HAP primers and topcoats and/or redefining maintenance operations to meet touch-up and repair definitions are discussed as possible alternatives, but the results indicate the best solution is to reassess each ACC base`s status as a major source for HAPs, with the intent of having each base defined as a minor source for HAPs. In this manner, the ACC bases can avoid the Aerospace NESHAP compliance requirements altogether, at substantial savings to the US Air Force.

  11. 40 CFR Appendix: Table 1 to... - List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart HHH

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP... AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From... HHH of Part 63—List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart HHH CAS Number a Chemical name...

  12. Acculturation, ethnicity, and air pollution perceptions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2011-06-01

    A globalizing world increases immigration between nations, raising the question of how acculturation (or its lack) of immigrants and their descendants to host societies affects risk perceptions. A survey of Paterson, New Jersey, residents tested acculturation's associations with attitudes to air pollution and its management, and knowledge of and self-reported behaviors concerning air pollution. Linguistic and temporal proxy measures for acculturation were independent variables along with ethnicity, plus controls for gender, age, education, and income in multivariate analyses. About one-fifth of contrasts between non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, English-interviewed Hispanics, and Spanish-interviewed Hispanics were statistically significant (Bonferroni-corrected) and of medium or higher affect size, with most featuring the Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. Knowledge variables featured the most significant differences. Specifically, Spanish-interviewed Hispanics reported less concern, familiarity with pollution, recognition of high pollution, and vigorous outdoor activity, and greater belief that government overregulates pollution than English-interviewed Hispanics (and than the other two groups on most of these variables too). English-interviewed Hispanics did not differ from non-Hispanic whites, but did on several variables from non-Hispanic blacks. Temporal proxies of acculturation among the foreign-born were far less significant, but concern and familiarity with air pollution increased with time spent in the United States, while belief in overregulation and a positive trend in New Jersey pollution increased with time in the nation of origin. Implications of these acculturation and ethnicity findings for risk perception/communication research and practice are discussed. PMID:21231941

  13. Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

    2007-05-01

    Mexico City is a megacity whose metropolitan area includes the country federal district, 18 municipalities of the State of Mexico. In year 1992, only 16 municipalities of the State of Mexico were part of MCMA. In year 1940 the Mexico City population was 1.78 millions in an area of 118 km2, in year 2000 the population was 17.9 millions in an area of 1,500 km2. Population has grown a ten fold whereas population density has dropped 20%. Total number of private cars has grown from 2,341,731 in year 1998 to 2,967,893 in year 2004. Nowadays, people and goods travel longer at lower speed to reach school, work and selling points. In addition highly efficient public transport lost a significant share of transport demand from 19.1 in 1986 to 14.3 in 1998. Air pollution is a public concern since early eighties last century; systematic public efforts have been carried out since late eighties. Energy consumption has steadily increased in the MCMA whereas emissions have also decreased. From year 2000 to 2004, the private cars fleet increased 17% whereas CO, NOx and COV emissions decreased between 20-30%. Average concentrations of criteria pollutants have decreased The number of days that the one-hour national standard for bad air quality was exceeded in year 1990 was 160. In year 2005 was 70. Research efforts and public policies on air pollution have been focused on public health. We are now better able to estimate the cost in human lives due to air pollution, or the cost in labor lost due to illness. Little if none at all work has been carried out to look at the effect of air pollution on private and public property or onto the cultural heritage. Few reports have can be found on the impact of air pollution in rural areas, including forest and crops, around the mega city. Mexico City is in the south end of a Valley with mountain ranges higher than 1000 m above the average city altitude. In spite the heavy loss of forested areas to the city, the mountains still retain large

  14. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 30,2016 ... or Longer-Term Acute short-term effects of air pollution tend to strike people who are elderly or ...

  15. Mild Air Pollution of Concern in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158558.html Mild Air Pollution of Concern in Pregnancy Study found risk for ... Being exposed to just a small amount of air pollution during pregnancy ups the risk of a pregnancy ...

  16. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  17. Mild Air Pollution of Concern in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158558.html Mild Air Pollution of Concern in Pregnancy Study found risk for ... Being exposed to just a small amount of air pollution during pregnancy ups the risk of a pregnancy ...

  18. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  19. 40 CFR Table 16 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Selected Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Selected Hazardous Air Pollutants 16...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire...

  20. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 8...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous...

  1. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Ffff of... - Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 9...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous...

  2. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 8...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous...

  3. 40 CFR Table 16 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Selected Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Selected Hazardous Air Pollutants 16...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire...

  4. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 8...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous...

  5. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Ffff of... - Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 9...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous...

  6. 40 CFR Table 16 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Selected Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Selected Hazardous Air Pollutants 16...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63,...

  7. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Ffff of... - Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 9...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous Organic...

  8. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 8...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous...

  9. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart F of... - Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants 2...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic...

  10. Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

    1995-01-01

    Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution. Images Figure 1. PMID:7656877

  11. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  12. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, EMISSION INVENTORY SUMMARIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), data for an air pollution emission inventory are summarized for point and area sources in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region. Data for point sources were collected for criteria and noncriteria pollutants, hydrocarbons, sul...

  13. Air pollution ranks as largest health risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that 7 million people died in 2012 from air-pollution-related sicknesses, marking air pollution as the single largest environmental health risk. This finding, a result of better knowledge and assessment of the diseases, is more than double previous estimates of the risk of death from air pollution.

  14. Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air…

  15. Air Pollution. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

    This unit, designed for senior high school students, focuses on air pollution by examining its effect on man, plants and animals, the causes of air pollution, and possible solutions to the air pollution problems. It approaches each of these topics through both natural science and social science perspectives. The unit is divided into seven separate…

  16. Air pollutants effects on forest ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the effects of acid rain on forests. The conference was sponsored by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Topics considered at the conference included the status of US research on acid deposition and its effects contributing factors to the decline of forests, evidence for effects on ecosystems, the effects of air pollutants on forest ecosystems in North America and Europe, forest management, and future scientific research programs and management approaches.

  17. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Özkaynak, Halûk; Baxter, Lisa K; Dionisio, Kathie L; Burke, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of outdoor air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and misclassification of exposures for pollutants that are spatially heterogeneous, such as those associated with traffic emissions (e.g., carbon monoxide, elemental carbon, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter). We review alternative air quality and human exposure metrics applied in recent air pollution health effect studies discussed during the International Society of Exposure Science 2011 conference in Baltimore, MD. Symposium presenters considered various alternative exposure metrics, including: central site or interpolated monitoring data, regional pollution levels predicted using the national scale Community Multiscale Air Quality model or from measurements combined with local-scale (AERMOD) air quality models, hybrid models that include satellite data, statistically blended modeling and measurement data, concentrations adjusted by home infiltration rates, and population-based human exposure model (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation, and Air Pollutants Exposure models) predictions. These alternative exposure metrics were applied in epidemiological applications to health outcomes, including daily mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, daily hospital emergency department visits, daily myocardial infarctions, and daily adverse birth outcomes. This paper summarizes the research projects presented during the symposium, with full details of the work presented in individual papers in this journal issue. PMID:23632992

  18. Air Pollution and Control Legislation in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P Bhave, Prashant; Kulkarni, Nikhil

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution in urban areas arises from multiple sources, which may vary with location and developmental activities. Anthropogenic activities as rampant industrialization, exploitation and over consumption of natural resources, ever growing population size are major contributors of air pollution. The presented review is an effort to discuss various aspects of air pollution and control legislation in India emphasizing on the history, present scenario, international treaties, gaps and drawbacks. The review also presents legislative controls with judicial response to certain landmark judgments related to air pollution. The down sides related to enforcement mechanism for the effective implementation of environmental laws for air pollution control have been highlighted.

  19. Meteorological and environmental aspects of one of the worst national air pollution episodes (January, 2004) in Logan, Cache Valley, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Esmaiel; Davis, Tess; Martin, Randal S.; Silva, Philip J.

    2006-02-01

    Logan, Utah, USA, had the nation's worst air pollution on 15 January, 2004. The high concentration of PM 2.5 (particulates smaller than 2.5 μm in diameter) in the air resulted from geographical, meteorological, and environmental aspects of Cache Valley. A strong inversion (increase of temperature with height) and light precipitation and/or wind were the major causes for trapping pollutants in the air. Other meteorological factors enhancing the inversion were: the prolonged high atmospheric surface pressure, a snow-covered surface which plunged temperatures to as low as - 23.6 °C on January 23rd and high reflection of solar radiation (up to about 80%), which caused less solar radiation absorption during the day throughout the most part of January 2004. Among non-meteorological factors are Cache Valley's small-basin geographical structure which traps air, with no big body of water to help the air circulation (as a result of differential heating and cooling rates for land and water), motor vehicle emissions, and existence of excess ammonia gas as a byproduct of livestock manure and urine. Concentration of PM 2.5 was monitored in downtown Logan. On January 15, 2004, the 24-h, filter-based concentration reached about 132.5 μg per cubic meter of air, an astonishingly high value compared to the values of 65 μg m - 3 and over, indicating a health alert for everyone. These tiny particles in the air have an enormous impact on health, aggravating heart and lung disease, triggering asthma and even death. The causes of this inversion and some suggestions to alleviate the wintertime particle concentration in Cache Valley will be addressed in this article.

  20. NOX CONTROL BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch has performed research and developed technologies for NOx reduction via combustion modification. Techniques such as low-excess air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, low NOx bu...

  1. A national study of the association between traffic-related air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Canada, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Stieb, David M; Chen, Li; Hystad, Perry; Beckerman, Bernardo S; Jerrett, Michael; Tjepkema, Michael; Crouse, Daniel L; Omariba, D Walter; Peters, Paul A; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Burnett, Richard T; Liu, Shiliang; Smith-Doiron, Marc; Dugandzic, Rose M

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies have examined the association of air pollution with preterm birth and birth weight outcomes. Traffic-related air pollution has also increasingly been identified as an important contributor to adverse health effects of air pollution. We employed a national nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure model to examine the association between NO2 and pregnancy outcomes in Canada between 1999 and 2008. National models for NO2 (and particulate matter of median aerodynamic diameter <2.5µm (PM2.5) as a covariate) were developed using ground-based monitoring data, estimates from remote-sensing, land use variables and, for NO2, deterministic gradients relative to road traffic sources. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations with preterm birth, term low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) and term birth weight, adjusting for covariates including infant sex, gestational age, maternal age and marital status, parity, urban/rural place of residence, maternal place of birth, season, year of birth and neighbourhood socioeconomic status and per cent visible minority. Associations were reduced considerably after adjustment for individual covariates and neighbourhood per cent visible minority, but remained significant for SGA (odds ratio 1.04, 95%CI 1.02-1.06 per 20ppb NO2) and term birth weight (16.2g reduction, 95% CI 13.6-18.8g per 20ppb NO2). Associations with NO2 were of greater magnitude in a sensitivity analysis using monthly monitoring data, and among births to mothers born in Canada, and in neighbourhoods with higher incomes and a lower proportion of visible minorities. In two pollutant models, associations with NO2 were less sensitive to adjustment for PM2.5 than vice versa, and there was consistent evidence of a dose-response relationship for NO2 but not PM2.5. In this study of approximately 2.5 million Canadian births between 1999 and 2008, we found significant associations of NO2 with SGA and term birth weight which

  2. PILOT STUDY OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION AND SURVIVAL FROM CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was concerned with investigating the potential influence exerted by ambient concentrations of particulate and sulfur dioxide air pollutants upon the length of survival for diagnosed cancer patients. Monitoring data from the National Aerometric Data Bank for particulates...

  3. Air pollution measurements from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, C. B.; Griggs, M.; Malkmus, W.; Bartle, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study is presented on the remote sensing of gaseous and particulate air pollutants which is an extension of a previous report. Pollutants can be observed by either active or passive remote sensing systems. Calculations discussed herein indicate that tropospheric CO, CO2, SO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, and CH4 can be measured by means of nadir looking passive systems. Additional species such as NO, HNO3, O3, and H2O may be measured in the stratosphere through a horizon experiment. A brief theoretical overview of resonance Raman scattering and resonance fluorescence is given. It is found that radiance measurements are most promising for general global applications, and that stratospheric aerosols may be measured using a sun occultation technique. The instrumentation requirements for both active and passive systems are examined and various instruments now under development are described.

  4. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Scientists and engineers in the Indoor Air Brand of EPS'a Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory are conducting research to increase the state of knowledge concerning indoor air pollution factors. A three phase program is being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to show how their approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Pollutants from two sources are examined: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters.

  5. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  6. The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been interpreted to imply that tens of thousands of Americans are killed annually by small daily increments in PM. These epidemiology studies and their interpretations have been challenged, although it is accepted that high concentrations of air pollutants have claimed many lives in the past. Although reproducible and statistically significant, the relative risks associated with modern PM are very small and confounded by many factors. Neither toxicology studies nor human clinical investigations have identified the components and/or characteristics of PM that might be causing the health-effect associations. Currently, a massive worldwide research effort is under way in an attempt to identify whom might be harmed and by what substances and mechanisms. Finding the answers is important, because control measures have the potential not only to be costly but also to limit the availability of goods and services that are important to public health. PMID:19330148

  7. Critical issues in air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M; Lioy, P J

    1985-01-01

    The epidemiological studies which have had significant impact on the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) were performed more than twenty years ago. Most of the more recent studies have been seriously flawed in their design and/or execution because they neglected to account for important variables such as: pollutant exposures other than those from ambient air; the influence of personal activity on pollutant uptake; host responsiveness; and the separate contributions of recent transient peak exposures and long-term chronic exposures on the effects endpoints. For particulate pollutants, the influence of composition and size distribution has also received too little consideration. In order to address these deficiencies, research and methods development are needed on: indices for particulate exposures; identification of exposures relevant to the effects; improved indices of effects; acquisition of response data; identification of exposed populations; and identification of susceptible subgroups. Approaches to these needs are discussed, along with brief reviews of several recent studies that have focused on critical issues of concern, made the necessary efforts to characterize the relevant exposures of the populations being studied, and demonstrated human responses to ambient pollutants at current exposure levels. PMID:4085428

  8. 40 CFR 63.62 - Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous air pollutants. 63.62 Section 63.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petitions Process, Lesser Quantity Designations, Source...

  9. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  10. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  11. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  12. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  13. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  14. CRITICAL HEALTH ISSUES OF CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter summarizes the key health information on ubiquitous outdoor air pollutants that can cause adverse health effects at current or historical ambient levels in the United States. Of the thousands of air pollutants, very few meet this definition. The Clean Air Act (CA...

  15. Epidemiology and air pollution. A report of the Committee on the Epidemiology of Air Pollutants, Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report examines the role of epidemiology in the study of the health effects of air pollution. The four health effects of concern in the report art acute respiratory infection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and lung cancer. The five types of pollution said to be of continuing concern are woodsmoke, nitrogen oxides, persistant ozone and acid aerosols, episodic ozone and acid aerosol haze and radon. The advantages of using epidemiological studies are discussed. They include: direct determination of public health problems and estimation of their magnitude; evaluation of the impact of decreases in exposure; and defining characteristics of the problem that can guide intervention even before the mechanics are understood.

  16. Airplanes on Air Pollution: Discover-AQ

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's launching a new mission, summer 2011, designed to gather data on air pollution and help expand our understanding of how it affects us, and that could allow pollutants to be monitored more pr...

  17. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals’ response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect. PMID:26728113

  18. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals’ response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect.

  19. Pigeons home faster through polluted air.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals' response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect. PMID:26728113

  20. Assessment of air quality benefits from national air pollution control policies in China. Part I: Background, emission scenarios and evaluation of meteorological predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Litao; Jang, Carey; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Qiang; Streets, David; Fu, Joshua; Lei, Yu; Schreifels, Jeremy; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming; Lam, Yun-Fat; Lin, Jerry; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Voorhees, Scott; Evarts, Dale; Phillips, Sharon

    2010-09-01

    Under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP, 2006-2010) for national environmental protection by the Chinese government, the overarching goal for sulfur dioxide (SO 2) controls is to achieve a total national emissions level of SO 2 in 2010 10% lower than the level in 2005. A similar nitrogen oxides (NO x) emissions control plan is currently under development and could be enforced during the 12th FYP (2011-2015). In this study, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA)'s Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (Models-3/CMAQ) modeling system was applied to assess the air quality improvement that would result from the targeted SO 2 and NO x emission controls in China. Four emission scenarios — the base year 2005, the 2010 Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, the 2010 SO 2 control scenario, and the 2010 NO x control scenario—were constructed and simulated to assess the air quality change from the national control plan. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) was applied to generate the meteorological fields for the CMAQ simulations. In this Part I paper, the model performance for the simulated meteorology was evaluated against observations for the base case in terms of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and precipitation. It is shown that MM5 model gives an overall good performance for these meteorological variables. The generated meteorological fields are acceptable for using in the CMAQ modeling.

  1. Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks.

  2. Measurement of aerosol particles, gases and flux radiation in the Pico de Orizaba National Park, and its relationship to air pollution transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, C.; Castro, T.; Muhlia, A.; Moya, M.; Martínez-Arroyo, A.; Báez, A.

    Continuous atmospheric measurements were carried out at the Pico de Orizaba National Park (PONP), Mexico, in order to evaluate the characteristics and sources of air quality. This action allowed one to identify specific threats for the effective protection of natural resources and biodiversity. Results show the presence of particles and polluted gases transported by winds from the urban zones nearby (cities of Mexico, Puebla and Tlaxcala), as well as their measurable influence on the optical properties of the park environment. Nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide show a daily pattern suggesting an influence of pollution generated by anthropogenic processes. Average concentration of SO 2 was higher than recorded at the southern part of Mexico City. Ozone concentrations ranging from 0.035 to 0.06 ppm suggest residual or background ozone character. Back trajectory analysis of air parcels arriving at the site confirm pollution caused by biomass burning and mass transport from urban zones. The SO 42-/TC ratio exhibited values (0.88±0.33) similar to urban areas. Ratios BC/TC and OC/BC for PONP are similar to those reported as influenced by burning emissions of fossil fuels. Typical rural aerosols were also found at the site, and sulfate and ammonium concentrations were correlated. The most predominating mode in surface particles size distribution was at 0.32 μm with no significant presence of coarse particles. Total carbon (OC+BC) content of fine particle mass (PM less than 1 μm) comprised, on average, 75%. Optical properties retrieved from photometric data show intermittent influence from urban pollution. Time periods with low absorbing particles, great visibility and abundance of small particles alternating with short times with bigger particles and high turbidity indicated by the optical depth.

  3. National air pollutant emission trends procedures document, 1900--1996, and projections 1999--2010. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nizich, S.V.

    1998-06-01

    Data from this report has also been used for the Biennial Assessment report, the Air Quality Trends report, the Industrial SO{sub 2} Report to Congress, and the 1994 Report to Congress. The emission estimates developed and included in the Emission Trends data base have been utilized to support development of the National Particulates Inventory, in support of recent evaluations of the particulate matter and ozone NAAQS, in support of the FACA process, and in support of the CAA Section 812 retrospective analysis. The procedures document provides information on the methods and data used in the before mentioned report. Methods for calculating 1900--1996 and project estimates for 1999--2010 are also included.

  4. Hazardous air pollutants and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Leikauf, George D

    2002-01-01

    Asthma has a high prevalence in the United States, and persons with asthma may be at added risk from the adverse effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Complex mixtures (fine particulate matter and tobacco smoke) have been associated with respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions for asthma. The toxic ingredients of these mixtures are HAPs, but whether ambient HAP exposures can induce asthma remains unclear. Certain HAPs are occupational asthmagens, whereas others may act as adjuncts during sensitization. HAPs may exacerbate asthma because, once sensitized, individuals can respond to remarkably low concentrations, and irritants lower the bronchoconstrictive threshold to respiratory antigens. Adverse responses after ambient exposures to complex mixtures often occur at concentrations below those producing effects in controlled human exposures to a single compound. In addition, certain HAPs that have been associated with asthma in occupational settings may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. Based on these observations and past experience with 188 HAPs, a list of 19 compounds that could have the highest impact on the induction or exacerbation of asthma was developed. Nine additional compounds were identified that might exacerbate asthma based on their irritancy, respirability, or ability to react with biological macromolecules. Although the ambient levels of these 28 compounds are largely unknown, estimated exposures from emissions inventories and limited air monitoring suggest that aldehydes (especially acrolein and formaldehyde) and metals (especially nickel and chromium compounds) may have possible health risk indices sufficient for additional attention. Recommendations for research are presented regarding exposure monitoring and evaluation of biologic mechanisms controlling how these substances induce and exacerbate asthma. PMID:12194881

  5. Perspective on Air Pollution: The Canadian Scene

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Despite the large ratio of land mass to population, Canada has significant air pollution problems, some being due to our cold climate, the long arctic nights, and a mineral-based economy. Routes of intoxication include the respiration of polluted air and the secondary contamination of food and water. Although pollution is often measured in terms of industrial emissions, the physician must be concerned rather with the dose of pollutants to which the individual is exposed. The principal air pollutants, in terms of emitted tonnage, are carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, particulates, and oxides of nitrogen. Sources of these various materials are discussed. PMID:20469224

  6. Monitoring air pollution in the Bialowieza Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzahn, Elżbieta; Sondej, Izabela; Paluch, Rafał

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution, as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), affects forest health negatively and can initiate forest dieback. Long-term monitoring (since 1986) and analyses are conducted in the Bialowieza Forest due to the threat by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. This forest has a special and unique natural value, as confirmed by the various forms of protection of national and international rank. The main aim of monitoring is to determine the level and trends of deposition of air pollutants and their effects on selected forest stands and forest communities in the Bialowieza Forest. Concentration measurements of gaseous pollutants and the chemical composition of the precipitation are performed at seven points within the forest area (62 219 ha). Measurement gauges are measuring gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx) by the passive method and collecting precipitation at each point at a height of three meters. The period of measuring by the instruments is 30 days. All analyses are conducted according to the methodology of the European forest monitoring program in the certified Laboratory of Natural Environment Chemistry of the Polish Forest Research Institute (IBL). The concentration of pollutant gases (dry deposition) in the years 2002-2015 accounted for only 6-13% of the limit in Poland, as defined by the Polish Ministry of Environment, and are of no threat to the forest environment. Wet deposition of pollutants, which dependents directly from the amount of precipitation and its concentration of pollutants, varied strongly between different months and years. Total deposition (dry and wet) of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) was calculated for seasonal and annual periods. On an annual basis, wet deposition represented approximately 80% of the total deposition of S and N. Total deposition of S did not exceed the average deposition values for forests in north-eastern Europe (5-10 kg ha‑1 year‑1) at any of the seven measuring points. Total deposition of N did

  7. Hybrid regional air pollution models

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.L.

    1980-03-01

    This discussion deals with a family of air quality models for predicting and analyzing the fine particulate loading in the atmosphere, for assessing the extent and degree of visibility impairment, and for determining the potential of pollutants for increasing the acidity of soils and water. The major horizontal scales of interest are from 400km to 2000km; and the time scales may vary from several hours, to days, weeks, and a few months or years, depending on the EPA regulations being addressed. First the role air quality models play in the general family of atmospheric simulation models is described. Then, the characteristics of a well-designed, comprehensive air quality model are discussed. Following this, the specific objectives of this workshop are outlined, and their modeling implications are summarized. There are significant modeling differences produced by the choice of the coordinate system, whether it be the fixed Eulerian system, the moving Lagrangian system, or some hybrid of the two. These three systems are briefly discussed, and a list of hybrid models that are currently in use are given. Finally, the PNL regional transport model is outlined and a number of research needs are listed.

  8. Air pollution co-benefits of low carbon policies in road transport: a sub-national assessment for India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Shivika; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-08-01

    This letter assesses low carbon scenarios for India at the subnational level in the passenger road transport sector. We estimate the future passenger mobility demand and assess the impact of carbon mitigation policies using the Asia-Pacific Integrated Assessment/Enduse models. This letter focuses on the transitions of energy and emissions of passenger transport in India in alternate scenarios i.e. the business-as-usual scenario and a low carbon scenario that aligns to the 2 °C temperature stabilization target agreed under the global climate change negotiations. The modelling results show that passenger mobility demand will rise in all sub-national regions of India in the coming few decades. However, the volume and modal structure will vary across regions. Modelling assessment results show that aligning global low carbon policies with local policies has potential to deliver significant air quality co-benefits. This analysis provides insights into the comparative dynamics of environmental policymaking at sub-national levels.

  9. EPA's indoor air/pollution prevention workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Leovic, K.W.; White, J.B.; Sarsony, C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses a workshop held as a step toward EPA's prioritizing potential areas of research for applying pollution prevention to indoor air quality (IAQ). The workshop involved technical experts in the fields of IAQ, pollution prevention, and selected industries. Workshop goals were to identify major IAQ issues and their pollution prevention opportunities, and to suggest research strategies for IAQ/pollution prevention. The paper summarizes the suggestions made by workshop participants and highlights opportunities for IAQ/pollution prevention research.

  10. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: I. Background, experimental strategy and critique.

    PubMed

    Mauderly, Joe L

    2014-09-01

    The National Environmental Respiratory Center Program was initiated as an experiment to explore strategies for identifying the components of complex air pollution mixtures that cause health effects associated statistically with air pollution. A strategy involving multivariate analysis of a composition-concentration-response database was adopted. A novel database was created by exposing rodents daily for up to six months to one of four combustion-related mixtures and measuring respiratory, cardiovascular and general toxicological responses after one week or six months of exposure. The mixtures included multiple concentrations of diesel and gasoline engine exhaust, hardwood smoke and simulated downwind coal combustion emissions. After reporting the biological effects of each mixture and comparing effects among them, 47 significant effects were selected for multiple additive regression tree analysis to identify putative causal components. Although the four mixtures provided a database marginally sufficient for the analysis, the results suggested the putative causes of 19 significant effects with acceptable confidence. This article describes and critiques the Program and its strategy. The integrated results are presented in two accompanying papers, and mixture-specific results were presented in preceding papers, which are cited. The experiment demonstrated the potential utility of the general approach and identified certain cause-effect relationships for confirmatory studies. A follow-up study provided support for causation by the components implicated for one of those relationships. The advantages and disadvantages of the Program's management and funding strategies are discussed. PMID:25162718

  11. AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH (AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fundamental and applied combustion research has been conducted by the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB)and its predecessors since EPA's inception. APTB has been instrumental in the development and successful application of flue...

  12. PUBLICATIONS (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division produces and publishes highly specialized technical and scientific documents related to APTB's research. Areas of research covered include artificial intelligence, CFC destruction,...

  13. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) is always interested in the potential for cooperative research if overlap occurs between the research goals of external organizations and APTB's research goals.APTB has participated i...

  14. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM (IAPCS) COST MODEL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL) Integrated Air Pollution Control System Cost Model is a compiled model written in FORTRAN and C language that is designed to be used on an IBM or compatible PC with 640K or lower RAM and at least 1.5 Mb of hard drive space. It ...

  15. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  16. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  17. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 3: Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Air Pollution Control Officer's (APCO) Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties, The first two sections, which are…

  18. Diurnal, weekly and monthly spatial variations of air pollutants and air quality of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Tang, Hongzhao; Zhao, Haimeng

    2015-10-01

    Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standard released in 2012 (NAAQS-2012), Beijing began to publicize hourly Air Quality Index as well as real time concentrations of 6 pollutants in its web platform to provide detailed information for air quality assessment from 2013. In this study, hourly air quality monitoring data from May 2014 to April 2015 were collected for all 35 monitoring stations in Beijing to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of air pollutants and air quality. It is found that in spatial pattern, the air qualities in southern and northern Beijing are totally different. The association between heavy pollution concentrations and wind situations suggested that neighboring area's air quality has an important role in the air quality of Beijing combining with air quality attainment rates in all 35 monitoring stations and northern China. For temporal variations, late night and early morning are the most polluted time while afternoon is the least polluted time for all pollutants except O3 with most polluted time in afternoon. Summer time in Beijing has the best air quality while winter time has the worst air quality coinciding with the heating season in the winter.

  19. Australians are not equally protected from industrial air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, B.; Green, D.

    2015-05-01

    Australian air pollution standards are set at national and state levels for a number of chemicals harmful to human health. However, these standards do not need to be met when ad hoc pollution licences are issued by state environment agencies. This situation results in a highly unequal distribution of air pollution between towns and cities, and across the country. This paper examines these pollution regulations through two case studies, specifically considering the ability of the regulatory regime to protect human health from lead and sulphur dioxide pollution in the communities located around smelters. It also considers how the proposed National Clean Air Agreement, once enacted, might serve to reduce this pollution equity problem. Through the case studies we show that there are at least three discrete concerns relating to the current licencing system. They are: non-onerous emission thresholds for polluting industry; temporal averaging thresholds masking emission spikes; and ineffective penalties for breaching licence agreements. In conclusion, we propose a set of new, legally-binding national minimum standards for industrial air pollutants must be developed and enforced, which can only be modified by more (not less) stringent state licence arrangements.

  20. Air pollution and respiratory viral infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite current regulations, which limit the levels of certain air pollutants, there are still a number of adverse health effects that result from exposure to these agents. Numerous epidemiological studies have noted an association between the levels of air pollution and hospital...

  1. Air Pollution and Its Control, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproull, Wayne T.

    A concise appraisal of our contemporary status and future prospects with regard to air pollution and its control are offered in this text for concerned laymen. What air pollution is, how it endangers health, the cost of controlling it, what is being done about it now, and what should be done are some of the basic questions considered. Topics cover…

  2. Career Guide for Air Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Lionel V.

    1975-01-01

    This guide to career opportunities in air pollution control includes resource information in this area and provides a listing of colleges and universities offering environmental science programs. The guide was prepared by the S-11 Education and Training Committee of the Air Pollution Control Association. (Author/BT)

  3. Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon…

  4. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy. PMID:27331817

  5. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy. PMID:27331817

  6. 76 FR 30604 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities: State of Maine Department... substitution for the amended National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for...

  7. Air Pollution: Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation & CNS Disease

    PubMed Central

    Block, Michelle L.; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2009-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates air pollution as a chronic source of neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuropathology instigating central nervous system (CNS) disease. Stroke incidence, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease pathology are linked to air pollution. Recent reports reveal that air pollution components reach the brain. Further, systemic effects known to impact lung and cardiovascular disease also impinge upon CNS health. While mechanisms driving air pollution-induced CNS pathology are poorly understood, new evidence suggests that activation of microglia and changes in the blood brain barrier may be key to this process. Here, we summarize recent findings detailing the mechanisms through which air pollution reaches the brain and activates the resident innate immune response to become a chronic source of pro-inflammatory factors and ROS culpable in CNS disease. PMID:19716187

  8. Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation’s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

  9. CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS IN THE U.S. SIMULATED BY AN AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the US National Air Toxics Assessment, we have applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model, CMAQ, to study the concentrations of twenty gas-phase, toxic, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the atmosphere over the continental United States. We modified the Carbo...

  10. Air Pollution and Environmental Justice Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution is not equally dispersed in all neighborhoods and this raises many social concerns, such as environmental justice. "Real world" data, whether extracted from online databases or collected in the field, can be used to demonstrate air quality patterns. When students explore these trends, they not only learn about atmospheric chemistry, but they also become socially aware of any inequities. This presentation outlines specific ways to link air pollution and environmental justice suitable for an undergraduate upper division Air Pollution or Atmospheric Chemistry course.

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xx of... - Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous Air Pollutants 1 Table 1 to... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED... Operations Pt. 63, Subpt. XX, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart XX of Part 63—Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous...

  12. Bulletin of Air Pollution Training Courses, July 1970 through June 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Issued by the National Air Pollution Control Administration (NAPCA), this directory covers program and course offerings through the Institute for Air Pollution Training (IAPT), Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Officers of the Triangle Universities (Duke, North Carolina, North Carolina State) Consortium on Air Pollution are listed first,…

  13. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  14. The public health relevance of air pollution abatement.

    PubMed

    Künzli, N

    2002-07-01

    Assuming a causal relationship between current levels of air pollution and morbidity/mortality, it is crucial to estimate the public health relevance of the problem. The derivation of air pollution attributable cases faces inherent uncertainties and requires influential assumptions. Based on the results of the trinational impact assessment study of Austria, France, and Switzerland, where prudent estimates of the air pollution attributable cases (mortality, chronic bronchitis incidence, hospital admissions, acute bronchitis among children, restricted activity days, asthma attacks) have been made, influential uncertainties are quantified in this review. The public health impact of smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and air pollution on the prevalence of chronic cough/phlegm are outlined. Despite all methodological caveats, impact assessment studies clearly suggest that public health largely benefits from better air quality. The studies are selective underestimates as they are strongly driven by mortality, but do not include full quantification of the impact on morbidity and their consequences on quality of life among the diseased and the caregivers. Air pollution abatement strategies are usually political in nature, targeting at polities, regulation and technology in mobile or stationary sources rather than at individuals. It is of note that key clean air strategies converge into abatement of climate change. In general, energy consumption is very closely related to both air pollution and greenhouse gases. The dominant causes of both problems are the excessive and inefficient combustion of fossil fuel. Thus, for many policy options, the benefit of air pollution abatement will go far beyond what prudent health-impact assessments may derive. From a climate change and air pollution perspective, improved energy efficiency and a strong and decisive departure from the "fossil fuel" combustion society is a science-based must. Health professionals must raise their voices

  15. Air pollution and the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations. PMID:23147058

  16. The Outdoor Air Pollution and Brain Health Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accumulating evidence suggests that air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) health and disease. To address this issue, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health convened a panel of research scientists...

  17. Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition. PMID:25119155

  18. Air pollution modeling and its application III

    SciTech Connect

    De Wispelaere, C.

    1984-01-01

    This book focuses on the Lagrangian modeling of air pollution. Modeling cooling tower and power plant plumes, modeling the dispersion of heavy gases, remote sensing as a tool for air pollution modeling, dispersion modeling including photochemistry, and the evaluation of model performances in practical applications are discussed. Specific topics considered include dispersion in the convective boundary layer, the application of personal computers to Lagrangian modeling, the dynamic interaction of cooling tower and stack plumes, the diffusion of heavy gases, correlation spectrometry as a tool for mesoscale air pollution modeling, Doppler acoustic sounding, tetroon flights, photochemical air quality simulation modeling, acid deposition of photochemical oxidation products, atmospheric diffusion modeling, applications of an integral plume rise model, and the estimation of diffuse hydrocarbon leakages from petrochemical factories. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Thirteenth International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application held in France in 1982.

  19. Annual and diurnal variations of gaseous and particulate pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities based on in situ air quality monitoring data from China National Environmental Monitoring Center.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun; Liu, Na; Qu, Jianjun; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term air quality data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are needed to understand some important processes affecting the air quality and corresponding environmental and health effects. The annual and diurnal variations of each criteria pollutant including PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively), CO (carbon monoxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and O3 (ozone) in 31 provincial capital cities between April 2014 and March 2015 were investigated by cluster analysis to evaluate current air pollution situations in China, and the cities were classified as severely, moderately, and slightly polluted cities according to the variations. The concentrations of air pollutants in winter months were significantly higher than those in other months with the exception of O3, and the cities with the highest CO and SO2 concentrations were located in northern China. The annual variation of PM2.5 concentrations in northern cities was bimodal with comparable peaks in October 2014 and January 2015, while that in southern China was unobvious with slightly high PM2.5 concentrations in winter months. The concentrations of particulate matter and trace gases from primary emissions (SO2 and CO) and NO2 were low in the afternoon (~16:00), while diurnal variation of O3 concentrations was opposite to that of other pollutants with the highest values in the afternoon. The most polluted cities were mainly located in North China Plain, while slightly polluted cities mostly focus on southern China and the cities with high altitude such as Lasa. This study provides a basis for the formulation of future urban air pollution control measures in China. PMID:26562560

  20. 40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? 63.2850 Section 63.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jj of... - List of Volatile Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false List of Volatile Hazardous Air Pollutants 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National...

  2. 40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? 63.2850 Section 63.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  3. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  4. Kerbside DOAS measurements of air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Ling, Hong; Legelli, Stefan; Münkel, Christoph; Emeis, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Emission sources as well as wind speed and direction and MLH are important factors which influence high air pollutant concentrations. This is generally known (Schäfer et al., 2006) but the detailed understanding of processes directing certain air pollutant concentrations like HCHO is not complete. To study these processes a long-term campaign in Augsburg, Germany, was performed since March 2012. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO, which were measured with a DOAS from OPSIS across a main traffic road and a nearby park area, are analysed. A ceilometer CL31 from Vaisala which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system is applied to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. Special software for this ceilometer with MATLAB provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Meteorological data were measured by a ground-based weather station at the measurement site as well as taken from monitoring data archives of the German National Meteorological Service (DWD), which are measured by radiosondes (Oberschleißheim). Correlation analyses are applied to show the coupling of temporal variations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO concentrations with temperature, mixing layer height and wind speed. HCHO which is emitted from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources is studied especially.

  5. Regional emissions of air pollutants in China.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.

    1998-10-05

    As part of the China-MAP program, sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, regional inventories of air pollutants emitted in China are being characterized, in order that the atmospheric chemistry over China can be more fully understood and the resulting ambient concentrations in Chinese cities and the deposition levels to Chinese ecosystems be determined with better confidence. In addition, the contributions of greenhouse gases from China and of acidic aerosols that counteract global warming are being quantified. This paper presents preliminary estimates of the emissions of some of the major air pollutants in China: sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon (C). Emissions are estimated for each of the 27 regions of China included in the RAINS-Asia simulation model and are subsequently distributed to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} grid using appropriate disaggregation factors. Emissions from all sectors of the Chinese economy are considered, including the combustion of biofuels in rural homes. Emissions from larger power plants are calculated individually and allocated to the grid accordingly. Data for the period 1990-1995 are being developed, as well as projections for the future under alternative assumptions about economic growth and environmental control.

  6. 77 FR 45967 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Federal Register on February 16, 2012 (77 FR 9304). DATES: The effective date of 40 CFR 63.9984(a), 63... of 40 CFR part 63, published in the Federal Register on February 16, 2012 (77 FR 9304), is stayed... establishing the new source standards for particulate matter and hydrochloric acid. The Clean Air...

  7. GIS implementation in air pollution analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chaaban, F.G.

    1998-07-01

    Air quality modeling and simulation is an indispensable tool used in different environmental studies that attempt to estimate air pollution levels caused by existing or planned combustion processes, to evaluate proposed emission reduction technologies, to select sites for new emission sources, and accordingly to establish emission control strategies in different energy conversion sectors. Modeling techniques, based on established mathematical formulation, are widely used for simulating air pollution caused mainly by the transportation and electric power sectors. Geographic information systems, GIS, link spatial information to alphanumeric information thus developing geographically referenced database. GIS systems have already been incorporated successfully into several fields in the energy sector and are proven to be a very efficient and robust tool for relevant analysis. In the environmental studies, GIS can answer many questions related to air pollution such as pollution sources as well as identification of regions in which the concentration may exceed limits set by local and international standards. The work presented in this paper is aimed at integrating GIS into air pollution analysis. The main objective is to estimate, using advanced graphical illustrations, the concentration levels of different types of air effluents emitted from point, line, or area sources. The integrated package is then used to examine the influence of various mitigation strategies on the air pollutants levels, and hence to evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies. The paper is concluded by case studies from the transportation and power sectors.

  8. Health effects of outdoor air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. PMID:21841106

  9. Motor Vehicles, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jason

    2000-04-01

    Despite years of technical progress, motor vehicles continue to be a leading cause of environmental damage in the United States. For example, today's cars and trucks are the largest source of air pollution in many urban areas. US motor vehicles also account for 25 percent of the nation's carbon emissions, more than most countries emit from all sources combined. Fortunately, a host of technical improvements are emerging that could go a long ways towards taking vehicles out of the pollution picture. In the near-term, improving on the century-old internal combustion engine can deliver much-needed incremental gains. But electric drive vehicles--whether powered by batteries, small engines in hybrid configuration, or fuel cells--ultimately offer the greatest promise. Such technologies could dramatically reduce energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and key air pollutants. The bulk of technical attention in recent years has been focused on improving the passenger vehicle, which will be the dominant energy consumer in the transportation sector for years to come. But freight trucks are also of growing concern, both because their contribution to global warming is on the rise and because serious questions are being raised about the public health impact of diesel technology. As a result, heavy trucks are emerging as a priority issue. Capitalizing on the opportunity presented by new technologies will not only require continued technical innovation but also policy action. As research into improved engines, fuels, and drive systems bears fruit over the coming years, aggressive and prudent policies will ensure that these new options make it onto the road and deliver on their environmental promise.

  10. The Outdoor Air Pollution and Brain Health Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Block, Michelle L.; Elder, Alison; Auten, Rick L.; Bilbo, Staci D.; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Costa, Daniel; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Dorman, David C.; Gold, Diane; Gray, Kimberly; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Kaufman, Joel D.; Kleinman, Michael T.; Kirshner, Annette; Lawler, Cindy; Miller, David S.; Nadadur, Sri; Ritz, Beate; Semmens, Erin O.; Tonelli, Leonardo H.; Veronesi, Bellina; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that outdoor air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) health and disease. To address this issue, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health convened a panel of research scientists that was assigned the task of identifying research gaps and priority goals essential for advancing this growing field and addressing an emerging human health concern. Here, we review recent findings that have established the effects of inhaled air pollutants in the brain, explore the potential mechanisms driving these phenomena, and discuss the recommended research priorities/approaches that were identified by the panel. PMID:22981845

  11. Human health effects of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Folinsbee, L J

    1993-01-01

    Over the past three or four decades, there have been important advances in the understanding of the actions, exposure-response characteristics, and mechanisms of action of many common air pollutants. A multidisciplinary approach using epidemiology, animal toxicology, and controlled human exposure studies has contributed to the database. This review will emphasize studies of humans but will also draw on findings from the other disciplines. Air pollutants have been shown to cause responses ranging from reversible changes in respiratory symptoms and lung function, changes in airway reactivity and inflammation, structural remodeling of pulmonary airways, and impairment of pulmonary host defenses, to increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. Quantitative and qualitative understanding of the effects of a small group of air pollutants has advanced considerably, but the understanding is by no means complete, and the breadth of effects of all air pollutants is only partially understood. PMID:8354181

  12. ALTITUDE AS A FACTOR IN AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution is affected by change in altitude. Cities with surface elevations above 1500 meters have atmospheric pressures which are approximately fifteen percent (15%) below pressures at sea level. Consequently, mobile sources designed to operate at pressures of one atmosphere...

  13. AIR POLLUTION, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased incidents of classic and variant forms of neurodegenerative diseases suggest that environmental chemicals and susceptibility factors (e.g., genetics, diseased states, obesity, etc.) may be contributory. Particulate matter (PM) is a type of air pollution that is associat...

  14. GENERATION OF FUMES SIMULATING PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes techniques developed for generating large quantities of reproducible, stable, inorganic, fine-particle aerosol fumes. These fumes simulated particulate air pollutants emitted from power generation, basic oxygen furnaces, electric arc furnaces, and zinc smelti...

  15. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS: DRY-DEPOSITION PHENOMENA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dry-deposition rates were evaluated for two hazardous organic air pollutants, nitrobenzene and perchloroethylene, to determine their potential for removal from the atmosphere to three building material surfaces, cement, tar paper, and vinyl asbestos tile. Dry-deposition experimen...

  16. India takes steps to curb air pollution.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    India's air pollution problem needs to be tackled systematically, taking an all-of-government approach, to reduce the huge burden of associated ill-health. Patralekha Chatterjee reports. PMID:27429486

  17. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.A.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Evaluation of indoor air pollution problems requires an understanding of the relationship between sources, air movement, and outdoor air exchange. Research is underway to investigate these relationships. A three-phase program is being implemented: (1) Environmental chambers are used to provide source emission factors for specific indoor pollutants; (2) An IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) model has been developed to calculate indoor pollutant concentrations based on chamber emissions data and the air exchange and air movement within the indoor environment; and (3) An IAQ test house is used to conduct experiments to evaluate the model results. Examples are provided to show how this coordinated approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Two sources are examined: (1) para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant; and (2) emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. The evaluation process for both sources followed the three-phase approach discussed above. Para-dichlorobenzene emission factors were determined by small chamber testing at EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. Particle emission factors for the kerosene heaters were developed in large chambers at the J.B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory. Both sources were subsequently evaluated in EPA's IAQ test house. The IAQ model predictions showed good agreement with the test house measurements when appropriate values were provided for source emissions, outside air exchange, in-house air movement, and deposition on sink surfaces.

  18. Sorbents for Trapping Organic Pollutants From Air.

    PubMed

    Ligor; Gorecka; Buszewski

    1998-01-01

    A series of siliceous adsorbents with chemically bonded phases (CBPs) of different polarity were tested as sorbents for trapping air pollutants (petroleum ether) using controlled setup. Moreover, special attention was paid to the potential role of metal impurities as strong adsorption sites. Sorbents were characterized by various physico-chemical methods, such as porosimetry, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, elemental analysis, derivatography, and gas chromatography. Trapping tubes were utilized for sorption of toxic pollutants from indoor air. PMID:10602615

  19. [Air Pollution Unit, Edmonds School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

    This interdisciplinary program, developed for secondary students, contains 16 air pollution activities that can either be used directly in, or as a supplement to, curriculum in Science, Photography, Mathematics, English, Social Studies, Industrial Arts and Home Economics. The topics to be investigated include: pollutants from automobiles, exhaust…

  20. Chinese air pollution embodied in trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid economic development in China has been accompanied by high levels of air pollution in many areas of China. Although researchers have applied a range of methods to monitor and track pollutant emissions in the atmosphere, studies of the underlying economic and technological drivers of this pollution have received considerably less attention. I will present results of a series of studies that have quantified the air pollutants embodied in goods being traded both within China and internationally. The results show that trade is facilitating the concentration of pollution in less economically developed areas, which in turn export pollution-intensive goods to more affluent areas. However, the export-related pollution itself is sometimes transported long distances; for instance, we have quantified the impacts of the Chinese pollution embodied in internationally-exported goods on air quality in the US. These findings important implications for Chinese efforts to curb CO2 emissions and improve air quality. The research to be presented reflects the efforts of a multiple year, ongoing collaboration among interdisciplinary researchers in China, the US and the UK.

  1. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  2. Air pollution assessment on city of Tirana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandija, F.; Zoga, P.

    2012-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the hot topics on nowadays studies. This problem is often encountered on urban centers, especially on metropolitan areas. These areas are usually characterized by densely population, heavy traffic rates and the presence of many industrial plants on their suburbs. Problems regarding to air pollution on these areas are more evident over metropolitan areas in developing countries. Air pollution is mostly related to health effects, especially in outdoor environments. These effects regards primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution assessment on a specific area requires not only the estimation of pollutant concentrations in that area, but also determination of their principal sources as well as prediction of eventual scenarios on the area under investigation. This study is focused on air pollution assessment on the city of Tirana, which is the major urban centre and the capital city of Albania. This city has about one million inhabitants. During the last 20 years, its population has grown about four fold, and it is still growing. Because of Albania is a developing country, its capital city is involved on serious environmental problems. Considering these facts, we have conducted continuous monitoring campaigns on several sites of Tirana. These monitoring campaigns consist on measurement of several pollutant gases (SO2, CO, CO2, NOx, etc.) and particulate matter over a period of 20 months. In this paper there are obtained diurnal and annual variations of pollutant concentrations, there is modeled their spatial distributions over the area of the city, and there are estimated the potential contributions of principal sources like traffic and industrial plants. During the entire monitoring campaign there are recorded also meteorological parameters, like temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitations, etc. In this way we have tried to obtain the correlations between pollutant

  3. Air Pollution over the States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    State plans for implementing air quality standards are evaluated together with problems in modeling procedures and enforcement. Monitoring networks, standards, air quality regions, and industrial problems are also discussed. (BL)

  4. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  5. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

  6. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  7. AIR CLEANERS FOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL (CHAPTER 10)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes an experimental study to evaluate performance characteristics of currently available controls for indoor air pollutants, including both particles and gases. he study evaluated the particle-size-dependent collection efficiency of seven commercially available ...

  8. Development of a distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling framework.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Kroll, Charles N; Nowak, David J

    2012-12-01

    A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling system was developed with a geographic information system (GIS) to enhance the functionality of i-Tree Eco (i-Tree, 2011). With the developed system, temperature, leaf area index (LAI) and air pollutant concentration in a spatially distributed form can be estimated, and based on these and other input variables, dry deposition of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), and particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10) to trees can be spatially quantified. Employing nationally available road network, traffic volume, air pollutant emission/measurement and meteorological data, the developed system provides a framework for the U.S. city managers to identify spatial patterns of urban forest and locate potential areas for future urban forest planting and protection to improve air quality. To exhibit the usability of the framework, a case study was performed for July and August of 2005 in Baltimore, MD. PMID:22858662

  9. Smoke and mirrors - the politics and culture of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    E. Melanie DuPuis

    2004-01-15

    From the coal factory chimneys in Manchester, England in the late nineteenth century to the smog hanging over Los Angeles, USA in the late twentieth century, air pollution has long been one of the greatest threats to our environment. In this important collection of original essays, the leading environmental scientists and social scientists examine the politics of air pollution policies and help us to understand the ways these policies have led to, idiosyncratic, effective, ineffective, and even disastrous choices about what we choose to put into and take out of the air. Offering historical, contemporary and cross-national perspectives, this volume provides a refreshing new approach to understanding how air pollution policies have evolved over time.

  10. Occupational Structures and Profiles in Italy in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Public Service Sector with Reference to Air Pollution Control. CEDEFOP Panorama. National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannocci, Virgilio; And Others

    A study examined the knowledge and job skills required of persons employed in air pollution control (APC)-related occupations in Italy's public service sector. First, Italian legislation on APC and the functions/powers of Italy's public agencies responsible for APC were reviewed. The organization/operation of the public structures involved in…

  11. Air-pollution injury on Pinus strobus in Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore - 1985 survey results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchini, P.J.

    1986-10-01

    Visible symptoms of ozone injury were observed on 100% of the Eastern white pine trees (Pinus strobus) sampled in 1985 from permanent pine plots at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Average injury was low and affected about 5% of the needle surface. Only 6% of the trees sampled had more than 10% injury. Fleck injury was the most common ozone symptom encountered, followed by tipburn and chlorotic mottle. Significant variation among plots existed in total ozone injury, chlorotic mottle, tipburn, and needle length. Symptoms of other injury types were observed on 9% of the needle surfaces of sampled trees.

  12. Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly. PMID:25108840

  13. Mobile Sensors and Applications for Air Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Executive Summary The public has long been interested in understanding what pollutants are in the air they breathe so they can best protect their environmental health and welfare. The current air quality monitoring network consists of discrete stations with expensive equipment ...

  14. Urban Air Pollution: State of the Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seinfeld, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the highly complex mixture of gaseous and particulate matter found in urban air. Explains progress made in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of air pollution, the effects of precursors on ozone, the role of biogenic hydrocarbons, and the principal benefit of methanol-fueled vehicles. (RT)

  15. Topics in Air Pollution Control (SI: 428).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampacek, Anne; Chaput, Linda

    This course provides information about air pollution control efforts since the passage of the Clean Air Act and places in perspective various issues that have arisen since passage of the act--significant deterioration, maintenance of standards, indirect source review, and transportation controls. Court decisions affecting these issues are cited…

  16. Air Pollution Potential from Electroplating Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Philip

    Measurements were made of emission rates from electroplating operations considered to have maximum air pollution potential. Sampling was performed at McClellan and additional data from a previous survey at Hill Air Force Base was used. Values obtained were extremely low. Based on existing Federal standards, no collectors are specifically required…

  17. The status of indoor air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Esmen, N A

    1985-01-01

    Indoor air pollution, specifically restricted in its meaning to chemicals in home indoor air environment, presents a new and probably an important challenge to the researchers of the air pollution field. The general overview of this topic suggests that the voluminous data generated in the past ten or so years have only defined the rudiments of the problem, and significant areas of research still exist. Among the important areas where information is lacking, the exposures to contaminants generated by the use of consumer products and through hobbies and crafts represent perhaps the most urgent need for substantial research. PMID:4085429

  18. Healthy Neighborhoods: Walkability and Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Julian D.; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D.

    2009-01-01

    Background The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure. Methods We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O3) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were estimated from a land-use regression model, O3 was estimated from ambient monitoring data; walkability was calculated based on geographic attributes such as land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density. Results All three attributes exhibit an urban–rural gradient, with high walkability and NO concentrations, and low O3 concentrations, near the city center. Lower-income areas tend to have higher NO concentrations and walkability and lower O3 concentrations. Higher-income areas tend to have lower pollution (NO and O3). “Sweet-spot” neighborhoods (low pollution, high walkability) are generally located near but not at the city center and are almost exclusively higher income. Policy implications Increased concentration of activities in urban settings yields both health costs and benefits. Our research identifies neighborhoods that do especially well (and especially poorly) for walkability and air pollution exposure. Work is needed to ensure that the poor do not bear an undue burden of urban air pollution and that neighborhoods designed for walking, bicycling, or mass transit do not adversely affect resident’s exposure to air pollution. Analyses presented here could be replicated in other cities and tracked over time to better understand interactions among neighborhood walkability, air pollution exposure, and income level. PMID:20049128

  19. Pollutant roses for daily averaged ambient air pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosemans, Guido; Kretzschmar, Jan; Mensink, Clemens

    Pollutant roses are indispensable tools to identify unknown (fugitive) sources of heavy metals at industrial sites whose current impact exceeds the target values imposed for the year 2012 by the European Air Quality Daughter Directive 2004/207/EC. As most of the measured concentrations of heavy metals in ambient air are daily averaged values, a method to obtain high quality pollutant roses from such data is of practical interest for cost-effective air quality management. A computational scheme is presented to obtain, from daily averaged concentrations, 10° angular resolution pollutant roses, called PRP roses, that are in many aspects comparable to pollutant roses made with half-hourly concentrations. The computational scheme is a ridge regression, based on three building blocks: ordinary least squares regression; outlier handling by weighting based on expected values of the higher percentiles in a lognormal distribution; weighted averages whereby observed values, raised to a power m, and daily wind rose frequencies are used as weights. Distance measures are used to find the optimal value for m. The performance of the computational scheme is illustrated by comparing the pollutant roses, constructed with measured half-hourly SO 2 data for 10 monitoring sites in the Antwerp harbour, with the PRP roses made with the corresponding daily averaged SO 2 concentrations. A miniature dataset, made up of 7 daily concentrations and of half-hourly wind directions assigned to 4 wind sectors, is used to illustrate the formulas and their results.

  20. ORIMULSION(R) RESEARCH STUDY (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to a 1998 Congressional request, the Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division began research as part of a study to evaluate the environmental impacts of Orimulsion(R). Orimulsion(R)is a fossil fuel composed of 70%...

  1. RESEARCH AREA -- CHLOROFLUOROCARBON (CFC) DESTRUCTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six thermal oxidation (incineration) processes were approved by the Montreal Protocol for the disposal of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances. The Air Pollution Technology Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has eva...

  2. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed. PMID:24636233

  3. Chemical air pollutants and otorhinolaryngeal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bisesi, M.S.; Rubin, A.M. . Occupational Health and Otolaryngology)

    1994-03-01

    Air pollution and the specific issue regarding the impact of airborne chemical agents to human health are familiar topics to most members of the environmental health science and environmental medicine communities. Some aspects, however, have received relatively less attention. Much has been published regarding the impact of air pollutants on the human upper and lower respiratory system, including interaction with the rhinologic (nasal) system. Relatively fewer data have been published, however, regarding the potential impact of air pollutants in reference specifically to the otologic (auditory and vestibular) and the laryngeal (larynx) system. Adverse impact to the ears, nose and throat, referred to as the otorhinolaryngeal system'', warrants attention as an important environmental health issue. Toxic interactions from exposure to many chemical air pollutants not only causes potential respiratory irritation and lung disease, but can also result in impaired hearing, balance, sense of smell, taste, and speech due to interaction with related target systems. This may be significant to environmental health risk assessment of chemical air pollutants if multi-target site models are considered.

  4. BIOINDICATORS IN AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH: APPLICATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical and chemical measurements of air pollutants provide a precise measure of pollutant exposure which is frequently used to estimate probable biological impacts. Bioindicators may be classified as either accumulators of the pollutant or reactors to the pollutant. The ultimat...

  5. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... itself. Household chemical cleaners Use baking soda or vinegar and water as household cleaners. For a job ... after each use by using one-part white vinegar to three-parts water. Let the pieces air- ...

  6. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xx of... - Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous Air Pollutants 1 Table 1 to Subpart XX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xx of... - Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous Air Pollutants 1 Table 1 to Subpart XX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xx of... - Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous Air Pollutants 1 Table 1 to Subpart XX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  10. 40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? 63.2850 Section 63.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  11. 40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  12. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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  13. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Ffff of... - Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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  14. 40 CFR 63.62 - Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants. 63.62 Section 63.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  15. 40 CFR Table 16 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Selected Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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  16. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  17. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  18. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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  19. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  20. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  1. 40 CFR 63.62 - Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants. 63.62 Section 63.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  2. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 8 Table 8 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  3. 40 CFR 63.62 - Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants. 63.62 Section 63.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  4. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 8 Table 8 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  5. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 8 Table 8 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  6. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  7. 40 CFR 63.62 - Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants. 63.62 Section 63.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  8. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Ffff of... - Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 9 Table 9 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  9. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 7 Table 7 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  10. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 8 Table 8 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  11. Air pollution information activities at state and local agencies--United States, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-08

    Because air pollution is a pervasive environmental health problem in the United States, one of the national health objectives for the year 2000 is to increase from 49.7% to 85.0% the proportion of persons who live in counties that have not exceeded any air quality standard during the previous 12 months (1). Public support for air pollution control efforts is critical if this national health objective is to be achieved. To characterize public health information activities related to air pollution, in 1992, the State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators (STAPPA) and the Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials (ALAPCO), with the assistance of CDC, conducted a survey of state and local air pollution control agencies. This report summarizes the findings of that survey.

  12. BIOASSAY OF COMPLEX MIXTURES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor air pollution is a complex mixture of chemicals originating from outdoor air and indoor sources. oxicology studies of these mixtures are limited by difficulties in obtaining indoor air samples or appropriately simulated exposures. he concentration of pollutants from indoor...

  13. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES FOR SHALE OIL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report consolidates, evaluates, and presents available air pollution emission data and air pollution control technology relevant to oil shale production, for use by project developers in preparing environmental impact statements and permit applications under Clean Air Act and...

  14. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  15. Dependence of urban air pollutants on meteorology.

    PubMed

    Elminir, Hamdy K

    2005-11-01

    Dependence of air pollutants on meteorology is presented with the aim of understanding the governing processes pollutants phase interaction. Intensive measurements of particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous materials (e.g., CO, NO2, SO2, and O3) are carried out regularly in 2002 at 14 measurement sites distributed over the whole territory of Great Cairo by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency to assess the characteristics of air pollutants. The discussions in this work are based upon measurements performed at Abbassiya site as a case study. The nature of the contributing sources has been investigated and some attempts have been made to indicate the role played by neighboring regions in determining the air quality at the site mentioned. The results hint that, wind direction was found to have an influence not only on pollutant concentrations but also on the correlation between pollutants. As expected, the pollutants associated with traffic were at highest ambient concentration levels when wind speed was low. At higher wind speeds, dust and sand from the surrounding desert was entrained by the wind, thus contributing to ambient particulate matter levels. We also found that, the highest average concentration for NO2 and O3 occurred at humidity

  16. [Air pollution, climate change and health].

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ferran

    2005-01-01

    Emissions into the atmosphere related to the climate change may further worsen the effects which air pollution has on the health of our citizens, not only indirectly due to the impact of weather phenomenon, but directly, due to the direct effects pollutants have on health. However, the efforts throughout most of the world have been aimed at dealing with these two problems separately for too many years. In fact, it is very often believed that the climate's health-safeguarding benefits would be achieved in the long term. To the contrary, what has become obvious over recent years is that the actions for reducing the emissions of polluting gases could redound in beneficial effects in the short term due to the reduction of the impact of air pollutants on the health of our citizens. This article presents the possible risks of the pollutants most closely related to climate changes, such as ozone and fine particles. Bearing in mind the uncertainties and unknowns related to this subject, the main implications for the policies related to this matter in Spain, as well as the needs for research are set out herein. In this regard, both from the standpoint of monitoring as well as research, it is considered necessary for an epidemiological monitoring system of the effects of air pollution and the relationship thereof to global changes to be established. PMID:15913052

  17. Impact of air pollutants on athletic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E. )

    1989-05-01

    Human controlled and observational studies both lead to the conclusion of air pollution adversely affecting athletic performance during training and competition. The dosage of various air pollutants during exercise is much higher due to the marked increase in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. This is particularly true for sulfur dioxide which is a highly water-soluble gas and is normally absorbed in the upper airway during nasal breathing. With heavy exercise, oral pharyngeal breathing is the predominant mode of breathing and much larger amounts of sulfur dioxide are delivered to the lower airway resulting in significant impact upon the lower respiratory tract. More recently, several controlled human studies have shown that a combination of exercise and air pollutants such as ozone (O3) or sulfur dioxides (SO2) cause a significant increase in bronchoconstriction and air flow obstruction when compared to the same exposure at rest. In strenuous athletic competition such as the Olympic Games where small increments of time often determine the ultimate success of athletes, the impact of air pollutants and subsequent adverse ventilatory changes can affect athletic performance. 62 references.

  18. Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A J

    2000-01-01

    In the 1950s evidence of an ongoing epidemic of lung cancer in the United States and Western Europe led researchers to examine the role of outdoor air pollution, which was considered by some to be a likely cause. Although epidemiologic research quickly identified the central role of cigarette smoking in this epidemic, and despite progress in reducing outdoor air pollution in Western industrialized countries, concerns that ambient air pollution is causing lung cancer have persisted to the present day. This concern is based on the fact that known carcinogens continue to be released into outdoor air from industrial sources, power plants, and motor vehicles, and on a body of epidemiologic research that provides some evidence for an association between outdoor air pollution and lung cancer. This article reviews the epidemiologic evidence for this association and discusses the limitations of current studies for estimating the lung cancer risk in the general population. It also identifies research needs and suggests possible approaches to addressing outstanding questions. PMID:10931793

  19. Characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China: Comparison of three air quality indices.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Wang, Yungang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-11-01

    Multi-pollutant air pollution (i.e., several pollutants reaching very high concentrations simultaneously) frequently occurs in many regions across China. Air quality index (AQI) is used worldwide to inform the public about levels of air pollution and associated health risks. The current AQI approach used in China is based on the maximum value of individual pollutants, and does not consider the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants. In this study, two novel alternative indices--aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI)--were calculated based on data collected in six megacities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shjiazhuang, Xi'an, and Wuhan) during 2013 to 2014. Both AAQI and HAQI take into account the combined health effects of various pollutants, and the HAQI considers the exposure (or concentration)-response relationships of pollutants. AAQI and HAQI were compared to AQI to examine the effectiveness of the current AQI in characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China. The AAQI and HAQI values are higher than the AQI on days when two or more pollutants simultaneously exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) 24-hour Grade II standards. The results of the comparison of the classification of risk categories based on the three indices indicate that the current AQI approach underestimates the severity of health risk associated with exposure to multi-pollutant air pollution. For the AQI-based risk category of 'unhealthy', 96% and 80% of the days would be 'very unhealthy' or 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively; and for the AQI-based risk category of 'very unhealthy', 67% and 75% of the days would be 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively. The results suggest that the general public, especially sensitive population groups such as children and the elderly, should take more stringent actions than those currently suggested based on the AQI approach during

  20. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution and the risk of lung cancer among participants of the Canadian National Breast Screening Study.

    PubMed

    Tomczak, Anna; Miller, Anthony B; Weichenthal, Scott A; To, Teresa; Wall, Claus; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Crouse, Dan Lawson; Villeneuve, Paul J

    2016-11-01

    Recently, air pollution has been classified as a carcinogen largely on the evidence of epidemiological studies of lung cancer. However, there have been few prospective studies that have evaluated associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and cancer at lower concentrations. We conducted a prospective analysis of 89,234 women enrolled in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study between 1980 and 1985, and for whom residential measures of PM2.5 could be assigned. The cohort was linked to the Canadian Cancer Registry to identify incident lung cancers through 2004. Surface PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using satellite data. Cox proportional hazards models were used to characterize associations between PM2.5 and lung cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) computed from these models were adjusted for several individual-level characteristics, including smoking. The cohort was composed predominantly of Canadian-born (82%), married (80%) women with a median PM2.5 exposure of 9.1 µg/m(3) . In total, 932 participants developed lung cancer. In fully adjusted models, a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer (HR: 1.34; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.65). The strongest associations were observed with small cell carcinoma (HR: 1.53; 95% CI = 0.93, 2.53) and adenocarcinoma (HR: 1.44; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.97). Stratified analyses suggested increased PM2.5 risks were limited to those who smoked cigarettes. Our findings are consistent with previous epidemiological investigations of long-term exposure to PM2.5 and lung cancer. Importantly, they suggest associations persist at lower concentrations such as those currently found in Canadian cities. PMID:27380650

  1. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan... pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not provide complete... District (SCAQMD). (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey Bay Unified...

  2. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan... pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not provide complete... District (SCAQMD). (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey Bay Unified...

  3. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan... pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not provide complete... District (SCAQMD). (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey Bay Unified...

  4. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan... pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not provide complete... District (SCAQMD). (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey Bay Unified...

  5. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan... pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not provide complete... District (SCAQMD). (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey Bay Unified...

  6. Projection of hazardous air pollutant emissions to future years.

    PubMed

    Strum, Madeleine; Cook, Rich; Thurman, James; Ensley, Darrell; Pope, Anne; Palma, Ted; Mason, Richard; Michaels, Harvey; Shedd, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    Projecting a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventory to future years can provide valuable information for air quality management activities such as prediction of program successes and helping to assess future priorities. We have projected the 1999 National Emission Inventory for HAPs to numerous future years up to 2020 using the following tools and data: the Emissions Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants (EMS-HAP), the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM), emission reduction information resulting from national standards and economic growth data. This paper discusses these projection tools, the underlying data, limitations and the results. The results presented include total HAP emissions (sum of pollutants) and toxicity-weighted HAP emissions for cancer and respiratory noncancer effects. Weighting emissions by toxicity does not consider fate, transport, or location and behavior of receptor populations and can only be used to estimate relative risks of direct emissions. We show these projections, along with historical emission trends. The data show that stationary source programs under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and mobile source programs which reduce hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions, as well as toxic emission performance standards for reformulated gasoline, have contributed to and are expected to continue to contribute to large declines in air toxics emissions, in spite of economic and population growth. We have also analyzed the particular HAPs that dominate the source sectors to better understand the historical and future year trends and the differences across sectors. PMID:16448686

  7. Experience with urban air pollution in Paterson, New Jersey and implications for air pollution communication.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2012-01-01

    Communication about air pollution can help reduce health risks, but a scattered, largely qualitative literature on air pollution beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors raises questions about its effectiveness. A telephone survey of Paterson, New Jersey (USA) residents tested four hypotheses aimed toward integrating these findings. Self-reported sheltering indoors during high pollution, the recommended strategy, was predicted by perceived air quality and self-reported "sensitivity" to air pollution. Nearly a quarter of the sample reported mandatory outdoor activity (e.g., work) that might increase their exposures, but this factor did not significantly affect self-reported sheltering. Perceptions of air quality did not correlate strongly with official monitoring data (U.S. Air Quality Index (AQI)); even people who regularly sought AQI data relied upon sensory cues to high pollution, and secondarily upon health cues. Use of sensory and health cues, definitions of what makes someone sensitive to air pollution, and (less strongly) definitions of vulnerability to air pollution varied widely. The minority aware of the AQI were more likely to seek it if they had illnesses or saw themselves in the targeted AQI audience, yet less likely if they believed themselves sensitive to pollution. However, their sense of the AQI's match to their own experience was driven by whether they used sensory (yes) or health (no) cues, not by illness status. Some urban residents might not have access to AQI data, but this barrier seems outweighed by need to bridge interpretive gaps over definitions of air pollution, sensory perception, vulnerability, and health consequences. PMID:21883333

  8. Health impact of air pollution to children.

    PubMed

    Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Dostal, Miroslav; Merkerova-Dostalova, Michaela; Libalova, Helena; Milcova, Alena; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Schmuczerova, Jana; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavova, Hana

    2013-08-01

    Health impact of air pollution to children was studied over the last twenty years in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during. The research program (Teplice Program) analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Study of pregnancy outcomes for newborns delivered between 1994 and 1998 demonstrated that increase in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with PM10 and c-PAHs exposure (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first month of gestation. Morbidity was followed in the cohort of newborns (N=1492) up to the age of 10years. Coal combustion in homes was associated with increased incidence of lower respiratory track illness and impaired early childhood skeletal growth up to the age of 3years. In preschool children, we observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs on development of bronchitis. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is characterized by high concentrations of c-PAHs due to industrial air pollution. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in the EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct molecular phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, two locations with different levels of pollution in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were also elevated in cord blood in Ceske Budejovice in comparison to Prague. Study of gene expression profiles in the cord blood showed

  9. [Polluting agents and sources of urban air pollution].

    PubMed

    Cocheo, V

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an up-to-date review of the scientific evidence on mechanisms of pollutant generation and health effects for a number of urban air pollutants. The review focuses on main sources and health effect of ozone and photochemical smog, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. These agents are "priority pollutants", generated by vehicle traffic, and their regulation is currently being examined by the European Council and the European Commission. The aim is to reach, by the year 2010, values lower than 180 micrograms/m3 for ozone as maximum hourly concentration, 2.5 micrograms/m3 for benzene as an annual average, 93 micrograms/m3 for nitrogen dioxide as 98 degrees percentile of hourly concentrations, 50 micrograms/m3 for particulate as a daily average. The goal can be achieved only by means of immediate interventions on emissions. PMID:11293295

  10. EVALUATING SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. mission factors developed in test chambers can be use...

  11. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  12. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

  13. HARVARD'S INDOOR AIR POLLUTION/HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...

  14. HANDBOOK: CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual is a revision of the first (1986) edition of the Handbook: Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants, which incorporated information from numerous sources into a single, self-contained reference source focusing on the design and cost of VOC and partic...

  15. Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

  16. PUBLICATIONS - AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (APPCD)publishes highly scientific and technical information developed through its four research branches. A list of key publications produced by the individual branches can be viewed by visiting the website for the respective bra...

  17. COLD REGIONS AIR POLLUTION: BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Through a series of workshops on cold climate environmental research priorities, conducted in 1982 by Battelle for the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy, air pollution was identified as the topic of highest priority. The current state of knowledge on ai...

  18. Air pollution control at a DOE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Curn, B.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium production program Produced some of the greatest scientific and engineering accomplishments of all time. It is remarkable to consider the accomplishments of the Manhattan Project. The Reactor on the Hanford Site, the first production reactor in the world, began operation only 13 months after the start of construction. The DOE nuclear production program was also instrumental in pioneering other fields such as health physics an radiation monitoring. The safety record of these installations is remarkable considering that virtually every significant accomplishment was on the technological threshold of the time. One other area that the DOE Facilities pioneered was the control of radioactive particles and gases emitted to the atmosphere. The high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) was a development that provided high collection efficiencies of particulates to protect workers and the public. The halogen and noble gases also were of particular concern. Radioactive iodine is captured by adsorption on activated carbon or synthetic zeolites. Besides controlling radioncuclide air pollution, DOE facilities are concerned with other criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutant emissions. The Hanford Site encompasses all those air pollution challenges.

  19. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: HEAT EMISSION INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), a heat emission inventory has been assembled. Heat emissions to the atmosphere originate, directly or indirectly, from the combustion of fossil fuels (there are no nuclear plants in the St. Louis AQCR). With the except...

  20. Changing the Paradigm of Air Pollution Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, approaches for monitoring air pollution generally use expensive, complex, stationary equipment,1,2 which limits who collects data, why data are collected, and how data are accessed. This paradigm is changing with the materialization of lower-cost, easy-to...

  1. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  2. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  3. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  4. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  5. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  6. Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

  7. Exposure measurement for air-pollution epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, B.G.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.

    1988-08-01

    The chapter describes the evolution of air-pollution epidemiology over a period when changes in pollution technologies have both lowered total exposures and dispersed them over vastly greater areas. Since personal exposure and microenvironmental measurements are expensive, studies oriented toward measurements of total exposure will be smaller and more intensive. The shift in emphasis to total human exposure also will affect health risk assessment and raise difficult issues in the regulatory domain. Considering that outdoor exposures (for which EPA has a regulatory mandate) occur in the context of exposures from other sources, the potential effect of regulatory action would probably be small. The regulatory issues are even more difficult for particulate air pollution since cigarette smoking is the strongest determinant of indoor levels but the EPA lacks regulatory responsibility for cigarette smoke.

  8. Air pollution, acid rain and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mellanby, K.

    1988-01-01

    This book reports on the Watt Committee's working group on acid rain, which was set up in 1981. The authors consider the relationship between natural and the man-made factors and the effects of possible remedial strategies. In the first phase of the study, the group looked at the fate of airborne pollution, vegetation and soils, freshwater and remedial strategy. In this report, which contains the results of a further phase of study, these topics are included and have been brought up to date. The scope of the report is extended to include buildings and non-living materials. Consideration is given to the problem of acid rain and air pollution worldwide. Emphasis is placed on the United Kingdom. The main conclusion is that more research is necessary on some aspects of acid rain and air pollution, but that some of the reports widespread damage caused by acid rain cannot be confirmed.

  9. Assessment of socioeconomic costs to China's air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yang; Guan, Dabo; Jiang, Xujia; Peng, Liqun; Schroeder, Heike; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Particulate air pollution has had a significant impact on human health in China and it is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and high mortality and morbidity. These health impacts could be translated to reduced labor availability and time. This paper utilized a supply-driven input-output (I-O) model to estimate the monetary value of total output losses resulting from reduced working time caused by diseases related to air pollution across 30 Chinese provinces in 2007. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution was used as an indicator to assess impacts to health caused by air pollution. The developed I-O model is able to capture both direct economic costs and indirect cascading effects throughout inter-regional production supply chains and the indirect effects greatly outnumber the direct effects in most Chinese provinces. Our results show the total economic losses of 346.26 billion Yuan (approximately 1.1% of the national GDP) based on the number of affected Chinese employees (72 million out of a total labor population of 712 million) whose work time in years was reduced because of mortality, hospital admissions and outpatient visits due to diseases resulting from PM2.5 air pollution in 2007. The loss is almost the annual GDP of Vietnam in 2010. The proposed modelling approach provides an alternative method for health-cost measurement with additional insights on inter-industrial and inter-regional linkages along production supply chains.

  10. Air pollutants targeted by radiocarbon dating

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    Chemists at the Commerce Department's National Bureau of Standards (NBS) are answering questions about where certain atmospheric contaminants originate by refining a method best known for determining the age of archeological objects. Called radiocarbon dating, the method allows NBS scientists to examine air samples and determine whether contaminants come from naturally occurring or manmade sources-or a combination of the two. Making these distinctions is important to federal and state environmental agencies, which identify industrial sources of pollution for regulatory action. An overbalance of atmospheric carbon can cause a number of environmental problems. In methane's case, high levels are of concern to environmental agencies because of greenhouse properties. Methane also has been implicated as a possible contributor to changes in the ozone layer that protects the Earth from excessive ultraviolet light. Levels of methane have been increasing at an annual rate of about one percent over the last decade. This has caused concern in the environmental community, which hopes to determine just where the elevated levels are coming from. The NBS research is aimed at definitively pinpointing sources of methane and other atmospheric contaminants.

  11. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D.

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test-house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. Emission factors developed in test chambers can be used to evaluate full-scale indoor environments. A PC-based IAQ model has been developed that can accurately predict indoor concentrations of specific pollutants under controlled conditions in a test house. The model is also useful in examining the effect of pollutant sinks and variations in ventilation parameters. Pollutants were examined from: (1) para-dichloro-benzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and, (2) particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. However, the approach has not been validated for other source types, including solvent based materials and aerosol products.

  12. Long-memory property in air pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelani, Asha

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper, long-memory in air pollutant concentrations is reviewed and outcome of the past studies is analyzed to provide the possible mechanism behind temporal evolution of air pollutant concentrations. It is observed that almost all the studies show air pollutant concentrations over time possess persistence up to a certain limit. Self-organized criticality of air pollution, multiplicative process of pollutant concentrations, and uniformity in emission sources leading to self-organized criticality are few of the phenomena behind the persistent property of air pollutant concentrations. The self-organized criticality of air pollution is linked to atmosphere's self-cleansing mechanism. This demonstrates that inspite of increasing anthropogenic emissions, self-organized criticality of air pollution is sustained and has low influence of human interventions. In the future, this property may, however, be perturbed due to continuous air pollution emissions, which may influence the accuracy in predictions.

  13. Air pollution and stroke - an overview of the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Air pollution is being increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for stroke. There are numerous sources of air pollution including industry, road transport and domestic use of biomass and solid fuels. Early reports of the association between air pollution and stroke come from studies investigating health effects of severe pollution episodes. Several daily time series and case-crossover studies have reported associations with stroke. There is also evidence linking chronic air pollution exposure with stroke and with reduced survival after stroke. A conceptual framework linking air pollution exposure and stroke is proposed. It links acute and chronic exposure to air pollution with pathways to acute and chronic effects on stroke risk. Current evidence regarding potential mechanisms mainly relate to particulate air pollution. Whilst further evidence would be useful, there is already sufficient evidence to support consideration of reduction in air pollution as a preventative measure to reduce the stroke burden globally. PMID:27494962

  14. Air pollution modifies floral scent trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFrederick, Quinn S.; Kathilankal, James C.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    Floral hydrocarbons provide essential signals to attract pollinators. As soon as they are emitted to the atmosphere, however, hydrocarbons are destroyed by chemical reactions involving pollutants such as ozone. It is therefore likely that increased air pollution interferes with pollinator attracting hydrocarbon signals. To test this hypothesis, a Lagrangian diffusion model was used to determine the position of air parcels away from hydrocarbon sources and to estimate the rate of chemical destruction of hydrocarbons as air parcels moved across the landscape. The hydrocarbon compounds linalool, β-myrcene, and β-ocimene were chosen because they are known to be common scents released from flowers. The suppressed ambient abundances of volatile organic compounds were determined in response to increased regional levels of ozone, hydroxyl, and nitrate radicals. The results indicate that the documented increases in air pollution concentrations, from pre-industrial to present times, can lead to reductions in volatile compound concentrations insects detect as they pollinate flowers. For highly reactive volatiles the maximum downwind distance from the source at which pollinators can detect the scents may have changed from kilometers during pre-industrial times to <200 m during the more polluted conditions of present times. The increased destruction of floral signals in polluted air masses may have important implications for both pollinators and signaling plants. When patches of flowers are further apart than the visual range of pollinators, such as in fragmented landscapes, the loss of scent signals may mean that pollinators spend more time searching for patches and less time foraging. This decrease in pollinator foraging efficiency will simultaneously decrease the pollinator's reproductive output and the amount of pollen flow in flowering plants.

  15. Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S.

    1995-09-01

    The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the US, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O{sub 3}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), particulate matter (PM), NO{sub x}, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the US EPA with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} PM, and NO{sub 2}, and are therefore at risk. High SO{sub 2} and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO{sub 2}. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO{sub 2} develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to Pm is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM{sub 10} levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. 106 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Respiratory effects of air pollution on children.

    PubMed

    Goldizen, Fiona C; Sly, Peter D; Knibbs, Luke D

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the global burden of disease is directly or indirectly attributable to exposure to air pollution. Exposures occurring during the periods of organogenesis and rapid lung growth during fetal development and early post-natal life are especially damaging. In this State of the Art review, we discuss air toxicants impacting on children's respiratory health, routes of exposure with an emphasis on unique pathways relevant to young children, methods of exposure assessment and their limitations and the adverse health consequences of exposures. Finally, we point out gaps in knowledge and research needs in this area. A greater understanding of the adverse health consequences of exposure to air pollution in early life is required to encourage policy makers to reduce such exposures and improve human health. PMID:26207724

  17. Temporal variability of air-pollutants over Abu Dhabi, UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedira, H.; Ben Romdhane, H.; Beegum S, N.

    2013-12-01

    Air quality, the measure of the concentrations of gaseous pollutants and size or number of particulate matter, is one of the most important problems worldwide and has strong implications on human health, ecosystems, as well as regional and global climate. The levels of air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulate matters (PM10, PM2.5), Ozone (O3), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), etc. show an alarming increase in urban cities across the world and in many cases, the concentrations have grown well above the World Health Organization's guidelines for ambient air-quality standards. Here, we present the periodic fluctuations observed in the concentrations of air pollutants such as SO2, NO2, O3, CO, H2S, NMHC (Non methane Hydro Carbon) and VOC (volatile organic compounds) based on the measurements collected during the period 2008-2010 at Masdar City, Abu Dhabi (24.42oN, 54.61oE, 7m MSL). The measurements were carried out using an Air Quality Monitoring System (AQM60). All these pollutant species showed statistical periodic: diurnal, monthly, seasonal and annual variations. Diurnally, all the species, except ozone, depicted an afternoon low and nighttime/early morning high, attributed to the dynamics of the local atmospheric boundary layer. Whereas, an opposite pattern with daytime high and nighttime low was observed for O3, as the species is formed in the troposphere by catalytic photochemical reactions of NOx with CO, CH4 and other VOCs. Seasonally, the pollutants depicted higher values during summer and relatively lower values during winter, associated with changes in synoptic airmass types and/or removal processes. Concentrations of all the gaseous pollutants are within the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) throughout the year, whereas the PM10 often exceeded the limits, especially during dust storm episodes.

  18. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV,...

  20. RESEARCH AREA -- MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The municipal waste combustion (MWC) program supports the development of revised rules for air pollutant emissions from the MWC source category. Basic research is performed on MWC pollutant formation and control mechanisms for acid gas, trace organic, and trace metal emissions. T...

  1. Good manufacturing practice for modelling air pollution: Quality criteria for computer models to calculate air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, C. M.; Sliggers, C. J.

    To spur on quality assurance for models that calculate air pollution, quality criteria for such models have been formulated. By satisfying these criteria the developers of these models and producers of the software packages in this field can assure and account for the quality of their products. In this way critics and users of such (computer) models can gain a clear understanding of the quality of the model. Quality criteria have been formulated for the development of mathematical models, for their programming—including user-friendliness, and for the after-sales service, which is part of the distribution of such software packages. The criteria have been introduced into national and international frameworks to obtain standardization.

  2. Association between traffic-related air pollution and asthma in preschool children in a national Japanese nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Hasunuma, Hideki; Sato, Tosiya; Iwata, Tsutomu; Kohno, Yoichi; Nitta, Hiroshi; Odajima, Hiroshi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Omori, Takashi; Ono, Masaji; Yamazaki, Shin; Shima, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There has been little study on the effect of traffic-related air pollution on the incidence and persistence of asthma in preschool children. We evaluated the association of exposure to traffic-related air pollution with the incidence/persistence of asthma during the first 3 years of life using a population-based study. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in 1½-year-old children (n=63 266). A follow-up survey at 3 years of age (n=43 343) identified new-onset asthma cases (n=853) and persistence of asthma (n=214). In the prevalence/persistence study, the outdoor concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC) at home during the first 1½ years of life were estimated by a dispersion model. In the nested case–control study, which regarded incidence of asthma as cases, the personal exposure levels were estimated by dispersion model including time-activity pattern. Results There was no statistically significant association between the incidence of asthma between age 1½ and 3 years and personal exposure levels to NOx nor EC. However, the persistence of asthmatic symptoms (between 1½ and 3 years) was significantly associated with outdoor concentrations of NOx. ORs for the persistence of asthmatic symptoms were 6.02 (95% CI 1.51 to 23.92) for the comparison between the upper 5th and lower 25th centiles of NOx. Conclusions While no statistically significant association was observed for the incidence of asthma, the persistence of asthmatic symptoms in preschool children was significantly associated with traffic-related air pollution. This supports its importance as a risk factor in childhood airway disease. PMID:26916696

  3. Air pollution and congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Friger, Michael; Linn, Shai; Peled, Ammatzia; Amitai, Yona; Peretz, Chava

    2013-07-01

    Environmental factors such as ambient air pollution have been associated with congenital heart defects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational exposure to air pollution and the risk of congenital heart defects. We conducted a registry-based cohort study with a total of 135,527 live- and still-births in the Tel-Aviv region during 2000-2006. We used a Geographic Information System-based spatiotemporal approach with weekly inverse distance weighting modeling to evaluate associations between gestational exposure to ambient air pollution during weeks 3-8 of pregnancy and the risk for congenital heart defects. The following pollutants were studied: carbon monoxide, nitrogen-dioxide, ozone, sulfur-dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm and 2.5 μm (PM10, PM2.5 respectively). Logistic models, adjusted for socio-demographic covariates were used to evaluate the associations. We found that maternal exposure to increased concentrations of PM10 was associated with multiple congenital heart defects (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10 for 10 μg/m(3) increment). An inverse association was observed between concentrations of PM2.5 and isolated patent ductus arteriosus (adjusted OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.91 for 5 µg/m(3) increment). Sensitivity analyses showed that results were consistent. Generally there were no evidence for an association between gaseous air pollutants and congenital heart defects.Our results for PM10 and congenital heart defects confirm results from previous studies. The results for PM2.5 need further investigations. PMID:23623715

  4. Chemiluminescent detection of organic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Chen, Yu-Harn

    1996-04-01

    Chemiluminescent reactions can be used for specific and highly sensitive detection of a number of air pollutants. Among these are chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with NO or organics and reactions of luminol with a variety of oxidants. Reported here are studies exploring (1) the use of the temperature dependence of the chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with organic pollutants as a means of differentiating types of hydrocarbon classes and (2) the use of luminol techniques to monitor atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and organic oxidants, specifically peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). Coupling gas chromatography to the chemiluminescent detectors allows the measurement of individual species at very low concentrations.

  5. Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) PM 2.5 speciation program: Methodology and PM 2.5 chemical composition for the years 2003-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Dann, Tom F.; Kalyani Martinelango, P.; Celo, Valbona; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Mathieu, David; Ding, Luyi; Austin, Claire C.

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network, monitoring criteria gases (CO, O 3, NO x, and SO 2), PM 2.5, PM 10, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and particle chemical mass and composition, has been in operation for over 40 years. Since 1984 both fine (<2.5 μm - PM 2.5) and coarse (2.5-10 μm - PM 10-2.5) particle mass measurements have been made at NAPS network sites using dichotomous samplers. In January 2003, the NAPS PM 2.5 speciation program was initiated with the purpose of measuring all major components of PM 2.5, including ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, metals, and organic and elemental carbon. The present paper describes the improved sampling (e.g. Teflon/Nylon filter packs for nitrate loss, and an active blank for each and every sample in the determination of positive organic carbon artifacts), and analytical methods used in the Canadian NAPS PM 2.5 speciation program. A detailed dataset was then analyzed for seasonal and geographical variations in the major components of 24-h time integrated PM 2.5 samples collected at eight urban and three rural measurement sites across Canada (2003-2008). Chemical mass reconstruction was used for assessment of the adequacy of selected sampling and chemical parameters as well as for the determination of the relative contributions of different compound classes to PM 2.5 mass. The highest frequency of PM 2.5 episodes exceeding 30 μg m -3 were observed in Ontario and southern Quebec. In general, the most important contributions to PM 2.5 mass were secondary aerosol sulphate and nitrate (38-63% for western sites and 3-44% for eastern sites), depending on the season. Organic matter (OM) was found to be the second most important component (21-45%), while particle-bound water (PBW) accounted for 6-12% of the PM 2.5 mass. Golden B.C. was an exception, exhibiting high levels of OM (60-70%) and low levels of PBW (˜3%).

  6. Monitoring of fine particle air pollutants at FWS Class 1 air quality areas

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, E.

    1995-12-31

    Fine particle samplers have been installed at five FWS wilderness areas, all Class 1 air quality areas. The samplers are designed primarily to measure the fine particles in ambient air responsible for visibility impairment and are part of the national IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) network. Filters in the samplers are analyzed for trace elements, soil elements, sulfur, hydrogen, nitrate, chloride, organic carbon, and inorganic carbon. Several composite parameters are derived from the measured parameters and include sulfate, nitrate, organic mass, light-absorbing carbon, and soil. Data indicate that fine particle concentrations at FWS sites are consistent with geographical trends observed in the national IMPROVE network. For instance, concentrations of most parameters are higher in the eastern US than in the western US, reflecting the pattern or greater air pollution and lower visibility in the east. Of the five FWS sites, Brigantine Wilderness Area experiences the greatest air pollution, receiving polluted air masses from the Ohio Valley and eastern metropolitan areas, including Philadelphia and Washington, DC. As the data record lengthens, attributing air pollution and visibility impairment at the wilderness areas to specific source types and regions will be more accurate.

  7. PHYSICAL AND ECONOMIC DAMAGE FUNCTIONS FOR AIR POLLUTANTS BY RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is primarily concerned with evaluating regional economic damages to human health, material, and vegetation and of property soiling resulting from air pollution. This study represents a step forward in methodological development of air pollution damage estimation. It at...

  8. THE STATUS OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous research projects have examined the occurrences of air pollution in outdoor and workplace environments. A smaller, newer body of research has examined air pollution in nonworkplace, indoor environments. A new emphasis on measures to conserve energy in buildings, curbing ...

  9. Cheap Face Masks Little Help Against Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... News) -- Inexpensive cloth masks offer little protection against air pollution, a new study suggests. Many people in Asia ... or washable cloth masks to protect against small air pollution particles. But tests on different types of masks ...

  10. As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160914.html As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution To minimize exposure, researchers recommend shutting windows and ... Doing so can reduce your exposure to toxic air pollution from a traffic jam by up to 76 ...

  11. THE NOAA - EPA NATIONAL AIR QUALITY FORECASTING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building upon decades of collaboration in air pollution meteorology research, in 2003 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) signed formal partnership agreements to develop and implement an operationa...

  12. Air Pollution Determination Using a Surveillance Internet Protocol Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow Jeng, C. J.; Hwee San, Hslim; Matjafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, Abdul, K.

    Air pollution has long been a problem in the industrial nations of the West It has now become an increasing source of environmental degradation in the developing nations of east Asia Malaysia government has built a network to monitor air pollution But the cost of these networks is high and limits the knowledge of pollutant concentration to specific points of the cities A methodology based on a surveillance internet protocol IP camera for the determination air pollution concentrations was presented in this study The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of using IP camera data for estimating real time particulate matter of size less than 10 micron PM10 in the campus of USM The proposed PM10 retrieval algorithm derived from the atmospheric optical properties was employed in the present study In situ data sets of PM10 measurements and sun radiation measurements at the ground surface were collected simultaneously with the IP camera images using a DustTrak meter and a handheld spectroradiometer respectively The digital images were separated into three bands namely red green and blue bands for multispectral algorithm calibration The digital number DN of the IP camera images were converted into radiance and reflectance values After that the reflectance recorded by the digital camera was subtracted by the reflectance of the known surface and we obtained the reflectance caused by the atmospheric components The atmospheric reflectance values were used for regression analysis Regression technique was employed to determine suitable

  13. Air Pollution and Health: Bridging the Gap from Sources to Health Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six principal air pollutants (“criteria” pollutants): carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM) in two size ranges [...

  14. THE EFFECT OF AIR POLLUTION ON INNER-CITY CHILDREN WITH ASTHMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of daily ambient air pollution was examined within a cohort of 846 asthmatic children residing in eight urban areas of the USA, using data from the National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study. Daily air pollution concentrations were extracted from the Aerometric Infor...

  15. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274.926 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean...

  16. Basic mechanisms for adverse cardiovascular events associated with air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a significant cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the epidemiologic association between air pollution exposures and exacerbation of cardiovascular disease is well established, the mechanisms by which these exposures promote cardiovascular disease are incompletely understood. In this review I will give an overview of the components of air pollution, an overview of the cardiovascular effects of air pollution exposure and a review of the basic mechanisms that are activated by exposure to promote cardiovascular disease. PMID:25552258

  17. VALMET-A valley air pollution model

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

  18. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  19. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  20. Effects of particulate air pollution on asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, G.B.; Chai, H.; Dickey, D.W.; Jones, R.H.; Kinsman, R.A.; Morrill, C.G.; Spector, S.L.; Weiser, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four asthmatic subjects in Denver were followed from January through March 1979, a three-month period in which Denver air pollution levels are generally high and variable. Dichotomous, virtual impactor samplers provided daily measurements (micrograms/m3) of inhaled particulate matter (total mass, sulfates, and nitrates) for coarse (2.5--15 micrograms in aerodynamic diameter) and fine fractions (less than 2.5 micrometers). Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, temperature, and barometric pressure were also measured. Twice daily measurements of each subject's peak expiratory flow rates, use of as-needed aerosolized bronchodilators, and report of airways obstruction symptoms characteristic of asthma were tested for relationships to air pollutants using a random effects model across subjects. During the time actually observed, there were very few days in which high levels of suspended particulates were recorded. Of the environmental variables studied, only fine nitrates were associated with increased symptom reports and increased aerosolized bronchodilator usage.

  1. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  2. A REVIEW OF AIR POLLUTANT DAMAGE TO MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Report prepared as U.S. contribution to Panel 3 of NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society Pilot Study on Air Pollution Control Strategies and Impact Modeling. Panel 3 focuses on air pollutant impact and will publish 4 reports on air pollutants effects; this is the first i...

  3. A review of methods for predicting air pollution dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, J. J., Jr.; Grose, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Air pollution modeling, and problem areas in air pollution dispersion modeling were surveyed. Emission source inventory, meteorological data, and turbulent diffusion are discussed in terms of developing a dispersion model. Existing mathematical models of urban air pollution, and highway and airport models are discussed along with their limitations. Recommendations for improving modeling capabilities are included.

  4. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  5. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  6. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  7. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the... of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects of these...

  8. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  9. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  10. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  11. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  13. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) Between NASA Headquarters and MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) for NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Salvadore V.; Clark-Ingram, Marceia A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a memorandum of agreement on Clean Air Regulations. NASA headquarters (code JE and code M) has asked MSFC to serve as principle center for review of Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations. The purpose of the principle center is to provide centralized support to NASA headquarters for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process and to identify the potential impact of proposed CAA reguations on NASA program hardware and supporting facilities. The materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of NASA's programmatic hardware contain HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants), VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), and ODC (Ozone Depleting Chemicals). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  15. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  16. Personal exposure of children to air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmore, M. R.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.

    Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades, is challenging. This review focuses on the exposure of children, since they are a particularly sensitive group. Much of children's time is spent indoors, and childhood exposure is closely related to concentrations in the home, at school, and in transport. For this reason, children's personal exposures to air pollutants differ significantly from both those of adults and from outdoor concentrations. They depend on a range of factors, including urbanisation, energy use, building design, travel patterns, and activity profiles; analysis of these factors can identify a wider range of policy measures to reduce children's exposure than direct emission control. There is a very large variation in personal exposure between individual children, caused by differences in building design, indoor and outdoor sources, and activity patterns. Identifying groups of children with high personal exposure, and their underlying causes, is particularly important in regions of the world where emissions are increasing, but there are limited resources for environmental and health protection. Although the science of personal exposure assessment, with the associated measurement and modelling techniques, has developed to maturity in North America and western Europe over the last 50 years, there is an urgent need to apply this science in other parts of the world where the effects of air pollution are now much more serious.

  17. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  18. AIR QUALITY DATA FOR METALS 1975 FROM THE NATIONAL AIR SURVEILLANCE NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate pollutant data gathered during calendar year 1975 by the cooperating stations of the National Air Surveillance Networks provide the basis for listing the urban and nonurban concentrations of 11 metallic components of suspended particulate matter. The data are presente...

  19. Air pollution control in an age of prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    In the case of air pollution control technology, the case for pollution prevention is frequently cast as a case against pollution control technology. The errors in this argument are that pollution control technology is always the more expensive compliance option and that pollution prevention techniques exist to solve all or most of US air quality problems. A true market-based clean air policy would not contain these assumptions, would set a goal and appoint the market as the arbiter of final compliance decisions. This article discusses the market-based option and the balance needed between pollution prevention and pollution control technologies.

  20. Regional and Global Perspective of Megacity Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, G. R.; Adhikary, B.; Mena, M. A.

    2007-05-01

    Megacities are leading drivers of economic and environmental change. Fueled by high population growth and vibrant economies, energy consumption in megacities are large and growing. In Asia megacities are projected to account for ~40% of their country's GNP (gross national product) by 2030. Because fossil fuels will provide much of this energy, emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates could dramatically increase. Without strong intervention the situation will inevitably worsen. The motorization of urban environments all around the world has produced local smog in hundreds of cities. In aggregate, pollution from megacities and surrounding areas can grow to create regional and global problems. The current interest in transboundary and hemispheric transport of pollutants reflect this. The pressing environmental problems of urban pollution and climate change are closely linked megacity problems sharing common causes and solutions. The fact that air pollution problems and greenhouse gas emissions arise largely from fossil fuel combustion and the important role of aerosols in both air pollution and climate change are illustrative examples. Globally many megacities represent atmospheric brown cloud hotspots; regions with large aerosol radiative forcing of the atmosphere and surface (dimming), with annual mean surface dimming in most tropical mega cities exceeding 20 Wm-2, equivalent to reducing solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere by more than 10%. The increase in solar energy absorbed by aerosols over the atmosphere of some of these mega cities is comparable to the heat input by energy consumption. Thus in addition to contributing to regional and global climate change, the atmospheric forcing may also contribute to the urban heat island effect. In this paper the impacts of megacities on regional and global pollution are discussed, drawing upon finding from current international activities including

  1. Air Pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area. Final Report of the Stanford Workshop on Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Ned; And Others

    Presented in this compendium is the final report of the Stanford Workshop on Air Pollution, one segment of the SWOPSI Program (Stanford Workshops on Political and Social Issues). The workshop's goals were to apply the techniques of a scientific research team to Bay Area air pollution problems; to study all aspects of air pollution in detail; to…

  2. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution. PMID:26057478

  3. National air quality and emissions trends report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This document is the twenty-fourth annual report documenting air pollution trends in the United States. While in recent years this report has widened its scope to include air pollution topics such as acid rain, visibility, and air toxics, its focus remains on those pollutants for which the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Primary standards are designed to protect public health, including sensitive populations such as children and the elderly, while secondary standards protect public welfare, such as the effects of air pollution on vegetation, materials, and visibility. There are six criteria pollutants with primary standards: carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), and sulfur dioxide (SO2).

  4. Association between Air Pollution and Hemoptysis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Olive, Ignasi; Radua, Joaquim; Fiz, Jose Antonio; Sanz-Santos, Jose; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relationship between air pollution and exacerbation of respiratory diseases is well established. Nevertheless, its association with hemoptysis has been poorly investigated. This paper describes the relationship of air pollutants with severe hemoptysis. Methods. All consecutive subjects with severe hemoptysis during a 5-year period were included. The relationship between the contamination measurements and the frequency of embolizations was analyzed using Poisson regressions. In these regressions, the dependent variable was the monthly number of embolizations in a given month and the independent variable was either the concentration of an air contaminant during the same month, the concentration of the air contaminant during the previous month, or the difference between the two. Results. A higher total number of embolizations per month were observed over the months with increases in the concentration of NO. The number of embolizations was 2.0 in the 33 months with no increases in the concentration of NO, 2.1 in the 12 months with small increases, 2.2 in the 5 months with moderate increases, 2.5 in the 4 months with large increases, and 4.0 in the 5 months with very large increases. Conclusion. There is association between hemoptysis and increases in the concentration of atmospheric NO in Badalona (Spain). PMID:27445569

  5. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Bønløkke, Jakob; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution. PMID:23762084

  6. [Air pollution in the vicinity of streets].

    PubMed

    Wanner, H U; Deuber, A; Satish, J; Meier, M; Sommer, H

    1976-01-01

    Air samples were collected in plastic bags simultaneously at various measuring points in the close range of streets. When examining the various bag materials, Teflon bags showed the smallest deviations in direct analyses and in analyses of up to two hours after the drawing of samples. The following methods were used for the analysis of the air samples collected in the bags: coulometry for CO and SO2, chemiluminescence for NO/NO2, chromotrophic acid for CH2O and flame ionization for hydrocarbons. The various components were measured close to a highway and near streets in residential and business areas. The simultaneously drawn samples showed a marked dependence on traffic frequency, type of built-up area along the streets as well as meteorological conditions. An opinion survey among adjacent residents on annoyance caused by air pollution and noise resulted in distinct differences between the sections with different traffic intensity. PMID:997954

  7. Corruption and air pollution in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how the effectiveness of regulatory framework influences levels of sulphur emissions in a scenario where, to reduce its (emission-) tax payments, a polluting firm may under-report emissions level at the risk of being audited and fined. First, a model to explain how changes in regulatory framework (e.g., audit effectiveness) and transboundary spillovers affect both actual and reported emissions is developed. Then the theoretical predictions using data for 39 European countries from 1999 to 2003 are tested and inferences about true emission levels are made. The empirical analysis supports the theoretical predictions with significant implications for the interpretation of pollution data reported to international monitoring agencies. Countries with effective regulation are likely to have relatively high reported emissions of sulphur. But this should not automatically be interpreted as weak environmental performance, because their actual pollution levels are likely to be lower than in nations with less effective regulation. PMID:21141644

  8. Does air pollution pose a public health problem for New Zealand?

    PubMed

    Scoggins, Amanda

    2004-02-01

    Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health and a major focus of regulatory activity in developed and developing countries. Air quality indicators suggest New Zealand has clean air relative to many other countries. However, media releases such as 'Christchurch wood fires pump out deadly smog' and 'Vehicle pollution major killer' have sparked public health concern regarding exposure to ambient air pollution, especially in anticipation of increasing emissions and population growth. Recent evidence is presented on the effects of air quality on health, which has been aided by the application of urban airshed models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Future directions for research into the effects of air quality on health in New Zealand are discussed, including a national ambient air quality management project: HAPINZ--Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand. PMID:15108741

  9. Marble weathering and air pollution in Philadelphia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, J. J.; Meierding, T. C.

    Maps of damage to marble tombstones in the urban region of Philadelphia demonstrate a close spatial correspondence with airborne pollutant concentrations. Mean recession rates on upper tombstone faces are an order of magnitude greater (3.5 mm (100a) -1) in the center of the city than they are 20 km away in the suburbs and countryside (< 0.5 mm (100a) -1). Not only are more pollutants emitted in the city, but they are also concentrated in the city center by centripetal air movement into the urban heat island. Gaseous SO 2 appears to be the most damaging pollutant, as is shown by the presence of gypsum in urban stones. Although rainfall is important in removing sulfate reaction products, anthropogenically-induced acid rain has only a minor role in marble deterioration. High urban SO 2 concentrations cause sufficient gypsum accumulation within the stones to exfoliate the durable surface layer. Old photos of tombstones in central Philadelphia cemeteries show that exfoliation greatly accelerated between 1930 and 1960, concurrent with increases in SO 2 levels. Recent improvements in air quality are likely to have slowed stone deterioration.

  10. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES FOR SETTING NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverrse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-bas...

  11. New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Khare, Mukesh; Harrison, Roy M.; Bloss, William J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Coe, Hugh; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Most major cities around the world experience periods of elevated air pollution levels, which exceed international health-based air quality standards (Kumar et al., 2013). Although it is a global problem, some of the highest air pollution levels are found in rapidly expanding cities in India and China. The sources, emissions, transformations and broad effects of meteorology on air pollution are reasonably well accounted in air quality control strategies in many developed cities; however these key factors remain poorly constrained in the growing cities of countries with emerging economies. We focus here on Delhi, one of the largest global population centres, which faces particular air pollution challenges, now and in the future.

  12. Hematological and hemorheological effects of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Baskurt, O.K.; Levi, E.; Caglayan, S.; Dikmenoglu, N.; Kutman, M.N. )

    1990-07-01

    Selected hematological parameters and erythrocyte deformability indexes for 16 young male military students were compared before and after a period of exposure to heavy pollution. These students lived in Ankara, which has a serious air pollution problem. The mean sulfur dioxide levels measured at a station proximal to the campus where the students lived were 188 micrograms/m3 and 201 micrograms/m3 during first and second measurements, respectively. During the period between the two measurements, the mean sulfur dioxide level was 292 micrograms/m3. Significant erythropoiesis was indicated by increased erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Methemoglobin percentage was increased to 2.37 +/- 0.49% (mean +/- standard error) from 0.51 +/- 0.23%. Sulfhemoglobinemia was present in six subjects after the period of pollution, but it was not present in any student prior to this period. Significant increases in erythrocyte deformability indexes were observed after the period of pollution, i.e., from 1.13 +/- 0.01 to 1.21 +/0 0.02, implying that erythrocytes were less flexible, which might impair tissue perfusion.

  13. 75 FR 18061 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... amend 30 TAC Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. These revisions consist of the... to develop air pollution regulations and control strategies to ensure that air quality meets...

  14. "What We Breathe Impacts Our Health: Improving Understanding of the Link between Air Pollution and Health".

    PubMed

    West, J Jason; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Brunekreef, Bert; Zhu, Tong; Armstrong, Ben; Bell, Michelle L; Brauer, Michael; Carmichael, Gregory; Costa, Dan L; Dockery, Douglas W; Kleeman, Michael; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Liousse, Catherine; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Martin, Randall V; Pöschl, Ulrich; Pope, C Arden; Roberts, James M; Russell, Armistead G; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2016-05-17

    Air pollution contributes to the premature deaths of millions of people each year around the world, and air quality problems are growing in many developing nations. While past policy efforts have succeeded in reducing particulate matter and trace gases in North America and Europe, adverse health effects are found at even these lower levels of air pollution. Future policy actions will benefit from improved understanding of the interactions and health effects of different chemical species and source categories. Achieving this new understanding requires air pollution scientists and engineers to work increasingly closely with health scientists. In particular, research is needed to better understand the chemical and physical properties of complex air pollutant mixtures, and to use new observations provided by satellites, advanced in situ measurement techniques, and distributed micro monitoring networks, coupled with models, to better characterize air pollution exposure for epidemiological and toxicological research, and to better quantify the effects of specific source sectors and mitigation strategies. PMID:27010639

  15. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    SciTech Connect

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  16. Rapid guide to hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Beim, H.J.; Spero, J.; Theodore, L.

    1998-12-31

    Concise and easy to use, this book brings together a wealth of hard-to-gather information in one compact pocket guide. It offers--in alphabetical order--detailed profiles of the 189 elements and compounds determined to be hazardous air pollutants by the 1990 Amendments of the Clean Air Act. The profile for each pollutant includes: fundamental identification data (CAS number, molecular formula, formula weight, synonyms); uses (primarily in the manufacture of chemicals and as a component in the manufacturing process); physical properties (such as boiling point, density, vapor pressures, color); chemical properties (such as air/water reactivity, reactivity with skin or metal, flash point, heat of combustion); health risks, including toxic exposure guidelines, toxicity data, and acute and chronic risks; hazard risks (the substance`s potential for accidents, fires, explosions, corrosion, and chemical incompatibility); exposure routes tracking the activities, environment, sources, and occupations that tend to lead to exposure; regulatory status, listing the primary laws and citations of regulated chemicals; and important additional information on symptoms, first aid, firefighting methods, protective equipment, and safe storage.

  17. Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Koren, H S

    1995-01-01

    The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated not only in the United States, but also in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the United States, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O3, sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM), NOx, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O3, SO2, PM, and NO2, and are therefore at risk. High SO2 and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO2. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO2 develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to PM is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM10 levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. Epidemiologic studies of

  18. Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford`s Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention.

  19. 76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Title I of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990'' 57 FR 13498, April 16, 1992. 5. ``Preamble, Final Rule to Implement the 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard'' 70 FR 71612; Nov. 29, 2005. 6. Letter... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed...

  20. A Critical Review of Air Pollution Index Systems in the United States and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Wayne R.; Thom, Gary C.

    1976-01-01

    An extensive survey of air pollution indices reveals great diversity in calculation and descriptor categories. This lack of uniformity creates confusion, suggests questionable technical validity, and discourages a national picture. The authors recombined indices currently in use to develop a Standardized Urban Air Quality Index for national use.…

  1. Air pollution levels and regulations in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Monarch, M.

    1986-08-01

    This report is one of a series of three prepared for the Office of Fossil Energy of the US Department of Energy. Each report deals with one county in which acid deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, has been a prominent issue of public discussion. The three countries covered in this series of reports are Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom. For each country, air pollution control regulations are trends in air quality and emissions are broadly outlined, then are compared with corresponding regulations and trends in the United States. Since acid rain is the intended field of application, the reports generally deal only with sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and total suspended particulates.

  2. Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. )

    1991-03-01

    This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

  3. Evaluating strategies to reduce urban air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, L.; Relvas, H.; Silveira, C.; Ferreira, J.; Monteiro, A.; Gama, C.; Rafael, S.; Freitas, S.; Borrego, C.; Miranda, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    During the last years, specific air quality problems have been detected in the urban area of Porto (Portugal). Both PM10 and NO2 limit values have been surpassed in several air quality monitoring stations and, following the European legislation requirements, Air Quality Plans were designed and implemented to reduce those levels. In this sense, measures to decrease PM10 and NO2 emissions have been selected, these mainly related to the traffic sector, but also regarding the industrial and residential combustion sectors. The main objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of these reduction measures with regard to the improvement of PM10 and NO2 concentration levels over the Porto urban region using a numerical modelling tool - The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). TAPM was applied over the study region, for a simulation domain of 80 × 80 km2 with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km2. The entire year of 2012 was simulated and set as the base year for the analysis of the impacts of the selected measures. Taking into account the main activity sectors, four main scenarios have been defined and simulated, with focus on: (1) hybrid cars; (2) a Low Emission Zone (LEZ); (3) fireplaces and (4) industry. The modelling results indicate that measures to reduce PM10 should be focused on residential combustion (fireplaces) and industrial activity and for NO2 the strategy should be based on the traffic sector. The implementation of all the defined scenarios will allow a total maximum reduction of 4.5% on the levels of both pollutants.

  4. Vertical Profiling of Air Pollution at RAPCD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Bowdle, David A.; Johnson, Steven; Knupp, Kevin; Gillani, Noor; Biazar, Arastoo; Mcnider, Richard T.; Burris, John

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between local and regional pollution levels occurs at the interface of the Planetary Boundary Layer and the Free Troposphere. Measuring the vertical distribution of ozone, aerosols, and winds with high temporal and vertical resolution is essential to diagnose the nature of this interchange and ultimately for accurately forecasting ozone and aerosol pollution levels. The Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery, RAPCD, was built and instrumented to address this critical issue. The ozone W DIAL lidar, Nd:YAG aerosol lidar, and 2.1 micron Doppler wind lidar, along with balloon- borne ECC ozonesondes form the core of the W C D instrumentation for addressing this problem. Instrumentation in the associated Mobile Integrated Profiling (MIPS) laboratory includes 91 5Mhz profiler, sodar, and ceilometer. The collocated Applied particle Optics and Radiometry (ApOR) laboratory hosts an FTIR along with MOUDI and optical particle counters. With MODELS-3 analysis by colleagues in the National Space Science and Technology Center on the UAH campus and the co- located National Weather Service Forecasting Office in Huntsville, AL we are developing a unique facility for advancing the state of the science of pollution forecasting.

  5. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2003-06-01

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O(x), SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts. PMID:12854685

  6. Athletic performance and urban air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R J

    1984-01-01

    Air pollution may affect athletic performance. In Los Angeles, contaminants include carbon monoxide, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, whereas in older European cities, such as Sarajevo, "reducing smog" of sulfur dioxide is the main hazard. The carbon monoxide and ozone levels expected in Los Angeles this summer could affect the athletes' performance in endurance events at the Olympic Games. Carbon monoxide may also impair psychomotor abilities, and PAN causes visual disturbances. The only likely physiologic consequence from reducing smog is an increase in the workload of the respiratory system and thus a decrease in endurance performance. While carbon monoxide has been blamed for myocardial infarctions, nitrogen oxides for pulmonary edema and sulfur dioxide for deaths due to respiratory failure, the only illnesses that are likely to be more frequent than usual among young athletes exposed to high levels of these pollutants are upper respiratory tract infections. Therapeutic tactics include the avoidance of pollution, the administration of oxygen, vitamin C and vitamin E, and general reassurance. PMID:6744156

  7. POINTS-OF-CONTACT (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APTB) Point-of-Contact page lists APTB research areas along with the name, telephone number, and e-mail address for each responsible person. APTB's research areas include NOx Control, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Municipal Waste Combustion,...

  8. RESEARCH AREA -- FLUE GAS CLEANING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL)flue gas cleaning program supports New Source Performance Standards regulations development and has fostered the development of technologies that today are considered industry standards. These include both dry and wet flue gas d...

  9. Elderly exposure to indoor air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Wolterbeek, H. T.; Almeida, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the indoor air quality in Elderly Care Centers (ECCs) in order to assess the elders' daily exposure to air pollutants. Ten ECCs hosting 384 elderly were selected in Lisbon and Loures. Firstly, a time-budget survey was created based on questionnaires applied in the studied sites. Results showed that in average elders spend 95% of their time indoors splitted between bedrooms and living-rooms. Therefore, a set of physical and chemical parameters were measured continuously during the occupancy period in these two indoor micro-environments and in the outdoor. Results showed that indoor was the main environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure living in ECCs. In the indoor, the principal micro-environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure varied between bedrooms and living-rooms depending not only on the characteristics of the ECCs but also on the pollutants. The concentrations of CO2, VOCt, O3 and PM10 exceeded the limit values predominantly due to the insufficient ventilation preconized in the studied sites.

  10. Air pollution in a city street. 1965.

    PubMed Central

    Waller, R E; Commins, B T; Lawther, P J

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of smoke, lead, and five polycyclic hydrocarbons in the air have been made in the City of London in the middle of a busy street and at two control sites. Samples were taken only throughout the daytime hours on weekdays to enable us to assess the maximum contribution made by traffic to the pollution in the street. The results showed that during these periods the air in the middle of the street contained three times as much smoke, four times as much lead, and 1.7 times as much 3:4-benzpyrene as were present in the general atmosphere as the City of London as estimated from samples taken at the control sites. One of these sites was chosen because it was only 150 feet away from the street; analyses yielded no evidence that the traffic contributed to the pollution sampled there. Sulphur dioxide concentrations were determined in the early part of the study and the results showed that traffic appeared to add little to the background level. The concentrations of lead found were below those held to be safe by many authorities. Carbon monoxide concentrations, reported in greater detail elsewhere, sometimes reached the accepted industrial maximum allowable concentration of 100 p.p.m. PMID:7691150

  11. AIR POLLUTION IN A CITY STREET

    PubMed Central

    Waller, R. E.; Commins, B. T.; Lawther, P. J.

    1965-01-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of smoke, lead, and five polycyclic hydrocarbons in the air have been made in the City of London in the middle of a busy street and at two control sites. Samples were taken only throughout the daytime hours on weekdays to enable us to assess the maximum contribution made by traffic to the pollution in the street. The results showed that during these periods the air in the middle of the street contained three times as much smoke, four times as much lead, and 1·7 times as much 3:4-benzpyrene as were present in the general atmosphere of the City of London as estimated from samples taken at the control sites. One of these sites was chosen because it was only 150 feet away from the street; analyses yielded no evidence that the traffic contributed to the pollution sampled there. Sulphur dioxide concentrations were determined in the early part of the study and the results showed that traffic appeared to add little to the background level. The concentrations of lead found were below those held to be safe by many authorities. Carbon monoxide concentrations, reported in greater detail elsewhere, sometimes reached the accepted industrial maximum allowable concentration of 100 p.p.m. PMID:14278800

  12. Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lodovici, Maura; Bigagli, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms of air pollution-induced health effects involve oxidative stress and inflammation. As a matter of fact, particulate matter (PM), especially fine (PM2.5, PM < 2.5 μm) and ultrafine (PM0.1, PM < 0.1 μm) particles, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and transition metals, are potent oxidants or able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress can trigger redox-sensitive pathways that lead to different biological processes such as inflammation and cell death. However, it does appear that the susceptibility of target organ to oxidative injury also depends upon its ability to upregulate protective scavenging systems. As vehicular traffic is known to importantly contribute to PM exposure, its intensity and quality must be strongly relevant determinants of the qualitative characteristics of PM spread in the atmosphere. Change in the composition of this PM is likely to modify its health impact. PMID:21860622

  13. Particulate matter air pollution and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2010-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM(2.5)), which is now an all-pervading element of modern-day society, is associated with heightened cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Not only can short-term PM(2.5) exposure trigger acute cardiovascular events, but longer-term exposure over years augments cardiovascular risk to an even greater extent. One biological mechanism capable of explaining this observation is that chronic exposure may promote the progression and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques. Indeed, recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between ambient PM(2.5) exposure and the presence or extent of atherosclerosis in humans. Several animal experiments have provided corroborating evidence that chronic exposures in fact do enhance the progression and perhaps vulnerability of atherosclerotic lesions. Due to the billions of people continually exposed to PM(2.5), the long-term pro-atherosclerotic effects of this ubiquitous air pollutant are likely to be of enormous and growing global public health importance. PMID:20617466

  14. Monitoring of pyrocatechol indoor air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eškinja, I.; Grabarić, Z.; Grabarić, B. S.

    Spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for monitoring of pyrocatechol (PC) indoor air pollution have been investigated. Spectrophotometric determination was performed using Fe(III) and iodine methods. The adherence to Beer's law was found in the concentration range between 0 and 12 μg ml - for iodine method at pH = 5.7 measuring absorbance at 725 nm, and in the range 0-30 μg ml - for Fe(III) method at pH = 9.5 measuring absorbance at 510 nm. The former method showed greater sensitivity than the latter one. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometric (CA) detection in flow injection analysis (FIA) using carbon paste electrode in phosphate buffer solution of pH = 6.5 was also used for pyrocatechol determination. The electrochemical methods allowed pyrocatechol quantitation in submicromolar concentration level with an overall reproducibility of ± 1%. The efficiency of pyrocatechol sampling collection was investigated at two temperatures (27 and 40°C) in water, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl solutions. Solution of 0.1 M HCl gave the best collection efficiency (95.5-98.5%). A chamber testing simulating the indoor pollution has been performed. In order to check the reliability of the proposed methods for monitoring of the indoor pyrocatechol pollution, the air in working premises with pyrocatechol released from meteorological charts during mapping and paper drying was analyzed using proposed methods. The concentration of pyrocatechol in the air during mapping was found to be 1.8 mg m -3 which is below the hygienic standard of permissible exposure of 20 mg m -3 (≈ 5 ppm). The release of pyrocatechol from the paper impregnated with pyrocatechol standing at room temperature during one year was also measured. The proposed methods can be used for indoor pyrocatechol pollution monitoring in working premises of photographic, rubber, oil and dye industries, fur and furniture dyeing and cosmetic or pharmaceutical premises where pyrocatechol and related

  15. What you can do to reduce air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The pamphlet describes some major air pollutants, their sources, and their effects on both the environment and people. It also explains the goals of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and suggests various ways of preventing air pollution regionally, locally, and individually. Phone numbers for state environmental agencies and EPA regional offices are included in the back of the pamphlet.

  16. Mercury and Air Pollution: A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The Air Pollution Technical Information Center (APTIC) of the Office of Air Programs has selected and compiled this bibliography of abstracts on mercury and air pollution. The abstracted documents are considered representative of available literature, although not all-inclusive. They are grouped into eleven categories: (1) Emission Sources, (2)…

  17. POPULATION-BASED EXPOSURE AND DOSE MODELING FOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task will address EPA's need to better understand the variability in personal exposure to air pollutants for the purpose of assessing what populations are at risk for adverse health outcomes due to air pollutant exposures. To improve our understanding of exposures to air po...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5...

  19. THE CHALLENGES OF AIR POLLUTION AND RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT (EDITORIAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act (CAA), a comprehensive federal law that regulates air pollution from stationary and mobile sources, was first passed in 1963. The act has provided the primary framework for protecting human health and the environment. The CAA divides air pollutants into "criteri...

  20. Characterizing climate change impacts on human exposures to air pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to air pollutants such as ozone (O3) have the potential to be altered by changes in climate through multiple factors that drive population exposures, including: ambient pollutant concentrations, human activity patterns, population sizes and distributions, and hous...

  1. The history of air pollution in York, England

    SciTech Connect

    Brimblecombe, P.; Bowler, C. )

    1992-12-01

    The archives of York reveal an intricate air pollution history typical of a provincial English city. Evidence survives of fragmentary attempts to regulate smoke for many centuries and by the 1700s much interest in air pollution damage to York's fine Minister. York's mod-19th Century public argued that pollution should not be a necessary part of economic progress and the local authority realized that smoke abatement was beginning to be seen as a local administrative responsibility. Inspector Jonathan Atkinson worked within the Public Health Act (1875) to assist in keeping pressure on industrial emissions, such as York's railway works. The application of national statutes was hampered by limited smoke control technology and by the early 20th Century some of the initial enthusiasm for council activity had warned. Smoke from locomotives, the Gas Works and laundries were a problem for many decades. During the early years of World War II industrial smoke was suggested as a screen from enemy bombers and smoke abatement activities virtually ceased. In the post-war ear York welcomed the Clean Air Act (1956), but was not able to complete its smokeless zoning until 1990. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  2. The Role of Air Pollutants in Initiating Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Won; Park, Surim; Lim, Chae Woong; Lee, Kyuhong

    2014-01-01

    Recent episodes of severe air pollution in eastern Asia have been reported in the scientific literature and news media. Therefore, there is growing concern about the systemic effects of air pollution on human health. Along with the other well-known harmful effects of air pollution, recently, several animal models have provided strong evidence that air pollutants can induce liver toxicity and act to accelerate liver inflammation and steatosis. This review briefly describes examples where exposure to air pollutants was involved in liver toxicity, focusing on how particulate matter (PM) or carbon black (CB) may be translocated from lung to liver and what liver diseases are closely associated with these air pollutants. PMID:25071914

  3. Transboundary air pollution in Asia: Model development and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Tracey

    2001-12-01

    This work investigates transboundary air pollution in Asia through atmospheric modeling and public policy analysis. As an example of models actively shaping environmental policy, the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe (LRTAP) is selected as a case study. The LRTAP Convention is the only mulit- lateral air pollution agreement to date, and results from the RAINS integrated assessment model were heavily used to calculate nationally differentiated emission ceilings. Atmospheric chemistry and transport are included in RAINS through the use of transfer coefficients (or ``source-receptor relationships'') relating pollutant transfer among European nations. Following past work with ATMOS to simulate sulfur species in Asia, here ATMOS is developed to include odd-nitrogen. Fitting with the linear structure of ATMOS and the emphasis on computational efficiency, a simplified chemical scheme developed for use in the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Global Chemical Transport Model (GFDL GCTM) is adopted. The method solves for the interconversions between NOx, HNO3, and PAN based on five reaction rates stored in look-up tables. ATMOS is used to calculate source-receptor relationships for Asia. Significant exchange of NOy occurs among China, North and South Korea, and Japan. On an annual average basis, China contributes 18% to Japan's total nitrate deposition, 46% to North Korea, and 26% to South Korea. Nitrate deposition is an important component of acidification (along with sulfate deposition), contributing 30-50% to the acid burden over most of Japan, and more than 50% to acid deposition in southeast Asia, where biomass burning emits high levels of NOx. In evaluating the policy-relevance of results from the ATMOS model, four factors are taken into account: the uncertainty and limitations of ATMOS, the environmental concerns facing Asia, the current status of the scientific community in relation to regional air pollution in the region, and

  4. 76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution...

  5. 76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District...

  6. Early life exposure to air pollution: how bad is it?

    PubMed

    Backes, Carl H; Nelin, Timothy; Gorr, Matthew W; Wold, Loren E

    2013-01-10

    Increasing concentrations of air pollution have been shown to contribute to an enormity of adverse health outcomes worldwide, which have been observed in clinical, epidemiological, and animal studies as well as in vitro investigations. Recently, studies have shown that air pollution can affect the developing fetus via maternal exposure, resulting in preterm birth, low birth weight, growth restriction, and potentially adverse cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes. This review will provide a summary of the harmful effects of air pollution exposure on the developing fetus and infant, and suggest potential mechanisms to limit the exposure of pregnant mothers and infants to air pollution. PMID:23164674

  7. Early Life Exposure to Air Pollution: How Bad Is It?

    PubMed Central

    Backes, Carl H.; Nelin, Timothy; Gorr, Matthew W.; Wold, Loren E.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of air pollution have been shown to contribute to an enormity of adverse health outcomes worldwide, which have been observed in clinical, epidemiological, and animal studies as well as in vitro investigations. Recently, studies have shown that air pollution can affect the developing fetus via maternal exposure, resulting in preterm birth, low birth weight, growth restriction, and potentially adverse cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes. This review will provide a summary of the harmful effects of air pollution exposure on the developing fetus and infant, and suggest potential mechanisms to limit the exposure of pregnant mothers and infants to air pollution. PMID:23164674

  8. Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, V.

    2007-12-01

    The global build up of greenhouse gases (GHGs), is the most significant environmental issue facing the planet. GHGs warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for, rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that, due to fast long range transport, air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e, aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols nucleate more cloud drops which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. While the solar heating at the surface is reduced by aerosols in ABCs, the atmospheric solar heating increases due to soot solar absorption. The net difference between the dimming and the atmospheric solar heating is estimated be negative which contributes to a global cooling effect. The global cooling from this negative ABC forcing may have masked as much as 50% of the warming due to GHGs. We will identify regional and mega-city hot spots of ABCs. Long range transport from these hot spots gives rise to wide spread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by wide spread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. The large north-south gradient in the ABC dimming has altered the north-south gradients in sea surface temperatures, which in turn has been shown by models to decrease rainfall over the

  9. Judicial recourse against foreign air polluters: a case study of acid rain in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Pallemaerts, M.

    1985-01-01

    Many European nations suffering acid damage caused primarily by pollution originating outside of their borders have had little success in persuading polluters to voluntarily reduce emissions. The author explores the opportunities for private litigation by victims against foreign sources of long-range transboundary air pollution. Such private actions would establish the illegality of transboundary air pollution and draw public attention to the magnitude of the damage as well as generate compensation. Recent actions in Norway and Britain suggest that is is procrastination to insist upon more research into the cause and effects of acid rain.

  10. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In health studies, traffic-related air pollution is associated with adverse respiratory effects. Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect ...

  11. Heat Waves, Urban Vegetation, and Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkina, G.; Grote, R.; Butler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-track programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting the existence of this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how global change induced heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone levels. We also quantify other ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation (e.g., cooling and carbon storage) and their sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the heat waves in 2003 and 2006. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  12. Risk assessment of urban air pollution.

    PubMed

    Törnqvist, M; Ehrenberg, L

    1992-12-01

    Urban air pollution, originating in western countries mainly from automotive engine exhausts, contains thousands of components, many of which are genotoxic, i.e. are putative cancer initiators. Other pollution components, such as NO2 and certain particles, may have cocarcinogenic/promotive effects, at least at higher exposure levels. Cancer risk assessment of this complex mixture has to combine data from the exposure history, from epidemiological studies as well as from animal carcinogenicity tests, and from in vitro studies of fractions and individual components. Data for metabolism and pharmaco-kinetics have also to be considered. A multiplicative linear model is assumed to be valid for cancer initiation at low levels. Attempts are being made to determine the target dose from ultimate carcinogens (reactive metabolites) via macromolecule adduct levels, and to base the risk assessment on the radiation-dose equivalent to the chemical dose. So far this has been possible only for simple alkenes, which are metabolized to epoxides, and indirectly, via benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), for particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The lifetime risk of cancer (all sites) from ethene is estimated accordingly to 1.4 x 10(-4) per microgram m-3, and from PAH to 12 x 10(-4) per ng m-3 BaP. For other components indicated to give risk contribution (NOx, volatile PAH, benzene, aldehydes, butadiene) essential data are lacking and only very rough estimates can be given at this time. PMID:1306130

  13. Air pollution effects on the structure of Citrus aurantium leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Psaras, G.K.; Christodoulakis, N.S.

    1987-09-01

    Individual air pollutants cause acute and chronic plant injury, act on stomata and affect carbon dioxide exchange as well as plant growth and development. Inhibition of photosynthesis by several air pollutants has been reported repeatedly. Besides, structural modifications of cell organelles have been reported after fumigation by SO/sub 2/. Although chlorosis and subsequent necrosis are common phenomena caused by artificial treatment with pollutants, fine structural leaf characteristics of plants exposed to long-term air pollution in natural conditions are little explored. Light microscope examination of air pollution affected leaves of plants common in natural ecosystems of Athens' metropolitan area revealed chlorosis phenomena. Electron microscope examination of the leaves of a common subshrub of greek phryganic formations grown in a heavily air polluted natural ecosystem of Athens metropolitan area revealed pronounced ultrastructural anomalies of chloroplasts, mitochondria and microbodies of the mesophyll cells. This organelle destruction of the photosynthesizing tissue as well as the minimization of the ecosystem primary productivity are attributed to the compound action of several toxic air pollutants of the photochemical smog of Athens. This work describes the long-term air pollution effects on the structural features of the leaves of Citrus aurantium, a decorative species planted throughout the heavily air polluted city of Athens.

  14. Community air pollution in Canada: a review and predictions for the 1980s.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, D. V.

    1979-01-01

    The main trends in Canadian air pollution since the national program of surveillance began are reviewed in this paper. In common with the United States, significant improvements in sulfur dioxide and particulate pollution have been recorded in a number of cities after the institution of control measures. However, some areas with a concentration of certain industries still have considerable particulate pollution. Since emission of nitrogen dioxide is increasing in the United States, the consequent photochemical pollution in southern Ontario will probably continue to increase. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the air are elevated in some western Canadian cities, presumably because of the presence of plants that burn natural gas to generate electricity and increasing pollution from automobiles. There is increasing concern about community air pollution in cities with large metal-fabricating plants, and community exposure to asbestos fibres is likely to be an important concern in the 1980s. PMID:445269

  15. Air pollution studies using PIXE and ICP methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stihi, Claudia; Bancuta, Anca; Popescu, I. V.; Virgolici, M.; Cimpoca, V.; Gugiu, M.; Vlaicu, Gh

    2006-05-01

    In the present work the moss biomonitoring technique and the combination of two analytical techniques - Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) [3] and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) [4] - were applied for assessing environmental situation from the point of view of air polluting along the transect from north to south of the Dambovita County. PIXE analysis at the Tandem Accelerator FN-8 of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics - Horia Hulubei of Magurele, Bucharest, allowed determination of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd and Pb in samples. ICP analyses were made using a Baird ICP2070 - Sequential Plasma Spectrometer in Targoviste and we determined in samples the concentration of Li, B, Na, and Mg together with Cd and Pb. The obtained results will permit to determine the regional extent of heavy metals and toxic elements atmospheric pollution and to identify specially affected areas and local sources of

  16. Relation of air pollution with epidemiology of respiratory diseases in isfahan, Iran from 2005 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Maasoumeh; Ramesht, Mohammad Hossein; Zohary, Moein; Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya; Rashidi, Zeinab; Rouzbahani, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) scientists shows that long-term exposure to air pollutants increases the risk of respiratory diseases such as allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the health effects of ozone, fine particles, and other airborne toxicants. Air pollution factors are considered as one of the underlying causes of respiratory diseases. This study aimed to determine the association of respiratory diseases documented in medical records and air pollution (Map distribution) of accumulation in Isfahan province, Iran. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences from different points can be observed. Materials and Methods: The geographic information system (GIS), pollutant standards index (PSI) measurements, and remote Sensing (RS) technology were used after entering data in the mapping information table; spatial distribution was mapped and distribution of Geographical Epidemiology of Respiratory Diseases in Isfahan province (Iran) was determined in this case study from 2005 to 2009. Results: Space with tracing the distribution of respiratory diseases was scattered based on the distribution of air pollution in the points is an important part of this type of diseases in Isfahan province where air pollution was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study emphasis on the importance of preventing the exposure to air pollution, and to control air pollution product industries, to improve work environmental health, and to increase the health professionals and public knowledge in this regard. PMID:24523799

  17. Interaction between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and other important health conditions and measurable air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagev, D. P.; Mendoza, D. L.; Rea, S.; Sorensen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Adverse health effects have been associated with urban pollutant exposure arising from close proximity to highly-emitting sources and atmospheric mixing. The relative air pollution exposure dose and time effects on various diseases remains unknown. This study compares the increased risk of health complications when patients are exposed to short term high-levels of air pollution vs. longer term exposure to lower levels of air pollution. We used the electronic medical record of an integrated hospital system based in Utah, Intermountain Healthcare, to identify a cohort of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) who were seen between 2009-2014. We determined patient demographics as well as comorbidity data and healthcare utilization. To determine the approximate air pollution dose and time exposure, we used the Hestia highly-resolved emissions inventory for Salt Lake County, Utah in conjunction with emissions based on the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). Hourly emissions of CO2 and criteria air pollutants were gridded at a 0.002o x 0.002o resolution for the study years. The resulting emissions were transported using the CALPUFF and AERMOD dispersion models to estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly 0.002o x 0.002oresolution. Additionally, pollutant concentrations were estimated at each patient's home and work address to estimate exposure. Multivariate analysis adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities and severity of COPD was performed to determine association between air pollution exposure and the risk of hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visit for COPD exacerbation and an equivalency estimate for air pollution exposure was developed. We noted associations with air pollution levels for each pollutant and hospitalizations and ED visits for COPD and other patient comorbidities. We also present an equivalency estimate for dose of air pollution exposure and health outcomes. This analysis compares the increased risk of

  18. Parking, energy consumption and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Höglund, Paul G

    2004-12-01

    This paper examines the impacts of different ways of parking on environmental effects, mainly vehicle emissions and air pollution. Vehicle energy consumption and the urban air quality at street level, related to location and design of parking establishments, need to be assessed and quantified. In addition, the indoor parking environment needs attention. This paper gives a description of a methodological approach when comparing different parking establishments. The paper also briefly describes a Swedish attempt to create methods and models for assessing and quantifying such problem. The models are the macrolevel model BRAHE, for regional traffic exhaust emission, and the micromodel SimPark, a parking search model attempt combined with emission models. Until now, very limited knowledge exists regarding the various aspects of vehicle parking and environmental effects in the technical field as well as in the social and human behaviour aspects. This requires an interdisciplinary approach to this challenging area for research, development and more directly practically implemented surveys and field studies. In order to illustrate the new evaluation methodology, the paper also contains some results from a pilot study in Stockholm. Given certain assumptions, a study of vehicle emissions from parking in an underground garage compared with kerbside parking has given an emission reduction of about 40% in favour of the parking garage. This study has been done using the models mentioned above. PMID:15504491

  19. Identification and Tracking of Polluted Air Masses in the South-Central Coast Air Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G. E.; Douglas, S. G.; Kessler, R. C.; Killus, J. P.

    1991-05-01

    Canister samples of air taken during the South-Central Coast Cooperative Air Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP) 1985 field study program were analyzed for concentrations of over 50 hydrocarbons as well as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane. Additional evidence of location and timing of airmass origin was obtained by utilizing long-lived halocarbons such as F-12 as `tracers of opportunity' in conjunction with known source profiles. Wind trajectories were developed from hourly gridded wind fields produced by a diagnostic wind model utilizing observed wind data. These wind trajectories were used to determine how pollutants from major source areas might be transported to sampling sites. Particulate lidar height-distance traverses were made from aircraft that provided a view of pollutant layering. Mixing height and vertical pollutant concentration distributions were obtained in order to determine if observed pollutant concentrations were consistent with the degree of stagnation present and hypothesized transport pathway.Analyses to track specific polluted air masses were conducted for the 13 September, 21 September, 23-24 September, and 2-3 October 1985 intensive study periods. The analyses find that elevated ozone concentrations during these periods are primarily attributed to transport and storage of ozone-enriched air from Los Angeles. During one type of episode (2-3 October) ozone and ozone precursors are stored near the surface over the Santa Barbara Channel overnight and transported into coastal areas on the following day. In another type of episode (23-24 September) ozone is transported into the study domain from the San Fernando Valley and Los Angeles via flow around the Santa Monica Hills. Transport of pollutant-enriched air takes place in a layer 200-500 m aloft, in many places overlaying cleaner marine-layer air. This advected ozone is mixed down to contribute to ground-level ozone concentrations over terrain where the marine layer

  20. Air Pollution Data for Model Evaluation and Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    One objective of designing an air pollution monitoring network is to obtain data for evaluating air quality models that are used in the air quality management process and scientific discovery.1.2 A common use is to relate emissions to air quality, including assessing ...