Science.gov

Sample records for air pollution level

  1. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  2. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  3. Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts.

  4. [Field investigations of the air pollution level of populated territories].

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, M V

    2014-01-01

    The assessment and management of air quality of settlements is one of the priorities in the field of environmental protection. In the management of air quality the backbone factor is the methodology of the organization, performance and interpretation of data of field investigations. The present article is devoted to the analysis of the existing methodological approaches and practical aspects of their application in the organization and performance of field investigations with the aim to confirm the adequacy of the boundaries of the sanitary protection zone in the old industrial regions, hygienic evaluation of the data of field investigations of the air pollution level.

  5. Asthma and low level air pollution in Helsinki

    SciTech Connect

    Poenkae A5 )

    1991-09-01

    The effects of relatively low levels of air pollution and weather conditions on the number of patients who had asthma attacks and who were admitted to a hospital were studied in Helsinki during a 3-y period. The number of admissions increased during cold weather (n = 4,209), especially among persons who were of working age but not among children. Even after standardization for temperature, all admissions, including emergency ward admissions, were significantly correlated with ambient air concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and total suspended particulates (TSP). Regression analysis revealed that NO and O3 were most strongly associated with asthma problems. Effects of air pollutants and cold were maximal if they occurred on the same day, except for O3, which had a more pronounced effect after a 1-d lag. The associations between pollutants, low temperature, and admissions were most significant among adults of working age, followed by the elderly. Among children, only O3 and NO were significantly correlated with admissions. Levels of pollutants were fairly low, the long-term mean being 19.2 micrograms/m3 for SO2, 38.6 micrograms/m3 for NO2, 22.0 micrograms/m3 or O3, and 1.3 mg/m3 for CO. In contrast, the mean concentration of TSP was high (76.3 micrograms/m3), and the mean temperature was low (+ 4.7 degrees C). These results suggest that concentrations of pollutants lower than those given as guidelines in many countries may increase the incidence of asthma attacks.

  6. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  7. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  8. Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, André Augusto Miranda; Novaes, Priscila; Matsuda, Monique; Alves, Milton Ruiz; Monteiro, Mário Luiz Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

  9. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  10. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  11. Gestational Diabetes and Preeclampsia in Association with Air Pollution at Levels below Current Air Quality Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Kristina; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Rylander, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies have estimated associations between air pollution and birth outcomes, but few have evaluated potential effects on pregnancy complications. Objective: We investigated whether low-level exposure to air pollution is associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. Methods: High-quality registry information on 81,110 singleton pregnancy outcomes in southern Sweden during 1999–2005 was linked to individual-level exposure estimates with high spatial resolution. Modeled exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx), expressed as mean concentrations per trimester, and proximity to roads of different traffic densities were used as proxy indicators of exposure to combustion-related air pollution. The data were analyzed by logistic regression, with and without adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The prevalence of gestational diabetes increased with each NOx quartile, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.69 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.03) for the highest (> 22.7 µg/m3) compared with the lowest quartile (2.5–8.9 µg/m3) of exposure during the second trimester. The adjusted OR for acquiring preeclampsia after exposure during the third trimester was 1.51 (1.32, 1.73) in the highest quartile of NOx compared with the lowest. Both outcomes were associated with high traffic density, but ORs were significant for gestational diabetes only. Conclusion: NOx exposure during pregnancy was associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia in an area with air pollution levels below current air quality guidelines. PMID:23563048

  12. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  13. Monitoring strategy to assessment the air pollution level in Salamanca (México)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Adame, J. M.; Cortina-Januchs, M. G.; Andina, D.; Vega-Corona, A.

    2009-04-01

    Air pollution affects not only the quality of life and the health of the urban population but also forests and agriculture. Agricultural crops can be injured when exposed to high concentrations of various air pollutants. Air pollutants can generally be classed as either local or widespread. Local pollutants are those emitted from a specific stationary source and result in a well-defined zone of vegetation injury or contamination. Most common among the local pollutants are sulphur dioxide, fluorides, ammonia and particulate matter. The paper presents an air monitoring strategy based on data fusion and Artificial Neural Networks. The main objective is to classify automatically the air pollution level as a proposal to assessment the air pollution level affecting the agriculture in Salamanca (Mexico). Salamanca is catalogued as one of the most polluted cities in Mexico. Pollutant concentrations and meteorological variables have been consider in data fusion process in order to build a Representative Pollution Vector (RPV). Meteorological variables (Wind Direction and Wind Speed) are taken as a decision factor in the air pollutant concentration level. RPV is used to train an Artificial Neural Network in order to classify new pollutant events. In the experiments, real time series gathered from the Automatic Environmental Monitoring Network (AEMN) in Salamanca have been used.

  14. [Influence of atmospheric transport on air pollutant levels at a mountain background site of East China].

    PubMed

    Su, Bin-Bin; Xu, Ju-Yang; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Ji, Xian-Xin

    2014-08-01

    Transport characteristics of air pollutants transported to the background atmosphere of East China were investigated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) 4.8 model driven by NCEP reanalysis data during June 2011 to May 2012. Based on the air pollutants monitoring data collected at the National atmospheric background monitoring station (Wuyishan station) in Fujian Province, characteristics of different clustered air masses as well as the origins of highly polluted air masses were further examined. The results showed that 65% of all the trajectories, in which air masses mainly passed over highly polluted area of East China, Jiangxi province and upper air in desert areas of Northwest China, carried polluted air to the station, while the rest of trajectories (35%) with air masses originated from ocean could effectively remove air pollutants at the Wuyishan station. However, the impact on the air pollutants for each air mass group varied with seasons. Elevated SO2 concentrations observed at the background station were mainly influenced by coal burning activities in Northern China during heating season. The high CO concentrations were likely associated with the pollutants emission in the process of coal production and consumption in Anhui province. The elevated NO(x), O3, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were mostly impacted by East China with high levels of air pollutants.

  15. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  16. [Study on feasible emission control level of air pollutions for cement industry ].

    PubMed

    Ren, Chun; Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Wei, Yu-xia; Zhao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2014-09-01

    The revised National Emission Standard of Air Pollutions for Cement Industry has been issued, which will be effective for the new enterprises and the existing enterprises on Mar. 1st, 2014 and July 1st, 2015, respectively. In the process of revision, the key technical issues on determination of standard limits was how to determine the feasible emission control level of air pollutions. Feasible emission control requirements were put forward, according to air pollutants emission, technologies, environmental management requirements and foreign standards, etc. The main contents of the revised standard include expanding the scope of application, increasing the pollutants, improving the particulate and NO emissions control level, and increasing special emission limits applied to key areas of air pollutants. The standard will become the gripper of pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structural adjustment and optimization of the layout, and will promote scientific and technical progression for the cement industry.

  17. Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 μg m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability

  18. [Pollution of room air].

    PubMed

    Schlatter, J

    1986-01-01

    In the last decade the significance of indoor air pollution to human health has increased because of improved thermal insulation of buildings to save energy: air turnover is reduced and air quality is impaired. The most frequent air pollutants are tobacco smoke, radioactive radon gas emanating from the soil, formaldehyde from furniture and insulation material, nitrogen oxides from gas stoves, as well as solvents from cleaning agents. The most important pollutants leading to health hazards are tobacco smoke and air pollutants which are emitted continuously from building materials and furniture. Such pollutants have to be eliminated by reducing the emission rate. A fresh air supply is necessary to reduce the pollutants resulting from the inhabitants and their activities, the amount depending on the number of inhabitants and the usage of the room. The carbon dioxide level should not exceed 1500 ppm.

  19. Modelled air pollution levels versus EC air quality legislation - results from high resolution simulation.

    PubMed

    Chervenkov, Hristo

    2013-12-01

    An appropriate method for evaluating the air quality of a certain area is to contrast the actual air pollution levels to the critical ones, prescribed in the legislative standards. The application of numerical simulation models for assessing the real air quality status is allowed by the legislation of the European Community (EC). This approach is preferable, especially when the area of interest is relatively big and/or the network of measurement stations is sparse, and the available observational data are scarce, respectively. Such method is very efficient for similar assessment studies due to continuous spatio-temporal coverage of the obtained results. In the study the values of the concentration of the harmful substances sulphur dioxide, (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter - coarse (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) fraction, ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and ammonia (NH3) in the surface layer obtained from modelling simulations with resolution 10 km on hourly bases are taken to calculate the necessary statistical quantities which are used for comparison with the corresponding critical levels, prescribed in the EC directives. For part of them (PM2.5, CO and NH3) this is done for first time with such resolution. The computational grid covers Bulgaria entirely and some surrounding territories and the calculations are made for every year in the period 1991-2000. The averaged over the whole time slice results can be treated as representative for the air quality situation of the last decade of the former century.

  20. Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Green, Donna

    2014-04-01

    This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia.

  1. An objective definition of air mass types affecting Athens, Greece; the corresponding atmospheric pressure patterns and air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Sindosi, O A; Katsoulis, B D; Bartzokas, A

    2003-08-01

    This work aims at defining characteristic air mass types that dominate in the region of Athens, Greece during the cold (November-March) and the warm (May-September) period of the year and also at evaluating the corresponding concentration levels of the main air pollutants. For each air mass type, the mean atmospheric pressure distribution (composite maps) over Europe and the Mediterranean is estimated in order to reveal the association of atmospheric circulation with air pollution levels in Athens. The data basis for this work consists of daily values of thirteen meteorological and six pollutant parameters covering the period 1993-97. The definition of the characteristic air mass types is attempted objectively by using the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. The results show that during the cold period of the year there are six prevailing air mass types (at least 3% of the total number of days) and six infrequent ones. The examination of the corresponding air pollution concentration levels shows that the primary air pollutants appear with increased concentrations when light or southerly winds prevail. This is usually the case when a high pressure system is located over the central Mediterranean or a low pressure system lays over south Italy, respectively. Low levels of the primary pollutants are recorded under northeasterly winds, mainly caused by a high pressure system over Ukraine. During the warm period of the year, the southwestern Asia thermal low and the subtropical anticyclone of the Atlantic Ocean affect Greece. Though these synoptic systems cause almost stagnant conditions, four main air mass types are dominant and ten others, associated with extreme weather, are infrequent. Despite the large amounts of total solar radiation characterizing this period, ozone concentrations remain at low levels in central Athens because of its destruction by nitric oxide.

  2. Mapping Air Pollution Concentrations and Sources in China from Ground-Level Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, R. A.; Muller, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    China has recently established an extensive air quality monitoring system with over 1500 sites providing hourly data on airborne particulate matter (PM2.5 / PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO). Based on Kriging interpolation of these surface data, we derive a detailed map of air pollution across the eastern half of China. In northern and central China, the pollution is widespread; contrary to popular belief, pollution is not simply localized to major cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, or Chongqing, or in geologic basins. Pollution levels are lower in southern China, in part due to frequent rains. By incorporating wind measurements and estimating pollution transport, we also infer source distributions for key pollutants. Sources are widespread, but many of the largest sources are often situated in or near major population centers. A northeast corridor extending from near Shanghai to north of Beijing includes many of the most significant pollution sources in China. Roughly 5% of the study region accounts for 25% of observed particulate matter emissions. During the analysis period, roughly half of the population of China was subjected to a long-term average pollution level in the unhealthy range, according to standards used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, nearly all of China's population (>90%) was exposed to unhealthy levels of air pollution at least some of the time. Based on health impact estimates from the Huai River Study, we estimate that the observed levels of particulate matter pollution contribute to about 1.4 million deaths every year in China, about 3500 per day, in agreement with prior estimates. Identification of sources from pollution data was facilitated by the reporting of hourly measurements, and we encourage other nations around the world to follow China's example and provide such time-resolved data.

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  4. Relationship Between Indoor Air Pollutant Levels and Residential Environment in Children With Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Hyun; Lee, Ho Seok; Park, Mi Ran; Lee, Sang Woon; Kim, Eun Hye; Cho, Joong Bum; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin; Jung, Kweon; Cheong, Hae Kwan; Lee, Sang Il

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between indoor air pollutant levels and residential environment in children with atopic dermatitis (AD) living in Seoul. Methods A total of 150 children with AD were included. Residential environment was assessed by questionnaires which were completed by their parents. To evaluate the level of exposure to the indoor air pollutants, concentrations of the indoor air pollutants including particulate matter with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10), formaldehyde, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Total Volatile Organic Compound (TVOC), benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, xylene, styrene, bacterial aerosols, and airborne fungi were measured. Results A significant difference was exhibited in the levels of PM10 in case of visible fungus on the walls (P=0.047). There was relationship between the construction year of the house, moving to a newly constructed building within 1 year and formaldehyde level. With the use of artificial air freshener, the differences were found in the concentrations of TVOC (P=0.003), benzene (P=0.015), toluene (P=0.012) and ethyl-benzene (P=0.027). The concentration of xylene was significantly high when oil was used as heating fuel (P=0.015). Styrene exhibited differences depending on building type and its concentrations were significantly high in a residential and commercial complex building (P=0.005). The indoor concentration of bacterial aerosols was significantly low with the use of air cleaner (P=0.045). High NO2, benzene concentrations were present in case of almost no ventilation (P=0.028 and P=0.028, respectively). Conclusions Individual residential environments are closely related with the levels of the indoor air pollutants. To alleviate AD symptoms, simple questions about residential environments such as visible fungus on the walls and the use of artificial air freshener are helpful to assess the possibility of increased indoor air pollutant levels

  5. Low-level air pollution and upper respiratory infections in children.

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, J J; Paunio, M; Virtanen, M; Heinonen, O P

    1991-01-01

    Effects of low-level air pollution were studied in one polluted city and two reference cities in northern Finland by comparing the frequency of upper respiratory infections over a 12-month period in 1982 as reported by parents of children ages 14 through 18 months (n = 679) and 6 years (n = 759). A similar comparison was carried out between children living in the more polluted and less polluted areas of the polluted city. The annual mean and the greatest half-hour concentrations of sulfur dioxide (23 and 807 micrograms/m3), particulates (31 and 291 micrograms/m3), nitrogen oxides (15 and 160 micrograms/m3), and hydrogen sulfide (2 and 177 micrograms/m3) in the polluted city were mainly due to industrial sources. In the reference cities, air pollution was produced mainly by traffic and heating. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for one or more upper respiratory infections of residents in the polluted city vs those in the reference cities were 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-3.2) in the younger age group and 1.6 (95% CI = 1.1-2.1) in the older age group. Within the polluted city, OR calculated for living in more vs less polluted areas were 2.0 (95% CI = 1.0-4.0) in the younger and 1.6 (95% CI = 1.0-2.7) in the older children. The present results suggests that, for children, air pollution can be hazardous in concentrations lower than those recorded in earlier studies from Britain and central Europe. The synergistic effect of sulfur dioxide, particulates, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen sulfide, and other pollutants may be a contributing factor. PMID:1854003

  6. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  7. Air pollution critical levels in central México protected natural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Suarez, L.; Andraca Ayala, G.; Mar Morales, B.; Garcia-reynoso, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    All the Natural Protected Areas (NPA) within the Central Mexico City Belt comprising five metropolitan areas including MCMA are under strong impact from air pollution. Ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide exceed critical levels for several types of vegetation. In this work we show the critical level maps for ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide for Sierra of Chichinautzin, the mountain that acts as the physical barrier to air pollution dispersion south of Mexico City Metropolitan Area, what makes of it a receptor area to MCMA pollution. Maps were made combining model outputs from WRF-Chem and passive samplers. We also describe a proposal to extend the observation network to all natural protected areas within the Central Mexico City Belt.

  8. China's air pollution reduction efforts may result in an increase in surface ozone levels in highly polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Anger, Annela; Dessens, Olivier; Xi, Fengming; Barker, Terry; Wu, Rui

    2016-03-01

    China, as a fast growing fossil-fuel-based economy, experiences increasing levels of air pollution. To tackle air pollution, China has taken the first steps by setting emission-reduction targets for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans. This paper uses two models-the Energy-Environment-Economy Model at the Global level (E3MG) and the global Chemistry Transport Model pTOMCAT-to test the effects of these policies. If the policy targets are met, then the maximum values of 32 % and 45 % reductions below 'business as usual' in the monthly mean NO x and SO2 concentrations, respectively, will be achieved in 2015. However, a decrease in NO x concentrations in some highly polluted areas of East, North-East and South-East China can lead to up to a 10% increase in the monthly mean concentrations in surface ozone in 2015. Our study demonstrates an urgent need for the more detailed analysis of the impacts and designs of air pollution reduction guidelines for China.

  9. China's air pollution reduction efforts may result in an increase in surface ozone levels in highly polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Anger, Annela; Dessens, Olivier; Xi, Fengming; Barker, Terry; Wu, Rui

    2016-03-01

    China, as a fast growing fossil-fuel-based economy, experiences increasing levels of air pollution. To tackle air pollution, China has taken the first steps by setting emission-reduction targets for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans. This paper uses two models-the Energy-Environment-Economy Model at the Global level (E3MG) and the global Chemistry Transport Model pTOMCAT-to test the effects of these policies. If the policy targets are met, then the maximum values of 32 % and 45 % reductions below 'business as usual' in the monthly mean NO x and SO2 concentrations, respectively, will be achieved in 2015. However, a decrease in NO x concentrations in some highly polluted areas of East, North-East and South-East China can lead to up to a 10% increase in the monthly mean concentrations in surface ozone in 2015. Our study demonstrates an urgent need for the more detailed analysis of the impacts and designs of air pollution reduction guidelines for China. PMID:26409886

  10. Study on particulate matter air pollution in Beijing with MODIS aerosol level 2 products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jietai; Li, Chengcai; Lau, Alexis K.

    2004-09-01

    In the run-up to the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, Chinese government officials at both the central and municipal levels are keenly aware that they must transform Beijing into a world-class city. According to the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BJEPB) to improve its air quality some actions are adopting, including taking steps to increase the forested area surrounding the city preventing dust storms, reducing the automotive vehicles, moving polluting factories now inside the fourth ring road ringing the inner city to locations outside of the fourth ring road, and switching the fuel of public buses and taxis from diesel to natural gas, etc. Will they eliminate most serious environmental problems in Beijing? MODIS aerosol products are helping us to answer this kind of questions. A long-term validation has been finished by sun-photometer observations, and the results proved the relative error of MODIS level 2 products was slightly larger than the estimation of Chu et al. (2002) from the results in most AERONET sites. However, the comparison between the products and moisture-corrected air pollution index (API) data, which were daily released to public by EPB, showed a high correlation coefficient. An air pollution episode in 2003 was investigated by the usage of satellite products. Our conclusion for the air pollution control strategy in Beijing is that only reducing the pollution sources from inner city can't fully solve the pollution problems in Beijing and the regional transports from the nearby southern provinces are contributing a lot to the pollution situation in Beijing.

  11. Some insights into the relationship between urban air pollution and noise levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ho, Duy Xuan; Brown, Richard J C; Oh, J-M; Park, Chan Goo; Ryu, In Cheol

    2012-05-01

    The relationship between noise and air pollution was investigated in eight different districts across Seoul, Korea, between September and November 2010. The noise levels in each district were measured at both roadside and non-roadside locations. It was found that the maximum levels of noise were generally at frequencies of around 1000 Hz. The equivalent noise levels (L(eq)), over all districts, averaged 61.4 ± 7.36 dB which is slightly lower than the noise guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 70 dB for industrial, commercial, traffic, and outdoor areas. Comparison of L(eq) levels in each district consistently indicates that noise levels are higher at roadside sites than non-roadside sites. In addition the relative dominance of noise during daytime as compared to nighttime was also apparent. Moreover, the results of an analysis relating sound levels with air pollutant levels indicate strongly that the correlation between these two parameters is the strongest at roadside sites (relative to non-roadside sites) and during nighttime (relative to daytime). The results of our data analysis point to a positive, but complex, correlation between noise levels and air pollution.

  12. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  13. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  14. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  15. Exploring EKC, trends of growth patterns and air pollutants concentration level in Malaysia: A Nemerow Index Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekhet, Hussain A.; >Tahira Yasmin,

    2013-06-01

    The present study examines an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis by analyzing annual data of air pollutants concentartion and per capita GDP as economic indicator over the (1996-2010) period in Malaysia. Nemerow Index Approach (I) used to generate a measures of air pollution. The results show that ambient air quality indicators supports the EKC hypothesis which stated that pollution levels increase as a country develops, but begin to decrease as rising incomes pass beyond a turning poin. Also, the I result is justifying that most pollutants are showing value less than 1.

  16. Using Mobile Monitoring to Assess Spatial Variability in Urban Air Pollution Levels: Opportunities and Challenges (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, T.

    2010-12-01

    Measuring air pollution concentrations from a moving platform is not a new idea. Historically, however, most information on the spatial variability of air pollutants have been derived from fixed site networks operating simultaneously over space. While this approach has obvious advantages from a regulatory perspective, with the increasing need to understand ever finer scales of spatial variability in urban pollution levels, the use of mobile monitoring to supplement fixed site networks has received increasing attention. Here we present examples of the use of this approach: 1) to assess existing fixed-site fine particle networks in Seattle, WA, including the establishment of new fixed-site monitoring locations; 2) to assess the effectiveness of a regulatory intervention, a wood stove burning ban, on the reduction of fine particle levels in the greater Puget Sound region; and 3) to assess spatial variability of both wood smoke and mobile source impacts in both Vancouver, B.C. and Tacoma, WA. Deducing spatial information from the inherently spatio-temporal measurements taken from a mobile platform is an area that deserves further attention. We discuss the use of “fuzzy” points to address the fine-scale spatio-temporal variability in the concentration of mobile source pollutants, specifically to deduce the broader distribution and sources of fine particle soot in the summer in Vancouver, B.C. We also discuss the use of principal component analysis to assess the spatial variability in multivariate, source-related features deduced from simultaneous measurements of light scattering, light absorption and particle-bound PAHs in Tacoma, WA. With increasing miniaturization and decreasing power requirements of air monitoring instruments, the number of simultaneous measurements that can easily be made from a mobile platform is rapidly increasing. Hopefully the methods used to design mobile monitoring experiments for differing purposes, and the methods used to interpret those

  17. ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION AND LUNG FUNCTIONS AMONG ASTHMATIC CHILDREN EXPOSED TO HIGH LEVELS OF AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Air pollutant exposure has been related to adverse respiratory effects, in particular, in asthmatics. This effect could be the consequence of the oxidative stress caused by air pollutants on the lung. Antioxidant vitamins are free- radical scavengers, and could ha...

  18. Traffic source emission and street level air pollution in urban areas of Guangzhou, South China (P.R.C.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Chan, L. Y.

    Street level air pollution due to traffic emission is a cause of concern in Guangzhou City. During the winter and summer of 1988, the traffic-related air pollutant concentrations, wind field, traffic volume and vehicle speed were measured extensively in three types of street canyons in Guangzhou City. Various types of motor vehicle emission in idle condition were measured and the composite emission factors of vehicles were derived. The variation of traffic volume and vehicle speed in 223 mainstreets were also investigated. The annual air pollutant concentration levels of traffic source emission were calculated. Using CO as a traffic emission tracer for air pollution on the street, the contributions of traffic emission to street level air pollution were determined by the receptor method. Ground level air pollution in Guangzhou has changed from coal combustion emission type into traffic source emission type. The average contributions of traffic source emission to the concentration of CO and NO x on the street in 1988 are about 87% and 67%. The most significant pollutant of ambient air quality that traffic source emission influences in NO x.

  19. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  20. Respiratory health symptoms among students exposed to different levels of air pollution in a Turkish city.

    PubMed

    Gül, Hülya; Gaga, Eftade O; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Özden, Özlem; Ayvaz, Özkan; Özel, Sevda; Güngör, Günay

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of respiratory health symptoms among high school students attending schools at industrial, urban and rural areas in a Turkish city. Three schools located in different zones of the city having different pollution characteristics were chosen based on the pollutant distribution maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 667 high school students in the schools. Outdoor and indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) concentrations were also measured by passive samplers in the same schools to investigate possible routes of exposure. Chronic pulmonary disease (OR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.11-1.99; p = 0.008), tightness in the chest (OR = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.22-2.02; p = 0.001), morning cough (OR = 1.81 95%CI: 1.19-2.75; p = 0.006) were higher among students in the industrial zone where nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels were also highest. There were no indoor sources of nitrogen dioxide and ozone exists in the schools except for the dining hall. As a conclusion, this study has noticed that air pollution and respiratory health problems among high school students are high in industrial zones and the use of passive samplers combined with GIS is an effective tool that may be used by public health researchers to identify pollutant zones and persons at risk.

  1. Respiratory health symptoms among students exposed to different levels of air pollution in a Turkish city.

    PubMed

    Gül, Hülya; Gaga, Eftade O; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Özden, Özlem; Ayvaz, Özkan; Özel, Sevda; Güngör, Günay

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of respiratory health symptoms among high school students attending schools at industrial, urban and rural areas in a Turkish city. Three schools located in different zones of the city having different pollution characteristics were chosen based on the pollutant distribution maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 667 high school students in the schools. Outdoor and indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) concentrations were also measured by passive samplers in the same schools to investigate possible routes of exposure. Chronic pulmonary disease (OR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.11-1.99; p = 0.008), tightness in the chest (OR = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.22-2.02; p = 0.001), morning cough (OR = 1.81 95%CI: 1.19-2.75; p = 0.006) were higher among students in the industrial zone where nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels were also highest. There were no indoor sources of nitrogen dioxide and ozone exists in the schools except for the dining hall. As a conclusion, this study has noticed that air pollution and respiratory health problems among high school students are high in industrial zones and the use of passive samplers combined with GIS is an effective tool that may be used by public health researchers to identify pollutant zones and persons at risk. PMID:21695031

  2. Respiratory Health Symptoms among Students Exposed to Different Levels of Air Pollution in a Turkish City

    PubMed Central

    Gül, Hülya; Gaga, Eftade O.; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Özden, Özlem; Ayvaz, Özkan; Özel, Sevda; Güngör, Günay

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of respiratory health symptoms among high school students attending schools at industrial, urban and rural areas in a Turkish city. Three schools located in different zones of the city having different pollution characteristics were chosen based on the pollutant distribution maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 667 high school students in the schools. Outdoor and indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations were also measured by passive samplers in the same schools to investigate possible routes of exposure. Chronic pulmonary disease (OR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.11–1.99; p = 0.008), tightness in the chest (OR = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.22–2.02; p = 0.001), morning cough (OR = 1.81 95%CI: 1.19–2.75; p = 0.006) were higher among students in the industrial zone where nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels were also highest. There were no indoor sources of nitrogen dioxide and ozone exists in the schools except for the dining hall. As a conclusion, this study has noticed that air pollution and respiratory health problems among high school students are high in industrial zones and the use of passive samplers combined with GIS is an effective tool that may be used by public health researchers to identify pollutant zones and persons at risk. PMID:21695031

  3. Air pollution and survival within the Washington University-EPRI Veterans Cohort: risks based on modelled estimates of ambient levels of hazardous and criteria air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick W. Lipfert; Ronald E. Wyzga; Jack D. Baty; J. Philip Miller

    2009-04-15

    For this paper, we considered relationships between mortality, vehicular traffic density, and ambient levels of 12 hazardous air pollutants, elemental carbon (EC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup -2}). These pollutant species were selected as markers for specific types of emission sources, including vehicular traffic, coal combustion, smelters, and metal-working industries. Pollutant exposures were estimated using emissions inventories and atmospheric dispersion models. We analyzed associations between county ambient levels of these pollutants and survival patterns among approximately 70,000 U.S. male veterans by mortality period (1976-2001 and subsets), type of exposure model, and traffic density level. We found significant associations between all-cause mortality and traffic-related air quality indicators and with traffic density per se, with stronger associations for benzene, formaldehyde, diesel particulate, NOx, and EC. The maximum effect on mortality for all cohort subjects during the 26-yr follow-up period is approximately 10%, but most of the pollution-related deaths in this cohort occurred in the higher-traffic counties, where excess risks approach 20%. However, mortality associations with diesel particulates are similar in high- and low-traffic counties. Sensitivity analyses show risks decreasing slightly over time and minor differences between linear and logarithmic exposure models. We conclude that tailpipe emissions of both gases and particles are among the most significant and robust predictors of mortality in this cohort and that most of those associations have weakened over time. There may be concerns associated with large stationary sources burning coal, residual fuel oil and municipal solid wastes. Nickel and arsenic have been identified in coal fly ash and residual oil. 81 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.

    PubMed

    Radhapriya, P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan, A; Malini, P; Ramachandran, A

    2012-05-01

    Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels.

  5. Evaluating near highway air pollutant levels and estimating emission factors: Case study of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nayeb Yazdi, Mohammad; Delavarrafiee, Maryam; Arhami, Mohammad

    2015-12-15

    A field sampling campaign was implemented to evaluate the variation in air pollutants levels near a highway in Tehran, Iran (Hemmat highway). The field measurements were used to estimate road link-based emission factors for average vehicle fleet. These factors were compared with results of an in tunnel measurement campaign (in Resalat tunnel). Roadside and in-tunnel measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) were conducted during the field campaign. The concentration gradient diagrams showed exponential decay, which represented a substantial decay, more than 50-80%, in air pollutants level in a distance between 100 and 150meters (m) of the highway. The changes in particle size distribution by distancing from highway were also captured and evaluated. The results showed particle size distribution shifted to larger size particles by distancing from highway. The empirical emission factors were obtained by using the roadside and in tunnel measurements with a hypothetical box model, floating machine model, CALINE4, CT-EMFAC or COPERT. Average CO emission factors were estimated to be in a range of 4 to 12g/km, and those of PM10 were 0.1 to 0.2g/km, depending on traffic conditions. Variations of these emission factors under real working condition with speeds were determined.

  6. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  7. An investigation of air emission levels from distinct iron and steel production processes with the adoption of pollution control and pollution prevention alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, M.M.; Schaeffer, R.

    1999-07-01

    This paper aims to investigate environmental aspects from different iron and steel production processes. A methodology based on material flows is developed in order to verify some air emission levels attained by Pollution Control and Pollution Prevention alternatives. The data basis for modeling energy and materials flows in iron and steel production is obtained from a literature review on different technological processes, energy and materials consumption and pollutant releases to the environmental Modeling combines both process analysis and input-output techniques to simulate the different iron and steel production routes and to estimate the resulting total atmospheric pollution releases based on air emission factors for several pollutants by each production step. Processes examined include: (1) Conventional Integrated (100% ore-based and partly scrap-based); (2) Mini-mill with EAF (100% scrap-based and partly DRI-based); and (3) New Integrated based on the COREX smelting reduction process. Among the alternatives considered for air emissions reductions are those related to Pollution Control (mainly gas cleaning systems) and to Pollution Prevention (change/reduction in input materials, operational procedures and housekeeping improvements, on-site recycling and technology innovations and modifications). Results indicate higher air pollution intensity for the Conventional Integrated Route over the Mini-mill with EAF and COREX smelting reduction processes, though pointing out that final figures are strongly affected by the systems' boundaries and the different air emission levels of each production step.

  8. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  9. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  10. Low-level air pollution and hospital admissions for cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases in Helsinki.

    PubMed Central

    Pönkä, A; Virtanen, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether low concentrations of ambient air pollutants are associated with hospital admissions for ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases. METHODS: Associations between daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulates and daily hospital admissions due to ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases were studied in Helsinki, Finland, 1987 through 1989. The regression analyses controlled for weather, day of the week, season, long-term trends, and influenza epidemics. RESULTS: Admissions via emergency rooms due to ischemic cardiac diseases (n = 7005) were significantly associated with the prevailing levels of nitric oxide and ozone, and those due to cerebrovascular diseases (n = 3737) were associated with nitrogen dioxide; these levels were only moderate. Long-term transient myocardial ischemic attacks were related to particulates, and short-term ischemic attacks were related to nitrogen dioxide. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases may be provoked by pollutants in concentrations lower than those given as guidelines in many countries and lower than previously shown. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8806380

  11. Improving Neural Network Prediction Accuracy for PM10 Individual Air Quality Index Pollution Levels.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qi; Wu, Shengjun; Du, Yun; Xue, Huaiping; Xiao, Fei; Ban, Xuan; Li, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    Fugitive dust deriving from construction sites is a serious local source of particulate matter (PM) that leads to air pollution in cities undergoing rapid urbanization in China. In spite of this fact, no study has yet been published relating to prediction of high levels of PM with diameters <10 μm (PM10) as adjudicated by the Individual Air Quality Index (IAQI) on fugitive dust from nearby construction sites. To combat this problem, the Construction Influence Index (Ci) is introduced in this article to improve forecasting models based on three neural network models (multilayer perceptron, Elman, and support vector machine) in predicting daily PM10 IAQI one day in advance. To obtain acceptable forecasting accuracy, measured time series data were decomposed into wavelet representations and wavelet coefficients were predicted. Effectiveness of these forecasters were tested using a time series recorded between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, at six monitoring stations situated within the urban area of the city of Wuhan, China. Experimental trials showed that the improved models provided low root mean square error values and mean absolute error values in comparison to the original models. In addition, these improved models resulted in higher values of coefficients of determination and AHPC (the accuracy rate of high PM10 IAQI caused by nearby construction activity) compared to the original models when predicting high PM10 IAQI levels attributable to fugitive dust from nearby construction sites. PMID:24381481

  12. Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Collard, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease. PMID:25846532

  13. Developing Community-Level Policy and Practice to Reduce Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Brugge, Doug; Patton, Allison P.; Bob, Alex; Reisner, Ellin; Lowe, Lydia; Bright, Oliver-John M.; Durant, John L.; Newman, Jim; Zamore, Wig

    2016-01-01

    The literature consistently shows associations of adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes with residential proximity to highways and major roadways. Air monitoring shows that traffic-related pollutants (TRAP) are elevated within 200–400 m of these roads. Community-level tactics for reducing exposure include the following: 1) HEPA filtration; 2) Appropriate air-intake locations; 3) Sound proofing, insulation and other features; 4) Land-use buffers; 5) Vegetation or wall barriers; 6) Street-side trees, hedges and vegetation; 7) Decking over highways; 8) Urban design including placement of buildings; 9) Garden and park locations; and 10) Active travel locations, including bicycling and walking paths. A multidisciplinary design charrette was held to test the feasibility of incorporating these tactics into near-highway housing and school developments that were in the planning stages. The resulting designs successfully utilized many of the protective tactics and also led to engagement with the designers and developers of the sites. There is a need to increase awareness of TRAP in terms of building design and urban planning. PMID:27413416

  14. Influence of synoptic and local atmospheric patterns on PM10 air pollution levels: a model application to Naples (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortelli, Alberto; Scafetta, Nicola; Mazzarella, Adriano

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the relationship between synoptic/local meteorological patterns and PM10 air pollution levels in the metropolitan area of Naples, Italy. We found that severe air pollution crises occurred when the 850 and 500 hpa geopotential heights and their relative temperatures present maximum values above the city. The most relevant synoptic parameter was the 850 hPa geopotential height, which is located about 1500 m of altitude. We compared local meteorological conditions (specifically wind stress, rain amount and thermal inversion) against the urban air pollution levels from 2009 to 2013. We found several empirical criteria for forecasting high daily PM10 air pollution levels in Naples. Pollution crises occurred when (a) the wind stress was between 1 and 2 m/s, (b) the thermal inversion between two strategic locations was at least 3°C/200 m and (c) it did not significantly rain for at least 7 days. Beside these meteorological conditions, severe pollution crises occurred also during festivals when fireworks and bonfires are lighted, and during anomalous breeze conditions and severe fire accidents. Finally, we propose a basic model to predict PM10 concentration levels from local meteorological conditions that can be easily forecast a few days in advance. The synthetic PM10 record predicted by the model was found to correlate with the PM10 observations with a correlation coefficient close to 0.80 with a confidence level greater than 99%. The proposed model is expected to provide reliable information to city officials to carry out practical strategies to mitigate air pollution effects. Although the proposed model equation is calibrated on the topographical and meteorological conditions of Naples, it should be easily adaptable to alternative locations.

  15. Investigating Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  16. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  17. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

  18. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  19. Indoor air quality in Portuguese schools: levels and sources of pollutants.

    PubMed

    Madureira, J; Paciência, I; Pereira, C; Teixeira, J P; Fernandes, E de O

    2016-08-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) parameters in 73 primary classrooms in Porto were examined for the purpose of assessing levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, particulate matter, ventilation rates and bioaerosols within and between schools, and potential sources. Levels of VOCs, aldehydes, PM2.5 , PM10 , bacteria and fungi, carbon dioxide (CO2 ), carbon monoxide, temperature and relative humidity were measured indoors and outdoors and a walkthrough survey was performed concurrently. Ventilation rates were derived from CO2 and occupancy data. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm were often encountered, indicating poor ventilation. Most VOCs had low concentrations (median of individual species <5 μg/m(3) ) and were below the respective WHO guidelines. Concentrations of particulate matter and culturable bacteria were frequently higher than guidelines/reference values. The variability of VOCs, aldehydes, bioaerosol concentrations, and CO2 levels between schools exceeded the variability within schools. These findings indicate that IAQ problems may persist in classrooms where pollutant sources exist and classrooms are poorly ventilated; source control strategies (related to building location, occupant behavior, maintenance/cleaning activities) are deemed to be the most reliable for the prevention of adverse health consequences in children in schools.

  20. Understanding the Relationships between Air Pollution Levels and Human Health Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    As mandated by the CAA, EPA established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants and conducts periodic review of the NAAQS to assess if they need to be revised. The CAA then provides for implementation of the NAAQS based on a combination of local con...

  1. The Crisis in Air Pollution Manpower Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Dade W.

    1974-01-01

    Three studies conducted by the National Air Pollution Manpower Development Advisory Committee concluded there is a crisis in air pollution manpower development within the United States today. The studies investigated the existing federal manpower program, air pollution educational requirements and the quality of graduate level university programs.…

  2. On evaluating compliance with air pollution levels not to be exceeded more than once per year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    The adequacy is considered of currently practiced monitoring and data reduction techniques for assessing compliance with 24-hour Air Quality Standards (AQS) not to be exceeded more than once per year. The present situation for suspended particulates is discussed. The following conclusions are reached: (1) For typical less than daily sampling (i.e., 60 to 120 24-hour samples per year) the deviation from independence of the data set should not be substantial. (2) The interchange of exponentiation and expectation operations in the EPA data reduction model, underestimates the second highest level by about 4 to 8 percent for typical sigma values. (3) Estimates of the second highest pollution level have associated with them a large statistical variability arising from the finite size of the sample. The 0.95 confidence interval ranges from + or - 40 percent for 120 samples per year to + or - 84 percent for 30 samples per year. (4) The design value suggested by EPA for abatement and/or control planning purposes typically gives a margin of safety of 60 to 120 percent.

  3. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  4. Children's response to air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Thomas F; Schwartz, Joel

    2008-01-01

    It is important to focus on children with respect to air pollution because (1) their lungs are not completely developed, (2) they can have greater exposures than adults, and (3) those exposures can deliver higher doses of different composition that may remain in the lung for greater duration. The undeveloped lung is more vulnerable to assault and less able to fully repair itself when injury disrupts morphogenesis. Children spend more time outside, where concentrations of combustion-generated air pollution are generally higher. Children have higher baseline ventilation rates and are more physically active than adults, thus exposing their lungs to more air pollution. Nasal breathing in adults reduces some pollution concentrations, but children are more typically mouth-breathers--suggesting that the composition of the exposure mixture at the alveolar level may be different. Finally, higher ventilation rates and mouth-breathing may pull air pollutants deeper into children's lungs, thereby making clearance slower and more difficult. Children also have immature immune systems, which plays a significant role in asthma. The observed consequences of early life exposure to adverse levels of air pollutants include diminished lung function and increased susceptibility to acute respiratory illness and asthma. Exposure to diesel exhaust, in particular, is an area of concern for multiple endpoints, and deserves further research. PMID:18097949

  5. Household-level disparities in cancer risks from vehicular air pollution in Miami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Timothy W.; Grineski, Sara E.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-09-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research has relied on ecological analyses of socio-demographic data from areal units to determine if particular populations are disproportionately burdened by toxic risks. This article advances quantitative EJ research by (a) examining whether statistical associations found for geographic units translate to relationships at the household level; (b) testing alternative explanations for distributional injustices never before investigated; and (c) applying a novel statistical technique appropriate for geographically-clustered data. Our study makes these advances by using generalized estimating equations to examine distributive environmental inequities in the Miami (Florida) metropolitan area, based on primary household-level survey data and census block-level cancer risk estimates of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) exposure from on-road mobile emission sources. In addition to modeling determinants of on-road HAP cancer risk among all survey participants, two subgroup models are estimated to examine whether determinants of risk differ based on disadvantaged minority (Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black) versus non-Hispanic white racial/ethnic status. Results reveal multiple determinants of risk exposure disparities. In the model including all survey participants, renter-occupancy, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, the desire to live close to work/urban services or public transportation, and higher risk perception are associated with greater on-road HAP cancer risk; the desire to live in an amenity-rich environment is associated with less risk. Divergent subgroup model results shed light on the previously unexamined role of racial/ethnic status in shaping determinants of risk exposures. While lower socioeconomic status and higher risk perception predict significantly greater on-road HAP cancer risk among disadvantaged minorities, the desire to live near work/urban services or public transport predict significantly greater risk among

  6. Remote detection of air pollution stress to vegetation - Laboratory-level studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the role of leaf chemistry, anatomy, moisture content, and canopy density on spectral reflectance in healthy and pollution stressed western conifer needles and broad-leafed species of California coastal sage scrub is presented. Acid mist at a level of pH 2.0 is found to more severely effect chlorophyll loss and leaf death than ozone at a level of 0.2 ppm for a four-week period. Both pollutants cause water loss, affecting Bands 4 and 5 in nonlinear ways. The infrared bands initially rise as free water is lost, and subsequently, scattering and reflectance decline. The net effect is shown to be a reduction in TM 4/3 and a rise in TM 5/4 with pollution stress. Under more severe pollution stresses, the decline of leaf area indices due to accelerated leaf drop accentuates the expected TM 4/3 and TM 5/4 changes.

  7. The adverse effect of low levels of ambient air pollutants on lung function growth in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, W; Flak, E; Mróz, E

    1999-08-01

    The main purpose of our study was to assess the effect of low concentrations of ambient air pollution on lung function growth in preadolescent children. We accounted for height velocity over the follow-up period and also for other possible confounders such as baseline anthropometric and physiologic characteristics of children. In addition to outdoor air pollution, we considered the possible effects of social class and exposure to indoor pollutants such as gas stove fumes or environmental tobacco smoke. The cohort prospective study was carried out in 1,001 preadolescent children from two areas of Krakow, Poland, that differed in ambient air pollutants. In the city center (higher pollution area), the mean annual level [+/- standard deviation (SD)] of suspended particulate matter was 52.6 +/- 53.98 microg/m(3) and that of SO(2) was 43.87 +/- 32.69 microg/m(3); the corresponding values in the control area were 33.23 +/- 35.99 microg/m(3) and 31.77 +/- 21.93 microg/m(3). Mean lung function growth rate adjusted to height velocity and lung function level at the study entry was significantly lower in boys and girls living in the more polluted areas. Also, the proportion of children with the slower lung function growth (SLFG) was higher in the children from the more polluted area of the city. The analysis completed in the group of children after the exclusion of asthmatic subjects and those with asthmalike symptoms confirmed that, in boys, odds ratios (ORs) for SLFG [forced vital capacity (FVC)] and air pollution after adjustment to baseline FVC, height, and growth rate was significant [OR = 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-3. 69)]. The analysis also confirmed that for SLFG(FEV(1)) the OR was 1. 90 (CI, 1.12-3.25). The corresponding OR values in girls were insignificant (OR = 1.50; CI, 0.84-2.68 and OR = 1.39; CI, 0.78-2. 44). The association between ambient pollutants and poorer gain of pulmonary volumes in children living in more polluted areas suggests that air

  8. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  9. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive.

  10. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  11. Air pollution: brown skies research.

    PubMed Central

    Tattersfield, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    Direct information on the health effects of air pollution in humans relies mainly on chamber studies and epidemiological studies. Although chamber studies have limitations they allow the acute effects of individual pollutants to be studied in well characterised subjects under controlled conditions. Most chamber studies have shown relatively small falls in lung function and relatively small increases in bronchial reactivity at the concentrations of ozone, SO2, and NO2 that occur even during high pollution episodes in the UK. The possible exception is SO2 where sensitive asthmatic patients may show a greater response at concentrations that are seen from time to time in certain areas and in proximity to power stations. There is no convincing evidence of potentiation between pollutants in chamber studies. Epidemiological studies are more difficult to carry out and require considerable epidemiological and statistical expertise to deal with the main problem-confounding by other factors. Although the health effects seen with current levels of pollution are small compared with those seen in the 1950s and close to the limits of detection, this should not be interpreted as being unimportant. A small effect may have large consequences when the population exposed is large (the whole population in this case). Recent data suggest that particles have more important health effects than the pollutant gases that have been studied. Much of this information comes from the USA though the findings are probably applicable in the UK. More information is needed on the size of the health effects that occur during the three types of air pollution episodes seen in this country and the relative contributions of particles, pollutant gases, pollen, and other factors such as temperature. Research into air pollution declined in the UK following the introduction of the Clean Air Acts; it is now increasing again following pressure from certain individuals and ginger groups, including the British

  12. Testing for Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Artice

    Three experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to provide the teacher with some fundamental air pollution activities. The first experiment involved particulates, the second deals with microorganisms, and the third looks at gases in the atmosphere. Each activity outlines introductory information, objectives, materials required, procedure…

  13. Using smartphones to collect time-activity data for long-term personal-level air pollution exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Mark L; Rudra, Carole B; Yoo, Eun-Hye; Demirbas, Murat; Merriman, Joel; Nayak, Pramod; Crabtree-Ide, Christina; Szpiro, Adam A; Rudra, Atri; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mu, Lina

    2016-06-01

    Because of the spatiotemporal variability of people and air pollutants within cities, it is important to account for a person's movements over time when estimating personal air pollution exposure. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of using smartphones to collect personal-level time-activity data. Using Skyhook Wireless's hybrid geolocation module, we developed "Apolux" (Air, Pollution, Exposure), an Android(TM) smartphone application designed to track participants' location in 5-min intervals for 3 months. From 42 participants, we compared Apolux data with contemporaneous data from two self-reported, 24-h time-activity diaries. About three-fourths of measurements were collected within 5 min of each other (mean=74.14%), and 79% of participants reporting constantly powered-on smartphones (n=38) had a daily average data collection frequency of <10 min. Apolux's degree of temporal resolution varied across manufacturers, mobile networks, and the time of day that data collection occurred. The discrepancy between diary points and corresponding Apolux data was 342.3 m (Euclidian distance) and varied across mobile networks. This study's high compliance and feasibility for data collection demonstrates the potential for integrating smartphone-based time-activity data into long-term and large-scale air pollution exposure studies.

  14. Lacrimal Cytokines Assessment in Subjects Exposed to Different Levels of Ambient Air Pollution in a Large Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Monique; Bonatti, Rodolfo; Marquezini, Mônica V.; Garcia, Maria L. B.; Santos, Ubiratan P.; Braga, Alfésio L. F.; Alves, Milton R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution is one of the most environmental health concerns in the world and has serious impact on human health, particularly in the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. However, ocular hazardous effects to air pollutants are scarcely found in the literature. Design Panel study to evaluate the effect of different levels of ambient air pollution on lacrimal film cytokine levels of outdoor workers from a large metropolitan area. Methods Thirty healthy male workers, among them nineteen professionals who work on streets (taxi drivers and traffic controllers, high pollutants exposure, Group 1) and eleven workers of a Forest Institute (Group 2, lower pollutants exposure compared to group 1) were evaluated twice, 15 days apart. Exposure to ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter equal or smaller than 2.5 μm) was 24 hour individually collected and the collection of tears was performed to measure interleukins (IL) 2, 4, 5 and 10 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels. Data from both groups were compared using Student’s t test or Mann- Whitney test for cytokines. Individual PM2.5 levels were categorized in tertiles (lower, middle and upper) and compared using one-way ANOVA. Relationship between PM2.5 and cytokine levels was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results PM2.5 levels in the three categories differed significantly (lower: ≤22 μg/m3; middle: 23–37.5 μg/m3; upper: >37.5 μg/m3; p<0.001). The subjects from the two groups were distributed unevenly in the lower category (Group 1 = 8%; Group 2 = 92%), the middle category (Group 1 = 89%; Group 2 = 11%) and the upper category (Group 1 = 100%). A significant relationship was found between IL-5 and IL-10 and PM2.5 levels of the group 1, with an average decrease of 1.65 pg/mL of IL-5 level and of 0.78 pg/mL of IL-10 level in tear samples for each increment of 50 μg/m3 of PM2.5 (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003, respectively). Conclusion High levels of PM2.5 exposure is associated

  15. Air pollution: a tale of two countries.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi; Franklin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The fast growing economies and continued urbanization in Asian countries have increased the demand for mobility and energy in the region, resulting in high levels of air pollution in cities from mobile and stationary sources. In contrast, low level of urbanization in Australia produces low level of urban air pollution. The World Health Organization estimates that about 500,000 premature deaths per year are caused by air pollution, leaving the urban poor particularly vulnerable since they live in air pollution hotspots, have low respiratory resistance due to bad nutrition, and lack access to quality health care. Identifying the differences and similarities of air pollution levels and its impacts, between Indonesia and Australia, will provide best lesson learned to tackle air pollution problems for Pacific Basin Rim countries.

  16. Air pollution: a tale of two countries.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi; Franklin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The fast growing economies and continued urbanization in Asian countries have increased the demand for mobility and energy in the region, resulting in high levels of air pollution in cities from mobile and stationary sources. In contrast, low level of urbanization in Australia produces low level of urban air pollution. The World Health Organization estimates that about 500,000 premature deaths per year are caused by air pollution, leaving the urban poor particularly vulnerable since they live in air pollution hotspots, have low respiratory resistance due to bad nutrition, and lack access to quality health care. Identifying the differences and similarities of air pollution levels and its impacts, between Indonesia and Australia, will provide best lesson learned to tackle air pollution problems for Pacific Basin Rim countries. PMID:21714382

  17. On evaluating compliance with air pollution levels 'not to be exceeded more than once a year'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Under a sampling program operated in conformity with EPA guidelines, calculational procedures are described for estimating the corresponding ambient pollution level. The statistical independence of the data, the commutativity of expectation and exponential operations, and the statistical variability of the calculated results are quantitatively evaluated. It is shown that the recommended sampling frequencies of every third to every sixth day are inadequate in determining conformity when the standards are expressed as levels not to be exceeded more than once a year.

  18. Lung cancer and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A J; Pope, C A

    1995-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years suggest rather consistently that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, may be responsible for increased rates of lung cancer. This evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30 to 50% increases in lung cancer rates associated with exposure to respirable particles. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the United States continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. It is not known how many people in the United States are exposed to levels of fine respirable particles that have been associated with lung cancer in recent epidemiologic studies. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the United States based largely on the results of animal studies, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution among the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer associated with air pollution. PMID:8741787

  19. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level.

    PubMed

    Tobollik, Myriam; Razum, Oliver; Wintermeyer, Dirk; Plass, Dietrich

    2015-08-28

    Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150-7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479-122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008-2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090-19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments.

  20. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level

    PubMed Central

    Tobollik, Myriam; Razum, Oliver; Wintermeyer, Dirk; Plass, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150–7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479–122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008–2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090–19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments. PMID:26343701

  1. CRITICAL HEALTH ISSUES OF CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter summarizes the key health information on ubiquitous outdoor air pollutants that can cause adverse health effects at current or historical ambient levels in the United States. Of the thousands of air pollutants, very few meet this definition. The Clean Air Act (CA...

  2. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 3: Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Air Pollution Control Officer's (APCO) Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties, The first two sections, which are…

  3. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  4. [Air pollution and population health].

    PubMed

    Kristoforović-Ilić, Miroslava; Ilić, Miroslav

    2006-10-01

    In the last few decades, there has been increased population concern for quality of environment, for it is, after life style, the second risk factor of disease development. Particular problem is that a large majority of serious impairments of health is manifested only after a long latent period, so it is not always possible to establish clear association with environmental factors. It is considered today that around 40% of lethal cases are caused by polluted environment in various ways, while environment is the most important etiologic factor in 5% of disease incidence. Problems arising due to environment pollution are most frequently related to air pollution. The World Resource Institute, Washington, has developed the indicators for evaluation of risk of environment pollution to population health. There is one common indicator both for developed and developing countries--air pollution. EPA recommended new standards for some polluting substances. The document reviewed these standards and their implementation in our community. New Law on Environment Protection ("Official Gazette of RS" No. 135/2004) from December 20th, 2004, followed by relevant documents on air quality, should be beneficial to experts at the level of subtle diagnostics and proposal of adequate measures with a view to improve the quality of life.

  5. Air pollution and plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Treshow, M.

    1984-01-01

    The publication of this volume could hardly have been more timely, for concern about the damage to plants from air pollution has grown rapidly in the last few years. The book comprises eighteen chapters by contributors of high repute. Three early chapters deal with Dispersion and Fate of Atmospheric Pollutants, Long Range Transport and Monitoring Levels and Effects of Air Pollutants. They provide essential reading for those working on effects in the field, and they set the scene for a contribution from the Volume Editor on the problems of diagnosis. The central chapters (7 to 11) provide, in considerable depth, a summary of the knowledge of the mechanism of action of pollutants on plants, in terms of physiology, biochemistry, and ultrastructure. Particularly valuable is the essay entitled Impact of Air Pollutant Combinations on Plants, which concludes that even though few generalizations are possible, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest that interactions between some pollutants (e.g. SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/) may seriously damage some plants.

  6. [Air pollution and population health].

    PubMed

    Kristoforović-Ilić, Miroslava; Ilić, Miroslav

    2006-10-01

    In the last few decades, there has been increased population concern for quality of environment, for it is, after life style, the second risk factor of disease development. Particular problem is that a large majority of serious impairments of health is manifested only after a long latent period, so it is not always possible to establish clear association with environmental factors. It is considered today that around 40% of lethal cases are caused by polluted environment in various ways, while environment is the most important etiologic factor in 5% of disease incidence. Problems arising due to environment pollution are most frequently related to air pollution. The World Resource Institute, Washington, has developed the indicators for evaluation of risk of environment pollution to population health. There is one common indicator both for developed and developing countries--air pollution. EPA recommended new standards for some polluting substances. The document reviewed these standards and their implementation in our community. New Law on Environment Protection ("Official Gazette of RS" No. 135/2004) from December 20th, 2004, followed by relevant documents on air quality, should be beneficial to experts at the level of subtle diagnostics and proposal of adequate measures with a view to improve the quality of life. PMID:18172966

  7. Predicting hourly air pollutant levels using artificial neural networks coupled with uncertainty analysis by Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Arhami, Mohammad; Kamali, Nima; Rajabi, Mohammad Mahdi

    2013-07-01

    probability of exceeding air quality thresholds was developed by combining ANNs and MCSs based on Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). The results showed that proper ANN models can be used as reliable metamodels for the prediction of hourly air pollutants in urban environments. High correlations were obtained with R (2) of more than 0.82 between modeled and observed hourly pollutant levels for CO, NOx, NO2, NO, and PM10. However, predicted O3 levels were less accurate. The combined use of ANNs and MCSs seems very promising in analyzing air pollution prediction uncertainties. Replacing deterministic predictions with probabilistic PIs can enhance the reliability of ANN models and provide a means of quantifying prediction uncertainties.

  8. Predicting hourly air pollutant levels using artificial neural networks coupled with uncertainty analysis by Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Arhami, Mohammad; Kamali, Nima; Rajabi, Mohammad Mahdi

    2013-07-01

    probability of exceeding air quality thresholds was developed by combining ANNs and MCSs based on Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). The results showed that proper ANN models can be used as reliable metamodels for the prediction of hourly air pollutants in urban environments. High correlations were obtained with R (2) of more than 0.82 between modeled and observed hourly pollutant levels for CO, NOx, NO2, NO, and PM10. However, predicted O3 levels were less accurate. The combined use of ANNs and MCSs seems very promising in analyzing air pollution prediction uncertainties. Replacing deterministic predictions with probabilistic PIs can enhance the reliability of ANN models and provide a means of quantifying prediction uncertainties. PMID:23292230

  9. Air pollution and respiratory viral infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite current regulations, which limit the levels of certain air pollutants, there are still a number of adverse health effects that result from exposure to these agents. Numerous epidemiological studies have noted an association between the levels of air pollution and hospital...

  10. On evaluating compliance with air pollution levels 'not to be exceeded more than once per year'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    The point of view taken is that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality Standards (AQS) represent conditions which must be made to exist in the ambient environment. The statistical techniques developed should serve as tools for measuring the closeness to achieving the desired quality of air. It is shown that the sampling frequency recommended by EPA is inadequate to meet these objectives when the standard is expressed as a level not to be exceeded more than once per year and sampling frequency is once every three days or less frequent.

  11. Air pollution and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Böhm, G M

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence proves conclusively that lung cancer correlates with air pollution. However, data on lung cancer death rates and smoking show that mankind accepts the risk of long-term and low-level exposure to carcinogens. As a rule, immediate benefits are sought and remote hazards ignored. Fear of atmospheric contamination by radioactive fallout seems to be the main factor for awareness of air pollution. Experimental works help us to understand physics of particle deposition in the lungs (inertial impactation, sedimentation, Brownian movement), shed light on carcinogenesis (eg, bay region theory in case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and surface charge changes regarding asbestos), show that atmospheric particulates accepted as harmless may act as co-carcinogens (eg, iron and benzo(a)pyrene) and stress the importance of in vitro researches (bacterial mutation tests, organ cultures, sister chromatid exchange system) to screen pollutants for their malignant potential and study their pathogenesis.

  12. Air pollution and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence proves conclusively that lung cancer correlates with air pollution. However, data on lung cancer death rates and smoking show that mankind accepts the risk of long-term and low-level exposure to carcinogens. As a rule, immediate benefits are sought and remote hazards ignored. Fear of atmospheric contamination by radioactive fallout seems to be the main factor for awareness of air pollution. Experimental works help us to understand physics of particle deposition in the lungs (inertial impactation, sedimentation, Brownian movement), shed light on carcinogenesis (eg, bay region theory in case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and surface charge changes regarding asbestos), show that atmospheric particulates accepted as harmless may act as co-carcinogens (eg, iron and benzo(a)pyrene) and stress the importance of in vitro research (bacterial mutation tests, organ cultures, sister chromatid exchange system) to screen pollutants for their malignant potential and study their pathogenesis.

  13. Pollution levels and characteristics of phthalate esters in indoor air in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqing; Song, Min; Guo, Min; Chi, Chenchen; Mo, Feifei; Shen, Xueyou

    2015-11-01

    The concentrations of phthalate esters (PAEs) in Chinese hospitals were investigated by simultaneously determining concentrations of gas- and particle-phase PAEs. PAEs were detected in two third-class first-grade hospitals, two second-class first-grade hospitals, and a community health service center. Hospital drugstores had the highest concentration (24.19μg/m(3)), which was 1.54 times that of newly decorated houses. The second highest concentration was found in the transfusion rooms, averaging 21.89μg/m(3); this was followed by the concentrations of PAEs in the nurse's workstations, the wards, and the doctor's offices, with mean concentrations of 20.66, 20.0, and 16.92μg/m(3), respectively. The lowest concentrations were found in the hallways (16.30μg/m(3)). Of the six different kinds of PAEs found, major pollutants included diethyl phthalates, dibutyl phthalates, butylbenzyl phthalates and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates, comprising more than 80% of all PAEs present. Meanwhile, a comparison between different wards showed that PAE concentrations in the maternity wards were 1.63 times higher than in the main wards. Based on known health hazards, our results suggest that the PAEs seriously influence the health of the pregnant women and babies; therefore, it is of great importance to take the phthalate concentrations in hospitals into consideration. In addition, hospital indoor air was more seriously contaminated than the air of newly decorated houses.

  14. [Level and characteristics of indoor air pollutants in a furniture mall in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chuan-Jia; Li, Shen-Shen; Zhang, Peng-Yi; Wang, Juan

    2010-12-01

    Concentrations of BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds were measured in different sections of a furniture mall in Beijing. The overall indoor concentrations (mean +/- standard deviation) of formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, xylene, and TVOC were (0.37 +/- 0.08), (0.04 +/- 0.03), (0.19 +/- 0.16), (0.47 +/- 0.57), and (2.76 +/- 2.18) mg/m3, respectively. Indoor concentrations of formaldehyde, xylene and TVOC were 22, 46 and 34 times higher than the corresponding outdoor concentrations respectively. Concentrations of formaldehyde, xylene and TVOC were much higher than the standard limits regulated in the national "indoor air quality standard" (GB/T 18883-2002), and the highest concentrations of formaldehyde and TVOC exceeded the standard limit 5.1 and 14.8 times respectively. Total concentration of carbonyl compounds was (689.3 +/- 94.8) microg/m3, which was 5 times higher than that outdoors. Of the carbonyls, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to be the most abundant, together accounting for over 75% of the total carbonyl concentrations. Acetone, C4 carbonyls (methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone, butanal), and hexanal also occurred at relatively high concentrations. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is serious in the furniture mall.

  15. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

  16. Indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, D.R. )

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  17. Association of indoor and outdoor air pollutant level with respiratory problems among children in an industrial area of Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Nagar, Jitendra K; Kumar, Harsh; Kushwah, Alka S; Meena, Mahesh; Kumar, Pawan; Raj, Neelima; Singhal, M K; Gaur, S N

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted this prospective study at the Shahdara industrial area of Delhi, India. They examined the effects of indoor and outdoor air pollutant levels on respiratory health in 394 children aged 7 to 15 years. The majority of children had a history of respiratory problems, including cough (62.7%), sputum production (24.4%), shortness of breath (32.0%), wheezing (25.6%), common cold (44.4%), and throat congestion (43.1%). The association of indoor and outdoor air pollutant levels showed that outdoor SO2 and NO2 was significantly higher than indoor SO2 and NO2 levels, whereas the mean indoor level of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was significantly higher than outdoor SPM level. Indoor SPM level also was significantly higher in homes of children with a history of respiratory illness than homes of children having no history of respiratory illness. Results suggest that both indoor and outdoor particulate exposure may be important risk factors in the development of respiratory illness in children. PMID:18316264

  18. Remote air pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

  19. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  20. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  1. In Search of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckendorf, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

  2. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  3. Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, D.B.; Stern, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The Effects of Air Pollution; Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution; Meterology of Air Pollution; regulatory Control of Air Pollution; and Engineering Control of Air Pollution.

  4. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  5. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  6. System interactions of air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E. )

    1992-06-01

    The impact of system interactions and simultaneous or sequential exposure to various air pollutants, both man-made and natural ones, requires greater concern in the interpretation of the total adverse impact of various air pollutants. It is clear that there are highly significant system interactions with exposure to various air pollutants, and these must be considered very carefully in the evaluation of their adverse health effects.

  7. Cough and environmental air pollution in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Minzhi; Lai, Kefang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-12-01

    With fast-paced urbanization and increased energy consumption in rapidly industrialized modern China, the level of outdoor and indoor air pollution resulting from industrial and motor vehicle emissions has been increasing at an accelerated rate. Thus, there is a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and decreased pulmonary function. Experimental exposure research and epidemiological studies have indicated that exposure to particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and environmental tobacco smoke have a harmful influence on development of respiratory diseases and are significantly associated with cough and wheeze. This review mainly discusses the effect of air pollutants on respiratory health, particularly with respect to cough, the links between air pollutants and microorganisms, and air pollutant sources. Particular attention is paid to studies in urban areas of China where the levels of ambient and indoor air pollution are significantly higher than World Health Organization recommendations.

  8. [Air pollution and the lung: epidemiological approach].

    PubMed

    Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Dab, William

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence has concurred with clinical and experimental evidence to correlate current levels of ambient air pollution, both indoors and outdoors, with respiratory effects. In this respect, the use of specific epidemiological methods has been crucial. Common outdoor pollutants are particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and ozone. Short-term effects of outdoor air pollution include changes in lung function, respiratory symptoms and mortality due to respiratory causes. Increase in the use of health care resources has also been associated with short-term effects of air pollution. Long-term effects of cumulated exposure to urban air pollution include lung growth impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and probably the development of asthma and allergies. Lung cancer and COPD have been related to a shorter life expectancy. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Further epidemiological research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of air pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health.

  9. Chronic exposure to high levels of particulate air pollution and small airway remodeling.

    PubMed Central

    Churg, Andrew; Brauer, Michael; del Carmen Avila-Casado, Maria; Fortoul, Teresa I; Wright, Joanne L

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that chronic exposure to high levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with decreased pulmonary function and the development of chronic airflow obstruction. To investigate the possible role of PM-induced abnormalities in the small airways in these functional changes, we examined histologic sections from the lungs of 20 women from Mexico City, a high PM locale. All subjects were lifelong residents of Mexico City, were never-smokers, never had occupational dust exposure, and never used biomass fuel for cooking. Twenty never-smoking, non-dust-exposed subjects from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, a low PM region, were used as a control. By light microscopy, abnormal small airways with fibrotic walls and excess muscle, many containing visible dust, were present in the Mexico City lungs. Formal grading analysis confirmed the presence of significantly greater amounts of fibrous tissue and muscle in the walls of the airways in the Mexico City compared with the Vancouver lungs. Electron microscopic particle burden measurements on four cases from Mexico City showed that carbonaceous aggregates of ultrafine particles, aggregates likely to be combustion products, were present in the airway mucosa. We conclude that PM penetrates into and is retained in the walls of small airways, and that, even in nonsmokers, long-term exposure to high levels of ambient particulate pollutants is associated with small airway remodeling. This process may produce chronic airflow obstruction. PMID:12727599

  10. Arctic smoke record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Burkhart, J. F.; Fjæraa, A. M.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Hov, Ø.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Simpson, D.; Solberg, S.; Stebel, K.; Ström, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.

    2006-10-01

    In spring 2006, the European Arctic was abnormally warm, setting new historical temperature records. During this warm period, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe intruded into the European Arctic and caused the most severe air pollution episodes ever recorded there. This paper confirms that biomass burning (BB) was indeed the source of the observed air pollution, studies the transport of the smoke into the Arctic, and presents an overview of the observations taken during the episode. Fire detections from the MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites were used to estimate the BB emissions. The FLEXPART particle dispersion model was used to show that the smoke was transported to Spitsbergen and Iceland, which was confirmed by MODIS retrievals of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and AIRS retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) total columns. Concentrations of halocarbons, carbon dioxide and CO, as well as levoglucosan and potassium, measured at Zeppelin mountain near NyÅlesund, were used to further corroborate the BB source of the smoke at Spitsbergen. The ozone (O3) and CO concentrations were the highest ever observed at the Zeppelin station, and gaseous elemental mercury was also enhanced. A new O3 record was also set at a station on Iceland. The smoke was strongly absorbing - black carbon concentrations were the highest ever recorded at Zeppelin -, and strongly perturbed the radiation transmission in the atmosphere: aerosol optical depths were the highest ever measured at NyÅlesund. We furthermore discuss the aerosol chemical composition, obtained from filter samples, as well as the aerosol size distribution during the smoke event. Photographs show that the snow at a glacier on Spitsbergen became discolored during the episode and, thus, the snow albedo was reduced. Samples of this polluted snow contained strongly enhanced levels of potassium, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium ions, thus relating the discoloration to the deposition of the smoke

  11. [METHODOLOGY FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF THE ATMOSPHERIC AIR POLLUTION ON THE FORMATION OF THE LEVELS OF OVERALL MORBIDITY RATE OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA].

    PubMed

    Veremchuk, L V; Cherpack, N A; Gvozdenko, T A; Volkova, M V

    2015-01-01

    In large cities with strong air pollution the formation of the levels of morbidity rate of bronchial asthma has a complex causation that requires the search for informative methods for identification of causes and consequences of this dependence. Method for the assessment of the dependence of overall levels of morbidity rate of bronchial asthma on the degree of air pollution allows you to select a "useful information" of the direct impact of air pollution on a background of random processes and latent relationship between human and environment. The use of the method of the information entropy analysis allowed us to estimate the total and the individual contribution of the separate components of air pollution on the formation of levels of total morbidity rate of bronchial asthma in the population of the city of Vladivostok. Levels of total incidence of this pathology were established to differ in various age groups. The adult population is more adapted to air pollution, but retains a high sensitivity to the impact of nitrogen dioxide. Levels of overall l morbidity rate of bronchial asthma in children and adolescents depend on the total air pollution with some dominance of the influence of suspended matter and carbon monoxide.

  12. Air pollution and blood lipid markers levels: Estimating short and long-term effects on elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sanhua; Liu, Ranran; Wei, Youxiu; Feng, Lin; Lv, Xuemin; Tang, Fei

    2016-08-01

    With the development of society and the economy, many Chinese cities are shrouded in pollution haze for much of the year. Scientific studies have identified various adverse effects of air pollutants on human beings. However, the relationships between air pollution and blood lipid levels are still unclear. The objective of this study is to explore the short and long-term effects of air pollution on eight blood lipid markers among elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Blood lipid markers which met the pre-established inclusion criteria were exported from the medical record system. Air pollution data were acquired from the official environmental protection website. Associations between the air quality index and the blood lipid indexes were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and further Bonferroni correction. In an exposure time of 7 days or longer, blood lipid markers were somewhat affected by poor air quality. However, the results could not predict whether atherosclerosis would be promoted or inhibited by poorer air condition. Changes of blood lipid markers of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D were not completely the same, but no blood lipid markers had an opposite trend between the two populations. The air quality index was associated with changes to blood lipid markers to some extent in a population of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism by which air pollutants induce blood lipids changes.

  13. Air pollution and blood lipid markers levels: Estimating short and long-term effects on elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sanhua; Liu, Ranran; Wei, Youxiu; Feng, Lin; Lv, Xuemin; Tang, Fei

    2016-08-01

    With the development of society and the economy, many Chinese cities are shrouded in pollution haze for much of the year. Scientific studies have identified various adverse effects of air pollutants on human beings. However, the relationships between air pollution and blood lipid levels are still unclear. The objective of this study is to explore the short and long-term effects of air pollution on eight blood lipid markers among elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Blood lipid markers which met the pre-established inclusion criteria were exported from the medical record system. Air pollution data were acquired from the official environmental protection website. Associations between the air quality index and the blood lipid indexes were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and further Bonferroni correction. In an exposure time of 7 days or longer, blood lipid markers were somewhat affected by poor air quality. However, the results could not predict whether atherosclerosis would be promoted or inhibited by poorer air condition. Changes of blood lipid markers of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D were not completely the same, but no blood lipid markers had an opposite trend between the two populations. The air quality index was associated with changes to blood lipid markers to some extent in a population of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism by which air pollutants induce blood lipids changes. PMID:27180144

  14. Air pollution linked to Remote Sensing tools - Science training using a Master's Level e-Learning Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A.; Kanakidou, M.; Richter, A.; Wagner, T.; Borrell, P.; Law, R. J.; Burrows, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    As we know it today air pollution is a release into the atmosphere of any substances, chemicals or particles, which are harmful both to the human and animal health as well as the health of the wider environment. The use of satellite based instruments is a young and developing research field and excellent for studying air pollution events over large areas at high spatial-temporal resolutions, especially when ground measurements, which are limited in spatial-temporal coverage, are not available. Students on postgraduate level should be trained in using, and analysing remote sensing data from both ground and satellite based or in interpreting the high variety in remote sensing e.g satellite images or maps. As follows an e-learning online module has been devised and constructed to facilitate the teaching of Remote Sensing of Troposphere from Space to research students at a Master's level. The module, which is essentially an interactive on-line text book, is stand alone, although it could be encompassed within a standard course management system. The scientific content is presented as study pages under three headings: remote sensing from space, the basics of radiation transfer, and retrieval procedures for tropospheric satellite data.The student is encouraged to test his or her comprehension of the material through exercises on the scientific topics.

  15. Air pollution linked to Remote Sensing tools - Science training using a Master's Level e-Learning Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A.; Kanakidou, M.; Richter, A.; Wagner, T.; Borrell, P.; Law, R. J.; Burrows, J. P.

    2009-09-01

    As we know it today air pollution is a release into the atmosphere of any substances, chemicals or particles, which are harmful both to the human and animal health as well as the health of the wider environment. The use of satellite based instruments is a young and developing research field and excellent for studying air pollution events over large areas at high spatial-temporal resolutions, especially when ground measurements, which are limited in spatial-temporal coverage, are not available. Students on postgraduate level should be trained in using, and analysing remote sensing data from both ground and satellite based or in interpreting the high variety in remote sensing e.g satellite images or maps. As follows an e-learning online module has been devised and constructed to facilitate the teaching of Remote Sensing of Troposphere from Space to research students at a Master's level. The module, which is essentially an interactive on-line text book, is stand alone, although it could be encompassed within a standard course management system. The scientific content is presented as study pages under three headings: remote sensing from space, the basics of radiation transfer, and retrieval procedures for tropospheric satellite data.The student is encouraged to test his or her comprehension of the material through exercises on the scientific topics.

  16. Making air quality indices comparable--assessment of 10 years of air pollutant levels in western Europe.

    PubMed

    Lokys, Hanna Leona; Junk, Jürgen; Krein, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    To address the incomparability of the large number of existing air quality indices, we propose a new normalization method that is suited to directly compare air quality indices based on the common European World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines for NO2, O3, and PM10. Using this method, we compared three air quality indices based on the European guidelines, related them to another air quality index based on the relative risk concept, and used them to assess the air quality and its trends in northwest central Europe. The average air quality in the area of investigation is below the recommended European guidelines. The majority of index values exceeding this threshold are caused by PM10, which is also, in most cases, responsible for the degrading trends in air quality. Eleven out of 29 stations tested showed significant trends, of which eight indicated trends towards better air quality.

  17. Adverse health effects of outdoor air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Luke; Rea, William; Smith-Willis, Patricia; Fenyves, Ervin; Pan, Yaqin

    2006-08-01

    Much research on the health effects of outdoor air pollution has been published in the last decade. The goal of this review is to concisely summarize a wide range of the recent research on health effects of many types of outdoor air pollution. A review of the health effects of major outdoor air pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, acid gases, metals, volatile organics, solvents, pesticides, radiation and bioaerosols is presented. Numerous studies have linked atmospheric pollutants to many types of health problems of many body systems including the respiratory, cardiovascular, immunological, hematological, neurological and reproductive/ developmental systems. Some studies have found increases in respiratory and cardiovascular problems at outdoor pollutant levels well below standards set by such agencies as the US EPA and WHO. Air pollution is associated with large increases in medical expenses, morbidity and is estimated to cause about 800,000 annual premature deaths worldwide [Cohen, A.J., Ross Alexander, H., Ostro, B., Pandey, K.D., Kryzanowski, M., Kunzail, N., et al., 2005. The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 68: 1-7.]. Further research on the health effects of air pollution and air pollutant abatement methods should be very helpful to physicians, public health officials, industrialists, politicians and the general public. PMID:16730796

  18. Air pollution and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haejin; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient articles and summarizes findings important to the interaction between allergies and air pollution, specifically volatile organic compounds, global warming, particulate pollutants, atopic risk, indoor air pollution, and prenatal exposure. Further work is necessary to determine whether patients predisposed to developing allergic disease may be more susceptible to the health effects of air pollutants due to the direct interaction between IgE-mediated disease and air pollutants. Until we have more definitive answers, patient education about the importance of good indoor air quality in the home and workplace is essential. Health care providers and the general community should also support public policy designed to improve outdoor air quality by developing programs that provide incentives for industry to comply with controlling pollution emissions.

  19. Air Pollution and Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

  20. Children, Pediatricians, and Polluted Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    Explored are children's vulnerability and the pediatrician's role in relation to the problems posed by air pollution. Research is noted to have included a search of biomedical literature over the past 10 years; attendance at medical meetings; conferences with air pollution researchers, environmental protection administrators, and specialists in…

  1. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  2. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  3. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution.

  4. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    PubMed Central

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. PMID:22726103

  5. School-based exposure to hazardous air pollutants and grade point average: A multi-level study.

    PubMed

    Grineski, Sara E; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E; Collins, Timothy W

    2016-05-01

    The problem of environmental health hazards around schools is serious but it has been neglected by researchers and analysts. This is concerning because children are highly susceptible to the effects of chemical hazards. Some ecological studies have demonstrated that higher school-level pollution is associated with lower aggregate school-level standardized test scores likely, related to increased respiratory illnesses and/or impaired cognitive development. However, an important question remains unexamined: How do school-level exposures impact individual children's academic performance? To address this, we obtained socio-demographic and grades data from the parents of 1888 fourth and fifth grade children in the El Paso (Texas, USA) Independent School District in 2012. El Paso is located on the US-side of the Mexican border and has a majority Mexican-origin population. School-based hazardous air pollution (HAP) exposure was calculated using census block-level US Environmental Protection Agency National Air Toxics Assessment risk estimates for respiratory and diesel particulate matter (PM). School-level demographics were obtained from the school district. Multi-level models adjusting for individual-level covariates (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity, English proficiency, and economic deprivation) and school-level covariates (e.g., percent of students economically disadvantaged and student-teacher ratio) showed that higher school-level HAPs were associated with lower individual-level grade point averages. An interquartile range increase in school-level HAP exposure was associated with an adjusted 0.11-0.40 point decrease in individual students' grade point averages (GPAs), depending on HAP type and emission source. Respiratory risk from HAPs had a larger effect on GPA than did diesel PM risk. Non-road mobile and total respiratory risk had the largest effects on children's GPA of all HAP variables studied and only mother's level of education had a larger effect than those

  6. School-based exposure to hazardous air pollutants and grade point average: A multi-level study.

    PubMed

    Grineski, Sara E; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E; Collins, Timothy W

    2016-05-01

    The problem of environmental health hazards around schools is serious but it has been neglected by researchers and analysts. This is concerning because children are highly susceptible to the effects of chemical hazards. Some ecological studies have demonstrated that higher school-level pollution is associated with lower aggregate school-level standardized test scores likely, related to increased respiratory illnesses and/or impaired cognitive development. However, an important question remains unexamined: How do school-level exposures impact individual children's academic performance? To address this, we obtained socio-demographic and grades data from the parents of 1888 fourth and fifth grade children in the El Paso (Texas, USA) Independent School District in 2012. El Paso is located on the US-side of the Mexican border and has a majority Mexican-origin population. School-based hazardous air pollution (HAP) exposure was calculated using census block-level US Environmental Protection Agency National Air Toxics Assessment risk estimates for respiratory and diesel particulate matter (PM). School-level demographics were obtained from the school district. Multi-level models adjusting for individual-level covariates (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity, English proficiency, and economic deprivation) and school-level covariates (e.g., percent of students economically disadvantaged and student-teacher ratio) showed that higher school-level HAPs were associated with lower individual-level grade point averages. An interquartile range increase in school-level HAP exposure was associated with an adjusted 0.11-0.40 point decrease in individual students' grade point averages (GPAs), depending on HAP type and emission source. Respiratory risk from HAPs had a larger effect on GPA than did diesel PM risk. Non-road mobile and total respiratory risk had the largest effects on children's GPA of all HAP variables studied and only mother's level of education had a larger effect than those

  7. Structural Impacts on Thallus and Algal Cell Components of Two Lichen Species in Response to Low-Level Air Pollution in Pacific Northwest Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ra, Hyung-Shim Y.; Rubin, Laura; Crang, Richard F. E.

    2004-04-01

    Lichens have long been regarded as bioindicators of air pollution, and structural studies typically have indicated negative impacts in highly polluted areas. In this research, Parmelia sulcata and Platismatia glauca were collected from one clean and two polluted sites in the Pacific Northwest forests of the United States to investigate the anatomical and ultrastructural responses of relatively resistant lichens to moderate air pollution. Light microscopy of polluted materials revealed only slight increases in the algal cell proportions of the thallus, and a decrease in the fungal cells of the medulla. Using transmission electron microscopy, increased lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and an increase in the cell wall thickness of the photobionts were found in the polluted lichens. These results were compared with physiological data in which the net carbon uptake did not show any significant differences; however, the total chlorophyll content was heightened in the polluted samples. The increased total chlorophyll content and the absence of any changes in the algal cell proportions of the polluted samples suggest that the photobionts possessed a higher chlorophyll content per unit volume of the photobiont at polluted sites. The results also indicate that lichens have altered their storage allocation in different cellular compartments. This may be a result of symbiotic readjustment(s) between the photobiont and the mycobiont. In comparison with the physiological results from these two species, these changes do not represent damaging effects by low-level air pollution.

  8. Structural impacts on thallus and algal cell components of two lichen species in response to low-level air pollution in pacific northwest forests.

    PubMed

    Ra, Hyung-Shim Y; Rubin, Laura; Crang, Richard F E

    2004-04-01

    Lichens have long been regarded as bioindicators of air pollution, and structural studies typically have indicated negative impacts in highly polluted areas. In this research, Parmelia sulcata and Platismatia glauca were collected from one clean and two polluted sites in the Pacific Northwest forests of the United States to investigate the anatomical and ultrastructural responses of relatively resistant lichens to moderate air pollution. Light microscopy of polluted materials revealed only slight increases in the algal cell proportions of the thallus, and a decrease in the fungal cells of the medulla. Using transmission electron microscopy, increased lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and an increase in the cell wall thickness of the photobionts were found in the polluted lichens. These results were compared with physiological data in which the net carbon uptake did not show any significant differences; however, the total chlorophyll content was heightened in the polluted samples. The increased total chlorophyll content and the absence of any changes in the algal cell proportions of the polluted samples suggest that the photobionts possessed a higher chlorophyll content per unit volume of the photobiont at polluted sites. The results also indicate that lichens have altered their storage allocation in different cellular compartments. This may be a result of symbiotic readjustment(s) between the photobiont and the mycobiont. In comparison with the physiological results from these two species, these changes do not represent damaging effects by low-level air pollution.

  9. BAERLIN2014 - the influence of land surface types on and the horizontal heterogeneity of air pollutant levels in Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonn, Boris; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Andrich, Dorota; Quedenau, Jörn; Gerwig, Holger; Lüdecke, Anja; Kura, Jürgen; Pietsch, Axel; Ehlers, Christian; Klemp, Dieter; Kofahl, Claudia; Nothard, Rainer; Kerschbaumer, Andreas; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Grote, Rüdiger; Pohl, Tobias; Weber, Konradin; Lode, Birgit; Schönberger, Philipp; Churkina, Galina; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-06-01

    Urban air quality and human health are among the key aspects of future urban planning. In order to address pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, efforts need to be made to quantify and reduce their concentrations. One important aspect in understanding urban air quality is the influence of urban vegetation which may act as both emitter and sink for trace gases and aerosol particles. In this context, the "Berlin Air quality and Ecosystem Research: Local and long-range Impact of anthropogenic and Natural hydrocarbons 2014" (BAERLIN2014) campaign was conducted between 2 June and 29 August in the metropolitan area of Berlin and Brandenburg, Germany. The predominant goals of the campaign were (1) the characterization of urban gaseous and particulate pollution and its attribution to anthropogenic and natural sources in the region of interest, especially considering the connection between biogenic volatile organic compounds and particulates and ozone; (2) the quantification of the impact of urban vegetation on organic trace gas levels and the presence of oxidants such as ozone; and (3) to explain the local heterogeneity of pollutants by defining the distribution of sources and sinks relevant for the interpretation of model simulations. In order to do so, the campaign included stationary measurements at urban background station and mobile observations carried out from bicycle, van and airborne platforms. This paper provides an overview of the mobile measurements (Mobile BAERLIN2014) and general conclusions drawn from the analysis. Bicycle measurements showed micro-scale variations of temperature and particulate matter, displaying a substantial reduction of mean temperatures and particulate levels in the proximity of vegetated areas compared to typical urban residential area (background) measurements. Van measurements extended the area covered by bicycle observations and included continuous measurements of O3, NOx, CO, CO2 and point-wise measurement of volatile

  10. [Molybdenum as an air pollutant].

    PubMed

    Lindner, R; Junker, E; Hoheiser, H

    1990-07-01

    Investigations into the reasons for the retarded growth and discolouration of a small area of a field of rape situated on the outskirts of Vienna revealed higher than normal levels of molybdenum in the soil (up to 430 micrograms/l) and in the water (up to 9.7 mg/l). The source of the pollution was traced to a neighbouring industrial plant that was emitting the metal via the chimney stack. A review of the literature on the toxic effects of molybdenum in general and as an air pollutant in particular is provided. This shows that, in contrast to animals, this effect is relatively small in humans and plants. Nevertheless, the occupation-related inhalation of the metal has been shown to be associated with pneumoconiosis and gout-like symptoms.

  11. Psychological reactions to air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.W.; Colome, S.D.; Shearer, D.F.

    1988-02-01

    Interviews with a large representative sample of Los Angeles residents reveal that these citizens are somewhat aware and concerned about air pollution, but not knowledgeable about its causes. Direct behaviors to reduce causes of pollution or one's exposure to it are rare. A moderate percentage of people seek out information about air pollution or complain about it. Fewer follow state health advisories by reducing automobile driving or restricting activity during air pollution episodes. Preliminary modeling of citizen compliance with air pollution health advisories suggest that personal beliefs about negative health effects are a important predictor of compliance. Finally, modest but significant relationships are noted between ambient photochemical oxidants and anxiety symptoms. The latter finding controls for age, socioeconomic status, and temperature.

  12. Air pollution and plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Treshow, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book addresses air pollution's sources and movement; biochemical, cellular, and whole-plant effects, impacts on agricultural and natural systems; and control. The effects of convective turbulence and atmospheric stability are well illustrated. The diagnosis of air pollution injury to plants and mimicking symptoms are discussed. The environmental and source variables that affect pollutant dispersion are explained by use of the Gaussian dispersion model. An overview is presented of the effects of sulfur dioxide, photochemical oxidants, and fluoride on stomatal function, photosynthesis, respiration, and metabolic processes and products. Information is discussed concerning combinations of air pollutants, impacts on lichens, and effects of trace metals on plants. The relationship between air pollutants and diseases or other stress factors is evaluated.

  13. Indoor air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A major contribution of the pediatrician is to help families rank the multitude of pollutants according to their known risk for child health. Elimination of household smoking and completely effective venting of indoor heating devices are beneficial to all and mandatory in homes of allergic children. Acute releases of NO/sub 2/ by gas ranges and ovens may be a significant factor in an increased incidence of respiratory infection, especially in children under two years. Despite intensive investigation, immunosuppressive and other health effects have not been defined for indoor levels of PBBs, PCBs, and related halogenated hydrocarbons. The analytic ability to determine nanomolar concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals opens a Pandora's box of inquiry. New methods, particularly immunologic, are urgently needed to quantitate the dose response to multiple combinations of chemicals and determine their significance for the health of the tight-box generation of children. 136 references.

  14. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  15. Intra-urban spatial variability in wintertime street-level concentrations of multiple combustion-related air pollutants: the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS).

    PubMed

    Clougherty, Jane E; Kheirbek, Iyad; Eisl, Holger M; Ross, Zev; Pezeshki, Grant; Gorczynski, John E; Johnson, Sarah; Markowitz, Steven; Kass, Daniel; Matte, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Although intra-urban air pollution differs by season, few monitoring networks provide adequate geographic density and year-round coverage to fully characterize seasonal patterns. Here, we report winter intra-urban monitoring and land-use regression (LUR) results from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS). Two-week integrated samples of fine particles (PM(2.5)), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) were collected at 155 city-wide street-level locations during winter 2008-2009. Sites were selected using stratified random sampling, randomized across sampling sessions to minimize spatio-temporal confounding. LUR was used to identify GIS-based source indicators associated with higher concentrations. Prediction surfaces were produced using kriging with external drift. Each pollutant varied twofold or more across sites, with higher concentrations near midtown Manhattan. All pollutants were positively correlated, particularly PM(2.5) and BC (Spearman's r=0.84). Density of oil-burning boilers, total and truck traffic density, and temporality explained 84% of PM(2.5) variation. Densities of total traffic, truck traffic, oil-burning boilers and industrial space, with temporality, explained 65% of BC variation. Temporality, built space, bus route location, and traffic density described 67% of nitrogen dioxide variation. Residual oil-burning units, nighttime population and temporality explained 77% of SO(2) variation. Spatial variation in combustion-related pollutants in New York City was strongly associated with oil-burning and traffic density. Chronic exposure disparities and unique local sources can be identified through year-round saturation monitoring. PMID:23361442

  16. Intra-urban spatial variability in wintertime street-level concentrations of multiple combustion-related air pollutants: the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS).

    PubMed

    Clougherty, Jane E; Kheirbek, Iyad; Eisl, Holger M; Ross, Zev; Pezeshki, Grant; Gorczynski, John E; Johnson, Sarah; Markowitz, Steven; Kass, Daniel; Matte, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Although intra-urban air pollution differs by season, few monitoring networks provide adequate geographic density and year-round coverage to fully characterize seasonal patterns. Here, we report winter intra-urban monitoring and land-use regression (LUR) results from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS). Two-week integrated samples of fine particles (PM(2.5)), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) were collected at 155 city-wide street-level locations during winter 2008-2009. Sites were selected using stratified random sampling, randomized across sampling sessions to minimize spatio-temporal confounding. LUR was used to identify GIS-based source indicators associated with higher concentrations. Prediction surfaces were produced using kriging with external drift. Each pollutant varied twofold or more across sites, with higher concentrations near midtown Manhattan. All pollutants were positively correlated, particularly PM(2.5) and BC (Spearman's r=0.84). Density of oil-burning boilers, total and truck traffic density, and temporality explained 84% of PM(2.5) variation. Densities of total traffic, truck traffic, oil-burning boilers and industrial space, with temporality, explained 65% of BC variation. Temporality, built space, bus route location, and traffic density described 67% of nitrogen dioxide variation. Residual oil-burning units, nighttime population and temporality explained 77% of SO(2) variation. Spatial variation in combustion-related pollutants in New York City was strongly associated with oil-burning and traffic density. Chronic exposure disparities and unique local sources can be identified through year-round saturation monitoring.

  17. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE PAGES

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  18. Atmospheric chemistry and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S; Marley, Nancy A

    2003-04-07

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  19. Study of air pollutant detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

    1974-01-01

    The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

  20. Air pollution and the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations.

  1. Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition. PMID:25119155

  2. Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition.

  3. The effects of air mass transport, seasonality, and meteorology on pollutant levels at the Iskrba regional background station (1996-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poberžnik, Matevž; Štrumbelj, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Our main goal was to estimate the effects of long-range air transport on pollutant concentrations measured at the Iskrba regional background station (Slovenia). We cluster back-trajectories into categories and simultaneously model the effects of meteorology, seasonality, trends, and air mass trajectory clusters using a Bayesian statistical approach. This simplifies the interpretation of results and allows us to better identify the effects of individual variables, which is important, because pollutant concentrations, meteorology, and trajectories are seasonal and correlated. Similar to related work from other European sites, we find that slow and faster moving trajectories from eastern Europe and the northern part of the Balkan peninsula are associated with higher pollutant levels, while fast-moving trajectories from the Atlantic are associated with lower pollutant concentration. Overall, pollutant concentrations have decreased in the studied period.

  4. Health effects of outdoor air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. PMID:21841106

  5. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  6. The influence of electrodialytic remediation on dioxin (PCDD/PCDF) levels in fly ash and air pollution control residues.

    PubMed

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor M; Jensen, Pernille E

    2016-04-01

    Fly ash and Air Pollution Control (APC) residues collected from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Denmark and Greenland were treated by electrodialytic remediation at pilot scale for 8-10 h. This work presents for the first time the effect of electrodialytic treatment on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and how these levels impact on the valorization options for fly ash and APC residue. PCDD/PCDF levels in the original residues ranged between 4.85 and 197 ng g(-1), being higher for the electrostatic precipitator fly ash. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) varied ten fold, ranging 0.18-2.0 ng g(-1) I-TEQ, with penta and hexa-homologs being most significant for toxicity. After the electrodialytic treatment PCDD/PCDF levels increased in the residues (between 1.4 and 2.0 times). This does not mean PCDD/PCDF were synthesized, but else that soluble materials dissolve, leaving behind the non-water soluble compounds, such as PCDD/PCDF. According to the Basel Convention, PCDD/PCDF levels in these materials is low (<15 μg WHO-TEQ kg(-1)) and the fly ash and APC residue could eventually be valorized, for instance as construction material, provided end-of-waste criteria are set and that a risk assessment of individual options is carried out, including the end-of-life stage when the materials become waste again.

  7. The influence of electrodialytic remediation on dioxin (PCDD/PCDF) levels in fly ash and air pollution control residues.

    PubMed

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor M; Jensen, Pernille E

    2016-04-01

    Fly ash and Air Pollution Control (APC) residues collected from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Denmark and Greenland were treated by electrodialytic remediation at pilot scale for 8-10 h. This work presents for the first time the effect of electrodialytic treatment on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and how these levels impact on the valorization options for fly ash and APC residue. PCDD/PCDF levels in the original residues ranged between 4.85 and 197 ng g(-1), being higher for the electrostatic precipitator fly ash. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) varied ten fold, ranging 0.18-2.0 ng g(-1) I-TEQ, with penta and hexa-homologs being most significant for toxicity. After the electrodialytic treatment PCDD/PCDF levels increased in the residues (between 1.4 and 2.0 times). This does not mean PCDD/PCDF were synthesized, but else that soluble materials dissolve, leaving behind the non-water soluble compounds, such as PCDD/PCDF. According to the Basel Convention, PCDD/PCDF levels in these materials is low (<15 μg WHO-TEQ kg(-1)) and the fly ash and APC residue could eventually be valorized, for instance as construction material, provided end-of-waste criteria are set and that a risk assessment of individual options is carried out, including the end-of-life stage when the materials become waste again. PMID:26826780

  8. Pollution level, phase distribution and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air at public places of Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Zhu, Lizhong; Chen, Shuguang

    2008-04-01

    PAHs pollution survey in air of public places was conducted in Hangzhou, China. The most serious PAHs pollution was observed in indoor air of shopping centers and the slightest was in train stations. The molecular weight of chrysene (MW 228) appeared to be the dividing line for the PAHs with a larger or smaller distribution in the vapor or particulate phase. Concentrations of 15 PAHs on PM2.5 accounted for 71.3% of total particulate PAHs, and followed by PM2.5-10 fraction (17.6%) and >PM10 fraction (11.1%). In shopping centers and supermarkets, emission of 2-4 rings PAHs occurred from indoor sources, whereas 5-6 rings PAHs predominantly originated from transport of outdoor air. In temples, PAHs in indoor air mainly originated from incense burning. Health risks associated with the inhalation of PAHs were assessed, and naphthalene made the greatest contribution (62.4%) to the total health risks.

  9. Western forests and air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses.

  10. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  11. Air pollution injury to plants

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The injuries to plants by oxidant air pollution can be used as biological indicators of pollution episodes. Bel W3 tobacco is often used as an indicator organism. Dogwood is another potential indicator organism. Specific growing procedures used for indicator organisms are described, as are diagnostic criteria for the type and extent of injuries.

  12. Air pollution and children's health.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joel

    2004-04-01

    Children's exposure to air pollution is a special concern because their immune system and lungs are not fully developed when exposure begins, raising the possibility of different responses than seen in adults. In addition, children spend more time outside, where the concentrations of pollution from traffic, powerplants, and other combustion sources are generally higher. Although air pollution has long been thought to exacerbate minor acute illnesses, recent studies have suggested that air pollution, particularly traffic-related pollution, is associated with infant mortality and the development of asthma and atopy. Other studies have associated particulate air pollution with acute bronchitis in children and demonstrated that rates of bronchitis and chronic cough declined in areas where particle concentrations have fallen. More mixed results have been reported for lung function. Overall, evidence for effects of air pollution on children have been growing, and effects are seen at concentrations that are common today. Although many of these associations seem likely to be causal, others require and warrant additional investigation.

  13. Review of recent studies from central and eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Jedrychowski, W.

    1995-03-01

    The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review focuses on epidemiologic evidence regarding health effects of poor air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. It appears that short-term high levels of air pollutants (primarily particulates and SO{sub 2}) may increase mortality in sensitive parts of the population. Associations were also seen between air pollution levels and prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as lung function disturbances in adults and children. One study indicated that urban air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer. Several investigations pointed to strong interactions between risk factors. The poor scientific standard of the studies often makes it difficult to evaluate the findings. Several steps should be taken to develop environmental epidemiology in Central and Eastern Europe, including international collaboration in research projects and training. 30 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  14. Impact of improved stoves, house construction and child location on levels of indoor air pollution exposure in young Guatemalan children.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Nigel; McCracken, John; Albalak, Rachel; Schei, Morten A; Smith, Kirk R; Lopez, Victorina; West, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the impact of improved stoves, house ventilation, and child location on levels of indoor air pollution and child exposure in a rural Guatemalan population reliant on wood fuel. The study was a random sample of 204 households with children less than 18 months in a rural village in the western highlands of Guatemala. Socio-economic and household information was obtained by interview and observation. Twenty-four hour carbon monoxide (CO) was used as the primary measure of kitchen pollution and child exposure in all homes, using Gastec diffusion tubes. Twenty-four hour kitchen PM(3.5) was measured in a random sub-sample (n=29) of kitchens with co-located CO tubes. Almost 50% of the homes still used open fires, around 30% used chimney stoves (planchas) mostly from a large donor-funded programme, and the remainder of homes used various combinations including bottled gas and open fires. The 24-h kitchen CO was lowest for homes with self-purchased planchas: mean (95% CI) CO of 3.09 ppm (1.87-4.30) vs. 12.4 ppm (10.2-14.5) for open fires. The same ranking was found for child CO exposure, but with proportionately smaller differentials (P<0.0001). The 24-h kitchen PM(3.5) in the sub-sample showed similar differences (n=24, P<0.05). The predicted child PM for all 203 children (based on a regression model from the sub-sample) was 375 microg/m(3) (270-480) for self-purchased planchas and 536 microg/m(3) (488-584) for open fires. Multivariate analysis showed that stove/fuel type was the most important determinant of kitchen CO, with some effect of kitchen volume and eaves. Stove/fuel type was also the key determinant of child CO, with some effect of child position during cooking. The improved stoves in this community have been effective in reducing indoor air pollution and child exposure, although both measures were still high by international standards. Large donor-funded stove programmes need to aim for wider acceptance and uptake by the

  15. Indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    This factsheet reviews what is currently known about pollutant sources, abatement and control equipment and techniques for poorly ventilated houses. Radon, formaldehyde, tobacco smokes, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates, bacteria, fungi and viruses are addressed. (PSB)

  16. Incidence and severity of acute respiratory illness in families exposed to different levels of air pollution, New York metropolitan area, 1971-1972

    SciTech Connect

    Love, G.J.; Lan, S.P.; Shy, C.M.; Struba, R.J.

    1981-03-01

    The incidence and severity of acute respiratory disease was studied in families in three New York communities with different ambient levels of SO/sub 2/ and particulate air pollution. Upper, lower, and total respiratory disease rates in fathers, mothers, and school children tended to be higher in the communities with higher pollution levels. Similar higher rates, however, were not observed among preschool children. Regression analyses were used to adjust rates for socioeconomic status, parental smoking, chronic bronchitis in parents, and possible indoor pollution resulting from the use of a gas stove for cooking. After these adjustments the community differences were still significant (P < .01), for school children. The indoor pollution related to gas stoves was a significant covariate among children. The effects of smoking were inconsistent. It was not possible to attribute the higher rates observed to any specific pollutant, since both SO/sub 2/ and particulate matter levels were higher in the high pollution communities, nor was it possible to attribute the excesses to current levels of exposure or to a residual effect of previous higher exposure concentrations. The fact that young children did not follow the patern suggests the latter. It was concluded, however, that current or previous exposures to the complexity of air pollutants in New York City was at least partially responsible for increased incidences of acute respiratory disease.

  17. A novel approach to produce road-level inventories of on-road greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions inventories are an important tool often built by governments tomanage and assess greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. High resolutioninventories, both in space and time, are necessary to capture localcharacteristics of on-road transportation emissions in particular. Emissionsvary widely due to the local nature of the fleet, fuel, and roads and thisheterogeneity must inform effective emissions modeling on the urban level. Inaddition, widespread availability of low-cost computing now makes highresolution climate and air quality modeling feasible, but efforts to improveinventories have not kept pace. There currently is a lack of inventories atcomparable resolutions. This motivated similar work such as the VULCAN projectwhich used county-level data to estimate on-road emissions. We are motivatedto improve upon this by using site-level traffic count data where available.Here we show a new high resolution model of CO2 emissions for the Portland,OR metropolitan region. The backbone is an archive of traffic counterrecordings taken by the Portland Bureau of Transportation intermittently at9,352 sites over 21 years and continuing today (1986-2006 data are summarizedhere) and by The Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing at 309freeway sites. We constructed a regression model to fill in traffic networkgaps using GIS data such as road class and population density. After stepwisetesting of each of eighteen road classes (from minor streets to freeway), wewere able to select ten variables that are significant (P < 0.001) predictorsof traffic; particularly freeway, unimproved road, and minor streets. Themodel was tested by holding back one-third of the data. The R2 for the linearmodel (based on road class and land use) is 0.84. The EPA MOVES model was thenused to estimate transportation CO2 emissions using local fleet, traffic, andmeteorology data.

  18. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  19. Hazardous air pollutants and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Leikauf, George D

    2002-01-01

    Asthma has a high prevalence in the United States, and persons with asthma may be at added risk from the adverse effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Complex mixtures (fine particulate matter and tobacco smoke) have been associated with respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions for asthma. The toxic ingredients of these mixtures are HAPs, but whether ambient HAP exposures can induce asthma remains unclear. Certain HAPs are occupational asthmagens, whereas others may act as adjuncts during sensitization. HAPs may exacerbate asthma because, once sensitized, individuals can respond to remarkably low concentrations, and irritants lower the bronchoconstrictive threshold to respiratory antigens. Adverse responses after ambient exposures to complex mixtures often occur at concentrations below those producing effects in controlled human exposures to a single compound. In addition, certain HAPs that have been associated with asthma in occupational settings may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. Based on these observations and past experience with 188 HAPs, a list of 19 compounds that could have the highest impact on the induction or exacerbation of asthma was developed. Nine additional compounds were identified that might exacerbate asthma based on their irritancy, respirability, or ability to react with biological macromolecules. Although the ambient levels of these 28 compounds are largely unknown, estimated exposures from emissions inventories and limited air monitoring suggest that aldehydes (especially acrolein and formaldehyde) and metals (especially nickel and chromium compounds) may have possible health risk indices sufficient for additional attention. Recommendations for research are presented regarding exposure monitoring and evaluation of biologic mechanisms controlling how these substances induce and exacerbate asthma. PMID:12194881

  20. Chinese air pollution embodied in trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid economic development in China has been accompanied by high levels of air pollution in many areas of China. Although researchers have applied a range of methods to monitor and track pollutant emissions in the atmosphere, studies of the underlying economic and technological drivers of this pollution have received considerably less attention. I will present results of a series of studies that have quantified the air pollutants embodied in goods being traded both within China and internationally. The results show that trade is facilitating the concentration of pollution in less economically developed areas, which in turn export pollution-intensive goods to more affluent areas. However, the export-related pollution itself is sometimes transported long distances; for instance, we have quantified the impacts of the Chinese pollution embodied in internationally-exported goods on air quality in the US. These findings important implications for Chinese efforts to curb CO2 emissions and improve air quality. The research to be presented reflects the efforts of a multiple year, ongoing collaboration among interdisciplinary researchers in China, the US and the UK.

  1. Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

  2. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques available for source identification are reviewed: remote sensing, injected tracers, and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of the large number of trace elements in the ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed. Trace constituents are determined by sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive, multielement analytical methods such as instrumental neutron activation and charged particle X-ray fluorescence. The application to a large data set of pairwise correlation, the more advanced pattern recognition-cluster analysis approach with and without training sets, enrichment factors, and pollutant concentration rose displays for each element is described. It is shown that elemental constituents are related to specific source types: earth crustal, automotive, metallurgical, and more specific industries. A field-ready source identification system based on time and wind direction resolved sampling is described.

  3. How to conquer air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, H. . Faculty of Engineering)

    1989-01-01

    Many parts of the world suffer from urban air pollution and, despite the vast amount of knowledge about its causes, most countries are slow to implement counter-measures. An exception is Tokyo which, once blanketed in a mantle of smog, now enjoys clean air in spite of highly concentrated activity and congested traffic. Based on the successful Japanese experience, this book describes all aspects of the measures necessary to combat air pollution. It begins with a well-documented history of the fight against air pollution and describes the processes and mechanisms of reaching a social consensus on pollution control. The essential steps in the process are the establishment of ambient air quality standards, the introduction of the total allowable mass of emission, and the legal control of each emission based on diffusion equations. The scientific background to this approach is explained, from epidemiology to computer simulations of air quality. An up-to-date account of emission control technology is also given, and the controversial issue of health damage compensation is examined, based on actual experience.

  4. Air Pollution in Road Tunnels

    PubMed Central

    Waller, R. E.; Commins, B. T.; Lawther, P. J.

    1961-01-01

    As a part of a study of pollution of the air by motor vehicles, measurements have been made in two London road tunnels during periods of high traffic density. The concentrations of smoke and polycyclic hydrocarbons found there are much higher than the average values in Central London, but they are of the same order of magnitude as those occurring during temperature inversions on winter evenings when smoke from coal fires accumulates at a low level. An attempt has been made to relate the concentration of each pollutant to the type and amount of traffic. Both diesel and petrol vehicles make some contribution to the amounts of smoke and polycyclic hydrocarbons found in the tunnels, but in the case of smoke, fluoranthene, 1: 2-benzpyrene, pyrene, and 3: 4-benzpyrene, the concentrations appear to be more closely related to the density of diesel traffic than to that of petrol traffic. The concentrations of lead and carbon monoxide have also been determined, and these are very closely related to the density of petrol traffic. During the morning and evening rush hours the mean concentration of carbon monoxide was just over 100 p.p.m. and peak values up to 500 p.p.m. were recorded at times. Oxides of nitrogen were determined in some of the experiments and there was always much more nitric oxide than nitrogen dioxide. Eye irritation was experienced but its cause was not investigated. The concentration of pollution in the tunnels does not appear to be high enough to create any special hazards for short-term exposures. The amosphere at peak periods may become very dirty and unpleasant and the concentration of carbon monoxide would be sufficient to produce some effect over a period of several hours' continuous exposure. The total emission of pollution from road vehicles must still be small in comparison with that from coal fires, but the effect of traffic on the concentration of smoke, polycyclic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and lead in the air of city streets deserves

  5. [Air pollution and asthma in childhood].

    PubMed

    Latzin, Philipp

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to outdoor air pollutants and passive tobacco smoke are common but avoidable worldwide risk factors for morbidity and mortality of individuals. In addition to well-known effects of pollutants on the cardiovascular system and the development of cancer, in recent years the association between air pollution and respiratory morbidity has become increasingly apparent. Not only in adults, but also in children with asthma and in healthy children a clear harmful effect of exposure towards air pollutants has been demonstrated in many studies. Among others increased pollution has been shown to result in more frequent and more severe respiratory symptoms, more frequent exacerbations, higher need for asthma medication, poorer lung function and increased visits to the emergency department and more frequent hospitalisations. While these associations are well established, the available data on the role of air pollution in the development of asthma seems less clear. Some studies have shown that increased exposure towards tobacco smoke and air pollution leads to an increase in asthma incidence and prevalence; others were not able to confirm those findings. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are different definitions of the outcome asthma, different methods for exposure estimation and differences in the populations studied with differing underlying genetic backgrounds. Regardless of this inconsistency, several mechanisms have already been identified linking air pollution with asthma development. Among these are impaired lung growth and development, immunological changes, genetic or epigenetic effects or increased predisposition for allergic sensitisation. What the exact interactions are and which asthmatic phenotypes will be influenced most by pollutants will be shown by future studies. This knowledge will then be helpful in exploring possible preventive measures for the individual and to help policy makers in deciding upon most appropriate regulations on a population

  6. Traffic-related air pollution and circulating levels of total and allergen-specific IgE among children in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: There is a growing body of literature suggesting a relationship between traffic-related air pollution and allergic health outcomes. Animal studies have demonstrated that air pollution, particularly diesel exhaust particles, may stimulate or enhance atopic responses...

  7. New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Khare, Mukesh; Harrison, Roy M.; Bloss, William J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Coe, Hugh; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Most major cities around the world experience periods of elevated air pollution levels, which exceed international health-based air quality standards (Kumar et al., 2013). Although it is a global problem, some of the highest air pollution levels are found in rapidly expanding cities in India and China. The sources, emissions, transformations and broad effects of meteorology on air pollution are reasonably well accounted in air quality control strategies in many developed cities; however these key factors remain poorly constrained in the growing cities of countries with emerging economies. We focus here on Delhi, one of the largest global population centres, which faces particular air pollution challenges, now and in the future.

  8. Contemporary threats and air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopke, Philip K.

    It is now well understood that air pollution produces significant adverse health effects in the general public and over the past 60 years, there have been on-going efforts to reduce the emitted pollutants and their resulting health effects. There are now shifting patterns of industrialization with many heavily polluting industries moving from developed countries with increasingly stringent air quality standards to the developing world. However, even in decreasing concentrations of pollutants, health effects remain important possibly as a result of changes in the nature of the pollutants as new chemicals are produced and as other causes of mortality and morbidity are reduced. In addition, there is now the potential for deliberate introduction of toxic air pollutants by local armed conflicts and terrorists. Thus, there are new challenges to understand the role of the atmospheric environment on public health in this time of changing economic and demographic conditions overlaid with the willingness to indirectly attack governments and other established entities through direct attacks on the general public.

  9. Outdoor air pollution and human infertility: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Checa Vizcaíno, Miguel A; González-Comadran, Mireia; Jacquemin, Benedicte

    2016-09-15

    Air pollution is a current research priority because of its adverse effects on human health, including on fertility. However, the mechanisms through which air pollution impairs fertility remain unclear. In this article, we perform a systematic review to evaluate currently available evidence on the impact of air pollution on fertility in humans. Several studies have assessed the impact of air pollutants on the general population, and have found reduced fertility rates and increased risk of miscarriage. In subfertile patients, women exposed to higher concentrations of air pollutants while undergoing IVF showed lower live birth rates and higher rates of miscarriage. After exposure to similar levels of air pollutants, comparable results have been found regardless of the mode of conception (IVF versus spontaneous conception), suggesting that infertile women are not more susceptible to the effects of pollutants than the general population. In addition, previous studies have not observed impaired embryo quality after exposure to air pollution, although evidence for this question is sparse.

  10. In Brief: Air pollution app

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled “Visibility.” Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the application is available for free download at http://robotics.usc.edu/˜mobilesensing/Projects/AirVisibilityMonitoring. An iPhone application may be introduced soon. Smartphone users can take a picture of the sky and then compare it with models of sky luminance to estimate visibility. While conventional air pollution monitors are costly and thinly deployed in some areas, the smartphone application potentially could help fill in some blanks in existing air pollution maps, according to USC computer science professor Gaurav Sukhatme.

  11. Estimation of exposure to atmospheric pollutants during pregnancy integrating space-time activity and indoor air levels: Does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Ouidir, Marion; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Lyon-Caen, Sarah; Morelli, Xavier; Cracowski, Claire; Pontet, Sabrina; Pin, Isabelle; Lepeule, Johanna; Siroux, Valérie; Slama, Rémy

    2015-11-01

    Studies of air pollution effects during pregnancy generally only consider exposure in the outdoor air at the home address. We aimed to compare exposure models differing in their ability to account for the spatial resolution of pollutants, space-time activity and indoor air pollution levels. We recruited 40 pregnant women in the Grenoble urban area, France, who carried a Global Positioning System (GPS) during up to 3 weeks; in a subgroup, indoor measurements of fine particles (PM2.5) were conducted at home (n=9) and personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using passive air samplers (n=10). Outdoor concentrations of NO2, and PM2.5 were estimated from a dispersion model with a fine spatial resolution. Women spent on average 16 h per day at home. Considering only outdoor levels, for estimates at the home address, the correlation between the estimate using the nearest background air monitoring station and the estimate from the dispersion model was high (r=0.93) for PM2.5 and moderate (r=0.67) for NO2. The model incorporating clean GPS data was less correlated with the estimate relying on raw GPS data (r=0.77) than the model ignoring space-time activity (r=0.93). PM2.5 outdoor levels were not to moderately correlated with estimates from the model incorporating indoor measurements and space-time activity (r=-0.10 to 0.47), while NO2 personal levels were not correlated with outdoor levels (r=-0.42 to 0.03). In this urban area, accounting for space-time activity little influenced exposure estimates; in a subgroup of subjects (n=9), incorporating indoor pollution levels seemed to strongly modify them.

  12. Estimation of exposure to atmospheric pollutants during pregnancy integrating space-time activity and indoor air levels: does it make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Marion, OUIDIR; Lise, GIORGIS-ALLEMAND; Sarah, LYON-CAEN; Xavier, MORELLI; Claire, CRACOWSKI; Sabrina, PONTET; Isabelle, PIN; Johanna, LEPEULE; Valérie, SIROUX; Rémy, SLAMA

    2016-01-01

    Studies of air pollution effects during pregnancy generally only consider exposure in the outdoor air at the home address. We aimed to compare exposure models differing in their ability to account for the spatial resolution of pollutants, space-time activity and indoor air pollution levels. We recruited 40 pregnant women in the Grenoble urban area, France, who carried a Global Positioning System (GPS) during up to 3 weeks; in a subgroup, indoor measurements of fine particles (PM2.5) were conducted at home (n=9) and personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using passive air samplers (n=10). Outdoor concentrations of NO2, and PM2.5 were estimated from a dispersion model with a fine spatial resolution. Women spent on average 16 h per day at home. Considering only outdoor levels, for estimates at the home address, the correlation between the estimate using the nearest background air monitoring station and the estimate from the dispersion model was high (r=0.93) for PM2.5 and moderate (r=0.67) for NO2. The model incorporating clean GPS data was less correlated with the estimate relying on raw GPS data (r=0.77) than the model ignoring space-time activity (r=0.93). PM2.5 outdoor levels were not to moderately correlated with estimates from the model incorporating indoor measurements and space-time activity (r=−0.10 to 0.47), while NO2 personal levels were not correlated with outdoor levels (r=−0.42 to 0.03). In this urban area, accounting for space-time activity little influenced exposure estimates; in a subgroup of subjects (n=9), incorporating indoor pollution levels seemed to strongly modify them. PMID:26300245

  13. Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Joe O.

    Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology…

  14. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Barry A; Brook, Robert; Arden Pope, C

    2015-05-01

    An escalating body of epidemiologic and clinical research provides compelling evidence that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease and the triggering of acute cardiac events. There are 3 potential mediating pathways that have been implicated, including "systemic spillover," autonomic imbalance, and circulating particulate matter constituents. Further support that the increased morbidity and mortality attributed to air pollution comes from studies demonstrating the adverse cardiovascular effects of even brief periods of exposure to secondhand smoke. Accordingly, persons with known or suspected cardiovascular disease, the elderly, diabetic patients, pregnant women, and those with pulmonary disease should be counseled to limit leisure-time outdoor activities when air pollution is high. Recognizing the insidious and pervasive nature of air pollution, and the associated odds ratios and population attributable fractions for this widely underappreciated chemical trigger of acute cardiovascular events, may serve to maximize the potential for cardiovascular risk reduction by addressing at least a portion of the 10%-25% incidence of coronary disease that is unexplained by traditional risk factors.

  15. Air Pollution Control, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,…

  16. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  17. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  18. Prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in Italian general population samples exposed to different levels of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Viegi, G; Paoletti, P; Carrozzi, L; Vellutini, M; Diviggiano, E; Di Pede, C; Pistelli, G; Giutini, G; Lebowitz, M D

    1991-01-01

    We surveyed two general population samples aged 8 to 64 living in the unpolluted, rural area of the Po Delta (northern Italy) (n = 3289) and in the urban area of Pisa (central Italy) (n = 2917). Each subject filled out a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire. The Pisa sample was divided into three groups according to their residence in the urban-suburban areas and to outdoor air pollution exposure (automobile exhaust only or industrial fumes as well). Significantly higher prevalence rates of all the respiratory symptoms and diseases were found in Pisa compared with the Po Delta. In particular, rhinitis and wheezing symptoms were higher in all the three urban zones; chronic cough and phlegm were higher in the zone with the automobile exhaust and the additional industrial exposure. Current smoking was more frequent in the rural area, but the urban smokers had a higher lifetime cigarette consumption. Childhood respiratory trouble and recurrent respiratory illnesses were evenly distributed. Exposure to parental smoking in childhood and lower educational level were more frequent in Po Delta, whereas familial history of respiratory/allergic disorders and work and indoor exposures were more often reported in the city. Multiple logistic regression models estimating independently the role of the various risk factors showed significant odds ratios associated with residence in Pisa for all the symptoms but chronic phlegm. For example, those living in the urban-industrial zone had an odds ratio of 4.0 (4.3-3.7) for rhinitis and 2.8 (3.0-2.6) for wheeze with respect to those living in the Po Delta.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1954948

  19. Characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China: Comparison of three air quality indices.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Wang, Yungang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-11-01

    Multi-pollutant air pollution (i.e., several pollutants reaching very high concentrations simultaneously) frequently occurs in many regions across China. Air quality index (AQI) is used worldwide to inform the public about levels of air pollution and associated health risks. The current AQI approach used in China is based on the maximum value of individual pollutants, and does not consider the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants. In this study, two novel alternative indices--aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI)--were calculated based on data collected in six megacities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shjiazhuang, Xi'an, and Wuhan) during 2013 to 2014. Both AAQI and HAQI take into account the combined health effects of various pollutants, and the HAQI considers the exposure (or concentration)-response relationships of pollutants. AAQI and HAQI were compared to AQI to examine the effectiveness of the current AQI in characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China. The AAQI and HAQI values are higher than the AQI on days when two or more pollutants simultaneously exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) 24-hour Grade II standards. The results of the comparison of the classification of risk categories based on the three indices indicate that the current AQI approach underestimates the severity of health risk associated with exposure to multi-pollutant air pollution. For the AQI-based risk category of 'unhealthy', 96% and 80% of the days would be 'very unhealthy' or 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively; and for the AQI-based risk category of 'very unhealthy', 67% and 75% of the days would be 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively. The results suggest that the general public, especially sensitive population groups such as children and the elderly, should take more stringent actions than those currently suggested based on the AQI approach during

  20. Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of Southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Georgescu, M.; Hyde, P.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain) to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal) on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3]) for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem control simulations, based on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2005 National Emissions Inventories (NEI05), are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NOX, and wind fields, the control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O3] are comparable with the previous studies in this region. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ) to ozone exceedances within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1) SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2) AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3) SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated) to account only for Biogenic emissions and lateral boundary inflow (BILB). Based on the USEPA NEI05, results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8) [O3] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O3] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10-30 % relative to Control experiments). [O3] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BILB contributions to DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix also play a key role. Finally, ozone transport processes and pathways within the lower troposphere are investigated. During daytime, pollutants (mainly ozone) near the Southern California coasts are pumped into the planetary boundary-layer over the Southern California desert through the mountain chimney and pass

  1. Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Georgescu, M.; Hyde, P.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high-resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain) to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal) on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3]) for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem Control simulations are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NOx, and wind fields, the Control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O3] are within acceptance ranges recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that characterize skillful experiments. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ) to ozone exceedance within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1) SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2) AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3) SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated) to account only for biogenic emissions [BEO]. Results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8) [O3] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O3] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10-30% relative to Control experiments). [O3] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BEO contributions to DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix also play a key role. Finally, ozone transport processes and pathways within the lower troposphere are investigated. During daytime, pollutants (mainly ozone) near the southern California coasts are pumped into the planetary boundary-layer over the southern California desert through the mountain chimney and pass channel effects, aiding eastward transport along the desert air basins in southern California

  2. Healthy Neighborhoods: Walkability and Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Julian D.; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D.

    2009-01-01

    Background The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure. Methods We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O3) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were estimated from a land-use regression model, O3 was estimated from ambient monitoring data; walkability was calculated based on geographic attributes such as land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density. Results All three attributes exhibit an urban–rural gradient, with high walkability and NO concentrations, and low O3 concentrations, near the city center. Lower-income areas tend to have higher NO concentrations and walkability and lower O3 concentrations. Higher-income areas tend to have lower pollution (NO and O3). “Sweet-spot” neighborhoods (low pollution, high walkability) are generally located near but not at the city center and are almost exclusively higher income. Policy implications Increased concentration of activities in urban settings yields both health costs and benefits. Our research identifies neighborhoods that do especially well (and especially poorly) for walkability and air pollution exposure. Work is needed to ensure that the poor do not bear an undue burden of urban air pollution and that neighborhoods designed for walking, bicycling, or mass transit do not adversely affect resident’s exposure to air pollution. Analyses presented here could be replicated in other cities and tracked over time to better understand interactions among neighborhood walkability, air pollution exposure, and income level. PMID:20049128

  3. Dependence of urban air pollutants on meteorology.

    PubMed

    Elminir, Hamdy K

    2005-11-01

    Dependence of air pollutants on meteorology is presented with the aim of understanding the governing processes pollutants phase interaction. Intensive measurements of particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous materials (e.g., CO, NO2, SO2, and O3) are carried out regularly in 2002 at 14 measurement sites distributed over the whole territory of Great Cairo by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency to assess the characteristics of air pollutants. The discussions in this work are based upon measurements performed at Abbassiya site as a case study. The nature of the contributing sources has been investigated and some attempts have been made to indicate the role played by neighboring regions in determining the air quality at the site mentioned. The results hint that, wind direction was found to have an influence not only on pollutant concentrations but also on the correlation between pollutants. As expected, the pollutants associated with traffic were at highest ambient concentration levels when wind speed was low. At higher wind speeds, dust and sand from the surrounding desert was entrained by the wind, thus contributing to ambient particulate matter levels. We also found that, the highest average concentration for NO2 and O3 occurred at humidity

  4. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited. PMID:25115476

  5. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  6. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  7. Transport and urban air pollution in India.

    PubMed

    Badami, Madhav G

    2005-08-01

    The rapid growth in motor vehicle activity in India and other rapidly industrializing low-income countries is contributing to high levels of urban air pollution, among other adverse socioeconomic, environmental, health, and welfare impacts. This paper first discusses the local, regional, and global impacts associated with air pollutant emissions resulting from motor vehicle activity, and the technological, behavioral, and institutional factors that have contributed to these emissions, in India. The paper then discusses some implementation issues related to various policy measures that have been undertaken, and the challenges of the policy context. Finally, the paper presents insights and lessons based on the recent Indian experience, for better understanding and more effectively addressing the transport air pollution problem in India and similar countries, in a way that is sensitive to their needs, capabilities, and constraints.

  8. Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

  9. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 30,2016 ... or Longer-Term Acute short-term effects of air pollution tend to strike people who are elderly or ...

  10. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  11. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  12. Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

    1995-01-01

    Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution. Images Figure 1. PMID:7656877

  13. Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?

    PubMed

    Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

    1995-05-01

    Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution.

  14. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In health studies, traffic-related air pollution is associated with adverse respiratory effects. Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect ...

  15. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  16. Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air…

  17. Air pollution ranks as largest health risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that 7 million people died in 2012 from air-pollution-related sicknesses, marking air pollution as the single largest environmental health risk. This finding, a result of better knowledge and assessment of the diseases, is more than double previous estimates of the risk of death from air pollution.

  18. Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S.

    1995-09-01

    The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the US, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O{sub 3}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), particulate matter (PM), NO{sub x}, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the US EPA with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} PM, and NO{sub 2}, and are therefore at risk. High SO{sub 2} and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO{sub 2}. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO{sub 2} develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to Pm is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM{sub 10} levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. 106 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Air pollution and brain damage.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Azzarelli, Biagio; Acuna, Hilda; Garcia, Raquel; Gambling, Todd M; Osnaya, Norma; Monroy, Sylvia; DEL Tizapantzi, Maria Rosario; Carson, Johnny L; Villarreal-Calderon, Anna; Rewcastle, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures of air pollutants produces inflammation in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Because the nasal cavity is a common portal of entry, respiratory and olfactory epithelia are vulnerable targets for toxicological damage. This study has evaluated, by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kappaB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosae, olfactory bulb, and cortical and subcortical structures from 32 healthy mongrel canine residents in Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), a highly polluted urban region. Findings were compared to those in 8 dogs from Tlaxcala, a less polluted, control city. In SWMMC dogs, expression of nuclear neuronal NF-kappaB and iNOS in cortical endothelial cells occurred at ages 2 and 4 weeks; subsequent damage included alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), degenerating cortical neurons, apoptotic glial white matter cells, deposition of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-positive lipid droplets in smooth muscle cells and pericytes, nonneuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Persistent pulmonary inflammation and deteriorating olfactory and respiratory barriers may play a role in the neuropathology observed in the brains of these highly exposed canines. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's may begin early in life with air pollutants playing a crucial role.

  20. Exposure measurement for air-pollution epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, B.G.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.

    1988-08-01

    The chapter describes the evolution of air-pollution epidemiology over a period when changes in pollution technologies have both lowered total exposures and dispersed them over vastly greater areas. Since personal exposure and microenvironmental measurements are expensive, studies oriented toward measurements of total exposure will be smaller and more intensive. The shift in emphasis to total human exposure also will affect health risk assessment and raise difficult issues in the regulatory domain. Considering that outdoor exposures (for which EPA has a regulatory mandate) occur in the context of exposures from other sources, the potential effect of regulatory action would probably be small. The regulatory issues are even more difficult for particulate air pollution since cigarette smoking is the strongest determinant of indoor levels but the EPA lacks regulatory responsibility for cigarette smoke.

  1. Air Pollution and Control Legislation in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P Bhave, Prashant; Kulkarni, Nikhil

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution in urban areas arises from multiple sources, which may vary with location and developmental activities. Anthropogenic activities as rampant industrialization, exploitation and over consumption of natural resources, ever growing population size are major contributors of air pollution. The presented review is an effort to discuss various aspects of air pollution and control legislation in India emphasizing on the history, present scenario, international treaties, gaps and drawbacks. The review also presents legislative controls with judicial response to certain landmark judgments related to air pollution. The down sides related to enforcement mechanism for the effective implementation of environmental laws for air pollution control have been highlighted.

  2. Annual transition and seasonal variation of indoor air pollution levels of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in large-scale buildings in Nagoya, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kiyoshi; Kamijima, Michihiro; Shibata, Eiji; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Tamie

    2009-11-01

    2-Ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) is a possible causative chemical for sick building symptoms; however, thus far, we do not have a clear understanding of the indoor air pollution levels caused by it. In this study, first, airborne 2E1H concentrations were measured during summer and winter from 2004 to 2007 in 67 rooms of 56 large-scale buildings in Nagoya, Japan, in order to show the seasonal variation of indoor air pollution levels of 2E1H. Then, a follow-up survey was conducted in five rooms of five buildings for more than 2 years in order to establish the annual transition of their 2E1H indoor air pollution levels. 2E1H was found to be one of the predominant volatile organic compounds in the indoor air of large-scale buildings. Its geometric mean concentration was significantly higher during summer (55.4 microg/m3) than during winter (13.7 microg/m3) (p < 0.01), although there was a significant difference in the concentrations among the buildings. High 2E1H concentrations may have been caused by high emission rates of 2E1H from floors, because of the hydrolysis of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in polyvinyl chloride flooring materials or of adhesives containing 2-ethylhexyl moieties. Follow-up observations showed little decrease in the indoor air 2E1H concentrations from one year to the next, although they did show seasonal fluctuations, with an evident increase in concentrations during summer and an evident decrease during winter. PMID:19890564

  3. Self-organized criticality of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Kai; Liu, Chun-Qiong

    In this work, we investigate the frequency-size distribution of three pollution indexes (PM 10, NO 2 and SO 2) in Shanghai. They are well approximated by power-law distributions, which suggest that air pollution might be a manifestation of self-organized criticality. We introduce a new numerical sandpile model with decay coefficient to reveal inherent dynamic mechanism of air pollution. Only changing the number value of decay coefficient of pollutants, this model gives a good simulation of three pollutants' statistical characteristic. This work shows that it is the self-organized criticality of the air pollutants that results in the temporal variation of air pollutant indexes and the minor air pollution sources can trigger the occurrence of large pollutant events by SOC behavior.

  4. Development of temporally refined land-use regression models predicting daily household-level air pollution in a panel study of lung function among asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Markey; Macneill, Morgan; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Nethery, Elizabeth; Xu, Xiaohong; Dales, Robert; Rasmussen, Pat; Wheeler, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory monitoring data and land-use regression (LUR) models have been widely used for estimating individual exposure to ambient air pollution in epidemiologic studies. However, LUR models lack fine-scale temporal resolution for predicting acute exposure and regulatory monitoring provides daily concentrations, but fails to capture spatial variability within urban areas. This study coupled LUR models with continuous regulatory monitoring to predict daily ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter (PM(2.5)) at 50 homes in Windsor, Ontario. We compared predicted versus measured daily outdoor concentrations for 5 days in winter and 5 days in summer at each home. We also examined the implications of using modeled versus measured daily pollutant concentrations to predict daily lung function among asthmatic children living in those homes. Mixed effect analysis suggested that temporally refined LUR models explained a greater proportion of the spatial and temporal variance in daily household-level outdoor NO(2) measurements compared with daily concentrations based on regulatory monitoring. Temporally refined LUR models captured 40% (summer) and 10% (winter) more of the spatial variance compared with regulatory monitoring data. Ambient PM(2.5) showed little spatial variation; therefore, daily PM(2.5) models were similar to regulatory monitoring data in the proportion of variance explained. Furthermore, effect estimates for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) based on modeled pollutant concentrations were consistent with effects based on household-level measurements for NO(2) and PM(2.5). These results suggest that LUR modeling can be combined with continuous regulatory monitoring data to predict daily household-level exposure to ambient air pollution. Temporally refined LUR models provided a modest improvement in estimating daily household-level NO(2) compared with regulatory monitoring data alone, suggesting that this

  5. "Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health".

    PubMed

    Rizwan, Sa; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 μg/m3. Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution. Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution.

  6. Epidemiology of air pollution and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thiering, Elisabeth; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution affects a large proportion of the global population. Air pollutants are hypothesized to exert their effects via impaired endothelial function, elevated systemic inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, all of which are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we review epidemiological studies aimed at answering whether diabetes patients are more vulnerable to ambient (outdoor) air pollution exposure and whether air pollution is associated with diabetes development or other predisposing conditions for T2D. Current evidence suggests an association between air pollution exposure and T2D, but more critical analysis is warranted. Understanding the associations between air pollution exposure and the development of T2D is critical in our efforts to control sources of air pollution and their impact on the disease.

  7. Tracking far-range volcanogenic air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boichu, Marie; Chiapello, Isabelle; Goloub, Phillipe; Péré, Jean-Christophe; Thieuleux, François; Blarel, Luc; Podvin, Thierry; Mortier, Augustin; Brogniez, Colette; Sohne, Nathalie; Theys, Nicolas; Van Roozendael, Michel; Clarisse, Lieven; Bauduin, Sophie; Tanré, Didier

    2016-04-01

    The 2014-15 Holuhraun lava-flood eruption of Bárdarbunga volcano (Iceland) emitted prodigious amounts of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. This eruption triggered a long-distance episode of air pollution in September 2014, the first event of this magnitude recorded in the modern era. We gathered a wealth of complementary observations from satellite sensors (OMI, IASI), ground-based remote sensing (lidar, sunphotometry, differential optical absorption spectroscopy) and ground-level air quality monitoring networks to characterize both the spatial distribution of volcanic SO2 and aerosols as well as the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer. We take advantage of this exceptional panel of observations to quantitatively test our modeling ability to retrospectively simulate this event of far-range air pollution. Although the model captures the correct temporal dynamics, it fails to reproduce the intensity of the pollution. Paths worth exploring to get prepared to accurately forecast a future large-scale event of volcanogenic air pollution are discussed.

  8. Personal exposures, indoor-outdoor relationships, and breath levels of toxic air pollutants measured for 355 persons in New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Pellizzari, Edo D.; Hartwell, Ty D.; Sparacino, Charles M.; Sheldon, Linda S.; Zelon, Harvey

    EPA's TEAM Study has measured exposures to 20 volatile organic compounds in personal air, outdoor air, drinking water and the breath of 355 persons in NJ, in the fall of 1981. The NJ residents were selected by a probability sampling scheme to represent 128,000 inhabitants of Elizabeth and Bayonne. Participants carried a personal monitor to collect two 12-h air samples and gave a breath sample at the end of the day. Two consecutive 12-h outdoor air samples were also collected on identical Tenax cartridges in the back yards of 90 of the participants. About 3000 samples were collected, of which 1000 were quality control samples. Eleven compounds were often present in air. Personal exposures were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for these chemicals, and were sometimes ten times the outdoor concentrations. Indoor sources appeared responsible for much of the difference. Breath concentrations also usually exceed outdoor concentrations, and correlated more strongly with personal exposures than with outdoor concentrations. Some activities (smoking, driving, visiting dry cleaners or service stations) and occupations (chemical, paint and plastics plants) were associated with significantly elevated exposures and breath levels for certain toxic chemicals.

  9. Air pollution measurements from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, C. B.; Griggs, M.; Malkmus, W.; Bartle, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study is presented on the remote sensing of gaseous and particulate air pollutants which is an extension of a previous report. Pollutants can be observed by either active or passive remote sensing systems. Calculations discussed herein indicate that tropospheric CO, CO2, SO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, and CH4 can be measured by means of nadir looking passive systems. Additional species such as NO, HNO3, O3, and H2O may be measured in the stratosphere through a horizon experiment. A brief theoretical overview of resonance Raman scattering and resonance fluorescence is given. It is found that radiance measurements are most promising for general global applications, and that stratospheric aerosols may be measured using a sun occultation technique. The instrumentation requirements for both active and passive systems are examined and various instruments now under development are described.

  10. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Scientists and engineers in the Indoor Air Brand of EPS'a Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory are conducting research to increase the state of knowledge concerning indoor air pollution factors. A three phase program is being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to show how their approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Pollutants from two sources are examined: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters.

  11. Evaluation of the high resolution DEHM/UBM model system over Denmark and assessment of trends in air pollution levels over 36 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Ulas; Christensen, Jesper H.; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Brandt, Jørgen

    2016-04-01

    Air pollutant levels over Denmark are simulated using the high resolution DEHM/UBM model system for the years 1979 to 2014. The system employs a hemispheric chemistry-transport model, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) that runs on a 150 km resolution over the Northern Hemisphere, with nesting capability for higher resolutions over Europe, Northern Europe and Denmark on 50 km, 16.7 km and 5.6 km resolutions, respectively. DEHM is coupled to the Urban Background Model (UBM) that covers the whole of Denmark with a 1 km x 1 km spatial resolution. Over Denmark, the system uses data from the SPREAD emission model on a 1 km x 1 km resolution grid covering Denmark and its national sea territory. The study will describe the model system and will evaluate the performance of the model system in simulating hourly, daily and monthly mean ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations against surface measurements from eight monitoring stations. We will then investigate the spatial and temporal variability of air pollutants and emissions in order to better understand the observed air pollution trends over Denmark during this 36-year period.

  12. Health impact of air pollution to children.

    PubMed

    Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Dostal, Miroslav; Merkerova-Dostalova, Michaela; Libalova, Helena; Milcova, Alena; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Schmuczerova, Jana; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavova, Hana

    2013-08-01

    Health impact of air pollution to children was studied over the last twenty years in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during. The research program (Teplice Program) analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Study of pregnancy outcomes for newborns delivered between 1994 and 1998 demonstrated that increase in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with PM10 and c-PAHs exposure (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first month of gestation. Morbidity was followed in the cohort of newborns (N=1492) up to the age of 10years. Coal combustion in homes was associated with increased incidence of lower respiratory track illness and impaired early childhood skeletal growth up to the age of 3years. In preschool children, we observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs on development of bronchitis. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is characterized by high concentrations of c-PAHs due to industrial air pollution. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in the EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct molecular phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, two locations with different levels of pollution in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were also elevated in cord blood in Ceske Budejovice in comparison to Prague. Study of gene expression profiles in the cord blood showed

  13. Air pollution modifies floral scent trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFrederick, Quinn S.; Kathilankal, James C.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    Floral hydrocarbons provide essential signals to attract pollinators. As soon as they are emitted to the atmosphere, however, hydrocarbons are destroyed by chemical reactions involving pollutants such as ozone. It is therefore likely that increased air pollution interferes with pollinator attracting hydrocarbon signals. To test this hypothesis, a Lagrangian diffusion model was used to determine the position of air parcels away from hydrocarbon sources and to estimate the rate of chemical destruction of hydrocarbons as air parcels moved across the landscape. The hydrocarbon compounds linalool, β-myrcene, and β-ocimene were chosen because they are known to be common scents released from flowers. The suppressed ambient abundances of volatile organic compounds were determined in response to increased regional levels of ozone, hydroxyl, and nitrate radicals. The results indicate that the documented increases in air pollution concentrations, from pre-industrial to present times, can lead to reductions in volatile compound concentrations insects detect as they pollinate flowers. For highly reactive volatiles the maximum downwind distance from the source at which pollinators can detect the scents may have changed from kilometers during pre-industrial times to <200 m during the more polluted conditions of present times. The increased destruction of floral signals in polluted air masses may have important implications for both pollinators and signaling plants. When patches of flowers are further apart than the visual range of pollinators, such as in fragmented landscapes, the loss of scent signals may mean that pollinators spend more time searching for patches and less time foraging. This decrease in pollinator foraging efficiency will simultaneously decrease the pollinator's reproductive output and the amount of pollen flow in flowering plants.

  14. Transboundary air Pollution in Peruvian Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis, S.; Luis, C.

    2007-05-01

    Biomass burning in the tropics is an important source of pollution to the atmosphere with different and not well understood consequences to the climate and the atmospheric chemistry. Burning over Amazonia is related mainly to land use cover change. During the dry season (May to November) high amount of fires are produced in Amazonia. The resulting pollutants under some conditions could produce tropospheric ozone, which reaches long distances far from the sources, the same occurs with aerosols, both could be detected by ground and satellite measurements. The work focused on the transboundary air pollution between Brazil and Peru during the last years. In this sense, this research determines the seasonal variations and the spatial coverage of this pollution in Peruvian Amazonia. We used satellite data and ground measurements to make a detailed evaluation of the transport and production of pollutants (tropospheric ozone and aerosols) related to biomass burning in order to quantify the levels of pollution based on tropospheric ozone and aerosol index and optical depth. Also, we evaluate the climatology of fires detected by satellites. It is expected that the results will provide basic information to policy makers about possible effects of this pollution in the natural resources of Peru. Also, we will provide the scientific basis for the National Program for Prevention of Forest Fires.

  15. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Bønløkke, Jakob; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution. PMID:23762084

  16. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  17. Effects of particulate air pollution on asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, G.B.; Chai, H.; Dickey, D.W.; Jones, R.H.; Kinsman, R.A.; Morrill, C.G.; Spector, S.L.; Weiser, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four asthmatic subjects in Denver were followed from January through March 1979, a three-month period in which Denver air pollution levels are generally high and variable. Dichotomous, virtual impactor samplers provided daily measurements (micrograms/m3) of inhaled particulate matter (total mass, sulfates, and nitrates) for coarse (2.5--15 micrograms in aerodynamic diameter) and fine fractions (less than 2.5 micrometers). Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, temperature, and barometric pressure were also measured. Twice daily measurements of each subject's peak expiratory flow rates, use of as-needed aerosolized bronchodilators, and report of airways obstruction symptoms characteristic of asthma were tested for relationships to air pollutants using a random effects model across subjects. During the time actually observed, there were very few days in which high levels of suspended particulates were recorded. Of the environmental variables studied, only fine nitrates were associated with increased symptom reports and increased aerosolized bronchodilator usage.

  18. Comparison of Air Pollution in Metropolises in China (Beijing) and Japan (Osaka and Nagoya) on the Basis of the Levels of Contaminants and Mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Minami, Hiroki; Abe, Maho; Furukawa, Nami; Ono, Ryo; Hasei, Tomohiro; Toriba, Akira; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Watanabe, Masanari; Honda, Naoko; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2016-01-01

    Public concern regarding the transport of air pollutants from mainland East Asia to the leeward area by the prevailing westerlies in spring and winter monsoon has been growing in recent years. We collected total suspended particle (TSP) in Beijing, a metropolis of China located windward of Japan, in spring (late February 2011-May 2011) and in winter (November 2012-early February 2013), then analyzed metals, ions, and organic compounds and mutagenicity, and compared the pollution levels with samples collected at two Japanese metropolises (Osaka and Nagoya) during the same periods. The medians of concentration of TSP and other factors in Beijing were much larger than those in the Japanese metropolises. Especially, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were remarkably high in Beijing in winter, and the median of total PAHs concentration in Beijing was 62-63 times larger than that in the Japanese sites. The mutagenicity of TSP from Beijing toward Salmonella typhimurium YG1024, with and without a mammalian metabolic system (S9 mix), was 13-25 times higher than that from the Japanese sites in winter. These results suggest that air pollution levels in Beijing are very high compared with those at the two Japanese metropolises we evaluated. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) suggest that the major sources of PAHs and NPAHs in Beijing are different from those at the two Japanese sites in winter, and that the major source in Beijing is coal/biomass combustion.

  19. Energy and Air Pollution: USA 1970-2020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smil, Vaclav

    1975-01-01

    The United States power industry has entered a transitory period of major changes. Uncertainties abound about future levels of air pollution and air pollution control. Computer simulations based on the best currently available consensus can reveal patterns of possible future alternatives. Three scenarios representing probable developments are…

  20. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 20: Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Reference Materials Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. For the purposes of the gaming exercise, APEX…

  1. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 19: County Planner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The County Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  2. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 4: City Politicians' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The City Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  3. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 18: City Planner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The City Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  4. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 5: County Politicians' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The County Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

  5. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 1: Game Director's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Game Director's Manual is the first in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The participants, which may range in number from 18 to…

  6. Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

  7. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 12: Developer's Manual No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 2 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  8. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  9. Association between unemployment, income, education level, population size and air pollution in Czech cities: evidence for environmental inequality? A pilot national scale analysis.

    PubMed

    Branis, Martin; Linhartova, Martina

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed differentials in exposure to SO(2), PM(10) and NO(2) among Czech urban populations categorized according to education level, unemployment rate, population size and average annual salary. Altogether 39 cities were included in the analysis. The principal component analysis revealed two factors explaining 72.8% of the data variability. The first factor explaining 44.7% of the data variability included SO(2), PM(10), low education level and high unemployment, documenting that inhabitants with unfavorable socioeconomic status mainly reside in smaller cities with higher concentration levels of combustion-related air pollutants. The second factor explaining 28.1% of the data variability included NO(2), high salary, high education level and large population, suggesting that large cities with residents with higher socioeconomic status are exposed to higher levels of traffic-related air pollution. We conclude that, after more than a decade of free-market economy, the Czech Republic, a former Soviet satellite with a centrally planned economy, displays signs of a certain kind of environmental inequality, since environmental hazards are unevenly distributed among the Czech urban populations.

  10. The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been interpreted to imply that tens of thousands of Americans are killed annually by small daily increments in PM. These epidemiology studies and their interpretations have been challenged, although it is accepted that high concentrations of air pollutants have claimed many lives in the past. Although reproducible and statistically significant, the relative risks associated with modern PM are very small and confounded by many factors. Neither toxicology studies nor human clinical investigations have identified the components and/or characteristics of PM that might be causing the health-effect associations. Currently, a massive worldwide research effort is under way in an attempt to identify whom might be harmed and by what substances and mechanisms. Finding the answers is important, because control measures have the potential not only to be costly but also to limit the availability of goods and services that are important to public health. PMID:19330148

  11. Airplanes on Air Pollution: Discover-AQ

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's launching a new mission, summer 2011, designed to gather data on air pollution and help expand our understanding of how it affects us, and that could allow pollutants to be monitored more pr...

  12. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals’ response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect. PMID:26728113

  13. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals’ response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect.

  14. Air pollution vulnerabiity of 22 midwestern parks

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.P.; Banerjee, N.

    1995-08-01

    Air pollution increases in United States national parks as sources grow closer. As this happens, biota will be increasingly affected. Can it be determined in advance which parks will be more impacted by these air pollutants that others? This study of 22 park units in the midwestern United States attempted to answer this question. Plant lists were compiled for the 22 parks, relative abundances of all species (common, intermediate, rare) estimated, their sensitivities from their life cycle types (annual, perennial-deciduous, perennial-evergreen) determined, and overall vulnerability as the average product of the two was calculated using a 3-2-1 scale for weighting the abundances. Scotts Bluff National Monument in western Nebraska was the most vulnerable park in the region, while Isle Royale National Park in Lake Superior was the least. This difference was due to the higher abundances of annual plant species in Scotts Bluff. Changing the values used for abundances changed the order of park vulnerabilites. Three air pollutants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, and sulfate) were found to increase from west to east in the midwest. Overlaying these patterns on the park vulnerabilities, and a customer analysis of the data, resulted in a determination of the air pollution risks to groups of parks. The parks most at risk (high vulnerability+high pollution levels) were two in Ohio (Hopewell Culture National Historical Park and Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area) and one in Indiana (Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial). Ten parks were grouped at lowest risk in an arc from Lake Superior, northern Minnesota, and Wisconsin through Nebraska and Kansas. Of three different surrogate methods tested for a relationship with overall vulnerability, only one appeared to be useful. Vulnerability could be directly calculated if a park`s vegetative structure was known without assembling the complete flora. 22 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Application of end-expired breath sampling to estimate carboxyhemoglobin levels in community air pollution exposure assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, William E.; Colome, Steven D.; Wojciechowski, Sandra L.

    Measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) in end-expired air after breath-holding permits the estimation of blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels. Some literature suggests that the precision of the method decreases at low COHb levels. As part of a community exposure and health study, the end-expired breath method was applied to estimate COHb levels in 28 men with ischemic heart disease. Paired samples of blood and breath were collected at the beginning and end of the 24-h CO monitoring periods. The aggregate regression of all subjects' COHb on breath CO displayed high variability. However, the variability was substantially reduced for any particular subject, promoting the use of individualized blood-breath standard curves to improve the precision of COHb estimates made from breath CO. The ultimate accuracy of the blood-breath relationship could not be resolved by our data. Two major sources of error are identified. The observed person-to-person variability may be caused by physiologic factors or differences in ability to deliver an end-expired breath sample representative of alveolar air. This variation may also be due to instrumentation factors, specifically the accuracy of the IL282 CO-Oximeter at 0-3% levels. Further research into the sources of variability in the end-expired breath method is recommended. Epidemiologists using similar end-expired breath measurements to predict COHb levels should be cognizant of the magnitude and probable direction of the error in COHb estimates. This non-invasive method should continue to allow evaluation of the success of personal monitoring efforts and pharmacokinetic modeling of CO uptake in community exposure research.

  16. Hybrid regional air pollution models

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.L.

    1980-03-01

    This discussion deals with a family of air quality models for predicting and analyzing the fine particulate loading in the atmosphere, for assessing the extent and degree of visibility impairment, and for determining the potential of pollutants for increasing the acidity of soils and water. The major horizontal scales of interest are from 400km to 2000km; and the time scales may vary from several hours, to days, weeks, and a few months or years, depending on the EPA regulations being addressed. First the role air quality models play in the general family of atmospheric simulation models is described. Then, the characteristics of a well-designed, comprehensive air quality model are discussed. Following this, the specific objectives of this workshop are outlined, and their modeling implications are summarized. There are significant modeling differences produced by the choice of the coordinate system, whether it be the fixed Eulerian system, the moving Lagrangian system, or some hybrid of the two. These three systems are briefly discussed, and a list of hybrid models that are currently in use are given. Finally, the PNL regional transport model is outlined and a number of research needs are listed.

  17. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  18. Air pollution and COPD in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoping; Zhong, Nanshan; Ran, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Haze, a severe form of outdoor air pollution, affected most parts of northern and eastern China in the past winter. In China, studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of outdoor air pollution and biomass smoke exposure on COPD; and most studies have focused on the role of air pollution in acutely triggering symptoms and exacerbations. Few studies have examined the role of air pollution in inducing pathophysiological changes that characterise COPD. Evidence showed that outdoor air pollution affects lung function in both children and adults and triggers exacerbations of COPD symptoms. Hence outdoor air pollution may be considered a risk factor for COPD mortality. However, evidence to date has been suggestive (not conclusive) that chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Cross-sectional studies showed biomass smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. A long-term retrospective study and a long-term prospective cohort study showed that biomass smoke exposure reductions were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and with a decreased risk of COPD. To fully understand the effect of air pollution on COPD, we recommend future studies with longer follow-up periods, more standardized definitions of COPD and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments.

  19. Air pollution and COPD in China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guoping; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Haze, a severe form of outdoor air pollution, affected most parts of northern and eastern China in the past winter. In China, studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of outdoor air pollution and biomass smoke exposure on COPD; and most studies have focused on the role of air pollution in acutely triggering symptoms and exacerbations. Few studies have examined the role of air pollution in inducing pathophysiological changes that characterise COPD. Evidence showed that outdoor air pollution affects lung function in both children and adults and triggers exacerbations of COPD symptoms. Hence outdoor air pollution may be considered a risk factor for COPD mortality. However, evidence to date has been suggestive (not conclusive) that chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Cross-sectional studies showed biomass smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. A long-term retrospective study and a long-term prospective cohort study showed that biomass smoke exposure reductions were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and with a decreased risk of COPD. To fully understand the effect of air pollution on COPD, we recommend future studies with longer follow-up periods, more standardized definitions of COPD and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments. PMID:25694818

  20. Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

    2002-10-25

    The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. Aerosol particles also reduce solar radiation penetration to the surface, which can suppress precipitation. In the middle troposphere, Asian and to a lesser extent North American pollution is transported from the west. Additional Asian pollution from the east, transported from the monsoon in the upper troposphere, crosses the Mediterranean tropopause, which pollutes the lower stratosphere at middle latitudes.

  1. EPA's indoor air/pollution prevention workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Leovic, K.W.; White, J.B.; Sarsony, C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses a workshop held as a step toward EPA's prioritizing potential areas of research for applying pollution prevention to indoor air quality (IAQ). The workshop involved technical experts in the fields of IAQ, pollution prevention, and selected industries. Workshop goals were to identify major IAQ issues and their pollution prevention opportunities, and to suggest research strategies for IAQ/pollution prevention. The paper summarizes the suggestions made by workshop participants and highlights opportunities for IAQ/pollution prevention research.

  2. Lung cancer and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Aoki, K; Shimizu, H

    1977-12-01

    The relationship between incidence of lung cancer and the volume of traffic as indicated by auto exhaust concentration was examined; the results, though suggestive, did not yield consistent evidence of the association between them. Traffic jams in Nagoya began 15 years ago, a period that may not be long enough to provide definitive data on the incidence of lung cancer. The high standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of lung cancer was observed in cities with a population of less than 1 million and guns (rural areas) along the coast, although those in the metropolitan areas with populations of more than 1 million were average. The SMR did not correlate with various socioeconomic conditions and industrial air pollution. Meteorologic or geologic conditions and ocean currents were not associated with SMR of lung cancer by city and gun. The population of a gun or of some cities was not large enough to be statistically significant, and the mortality rate of lung cancer was not always stable.

  3. The myths of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, H.

    1993-03-01

    A popular myth holds that building energy conservation measures, implemented since the oil crises of the 1970s, cause indoor air pollution problems. This myth ignores the fact that most indoor air pollutant sources have little or nothing to do with energy conservation. Air studied inside buildings before 1973 was found to be more polluted than outdoor air even during severe air pollution events. In fact, only two types of conservation measures directly increase indoor air pollutant concentrations: inappropriately reduced ventilation and using sealants and caulks that emit pollutants. The myth ignores the fundamental responsibility (and ability) of architects, engineers, and building operators to create indoor environments that are both extremely habitable and environmentally responsible. Architects and other building design professionals must provide safe, healthy, and comfortable environments; minimize damage to the environment; and conserve energy and other resources. Achieving good indoor air quality (IAQ) is as essential as providing comfortable, healthy thermal conditions and functional, aesthetically sound lighting and acoustical environments. Reducing ventilation to conserve energy certainly increases concentrations of pollutants emitted from indoor sources. Adequate ventilation is essential to achieving and maintaining good IAQ. But there are many factors that determine IAQ and their interdependence is strong. Although ventilation is an important way to limit pollutant concentrations, limiting pollutant sources is far more effective. Pollutants from indoor sources that cannot be eliminated should be minimized by careful planning, design, specification, and construction. The preventive approach costs very little and it saves energy. 6 refs., 7 tabs.

  4. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy

    PubMed Central

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simões; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Lin, Chin An; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies. PMID:21655765

  5. Arctic smoke - record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe in spring 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Burkhart, J. F.; Fjæraa, A. M.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Hov, Ø.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Simpson, D.; Solberg, S.; Stebel, K.; Ström, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006, the European Arctic was abnormally warm, setting new historical temperature records. During this warm period, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe intruded into the European Arctic and caused the most severe air pollution episodes ever recorded there. This paper confirms that biomass burning (BB) was indeed the source of the observed air pollution, studies the transport of the smoke into the Arctic, and presents an overview of the observations taken during the episode. Fire detections from the MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites were used to estimate the BB emissions. The FLEXPART particle dispersion model was used to show that the smoke was transported to Spitsbergen and Iceland, which was confirmed by MODIS retrievals of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and AIRS retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) total columns. Concentrations of halocarbons, carbon dioxide and CO, as well as levoglucosan and potassium, measured at Zeppelin mountain near Ny Ålesund, were used to further corroborate the BB source of the smoke at Spitsbergen. The ozone (O3) and CO concentrations were the highest ever observed at the Zeppelin station, and gaseous elemental mercury was also elevated. A new O3 record was also set at a station on Iceland. The smoke was strongly absorbing - black carbon concentrations were the highest ever recorded at Zeppelin - and strongly perturbed the radiation transmission in the atmosphere: aerosol optical depths were the highest ever measured at Ny Ålesund. We furthermore discuss the aerosol chemical composition, obtained from filter samples, as well as the aerosol size distribution during the smoke event. Photographs show that the snow at a glacier on Spitsbergen became discolored during the episode and, thus, the snow albedo was reduced. Samples of this polluted snow contained strongly elevated levels of potassium, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium ions, thus relating the discoloration to the deposition of

  6. Air quality interventions and spatial dynamics of air pollution in Delhi and its surroundings

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh; Foster, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the spatial distribution of air pollution in response to recent air quality regulations in Delhi, India. Air pollution was monitored at 113 sites spread across Delhi and its surrounding areas from July–December 2003. From the analysis of these data three important findings emerge. First, air pollution levels in Delhi and its surroundings were significantly higher than that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Second, air quality regulations in the city adversely affected the air quality of the areas surrounding Delhi. Third, industries and trucks were identified as the major contributors of both fine and coarse particles. PMID:23105916

  7. Neighbourhood Characteristics and Long-Term Air Pollution Levels Modify the Association between the Short-Term Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations and All-Cause Mortality in Paris

    PubMed Central

    Deguen, Séverine; Petit, Claire; Delbarre, Angélique; Kihal, Wahida; Padilla, Cindy; Benmarhnia, Tarik; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Chauvin, Pierre; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Background While a great number of papers have been published on the short-term effects of air pollution on mortality, few have tried to assess whether this association varies according to the neighbourhood socioeconomic level and long-term ambient air concentrations measured at the place of residence. We explored the effect modification of 1) socioeconomic status, 2) long-term NO2 ambient air concentrations, and 3) both combined, on the association between short-term exposure to NO2 and all-cause mortality in Paris (France). Methods A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of short-term NO2 variations on mortality, based on 79,107 deaths having occurred among subjects aged over 35 years, from 2004 to 2009, in the city of Paris. Simple and double interactions were statistically tested in order to analyse effect modification by neighbourhood characteristics on the association between mortality and short-term NO2 exposure. The data was estimated at the census block scale (n=866). Results The mean of the NO2 concentrations during the five days prior to deaths were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality: overall Excess Risk (ER) was 0.94% (95%CI=[0.08;1.80]. A higher risk was revealed for subjects living in the most deprived census blocks in comparison with higher socioeconomic level areas (ER=3.14% (95%CI=[1.41-4.90], p<0.001). Among these deprived census blocks, excess risk was even higher where long-term average NO2 concentrations were above 55.8 μg/m3 (the top tercile of distribution): ER=4.84% (95%CI=[1.56;8.24], p for interaction=0.02). Conclusion Our results show that people living in census blocks characterized by low socioeconomic status are more vulnerable to air pollution episodes. There is also an indication that people living in these disadvantaged census blocks might experience even higher risk following short-term air pollution episodes, when they are also chronically exposed to higher NO2 levels

  8. Critical issues in air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M; Lioy, P J

    1985-01-01

    The epidemiological studies which have had significant impact on the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) were performed more than twenty years ago. Most of the more recent studies have been seriously flawed in their design and/or execution because they neglected to account for important variables such as: pollutant exposures other than those from ambient air; the influence of personal activity on pollutant uptake; host responsiveness; and the separate contributions of recent transient peak exposures and long-term chronic exposures on the effects endpoints. For particulate pollutants, the influence of composition and size distribution has also received too little consideration. In order to address these deficiencies, research and methods development are needed on: indices for particulate exposures; identification of exposures relevant to the effects; improved indices of effects; acquisition of response data; identification of exposed populations; and identification of susceptible subgroups. Approaches to these needs are discussed, along with brief reviews of several recent studies that have focused on critical issues of concern, made the necessary efforts to characterize the relevant exposures of the populations being studied, and demonstrated human responses to ambient pollutants at current exposure levels. PMID:4085428

  9. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  10. Monitoring air pollution in the Bialowieza Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzahn, Elżbieta; Sondej, Izabela; Paluch, Rafał

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution, as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), affects forest health negatively and can initiate forest dieback. Long-term monitoring (since 1986) and analyses are conducted in the Bialowieza Forest due to the threat by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. This forest has a special and unique natural value, as confirmed by the various forms of protection of national and international rank. The main aim of monitoring is to determine the level and trends of deposition of air pollutants and their effects on selected forest stands and forest communities in the Bialowieza Forest. Concentration measurements of gaseous pollutants and the chemical composition of the precipitation are performed at seven points within the forest area (62 219 ha). Measurement gauges are measuring gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx) by the passive method and collecting precipitation at each point at a height of three meters. The period of measuring by the instruments is 30 days. All analyses are conducted according to the methodology of the European forest monitoring program in the certified Laboratory of Natural Environment Chemistry of the Polish Forest Research Institute (IBL). The concentration of pollutant gases (dry deposition) in the years 2002-2015 accounted for only 6-13% of the limit in Poland, as defined by the Polish Ministry of Environment, and are of no threat to the forest environment. Wet deposition of pollutants, which dependents directly from the amount of precipitation and its concentration of pollutants, varied strongly between different months and years. Total deposition (dry and wet) of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) was calculated for seasonal and annual periods. On an annual basis, wet deposition represented approximately 80% of the total deposition of S and N. Total deposition of S did not exceed the average deposition values for forests in north-eastern Europe (5-10 kg ha‑1 year‑1) at any of the seven measuring points. Total deposition of N did

  11. Monitoring air pollution in the Bialowieza Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzahn, Elżbieta; Sondej, Izabela; Paluch, Rafał

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution, as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), affects forest health negatively and can initiate forest dieback. Long-term monitoring (since 1986) and analyses are conducted in the Bialowieza Forest due to the threat by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. This forest has a special and unique natural value, as confirmed by the various forms of protection of national and international rank. The main aim of monitoring is to determine the level and trends of deposition of air pollutants and their effects on selected forest stands and forest communities in the Bialowieza Forest. Concentration measurements of gaseous pollutants and the chemical composition of the precipitation are performed at seven points within the forest area (62 219 ha). Measurement gauges are measuring gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx) by the passive method and collecting precipitation at each point at a height of three meters. The period of measuring by the instruments is 30 days. All analyses are conducted according to the methodology of the European forest monitoring program in the certified Laboratory of Natural Environment Chemistry of the Polish Forest Research Institute (IBL). The concentration of pollutant gases (dry deposition) in the years 2002-2015 accounted for only 6-13% of the limit in Poland, as defined by the Polish Ministry of Environment, and are of no threat to the forest environment. Wet deposition of pollutants, which dependents directly from the amount of precipitation and its concentration of pollutants, varied strongly between different months and years. Total deposition (dry and wet) of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) was calculated for seasonal and annual periods. On an annual basis, wet deposition represented approximately 80% of the total deposition of S and N. Total deposition of S did not exceed the average deposition values for forests in north-eastern Europe (5-10 kg ha-1 year-1) at any of the seven measuring points. Total deposition of N did not

  12. Hematological and hemorheological effects of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Baskurt, O.K.; Levi, E.; Caglayan, S.; Dikmenoglu, N.; Kutman, M.N. )

    1990-07-01

    Selected hematological parameters and erythrocyte deformability indexes for 16 young male military students were compared before and after a period of exposure to heavy pollution. These students lived in Ankara, which has a serious air pollution problem. The mean sulfur dioxide levels measured at a station proximal to the campus where the students lived were 188 micrograms/m3 and 201 micrograms/m3 during first and second measurements, respectively. During the period between the two measurements, the mean sulfur dioxide level was 292 micrograms/m3. Significant erythropoiesis was indicated by increased erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Methemoglobin percentage was increased to 2.37 +/- 0.49% (mean +/- standard error) from 0.51 +/- 0.23%. Sulfhemoglobinemia was present in six subjects after the period of pollution, but it was not present in any student prior to this period. Significant increases in erythrocyte deformability indexes were observed after the period of pollution, i.e., from 1.13 +/- 0.01 to 1.21 +/0 0.02, implying that erythrocytes were less flexible, which might impair tissue perfusion.

  13. Managing residential sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.

    1994-12-31

    Sources of indoor air pollutants in residential environments can be managed to reduce occupant exposures. Techniques for managing indoor air pollution sources include: source elimination, substitution, modification, and pretreatment, and altering the amount, location, or time of use. Intelligent source management requires knowledge of the source`s emission characteristics, including chemical composition, emission rates, and decay rates. In addition, knowledge of outdoor air exchange rates, heating/air-conditioning duct flow rates, and kitchen/batch exhaust fan flow rates is needed to determine pollutant concentrations. Indoor air quality (IAQ) models use this information and occupant activity patterns to determine instantaneous and/or cumulative individual exposure. This paper describes a number of residential scenarios for various indoor air pollution VOC sources, several air flow conditions, and typical occupant activity patterns. IAQ model predictions of occupant exposures for these scenarios are given for selected source management options.

  14. Air Pollution and Its Control, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproull, Wayne T.

    A concise appraisal of our contemporary status and future prospects with regard to air pollution and its control are offered in this text for concerned laymen. What air pollution is, how it endangers health, the cost of controlling it, what is being done about it now, and what should be done are some of the basic questions considered. Topics cover…

  15. A Course in Air Pollution for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seapan, Mayis

    1982-01-01

    An air pollution course covering both the fundamentals and control of air pollution introduces a new sequential structure for its topic presentation. The new structure is built on the basis of theoretical principles and has minimized the traditional case study approach. A detailed course outline is included. (Author/JN)

  16. Career Guide for Air Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Lionel V.

    1975-01-01

    This guide to career opportunities in air pollution control includes resource information in this area and provides a listing of colleges and universities offering environmental science programs. The guide was prepared by the S-11 Education and Training Committee of the Air Pollution Control Association. (Author/BT)

  17. Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon…

  18. Air pollution problems in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzenfeld, H. )

    1992-01-01

    Air pollution and associated health problems in Latin America are on the rise. This article provides an overview of conditions indicated by the admittedly limited data available, notes some of the present situation's health implications, and points out areas where air pollution data procurement and control measures could be improved.

  19. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy. PMID:27331817

  20. Direct and indirect exposure to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Thron, R W

    1996-02-01

    Hazardous substances that originally are discharged as air pollutants may find their pathway to human exposure through multiple routes, including ingestion and dermal contact, as well as direct inhalation. The mechanisms for modeling and understanding the fate of air pollutants through atmospheric transport, deposition into water and soil, bioaccumulation, and ultimate uptake to receptor organs and systems in the human body are complex. Pollution prevention programs can be better engineered, pollution priorities can be identified, and greater environmental public health gains (attributable to pollution prevention) can be achieved by evaluating the multiple pathways to human exposure and through improved dosage calculations. A single contaminant source often may represent only a fraction of a total body pollutant burden. Further research is needed on source culpability and attributable risk, long-range transport of air pollutants, human dose contributions by various pathways, better techniques for health risk assessment, and an identification of human behavior patterns that affect exposure and dose.

  1. Air Pollution: Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation & CNS Disease

    PubMed Central

    Block, Michelle L.; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2009-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates air pollution as a chronic source of neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuropathology instigating central nervous system (CNS) disease. Stroke incidence, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease pathology are linked to air pollution. Recent reports reveal that air pollution components reach the brain. Further, systemic effects known to impact lung and cardiovascular disease also impinge upon CNS health. While mechanisms driving air pollution-induced CNS pathology are poorly understood, new evidence suggests that activation of microglia and changes in the blood brain barrier may be key to this process. Here, we summarize recent findings detailing the mechanisms through which air pollution reaches the brain and activates the resident innate immune response to become a chronic source of pro-inflammatory factors and ROS culpable in CNS disease. PMID:19716187

  2. Flexible modeling of exposure-response relationship between long-term average levels of particulate air pollution and mortality in the American Cancer Society study.

    PubMed

    Abrahamowicz, Michal; Schopflocher, Tom; Leffondré, Karen; du Berger, Roxane; Krewski, Daniel

    Accurate estimation of the exposure-response relationship between environmental particulate air pollution and mortality is important from both an etiologic and regulatory perspective. However, little is known about the actual shapes of these exposure-response curves. The objective of this study was to estimate the exposure-response relationships between mortality and long-term average city-specific levels of sulfates and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). We reanalyzed the data derived from the American Cancer Society (ACS) Cancer Prevention Study II, a large prospective study conducted in the United States between 1982 and 1989. Exposure to particulate air pollution was assessed prior to entry into the cohort. Mean sulfate concentrations for 1980 were available in 151 cities, and median PM(2.5) levels between 1979 and 1983 were available in 50 cities. Two sampling strategies were employed to reduce the computational burden. The modified case-cohort approach combined a random subcohort of 1200 individuals with an additional 1300 cases (i.e., deaths). The second strategy involved pooling the results of separate analyses of 10 disjoint random subsets, each with about 2200 participants. To assess the independent effect of the particulate levels on all-causes mortality, we relied on flexible, nonparametric survival analytical methods. To eliminate potentially restrictive assumptions underlying the conventional models, we employed a flexible regression spline generalization of the Cox proportional-hazards (PH) model. The regression spline method allowed us to model simultaneously the time-dependent changes in the effect of particulate matter on the hazard and a possibly nonlinear exposure-response relationship. The PH and linearity hypotheses were tested using likelihood ratio tests. In all analyses, we stratified by age and 5-yr age groups and adjusted for the subject's age, lifetime smoking exposure, obesity, and education. For both fine particles (PM(2.5)) and

  3. Air Pollution and Environmental Justice Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution is not equally dispersed in all neighborhoods and this raises many social concerns, such as environmental justice. "Real world" data, whether extracted from online databases or collected in the field, can be used to demonstrate air quality patterns. When students explore these trends, they not only learn about atmospheric chemistry, but they also become socially aware of any inequities. This presentation outlines specific ways to link air pollution and environmental justice suitable for an undergraduate upper division Air Pollution or Atmospheric Chemistry course.

  4. Understanding Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Diseases: Is It Preventable?

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Masako; Thompson, Kathryn C.

    2015-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (<2.5 µm, PM2.5) air pollution is a leading risk factor for morbidity and mortality worldwide. The largest portion of adverse health effects is from cardiovascular diseases. In North America, PM2.5 concentrations have shown a steady decline over the past several decades; however, the opposite trend has occurred throughout much of the developing world whereby daily concentrations commonly reach extraordinarily high levels. While air quality regulations can reduce air pollution at a societal level, what individuals can do to reduce their personal exposures remains an active field of investigation. Here, we review the emerging evidence that several interventions (e.g., air filters) and/or behavioral changes can lower PM pollution exposure and as such, may be capable of mitigating the ensuing adverse cardiovascular health consequences. Air pollution remains a worldwide epidemic and a multi-tiered prevention strategy is required in order to optimally protect global public health. PMID:26097526

  5. The level of air pollution in the impact zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using the data of geochemical snow survey (Republic of Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adil'bayeva, T. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Yazikov, Ye G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Coal-fired power plants emissions impact the air quality and human health. Of great significance is assessment of solid airborne particles emissions from those plants and distance of their transportation. The article presents the results of air pollution assessment in the zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using snow survey. Based on the mass of solid airborne particles deposited in snow, time of their deposition on snow at the distance from 0.5 to 4.5 km a value of dust load has been determined. It is stated that very high level of pollution is observed at the distance from 0.5 to 1 km. there is a trend in decrease of dust burden value with the distance from the stacks of coal-fired power plant that may be conditioned by the particle size and washing out smaller ash particles by ice pellets forming at freezing water vapour in stacks of the coal-fired power plant. Study in composition of solid airborne particles deposited in snow has shown that they mainly contain particulates of underburnt coal, Al-Si- rich spheres, Fe-rich spheres, and coal dust. The content of the particles in samples decreases with the distance from the stacks of the coal-fired power plant.

  6. Outdoor air pollution: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuh-Chin T

    2014-10-01

    Although the air quality in Western countries has continued to improve over the past decades, rapid economic growth in developing countries has left air quality in many cities notoriously poor. The World Health Organization estimates that urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths worldwide per year. The primary health concerns of outdoor air pollution come from particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Short-term exposure to PM2.5 increases cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to adverse perinatal outcomes and lung cancer. Excessive O3 exposure is known to increase respiratory morbidity. Patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are more susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution. Counseling these patients about air pollution and the associated risks should be part of the regular management plans in clinical practice.

  7. Elevated α-methyl-γ-hydroxy-1,N2-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in urinary samples from individuals exposed to urban air pollution.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Camila C M; Freitas, Florêncio P; Sanchez, Angélica B; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa H G

    2013-11-18

    Acetaldehyde and crotonaldehyde are genotoxic aldehydes present in tobacco smoke and vehicle exhaust. The reaction of these aldehydes with 2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA produces α-methyl-γ-hydroxy-1,N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-propanodGuo). Online HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry was utilized to accurately quantify 1,N(2)-propanodGuo in human urinary samples from 47 residents of São Paulo City (SP) and 35 residents of the rural municipality of São João da Boa Vista (SJBV) in the state of São Paulo. Significantly higher 1,N(2)-propanodGuo levels were found in the samples from SP donors than in samples from SJBV donors. Our results provide the first evidence that elevated levels of 1,N(2)-propanodGuo in urinary samples may be correlated with urban air pollution.

  8. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung-Ju; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and ground-level ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

  9. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  10. Evaluation and Application of Alternative Air Pollution Exposure Metrics in Air Pollution Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Periodic review, revision and subsequent implementation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants rely upon various types of scientific air quality, exposure, toxicological dose-response and epidemiological information. Exposure assessmen...

  11. Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Koren, H S

    1995-01-01

    The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated not only in the United States, but also in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the United States, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O3, sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM), NOx, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O3, SO2, PM, and NO2, and are therefore at risk. High SO2 and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO2. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO2 develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to PM is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM10 levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. Epidemiologic studies of

  12. The effects of air pollution on the health of children

    PubMed Central

    Buka, Irena; Koranteng, Samuel; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R

    2006-01-01

    The present article is intended to inform paediatricians about the associations between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes in children within the context of current epidemiological evidence. The majority of the current literature pertains to adverse respiratory health outcomes, including asthma, other respiratory symptoms, and deficits in lung function and growth, as well as exposure to ambient levels of criteria air pollutants. In addition to the above, the present article highlights mortality, pregnancy outcomes, vitamin D deficiency and alteration in the immune system of children. Some of the data on the impact of improved air quality on children’s health are provided, including the reduction of air pollution in former East Germany following the reunification of Germany, as well as the reduction in the rates of childhood asthma events during the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, due to a reduction in local motor vehicle traffic. However, there are many other toxic air pollutants that are regularly released into the air. These pollutants, which are not regularly monitored and have not been adequately researched, are also potentially harmful to children. Significant morbidity and mortality is attributed to ambient air pollution, resulting in a significant economic cost to society. As Canada’s cities grow, air pollution issues need to be a priority in order to protect the health of children and support sustainable development for future generations. PMID:19030320

  13. The effects of air pollution on the health of children.

    PubMed

    Buka, Irena; Koranteng, Samuel; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R

    2006-10-01

    The present article is intended to inform paediatricians about the associations between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes in children within the context of current epidemiological evidence.The majority of the current literature pertains to adverse respiratory health outcomes, including asthma, other respiratory symptoms, and deficits in lung function and growth, as well as exposure to ambient levels of criteria air pollutants. In addition to the above, the present article highlights mortality, pregnancy outcomes, vitamin D deficiency and alteration in the immune system of children.Some of the data on the impact of improved air quality on children's health are provided, including the reduction of air pollution in former East Germany following the reunification of Germany, as well as the reduction in the rates of childhood asthma events during the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, due to a reduction in local motor vehicle traffic. However, there are many other toxic air pollutants that are regularly released into the air. These pollutants, which are not regularly monitored and have not been adequately researched, are also potentially harmful to children.Significant morbidity and mortality is attributed to ambient air pollution, resulting in a significant economic cost to society. As Canada's cities grow, air pollution issues need to be a priority in order to protect the health of children and support sustainable development for future generations. PMID:19030320

  14. The public health relevance of air pollution abatement.

    PubMed

    Künzli, N

    2002-07-01

    Assuming a causal relationship between current levels of air pollution and morbidity/mortality, it is crucial to estimate the public health relevance of the problem. The derivation of air pollution attributable cases faces inherent uncertainties and requires influential assumptions. Based on the results of the trinational impact assessment study of Austria, France, and Switzerland, where prudent estimates of the air pollution attributable cases (mortality, chronic bronchitis incidence, hospital admissions, acute bronchitis among children, restricted activity days, asthma attacks) have been made, influential uncertainties are quantified in this review. The public health impact of smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and air pollution on the prevalence of chronic cough/phlegm are outlined. Despite all methodological caveats, impact assessment studies clearly suggest that public health largely benefits from better air quality. The studies are selective underestimates as they are strongly driven by mortality, but do not include full quantification of the impact on morbidity and their consequences on quality of life among the diseased and the caregivers. Air pollution abatement strategies are usually political in nature, targeting at polities, regulation and technology in mobile or stationary sources rather than at individuals. It is of note that key clean air strategies converge into abatement of climate change. In general, energy consumption is very closely related to both air pollution and greenhouse gases. The dominant causes of both problems are the excessive and inefficient combustion of fossil fuel. Thus, for many policy options, the benefit of air pollution abatement will go far beyond what prudent health-impact assessments may derive. From a climate change and air pollution perspective, improved energy efficiency and a strong and decisive departure from the "fossil fuel" combustion society is a science-based must. Health professionals must raise their voices

  15. The south Karelia air pollution study: Effects of low-level expsoure to malodorous sulfur compounds on symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Partti-Pellinen, K.; Marttila, O.; Vilkka, V.; Jaakkola, J.J. |

    1996-07-01

    Exposure to very low levels of ambient-air malodorous sulfur compounds and their effect on eye irritation, respiratory-tract symptoms, and central nervous system symptoms in adults were assessed. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire (response rate = 77%) was distributed during March and April 1992 to adults (n = 336) who lived in a neighborhood that contained a pulp mill and in a nonpolluted reference community (n = 380). In the exposed community, the measured annual mean concentrations of total reduced sulfur compounds and sulfur dioxide measured in two stations were 2 to 3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. In the reference community, the annual mean concentration of sulfur dioxide was 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The residents of the community near the pulp mill reported an excess of cough, respiratory infections, and headache during the previous 4 wk, as well as during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for headache was increased significantly in the exposed community, compared with the reference area: the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 1.83 (95% confidence interval [95% Cl] = 1.06-3.15) during the previous 4 wk and 1.70 (95% Cl = 1.05-2.73) during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for cough was also increased during the preceding 12 mo (aOR = 1.64, 95% Cl = 1.01-2.64). These results indicated that adverse health effects of malodorous sulfur compounds occur at lower concentrations than reported previously. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Indoor air pollution: an edifice complex.

    PubMed

    Brooks, B O; Utter, G M; DeBroy, J A; Schimke, R D

    1991-01-01

    The collision of escalating technological sophistication and surging environmental awareness has caused the reexamination of many societal paradigms. Horror stories about lethal chemical exposures involving isolated cases of ignorance, carelessness or greed have caused the public to demand constant vigilance to prevent exposure to potentially hazardous substances. Accordingly, much time and resource has been expanded by the U.S. government and citizens to abate and prevent air and water pollution. While these efforts have met with measurable success, there is increasing public concern about a new generation of pollution-related human illness in office, home and transportation environments. New instances of Sick Building Syndrome or Building Related Illness are reported daily by the popular press. Human health effects such as cancer, infectious disease, allergy and irritation have been ascribed to indoor air pollution. The clinical aspects of indoor air pollution are often discounted by consulting engineers and industrial hygienists involved in indoor air quality. Physicians and clinically-trained scientists have received a "Macedonian call" to sift clinical relevance from the emotional aspects of indoor air quality problems. Point sources of pollutants, associated human health effects, and problem solving approaches associated with indoor air pollution are described. Regulatory and litigational aspects of indoor air pollution are also discussed. PMID:1920571

  17. Composition of air pollution particles modifies oxidative stress in cells, tissues, and living systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between increased levels of ambient air pollution particles and human morbidity and mortality. Production of oxidants, either directly by the air pollution particles or by the host response to the particles, appears to be fundame...

  18. Development and Evaluation of Alternative Metrics of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure for Use in Epidemiologic Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiologic studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available outdoor concentrations from central monitoring sites. This practice may in...

  19. Evaluating strategies to reduce urban air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, L.; Relvas, H.; Silveira, C.; Ferreira, J.; Monteiro, A.; Gama, C.; Rafael, S.; Freitas, S.; Borrego, C.; Miranda, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    During the last years, specific air quality problems have been detected in the urban area of Porto (Portugal). Both PM10 and NO2 limit values have been surpassed in several air quality monitoring stations and, following the European legislation requirements, Air Quality Plans were designed and implemented to reduce those levels. In this sense, measures to decrease PM10 and NO2 emissions have been selected, these mainly related to the traffic sector, but also regarding the industrial and residential combustion sectors. The main objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of these reduction measures with regard to the improvement of PM10 and NO2 concentration levels over the Porto urban region using a numerical modelling tool - The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). TAPM was applied over the study region, for a simulation domain of 80 × 80 km2 with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km2. The entire year of 2012 was simulated and set as the base year for the analysis of the impacts of the selected measures. Taking into account the main activity sectors, four main scenarios have been defined and simulated, with focus on: (1) hybrid cars; (2) a Low Emission Zone (LEZ); (3) fireplaces and (4) industry. The modelling results indicate that measures to reduce PM10 should be focused on residential combustion (fireplaces) and industrial activity and for NO2 the strategy should be based on the traffic sector. The implementation of all the defined scenarios will allow a total maximum reduction of 4.5% on the levels of both pollutants.

  20. Air pollution exposure: Who is at high risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peled, Ronit

    2011-04-01

    This article reviews the sub-population groups who are at high risk and first to be harmed by air pollution coming from anthropogenic combustions. Epidemiological studies from the last few decades contributed to the understanding of the different levels of susceptibility to air pollution. Older people and young infants, people who suffer from allergies, pulmonary and heart diseases, pregnant women and newborn babies, and deprived populations that suffer from low socio-economic status have all been described as populations at risk. A better understanding of the role of air pollution on large as well as specific populations' health, will promote a better protection policy.

  1. Air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases in schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Nicolussi, Francine Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Milla; André, Sílvia Carla da Silva; Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

    2014-01-01

    Study on the prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in schoolchildren between six and seven years old, associated with indicators of air pollution. A questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was administered to parents of students from public schools, located in urban areas with differing vehicle flows. There was a positive correlation between monthly frequency of rhinitis and concentration of pollutants, and negative with relative air humidity. Even with levels of air pollutants below that allowed by law, the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and associated symptoms tended to be higher in the central region school, where there is heavy vehicular traffic. PMID:24897055

  2. High-resolution simulation of link-level vehicle emissions and concentrations for air pollutants in a traffic-populated eastern Asian city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Huang, Ruikun; Wang, Jiandong; Yan, Han; Zheng, Yali; Hao, Jiming

    2016-08-01

    Vehicle emissions containing air pollutants created substantial environmental impacts on air quality for many traffic-populated cities in eastern Asia. A high-resolution emission inventory is a useful tool compared with traditional tools (e.g. registration data-based approach) to accurately evaluate real-world traffic dynamics and their environmental burden. In this study, Macau, one of the most populated cities in the world, is selected to demonstrate a high-resolution simulation of vehicular emissions and their contribution to air pollutant concentrations by coupling multimodels. First, traffic volumes by vehicle category on 47 typical roads were investigated during weekdays in 2010 and further applied in a networking demand simulation with the TransCAD model to establish hourly profiles of link-level vehicle counts. Local vehicle driving speed and vehicle age distribution data were also collected in Macau. Second, based on a localized vehicle emission model (e.g. the emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet - Macau, EMBEV-Macau), this study established a link-based vehicle emission inventory in Macau with high resolution meshed in a temporal and spatial framework. Furthermore, we employed the AERMOD (AMS/EPA Regulatory Model) model to map concentrations of CO and primary PM2.5 contributed by local vehicle emissions during weekdays in November 2010. This study has discerned the strong impact of traffic flow dynamics on the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle emissions, such as a geographic discrepancy of spatial allocation up to 26 % between THC and PM2.5 emissions owing to spatially heterogeneous vehicle-use intensity between motorcycles and diesel fleets. We also identified that the estimated CO2 emissions from gasoline vehicles agreed well with the statistical fuel consumption in Macau. Therefore, this paper provides a case study and a solid framework for developing high-resolution environment assessment tools for other vehicle-populated cities

  3. The changing paradigm of air pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Emily G; Watkins, Timothy H; Solomon, Paul A; Thoma, Eben D; Williams, Ronald W; Hagler, Gayle S W; Shelow, David; Hindin, David A; Kilaru, Vasu J; Preuss, Peter W

    2013-10-15

    The air pollution monitoring paradigm is rapidly changing due to recent advances in (1) the development of portable, lower-cost air pollution sensors reporting data in near-real time at a high-time resolution, (2) increased computational and visualization capabilities, and (3) wireless communication/infrastructure. It is possible that these advances can support traditional air quality monitoring by supplementing ambient air monitoring and enhancing compliance monitoring. Sensors are beginning to provide individuals and communities the tools needed to understand their environmental exposures with these data individual and community-based strategies can be developed to reduce pollution exposure as well as understand linkages to health indicators. Each of these areas as well as corresponding challenges (e.g., quality of data) and potential opportunities associated with development and implementation of air pollution sensors are discussed.

  4. Air pollution modeling and its application III

    SciTech Connect

    De Wispelaere, C.

    1984-01-01

    This book focuses on the Lagrangian modeling of air pollution. Modeling cooling tower and power plant plumes, modeling the dispersion of heavy gases, remote sensing as a tool for air pollution modeling, dispersion modeling including photochemistry, and the evaluation of model performances in practical applications are discussed. Specific topics considered include dispersion in the convective boundary layer, the application of personal computers to Lagrangian modeling, the dynamic interaction of cooling tower and stack plumes, the diffusion of heavy gases, correlation spectrometry as a tool for mesoscale air pollution modeling, Doppler acoustic sounding, tetroon flights, photochemical air quality simulation modeling, acid deposition of photochemical oxidation products, atmospheric diffusion modeling, applications of an integral plume rise model, and the estimation of diffuse hydrocarbon leakages from petrochemical factories. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Thirteenth International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application held in France in 1982.

  5. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    SciTech Connect

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  6. The impact of an urban park on air pollution and noise levels in the Mediterranean city of Tel-Aviv, Israel.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pninit; Potchter, Oded; Schnell, Izhak

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the influence of urban parks on air quality and noise in the city of Tel-Aviv, Israel, by investigation of an urban park, an urban square and a street canyon. Simultaneous monitoring of several air pollutants and noise levels were conducted. The results showed that urban parks can reduce NOx, CO and PM10 and increase O3 concentrations and that park's mitigation effect is greater at higher NOx and PM10 levels. During extreme events, mean values of 413 ppb NOx and 80 μG/m3 PM10 were measured in the street while mean values of 89 ppb NOx and 24 μG/m3 PM10 were measured in the park. Whereas summer highest O3 values of 84 ppb were measured in the street, 94 ppb were measured in the park. The benefit of the urban park in reducing NOx and PM10 concentrations is more significant than the disadvantage of increased O3 levels. Furthermore, urban parks can reduce noise by ∼5 dB(A).

  7. Climate Change, Air Pollution, and the Economics of Health Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J.; Yang, T.; Paltsev, S.; Wang, C.; Prinn, R.; Sarofim, M.

    2003-12-01

    Climate change and air pollution are intricately linked. The distinction between greenhouse substances and other air pollutants is resolved at least for the time being in the context of international negotiations on climate policy through the identification of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and the per- and hydro- fluorocarbons as substances targeted for control. Many of the traditional air pollutant emissions including for example CO, NMVOCs, NOx, SO2, aerosols, and NH3 also directly or indirectly affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Among both sets of gases are precursors of and contributors to pollutants such as tropopospheric ozone, itself a strong greenhouse gas, particulate matter, and other pollutants that affect human health. Fossil fuel combustion, production, or transportation is a significant source for many of these substances. Climate policy can thus affect traditional air pollution or air pollution policy can affect climate. Health effects of acute or chronic exposure to air pollution include increased asthma, lung cancer, heart disease and bronchitis among others. These, in turn, redirect resources in the economy toward medical expenditures or result in lost labor or non-labor time with consequent effects on economic activity, itself producing a potential feedback on emissions levels. Study of these effects ultimately requires a fully coupled earth system model. Toward that end we develop an approach for introducing air pollution health impacts into the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a component of the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) a coupled economics-chemistry-atmosphere-ocean-terrestrial biosphere model of earth systems including an air pollution model resolving the urban scale. This preliminary examination allows us to consider how climate policy affects air pollution and consequent health effects, and to study the potential impacts of air pollution policy on climate. The novel contribution is the effort to

  8. Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. )

    1991-03-01

    This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

  9. AIRS Level 2 Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sung-Yung; Manning, Evan; Olsen, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument onboard EOS Aqua. Major level 2 products are highlighted including temperature profile; water vapor profile; surface skin temperature and other surface parameters; and, cloud friction and top cloud pressure. Level 2 files and data availability are discussed.

  10. Athletic performance and urban air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R J

    1984-01-01

    Air pollution may affect athletic performance. In Los Angeles, contaminants include carbon monoxide, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, whereas in older European cities, such as Sarajevo, "reducing smog" of sulfur dioxide is the main hazard. The carbon monoxide and ozone levels expected in Los Angeles this summer could affect the athletes' performance in endurance events at the Olympic Games. Carbon monoxide may also impair psychomotor abilities, and PAN causes visual disturbances. The only likely physiologic consequence from reducing smog is an increase in the workload of the respiratory system and thus a decrease in endurance performance. While carbon monoxide has been blamed for myocardial infarctions, nitrogen oxides for pulmonary edema and sulfur dioxide for deaths due to respiratory failure, the only illnesses that are likely to be more frequent than usual among young athletes exposed to high levels of these pollutants are upper respiratory tract infections. Therapeutic tactics include the avoidance of pollution, the administration of oxygen, vitamin C and vitamin E, and general reassurance. PMID:6744156

  11. Fuel consumption and CO2/pollutant emissions of mobile air conditioning at fleet level - new data and model comparison.

    PubMed

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Alvarez, Robert; Keller, Mario

    2010-07-01

    Mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems are the second-largest energy consumers in cars after driving itself. While different measurement series are available to illustrate their behavior in hot ambient conditions, little data are available for lower temperatures. There are also no data available on diesel vehicles, despite these being quite common in Europe (up to 70% of the fleet in some countries). In the present study, six representative modern diesel passenger cars were tested. In combination with data from previous measurements on gasoline cars, a new model was developed - EEMAC = Empa Emission model for Mobile Air Conditioning systems - to predict emissions from air conditioning. The measurements obtained show that A/C activity still occurs at temperatures below the desired interior temperature. The EEMAC model was applied to the average meteorological year of a central European region and compared with the US EPA MOBILE6 model. As temperatures in central Europe are often below 20 degrees C (the point below which the two models differ), the overall results differ clearly. The estimated average annual CO(2) output according to EEMAC is six times higher than that of MOBILE6. EEMAC also indicates that around two-thirds of the fuel used for air conditioning could be saved by switching the MAC system off below 18 degrees C.

  12. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.A.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Evaluation of indoor air pollution problems requires an understanding of the relationship between sources, air movement, and outdoor air exchange. Research is underway to investigate these relationships. A three-phase program is being implemented: (1) Environmental chambers are used to provide source emission factors for specific indoor pollutants; (2) An IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) model has been developed to calculate indoor pollutant concentrations based on chamber emissions data and the air exchange and air movement within the indoor environment; and (3) An IAQ test house is used to conduct experiments to evaluate the model results. Examples are provided to show how this coordinated approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Two sources are examined: (1) para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant; and (2) emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. The evaluation process for both sources followed the three-phase approach discussed above. Para-dichlorobenzene emission factors were determined by small chamber testing at EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. Particle emission factors for the kerosene heaters were developed in large chambers at the J.B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory. Both sources were subsequently evaluated in EPA's IAQ test house. The IAQ model predictions showed good agreement with the test house measurements when appropriate values were provided for source emissions, outside air exchange, in-house air movement, and deposition on sink surfaces.

  13. AIR POLLUTION, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased incidents of classic and variant forms of neurodegenerative diseases suggest that environmental chemicals and susceptibility factors (e.g., genetics, diseased states, obesity, etc.) may be contributory. Particulate matter (PM) is a type of air pollution that is associat...

  14. Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurjar, B. R.; Jain, A.; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Gupta, P.; Nagpure, A. S.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO 2, NO 2 and total suspended particles (TSP), concentration-response relationships and a population attributable-risk proportion concept are employed. Results suggest that some megacities like Los Angeles, New York, Osaka Kobe, Sao Paulo and Tokyo have very low excess cases in total mortality from these pollutants. In contrast, the approximate numbers of cases is highest in Karachi (15,000/yr) characterized by a very high concentration of total TSP (˜670 μg m -3). Dhaka (7000/yr), Beijing (5500/yr), Karachi (5200/yr), Cairo (5000/yr) and Delhi (3500/yr) rank highest with cardiovascular mortality. The morbidity (hospital admissions) due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) follows the tendency of cardiovascular mortality. Dhaka and Karachi lead the rankings, having about 2100/yr excess cases, while Osaka-Kobe (˜20/yr) and Sao Paulo (˜50/yr) are at the low end of all megacities considered. Since air pollution is increasing in many megacities, and our database of measured pollutants is limited to the period up to 2000 and does not include all relevant components (e.g. O 3), these numbers should be interpreted as lower limits. South Asian megacities most urgently need improvement of air quality to prevent excess mortality and morbidity due to exceptionally high levels of air pollution. The risk estimates obtained from Ri-MAP present a realistic baseline evaluation for the consequences of ambient air pollution in comparison to simple air quality indices, and can be expanded and improved in parallel with the development of air pollution monitoring networks.

  15. Air Pollution over the States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    State plans for implementing air quality standards are evaluated together with problems in modeling procedures and enforcement. Monitoring networks, standards, air quality regions, and industrial problems are also discussed. (BL)

  16. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  17. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  18. [Air Pollution Unit, Edmonds School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

    This interdisciplinary program, developed for secondary students, contains 16 air pollution activities that can either be used directly in, or as a supplement to, curriculum in Science, Photography, Mathematics, English, Social Studies, Industrial Arts and Home Economics. The topics to be investigated include: pollutants from automobiles, exhaust…

  19. Effects of season and low-level air pollution on physiology and element content of lichens from the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Ra, H S Y; Geiser, L H; Crang, R F E

    2005-05-01

    Lichens were collected from three low-elevation sites in the western Cascade Range: HJ Andrews, OR (clean) and Bull Run, OR, and Pack Forest, WA (moderately enhanced nitrogen and sulfur deposition). The latter sites were within 50 km of Portland and Seattle/Centralia urban-industrial areas, respectively. Tissue concentrations of sulfur, nitrogen, and other macronutrients; rates of net carbon uptake; concentrations of photosynthetic pigments; and thallus density were correlated with season and seasonal changes in Platismatia glauca. Ion concentrations in precipitation and total wet deposition were measured from natural settings. Concentrations of depositional ions in precipitation, including NO3- and NH4+, were generally highest at Bull Run and Pack Forest; SO4(2-) concentrations and acidity were highest at Pack Forest. Total wet deposition was higher in the winter rainy season than the dry summer season at all three sites. Lichens adapted physiologically and morphologically to the higher light intensity and the warm, dry climate of summer through decreased optimal water content for CO2 uptake, increased concentrations of carotenoids and increased thallus density. Compared to the clean site, the sites with enhanced deposition were associated in P. glauca with year-round higher tissue concentrations of N, S, K, and Na; higher concentrations of total chlorophyll and carotenoids; higher OD435/415 ratios; higher CO2 uptake and lower thallus density in summer; and a general absence of other sensitive lichens. These results indicate that moderate levels of fertilizing air pollutants can stimulate carbon uptake and provide protection against chlorophyll degradation in air pollution-tolerant lichens of the Pacific Northwest, especially during the dry summer season.

  20. Air pollution assessment on city of Tirana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandija, F.; Zoga, P.

    2012-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the hot topics on nowadays studies. This problem is often encountered on urban centers, especially on metropolitan areas. These areas are usually characterized by densely population, heavy traffic rates and the presence of many industrial plants on their suburbs. Problems regarding to air pollution on these areas are more evident over metropolitan areas in developing countries. Air pollution is mostly related to health effects, especially in outdoor environments. These effects regards primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution assessment on a specific area requires not only the estimation of pollutant concentrations in that area, but also determination of their principal sources as well as prediction of eventual scenarios on the area under investigation. This study is focused on air pollution assessment on the city of Tirana, which is the major urban centre and the capital city of Albania. This city has about one million inhabitants. During the last 20 years, its population has grown about four fold, and it is still growing. Because of Albania is a developing country, its capital city is involved on serious environmental problems. Considering these facts, we have conducted continuous monitoring campaigns on several sites of Tirana. These monitoring campaigns consist on measurement of several pollutant gases (SO2, CO, CO2, NOx, etc.) and particulate matter over a period of 20 months. In this paper there are obtained diurnal and annual variations of pollutant concentrations, there is modeled their spatial distributions over the area of the city, and there are estimated the potential contributions of principal sources like traffic and industrial plants. During the entire monitoring campaign there are recorded also meteorological parameters, like temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitations, etc. In this way we have tried to obtain the correlations between pollutant

  1. Indoor air pollution and airway disease.

    PubMed

    Viegi, G; Simoni, M; Scognamiglio, A; Baldacci, S; Pistelli, F; Carrozzi, L; Annesi-Maesano, I

    2004-12-01

    Scientific interest in indoor pollution has been increasing since the second half of the 1980s. Growing scientific evidence has shown that because people generally spend the majority of their time indoors, indoor pollution plays a significant role in affecting health and is thus an important health issue. Indoor environments include dwellings, workplaces, schools and day care centres, bars, discotheques and vehicles. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. In developing countries, relevant sources of indoor pollution include biomass and coal burning for cooking and heating. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Approximately 1 million of these deaths occur in children aged under 5 years due to acute respiratory infections, and significant proportions of deaths occur due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in women. Today, indoor air pollution ranks tenth among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of disease. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of indoor pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health.

  2. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

  3. Regional emissions of air pollutants in China.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.

    1998-10-05

    As part of the China-MAP program, sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, regional inventories of air pollutants emitted in China are being characterized, in order that the atmospheric chemistry over China can be more fully understood and the resulting ambient concentrations in Chinese cities and the deposition levels to Chinese ecosystems be determined with better confidence. In addition, the contributions of greenhouse gases from China and of acidic aerosols that counteract global warming are being quantified. This paper presents preliminary estimates of the emissions of some of the major air pollutants in China: sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon (C). Emissions are estimated for each of the 27 regions of China included in the RAINS-Asia simulation model and are subsequently distributed to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} grid using appropriate disaggregation factors. Emissions from all sectors of the Chinese economy are considered, including the combustion of biofuels in rural homes. Emissions from larger power plants are calculated individually and allocated to the grid accordingly. Data for the period 1990-1995 are being developed, as well as projections for the future under alternative assumptions about economic growth and environmental control.

  4. Air pollution detection using MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbula, Jan; Kopacková, Veronika

    2011-11-01

    The quality of the environment has a great impact on public health while air quality is a major factor that is especially relevant for respiratory diseases. PM10 (particulate matter below 10 μ) particles are among the most dangerous pollutants, which enter the lower respiratory tract and cause serious health problems. Obtaining reliable air pollution data is limited to a number of ground measuring stations and their spatial location. We used an alternative approach and created statistical models that employed remotely sensed imageries. To establish empirical relationships, we used multi-temporal (2006-2009) MODIS aerosol optical thickness data (product MOD04, Level 2) and the PM10 ground mass concentrations. The north-western part of the Czech Republic (namely the Karlovarský and the Ustecký regions) was chosen as a test site, as all the different types of cultural landscape (forest-economical, agricultural, mining, and urban) can be found within one MODIS scene. This study was focused on the various aspects as follows (i) analysis of MODIS AOT / stationary PM10 time-series trend between 2006-2009, (ii) establishing a linear relationship between PM10 and AOT values for each station and (iii) evaluation of a spatial relationship of the annual mean AE (Ångstrom Exponent) and PM10 values.

  5. Experience with urban air pollution in Paterson, New Jersey and implications for air pollution communication.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2012-01-01

    Communication about air pollution can help reduce health risks, but a scattered, largely qualitative literature on air pollution beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors raises questions about its effectiveness. A telephone survey of Paterson, New Jersey (USA) residents tested four hypotheses aimed toward integrating these findings. Self-reported sheltering indoors during high pollution, the recommended strategy, was predicted by perceived air quality and self-reported "sensitivity" to air pollution. Nearly a quarter of the sample reported mandatory outdoor activity (e.g., work) that might increase their exposures, but this factor did not significantly affect self-reported sheltering. Perceptions of air quality did not correlate strongly with official monitoring data (U.S. Air Quality Index (AQI)); even people who regularly sought AQI data relied upon sensory cues to high pollution, and secondarily upon health cues. Use of sensory and health cues, definitions of what makes someone sensitive to air pollution, and (less strongly) definitions of vulnerability to air pollution varied widely. The minority aware of the AQI were more likely to seek it if they had illnesses or saw themselves in the targeted AQI audience, yet less likely if they believed themselves sensitive to pollution. However, their sense of the AQI's match to their own experience was driven by whether they used sensory (yes) or health (no) cues, not by illness status. Some urban residents might not have access to AQI data, but this barrier seems outweighed by need to bridge interpretive gaps over definitions of air pollution, sensory perception, vulnerability, and health consequences.

  6. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch - Rapid Response System for Local Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, T.; Sawada, Y.; Kamei, A.; Uchiyama, A.

    2015-12-01

    GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) launched in 2009 and its successor, GOSAT-2, to be launched in FY 2017, have push-broom imaging systems with more than one UV band with higher spatial resolution than OMI, MODIS, and VIIRS. Such imaging systems are useful for mapping the spatial extent of the optically thick air mass with particulate matters. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch, a rapid response system mainly using GOSAT CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager) data for local air pollution issues is being developed in NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) GOSAT-2 Project. The current design of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch has three data processing steps as follows: Step 1) Making a cloud mask Step 2) Estimating AOT (Aerosol Optical Thickness) in the UV region (380 nm for CAI) Step 3) Converting AOT to atmospheric pollution parameters such as PM2.5 concentration Data processing algorithms in GOSAT Air Pollution Watch are based on GOSAT/GOSAT-2 algorithms for aerosol product generation with some modification for faster and timely data processing. Data from GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be used to inform the general public the current distribution of the polluted air. In addition, they will contribute to short term prediction of the spatial extent of the polluted air using atmospheric transport models. In this presentation, the background, the current status, and the future prospect of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be reported together with the development status of GOSAT-2.

  7. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  8. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  13. Air Pollution Potential from Electroplating Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Philip

    Measurements were made of emission rates from electroplating operations considered to have maximum air pollution potential. Sampling was performed at McClellan and additional data from a previous survey at Hill Air Force Base was used. Values obtained were extremely low. Based on existing Federal standards, no collectors are specifically required…

  14. Variance Design and Air Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrar, Terry A.; Brownstein, Alan B.

    1975-01-01

    Air pollution control authorities were forced to relax air quality standards during the winter of 1972 by granting variances. This paper examines the institutional characteristics of these variance policies from an economic incentive standpoint, sets up desirable structural criteria for institutional design and arrives at policy guidelines for…

  15. Topics in Air Pollution Control (SI: 428).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampacek, Anne; Chaput, Linda

    This course provides information about air pollution control efforts since the passage of the Clean Air Act and places in perspective various issues that have arisen since passage of the act--significant deterioration, maintenance of standards, indirect source review, and transportation controls. Court decisions affecting these issues are cited…

  16. Urban Air Pollution: State of the Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seinfeld, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the highly complex mixture of gaseous and particulate matter found in urban air. Explains progress made in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of air pollution, the effects of precursors on ozone, the role of biogenic hydrocarbons, and the principal benefit of methanol-fueled vehicles. (RT)

  17. Mobile Sensors and Applications for Air Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Executive Summary The public has long been interested in understanding what pollutants are in the air they breathe so they can best protect their environmental health and welfare. The current air quality monitoring network consists of discrete stations with expensive equipment ...

  18. Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly.

  19. Impacts of Hazardous Air Pollutants Emitted from Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants on their Ambient Concentration Levels in the Tampa Bay Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations and distribution of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) metals emitted from four phosphate fertilizer plants in Central Florida, as well as their environmental and health impacts, were assessed. The dominant HAP metals emitted from the stacks of these plants were M...

  20. Measurement of toxic and related air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Gay, B.W. Jr.

    1990-12-01

    A joint conference for the fifth straight year cosponsored by the Air and Waste Management Association's EM-3, EM-4, and ITF-2 technical committees, and the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency, was held in Raleigh, North Carolina, May 1-4, 1990. The technical program consisted of 187 presentations, held in 20 technical sessions, on recent advances in the measurement and monitoring of toxic and related pollutants found in ambient and source atmospheres. Covering a wide range of measurement topics and supported by 66 exhibitors of instrumentation and consulting services, the symposium was attended by more than 850 professionals from the US and other countries. This overview highlights a selection of the technical presentations. A synopsis of the keynote address to the symposium is also included. Presentations include: (1) radon, (2) atmospheric chemistry and fate of toxic pollutants, (3) supercritical fluid extraction, (4) acidic deposition, (5) determination of polar and volatile organic pollutants in ambient air, (6) Delaware Superfund innovative technology evaluation (SITE) study, (7) mobile sources emissions characterization, (8) Superfund site air monitoring, (9) exposure assessment, (10) chemometrics and environmental data analysis, (11) nicotine in environmental tobacco smoke, (12) source monitoring, (13) effects of air toxics on plants, (14) measurement of volatile organic pollutants, (15) general, (16) air pollution dispersion modeling, (17) measurement of hazardous waste emissions, (18) measurement of indoor toxic air contaminants, and (19) environmental quality assurance.

  1. Air pollution in mega cities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    Due to its rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments, China is currently considered to be the engine of the world's economic growth. China's economic growth has been accompanied by an expansion of the urban area population and the emergence of a number of mega cities since the 1990. This expansion has resulted in tremendous increases in energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants and the number of poor air quality days in mega cities and their immediate vicinities. Air pollution has become one of the top environmental concerns in China. Currently, Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta region including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, and their immediate vicinities are the most economically vibrant regions in China. They accounted for about 20% of the total GDP in China in 2005. These are also areas where many air pollution studies have been conducted, especially over the last 6 years. Based on these previous studies, this review presents the current state of understanding of the air pollution problems in China's mega cities and identifies the immediate challenges to understanding and controlling air pollution in these densely populated areas.

  2. The status of indoor air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Esmen, N A

    1985-01-01

    Indoor air pollution, specifically restricted in its meaning to chemicals in home indoor air environment, presents a new and probably an important challenge to the researchers of the air pollution field. The general overview of this topic suggests that the voluminous data generated in the past ten or so years have only defined the rudiments of the problem, and significant areas of research still exist. Among the important areas where information is lacking, the exposures to contaminants generated by the use of consumer products and through hobbies and crafts represent perhaps the most urgent need for substantial research. PMID:4085429

  3. Australians are not equally protected from industrial air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, B.; Green, D.

    2015-05-01

    Australian air pollution standards are set at national and state levels for a number of chemicals harmful to human health. However, these standards do not need to be met when ad hoc pollution licences are issued by state environment agencies. This situation results in a highly unequal distribution of air pollution between towns and cities, and across the country. This paper examines these pollution regulations through two case studies, specifically considering the ability of the regulatory regime to protect human health from lead and sulphur dioxide pollution in the communities located around smelters. It also considers how the proposed National Clean Air Agreement, once enacted, might serve to reduce this pollution equity problem. Through the case studies we show that there are at least three discrete concerns relating to the current licencing system. They are: non-onerous emission thresholds for polluting industry; temporal averaging thresholds masking emission spikes; and ineffective penalties for breaching licence agreements. In conclusion, we propose a set of new, legally-binding national minimum standards for industrial air pollutants must be developed and enforced, which can only be modified by more (not less) stringent state licence arrangements.

  4. Outdoor air pollution and female lung cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Cheng, Meng-Hsuan; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Wu, Trong-Neng; Kuo, Hsin-Wei; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between air pollution and female lung cancer, the authors conducted a matched case-control study using female deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 1994 through 2003. Data on all eligible female lung cancer deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group consisted of women who died from causes other than cancer or diseases associated with respiratory problems. The controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. A municipality-based aggregate index of long-term exposure to air pollution was created by dividing the annual average of the measured values for each pollutant by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for that pollutant. The ratios for each pollutant were scaled to a 100-point scale and then averaged together to generate an index value representing the net burden of these pollutants, with each weighted equally. The subjects were divided into tertiles according to the levels of the index just described. Women who lived in the group of municipalities with highest levels of air pollution exposure index were at a statistically significant increased lung cancer risk compared to the group living in municipalities with the lowest air pollution exposure index after controlling for possible confounders (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.02-1.61). The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of air pollutants in the etiology of lung cancer. PMID:16966302

  5. Heat Waves, Urban Vegetation, and Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkina, G.; Grote, R.; Butler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-track programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting the existence of this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how global change induced heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone levels. We also quantify other ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation (e.g., cooling and carbon storage) and their sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the heat waves in 2003 and 2006. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  6. Respiratory health effects of air pollution: update on biomass smoke and traffic pollution.

    PubMed

    Laumbach, Robert J; Kipen, Howard M

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels, primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time because of varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory tract diseases. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions.

  7. Respiratory Health Effects of Air Pollution: Update on Biomass Smoke and Traffic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time due to varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory disease. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions. PMID:22196520

  8. Urban air pollution in megacities of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mage, David; Ozolins, Guntis; Peterson, Peter; Webster, Anthony; Orthofer, Rudi; Vandeweerd, Veerle; Gwynne, Michael

    Urban air pollution is a major environmental problem in the developing countries of the world. WHO and UNEP created an air pollution monitoring network as part of the Global Environment Monitoring System. This network now covers over 50 cities in 35 developing and developed countries throughout the world. The analyses of the data reported by the network over the past 15-20 yr indicate that the lessons of the prior experiences in the developed countries (U.S.A., U.K.) have not been learned. A study of air pollution in 20 of the 24 megacities of the world (over 10 million people by year 2000) shows that ambient air pollution concentrations are at levels where serious health effects are reported. The expected rise of population in the next century, mainly in the developing countries with a lack of capital for air pollution control, means that there is a great potential that conditions will worsen in many more cities that will reach megacity status. This paper maps the potential for air pollution that cities will experience in the future unless control strategies are developed and implemented during the next several decades.

  9. Influence of air pollution on extrinsic childhood asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Berciano, F.A.; Dominguez, J.; Alvarez, F.V.

    1989-02-01

    A crossed comparative study was done with 248 extrinsic asthmatic children living either in polluted or non-polluted areas (mean emission per year of sedimentary material greater than or less than 300 mg/m2/day, respectively) to establish the influence of air pollution on childhood extrinsic asthma. The mean number of wheezing crises per year was significantly higher for the children living in polluted areas (10.4 versus 7.69). In addition, incidence of severe asthma (types II, III, and IV) in children living in polluted areas was markedly increased whereas the slight form of asthma (type I) was more frequent in children living in non-polluted areas. No correlation, however, between the wheezing episodes and levels of atmospheric contaminants (fumes and SO/sub 2/) was detected when a group of 84 extrinsic asthmatic children living in polluted areas was studied longitudinally for a year. The data indicate that air pollution, as an isolated agent, plays a transient role in the appearance of wheezing episodes in subjects with extrinsic asthma. Results also suggest that the air pollution may potentiate wheezing episodes via alternative mechanisms.

  10. Possibilities of observing air pollution from orbital altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barringer, A.

    1972-01-01

    Research carried out over a number of years has indicated the feasibility of monitoring global air pollution from orbiting satellites. Optical methods show considerable promise of measuring the burdens of pollution, both gaseous and particulates. Important pollution gases, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone, as well as some hydrocarbon vapors, appear amenable to optical remote sensing. Satellite platforms for carrying out this work would not compete with ground monitoring stations but rather supplement them with a different type of data which could be integrated with ground level measurements to provide an all-embracing picture of pollution buildup, mass migration, and dissipation.

  11. Exposures and health outcomes from outdoor air pollutants in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingheng; Hong, Chuanjie; Kan, Haidong

    2004-05-20

    China's economy has developed rapidly in the recent two decades. Economic development is usually linked with increase in energy consumption and consumption emissions, which in turn leads to worsening of air quality. Due to the adoption of various control measures, the ambient air quality in a number of large cities in China has actually improved. The ambient air TSP and SO(2) levels in China have been decreasing in the last decade. However, ambient air NO(x) level has been increasing due to the increased number of motor vehicles. Coal has been and is still the major source of energy in China. Ambient air pollution in large cities has changed from the conventional coal combustion type to the mixed coal combustion/motor vehicle emission type. A series of epidemiological studies on air pollution and health effects ranging from mortality, morbidity to functional changes have been conducted in China. The results showed that ambient air pollution had acute and chronic effects on mortality, morbidity, hospital admissions, clinical symptoms, lung function changes, etc. The exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and daily mortality, morbidity, hospital admissions, and lung function has been established accordingly.

  12. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... itself. Household chemical cleaners Use baking soda or vinegar and water as household cleaners. For a job ... after each use by using one-part white vinegar to three-parts water. Let the pieces air- ...

  13. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2014-04-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed.

  14. Chemical air pollutants and otorhinolaryngeal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bisesi, M.S.; Rubin, A.M. . Occupational Health and Otolaryngology)

    1994-03-01

    Air pollution and the specific issue regarding the impact of airborne chemical agents to human health are familiar topics to most members of the environmental health science and environmental medicine communities. Some aspects, however, have received relatively less attention. Much has been published regarding the impact of air pollutants on the human upper and lower respiratory system, including interaction with the rhinologic (nasal) system. Relatively fewer data have been published, however, regarding the potential impact of air pollutants in reference specifically to the otologic (auditory and vestibular) and the laryngeal (larynx) system. Adverse impact to the ears, nose and throat, referred to as the otorhinolaryngeal system'', warrants attention as an important environmental health issue. Toxic interactions from exposure to many chemical air pollutants not only causes potential respiratory irritation and lung disease, but can also result in impaired hearing, balance, sense of smell, taste, and speech due to interaction with related target systems. This may be significant to environmental health risk assessment of chemical air pollutants if multi-target site models are considered.

  15. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A.; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009–December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m3 for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), NO2, and SO2, respectively. Findings suggest some seasonality, particularly for SO2, with higher concentrations during colder months relative to warmer months, although a longer time frame of data is needed to evaluate seasonality fully. Correlation coefficients generally declined with distance between monitors, while coefficients of divergence increased with distance. However, these trends were not statistically significant. PM10 levels exceeded Chinese and other health-based standards and guidelines. The review identified 13 studies on outdoor air pollution and health. Although limited, the studies indicate that air pollution is associated with increased risk of health outcomes in Lanzhou. These studies and the high air pollution levels suggest potentially serious health consequences. Findings can provide guidance to future epidemiological studies, monitor placement programs, and air quality policies. PMID:25838615

  16. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  17. Air pollution effects on ventricular repolarization.

    PubMed

    Lux, Robert L; Pope, C Arden

    2009-05-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of a set of previously published electrocardiographic data to investigate the possible direct association between levels of particulate air pollution and changes in ventricular repolarization -- the cardiac electrophysiologic process that manifests itself as the T wave* of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and that is definitively linked to and responsible for increased arrhythmogenesis. The published findings from this data set demonstrated a clear cardiac effect, namely, a reduction in heart rate variability (HRV) parameter values with increased levels of particulate air pollution (Pope et al. 2004), suggesting possible arrhythmogenic effects. Given this positive finding and the well-established sensitivity of cardiac repolarization to physiologic, pharmacologic, and neurologic interventions, and in light of emerging novel tools for assessing repolarization, we hypothesized that high levels of particulate air pollution would alter repolarization independent of changes in heart rate and, consequently, would increase arrhythmogenic risk. The likely mechanism of any deleterious effects on repolarization would be alteration of sodium, calcium, and potassium channels. The channel's structure, function, and kinetics are responsible for generating the cellular action potentials, which, when summed over the entire heart, result in the waves recorded by the ECG. A positive finding would provide evidence that increased levels of air pollution may be directly linked to increases in arrhythmogenic risk and, potentially, sudden cardiac death. The study population consisted of 88 nonsmoking, elderly subjects in whom multiple, continuous, 24-hour, 2-channel ECG recordings were collected, along with blood samples to evaluate inflammatory mechanisms (not pursued in the current study). The concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm) in daily samples was measured or estimated and

  18. Indoor air pollution aggravates symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin; Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Gyo-Boong; Jung, Kweon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ahn, Kangmo

    2015-01-01

    Most of researches on the impact of indoor air pollutants on atopic dermatitis (AD) have been based upon animal models, in vitro experiments and case-control studies. However, human data to elucidate the role of indoor air pollution on worsening symptoms of pre-existing AD from a longitudinal study are scarce. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of indoor air pollution on AD symptoms in children. We surveyed 30 children with AD in a day-care centre, which moved to a new building during the study. These children stayed there for 8 hours a day Monday through Friday, and their daily symptom scores were recorded. Indoor and outdoor air pollutant levels were continuously measured 24 hours a day for 12 months (Period 1 to 4). Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. Compared to the period before moving (Period 1), concentrations of indoor air pollutants mostly increased after moving (Period 2) and decreased by natural ventilation and bake-out (Periods 3 and 4). The rate of positive AD symptom increased from 32.8% (Period 1) up to 43.8% (Period 2) and 50.5% (Period 3), then decreased to 35.4% in Period 4 (P < 0.0001). When the delayed effects of indoor air pollutants on AD symptoms 2 days later were evaluated, AD symptoms significantly increased by 12.7% (95% CI: -0.01 to 27.1) as toluene levels increased by 1 ppb (P = 0.05). In conclusion, indoor air pollutants increase the risk of AD aggravation in children and toluene in the indoor environment might act as an aggravating factor.

  19. Texas refinery air pollution emissions are being severely underestimated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-06-01

    The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria region of southeastern Texas is home to heavy industrial investment in oil refining and petrochemical production. Pollutants emanating from the factories and refineries have repeatedly caused the region to fail national and state-level tests for air quality and ground-level ozone.

  20. Air pollutant transport in a street canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Luke Chen; Hsu-Cheng Chang

    1996-12-31

    An air pollutant (CO) distribution in a typical street canyon is simulated to evaluate pedestrian exposure. In this study, we consider factors those may affect the pollutant distribution in a typical street canyon. The considered factors include aspect ratio of a street canyon, atmospheric stability, traffic load and turbulent buoyancy effect. A two-dimensional domain that includes suburban roughness and urban street canyon is considered. The factors such as atmospheric stability, traffic load and turbulent buoyancy are imposed through the associated boundary conditions. With numerical simulation, the critical aspect ration of a street canyon the includes two vortices and results in pollutant accumulation are found. The buoyant effect is found to raise the same pollutant concentration up to the position higher than the results come out from the case without buoyancy. The pedestrian exposure to the street air pollutant under various traffic loads and atmospheric stability are evaluated. This study conclude that the local building regulations that specify the building height/street width ratio will not cause significant pedestrian exposure to the street air pollution in most of traffic loads and atmospheric stability conditions.

  1. Ambient air pollution, climate change, and population health in China.

    PubMed

    Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Tong, Shilu

    2012-07-01

    As the largest developing country, China has been changing rapidly over the last three decades and its economic expansion is largely driven by the use of fossil fuels, which leads to a dramatic increase in emissions of both ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). China is now facing the worst air pollution problem in the world, and is also the largest emitter of carbon dioxide. A number of epidemiological studies on air pollution and population health have been conducted in China, using time-series, case-crossover, cross-sectional, cohort, panel or intervention designs. The increased health risks observed among Chinese population are somewhat lower in magnitude, per amount of pollution, than the risks found in developed countries. However, the importance of these increased health risks is greater than that in North America or Europe, because the levels of air pollution in China are very high in general and Chinese population accounts for more than one fourth of the world's totals. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that climate change has already affected human health directly and indirectly in China, including mortality from extreme weather events; changes in air and water quality; and changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. If China acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the resultant air pollution, it will reap not only the health benefits associated with improvement of air quality but also the reduced GHG emissions. Consideration of the health impact of air pollution and climate change can help the Chinese government move forward towards sustainable development with appropriate urgency.

  2. Ambient Air Pollution and Birth Defects in Brisbane, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Craig A.; Barnett, Adrian G.; Jalaludin, Bin B.; Morgan, Geoffrey G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Birth defects are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality. Observational studies have linked environmental pollution to adverse birth outcomes, including congenital anomalies. This study examined potential associations between ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects and cleft lip or palate among births in Brisbane, Australia (1998–2004). Methods Ambient air pollution levels were averaged over weeks 3–8 of pregnancy among 150,308 births. Using a case–control design, we used conditional logistic regression and matched cases to 5 controls. Analyses were conducted using all births, and then births where the mother resided within 6 and 12 kilometers of an ambient air quality monitor. Findings When analyzing all births there was no indication that ambient air pollution in Brisbane was associated with a higher risk of cardiac defects. Among births where the mother resided within 6 kilometers of an ambient air quality monitor, a 5 ppb increase in O3 was associated with an increased risk of pulmonary artery and valve defects (OR 2.96, 95% CI: 1.34, 7.52) while a 0.6 ppb increase in SO2 was associated with an increased risk of aortic artery and valve defects (OR 10.76, 95% CI: 1.50, 179.8). For oral cleft defects among all births, the only adverse association was between SO2 and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.62). However, various significant inverse associations were also found between air pollutants and birth defects. Conclusions This study found mixed results and it is difficult to conclude whether ambient air pollution in Brisbane has an adverse association with the birth defects examined. Studies using more detailed estimates of air pollution exposure are needed. PMID:19404385

  3. The association between air pollution and mortality in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuming; Li, Shanshan; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Punnasiri, Kornwipa; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Williams, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian statistical inference with a case-crossover design was used to examine the effects of air pollutants {Particulate matter <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3)} on mortality. We found that all air pollutants had significant short-term impacts on non-accidental mortality. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM10, 10 ppb in O3, 1 ppb in SO2 were associated with a 0.40% (95% posterior interval (PI): 0.22, 0.59%), 0.78% (95% PI: 0.20, 1.35%) and 0.34% (95% PI: 0.17, 0.50%) increase of non-accidental mortality, respectively. O3 air pollution is significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality, while PM10 is significantly related to respiratory mortality. In general, the effects of all pollutants on all mortality types were higher in summer and winter than those in the rainy season. This study highlights the effects of exposure to air pollution on mortality risks in Thailand. Our findings support the Thailand government in aiming to reduce high levels of air pollution. PMID:24981315

  4. Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

    2007-05-01

    Mexico City is a megacity whose metropolitan area includes the country federal district, 18 municipalities of the State of Mexico. In year 1992, only 16 municipalities of the State of Mexico were part of MCMA. In year 1940 the Mexico City population was 1.78 millions in an area of 118 km2, in year 2000 the population was 17.9 millions in an area of 1,500 km2. Population has grown a ten fold whereas population density has dropped 20%. Total number of private cars has grown from 2,341,731 in year 1998 to 2,967,893 in year 2004. Nowadays, people and goods travel longer at lower speed to reach school, work and selling points. In addition highly efficient public transport lost a significant share of transport demand from 19.1 in 1986 to 14.3 in 1998. Air pollution is a public concern since early eighties last century; systematic public efforts have been carried out since late eighties. Energy consumption has steadily increased in the MCMA whereas emissions have also decreased. From year 2000 to 2004, the private cars fleet increased 17% whereas CO, NOx and COV emissions decreased between 20-30%. Average concentrations of criteria pollutants have decreased The number of days that the one-hour national standard for bad air quality was exceeded in year 1990 was 160. In year 2005 was 70. Research efforts and public policies on air pollution have been focused on public health. We are now better able to estimate the cost in human lives due to air pollution, or the cost in labor lost due to illness. Little if none at all work has been carried out to look at the effect of air pollution on private and public property or onto the cultural heritage. Few reports have can be found on the impact of air pollution in rural areas, including forest and crops, around the mega city. Mexico City is in the south end of a Valley with mountain ranges higher than 1000 m above the average city altitude. In spite the heavy loss of forested areas to the city, the mountains still retain large

  5. King Coal causes air pollution problems.

    PubMed

    Wang, A; Zhao, D; Liu, J

    1989-01-01

    Every year, China is blanketed with some 23 million tons of particulates from smoke and dust along with 17 million tons of sulphur dioxide from the use of coal in power plants, factories, and home furnaces. Elevated concentrations of sulphur dioxide are found in cities like Chongqing and Guiyang, which are plagued by stagnant air masses during the winter months. Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Xi'an, Guangzhou, Chongqing, and Guiyang all suffer from soot, ash, and dust fallout for much of the year. Northern cities like Beijing and Tianjin are also afflicted with high levels of heavy metals like lead, cadmium and even arsenic, which are bound to soot and dust particles. Hundreds of people in Xuanwei in Yunnan Province suffer from respiratory diseases and lung cancer brought on by pollution. Government studies have shown that between 1949 and 1979, cancer mortality in the Beijing area increased by 145%, with lung cancer being the most prevalent. Another atmospheric scourge that is spreading throughout China is acid rain. More than half of all rainfall events in large areas south of the Yangtze River have a pH of less than 5.6. The south-western part of China is also experiencing a forest dieback as severe as anything in Europe. For example, about half of all the pines on top of Mt. Nanshen (near Chongqing) have died, and nearly 40% of the fir forests on Mt. Emi have withered and died. On June 1, 1988, the National Prevention and Control of Air Pollution Law came into force. Acid rain research has been listed as one of the major priorities for the most recent National Five-Year Research Program, which runs from 1986 to 1990. For the future environmental protection measures must be taken into account when extracting coal; coal processing techniques must be improved: and new clean coal technologies should be introduced on a large scale.

  6. Impact of air pollutants on athletic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E. )

    1989-05-01

    Human controlled and observational studies both lead to the conclusion of air pollution adversely affecting athletic performance during training and competition. The dosage of various air pollutants during exercise is much higher due to the marked increase in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. This is particularly true for sulfur dioxide which is a highly water-soluble gas and is normally absorbed in the upper airway during nasal breathing. With heavy exercise, oral pharyngeal breathing is the predominant mode of breathing and much larger amounts of sulfur dioxide are delivered to the lower airway resulting in significant impact upon the lower respiratory tract. More recently, several controlled human studies have shown that a combination of exercise and air pollutants such as ozone (O3) or sulfur dioxides (SO2) cause a significant increase in bronchoconstriction and air flow obstruction when compared to the same exposure at rest. In strenuous athletic competition such as the Olympic Games where small increments of time often determine the ultimate success of athletes, the impact of air pollutants and subsequent adverse ventilatory changes can affect athletic performance. 62 references.

  7. Identifying the contribution of different urban highway air pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Peace, H; Owen, B; Raper, D W

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results, and draws conclusions from a large-scale source apportionment study undertaken in a large urban conurbation in the northwest of England. Annual average oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission and ambient air pollution contributions have been estimated for road traffic sources. Ground level air pollution concentrations were estimated over a 1552-km(2) area with a resolution of up to 20 m, using emissions estimates and the second generation ADMS-Urban Gaussian dispersion model. Road traffic emissions were split into car and motorcycles; heavy and light goods vehicles; and buses to represent domestic users; commercial users and bus companies. Car related emissions were split further in to journey lengths under 3 km; journeys between 3 and 8 km; and journeys over 8 km to represent journeys which could be either walked or cycled; journeys for which a bus can easily be used and other journeys. These source sections were chosen so that the relevant authorities could target key groups in terms of reducing air pollution. The results confirm that the areas most likely to exceed air quality objectives are typically close to main arterial routes and close to urban centres and that the major culprits of road traffic related air pollution are goods vehicles and car journeys over 8 km. The paper also discusses the implications of the results and suggests how these can be used in the assessment of actions to reduce air pollution concentrations. PMID:15504521

  8. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan... pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not provide complete... District (SCAQMD). (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey Bay Unified...

  9. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan... pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not provide complete... District (SCAQMD). (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey Bay Unified...

  10. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan... pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not provide complete... District (SCAQMD). (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey Bay Unified...

  11. Controlled Exposures to Air Pollutants and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Simon J.; Hunter, Amanda J.; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Bosson, Jenny A.; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R.; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E.; Mills, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in susceptible patient groups. Objectives: We investigated the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during and after controlled exposure to air pollutants in healthy volunteers and patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: We analyzed data from 13 double-blind randomized crossover studies including 282 participants (140 healthy volunteers and 142 patients with stable coronary heart disease) from whom continuous electrocardiograms were available. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was recorded for each exposure and study population. Results: There were no increases in any cardiac arrhythmia during or after exposure to dilute diesel exhaust, wood smoke, ozone, concentrated ambient particles, engineered carbon nanoparticles, or high ambient levels of air pollution in either healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusions: Acute controlled exposure to air pollutants did not increase the short-term risk of arrhythmia in participants. Research employing these techniques remains crucial in identifying the important pathophysiological pathways involved in the adverse effects of air pollution, and is vital to inform environmental and public health policy decisions. Citation: Langrish JP, Watts SJ, Hunter AJ, Shah AS, Bosson JA, Unosson J, Barath S, Lundbäck M, Cassee FR, Donaldson K, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE, Mills NL. 2014. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Environ Health Perspect 122:747–753; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307337 PMID:24667535

  12. Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanshan; Guo, Yuming; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major perinatal health problem, but factors leading to it are still not completely understood. Objectives: Our goal was to identify the relation between acute increase in ambient air pollution in a few hours before onset of labor and the risk of preterm birth. Methods: We collected registered birth outcome data and hourly ambient air pollution measurements during 2009‒2013 in Brisbane, Australia. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models with natural cubic splines, we assessed the shape of air pollution-preterm birth curve, after controlling for potential confounders. We also examined the effect modification of other factors. Results: The association between air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)] and preterm birth was nonlinear. Threshold concentrations for the mean of 0‒24 hr NO2, 24‒48 hr SO2, and 24‒48 hr CO before onset of labor were 7.6 parts per billion (ppb), 3.8 ppb, and 162.5 ppb, respectively. Increases in air pollution concentrations above thresholds were associated with increased risks of preterm birth. The odds ratios of preterm birth at the 95th percentile of NO2, SO2, and CO against the thresholds were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.27), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. The associations were modified by demographic factors, such as maternal smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Acute increases in ambient air pollution concentrations above certain levels before onset of labor may stimulate preterm birth. Citation: Li S, Guo Y, Williams G. 2016. Acute impact of hourly ambient air pollution on preterm birth. Environ Health Perspect 124:1623–1629; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP200 PMID:27128028

  13. Crop loss due to air pollution in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Eerden, L J; Tonneijck, A E; Wijnands, J H

    1988-01-01

    The extent of yield reduction and economic loss caused by air pollution has been estimated for The Netherlands. Based on available data on direct effects only, each species was designated as sensitive, moderately sensitive or tolerant. On a nationwide scale, only ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and hydrogen fluoride (HF) exceeded effect thresholds. Effects from pollutant combinations were assumed to be additive. Yield reductions were calculated, using 10 exposure-response relationships and concentration data from the Dutch air pollution monitoring network. Changes in air pollution levels result in changes in supply. By multiplying the supply with the current price, the so-called crop volume was calculated. Subsequently, changes in crop volume were converted into economic terms, taking into account demand elasticity. On the basis of these calculations, air pollution in The Netherlands reduces total crop volume by 5%:3.4% by O3, 1.2% by SO2, and 0.4% by HF. The slope of the nonlinear relationship between crop volume reduction and exposure level increases at higher concentrations. In general, air pollution causes relatively little loss to producers, since yield reductions are largely compensated by higher prices. If air pollution in The Netherlands would be reduced to background concentrations, consumers would experience a net gain of Dfl 640 million (US 320 million dollars). Although large amounts of data were attained through literature and our own experience for this study, many assumptions still had to be made to arrive at these conclusions. With the current available knowledge, validation of our results in the field is not yet possible. PMID:15092562

  14. The Effects of Air Pollution on Ischemic Stroke Admission Rate

    PubMed Central

    Alimohammadi, Hossein; Fakhri, Sara; Derakhshanfar, Hojjat; Hosseini-Zijoud, Seyed-Mostafa; Safari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the relationship between the level of air pollutants and the rate of ischemic stroke (IS) admissions to hospitals. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, stroke admissions (January-March 2012 and 2013) to an emergency department and air pollution and meteorological data were gathered. The relationship between air pollutant levels and hospital admission rates were evaluated using the generalize additive model. In all 379 patients with IS were referred to the hospital (52.5% male; mean age 68.2±13.3 years). Both transient (p<0.001) and long-term (p<0.001) rises in CO level increases the risk of IS. Increased weekly (p<0.001) and monthly (p<0.001) average O3 levels amplifies this risk, while a transient increase in NO2 (p<0.001) and SO2 (p<0.001) levels has the same effect. Long-term changes in PM10 (p<0.001) and PM2.5 (p<0.001) also increase the risk of IS. The findings showed that the level of air pollutants directly correlates with the number of stroke admissions to the emergency department. PMID:26866000

  15. Development of wireless sensor network for monitoring indoor air pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Shaharil Mad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Saad, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Yusof @ Kamarudin, Azman Muhamad

    2015-05-01

    The air that we breathe with everyday contains variety of contaminants and particles. Some of these contaminants and particles are hazardous to human health. Most of the people don't realize that the content of air they being exposed to whether it was a good or bad air quality. The air quality whether in indoor or outdoor environment can be influenced by physical factors like dust particles, gaseous pollutants (including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds) and biological like molds and bacteria growth which largely depend on temperature and humidity condition of a room. These kinds of pollutants can affect human health, physical reaction, comfort or work performance. In this study, a wireless sensor network (WSN) monitoring system for monitor air pollutant in indoor environment was developed. The system was divided into three parts: web-based interface program, sensing module and a base station. The measured data was displayed on the web which is can be accessed by the user. The result shows that the overall measured parameters were meet the acceptable limit, requirement and criteria of indoor air pollution inside the building. The research can be used to improve the indoor air quality level in order to create a comfortable working and healthy environment for the occupants inside the building.

  16. Air pollutants targeted by radiocarbon dating

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    Chemists at the Commerce Department's National Bureau of Standards (NBS) are answering questions about where certain atmospheric contaminants originate by refining a method best known for determining the age of archeological objects. Called radiocarbon dating, the method allows NBS scientists to examine air samples and determine whether contaminants come from naturally occurring or manmade sources-or a combination of the two. Making these distinctions is important to federal and state environmental agencies, which identify industrial sources of pollution for regulatory action. An overbalance of atmospheric carbon can cause a number of environmental problems. In methane's case, high levels are of concern to environmental agencies because of greenhouse properties. Methane also has been implicated as a possible contributor to changes in the ozone layer that protects the Earth from excessive ultraviolet light. Levels of methane have been increasing at an annual rate of about one percent over the last decade. This has caused concern in the environmental community, which hopes to determine just where the elevated levels are coming from. The NBS research is aimed at definitively pinpointing sources of methane and other atmospheric contaminants.

  17. Committee on air pollution effects research: 40 years of UK air pollution.

    PubMed

    Fowler, David; Dise, Nancy; Sheppard, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The UK Committee on Air Pollution Effects Research (CAPER) was established 40 years ago. This special section was compiled to mark this anniversary. During this time there have been dramatic changes in the composition of the air over the UK. The four papers in this special section of Environmental Pollution represent the current air pollution effects research focus on ozone and nitrogen deposition, two related issues and are proving from a policy perspective to be quite intractable issues. The UK CAPER research community continues to advance the underpinning science and engages closely with the user community in government departments.

  18. The response of the foliar antioxidant system and stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of white willow to low-level air pollution.

    PubMed

    Wuytack, Tatiana; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Staelens, Jeroen; Asard, Han; Boeckx, Pascal; Verheyen, Kris; Samson, Roeland

    2013-06-01

    In this study we aimed to determine and elucidate the effect of ambient air pollution on the foliar antioxidant system and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of white willow (Salix alba L.). We grew white willow in uniform potting soil in the near vicinity of sixteen air quality monitoring stations in Belgium where nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter concentrations were continuously measured. The trees were exposed to ambient air during six months (April-September 2011), and, thereafter, the degree of lipid peroxidation and foliar content of antioxidant molecules (ascorbate, glutathione, polyphenols, flavonoids), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase) and foliar stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes were measured. We found that lipid peroxidation was caused by air pollution stress, arising from high ambient NO2 concentrations, as shown by an increased amount of malondialdehyde. The antioxidant system was activated by increasing the amount of polyphenols at monitoring stations with a high atmospheric NO2 and low O3 concentration, while no increase of key enzymes (e.g., ascorbate, glutathione) was observed. The δ(13)C also decreased with increasing NO2 concentrations and decreasing O3 concentrations, probably reflecting a decreased net photosynthesis and/or a concomitant decrease of (13)CO2 in the atmosphere. Shade also influenced foliar δ(13)C and the content of leaf ascorbate and glutathione.

  19. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

  20. EVALUATING SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. mission factors developed in test chambers can be use...

  1. HANDBOOK: CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual is a revision of the first (1986) edition of the Handbook: Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants, which incorporated information from numerous sources into a single, self-contained reference source focusing on the design and cost of VOC and partic...

  2. Changing the Paradigm of Air Pollution Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, approaches for monitoring air pollution generally use expensive, complex, stationary equipment,1,2 which limits who collects data, why data are collected, and how data are accessed. This paradigm is changing with the materialization of lower-cost, easy-to...

  3. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  4. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  5. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  6. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  7. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  8. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  9. Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

  10. Air pollution, acid rain and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mellanby, K.

    1988-01-01

    This book reports on the Watt Committee's working group on acid rain, which was set up in 1981. The authors consider the relationship between natural and the man-made factors and the effects of possible remedial strategies. In the first phase of the study, the group looked at the fate of airborne pollution, vegetation and soils, freshwater and remedial strategy. In this report, which contains the results of a further phase of study, these topics are included and have been brought up to date. The scope of the report is extended to include buildings and non-living materials. Consideration is given to the problem of acid rain and air pollution worldwide. Emphasis is placed on the United Kingdom. The main conclusion is that more research is necessary on some aspects of acid rain and air pollution, but that some of the reports widespread damage caused by acid rain cannot be confirmed.

  11. Acid rain and transported air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book considers aspects of the air pollutant controversy. It discusses the following: the policy dilemma - including impact on terrestrial and aquatic eco-systems, effects on human health, diplomatic issues, and how control would benefit some industries and hurt others; scientific uncertainties about the extent and location of current damage, future damage, the origin of transported air pollutants, and the efficacy of current and proposed emissions control programs; how three major pollutants - sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, and reactive hydrocarbons - are distributed geographically; the effect of current legislation on acid rain and its distribution; how geographic and economic risks are dispersed throughout the United States; and other risks, such as potential damage to buildings and metals.

  12. Respiratory effects of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Marbury, M.C.; Spengler, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    Since the early 1970s, the health effects of indoor air pollution have been investigated with increasing intensity. A large body of literature is now available on diverse aspects of indoor air pollution: sources, concentrations, health effects, engineering, and policy. This article provides a selective summary of this new information with an emphasis on health effects relevant to health care practitioners concerned primarily with immunologically mediated respiratory diseases. We address exposures associated with acute and chronic respiratory effects: tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide, wood smoke, and formaldehyde. The article also describes the diverse health problems experienced by workers in newer sealed office buildings. The importance of indoor concentrations in determining personal exposures to pollutants is emphasized.

  13. [Polluting agents and sources of urban air pollution].

    PubMed

    Cocheo, V

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an up-to-date review of the scientific evidence on mechanisms of pollutant generation and health effects for a number of urban air pollutants. The review focuses on main sources and health effect of ozone and photochemical smog, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. These agents are "priority pollutants", generated by vehicle traffic, and their regulation is currently being examined by the European Council and the European Commission. The aim is to reach, by the year 2010, values lower than 180 micrograms/m3 for ozone as maximum hourly concentration, 2.5 micrograms/m3 for benzene as an annual average, 93 micrograms/m3 for nitrogen dioxide as 98 degrees percentile of hourly concentrations, 50 micrograms/m3 for particulate as a daily average. The goal can be achieved only by means of immediate interventions on emissions. PMID:11293295

  14. Opportunities for using spatial property assessment data in air pollution exposure assessments

    PubMed Central

    Setton, Eleanor M; Hystad, Perry W; Keller, C Peter

    2005-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies examining the relationships between adverse health outcomes and exposure to air pollutants use ambient air pollution measurements as a proxy for personal exposure levels. When pollution levels vary at neighbourhood levels, using ambient pollution data from sparsely located fixed monitors may inadequately capture the spatial variation in ambient pollution. A major constraint to moving toward exposure assessments and epidemiological studies of air pollution at a neighbourhood level is the lack of readily available data at appropriate spatial resolutions. Spatial property assessment data are widely available in North America and may provide an opportunity for developing neighbourhood level air pollution exposure assessments. Results This paper provides a detailed description of spatial property assessment data available in the Pacific Northwest of Canada and the United States, and provides examples of potential applications of spatial property assessment data for improving air pollution exposure assessment at the neighbourhood scale, including: (1) creating variables for use in land use regression modelling of neighbourhood levels of ambient air pollution; (2) enhancing wood smoke exposure estimates by mapping fireplace locations; and (3) using data available on individual building characteristics to produce a regional air pollution infiltration model. Conclusion Spatial property assessment data are an extremely detailed data source at a fine spatial resolution, and therefore a source of information that could improve the quality and spatial resolution of current air pollution exposure assessments. PMID:16262893

  15. A new model for investigating the mortality effects of multiple air pollutants in air pollution mortality time-series studies.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Steven

    2006-03-01

    Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollutants independently, the majority of time-series studies on air pollution and mortality have focused on estimating the adverse health effects of a single pollutant. However, due to the sometimes high correlation between air pollutants, the results from studies that focus on a single air pollutant can be difficult to interpret. In addition, the high correlation between air pollutants can produce problems of interpretation for the standard method of investigating the adverse health effects due to multiple air pollutants. The standard method involves simultaneously including the multiple air pollutants in a single statistical model. Because of this, the development of new models to concurrently estimate the adverse health effects of multiple air pollutants has recently been identified as an important area of future research. In this article, a new model for disentangling the joint effects of multiple air pollutants in air pollution mortality time-series studies is introduced. This new model uses the time-series data to assign each air pollutant a weight that indicates the pollutant's contribution to the air pollution mixture that affects mortality and to estimate the effect of this air pollution mixture on mortality. This model offers an improvement in statistical estimation precision over the standard method. It also avoids problems of interpretation that can occur if the standard method is used. This new model is then illustrated by applying it to time-series data from two U.S. counties.

  16. Outdoor air pollution in urban areas and allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G

    1999-12-01

    Respiratory allergic diseases (rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, bronchial asthma and its equivalents) appear to be increasing in most countries, and subjects living in urban and industrialized areas are more likely to experience respiratory allergic symptoms than those living in rural areas. This increase has been linked, among various factors, to air pollution, which is now an important public health hazard. Laboratory studies confirm the epidemiological evidence that inhalation of some pollutants, either individually or in combination, adversely affect lung function in asthmatics. The most abundant air pollutants in urban areas with high levels of vehicle traffic are respirable particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. While nitrogen dioxide does not exert consistent effects on lung function, ozone, respirable particulate matter and allergens impair lung function and lead to increased airway responsiveness and bronchial obstruction in predisposed subjects. However, besides acting as irritants, airborne pollutants can modulate the allergenicity of antigens carried by airborne particles. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived paucimicronic particles, pollutants can modify the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents and after their allergenic potential. In addition, by inducing airway inflammation, which increases airway epithelial permeability, pollutants overcome the mucosal barrier and so facilitate the allergen-induced inflammatory responses. Moreover, air pollutants such as diesel exhaust emissions are thought to modulate the immune response by increasing immunoglobulin E synthesis, thus facilitating allergic sensitization in atopic subjects and the subsequent development of clinical respiratory symptoms. PMID:10695313

  17. Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution in Homes with Infants

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Anna Ruth; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Infants spend most of their indoor time at home; however, residential air quality is poorly understood. We investigated the air quality of infants’ homes in the New England area of the U.S. Participants (N = 53) were parents of infants (0–6 months) who completed telephone surveys to identify potential pollutant sources in their residence. Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤0.5 µm (PM0.5), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were measured in 10 homes over 4–7 days, and levels were compared with health-based guidelines. Pollutant levels varied substantially across homes and within homes with overall levels for some homes up to 20 times higher than for other homes. Average levels were 0.85 ppm, 663.2 ppm, 18.7 µg/m3, and 1626 µg/m3 for CO, CO2, PM0.5, and TVOCs, respectively. CO2, TVOCs, and PM0.5 levels exceeded health-based indoor air quality guidelines. Survey results suggest that nursery renovations and related potential pollutant sources may be associated with differences in urbanicity, income, and presence of older children with respiratory ailments, which could potentially confound health studies. While there are no standards for indoor residential air quality, our findings suggest that additional research is needed to assess indoor pollution exposure for infants, which may be a vulnerable population. PMID:22408586

  18. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D.

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test-house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. Emission factors developed in test chambers can be used to evaluate full-scale indoor environments. A PC-based IAQ model has been developed that can accurately predict indoor concentrations of specific pollutants under controlled conditions in a test house. The model is also useful in examining the effect of pollutant sinks and variations in ventilation parameters. Pollutants were examined from: (1) para-dichloro-benzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and, (2) particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. However, the approach has not been validated for other source types, including solvent based materials and aerosol products.

  19. Air pollution and stroke - an overview of the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Air pollution is being increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for stroke. There are numerous sources of air pollution including industry, road transport and domestic use of biomass and solid fuels. Early reports of the association between air pollution and stroke come from studies investigating health effects of severe pollution episodes. Several daily time series and case-crossover studies have reported associations with stroke. There is also evidence linking chronic air pollution exposure with stroke and with reduced survival after stroke. A conceptual framework linking air pollution exposure and stroke is proposed. It links acute and chronic exposure to air pollution with pathways to acute and chronic effects on stroke risk. Current evidence regarding potential mechanisms mainly relate to particulate air pollution. Whilst further evidence would be useful, there is already sufficient evidence to support consideration of reduction in air pollution as a preventative measure to reduce the stroke burden globally.

  20. Long-memory property in air pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelani, Asha

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper, long-memory in air pollutant concentrations is reviewed and outcome of the past studies is analyzed to provide the possible mechanism behind temporal evolution of air pollutant concentrations. It is observed that almost all the studies show air pollutant concentrations over time possess persistence up to a certain limit. Self-organized criticality of air pollution, multiplicative process of pollutant concentrations, and uniformity in emission sources leading to self-organized criticality are few of the phenomena behind the persistent property of air pollutant concentrations. The self-organized criticality of air pollution is linked to atmosphere's self-cleansing mechanism. This demonstrates that inspite of increasing anthropogenic emissions, self-organized criticality of air pollution is sustained and has low influence of human interventions. In the future, this property may, however, be perturbed due to continuous air pollution emissions, which may influence the accuracy in predictions.

  1. Air pollution and stroke - an overview of the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Air pollution is being increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for stroke. There are numerous sources of air pollution including industry, road transport and domestic use of biomass and solid fuels. Early reports of the association between air pollution and stroke come from studies investigating health effects of severe pollution episodes. Several daily time series and case-crossover studies have reported associations with stroke. There is also evidence linking chronic air pollution exposure with stroke and with reduced survival after stroke. A conceptual framework linking air pollution exposure and stroke is proposed. It links acute and chronic exposure to air pollution with pathways to acute and chronic effects on stroke risk. Current evidence regarding potential mechanisms mainly relate to particulate air pollution. Whilst further evidence would be useful, there is already sufficient evidence to support consideration of reduction in air pollution as a preventative measure to reduce the stroke burden globally. PMID:27494962

  2. Contribution of air pollution to COPD and small airway dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Berend, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Although in many Western countries levels of ambient air pollution have been improving with the setting of upper limits and better urban planning, air pollution in developing countries and particularly those with rapid industrialization has become a major global problem. Together with increased motor vehicle ownership and traffic congestion, there is a growing issue with airborne particles of respirable size. These particles are thought responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular effects and have also been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. The pathologic effects in the lung are mediated via inflammatory pathways and involve oxidative stress similar to cigarette smoking. These effects are seen in the peripheral airways where the smaller particle fractions are deposited and lead to airway remodelling. However, emphysema and loss of bronchioles seen with cigarette smoking have not been described with ambient air pollution, and there are few studies specifically looking at peripheral airway function. Definitive evidence of air pollution causing COPD is lacking and a different study design is required to link air pollution and COPD.

  3. Lichens as bioindicators of geothermal air pollution in central Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Loppi, S.

    1996-11-01

    The suitability of lichens as bioindicators of geothermal air pollution was evaluated in central Italy. Fifty-one sites were sampled in the Travale-Radicondoli geothermal field, an area of about 15 km{sup 2}. Lichens on 1-5 trees per station were sampled, using 30 x 50 cm grids on tree boles, where lichens were most dense. Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) was calculated as the sum of the frequencies of all lichen species present at the station. Using automatic mapping programs, the area was divided into four air quality zones and the lowest IAP values were found within about 500 m of geothermal power plants. No direct measurements of air pollution are available for the whole study area, however, other studies show that air pollution levels (mercury, boron) fall with distance from a geothermal source. Also no substrate parameter (height, circumference, bark pH, and buffer capacity of the trees) discriminates between IAP zones. This suggests that air pollution arising from geothermal emissions is responsible for the zonation shown, with values for species richness and IAP rising with distance from geothermal installations. It is concluded that lichens are reliable bioindicators of geothermal pollution. 64 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Contribution of air pollution to COPD and small airway dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Berend, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Although in many Western countries levels of ambient air pollution have been improving with the setting of upper limits and better urban planning, air pollution in developing countries and particularly those with rapid industrialization has become a major global problem. Together with increased motor vehicle ownership and traffic congestion, there is a growing issue with airborne particles of respirable size. These particles are thought responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular effects and have also been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. The pathologic effects in the lung are mediated via inflammatory pathways and involve oxidative stress similar to cigarette smoking. These effects are seen in the peripheral airways where the smaller particle fractions are deposited and lead to airway remodelling. However, emphysema and loss of bronchioles seen with cigarette smoking have not been described with ambient air pollution, and there are few studies specifically looking at peripheral airway function. Definitive evidence of air pollution causing COPD is lacking and a different study design is required to link air pollution and COPD. PMID:26412571

  5. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Romieu, I.; Weitzenfeld, H.; Finkelman, J. )

    1991-09-01

    Urban air pollution has become an increasing problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. One reason is the rapid expansion in the size of the urban population. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the number of vehicles and in energy utilization which, in addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, are the primary sources of air pollution i n Latin American cities. The air quality standards established in such countries are frequently exceeded although control programs have been implemented. The urban areas more affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are Sao Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Mexico City. In Latin America, the population of cities with high priority air pollution problems include approximately 81 million people or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America, corresponding to 30 million children (<15 years), 47 million adults (15-59 years) and 4 million elderly people ({ge}60 years) who are exposed to air pollutant levels that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for adequate health protection.

  6. Respiratory effects of air pollution on children.

    PubMed

    Goldizen, Fiona C; Sly, Peter D; Knibbs, Luke D

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the global burden of disease is directly or indirectly attributable to exposure to air pollution. Exposures occurring during the periods of organogenesis and rapid lung growth during fetal development and early post-natal life are especially damaging. In this State of the Art review, we discuss air toxicants impacting on children's respiratory health, routes of exposure with an emphasis on unique pathways relevant to young children, methods of exposure assessment and their limitations and the adverse health consequences of exposures. Finally, we point out gaps in knowledge and research needs in this area. A greater understanding of the adverse health consequences of exposure to air pollution in early life is required to encourage policy makers to reduce such exposures and improve human health.

  7. [Air pollution and asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Just, J; Nisakinovic, L; Laoudi, Y; Grimfeld, A

    2006-07-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased world-wide during the last quarter of the 20th century, particularly among children and adolescents. No change common to all sites where asthma has increased throughout the world has been identified, suggesting that this 'epidemic' phenomenon is likely due to multiple factors. The following have been most discussed: exposure to indoor and outdoor allergens, modification of the patterns of respiratory infections, decreasing trends of physical activity, evolution in the make-up of environmental irritants, including tobacco smoke and urban air toxicants. In this review, we point out the role of exposure to air pollutants, in addition to and in combination with other asthma enhancers or precipitators. Whereas concentrations of the 'classical' air quality indicators (SO2, CO) have more or less steadily decreased, asthma prevalence augmented in developed countries during the same period. However, the nature of the air pollution mix has deeply evolved, and should also be considered. Ambient air concentrations of industrial and house heating combustion sources of pollutants in the city have substantially decreased, but by contrast the concentrations of various ultrafine particles have increased. Now, there is in vitro and in vivo evidence that exposure to urban air particles, and particularly to diesel exhausts, elicits chronic oxidative stress and repeated inflammatory responses, so that they may enhance allergic inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness. Several epidemiological studies suggested an association between traffic density close to places of children's residence and prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and more specifically of asthma or allergic rhinitis symptoms in them. Chronic exposure during infancy to traffic-related pollutants may accelerate or even provoke, among genetically sensitive subjects, disruption of the normal regulatory and repair processes eventually contributing to the increase

  8. A pound of prevention: Air pollution and the fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.L.; Rose, R.

    1996-12-31

    The expanded use of fuel cells in transportation and power generation is an exciting proposition for public health officials because of the potential of this technology to help reduce air pollution levels around the globe. Such work is about prevention -- prevention of air emissions of hazardous substances. Prevention is a key concept in public health. An example is quarantine, which aims to prevent the spread of a disease-causing organism. In the environmental arena, prevention includes cessation of pollution. Air pollution prevention policies also have a practical impact. Sooner or later ideas on technology, especially new technology, must be sold to policy makers, legislators, and eventually the public. Advocating technologies that will improve human health and welfare can be an effective marketing strategy.

  9. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

  10. An analysis of secondary pollutants in Buenos Aires City.

    PubMed

    Reich, Silvia; Magallanes, Jorge; Dawidowski, Laura; Gómez, Darío; Groselj, Neva; Zupan, Jure

    2006-08-01

    Air pollutant concentrations from a monitoring campaign in Buenos Aires City, Argentina, are used to investigate the relationships between ambient levels of ozone (O3), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as a function of NO(x) (= NO + NO2). This campaign undertaken by the electricity sector was aimed at elucidating the apportionment of thermal power plants to air quality deterioration. Concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were also registered. Photo stationary state (PSS) of the NO, NO2, O3 and peroxy radicals species has been analysed. The 'oxidant' level concept has been introduced, OX (= O3 + NO2), which varies with the level of NO(x). It is shown that this level is made up of NO(x)-independent and NO(x)-dependent contributions. The former is a regional contribution that equates the background O3 level, whereas the latter is a local contribution that correlates with the level of primary pollution. Furthermore, the anticorrelation between NO2 and O3 levels, which is a characteristic of the atmospheric photo stationary cycle has been verified. The analysis of the concentration of the primary pollutants CO and NO strongly suggests that the vehicle traffic is the principal source of them. Levels of continuous measurements of SO2 for Buenos Aires City are reported in this work as a complement of previously published results.

  11. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    PubMed

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu; Kipen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or

  12. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    PubMed Central

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or

  13. The Effects of a Blizzard on Urban Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Armando; Bein, Frederick L.

    1981-01-01

    The chronology and effects of a 1978 blizzard on Indianapolis' air pollution levels (ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide) are used as a case study for geography classes. Photographs, graphs, and maps are provided as examples of meteorological data collection and interpretation. (AM)

  14. [Air pollution biomonitoring with plants and fungi: concepts and uses].

    PubMed

    Cuny, D

    2012-07-01

    Air pollution remains a major environmental concern of the French. Since about 30 years, due to evolution and diversification of sources, pollution became more and more complex, constituting a true "cocktail". Today, it is very important to know environmental and health effects of this cocktail. In this context air biomonitoring using plants and fungi can bring a lot of information. Biomonitoring includes four concepts: the use of biomarkers, bioindication biointegration and bioaccumulation. These four concepts are articulated according to the levels of biological organization, what links up biosurveillance on fundamental plan with ecotoxicology. It is a complementary approach of the physicochemical techniques of air pollution measurements. The main objectives of biomonitoring studies are the monitoring of the space and temporal distribution of pollutants effect; the monitoring of local sources; participation in the health risks assessment; the information of people and the help to decision in public policies. Biomonitoring of air quality is a method, which made its proof in numerous domains of application and brings fundamental information on the impacts of the quality of air. Recent evolution of low concerning biggest industries allows us to envisage the increase of air quality biomonitoring with plants and fungi applications in the field of the valuation of environmental and health risks. The recent normalization (French and European) of different methods will also allow the development of uses.

  15. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    PubMed

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  16. Changing perspectives on air-pollution stress

    SciTech Connect

    Bormann, F.H.; Likens, G.E.

    1987-06-01

    As more has been learned about the nature of air pollution and more sophisticated techniques have been developed for measurement, it has become apparent that acid rain is only one of an interrelated array of airshed-watershed problems. Despite important reductions in some pollutant emissions, the authors believe the situation today is worse than it appeared to be 15 years ago. Recently scientists have reported data showing that in some locations dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur, and nitrogen in coarse and fine particles and vapors may exceed the same substances measured in bulk precipitation. As scientists learned about acid rain, they also became more aware of photochemical oxidant pollution. Symptoms of ozone damage on crops and natural vegetation have been found in a majority of states. As understanding and measurement ability have increased, estimates of the magnitude of the air pollution problem have grown. The recent measurements of dry deposition, cloud-water deposition, and photochemical oxidant concentrations have greatly increased estimates of airborne pollutants reaching ecosystems. They have shown that the photochemical oxidant problem cannot be separated from the acid-rain problem and that the combined effects may be both episodic and long-term. These findings indicate that regional air pollution is more severe than it was perceived to be 15 years ago. Solving the problem will be extremely difficult and expensive both in terms of monitoring and assessing effects on ecosystems under realistic conditions. The longer the delays in setting an official policy of comprehensive correctional measures, the more environmental damage may occur. Extensive damage, in turn, would increase the cost of measures for protection and recovery.

  17. Acute effects of air pollution changes in schoolchildren: the Gardanne coal basin study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpin, D.; Kleisbauer, J. P.; Fondarai, A.; Francheterre, A.; Fondarai, J.; Graland, B.; Viala, A.

    1988-12-01

    In the literature, studies devoted to shortterm effects of air pollution episodes in children have provided controversial results. To evaluate if acute air pollution changes in the Gardanne coal basin (France) could have deleterious effects on children's pulmonary function, we studied 160 children on two different days. Each in-school examination consisted of a short questionnaire and a spirometric assessment. The area included districts of high and low pollution levels. In the former, the two examinations took place at different air pollution levels whereas, in the latter, the air pollution levels were comparable. We obtained higher spirometric values during the second examination, regardless of air pollution changes and suggesting a learning effect, which vanished when we used FEV1/FVC ratio. The difference in FEV1/FVC between days of low and high pollution was significant but merely equal to 2%. There was no change of clinical symptom score.

  18. Chemiluminescent detection of organic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Chen, Yu-Harn

    1996-04-01

    Chemiluminescent reactions can be used for specific and highly sensitive detection of a number of air pollutants. Among these are chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with NO or organics and reactions of luminol with a variety of oxidants. Reported here are studies exploring (1) the use of the temperature dependence of the chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with organic pollutants as a means of differentiating types of hydrocarbon classes and (2) the use of luminol techniques to monitor atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and organic oxidants, specifically peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). Coupling gas chromatography to the chemiluminescent detectors allows the measurement of individual species at very low concentrations.

  19. Photochemical air pollution. Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein E.; Hackney, J.D.; Rokaw, S.N.

    1985-03-01

    In this paper, epidemiologic studies are reported which indicate that high photochemical oxidant exposures: do not cause mortality or serious illness; may increase the risk of asthmatic attacks in a small percentage of asthmatic patients; appear to reduce pulmonary function in smokers and nonsmokers after long-term exposure; cause acute discomfort of eye and throat, chest irritation and cough; and interfere with athletic performance. Exposure to high ambient levels of NO/sub 2/ is not associated with mortality, serious disease or respiratory dysfunction, but self-limiting symptoms of respiratory irritation or illness may develop in children. 106 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  20. Determinants of perceived air pollution annoyance and association between annoyance scores and air pollution (PM 2.5, NO 2) concentrations in the European EXPOLIS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotko, Tuulia; Oglesby, Lucy; Künzli, Nino; Carrer, Paolo; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Jantunen, Matti

    Apart from its traditionally considered objective impacts on health, air pollution can also have perceived effects, such as annoyance. The psychological effects of air pollution may often be more important to well-being than the biophysical effects. Health effects of perceived annoyance from air pollution are so far unknown. More knowledge of air pollution annoyance levels, determinants and also associations with different air pollution components is needed. In the European air pollution exposure study, EXPOLIS, the air pollution annoyance as perceived at home, workplace and in traffic were surveyed among other study objectives. Overall 1736 randomly drawn 25-55-yr-old subjects participated in six cities (Athens, Basel, Milan, Oxford, Prague and Helsinki). Levels and predictors of individual perceived annoyances from air pollution were assessed. Instead of the usual air pollution concentrations at fixed monitoring sites, this paper compares the measured microenvironment concentrations and personal exposures of PM 2.5 and NO 2 to the perceived annoyance levels. A considerable proportion of the adults surveyed was annoyed by air pollution. Female gender, self-reported respiratory symptoms, downtown living and self-reported sensitivity to air pollution were directly associated with high air pollution annoyance score while in traffic, but smoking status, age or education level were not significantly associated. Population level annoyance averages correlated with the city average exposure levels of PM 2.5 and NO 2. A high correlation was observed between the personal 48-h PM 2.5 exposure and perceived annoyance at home as well as between the mean annoyance at work and both the average work indoor PM 2.5 and the personal work time PM 2.5 exposure. With the other significant determinants (gender, city code, home location) and home outdoor levels the model explained 14% (PM 2.5) and 19% (NO 2) of the variation in perceived air pollution annoyance in traffic. Compared to

  1. Air quality and pollution control in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shu-Hwei; Chen, Hsiung-Wen

    Due to limited land and great emphasis on economic growth in the past, Taiwan has an extremely heavy environmental burden. Population density, factory density, as well as densities of motor vehicles are several times higher than those in the United States and Japan. According to the statistics of 1991, the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) fell mostly in the "moderate" category, i.e., in the range of 50-100. There were 16.25% of the monitored days with PSI above 100, and 0.51% with PSI beyond 200. Suspended particulates were the major pollutant responsible for PSI above 100, followed by carbon monoxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide. The measures adopted to control air pollution can be divided into four categories, namely law and regulations, control measures on stationary sources, mobile sources and construction projects. The latest amended Air Pollution Control Act was promulgated on 1 February 1992. Several major revisions were introduced to make the amended Act much more stringent than the 1982 amendment, especially on the offenses likely to endanger public health and welfare. In regard to stationary sources, a permit system was enacted to regulate the establishment and alteration of stationary sources. Designated stationary sources are required to be equipped with automatic monitoring facilities. An inspection and enforcement program have expanded to cover more than 10,000 factories. Major control measures for motor vehicles include introducing stringent emission standards for gasoline-fueled vehicles and diesel cars, setting up ratification and approval program for new vehicle model, promoting the inspection/maintenance program on in-used motorcycles and encouraging the use of unleaded and low sulfur fuels. In order to control the pollution caused by construction work, constructors are required to use low-pollution machinery and engineering methods and incorporate pollution prevention into the construction budget.

  2. Cheap Face Masks Little Help Against Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... News) -- Inexpensive cloth masks offer little protection against air pollution, a new study suggests. Many people in Asia ... or washable cloth masks to protect against small air pollution particles. But tests on different types of masks ...

  3. As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160914.html As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution To minimize exposure, researchers recommend shutting windows and ... Doing so can reduce your exposure to toxic air pollution from a traffic jam by up to 76 ...

  4. Effects on health of air pollution: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Harari, Sergio; Martinelli, Ida; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution is a complex and ubiquitous mixture of pollutants including particulate matter, chemical substances and biological materials. There is growing awareness of the adverse effects on health of air pollution following both acute and chronic exposure, with a rapidly expanding body of evidence linking air pollution with an increased risk of respiratory (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents). Elderly subjects, pregnant women, infants and people with prior diseases appear especially susceptible to the deleterious effects of ambient air pollution. The main diseases associated with exposure to air pollutants will be summarized in this narrative review.

  5. Urban Air Pollution in Russia: Observations and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Elansky, Nikolai; Lavrova, Olga; Pankratova, Natalia; Belikov, Igor; Falaleeva, Victoria; Mel'nikova, Irina; Remizov, Andrey; Sitnikova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Urban air pollution is actual topic because of its influence on air quality and climate processes on both regional and global scale. There is a lack of up-to-date information about real state of air quality in Russian cities because of very few contemporary observations. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics possesses significant database of automated measurements of air composition including data of train-based TROICA experiments in 1995-2010 as well as permanent observations in Moscow since 2002. In general numerous crosses of about 100 urban settlements of different size and location have been performed that allowed us to compose detailed pattern of urban air pollution in Russia nowadays. All cities were separated at three groups: megacities (more then 500 000 citizens), middle cities (50 000-500 000 citizens) and little cities (less then 50 000 citizens). Each urban settlement has been divided into railway station area, urban zone and city (or town) surroundings. Concentrations of main polluting gases (NO, NO2, CO, SO2, NMHC, O3) and aerosols have been averaged for each settlement as well as for each group of urban settlements for day and night, and for winter and summer. Main features of air urban pollution in Russia are presented. Variations of main pollutants including anthropogenic VOCs because of daytime and seasons, as well as temperature vertical structure are studied. Concentrations of O3, CO, SO2 and NMHC are usually below MPC level. NO2 is often enhanced especially near auto-roads. In general, polluting gases have greater concentrations in winter time due to heating and stronger temperature inversions. Particulate matter is likely to be the most persistent pollutant that determines more than 90% of pollution cases. Strong pollution cases are often caused by extraordinary situations like fires, industrial pollution under unfavorable meteorological conditions. High ozone photochemical generation is quite rare. Spatial pollution structure is usually

  6. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  7. Human exposure to urban air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Boström, C E; Almén, J; Steen, B; Westerholm, R

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with some methods of making human exposure estimates, aimed at describing the human exposure for selected air pollutants in Sweden that are suspected carcinogens. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been chosen as an indicator substance for estimating the concentration of the urban plume. Earlier investigations have shown that the traffic in Swedish cities contributes around 85% to the measured NOx concentrations, and that most of the mutagenicity in urban air originates from traffic. The first section of this paper describes measurements in Stockholm of some unregulated light hydrocarbons, such as ethene, ethyne, propane, propene, butane, and isobutane. In addition, measurements of some volatile aromatic hydrocarbons are presented. Simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were made. The ratios between CO and the individual specific compounds were determined by linear regression analysis. By analysis of relationships between CO and NOx, NOx concentrations can be used as a tracer to describe the exposure for these specific compounds. NOx are considered to be a better tracer than CO, because NOx or NO2 values exist for many places over a long time, while CO is measured mostly in streets with high concentrations. At low concentrations, instruments that measure normal CO levels give no detectable signals. Through use of atmospheric dispersion models and models that describe how people live and work in urban areas it has been possible to describe the average exposure to NOx in cities of different sizes. The exposure to NOx for people living in the countryside has also been estimated. In this way, it has been possible to calculate the average exposure dose for NOx for the Swedish population. This figure is 23 micrograms/m3. By use of the relationships between NOx and specific compounds the average dose has been calculated for the following compounds: polyaromatic compounds (PAH); ethene, propene, and butadiene; benzene, toluene, and xylene; formaldehyde

  8. Basic mechanisms for adverse cardiovascular events associated with air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a significant cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the epidemiologic association between air pollution exposures and exacerbation of cardiovascular disease is well established, the mechanisms by which these exposures promote cardiovascular disease are incompletely understood. In this review I will give an overview of the components of air pollution, an overview of the cardiovascular effects of air pollution exposure and a review of the basic mechanisms that are activated by exposure to promote cardiovascular disease. PMID:25552258

  9. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  10. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  11. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease.

  12. A review of methods for predicting air pollution dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, J. J., Jr.; Grose, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Air pollution modeling, and problem areas in air pollution dispersion modeling were surveyed. Emission source inventory, meteorological data, and turbulent diffusion are discussed in terms of developing a dispersion model. Existing mathematical models of urban air pollution, and highway and airport models are discussed along with their limitations. Recommendations for improving modeling capabilities are included.

  13. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  14. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  16. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the... of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects of these...

  18. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  19. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  1. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  2. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  3. Chronic Effects of Air Pollution are Probably Overestimated.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2015-05-01

    Inappropriate measures of exposure, including inadequate consideration of latency in the analysis of chronic effects of air pollution, may lead to overestimation of the impact of air pollution on health effects. A relatively simple way to check the plausibility of results on chronic effects of air pollution would be to report in parallel the smoking-associated risks.

  4. Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Nahid; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Beelen, Rob; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios Α; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-08-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on blood markers of systemic inflammation. We measured a panel of 28 inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from 587 individuals that were biobanked as part of a prospective study. Participants were from Varese and Turin (Italy) and Umea (Sweden). Long-term air pollution estimates of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were available from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders were applied to assess the association between NOx and the markers of inflammation. Long-term exposure to NOx was associated with decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α in Italy, but not in Sweden. NOx exposure levels were considerably lower in Sweden than in Italy (Sweden: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 6.65 μg/m(3) (4.8, 19.7); Italy: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 94.2 μg/m(3) (7.8, 124.5)). Combining data from Italy and Sweden we only observed a significant association between long-term exposure to NOx and decreased levels of circulating IL-8. We observed some indication for perturbations in the inflammatory markers due to long-term exposure to NOx. Effects were stronger in Italy than in Sweden, potentially reflecting the difference in air pollution levels between the two cohorts.

  5. Air pollutants effects on forest ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the effects of acid rain on forests. The conference was sponsored by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Topics considered at the conference included the status of US research on acid deposition and its effects contributing factors to the decline of forests, evidence for effects on ecosystems, the effects of air pollutants on forest ecosystems in North America and Europe, forest management, and future scientific research programs and management approaches.

  6. Human health effects of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Kampa, Marilena; Castanas, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O(3)), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed.

  7. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  8. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  9. Root growth responses of Anagallis arvensis L., primulaceae to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Ghouse, A K

    1988-01-01

    The root growth response to air pollution in populations of Anagallis arvensis growing about 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 20 km leeward from a power plant complex varied with the level of pollution, age of the stand and meteorological conditions. The roots were more affected by the pollutants at a young stage and the loss in net primary productivity was proportional to the pollution level. The populations up to 2 km from the source of pollution completed their life cycle quickly. The coal consumption rate at the power plant, relative humidity, wind direction and other environmental factors were found to influence the degree of growth response to air pollution.

  10. Effects of air emissions on wildlife resources. Air pollution and acid rain report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    This publication describes in general the pathways of contamination, direct and indirect effects of air emissions on wildlife resources, and the potential use of wildlife as biological indicators of air quality degradation. Also included in the report are summaries of air pollution incidents involving wildlife, responses of wildlife to air pollution, major target systems of selected air pollutants, and information on the capacity of some air pollutants to accumulate in body tissues.

  11. Air pollution and environmental justice in the Great Lakes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, Bryan

    While it is true that air quality has steadily improved in the Great Lakes region, air pollution remains at unhealthy concentrations in many areas. Research suggests that vulnerable and susceptible groups in society -- e.g., minorities, the poor, children, and poorly educated -- are often disproportionately impacted by exposure to environmental hazards, including air pollution. This dissertation explores the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution (interpolated concentrations of fine particulate matter, PM2.5) and sociodemographic factors (race, housing value, housing status, education, age, and population density) at the Census block-group level in the Great Lakes region of the United States. A relatively novel approach to quantitative environmental justice analysis, geographically weighted regression (GWR), is compared with a simplified approach: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. While OLS creates one global model to describe the relationship between air pollution exposure and sociodemographic factors, GWR creates many local models (one at each Census block group) that account for local variations in this relationship by allowing the value of regression coefficients to vary over space, overcoming OLS's assumption of homogeneity and spatial independence. Results suggest that GWR can elucidate patterns of potential environmental injustices that OLS models may miss. In fact, GWR results show that the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and sociodemographic characteristics is non-stationary and can vary geographically and temporally throughout the Great Lakes region. This suggests that regulators may need to address environmental justice issues at the neighborhood level, while understanding that the severity of environmental injustices can change throughout the year.

  12. Floristic summary of plant species in the air pollution literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    A floristic summary and analysis was performed on a list of the plant species that have been studied for the effects of gaseous and chemical air pollutants on vegetation in order to compare the species with the flora of North America north of Mexico. The scientific names of 2081 vascular plant species were extracted from almost 4000 journal articles stored in two large literature databases on the effects of air pollutants on plants. Three quarters of the plant species studied occur in North America, but this was only 7% of the total North American flora. Sixteen percent and 56% of all North American genera and families have been studied. The most studied genus is Pinus with 70% of the North American species studied, and the most studied family is the grass family, with 12% of the species studied. Although Pinus is ranked 86th in the North American flora, the grass family is ranked third, indicating that representation at the family level is better than at the genus level. All of the top ten families in North America are represented in the top 20 families in the air pollution effects literature, but only one genus (Lupinus) in the top ten genera in North America is represented in the top thirteen genera in the air pollution literature.

  13. [Relationship between surface UV radiation and air pollution in Beijing].

    PubMed

    An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si; Li, Xin; Sun, Yang; Shen, Shuang-he

    2008-04-01

    Based on the data of solar radiation and air pollutants collected in Beijing, the relationship between surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the content of air pollutants were analyzed, using the radiative transfer model TUV4.4 (Tropospheric Ultraviolet Visible). The results show that average total ozone content is 329 DU and higher in winter and spring, lower in summer and autumn. The inverse relationship exists between ground level UV radiation and total ozone content. This study also shows that a substantial reduction (up to 50%) in the UV radiation on days with high levels of air pollution. Larger fluctuations are found in UV radiation in the summer. The effects of clouds and air pollution on UV are higher than on total solar radiation, and the reduction in UV is about twice as large as the total solar radiation values. Strong reduction in the UV radiation reaching the ground is associated with the increase of tropospheric ozone and nitrogen oxides in Beijing. The correlation coefficient between ozone concentration and decrease in UV radiation is 0.70 in the early afternoon.

  14. Corruption and air pollution in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how the effectiveness of regulatory framework influences levels of sulphur emissions in a scenario where, to reduce its (emission-) tax payments, a polluting firm may under-report emissions level at the risk of being audited and fined. First, a model to explain how changes in regulatory framework (e.g., audit effectiveness) and transboundary spillovers affect both actual and reported emissions is developed. Then the theoretical predictions using data for 39 European countries from 1999 to 2003 are tested and inferences about true emission levels are made. The empirical analysis supports the theoretical predictions with significant implications for the interpretation of pollution data reported to international monitoring agencies. Countries with effective regulation are likely to have relatively high reported emissions of sulphur. But this should not automatically be interpreted as weak environmental performance, because their actual pollution levels are likely to be lower than in nations with less effective regulation.

  15. Corruption and air pollution in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how the effectiveness of regulatory framework influences levels of sulphur emissions in a scenario where, to reduce its (emission-) tax payments, a polluting firm may under-report emissions level at the risk of being audited and fined. First, a model to explain how changes in regulatory framework (e.g., audit effectiveness) and transboundary spillovers affect both actual and reported emissions is developed. Then the theoretical predictions using data for 39 European countries from 1999 to 2003 are tested and inferences about true emission levels are made. The empirical analysis supports the theoretical predictions with significant implications for the interpretation of pollution data reported to international monitoring agencies. Countries with effective regulation are likely to have relatively high reported emissions of sulphur. But this should not automatically be interpreted as weak environmental performance, because their actual pollution levels are likely to be lower than in nations with less effective regulation. PMID:21141644

  16. Identifying exposure disparities in air pollution epidemiology specific to adverse birth outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, Laura A.

    2014-10-01

    More than 147 million people in the US live in areas where pollutant levels are above regulatory limits and pose a risk to health. Most of the vast network of air pollutant monitors in the US are located in places with higher pollution levels and a higher density of pollutant sources (e.g., point sources from industrial pollution). Vulnerable populations are more likely to live closer to pollutant sources, and thus closer to pollutant monitors. These differential exposures have an impact on maternal and child health; maternal air pollutant exposures have been linked to adverse outcomes such as preterm birth and infant low birth weight. Several studies are highlighted that address methodological approaches in the study of air pollution and health disparities.

  17. Health effects of air pollution in southern Europe: are there interacting factors?

    PubMed Central

    Katsouyanni, K

    1995-01-01

    Recent results suggest that adverse health effects of air pollution exist at levels of pollutants around or even below air quality standards set by national and international institutions. Furthermore, there are indications that air pollution effects on health may be partly determined by specific mixtures of air pollutants and may be altered by other environmental, behavioral, and social patterns. Southern European countries share some common characteristics in terms of climate, geography, and life activity patterns. Results from studies undertaken in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain investigating short- and long-term air pollution health effects are presented and their consistency demonstrated. These results provide adequate evidence that health effects--particularly short-term--of the currently measured urban air pollution levels exist. However, information available so far does not allow an assessment of regional differences in the health effects of air pollution as far as the Mediterranean region of Europe is concerned. It is suggested that the interaction between the traditional pollution (mainly characterized by high levels of black smoke and SO2) and photochemical pollution must be investigated in this area, as well as the possible interaction between air pollution and high temperature and other meteorologic factors. In addition, measurements of individual exposure to different pollutants, affected by the pollutant's levels in specific micro-environments and the individual's time-activity pattern, must be undertaken for a better understanding of the air pollution-health link. Finally, the importance of the reported air pollution health effects in terms of public health must be addressed more closely. PMID:7614942

  18. Air pollution in China: Scientific and Public Policy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sever air pollution in China has in recent years caused intensive public, media and governmental attention. Many questions need to be answered about the air pollution in China, such as how harmful is the air pollution, especially PM2.5? Why suddenly so many reports about sever air pollution, is the air in China getting more polluted? How to design a policy that can control the air pollution most efficiently? After updated the national Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012 and included PM2.5 as one of the critical air pollutants, in 2013, Chinese central government released for the first time the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan". The plan has set goals to reduce annual mean concentration of PM2.5 up to 25% in 2017 in different regions in China. If the ambitious goals were achieved, this could be the most significant air pollution reduction in such a short time that affects so many people in human history. To achieve these goals, however, there are enormous scientific and public policy challenges to deal with. For example: Identify the key components, size fraction of PM that have the largest health effects; and identify the sources of PM that has the most harmful effects on human health and ecosystem. Reduce the uncertainty in health risk assessment. Understand complicate chemical transformation processes in air pollution formation with intensive emissions from industry, power plant, vehicles, agriculture. Interactions between air pollution, PBL, and atmospheric circulation at different scales. The accountability, feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of air pollution control policies. Integrate multi-pollutant control and achieve co-benefit with climate and energy policy. Regional coordinated air pollution control. The largest challenge in China for air pollution control remains how to strength the link between science and policy.

  19. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution.

  20. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution. PMID:26057478

  1. Association between Air Pollution and Hemoptysis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Olive, Ignasi; Radua, Joaquim; Fiz, Jose Antonio; Sanz-Santos, Jose; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relationship between air pollution and exacerbation of respiratory diseases is well established. Nevertheless, its association with hemoptysis has been poorly investigated. This paper describes the relationship of air pollutants with severe hemoptysis. Methods. All consecutive subjects with severe hemoptysis during a 5-year period were included. The relationship between the contamination measurements and the frequency of embolizations was analyzed using Poisson regressions. In these regressions, the dependent variable was the monthly number of embolizations in a given month and the independent variable was either the concentration of an air contaminant during the same month, the concentration of the air contaminant during the previous month, or the difference between the two. Results. A higher total number of embolizations per month were observed over the months with increases in the concentration of NO. The number of embolizations was 2.0 in the 33 months with no increases in the concentration of NO, 2.1 in the 12 months with small increases, 2.2 in the 5 months with moderate increases, 2.5 in the 4 months with large increases, and 4.0 in the 5 months with very large increases. Conclusion. There is association between hemoptysis and increases in the concentration of atmospheric NO in Badalona (Spain). PMID:27445569

  2. Association between Air Pollution and Hemoptysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Olive, Ignasi; Radua, Joaquim; Fiz, Jose Antonio; Sanz-Santos, Jose; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relationship between air pollution and exacerbation of respiratory diseases is well established. Nevertheless, its association with hemoptysis has been poorly investigated. This paper describes the relationship of air pollutants with severe hemoptysis. Methods. All consecutive subjects with severe hemoptysis during a 5-year period were included. The relationship between the contamination measurements and the frequency of embolizations was analyzed using Poisson regressions. In these regressions, the dependent variable was the monthly number of embolizations in a given month and the independent variable was either the concentration of an air contaminant during the same month, the concentration of the air contaminant during the previous month, or the difference between the two. Results. A higher total number of embolizations per month were observed over the months with increases in the concentration of NO. The number of embolizations was 2.0 in the 33 months with no increases in the concentration of NO, 2.1 in the 12 months with small increases, 2.2 in the 5 months with moderate increases, 2.5 in the 4 months with large increases, and 4.0 in the 5 months with very large increases. Conclusion. There is association between hemoptysis and increases in the concentration of atmospheric NO in Badalona (Spain). PMID:27445569

  3. Economic Activity and Trends in Ambient Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mary E.; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Background One challenge in assessing the health effects of human exposure to air pollution in epidemiologic studies is the lack of widespread historical air pollutant monitoring data with which to characterize past exposure levels. Objectives Given the availability of long-term economic data, we relate economic activity levels to patterns in vehicle-related particulate matter (PM) over a 30-year period in New Jersey, USA, to provide insight into potential historical surrogate markers of air pollution. Methods We used statewide unemployment and county-level trucking industry characteristics to estimate historical coefficient of haze (COH), a marker of vehicle-related PM predominantly from diesel exhaust. A total of 5,920 observations were included across 25 different locations in New Jersey between 1971 and 2003. Results A mixed-modeling approach was employed to estimate the impact of economic indicators on measured COH. The model explained approximately 50% of the variability in COH as estimated by the overall R2 value. Peaks and lows in unemployment tracked negatively with similar extremes in COH, whereas employment in the trucking industry was positively associated with COH. Federal air quality regulations also played a large and significant role in reducing COH levels over the study period. Conclusions This new approach outlines an alternative method to reconstruct historical exposures that may greatly aid epidemiologic research on specific causes of health effects from urban air pollution. Economic activity data provide a potential surrogate marker of changes in exposure levels over time in the absence of direct monitoring data for chronic disease studies, but more research in this area is needed. PMID:20056563

  4. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particularly intense in a northeast corridor that extends from near Shanghai to north of Beijing. During our analysis period, 92% of the population of China experienced >120 hours of unhealthy air (US EPA standard), and 38% experienced average concentrations that were unhealthy. China’s population-weighted average exposure to PM2.5 was 52 μg/m3. The observed air pollution is calculated to contribute to 1.6 million deaths/year in China [0.7–2.2 million deaths/year at 95% confidence], roughly 17% of all deaths in China. PMID:26291610

  5. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Robert A; Muller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particularly intense in a northeast corridor that extends from near Shanghai to north of Beijing. During our analysis period, 92% of the population of China experienced >120 hours of unhealthy air (US EPA standard), and 38% experienced average concentrations that were unhealthy. China's population-weighted average exposure to PM2.5 was 52 μg/m3. The observed air pollution is calculated to contribute to 1.6 million deaths/year in China [0.7-2.2 million deaths/year at 95% confidence], roughly 17% of all deaths in China. PMID:26291610

  6. Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health”

    PubMed Central

    Rizwan, SA; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 μg/m3. Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution. Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution. PMID:23559696

  7. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-09-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction.

  8. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-09-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. PMID:27334776

  9. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. PMID:27334776

  10. Place-based stressors associated with industry and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Michelle C; Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Branas, Charles C

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigma and social control. Our findings indicate that air pollution contributes to physical and psychosocial conditions that act as community-level social stressors. Findings also suggest that programs which seek to change behaviors and gather or spread information on issues such as pollution and other environmental concerns will be challenged unless they directly address: (1) the public׳s identification with a place or industry, (2) immediate environmental stressors such as abandonment, waste and odors, and (3) public perceptions of lack of social control and fear of displacement.

  11. Place-Based Stressors Associated with Industry and Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O.; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Branas, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigma and social control. Our findings indicate that air pollution contributes to physical and psychosocial conditions that act as community-level social stressors. Findings also suggest that programs which seek to change behaviors and gather or spread information on issues such as pollution and other environmental concerns will be challenged unless they directly address: 1) the public’s identification with a place or industry, 2) immediate environmental stressors such as abandonment, waste and odors, and 3) public perceptions of lack of social control and fear of displacement. PMID:24721738

  12. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. )

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  13. Air pollution and sports performance in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Lippi, G; Guidi, G C; Maffulli, N

    2008-08-01

    The Beijing Olympics will begin in August 2008 and athletes will face an unpredictable challenge. Based on present data, Beijing is one of the most polluted megacities in the world; the air concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone, nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter approach or exceed the current limits established by U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Although the athletes who will be competing in Beijing are physiologically very different to the participants in most published studies, and it is therefore difficult to predict individual responses, there is little doubt that the presence of these air pollutants might be detrimental to athletic performance due to the marked increase (up to 20-fold) in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. Moreover, mouth breathing often bypasses the noise during strenuous exercise, increasing the deleterious effects of pollutants on health and athletic performance. Although limited, each decrement in athletic performance would have a potentially deleterious impact on top-class athletes competing in the next Olympics in China. Several Olympic records are regularly broken during the Olympics. Will this be the case for Beijing? PMID:18512178

  14. Source apportionment of indoor air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, Ken; Hayward, Steven B.

    An understanding of the relative contributions from important pollutant sources to human exposures is necessary for the design and implementation of effective control strategies. In the past, societal efforts to control air pollution have focused almost exclusively on the outdoor (ambient) environment. As a result, substantial amounts of time and money have been spent to limit airborne discharges from mobile and stationary sources. Yet it is now recognized that exposures to elevated pollutant concentrations often occur as a result of indoor, rather than outdoor, emissions. While the major indoor sources have been identified, their relative impacts on indoor air quality have not been well defined. Application of existing source apportionment models to nonindustrial indoor environments is only just beginning. It is possible that these models might be used to distinguish between indoor and outdoor emissions, as well as to distinguish among indoor sources themselves. However, before the feasibility and suitability of source-apportionment methods for indoor applications can be assessed adequately, it is necessary to take account of model assumptions and associated data requirements. This paper examines the issue of indoor source apportionment and reviews the need for emission characterization studies to support such source-apportionment efforts.

  15. Gender and race in beliefs about outdoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2002-08-01

    Universal need for, or reactions to, risk communications should not be assumed; potential differences across demographic groups in environmental risk beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors could affect risk levels or opportunities for risk reduction. This article reports relevant findings from a survey experiment involving 1,100 potential jurors in Philadelphia concerning public responses to outdoor air pollution and air quality information. Flynn et al. (1994) and Finucane et al. (2000) found significant differences in risk ratings for multiple hazards, and in generic risk beliefs, between white men (or a subset) and all others (white women, nonwhite men, and nonwhite women). This study examined whether white men had significantly different responses to air pollution and air pollution information. An opportunity sample of volunteers from those awaiting potential jury duty in city courts (matching census estimates for white versus nonwhite proportions, but more female than the city's adult population and more likely to have children) filled out questionnaires distributed quasi-randomly. On most measures there were no statistically significant differences among white men (N = 192), white women (N = 269), nonwhite men (N = 165), and nonwhite women (N = 272). Nonwhites overall (particularly women) reported more concern about and sensitivity to air pollution than whites, and were more concerned by (even overly sensitive to) air pollution information provided as part of the experiment. Nonwhites also were more likely (within-gender comparisons) to report being active outdoors for at least four hours a day, a measure of potential exposure to air pollution, and to report intentions to reduce such outdoor activity after reading air pollution information. Differences between men and women were less frequent than between whites and nonwhites; the most distinctive group was nonwhite women, followed by white men. Flynn et al. (1994) and Finucane et al. (2000) found a far larger

  16. 75 FR 18061 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... amend 30 TAC Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. These revisions consist of the... to develop air pollution regulations and control strategies to ensure that air quality meets...

  17. Ambient exposure to criteria air pollutants and female lung cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chia; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between air pollution and female lung cancer, the authors conducted a matched case-control study using female deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 1995 through 2005. Data on all eligible female lung cancer deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group consisted of women who died from causes other than cancer or diseases associated with respiratory problems. The controls were pair-matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. Classification of exposure to municipality air pollution was based on the measured levels of nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. The results of the present study show that there is a significant positive association between the levels of air pollution and female lung cancer mortality. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.24 (1.03-1.50) for the group with medium air pollution level and 1.46 (1.18-1.81) for the group with high air pollution level when compared to the group with the low air pollution level. Trend analyses showed statistically significant trend in risk of female lung cancer with increasing air pollution level. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of air pollutants in the etiology of lung cancer. PMID:18300049

  18. The health benefits of reducing air pollution in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Broome, Richard A; Fann, Neal; Cristina, Tina J Navin; Fulcher, Charles; Duc, Hiep; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2015-11-01

    Among industrialised countries, fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone levels in the Sydney metropolitan area of Australia are relatively low. Annual mean PM2.5 levels have historically remained below 8 μg/m(3) while warm season (November-March) ozone levels occasionally exceed the Australian guideline value of 0.10 ppm (daily 1 h max). Yet, these levels are still below those seen in the United States and Europe. This analysis focuses on two related questions: (1) what is the public health burden associated with air pollution in Sydney; and (2) to what extent would reducing air pollution reduce the number of hospital admissions, premature deaths and number of years of life lost (YLL)? We addressed these questions by applying a damage function approach to Sydney population, health, PM2.5 and ozone data for 2007 within the BenMAP-CE software tool to estimate health impacts and economic benefits. We found that 430 premature deaths (90% CI: 310-540) and 5800 YLL (95% CI: 3900-7600) are attributable to 2007 levels of PM2.5 (about 2% of total deaths and 1.8% of YLL in 2007). We also estimate about 630 (95% CI: 410-840) respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to 2007 PM2.5 and ozone exposures. Reducing air pollution levels by even a small amount will yield a range of health benefits. Reducing 2007 PM2.5 exposure in Sydney by 10% would, over 10 years, result in about 650 (95% CI: 430-850) fewer premature deaths, a gain of 3500 (95% CI: 2300-4600) life-years and about 700 (95% CI: 450-930) fewer respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits. These results suggest that substantial health benefits are attainable in Sydney with even modest reductions in air pollution.

  19. The health benefits of reducing air pollution in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Broome, Richard A; Fann, Neal; Cristina, Tina J Navin; Fulcher, Charles; Duc, Hiep; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2015-11-01

    Among industrialised countries, fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone levels in the Sydney metropolitan area of Australia are relatively low. Annual mean PM2.5 levels have historically remained below 8 μg/m(3) while warm season (November-March) ozone levels occasionally exceed the Australian guideline value of 0.10 ppm (daily 1 h max). Yet, these levels are still below those seen in the United States and Europe. This analysis focuses on two related questions: (1) what is the public health burden associated with air pollution in Sydney; and (2) to what extent would reducing air pollution reduce the number of hospital admissions, premature deaths and number of years of life lost (YLL)? We addressed these questions by applying a damage function approach to Sydney population, health, PM2.5 and ozone data for 2007 within the BenMAP-CE software tool to estimate health impacts and economic benefits. We found that 430 premature deaths (90% CI: 310-540) and 5800 YLL (95% CI: 3900-7600) are attributable to 2007 levels of PM2.5 (about 2% of total deaths and 1.8% of YLL in 2007). We also estimate about 630 (95% CI: 410-840) respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to 2007 PM2.5 and ozone exposures. Reducing air pollution levels by even a small amount will yield a range of health benefits. Reducing 2007 PM2.5 exposure in Sydney by 10% would, over 10 years, result in about 650 (95% CI: 430-850) fewer premature deaths, a gain of 3500 (95% CI: 2300-4600) life-years and about 700 (95% CI: 450-930) fewer respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits. These results suggest that substantial health benefits are attainable in Sydney with even modest reductions in air pollution. PMID:26414085

  20. Rapid guide to hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Beim, H.J.; Spero, J.; Theodore, L.

    1998-12-31

    Concise and easy to use, this book brings together a wealth of hard-to-gather information in one compact pocket guide. It offers--in alphabetical order--detailed profiles of the 189 elements and compounds determined to be hazardous air pollutants by the 1990 Amendments of the Clean Air Act. The profile for each pollutant includes: fundamental identification data (CAS number, molecular formula, formula weight, synonyms); uses (primarily in the manufacture of chemicals and as a component in the manufacturing process); physical properties (such as boiling point, density, vapor pressures, color); chemical properties (such as air/water reactivity, reactivity with skin or metal, flash point, heat of combustion); health risks, including toxic exposure guidelines, toxicity data, and acute and chronic risks; hazard risks (the substance`s potential for accidents, fires, explosions, corrosion, and chemical incompatibility); exposure routes tracking the activities, environment, sources, and occupations that tend to lead to exposure; regulatory status, listing the primary laws and citations of regulated chemicals; and important additional information on symptoms, first aid, firefighting methods, protective equipment, and safe storage.

  1. Clean fuel vehicles: The air pollution solution

    SciTech Connect

    Meotti, M.P.

    1995-11-01

    Clean fuels for cars and trucks can do more for air quality, and do it sooner, than any other alternative on the drawing boards today. In much of the country, vehicles are the single biggest cause of air pollution. It`s not the industrial smoke stacks, but the tail pipes on cars that foul the air. Ninety percent of the carbon monoxide, 50% of the volatile organic compounds, and 40% of the ozone in metropolitan areas come from motor vehicles. Many state and local government officials are pursuing vehicle emission inspection, high occupancy vehicle lanes, and carpooling programs to reduce auto pollution. These efforts are valuable and should be continued. But clean fuels can quickly reduce auto emissions at a much lower cost. Alternative fuel vehicles produce fewer emissions, are much less dependent on foreign sources, and have the potential to create new jobs. One alternative fuel, natural gas, emits no particulates, 90% less carbon monoxide, and 85% fewer of the gases that form ozone.

  2. An empirical bayes method for comparing air pollution data to air quality standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suggs, Jack C.; Curran, Thomas C.

    Air pollution concentrations are often characterized by skewed distributions. For example, 24-h suspended particulate mass concentrations have historically been characterized by a 2-parameter lognormal distribution (Larsen, 1969, J. Air. Pollut. Control. Ass.19, 24-30). The error in making measurements of these concentrations also conforms to a distribution that is more symmetric and can usually be approximated by the normal distribution, often with the added feature that the error variation is a function of concentration level. Air pollution measurements are often used to determine status with respect to legal standards such as the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (Fed. Reg. 36, 8186, 1971; 44, 8202, 1979). In general, these standards do not explicitly account for measurement error. Using Bayesian mathematics, a model is developed which deals with the probability of the "true" concentration exceeding the NAAQS given a measurement above the NAAQS. Several hypothetical examples are used to demonstrate that Bayesian techniques can combine both pollution history and instrument precision into a probablistic model for comparing air pollution data to NAAQS.

  3. Community Perceptions of Air Pollution and Related Health Risks in Nairobi Slums

    PubMed Central

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ng, Nawi; Muindi, Kanyiva; Oti, Samuel; van de Vijver, Steven; Ettarh, Remare; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. Community perceptions on exposure are critical in determining people’s response and acceptance of related policies. Therefore, understanding people’ perception is critical in informing the design of appropriate intervention measures. The aim of this paper was to establish levels and associations between perceived pollution and health risk perception among slum residents. A cross-sectional study of 5,317 individuals aged 35+ years was conducted in two slums of Nairobi. Association of perceived score and individual characteristics was assessed using linear regression. Spatial variation in the perceived levels was determined through hot spot analysis using ArcGIS. The average perceived air pollution level was higher among residents in Viwandani compared to those in Korogocho. Perceived air pollution level was positively associated with perceived health risks. The majority of respondents were exposed to air pollution in their place of work with 66% exposed to at least two sources of air pollution. Less than 20% of the respondents in both areas mentioned sources related to indoor pollution. The perceived air pollution level and related health risks in the study community were lowamong the residents indicating the need for promoting awareness on air pollution sources and related health risks. PMID:24157509

  4. Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford`s Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention.

  5. Air Pollutants and Health: An Epidemiologic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    A ten year study, being conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health in six cities since 1974, is a survey of children and adults for the health effects of pollutant levels. The environment is being monitored for: (1) sulfur dioxide, (2) sulfates, and (3) respirable particulates. (BT)

  6. Air Pollution Potential: Regional Study in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gassmann; Mazzeo

    2000-04-01

    / Air pollution potential is a measure of the atmospheric conditions that are unable to transport and dilute pollutants into the air, independently of the existence of sources. This potential can be determined from two atmospheric parameters: mixing height and transport wind. In this paper a statistical analysis of the mixing height and transport wind, in order to determine the areas with high or poor atmospheric ventilation in Argentina, is presented. In order to achieve this, meteorological data registered during 1979-1982 at eight meteorological stations were used. Daily values of the maximum mixing height were calculated from observations of daily temperatures at different heights and maximum surface temperature. At the same time as the maximum mixing height, the values of the transport wind were determined from the surface windspeed and the characteristics of the ground in the surroundings of each meteorological station. The mean seasonal values for both parameters were obtained. Isopleths of the mean seasonal of the maximum mixing heights were drawn. The percentage of seasonal frequencies of poor ventilation conditions were calculated and the frequency isopleths were also drawn to determine areas with minor and major relative frequencies. It was found that the northeastern and central-eastern regions of Argentina had a high air pollution potential during the whole year. Unfavorable atmospheric ventilation conditions were also found in the central-western side of the country during the cold seasons (37.5% in autumn and 56.9% in winter). The region with the greatest atmospheric ventilation is located south of 40 degrees S, where the frequency of poor ventilation varies between 8.0% in summer and 10.8% in winter.

  7. Seasonal pattern of the acute mortality effects of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhengmin; Lin, Hung-Mo; Stewart, Walter F; Kong, Linli; Xu, Fen; Zhou, Denjin; Zhu, Zhicao; Liang, Shengwen; Chen, Weiqing; Shah, Nirav; Stetter, Christy; He, Qingci

    2010-04-01

    Evidence of seasonal variation of acute mortality effects of air pollution is inconsistent. The seasonal patterns of associations between daily mortality and daily mean concentrations of particulate matter 10 microm or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were examined using 4 yr of data (2001-2004) in Wuhan, China. Four distinct seasons occur in Wuhan, where approximately 4.5 million residents live in the city core area of 201 km2. Air pollution levels are higher and pollution ranges are wider in Wuhan than in most cities. Quasi-likelihood estimation within the context of the generalized additive models (natural spline [NS] models in R) was used to model the natural logarithm of the expected daily death counts as a function of the predictor variables. The estimates of the interaction between seasons and pollution were obtained from the main effects and pollutant season interaction models. It was found that the interactions between three pollutants and cause-specific mortality were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The strongest effects occurred consistently in winter for all-natural, cardiovascular, stroke, and respiratory mortality. Every 10-microg/m3 increase in PM10 daily concentration at lag 0-1 days was associated with an increase in all-natural mortality of 0.69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44-0.94%) for winter, 0.34% (95% CI: 0.00-0.69%) for spring, 0.45% (95% CI: -0.13 to 1.04%) for summer, and -0.21% (95% CI: -0.54 to 0.12%) for fall. The results show a clear seasonal pattern of acute mortality effects of ambient air pollution and the strongest effects occurred during winter in the study city.

  8. Air pollution monitoring by advanced spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Hodgeson, J A; McClenny, W A; Hanst, P L

    1973-10-19

    The monitoring requirements related to air pollution are many and varied. The molecules of concern differ greatly in their chemical and physical properties, in the nature of their environment, and in their concentration ranges. Furthermore, the application may have specific requirements such as rapid response time, ultrasensitivity, multipollutant capability, or capability for remote measurements. For these reasons, no single spectroscopic technique appears to offer a panacea for all monitoring needs. Instead we have attempted to demonstrate in the above discussion that, regardless of the difficulty and complexity of the monitoring problems, spectroscopy offers many tools by which such problems may be solved.

  9. Air pollution, avoidance behaviour and children's respiratory health: evidence from England.

    PubMed

    Janke, Katharina

    2014-12-01

    Despite progress in air pollution control, concerns remain over the health impact of poor air quality. Governments increasingly issue air quality information to enable vulnerable groups to avoid exposure. Avoidance behaviour potentially biases estimates of the health effects of air pollutants. But avoidance behaviour imposes a cost on individuals and therefore may not be taken in all circumstances. This paper exploits panel data at the English local authority level to estimate the relationship between children's daily hospital emergency admissions for respiratory diseases and common air pollutants, while allowing for avoidance behaviour in response to air pollution warnings. A 1% increase in nitrogen dioxide or ozone concentrations increases hospital admissions by 0.1%. For the subset of asthma admissions - where avoidance is less costly - there is evidence of avoidance behaviour. Ignoring avoidance behaviour, however, does not result in statistically significant underestimation of the health effect of air pollution.

  10. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  11. [Particulate matter (PM10) air pollution, daily mortality, and hospital admissions: recent findings].

    PubMed

    Colucci, Maria Eugenia; Veronesi, Licia; Roveda, Anna Maria; Marangio, Emilio; Sansebastiano, Giuliano

    2006-01-01

    The first studies conducted to evaluate a possible association between air pollution and mortality date back to the serious events that occurred in the Mosa Valley, Belgium (1930), in the small city of Donora ("killer fog" incident of 1948) and in London (1952). The latter episode led to the introduction of air pollution control policies. Following the introduction of air pollution control measures in economically advanced cities in the 60s and 70s, the concentration levels of pollutants reached were believed, for many years, to be risk free. However, despite improvements in air quality achieved by many industrialized countries the negative effects of air pollution remain today an important public health problem. Among all air pollutants, particulate matter is the type of air pollution that causes the most numerous and serious effects on human health, because of the broad range of diverse toxic substances it contains,. For this reason, when assessing human health risk, PM10 may be considered to be a reliable indicator of the impact of global air pollution. Various epidemiologic studies conducted in the last 10 years, such as the Air Pollution and Health-European Approach (APHEA) project, the National Morbidity, Mortality and Air Pollution (NMMAPS) Study and Italian Meta-analysis of Studies on the short-term effects of Air pollution (MISA), have shown that current ambient concentrations of PM10 may lead to increased mortality and morbidity. Various studies have reported mean increases in mortality below 1% for 10 ?g/mc increases of ambient PM10. Studies have also underscored the role of particulate matter in aggravating cardiorespiratory diseases and consequently increasing hospital admissions. Air quality standards have been recently revised by legislation. The EU has issued a directive that sets limiting values and, where appropriate, threshold values, for the different air pollutants.

  12. Particle pollution: current levels and recent improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schmidt

    2006-04-15

    US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air quality data for 2002-2004 indicate that a number of areas in the United States that meet the current fine particle (PM2.5) standards would exceed the proposed 24-hr level (35 {mu}g/m{sub 3} if that standard was in place today. However, PM2.5 concentrations have been steadily declining, and new national and regional control programs designed to reduce the concentrations even further are being implemented. Coarse particle concentrations also appear to have declined in recent years. Based on 2002-2004 estimates of PM10-2.5 concentrations, it appears that most areas of the country currently would meet the proposed PM10-2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAWS). This article presents a summary report on air quality status and trends for fine - PM2.5 and 'thoracic coarse' PM10-2.5 particle pollution. It focuses on comparisons with the current NAAQS and revisions to those standards proposed by PEA in December 2005. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Using Cellular Communication Networks To Detect Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    David, Noam; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Accurate real time monitoring of atmospheric conditions at ground level is vital for hazard warning, meteorological forecasting, and various environmental applications required for public health and safety. However, conventional monitoring facilities are costly and often insufficient, for example, since they are not representative of the larger space and are not deployed densely enough in the field. There have been numerous scientific works showing the ability of commercial microwave links that comprise the data transmission infrastructure in cellular communication networks to monitor hydrometeors as a potential complementary solution. However, despite the large volume of research carried out in this emerging field during the past decade, no study has shown the ability of the system to provide critical information regarding air quality. Here we reveal the potential for identifying atmospheric conditions prone to air pollution by detecting temperature inversions that trap pollutants at ground level. The technique is based on utilizing standard signal measurements from an existing cellular network during routine operation. PMID:27490182

  14. Using Cellular Communication Networks To Detect Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    David, Noam; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Accurate real time monitoring of atmospheric conditions at ground level is vital for hazard warning, meteorological forecasting, and various environmental applications required for public health and safety. However, conventional monitoring facilities are costly and often insufficient, for example, since they are not representative of the larger space and are not deployed densely enough in the field. There have been numerous scientific works showing the ability of commercial microwave links that comprise the data transmission infrastructure in cellular communication networks to monitor hydrometeors as a potential complementary solution. However, despite the large volume of research carried out in this emerging field during the past decade, no study has shown the ability of the system to provide critical information regarding air quality. Here we reveal the potential for identifying atmospheric conditions prone to air pollution by detecting temperature inversions that trap pollutants at ground level. The technique is based on utilizing standard signal measurements from an existing cellular network during routine operation.

  15. The burden of air pollution: impacts among racial minorities.

    PubMed Central

    Gwynn, R C; Thurston, G D

    2001-01-01

    Various epidemiologic investigations have shown that ambient air pollution levels are associated with acute increases in hospital admissions and mortality in the United States and abroad. The objectives of this investigation were a) to determine if racial minorities are more adversely affected by ambient air pollution than their white counterparts and b) to assess the contribution of socioeconomic status to any observed racial differences in pollution effect. Time-series regression methods were conducted to investigate these hypotheses for daily respiratory hospital admissions in New York City, New York. Pollutants considered included mean daily levels of particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM(10), ozone (O3), strong aerosol acidity (H+), and sulfates (SO4(2). The relative risk for respiratory hospital admission was calculated for each pollutant for a maximum minus mean increment in mean daily pollutant concentration. The greatest difference between the white and nonwhite subgroups was observed for O(3), where the white relative risk (RR) was 1.032 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.977-1.089] and the nonwhite RR was 1.122 (95%CI: 1.074-1.172). Although not statistically different from each other, the various pollutants' RR estimates for the Hispanic nonwhite category in New York City were generally larger in magnitude than those for the non-Hispanic white group. When these analyses incorporated differences in the underlying respiratory hospitalization rates across races (that for nonwhites, was roughly twice that for whites), the disparities in attributable risks from pollution (in terms of excess admissions per day per million persons) were even larger for nonwhites versus whites. However, when insurance status was used as an indicator of socioeconomic/health coverage status, higher RRs were indicated for the poor/working poor (i.e., those on Medicaid and the uninsured) than for those who were economically better off (i

  16. Air pollution from future giant jetports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, J. A.

    1970-01-01

    Because aircraft arrive and depart in a generally upwind direction, the pollutants are deposited in a narrow corridor extending downwind of the airport. Vertical mixing in the turbulent atmosphere will not dilute such a trail, since the pollutants are distributed vertically during the landing and take-off operations. As a consequence, airport pollution may persist twenty to forty miles downwind without much attenuation. Based on this simple meteorological model, calculations of the ambient levels of nitric oxide and particulates to be expected downwind of a giant jetport show them to be about equal to those in present urban environments. These calculations are based on measured emission rates from jet engines and estimates of aircraft performance and traffic for future jetports.

  17. Air pollution measurements in traffic tunnels.

    PubMed

    De Fré, R; Bruynseraede, P; Kretzschmar, J G

    1994-10-01

    Air pollution measurements during April 1991 are reported from the Craeybeckx highway tunnel in Antwerp, Belgium. The tunnel was used daily by an average of 45,000 vehicles, of which 60% were gasoline fueled passenger cars, 20% diesel cars, and 20% trucks. Of the gasoline cars, only 3% had three-way catalysts. Tunnel air concentrations of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and lead are presented. The traffic emissions in the tunnel are calculated by the carbon balance method, which uses the increase of the total carbon concentration in the tunnel air as the reference quantity. Division of the concentration of any pollutant by the total carbon concentration gives emission factors per kilogram of carbon. These emission factors can be converted directly to emissions relative to fuel consumption or per kilometer. The fraction of diesel used in the tunnel was derived from sulphur to carbon ratios in tunnel air. A calculation procedure with breakdown of emission factors according to vehicle categories was used to estimate countrywide emissions. The estimated emissions were compared to results from the Flanders Emissions Inventory [Emissie Inventaris Vlaamse Regio (EIVR)] and calculated emissions according to the emission factors proposed by the European Commissions CORINAIR Working Group. For NOx there is excellent agreement. For carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, the tunnel data produced higher emissions than the CORINAIR model would predict but lower than the official EIVR statistics. The estimated lead emissions from traffic are found to be 22 to 29% of the lead in gasoline.

  18. Geospatial Modeling of Asthma Population in Relation to Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kethireddy, Swatantra R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Young, John H.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Current observations indicate that asthma is growing every year in the United States, specific reasons for this are not well understood. This study stems from an ongoing research effort to investigate the spatio-temporal behavior of asthma and its relatedness to air pollution. The association between environmental variables such as air quality and asthma related health issues over Mississippi State are investigated using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and applications. Health data concerning asthma obtained from Mississippi State Department of Health (MSDH) for 9-year period of 2003-2011, and data of air pollutant concentrations (PM2.5) collected from USEPA web resources, and are analyzed geospatially to establish the impacts of air quality on human health specifically related to asthma. Disease mapping using geospatial techniques provides valuable insights into the spatial nature, variability, and association of asthma to air pollution. Asthma patient hospitalization data of Mississippi has been analyzed and mapped using quantitative Choropleth techniques in ArcGIS. Patients have been geocoded to their respective zip codes. Potential air pollutant sources of Interstate highways, Industries, and other land use data have been integrated in common geospatial platform to understand their adverse contribution on human health. Existing hospitals and emergency clinics are being injected into analysis to further understand their proximity and easy access to patient locations. At the current level of analysis and understanding, spatial distribution of Asthma is observed in the populations of Zip code regions in gulf coast, along the interstates of south, and in counties of Northeast Mississippi. It is also found that asthma is prevalent in most of the urban population. This GIS based project would be useful to make health risk assessment and provide information support to the administrators and decision makers for establishing satellite clinics in future.

  19. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2003-06-01

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O(x), SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts.

  20. Source Book on Air Pollution Topics for Grade and High School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Eileen G., Ed.; McGovern, John J., Ed.

    This publication provides background information and activity suggestions on air pollution and related environmental topics. Student projects and experiments which can be adapted at both elementary and secondary levels are also provided. Information is organized in three parts. Part I covers basic facts about air pollutants including the types,…

  1. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 8: Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  2. "Development of Model-Based Air Pollution Exposure Metrics for use in Epidemiologic Studies"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available concentrations from central monitoring sites. U.S. EPA in collaboration w...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF MODEL-BASED AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURE METRICS FOR USE IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available concentrations from central monitoring sites. U.S. EPA in collaboration w...

  4. Regional and Global Impacts of Megacity Air Pollution in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renyi

    2014-05-01

    Air quality has deteriorated in many megacities of China because of their rapid economic developments. For example, as the world's second largest economy, China has experienced severe air pollution, with aerosols or fine particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) reaching unprecedented high levels across many cities in recent winters. In addition to the impacts of aerosols on air chemistry, visibility, and human health, intense aerosol pollution is believed to exert profound impacts on the regional and global atmosphere and climate. In the first part of the talk, perspectives are provided on formation and transformation of haze in China. In the second part the long-term impacts of aerosols on precipitation and lightning over a megacity area in China will be presented, on the basis of atmospheric observations and simulations using a cloud-resolving WRF model. Our results reveal that elevated aerosol loading suppresses light and moderate precipitation, but enhances heavy precipitation. Also, we demonstrate climatically modulated mid-latitude cyclones by Asian pollution over past three decades, using a novel hierarchical modeling approach and observational analysis. Our results unambiguously reveal a large impact of the Asian pollutant outflows on the global general circulation and climate.

  5. Terahertz sensor for air pollution monitoring from spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Rui; Guo, Aiyan

    2016-07-01

    Terahertz wave is a radio wave which wavelength between infrared and microwave, substantial is from 0.1-1mm that is 300-3000GHz(0.3-3THz). Compare to microwave and visible/infrared it is advantage of resolution and better penetration in atmosphere respectively, and because of wavelength is similar to scale of micro-particle of air pollution, the absorption coefficient due to the many relevant molecules have a maximum signature in the THz region, such as SO2、CH4、H2S、NH3、CO、O3 etc. of molecules of polluted atmosphere . This paper present a conceptional solution of THz sensor for air pollution sounder which using of large aperture antenna and FSS with 15 channels in 0.183-1.5THz region, each channel with 2MHz by extreme narrow band filter for detecting signature of polluted air. Analysis data show that 2Km spatial resolution at 700km altitude orbit. Sensitive is about 10-12W/Hz1/2 level at cryogenic temp.

  6. Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lodovici, Maura; Bigagli, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms of air pollution-induced health effects involve oxidative stress and inflammation. As a matter of fact, particulate matter (PM), especially fine (PM2.5, PM < 2.5 μm) and ultrafine (PM0.1, PM < 0.1 μm) particles, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and transition metals, are potent oxidants or able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress can trigger redox-sensitive pathways that lead to different biological processes such as inflammation and cell death. However, it does appear that the susceptibility of target organ to oxidative injury also depends upon its ability to upregulate protective scavenging systems. As vehicular traffic is known to importantly contribute to PM exposure, its intensity and quality must be strongly relevant determinants of the qualitative characteristics of PM spread in the atmosphere. Change in the composition of this PM is likely to modify its health impact. PMID:21860622

  7. Elderly exposure to indoor air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Wolterbeek, H. T.; Almeida, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the indoor air quality in Elderly Care Centers (ECCs) in order to assess the elders' daily exposure to air pollutants. Ten ECCs hosting 384 elderly were selected in Lisbon and Loures. Firstly, a time-budget survey was created based on questionnaires applied in the studied sites. Results showed that in average elders spend 95% of their time indoors splitted between bedrooms and living-rooms. Therefore, a set of physical and chemical parameters were measured continuously during the occupancy period in these two indoor micro-environments and in the outdoor. Results showed that indoor was the main environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure living in ECCs. In the indoor, the principal micro-environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure varied between bedrooms and living-rooms depending not only on the characteristics of the ECCs but also on the pollutants. The concentrations of CO2, VOCt, O3 and PM10 exceeded the limit values predominantly due to the insufficient ventilation preconized in the studied sites.

  8. Monitoring human exposure to urban air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Barale, R.; Barrai, I.; Sbrana, I.; Migliore, L.; Marrazzini, A.; Scarcelli, V.; Bacci, E.; Di Sibio, A.; Tessa, A.; Cocchi, L.; Lubrano, V.; Vassalle, C.; He, J.

    1993-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study on a general population exposed to vehicle exhaust was undertaken in Pisa in 1991. Environmental factors such as air pollution and those associated with lifestyle were studied. Meanwhile, biological and medical indicators of health condition were investigated. Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronuclei in lymphocytes were included for the assessment of the genotoxic risk. Because of the large number (3800) of subjects being investigated, standardization of protocols was compulsory. The results on data reproducibility are reported. To assess the reliability of the protocol on a large scale, the population of Porto Tolle, a village located in northeast Italy, was studied and compared to a subset of the Pisa population. Preliminary results showed that probable differences between the two populations and invididuals were present in terms of SCE frequencies. The study was potentially able to detect the effects of several factors such as age, smoking, genetics, and environment. The in vitro treatment of lymphocytes with diepoxybutane confirmed the presence of more responsive individuals and permitted us to investigate the genetic predisposition to genetic damage. The possible influence of environmental factors was studied by correlation analyses with external exposure to air pollutants as well as with several lifestyle factors. PMID:8143653

  9. Study of air pollution in Bucharest area for three years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, Sabina; Raicu, Cristina; Barladeanu, Raluca

    2010-05-01

    An important component of the air quality management and health risk assessment is improved by understanding of spatial and temporal variability of pollutant concentrations. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to assess the concentration levels of Particulate Matter (PM), NOx, SO2, CO and O3 in five urban sites in Bucharest, Romania. The key influences on the causes of high concentrations of pollutants include traffic characteristics and meteorology which affects the dispersion of pollutants. Our analysis of the measured pollutant concentrations, for the three years, 2005, 2006 and 2007 was related to traffic and meteorological conditions. The direct contribution of the traffic relative to the contribution from urban background was studied. The study has been performed for the all four seasons. The measurements shown that the highest NOx, SO2 and particulate matter (PM10) concentrations occur in the winter and summer periods, due to unfavorable meteorological dispersion conditions. Generally, the results show that the road traffic is the main contributor when the NOx and CO values exceed the limit value. For the PM10, both the traffic and resuspension of road dust are important, too. This type of study of spatial and temporal variability of pollutant concentrations allows evaluating the requirements of air quality models to represent the key effects.

  10. Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A Benefit-Cost Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupnick, Alan J.; Portney, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The pros and cons of air pollution control efforts are discussed. Both national and regional air pollution control plans are described. Topics of discussion include benefit-cost analysis, air quality regulation, reducing ozone in the urban areas, the Los Angeles plan, uncertainties, and policy implications. (KR)

  11. Issue Backgrounder : Energy Efficient New Homes and Indoor Air Pollutants.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-07-01

    This booklet discusses what indoor air pollution is and how it can affect your health. It describes how energy-efficient new homes can affect indoor air quality. It also describes features that can help ensure clean indoor air, and tells how to detect and control indoor pollutants commonly found in homes.

  12. What you can do to reduce air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The pamphlet describes some major air pollutants, their sources, and their effects on both the environment and people. It also explains the goals of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and suggests various ways of preventing air pollution regionally, locally, and individually. Phone numbers for state environmental agencies and EPA regional offices are included in the back of the pamphlet.

  13. Mercury and Air Pollution: A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The Air Pollution Technical Information Center (APTIC) of the Office of Air Programs has selected and compiled this bibliography of abstracts on mercury and air pollution. The abstracted documents are considered representative of available literature, although not all-inclusive. They are grouped into eleven categories: (1) Emission Sources, (2)…

  14. THE CHALLENGES OF AIR POLLUTION AND RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT (EDITORIAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act (CAA), a comprehensive federal law that regulates air pollution from stationary and mobile sources, was first passed in 1963. The act has provided the primary framework for protecting human health and the environment. The CAA divides air pollutants into "criteri...

  15. Infrared Laser System for Extended Area Monitoring of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowman, L. R.; Gillmeister, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution monitoring system using a spectrally scanning laser has been developed by the General Electric Company. This paper will report on an evaluation of a breadboard model, and will discuss applications of the concept to various ambient air monitoring situations. The system is adaptable to other tunable lasers. Operating in the middle infrared region, the system uses retroreflectors to measure average concentrations over long paths at low, safe power levels. The concept shows promise of meeting operational needs in ambient air monitoring and providing new data for atmospheric research.

  16. Motor Vehicles, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jason

    2000-04-01

    Despite years of technical progress, motor vehicles continue to be a leading cause of environmental damage in the United States. For example, today's cars and trucks are the largest source of air pollution in many urban areas. US motor vehicles also account for 25 percent of the nation's carbon emissions, more than most countries emit from all sources combined. Fortunately, a host of technical improvements are emerging that could go a long ways towards taking vehicles out of the pollution picture. In the near-term, improving on the century-old internal combustion engine can deliver much-needed incremental gains. But electric drive vehicles--whether powered by batteries, small engines in hybrid configuration, or fuel cells--ultimately offer the greatest promise. Such technologies could dramatically reduce energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and key air pollutants. The bulk of technical attention in recent years has been focused on improving the passenger vehicle, which will be the dominant energy consumer in the transportation sector for years to come. But freight trucks are also of growing concern, both because their contribution to global warming is on the rise and because serious questions are being raised about the public health impact of diesel technology. As a result, heavy trucks are emerging as a priority issue. Capitalizing on the opportunity presented by new technologies will not only require continued technical innovation but also policy action. As research into improved engines, fuels, and drive systems bears fruit over the coming years, aggressive and prudent policies will ensure that these new options make it onto the road and deliver on their environmental promise.

  17. Characterizing climate change impacts on human exposures to air pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to air pollutants such as ozone (O3) have the potential to be altered by changes in climate through multiple factors that drive population exposures, including: ambient pollutant concentrations, human activity patterns, population sizes and distributions, and hous...

  18. Health effects of air pollution and the Japanese compensation law

    SciTech Connect

    Namekata, T.; Duv Florey, C.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Part 1. Individual Presentations: I. Gas Cooking and Respiratory Disease in Children, II. Health Effects of Fossil Fuel Combustion Compared With Effects of Energy Shortages, III. Daily Symptoms of Lung Function in Relation to Air Pollution: A Study in West Berlin 1982/83, IV. Studies of the Acute Effects of London Smog, and Their Relevance to Present-Day Conditions, V. Epidemiological Issues on Air Pollution in the Japanese Pollution-Related Health Damage Compensation Law. Part 2. Panel Discussion: Epidemiological Issues on Air Pollution in the Japanese Pollution-Related Health Damage Compensation Law; Problems in Air Pollution Epidemiology; Exposure Criteria for Compensation; Problems in the Use of Respiratory Symptoms Questionnaires; Legal and Policy Issues in the Japanes Compensation Law. Part 3. Background Information: I. Legal and Policy Issues in the Japanese Compensation Law. II. Reappraisal of Air Pollution/Health Effects Studies in Japan.

  19. Characterization of background air pollution exposure in urban environments using a metric based on Hidden Markov Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Losada, Álvaro; Pires, José Carlos M.; Pino-Mejías, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    Urban area air pollution results from local air pollutants (from different sources) and horizontal transport (background pollution). Understanding urban air pollution background (lowest) concentration profiles is key in population exposure assessment and epidemiological studies. To this end, air pollution registered at background monitoring sites is studied, but background pollution levels are given as the average of the air pollutant concentrations measured at these sites over long periods of time. This short communication shows how a metric based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) can characterise the air pollutant background concentration profiles. HMMs were applied to daily average concentrations of CO, NO2, PM10 and SO2 at thirteen urban monitoring sites from three cities from 2010 to 2013. Using the proposed metric, the mean values of background and ambient air pollution registered at these sites for these primary pollutants were estimated and the ratio of ambient to background air pollution and the difference between them were studied. The ratio indicator for the studied air pollutants during the four-year study sets the background air pollution at 48%-69% of the ambient air pollution, while the difference between these values ranges from 101 to 193 μg/m3, 7-12 μg/m3, 11-13 μg/m3 and 2-3 μg/m3 for CO, NO2, PM10 and SO2, respectively.

  20. Effects of air pollution on children’s pulmonary health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabaku, Afrim; Bejtja, Gazmend; Bala, Silvana; Toci, Ervin; Resuli, Jerina

    2011-12-01

    IntroductionMany reports regarding the effects of air pollution on children's respiratory health have appeared in the scientific literature. Some investigators found increases in persistent cough and phlegm, bronchitis, and early respiratory infections in communities with poor air quality. The purpose of this survey was to compare the pulmonary function of children living in urban area of Tirana city with children living in suburban area of the city. Material and methodsThis survey is carried out during 2004-2005 period on 238 children living in urban area and in 72 children living in suburban area, measuring dynamic pulmonary function. A questionnaire was used to collect data on sex, current respiratory symptoms, allergy diagnosed by the physician, parent education and smoking habit of parents, presence of animals, synthetic carpets and moulds in their houses. The selection of schools, and children included in this survey was done by randomized method. Also, we have measured and classic air pollutants. ResultsComparing the results of values of pulmonary function of two groups of children, we have shown that differences were significant ( p 0.001), whereas comparing symptoms were for cough ( p 0.011) and for phlegm ( p 0.032). The level of particulate matter (PM10) and total suspended matter (TSP) were over the recommended limit values, whereas the levels of other pollutants have resulted within recommended levels of World Health Organization (WHO) ConclusionsThe results of this survey suggest that air pollution is associated with respiratory health of children causing a slight decrease in values of pulmonary function in children of urban area compared with those of suburban area.