Science.gov

Sample records for air pollution results

  1. Results of an indoor air pollution investigation.

    PubMed

    Beller, M; Middaugh, J P

    1989-01-01

    After the opening of a new elementary school in fall 1986, several members of the school's staff noticed symptoms they attributed to the workplace. An investigation by the Occupational Safety and Health Branch (OSHA) of the Alaska Department of Labor found no major health problems and concluded that fireproofing at the school may have caused a petroleum-like odor. In fall 1987, parents reported illness in their children that they attributed to school attendance. Subsequent epidemiologic investigation found that student and staff absentee rates were not increased and were similar to other schools in the district. Testing conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) confirmed that the petroleum-like odor was due to the fireproofing. Toxicologic information and the results of air sampling confirmed that no adverse health effects would be expected from the product. By working together with NIOSH, OSHA, the school district, and a consulting mechanical engineer, deficiencies in the school's ventilation system were discovered and immediately corrected with interim engineering changes. Only by bringing multiple agencies together and openly sharing findings with concerned parents and staff were the problems at the school resolved. PMID:2596649

  2. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  4. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  5. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  6. Air pollution "holiday effect" resulting from the Chinese New Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Pei-Hua; Chou, Chia; Liang, Jing-Yi; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Shiu, Chein-Jung

    Our study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods. This holiday effect can be applied to other countries with similar national or cultural holidays. Hourly and daily surface measurements of six major air pollutants from thirteen air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods were used. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where air pollutant concentrations were significantly different between holidays (CNY) and non-holidays (NCNY), in the Taipei metropolitan area over the past thirteen years (1994-2006). The concentrations of NO x, CO, NMHC, SO 2 and PM 10 were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, while the variation in the concentration of O 3 was reversed, which was mainly due to the NO titration effect. Similar differences in these six air pollutants between the CNY and NCNY periods were also found in the diurnal cycle and in the interannual variation. For the diurnal cycle, a common traffic-related double-peak variation was observed in the NCNY period, but not in the CNY period. Impacts of dust storms were also observed, especially on SO 2 and PM 10 in the CNY period. In the 13-year period of 1994-2006, decreasing trends of NO x and CO in the NCNY period implied a possible reduction of local emissions. Increasing trends of SO 2 and PM 10 in the CNY period, on the other hand, indicated a possible enhancement of long-range transport. These two mechanisms weakened the holiday effect.

  7. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  8. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  9. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  10. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  11. Evaluation of Observation-Fused Regional Air Quality Model Results for Population Air Pollution Exposure Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Perkins, Neil; Rajeshwari, Sundaram; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to predict ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations during 2001 to 2010 in 15 hospital referral regions (HRRs) using a 36-km horizontal resolution domain. An inverse distance weighting based method was applied to produce exposure estimates based on observation-fused regional pollutant concentration fields using the differences between observations and predictions at grid cells where air quality monitors were located. Although the raw CMAQ model is capable of producing satisfying results for O3 and PM2.5 based on EPA guidelines, using the observation data fusing technique to correct CMAQ predictions leads to significant improvement of model performance for all gaseous and particulate pollutants. Regional average concentrations were calculated using five different methods: 1) inverse distance weighting of observation data alone, 2) raw CMAQ results, 3) observation-fused CMAQ results, 4) population-averaged raw CMAQ results and 5) population-averaged fused CMAQ results. It shows that while O3 (as well as NOx) monitoring networks in the HRR regions are dense enough to provide consistent regional average exposure estimation based on monitoring data alone, PM2.5 observation sites (as well as monitors for CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 components) are usually sparse and the difference between the average concentrations estimated by the inverse distance interpolated observations, raw CMAQ and fused CMAQ results can be significantly different. Population-weighted average should be used to account spatial variation in pollutant concentration and population density. Using raw CMAQ results or observations alone might lead to significant biases in health outcome analyses. PMID:24747248

  12. Modelled air pollution levels versus EC air quality legislation - results from high resolution simulation.

    PubMed

    Chervenkov, Hristo

    2013-12-01

    An appropriate method for evaluating the air quality of a certain area is to contrast the actual air pollution levels to the critical ones, prescribed in the legislative standards. The application of numerical simulation models for assessing the real air quality status is allowed by the legislation of the European Community (EC). This approach is preferable, especially when the area of interest is relatively big and/or the network of measurement stations is sparse, and the available observational data are scarce, respectively. Such method is very efficient for similar assessment studies due to continuous spatio-temporal coverage of the obtained results. In the study the values of the concentration of the harmful substances sulphur dioxide, (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter - coarse (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) fraction, ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and ammonia (NH3) in the surface layer obtained from modelling simulations with resolution 10 km on hourly bases are taken to calculate the necessary statistical quantities which are used for comparison with the corresponding critical levels, prescribed in the EC directives. For part of them (PM2.5, CO and NH3) this is done for first time with such resolution. The computational grid covers Bulgaria entirely and some surrounding territories and the calculations are made for every year in the period 1991-2000. The averaged over the whole time slice results can be treated as representative for the air quality situation of the last decade of the former century.

  13. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  14. [Pollution of room air].

    PubMed

    Schlatter, J

    1986-01-01

    In the last decade the significance of indoor air pollution to human health has increased because of improved thermal insulation of buildings to save energy: air turnover is reduced and air quality is impaired. The most frequent air pollutants are tobacco smoke, radioactive radon gas emanating from the soil, formaldehyde from furniture and insulation material, nitrogen oxides from gas stoves, as well as solvents from cleaning agents. The most important pollutants leading to health hazards are tobacco smoke and air pollutants which are emitted continuously from building materials and furniture. Such pollutants have to be eliminated by reducing the emission rate. A fresh air supply is necessary to reduce the pollutants resulting from the inhabitants and their activities, the amount depending on the number of inhabitants and the usage of the room. The carbon dioxide level should not exceed 1500 ppm.

  15. Air Processes Resulting in a Surface Layer Pollution in Industrial Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesin, Yu V.; Leshukov, T. V.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the air quality research in Western Siberia (Kemerovo region). The problem of air quality preservation in the conditions of mining industry intensive development is caused by the weather conditions which lead either to the concentration of pollutants in the surface layer, or to their migration to other geosphere, or to dissipation as a result of convective mixing or advection of air masses. Zoning of the territory in view of the research results provides insight into areas where the greatest risk to human health and life is formed.

  16. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  17. Transboundary Air Pollution over the Central Himalayas: Monitoring network and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qianggong; Kang, Shichang

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas, stretching over 3000 kms along west-east, separates South Asia continent and the Tibetan Plateau with its extreme high altitudes. The South Asia is being increasingly recognized to be among the hotspots of air pollution, posing multi-effects on regional climate and environment. Recent monitoring and projection have indicated an accelerated decrease of glacier and increasing glacier runoff in the Himalayas, and a remarkable phenomenon has been recognized in the Himalayas that long-range transport atmospheric pollutants (e.g., black carbon and dust) deposited on glacier surface can promote glacier melt, and in turns, may liberate historical contaminant legacy in glaciers into downward ecosystems. To understand the air pollution variation and how they can infiltrate the Himalayas and beyond, we started to operate a coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network composing 11 sites with 5 in Nepal and 6 in Tibet since April 2013. Atmospheric total suspended particles ( TSP < 100 μm) are collected for 24h at an interval of 3-6 days at all sites. Black carbon, typical persistent organic pollutants (PAHs) and heavy metals (particulate-bounded mercury) are measured to reveal their spatial and temporal distributions. Results revealed a consistent gradient decrease in almost all analyzed parameters along south-north gradient across the Himalayas, with a clear seasonal variation of higher values in pre-monsoon seasons. Analysis of geochemical signatures of carbonaceous aerosols indicated dominant sources from biomass burning and vehicle exhaust. PAHs concentrations and signatures from soils and aerosols indicated that low-ring PAHs can readily transport across the Himalayas. Integrated analysis of satellite images and air mass trajectories suggested that the transboundary air pollution over the Himalayas is episodic and is likely concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons. Our results emphasis the potential transport and impact of air pollution from South Asia

  18. Effects of air pollution resulting from wire reclamation incineration on pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiue, T.R.; Lee, S.S.; Chen, H.I. )

    1991-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of long-term air pollution resulting from wire reclamation incineration on pulmonary function in children. General physical examination and the determination of spirometric parameters, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and forced mid-expiratory flow (FEF25-75%) were conducted in 400 primary school children between ages 9 and 11 years who reside in one control and three polluted areas. A survey using ATS-DLD-78-C questionnaire indicated that there were no significant differences in their demographic characteristics among children in the four areas under study. Those who had nonrespiratory diseases that might affect pulmonary function and those who failed to perform spirometric measurements were excluded from the study; therefore, 382 children were included in data analysis. The results revealed that (1) the mean values of FVC and FEV1 (expressed as percentage of predicted values calculated from Polgar's equations) in the polluted areas were significantly lower than the nonpolluted area (p less than 0.05), and (2) the incidence of pulmonary function abnormality in the polluted areas was greater than that of the nonpolluted area (p less than 0.05). The results indicated that air pollution produced by wire reclamation incineration can impair children's pulmonary function.

  19. Ambient Air Pollution and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults: Results from the MOBILIZE Boston Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Eliot, Melissa N.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gryparis, Alexandros; Schwartz, Joel D.; Coull, Brent A.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Milberg, William P.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to ambient air pollution, particularly from traffic, has been associated with adverse cognitive outcomes, but the association with depressive symptoms remains unclear. Objectives: We investigated the association between exposure to ambient air and traffic pollution and the presence of depressive symptoms among 732 Boston-area adults ≥ 65 years of age (78.1 ± 5.5 years, mean ± SD). Methods: We assessed depressive symptoms during home interviews using the Revised Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-R). We estimated residential distance to the nearest major roadway as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic pollution and assessed short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfates, black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles, and gaseous pollutants, averaged over the 2 weeks preceding each assessment. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of a CESD-R score ≥ 16 associated with exposure, adjusting for potential confounders. In sensitivity analyses, we considered CESD-R score as a continuous outcome and mean annual residential BC as an alternate marker of long-term exposure to traffic pollution. Results: We found no evidence of a positive association between depressive symptoms and long-term exposure to traffic pollution or short-term changes in pollutant levels. For example, we found an OR of CESD-R score ≥ 16 of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.98) per interquartile range (3.4 μg/m3) increase in PM2.5 over the 2 weeks preceding assessment. Conclusions: We found no evidence suggesting that ambient air pollution is associated with depressive symptoms among older adults living in a metropolitan area in attainment of current U.S. regulatory standards. Citation: Wang Y, Eliot MN, Koutrakis P, Gryparis A, Schwartz JD, Coull BA, Mittleman MA, Milberg WP, Lipsitz LA, Wellenius GA. 2014. Ambient air pollution and depressive symptoms in older adults: results from the MOBILIZE Boston

  20. Assessment of the Impact of Spatial Data on the Results of Air Pollution Dispersion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleniacz, Robert; Rzeszutek, Mateusz

    2014-12-01

    Advanced dispersion models, taking into account information on the relief and land cover, as well as temporal and spatial variability of meteorological conditions, are beginning to play an increasingly important role in the assessment of the impact on the air quality. There are numerous spatial databases which can be used in this type of a calculation process, however, there is no answer to the question of how the use of appropriate data set of terrain characteristics affects the results of the distribution of air pollutant concentrations at the surface of the ground. This paper presents two different sets of spatial data of the relief and land cover. Then, their impact on the results of modeling the propagation of pollutants in the ambient air was characterized, using the meteorological processor CALMET and the dispersion model CALPUFF. The obtained results of concentrations in the adopted calculation area were compared on the basis of statistical indicators used to assess pollution dispersion models contained in the statistical package BOOT Statistical Model Evaluation Software Package Version 2.0. The obtained results of calculations of the maximum 1-hour concentrations, the maximum 24-hour mean concentrations and annual mean concentrations for the prepared computational grids with a resolution of 1×1 km were analyzed.

  1. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  2. [Implementation results of emission standards of air pollutants for thermal power plants: a numerical simulation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan-Shan; Pan, Li-Bo

    2014-03-01

    The emission inventory of air pollutants from the thermal power plants in the year of 2010 was set up. Based on the inventory, the air quality of the prediction scenarios by implementation of both 2003-version emission standard and the new emission standard were simulated using Models-3/CMAQ. The concentrations of NO2, SO2, and PM2.5, and the deposition of nitrogen and sulfur in the year of 2015 and 2020 were predicted to investigate the regional air quality improvement by the new emission standard. The results showed that the new emission standard could effectively improve the air quality in China. Compared with the implementation results of the 2003-version emission standard, by 2015 and 2020, the area with NO2 concentration higher than the emission standard would be reduced by 53.9% and 55.2%, the area with SO2 concentration higher than the emission standard would be reduced by 40.0%, the area with nitrogen deposition higher than 1.0 t x km(-2) would be reduced by 75.4% and 77.9%, and the area with sulfur deposition higher than 1.6 t x km(-2) would be reduced by 37.1% and 34.3%, respectively.

  3. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  4. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  5. Air pollution and cardiovascular admissions association in Spain: results within the EMECAS project

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, F; Rodríguez, P; Iñíguez, C; Saez, M; Daponte, A; Galán, I; Taracido, M; Arribas, F; Bellido, J; Cirarda, F B; Cañada, A; Guillén, J J; Guillén‐Grima, F; López, E; Pérez‐Hoyos, S; Lertxundi, A; Toro, S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the short term effect of air pollution on cardiovascular admissions in 14 Spanish cities Methods The period under study was from 1995 to 1999. Daily emergency admissions for all cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and heart diseases (HD) were obtained from hospital records, and the corresponding daily levels of particulates, SO2, NO2, CO, and ozone were recorded. The magnitude of association was estimated using Poisson generalised additive models controlling for confounding and overdispersion. For each cause, lagged effects, up to three days, of each pollutant were examined and combined estimates were obtained. For ozone the analyses were restricted to the warm period. One and two pollutant models were performed. Results Associations were more consistent in lag 0 (concurrent day) and 1 (lag 0–1), except in the case of ozone where there was a more delayed relation (lag 2–3). For combined estimates an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 levels in lag 0–1 was associated with an increase of 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4 to 1.5%) in the number of hospital admissions for CVD, and 1.6% (0.8 to 2.3%) for HD. For ozone the corresponding estimates for lag 2–3 were 0.7% (0.3 to 1.0) for CVD, and 0.7% (0.1 to 1.2) for HD. An increase of 1 mg/m3 in CO levels was associated with an increase of 2.1% (0.7 to 3.5%) in CVD admissions, and 4.2% (1.3 to 7.1%) in HD admissions. SO2 and NO2 estimates were more sensitive in two pollutant models Conclusions A short term association between increases in daily levels of air pollutants and the number of daily admissions for cardiovascular diseases, with specificity for heart diseases, has been described in Spanish cities. PMID:16537350

  6. Energy consumption and resultant air pollution; An ARIMA forecasting model for Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, G.J.Y. ); Liu, M.C. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, an ARIMA transfer model is developed toe valuate the interactions between energy use and particulate air pollution in eight major areas in Taiwan. Based on time series data from 1971 to 1985 and the estimates of the parameters of the model, a five-year (from 1986 to 1990) forecast is made for particulate pollution for these eight major areas. Finally, policy implications and recommendations are presented.

  7. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  8. China's air pollution reduction efforts may result in an increase in surface ozone levels in highly polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Anger, Annela; Dessens, Olivier; Xi, Fengming; Barker, Terry; Wu, Rui

    2016-03-01

    China, as a fast growing fossil-fuel-based economy, experiences increasing levels of air pollution. To tackle air pollution, China has taken the first steps by setting emission-reduction targets for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans. This paper uses two models-the Energy-Environment-Economy Model at the Global level (E3MG) and the global Chemistry Transport Model pTOMCAT-to test the effects of these policies. If the policy targets are met, then the maximum values of 32 % and 45 % reductions below 'business as usual' in the monthly mean NO x and SO2 concentrations, respectively, will be achieved in 2015. However, a decrease in NO x concentrations in some highly polluted areas of East, North-East and South-East China can lead to up to a 10% increase in the monthly mean concentrations in surface ozone in 2015. Our study demonstrates an urgent need for the more detailed analysis of the impacts and designs of air pollution reduction guidelines for China.

  9. China's air pollution reduction efforts may result in an increase in surface ozone levels in highly polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Anger, Annela; Dessens, Olivier; Xi, Fengming; Barker, Terry; Wu, Rui

    2016-03-01

    China, as a fast growing fossil-fuel-based economy, experiences increasing levels of air pollution. To tackle air pollution, China has taken the first steps by setting emission-reduction targets for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans. This paper uses two models-the Energy-Environment-Economy Model at the Global level (E3MG) and the global Chemistry Transport Model pTOMCAT-to test the effects of these policies. If the policy targets are met, then the maximum values of 32 % and 45 % reductions below 'business as usual' in the monthly mean NO x and SO2 concentrations, respectively, will be achieved in 2015. However, a decrease in NO x concentrations in some highly polluted areas of East, North-East and South-East China can lead to up to a 10% increase in the monthly mean concentrations in surface ozone in 2015. Our study demonstrates an urgent need for the more detailed analysis of the impacts and designs of air pollution reduction guidelines for China. PMID:26409886

  10. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  11. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  12. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution.

  13. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    PubMed Central

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. PMID:22726103

  14. Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Collard, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease. PMID:25846532

  15. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

  16. Investigating Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  17. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  18. Remote air pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

  19. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

  20. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  1. Racial and ethnic disparities in hospital care resulting from air pollution in excess of federal standards.

    PubMed

    Hackbarth, Andrew D; Romley, John A; Goldman, Dana P

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates racial and ethnic disparities in hospital admission and emergency room visit rates resulting from exposure to ozone and fine particulate matter levels in excess of federal standards ("excess attributable risk"). We generate zip code-level ambient pollution exposures and hospital event rates using state datasets, and use pollution impact estimates in the epidemiological literature to calculate excess attributable risk for racial/ethnic groups in California over 2005-2007. We find that black residents experienced roughly 2.5 times the excess attributable risk of white residents. Hispanic residents were exposed to the highest levels of pollution, but experienced similar excess attributable risk to whites. Asian/Pacific Islander residents had substantially lower excess attributable risk compared to white. We estimate the distinct contributions of exposure and other factors to these results, and find that factors other than exposure can be critical determinants of pollution-related disparities. PMID:21893376

  2. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  3. Gas flaring and resultant air pollution: A review focusing on black carbon.

    PubMed

    Fawole, Olusegun G; Cai, X-M; MacKenzie, A R

    2016-09-01

    Gas flaring is a prominent source of VOCs, CO, CO2, SO2, PAH, NOX and soot (black carbon), all of which are important pollutants which interact, directly and indirectly, in the Earth's climatic processes. Globally, over 130 billion cubic metres of gas are flared annually. We review the contribution of gas flaring to air pollution on local, regional and global scales, with special emphasis on black carbon (BC, "soot"). The temporal and spatial characteristics of gas flaring distinguishes it from mobile combustion sources (transport), while the open-flame nature of gas flaring distinguishes it from industrial point-sources; the high temperature, flame control, and spatial compactness distinguishes gas flaring from both biomass burning and domestic fuel-use. All of these distinguishing factors influence the quantity and characteristics of BC production from gas flaring, so that it is important to consider this source separately in emissions inventories and environmental field studies. Estimate of the yield of pollutants from gas flaring have, to date, paid little or no attention to the emission of BC with the assumption often being made that flaring produces a smokeless flame. In gas flares, soot yield is known to depend on a number of factors, and there is a need to develop emission estimates and modelling frameworks that take these factors into consideration. Hence, emission inventories, especially of the soot yield from gas flaring should give adequate consideration to the variation of fuel gas composition, and to combustion characteristics, which are strong determinants of the nature and quantity of pollutants emitted. The buoyant nature of gas flaring plume, often at temperatures in the range of 2000 K, coupled with the height of the stack enables some of the pollutants to escape further into the free troposphere aiding their long-range transport, which is often not well-captured by model studies.

  4. Gas flaring and resultant air pollution: A review focusing on black carbon.

    PubMed

    Fawole, Olusegun G; Cai, X-M; MacKenzie, A R

    2016-09-01

    Gas flaring is a prominent source of VOCs, CO, CO2, SO2, PAH, NOX and soot (black carbon), all of which are important pollutants which interact, directly and indirectly, in the Earth's climatic processes. Globally, over 130 billion cubic metres of gas are flared annually. We review the contribution of gas flaring to air pollution on local, regional and global scales, with special emphasis on black carbon (BC, "soot"). The temporal and spatial characteristics of gas flaring distinguishes it from mobile combustion sources (transport), while the open-flame nature of gas flaring distinguishes it from industrial point-sources; the high temperature, flame control, and spatial compactness distinguishes gas flaring from both biomass burning and domestic fuel-use. All of these distinguishing factors influence the quantity and characteristics of BC production from gas flaring, so that it is important to consider this source separately in emissions inventories and environmental field studies. Estimate of the yield of pollutants from gas flaring have, to date, paid little or no attention to the emission of BC with the assumption often being made that flaring produces a smokeless flame. In gas flares, soot yield is known to depend on a number of factors, and there is a need to develop emission estimates and modelling frameworks that take these factors into consideration. Hence, emission inventories, especially of the soot yield from gas flaring should give adequate consideration to the variation of fuel gas composition, and to combustion characteristics, which are strong determinants of the nature and quantity of pollutants emitted. The buoyant nature of gas flaring plume, often at temperatures in the range of 2000 K, coupled with the height of the stack enables some of the pollutants to escape further into the free troposphere aiding their long-range transport, which is often not well-captured by model studies. PMID:27262132

  5. Characterization of a mineral waste resulting from the melting treatment of air pollution control residues.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-vazquez, A; Metiver-pignon, H; Tiruta-barna, L; Piantone, P

    2009-02-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues which are generated by municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration show a high-level of pollution potential. In order to stabilize such APC residues, the French power supply company (EDF) is developing a thermal treatment process which leads to the production of a vitrified material. A structural characterization of the vitrified product was carried out by applying complementary investigation methods: XRD, SEM, Raman spectroscopy, EPMA, and data interpretation methods such as mineralogical analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). The major phase of the material was a solid solution of melilite type composed of five end-members: gehlenite (44%), åkermanite (25%), ferri-gehlenite (5%), sodamelilite (14%) and hardystonite (11%). The minor phases identified were spinels and pyroxenes. An ANC leaching test was performed in order to observe the treatment effect on pollutant release. The natural pH was close to 10, and the major element release was less than in the case of untreated APC. This was a consequence of melilite formation. The effect of pH was fundamental for heavy metals release: lower solubilization occurs at pH 10 than at APC's natural pH (11-12).

  6. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  7. Microbial Growth and Air Pollutants in the Corrosion of Carbonate Rocks: Results from Laboratory and Outdoor Experimental Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroni, B.; Poli, G.; Pitzurra, L.

    2003-04-01

    Microorganisms and atmospheric pollution are primary causes of deterioration of materials exposed to open air. Due to the variety of chemical-mineralogical compositions and textures, stone represents a variegated substrate that interacts with environmental fluids and particulate, and is a selective environment for biological proliferation. Carbonate rocks, in particular, are highly exposed to environmental decay and extremely susceptible to acid attack caused by atmospheric pollutants and metabolic acid production. The aim of this work is to study the combined effect of microbial contamination and atmospheric pollutants in the weathering of carbonate rocks by means of laboratory and outdoor exposure tests. Laboratory experiments performed on carbonate rocks allowed evaluation of the influence of the gas mixture in the chemical modifications of the lithic substrate, and formulation of a kinetic model of sulphation. The obtained results suggest that nucleation alternates with growth as leading processes in the development of sulphation. In particular, nucleation of the reaction products is the leading process in the initial period of sulphation, which is characterized by a marked slowdown of the reaction progress, whereas growth of the products is the leading process in the subsequent period of resumption of sulphation. In situ experiments performed by exposing limestone specimens at two air monitoring stations in Perugia with different degrees of urban air pollution showed high levels of fungal colonization at early times and the presence of weathering products (i.e. gypsum) in the longer term. Results point to a combined effect of microbial colonization and atmospheric pollutants in promoting the weathering of stone through acid attack within the film of water present on the surface of the exposed material, and through the oxidation of metal sulphide particulate pollutant to sulphate. Laboratory tests assaying the extent of fungal colonization and/or chemical

  8. Air pollution and children's health.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joel

    2004-04-01

    Children's exposure to air pollution is a special concern because their immune system and lungs are not fully developed when exposure begins, raising the possibility of different responses than seen in adults. In addition, children spend more time outside, where the concentrations of pollution from traffic, powerplants, and other combustion sources are generally higher. Although air pollution has long been thought to exacerbate minor acute illnesses, recent studies have suggested that air pollution, particularly traffic-related pollution, is associated with infant mortality and the development of asthma and atopy. Other studies have associated particulate air pollution with acute bronchitis in children and demonstrated that rates of bronchitis and chronic cough declined in areas where particle concentrations have fallen. More mixed results have been reported for lung function. Overall, evidence for effects of air pollution on children have been growing, and effects are seen at concentrations that are common today. Although many of these associations seem likely to be causal, others require and warrant additional investigation.

  9. Air pollution ranks as largest health risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that 7 million people died in 2012 from air-pollution-related sicknesses, marking air pollution as the single largest environmental health risk. This finding, a result of better knowledge and assessment of the diseases, is more than double previous estimates of the risk of death from air pollution.

  10. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  11. Global burden of disease as a result of indoor air pollution in Shaanxi, Hubei and Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Mestl, Heidi E S; Edwards, Rufus

    2011-03-15

    Indoor air pollution in developing countries is a major global health problem, yet estimates of the global burden of disease vary widely and are associated with large uncertainty. The World Health Organization uses the fuel based approach to estimate 1.6 million premature deaths globally each year associated with exposure to indoor air pollution, of which 420000 are in China. The fuel based approach uses a ventilation factor to account for differences in indoor air concentrations and exposures in different parts of the world based on regional differences in stove technology. In China this approach assumes that flues eliminate the majority of indoor air pollution, with a ventilation factor of 0.25. To account for historic exposure leading to current disease patterns the ventilation factor was adjusted to 0.5 for adult health endpoints. Measurements in three Chinese provinces, Shaanxi, Hubei and Zhejiang, however, show that high PM(4) concentrations are present in kitchens and living rooms even with stoves with flues as a result of multiple stove and flue use. Comparison of Indian and Chinese indoor air concentrations suggests more appropriate ventilation factors in the range 0.76-1.0 for women and children, and 1.0 for men. Premature mortality in the three provinces using these estimates would be closer to 60600, rather than current estimates of 46000. With the addition of cardiovascular diseases these estimates would increase by 92000. Pollutant based estimates using measured indoor air concentrations and combined with dose-response estimates would imply a burden of disease of 157800 premature deaths including cardiovascular diseases, a tripling of current estimates. PMID:21288560

  12. Testing for Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Artice

    Three experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to provide the teacher with some fundamental air pollution activities. The first experiment involved particulates, the second deals with microorganisms, and the third looks at gases in the atmosphere. Each activity outlines introductory information, objectives, materials required, procedure…

  13. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  14. Long-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Serum Leptin in Older Adults: Results from the MOBILIZE Boston Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Eliot, Melissa N.; Kuchel, George A.; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Wellenius, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution has been linked to increased risk of obesity and diabetes and may be associated with higher serum levels of the adipokine leptin, but this hypothesis has not been previously evaluated in humans. Methods In a cohort of older adults, we estimated the association between serum leptin concentrations and two markers of long-term exposure to traffic pollution, adjusting for participant characteristics, temporal trends, socioeconomic factors, and medical history. Results An interquartile range increase (0.11 µg/m3) in annual mean residential black carbon was associated with 12% (95% CI: 3%, 22%) higher leptin levels. Leptin levels were not associated with residential distance to major roadway. Conculsions If confirmed, these findings support the emerging evidence suggesting that certain sources of traffic pollution may be associated with adverse cardiometabolic effects. PMID:25192230

  15. Maternal Exposure to Criteria Air Pollutants and Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: Results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Luben, Thomas J.; Daniels, Julie L.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Richardson, David B.; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Herring, Amy H.; Anderka, Marlene; Botto, Lorenzo; Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Langlois, Peter H.; Mosley, Bridget; Shaw, Gary M.; Siffel, Csaba; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic literature suggests that exposure to air pollutants is associated with fetal development. Objectives: We investigated maternal exposures to air pollutants during weeks 2–8 of pregnancy and their associations with congenital heart defects. Methods: Mothers from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a nine-state case–control study, were assigned 1-week and 7-week averages of daily maximum concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide and 24-hr measurements of fine and coarse particulate matter using the closest air monitor within 50 km to their residence during early pregnancy. Depending on the pollutant, a maximum of 4,632 live-birth controls and 3,328 live-birth, fetal-death, or electively terminated cases had exposure data. Hierarchical regression models, adjusted for maternal demographics and tobacco and alcohol use, were constructed. Principal component analysis was used to assess these relationships in a multipollutant context. Results: Positive associations were observed between exposure to nitrogen dioxide and coarctation of the aorta and pulmonary valve stenosis. Exposure to fine particulate matter was positively associated with hypoplastic left heart syndrome but inversely associated with atrial septal defects. Examining individual exposure-weeks suggested associations between pollutants and defects that were not observed using the 7-week average. Associations between left ventricular outflow tract obstructions and nitrogen dioxide and between hypoplastic left heart syndrome and particulate matter were supported by findings from the multipollutant analyses, although estimates were attenuated at the highest exposure levels. Conclusions: Using daily maximum pollutant levels and exploring individual exposure-weeks revealed some positive associations between certain pollutants and defects and suggested potential windows of susceptibility during pregnancy. Citation: Stingone JA, Luben TJ

  16. Differences in Birth Weight Associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympics Air Pollution Reduction: Results from a Natural Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kaibo; Zhang, Jinliang; Thurston, Sally W.; Stevens, Timothy P.; Pan, Ying; Kane, Cathleen; Weinberger, Barry; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Duan, Xiaoli; Assibey-Mensah, Vanessa; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported decreased birth weight associated with increased air pollutant concentrations during pregnancy. However, it is not clear when during pregnancy increases in air pollution are associated with the largest differences in birth weight. Objectives Using the natural experiment of air pollution declines during the 2008 Beijing Olympics, we evaluated whether having specific months of pregnancy (i.e., 1st…8th) during the 2008 Olympics period was associated with larger birth weights, compared with pregnancies during the same dates in 2007 or 2009. Methods Using n = 83,672 term births to mothers residing in four urban districts of Beijing, we estimated the difference in birth weight associated with having individual months of pregnancy during the 2008 Olympics (8 August–24 September 2008) compared with the same dates in 2007 and 2009. We also estimated the difference in birth weight associated with interquartile range (IQR) increases in mean ambient particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations during each pregnancy month. Results Babies whose 8th month of gestation occurred during the 2008 Olympics were, on average, 23 g larger (95% CI: 5 g, 40 g) than babies whose 8th month occurred during the same calendar dates in 2007 or 2009. IQR increases in PM2.5 (19.8 μg/m3), CO (0.3 ppm), SO2 (1.8 ppb), and NO2 (13.6 ppb) concentrations during the 8th month of pregnancy were associated with 18 g (95% CI: –32 g, –3 g), 17 g (95% CI: –28 g, –6 g), 23 g (95% CI: –36 g, –10 g), and 34 g (95% CI: –70 g, 3 g) decreases in birth weight, respectively. We did not see significant associations for months 1–7. Conclusions Short-term decreases in air pollution late in pregnancy in Beijing during the 2008 Summer Olympics, a normally heavily polluted city, were associated with higher birth weight. Citation Rich DQ, Liu K, Zhang J

  17. Air monitoring in the Arctic: Results for selected persistent organic pollutants for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fellin, P.; Dougherty, D.; Barrie, L.A.; Toom, D.; Muir, D.; Grift, N.; Lockhart, L.; Billeck, B.

    1996-03-01

    The Arctic is generally considered to be a pristine environment and has few direct inputs of organochlorine compounds (OCs), including pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In spite of this, airborne concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are comparable to those in more populated and industrialized regions of North America and Europe. Atmospheric transport and condensation of compounds at low temperature conditions are important factors contributing to the presence of contaminants in the Arctic. A long-term program has been established to measure the airborne concentrations of POPs in the Arctic. The first station at Alert was established in January 1992. The concentrations measured in the first year of monitoring for 18 compounds that are representative of different compound classes are presented. Seasonal variations for PAHs are similar to those for Arctic haze and peak during winter. For example, in the coldest period, october to April, benzo[a]pyrene concentrations were found to average 20 pg/m{sup 3}, whereas, in contrast, during the relatively warm May to September period, average levels were 1.0 pg/m{sup 3}. For OCs, the seasonal cycle was not as pronounced as that for PAH compounds. For example, {alpha}-hexachlorocyclohexane was found at Alert at average concentrations of 62 and 57 pg/m{sup 3}, respectively, during cold and warm periods. It is postulated that air concentrations are influenced by advection from distant source regions as well as exchange with local (Arctic Ocean) surfaces.

  18. Lung cancer and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A J; Pope, C A

    1995-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years suggest rather consistently that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, may be responsible for increased rates of lung cancer. This evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30 to 50% increases in lung cancer rates associated with exposure to respirable particles. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the United States continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. It is not known how many people in the United States are exposed to levels of fine respirable particles that have been associated with lung cancer in recent epidemiologic studies. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the United States based largely on the results of animal studies, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution among the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer associated with air pollution. PMID:8741787

  19. Self-organized criticality of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Kai; Liu, Chun-Qiong

    In this work, we investigate the frequency-size distribution of three pollution indexes (PM 10, NO 2 and SO 2) in Shanghai. They are well approximated by power-law distributions, which suggest that air pollution might be a manifestation of self-organized criticality. We introduce a new numerical sandpile model with decay coefficient to reveal inherent dynamic mechanism of air pollution. Only changing the number value of decay coefficient of pollutants, this model gives a good simulation of three pollutants' statistical characteristic. This work shows that it is the self-organized criticality of the air pollutants that results in the temporal variation of air pollutant indexes and the minor air pollution sources can trigger the occurrence of large pollutant events by SOC behavior.

  20. Contemporary threats and air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopke, Philip K.

    It is now well understood that air pollution produces significant adverse health effects in the general public and over the past 60 years, there have been on-going efforts to reduce the emitted pollutants and their resulting health effects. There are now shifting patterns of industrialization with many heavily polluting industries moving from developed countries with increasingly stringent air quality standards to the developing world. However, even in decreasing concentrations of pollutants, health effects remain important possibly as a result of changes in the nature of the pollutants as new chemicals are produced and as other causes of mortality and morbidity are reduced. In addition, there is now the potential for deliberate introduction of toxic air pollutants by local armed conflicts and terrorists. Thus, there are new challenges to understand the role of the atmospheric environment on public health in this time of changing economic and demographic conditions overlaid with the willingness to indirectly attack governments and other established entities through direct attacks on the general public.

  1. Indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, D.R. )

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  2. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  3. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  4. In Search of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckendorf, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

  5. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  6. Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, D.B.; Stern, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The Effects of Air Pollution; Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution; Meterology of Air Pollution; regulatory Control of Air Pollution; and Engineering Control of Air Pollution.

  7. Effects of air pollution on exhaled nitric oxide in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuang; Flexeder, Claudia; Fuertes, Elaine; Cyrys, Josef; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Hoffmann, Barbara; von Berg, Andrea; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies which have investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on airway inflammation, assessed by an increase of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), have been conducted among asthmatic children. Few studies have considered this potential association among non-asthmatics. Furthermore, although both short- and long-term effects of air pollution on eNO had been reported separately, studies which include both are scarce. We explored associations between 24h NO2 and PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 10μm) mass with eNO in 1985 children (192 asthmatics and 1793 non-asthmatics) aged 10 years and accounted for the long-term effects of air pollution by adjusting for annual averages of NO2, PM10 mass, PM2.5 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5μm) and PM2.5 absorbance, using data from two German birth cohorts in Munich and Wesel. In total, robust associations between 24h NO2 and eNO were observed in both single-pollutant (percentage change: 18.30%, 95% confidence interval: 11.63-25.37) and two-pollutant models (14.62%, 6.71-23.11). The association between 24h PM10 mass and eNO was only significant in the single-pollutant model (9.59%, 4.80-14.61). The same significant associations were also observed in non-asthmatic children, while they did not reach significant levels in asthmatic children. Associations between annual averages of ambient air pollution (NO2, PM10 mass, PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 absorbance) and eNO were consistently null. In conclusion, significantly positive associations were observed between short-term ambient air pollution and eNO. No long-term effects of air pollution on eNO were found in this study.

  8. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals’ response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect. PMID:26728113

  9. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals’ response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect.

  10. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  11. High pressure flame system for pollution studies with results for methane-air diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I. M.; Maahs, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    A high pressure flame system was designed and constructed for studying nitrogen oxide formation in fuel air combustion. Its advantages and limitations were demonstrated by tests with a confined laminar methane air diffusion flame over the pressure range from 1 to 50 atm. The methane issued from a 3.06 mm diameter port concentrically into a stream of air contained within a 20.5 mm diameter chimney. As the combustion pressure is increased, the flame changes in shape from wide and convex to slender and concave, and there is a marked increase in the amount of luminous carbon. The height of the flame changes only moderately with pressure.

  12. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  13. Air pollution: a tale of two countries.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi; Franklin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The fast growing economies and continued urbanization in Asian countries have increased the demand for mobility and energy in the region, resulting in high levels of air pollution in cities from mobile and stationary sources. In contrast, low level of urbanization in Australia produces low level of urban air pollution. The World Health Organization estimates that about 500,000 premature deaths per year are caused by air pollution, leaving the urban poor particularly vulnerable since they live in air pollution hotspots, have low respiratory resistance due to bad nutrition, and lack access to quality health care. Identifying the differences and similarities of air pollution levels and its impacts, between Indonesia and Australia, will provide best lesson learned to tackle air pollution problems for Pacific Basin Rim countries.

  14. Air pollution: a tale of two countries.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi; Franklin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The fast growing economies and continued urbanization in Asian countries have increased the demand for mobility and energy in the region, resulting in high levels of air pollution in cities from mobile and stationary sources. In contrast, low level of urbanization in Australia produces low level of urban air pollution. The World Health Organization estimates that about 500,000 premature deaths per year are caused by air pollution, leaving the urban poor particularly vulnerable since they live in air pollution hotspots, have low respiratory resistance due to bad nutrition, and lack access to quality health care. Identifying the differences and similarities of air pollution levels and its impacts, between Indonesia and Australia, will provide best lesson learned to tackle air pollution problems for Pacific Basin Rim countries. PMID:21714382

  15. System interactions of air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E. )

    1992-06-01

    The impact of system interactions and simultaneous or sequential exposure to various air pollutants, both man-made and natural ones, requires greater concern in the interpretation of the total adverse impact of various air pollutants. It is clear that there are highly significant system interactions with exposure to various air pollutants, and these must be considered very carefully in the evaluation of their adverse health effects.

  16. Air pollution and respiratory viral infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite current regulations, which limit the levels of certain air pollutants, there are still a number of adverse health effects that result from exposure to these agents. Numerous epidemiological studies have noted an association between the levels of air pollution and hospital...

  17. Air pollution and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haejin; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient articles and summarizes findings important to the interaction between allergies and air pollution, specifically volatile organic compounds, global warming, particulate pollutants, atopic risk, indoor air pollution, and prenatal exposure. Further work is necessary to determine whether patients predisposed to developing allergic disease may be more susceptible to the health effects of air pollutants due to the direct interaction between IgE-mediated disease and air pollutants. Until we have more definitive answers, patient education about the importance of good indoor air quality in the home and workplace is essential. Health care providers and the general community should also support public policy designed to improve outdoor air quality by developing programs that provide incentives for industry to comply with controlling pollution emissions.

  18. Air Pollution and Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

  19. Children, Pediatricians, and Polluted Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    Explored are children's vulnerability and the pediatrician's role in relation to the problems posed by air pollution. Research is noted to have included a search of biomedical literature over the past 10 years; attendance at medical meetings; conferences with air pollution researchers, environmental protection administrators, and specialists in…

  20. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  1. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  2. Cough and environmental air pollution in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Minzhi; Lai, Kefang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-12-01

    With fast-paced urbanization and increased energy consumption in rapidly industrialized modern China, the level of outdoor and indoor air pollution resulting from industrial and motor vehicle emissions has been increasing at an accelerated rate. Thus, there is a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and decreased pulmonary function. Experimental exposure research and epidemiological studies have indicated that exposure to particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and environmental tobacco smoke have a harmful influence on development of respiratory diseases and are significantly associated with cough and wheeze. This review mainly discusses the effect of air pollutants on respiratory health, particularly with respect to cough, the links between air pollutants and microorganisms, and air pollutant sources. Particular attention is paid to studies in urban areas of China where the levels of ambient and indoor air pollution are significantly higher than World Health Organization recommendations.

  3. Psychological reactions to air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.W.; Colome, S.D.; Shearer, D.F.

    1988-02-01

    Interviews with a large representative sample of Los Angeles residents reveal that these citizens are somewhat aware and concerned about air pollution, but not knowledgeable about its causes. Direct behaviors to reduce causes of pollution or one's exposure to it are rare. A moderate percentage of people seek out information about air pollution or complain about it. Fewer follow state health advisories by reducing automobile driving or restricting activity during air pollution episodes. Preliminary modeling of citizen compliance with air pollution health advisories suggest that personal beliefs about negative health effects are a important predictor of compliance. Finally, modest but significant relationships are noted between ambient photochemical oxidants and anxiety symptoms. The latter finding controls for age, socioeconomic status, and temperature.

  4. Air pollution and plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Treshow, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book addresses air pollution's sources and movement; biochemical, cellular, and whole-plant effects, impacts on agricultural and natural systems; and control. The effects of convective turbulence and atmospheric stability are well illustrated. The diagnosis of air pollution injury to plants and mimicking symptoms are discussed. The environmental and source variables that affect pollutant dispersion are explained by use of the Gaussian dispersion model. An overview is presented of the effects of sulfur dioxide, photochemical oxidants, and fluoride on stomatal function, photosynthesis, respiration, and metabolic processes and products. Information is discussed concerning combinations of air pollutants, impacts on lichens, and effects of trace metals on plants. The relationship between air pollutants and diseases or other stress factors is evaluated.

  5. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  6. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE PAGES

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  7. Atmospheric chemistry and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S; Marley, Nancy A

    2003-04-07

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  8. Study of air pollutant detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

    1974-01-01

    The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

  9. Comparison of different exposure settings in a case--crossover study on air pollution and daily mortality: counterintuitive results.

    PubMed

    Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Hänninen, Otto; Marchesi, Stefano; Lauriola, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Because of practical problems associated with measurement of personal exposures to air pollutants in larger populations, almost all epidemiological studies assign exposures based on fixed-site ambient air monitoring stations. In the presence of multiple monitoring stations at different locations, the selection of them may affect the observed epidemiological concentration--response (C-R) relationships. In this paper, we quantify these impacts in an observational ecologic case--crossover study of air pollution and mortality. The associations of daily concentrations of PM(10), O(3), and NO(2) with daily all-cause non-violent mortality were investigated using conditional logistic regression to estimate percent increase in the risk of dying for an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the previous day air pollutant concentrations (lag 1). The study area covers the six main cities in the central-western part of Emilia-Romagna region (population of 1.1 million). We used four approaches to assign exposure to air pollutants for each individual considered in the study: nearest background station; city average of all stations available; average of all stations in a macro-area covering three cities and average of all six cities in the study area (50 × 150 km(2)). Odds ratios generally increased enlarging the spatial dimension of the exposure definition and were highest for six city-average exposure definition. The effect is especially evident for PM(10), and similar for NO(2), whereas for ozone, we did not find any change in the C-R estimates. Within a geographically homogeneous region, the spatial aggregation of monitoring station data leads to higher and more robust risk estimates for PM(10) and NO(2), even if monitor-to-monitor correlations showed a light decrease with distance. We suggest that the larger aggregation improves the representativity of the exposure estimates by decreasing exposure misclassification, which is more profound when using individual stations vs regional

  10. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  11. Methodological issues related to pooling results from panel studies of heart rate variability and its association with ambient air pollution.

    PubMed

    Buteau, Stephane; Goldberg, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    Reviews of observational studies and subsequent meta-analyses are challenging to interpret because of potential methodological issues and biases inherent in studies. In reviewing panel studies of the association between heart rate variability and ambient air pollution we identified a number of methodological issues that make difficult interpreting and pooling findings from longitudinal studies, notably issues related to associations arising from different type of designs, differences in design characteristics, including study populations, measurements of heart rate variability (e.g., duration and condition of the electrocardiogram recordings), exposure assessment (e.g., types of monitoring), metrics of exposure used, and parameters estimated from regression models. We conclude that many panel studies of the association between heart rate variability and ambient air pollution may not be comparable to each other, and thus caution must be exercised to avoid misleading conclusions.

  12. Western forests and air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses.

  13. Effect of Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Allergic Disease: Results of the Children's Health and Environmental Research

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dal-Young; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Kim, Jeong-Hee; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Lee, Ji-Young; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hong, Soo-Jong; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the relationship of living near to main roads to allergic diseases, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), allergic sensitization, and lung function in Korean children. Methods A total of 5,443 children aged 6-14 years from 33 elementary schools in 10 cities during 2005-2006 were included in a baseline survey of the Children's Health and Environmental Research. We assessed association of traffic-related air pollution (TAP) exposure with the distance to the nearest main road, total road length of main roads and the proportion of the main road area within the 200-m home area. Results Positive exposure-response relationships were found between the length of the main road within the 200-m home area and lifetime wheeze (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR] for comparison of the longest to the shortest length categories=1.24; 95% CIs, 1.04-1.47; P for trend=0.022) and diagnosed asthma (PR=1.42; 95% CIs, 1.08-1.86; P for trend=0.011). Living less than 75 m from the main road was significantly associated with lifetime allergic rhinitis (AR), past-year AR symptoms, diagnosed AR, and treated AR. The distance to the main road (P for trend=0.001), the length of the main road (P for trend=0.041), and the proportion of the main road area (P for trend=0.006) had an exposure-response relationship with allergic sensitization. A strong inverse association was observed between residential proximity to the main load and lung function, especially FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25-75. The length of the main road and the proportion of the main road area were associated with reduced FEV1 in schoolchildren. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that exposure to traffic-related air pollution may be associated with increased risk of asthma, AR, and allergic sensitization, and with reduced lung function in schoolchildren. PMID:25936911

  14. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  15. Air pollution injury to plants

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The injuries to plants by oxidant air pollution can be used as biological indicators of pollution episodes. Bel W3 tobacco is often used as an indicator organism. Dogwood is another potential indicator organism. Specific growing procedures used for indicator organisms are described, as are diagnostic criteria for the type and extent of injuries.

  16. Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition. PMID:25119155

  17. Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition.

  18. Indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    This factsheet reviews what is currently known about pollutant sources, abatement and control equipment and techniques for poorly ventilated houses. Radon, formaldehyde, tobacco smokes, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates, bacteria, fungi and viruses are addressed. (PSB)

  19. Mechanisms of Air Pollution Transport in Urban Valleys as a Result of the Interplay Between the Temperature Inversion and the Urban Heat Island Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendón, A.; Wirth, V.; Salazar, J. F.; Palacio, C. A.; Brötz, B.

    2014-12-01

    Urban valleys can experience serious air pollution problems of concern for public health. The venting of pollution out of an urban valley is limited by the topography and can be further restricted by low-level temperature inversions and/or local circulations such as those induced by the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. The combined effects of a temperature inversion and a UHI on the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer and the associated mechanisms of air pollution transport in urban valleys were studied through idealized simulations performed with the EULAG model. Three different aspects were considered: the expansion of the urban area, variations in surface heating owing to topographic shading, and variations of the topography. The results show that different mechanisms of air pollution transport may arise in urban valleys as a result of the interplay between the temperature inversion, the slope flows, and the UHI. Three types of interrelated mechanisms of air pollution transport were identified. Type A describes the transport of pollutants by the slope winds, which can reduce pollution in the lower levels or reinforce the trapping of pollutants below the inversion layer depending on the UHI effect on weakening or reversing the upslope winds. Type B describes closed slope-flow circulations that are likely to occur below an inversion layer near the base of the sidewalls of valleys where an urban area is concentrated on the valley floor. These circulations can develop when upslope winds are detrained toward the center due to the inversion layer, or when the UHI forces downslope winds linked to ascending flows that are also restricted by the inversion layer. Pollutants can remain trapped within these circulation cells that have been termed smog traps. Type C describes a low-level UHI-induced circulation that tends to concentrate pollutants in the valley center and may cause the development of elevated polluted layers below the inversion layer. The persistence

  20. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  1. Children's response to air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Thomas F; Schwartz, Joel

    2008-01-01

    It is important to focus on children with respect to air pollution because (1) their lungs are not completely developed, (2) they can have greater exposures than adults, and (3) those exposures can deliver higher doses of different composition that may remain in the lung for greater duration. The undeveloped lung is more vulnerable to assault and less able to fully repair itself when injury disrupts morphogenesis. Children spend more time outside, where concentrations of combustion-generated air pollution are generally higher. Children have higher baseline ventilation rates and are more physically active than adults, thus exposing their lungs to more air pollution. Nasal breathing in adults reduces some pollution concentrations, but children are more typically mouth-breathers--suggesting that the composition of the exposure mixture at the alveolar level may be different. Finally, higher ventilation rates and mouth-breathing may pull air pollutants deeper into children's lungs, thereby making clearance slower and more difficult. Children also have immature immune systems, which plays a significant role in asthma. The observed consequences of early life exposure to adverse levels of air pollutants include diminished lung function and increased susceptibility to acute respiratory illness and asthma. Exposure to diesel exhaust, in particular, is an area of concern for multiple endpoints, and deserves further research. PMID:18097949

  2. A new model for investigating the mortality effects of multiple air pollutants in air pollution mortality time-series studies.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Steven

    2006-03-01

    Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollutants independently, the majority of time-series studies on air pollution and mortality have focused on estimating the adverse health effects of a single pollutant. However, due to the sometimes high correlation between air pollutants, the results from studies that focus on a single air pollutant can be difficult to interpret. In addition, the high correlation between air pollutants can produce problems of interpretation for the standard method of investigating the adverse health effects due to multiple air pollutants. The standard method involves simultaneously including the multiple air pollutants in a single statistical model. Because of this, the development of new models to concurrently estimate the adverse health effects of multiple air pollutants has recently been identified as an important area of future research. In this article, a new model for disentangling the joint effects of multiple air pollutants in air pollution mortality time-series studies is introduced. This new model uses the time-series data to assign each air pollutant a weight that indicates the pollutant's contribution to the air pollution mixture that affects mortality and to estimate the effect of this air pollution mixture on mortality. This model offers an improvement in statistical estimation precision over the standard method. It also avoids problems of interpretation that can occur if the standard method is used. This new model is then illustrated by applying it to time-series data from two U.S. counties.

  3. Air pollution: brown skies research.

    PubMed Central

    Tattersfield, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    Direct information on the health effects of air pollution in humans relies mainly on chamber studies and epidemiological studies. Although chamber studies have limitations they allow the acute effects of individual pollutants to be studied in well characterised subjects under controlled conditions. Most chamber studies have shown relatively small falls in lung function and relatively small increases in bronchial reactivity at the concentrations of ozone, SO2, and NO2 that occur even during high pollution episodes in the UK. The possible exception is SO2 where sensitive asthmatic patients may show a greater response at concentrations that are seen from time to time in certain areas and in proximity to power stations. There is no convincing evidence of potentiation between pollutants in chamber studies. Epidemiological studies are more difficult to carry out and require considerable epidemiological and statistical expertise to deal with the main problem-confounding by other factors. Although the health effects seen with current levels of pollution are small compared with those seen in the 1950s and close to the limits of detection, this should not be interpreted as being unimportant. A small effect may have large consequences when the population exposed is large (the whole population in this case). Recent data suggest that particles have more important health effects than the pollutant gases that have been studied. Much of this information comes from the USA though the findings are probably applicable in the UK. More information is needed on the size of the health effects that occur during the three types of air pollution episodes seen in this country and the relative contributions of particles, pollutant gases, pollen, and other factors such as temperature. Research into air pollution declined in the UK following the introduction of the Clean Air Acts; it is now increasing again following pressure from certain individuals and ginger groups, including the British

  4. Chinese air pollution embodied in trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid economic development in China has been accompanied by high levels of air pollution in many areas of China. Although researchers have applied a range of methods to monitor and track pollutant emissions in the atmosphere, studies of the underlying economic and technological drivers of this pollution have received considerably less attention. I will present results of a series of studies that have quantified the air pollutants embodied in goods being traded both within China and internationally. The results show that trade is facilitating the concentration of pollution in less economically developed areas, which in turn export pollution-intensive goods to more affluent areas. However, the export-related pollution itself is sometimes transported long distances; for instance, we have quantified the impacts of the Chinese pollution embodied in internationally-exported goods on air quality in the US. These findings important implications for Chinese efforts to curb CO2 emissions and improve air quality. The research to be presented reflects the efforts of a multiple year, ongoing collaboration among interdisciplinary researchers in China, the US and the UK.

  5. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.A.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Evaluation of indoor air pollution problems requires an understanding of the relationship between sources, air movement, and outdoor air exchange. Research is underway to investigate these relationships. A three-phase program is being implemented: (1) Environmental chambers are used to provide source emission factors for specific indoor pollutants; (2) An IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) model has been developed to calculate indoor pollutant concentrations based on chamber emissions data and the air exchange and air movement within the indoor environment; and (3) An IAQ test house is used to conduct experiments to evaluate the model results. Examples are provided to show how this coordinated approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Two sources are examined: (1) para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant; and (2) emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. The evaluation process for both sources followed the three-phase approach discussed above. Para-dichlorobenzene emission factors were determined by small chamber testing at EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. Particle emission factors for the kerosene heaters were developed in large chambers at the J.B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory. Both sources were subsequently evaluated in EPA's IAQ test house. The IAQ model predictions showed good agreement with the test house measurements when appropriate values were provided for source emissions, outside air exchange, in-house air movement, and deposition on sink surfaces.

  6. Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

  7. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques available for source identification are reviewed: remote sensing, injected tracers, and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of the large number of trace elements in the ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed. Trace constituents are determined by sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive, multielement analytical methods such as instrumental neutron activation and charged particle X-ray fluorescence. The application to a large data set of pairwise correlation, the more advanced pattern recognition-cluster analysis approach with and without training sets, enrichment factors, and pollutant concentration rose displays for each element is described. It is shown that elemental constituents are related to specific source types: earth crustal, automotive, metallurgical, and more specific industries. A field-ready source identification system based on time and wind direction resolved sampling is described.

  8. How to conquer air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, H. . Faculty of Engineering)

    1989-01-01

    Many parts of the world suffer from urban air pollution and, despite the vast amount of knowledge about its causes, most countries are slow to implement counter-measures. An exception is Tokyo which, once blanketed in a mantle of smog, now enjoys clean air in spite of highly concentrated activity and congested traffic. Based on the successful Japanese experience, this book describes all aspects of the measures necessary to combat air pollution. It begins with a well-documented history of the fight against air pollution and describes the processes and mechanisms of reaching a social consensus on pollution control. The essential steps in the process are the establishment of ambient air quality standards, the introduction of the total allowable mass of emission, and the legal control of each emission based on diffusion equations. The scientific background to this approach is explained, from epidemiology to computer simulations of air quality. An up-to-date account of emission control technology is also given, and the controversial issue of health damage compensation is examined, based on actual experience.

  9. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

  10. [Air pollution and population health].

    PubMed

    Kristoforović-Ilić, Miroslava; Ilić, Miroslav

    2006-10-01

    In the last few decades, there has been increased population concern for quality of environment, for it is, after life style, the second risk factor of disease development. Particular problem is that a large majority of serious impairments of health is manifested only after a long latent period, so it is not always possible to establish clear association with environmental factors. It is considered today that around 40% of lethal cases are caused by polluted environment in various ways, while environment is the most important etiologic factor in 5% of disease incidence. Problems arising due to environment pollution are most frequently related to air pollution. The World Resource Institute, Washington, has developed the indicators for evaluation of risk of environment pollution to population health. There is one common indicator both for developed and developing countries--air pollution. EPA recommended new standards for some polluting substances. The document reviewed these standards and their implementation in our community. New Law on Environment Protection ("Official Gazette of RS" No. 135/2004) from December 20th, 2004, followed by relevant documents on air quality, should be beneficial to experts at the level of subtle diagnostics and proposal of adequate measures with a view to improve the quality of life.

  11. Air pollution and plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Treshow, M.

    1984-01-01

    The publication of this volume could hardly have been more timely, for concern about the damage to plants from air pollution has grown rapidly in the last few years. The book comprises eighteen chapters by contributors of high repute. Three early chapters deal with Dispersion and Fate of Atmospheric Pollutants, Long Range Transport and Monitoring Levels and Effects of Air Pollutants. They provide essential reading for those working on effects in the field, and they set the scene for a contribution from the Volume Editor on the problems of diagnosis. The central chapters (7 to 11) provide, in considerable depth, a summary of the knowledge of the mechanism of action of pollutants on plants, in terms of physiology, biochemistry, and ultrastructure. Particularly valuable is the essay entitled Impact of Air Pollutant Combinations on Plants, which concludes that even though few generalizations are possible, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest that interactions between some pollutants (e.g. SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/) may seriously damage some plants.

  12. [Air pollution and population health].

    PubMed

    Kristoforović-Ilić, Miroslava; Ilić, Miroslav

    2006-10-01

    In the last few decades, there has been increased population concern for quality of environment, for it is, after life style, the second risk factor of disease development. Particular problem is that a large majority of serious impairments of health is manifested only after a long latent period, so it is not always possible to establish clear association with environmental factors. It is considered today that around 40% of lethal cases are caused by polluted environment in various ways, while environment is the most important etiologic factor in 5% of disease incidence. Problems arising due to environment pollution are most frequently related to air pollution. The World Resource Institute, Washington, has developed the indicators for evaluation of risk of environment pollution to population health. There is one common indicator both for developed and developing countries--air pollution. EPA recommended new standards for some polluting substances. The document reviewed these standards and their implementation in our community. New Law on Environment Protection ("Official Gazette of RS" No. 135/2004) from December 20th, 2004, followed by relevant documents on air quality, should be beneficial to experts at the level of subtle diagnostics and proposal of adequate measures with a view to improve the quality of life. PMID:18172966

  13. Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly.

  14. Chronic Effects of Air Pollution are Probably Overestimated.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2015-05-01

    Inappropriate measures of exposure, including inadequate consideration of latency in the analysis of chronic effects of air pollution, may lead to overestimation of the impact of air pollution on health effects. A relatively simple way to check the plausibility of results on chronic effects of air pollution would be to report in parallel the smoking-associated risks.

  15. Air pollution assessment on city of Tirana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandija, F.; Zoga, P.

    2012-04-01

    concentrations and meteorological parameters, and so to estimate their contribution on air pollution situation in this city. Overall measurement results indicate a critical situation of air pollution in this city, where pollutant concentrations exceed international recommendations. Because of in Albania these types of studies are very rare; the air pollution assessment in the capital city Tirana has an enormous importance not only for this city but also in general for entire the country.

  16. In Brief: Air pollution app

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled “Visibility.” Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the application is available for free download at http://robotics.usc.edu/˜mobilesensing/Projects/AirVisibilityMonitoring. An iPhone application may be introduced soon. Smartphone users can take a picture of the sky and then compare it with models of sky luminance to estimate visibility. While conventional air pollution monitors are costly and thinly deployed in some areas, the smartphone application potentially could help fill in some blanks in existing air pollution maps, according to USC computer science professor Gaurav Sukhatme.

  17. Lung cancer and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Aoki, K; Shimizu, H

    1977-12-01

    The relationship between incidence of lung cancer and the volume of traffic as indicated by auto exhaust concentration was examined; the results, though suggestive, did not yield consistent evidence of the association between them. Traffic jams in Nagoya began 15 years ago, a period that may not be long enough to provide definitive data on the incidence of lung cancer. The high standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of lung cancer was observed in cities with a population of less than 1 million and guns (rural areas) along the coast, although those in the metropolitan areas with populations of more than 1 million were average. The SMR did not correlate with various socioeconomic conditions and industrial air pollution. Meteorologic or geologic conditions and ocean currents were not associated with SMR of lung cancer by city and gun. The population of a gun or of some cities was not large enough to be statistically significant, and the mortality rate of lung cancer was not always stable.

  18. Indoor air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A major contribution of the pediatrician is to help families rank the multitude of pollutants according to their known risk for child health. Elimination of household smoking and completely effective venting of indoor heating devices are beneficial to all and mandatory in homes of allergic children. Acute releases of NO/sub 2/ by gas ranges and ovens may be a significant factor in an increased incidence of respiratory infection, especially in children under two years. Despite intensive investigation, immunosuppressive and other health effects have not been defined for indoor levels of PBBs, PCBs, and related halogenated hydrocarbons. The analytic ability to determine nanomolar concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals opens a Pandora's box of inquiry. New methods, particularly immunologic, are urgently needed to quantitate the dose response to multiple combinations of chemicals and determine their significance for the health of the tight-box generation of children. 136 references.

  19. [Air pollution and asthma in childhood].

    PubMed

    Latzin, Philipp

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to outdoor air pollutants and passive tobacco smoke are common but avoidable worldwide risk factors for morbidity and mortality of individuals. In addition to well-known effects of pollutants on the cardiovascular system and the development of cancer, in recent years the association between air pollution and respiratory morbidity has become increasingly apparent. Not only in adults, but also in children with asthma and in healthy children a clear harmful effect of exposure towards air pollutants has been demonstrated in many studies. Among others increased pollution has been shown to result in more frequent and more severe respiratory symptoms, more frequent exacerbations, higher need for asthma medication, poorer lung function and increased visits to the emergency department and more frequent hospitalisations. While these associations are well established, the available data on the role of air pollution in the development of asthma seems less clear. Some studies have shown that increased exposure towards tobacco smoke and air pollution leads to an increase in asthma incidence and prevalence; others were not able to confirm those findings. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are different definitions of the outcome asthma, different methods for exposure estimation and differences in the populations studied with differing underlying genetic backgrounds. Regardless of this inconsistency, several mechanisms have already been identified linking air pollution with asthma development. Among these are impaired lung growth and development, immunological changes, genetic or epigenetic effects or increased predisposition for allergic sensitisation. What the exact interactions are and which asthmatic phenotypes will be influenced most by pollutants will be shown by future studies. This knowledge will then be helpful in exploring possible preventive measures for the individual and to help policy makers in deciding upon most appropriate regulations on a population

  20. Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Joe O.

    Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology…

  1. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Barry A; Brook, Robert; Arden Pope, C

    2015-05-01

    An escalating body of epidemiologic and clinical research provides compelling evidence that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease and the triggering of acute cardiac events. There are 3 potential mediating pathways that have been implicated, including "systemic spillover," autonomic imbalance, and circulating particulate matter constituents. Further support that the increased morbidity and mortality attributed to air pollution comes from studies demonstrating the adverse cardiovascular effects of even brief periods of exposure to secondhand smoke. Accordingly, persons with known or suspected cardiovascular disease, the elderly, diabetic patients, pregnant women, and those with pulmonary disease should be counseled to limit leisure-time outdoor activities when air pollution is high. Recognizing the insidious and pervasive nature of air pollution, and the associated odds ratios and population attributable fractions for this widely underappreciated chemical trigger of acute cardiovascular events, may serve to maximize the potential for cardiovascular risk reduction by addressing at least a portion of the 10%-25% incidence of coronary disease that is unexplained by traditional risk factors.

  2. Air Pollution Control, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,…

  3. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  4. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  5. Air pollution and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Böhm, G M

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence proves conclusively that lung cancer correlates with air pollution. However, data on lung cancer death rates and smoking show that mankind accepts the risk of long-term and low-level exposure to carcinogens. As a rule, immediate benefits are sought and remote hazards ignored. Fear of atmospheric contamination by radioactive fallout seems to be the main factor for awareness of air pollution. Experimental works help us to understand physics of particle deposition in the lungs (inertial impactation, sedimentation, Brownian movement), shed light on carcinogenesis (eg, bay region theory in case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and surface charge changes regarding asbestos), show that atmospheric particulates accepted as harmless may act as co-carcinogens (eg, iron and benzo(a)pyrene) and stress the importance of in vitro researches (bacterial mutation tests, organ cultures, sister chromatid exchange system) to screen pollutants for their malignant potential and study their pathogenesis.

  6. Air pollution and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence proves conclusively that lung cancer correlates with air pollution. However, data on lung cancer death rates and smoking show that mankind accepts the risk of long-term and low-level exposure to carcinogens. As a rule, immediate benefits are sought and remote hazards ignored. Fear of atmospheric contamination by radioactive fallout seems to be the main factor for awareness of air pollution. Experimental works help us to understand physics of particle deposition in the lungs (inertial impactation, sedimentation, Brownian movement), shed light on carcinogenesis (eg, bay region theory in case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and surface charge changes regarding asbestos), show that atmospheric particulates accepted as harmless may act as co-carcinogens (eg, iron and benzo(a)pyrene) and stress the importance of in vitro research (bacterial mutation tests, organ cultures, sister chromatid exchange system) to screen pollutants for their malignant potential and study their pathogenesis.

  7. Air pollution in mega cities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    Due to its rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments, China is currently considered to be the engine of the world's economic growth. China's economic growth has been accompanied by an expansion of the urban area population and the emergence of a number of mega cities since the 1990. This expansion has resulted in tremendous increases in energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants and the number of poor air quality days in mega cities and their immediate vicinities. Air pollution has become one of the top environmental concerns in China. Currently, Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta region including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, and their immediate vicinities are the most economically vibrant regions in China. They accounted for about 20% of the total GDP in China in 2005. These are also areas where many air pollution studies have been conducted, especially over the last 6 years. Based on these previous studies, this review presents the current state of understanding of the air pollution problems in China's mega cities and identifies the immediate challenges to understanding and controlling air pollution in these densely populated areas.

  8. Outdoor air pollution and human infertility: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Checa Vizcaíno, Miguel A; González-Comadran, Mireia; Jacquemin, Benedicte

    2016-09-15

    Air pollution is a current research priority because of its adverse effects on human health, including on fertility. However, the mechanisms through which air pollution impairs fertility remain unclear. In this article, we perform a systematic review to evaluate currently available evidence on the impact of air pollution on fertility in humans. Several studies have assessed the impact of air pollutants on the general population, and have found reduced fertility rates and increased risk of miscarriage. In subfertile patients, women exposed to higher concentrations of air pollutants while undergoing IVF showed lower live birth rates and higher rates of miscarriage. After exposure to similar levels of air pollutants, comparable results have been found regardless of the mode of conception (IVF versus spontaneous conception), suggesting that infertile women are not more susceptible to the effects of pollutants than the general population. In addition, previous studies have not observed impaired embryo quality after exposure to air pollution, although evidence for this question is sparse.

  9. Characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China: Comparison of three air quality indices.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Wang, Yungang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-11-01

    Multi-pollutant air pollution (i.e., several pollutants reaching very high concentrations simultaneously) frequently occurs in many regions across China. Air quality index (AQI) is used worldwide to inform the public about levels of air pollution and associated health risks. The current AQI approach used in China is based on the maximum value of individual pollutants, and does not consider the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants. In this study, two novel alternative indices--aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI)--were calculated based on data collected in six megacities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shjiazhuang, Xi'an, and Wuhan) during 2013 to 2014. Both AAQI and HAQI take into account the combined health effects of various pollutants, and the HAQI considers the exposure (or concentration)-response relationships of pollutants. AAQI and HAQI were compared to AQI to examine the effectiveness of the current AQI in characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China. The AAQI and HAQI values are higher than the AQI on days when two or more pollutants simultaneously exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) 24-hour Grade II standards. The results of the comparison of the classification of risk categories based on the three indices indicate that the current AQI approach underestimates the severity of health risk associated with exposure to multi-pollutant air pollution. For the AQI-based risk category of 'unhealthy', 96% and 80% of the days would be 'very unhealthy' or 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively; and for the AQI-based risk category of 'very unhealthy', 67% and 75% of the days would be 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively. The results suggest that the general public, especially sensitive population groups such as children and the elderly, should take more stringent actions than those currently suggested based on the AQI approach during

  10. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 30,2016 ... or Longer-Term Acute short-term effects of air pollution tend to strike people who are elderly or ...

  11. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  12. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  13. Healthy Neighborhoods: Walkability and Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Julian D.; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D.

    2009-01-01

    Background The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure. Methods We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O3) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were estimated from a land-use regression model, O3 was estimated from ambient monitoring data; walkability was calculated based on geographic attributes such as land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density. Results All three attributes exhibit an urban–rural gradient, with high walkability and NO concentrations, and low O3 concentrations, near the city center. Lower-income areas tend to have higher NO concentrations and walkability and lower O3 concentrations. Higher-income areas tend to have lower pollution (NO and O3). “Sweet-spot” neighborhoods (low pollution, high walkability) are generally located near but not at the city center and are almost exclusively higher income. Policy implications Increased concentration of activities in urban settings yields both health costs and benefits. Our research identifies neighborhoods that do especially well (and especially poorly) for walkability and air pollution exposure. Work is needed to ensure that the poor do not bear an undue burden of urban air pollution and that neighborhoods designed for walking, bicycling, or mass transit do not adversely affect resident’s exposure to air pollution. Analyses presented here could be replicated in other cities and tracked over time to better understand interactions among neighborhood walkability, air pollution exposure, and income level. PMID:20049128

  14. Chemical air pollutants and otorhinolaryngeal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bisesi, M.S.; Rubin, A.M. . Occupational Health and Otolaryngology)

    1994-03-01

    Air pollution and the specific issue regarding the impact of airborne chemical agents to human health are familiar topics to most members of the environmental health science and environmental medicine communities. Some aspects, however, have received relatively less attention. Much has been published regarding the impact of air pollutants on the human upper and lower respiratory system, including interaction with the rhinologic (nasal) system. Relatively fewer data have been published, however, regarding the potential impact of air pollutants in reference specifically to the otologic (auditory and vestibular) and the laryngeal (larynx) system. Adverse impact to the ears, nose and throat, referred to as the otorhinolaryngeal system'', warrants attention as an important environmental health issue. Toxic interactions from exposure to many chemical air pollutants not only causes potential respiratory irritation and lung disease, but can also result in impaired hearing, balance, sense of smell, taste, and speech due to interaction with related target systems. This may be significant to environmental health risk assessment of chemical air pollutants if multi-target site models are considered.

  15. The EMECAM project: a multicentre study on air pollution and mortality in Spain: combined results for particulates and for sulfur dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, F; Saez, M; Perez-Hoyos, S; Iniguez, C; Gandarillas, A; Tobias, A; Bellido, J; Taracido, M; Arribas, F; Daponte, A; Alonso, E; Canada, A; Guillen-Grima, F; Cirera, L; Perez-Boillos, M; Saurina, C; Gomez, F; Tenias, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The EMECAM study is a collaborative effort to evaluate the impact of air pollution on mortality in Spain. In this paper the combined results are presented for the short term effects of particulates and sulfur dioxide on both daily mortality for all and for specific causes. Methods: The relation between daily mortality for all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases, and air pollution for particulates (daily concentrations) and SO2 (24 and 1 hour concentrations) was assessed in 13 Spanish cities for the period 1990–6. With a standardised method, magnitude of association in each city was estimated by Poisson regression in a generalised additive model. Local estimates were obtained from both single and two pollutant analyses. Lastly, combined estimates for each cause and pollutant were obtained. Results: For combined results, in single pollutant models a 10 µg/m3 increase in the concentration of the mean of the concurrent and one day lag for black smoke was associated with a 0.8% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.4 to 1.1%) increase in total mortality. The estimates for total suspended particles (TSPs) and particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10) and total mortality were slightly lower. The same increase in concentrations of SO2 was associated with a 0.5% increase in daily deaths. For groups of specific causes, higher estimations were found, specially for respiratory conditions. Peak concentrations of SO2 showed significant associations with the three groups of mortality. When two pollutant analyses were performed, estimates for particulates, specially for black smoke, did not substantially change. The estimates for daily concentrations of SO2 were greatly reduced, but, on the contrary, the association with peak concentrations of SO2 did not show any change. Conclusions: There is an association between mortality and pollution through particulates among city populations in Spain. Peak rather than daily concentrations

  16. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  17. The Crisis in Air Pollution Manpower Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Dade W.

    1974-01-01

    Three studies conducted by the National Air Pollution Manpower Development Advisory Committee concluded there is a crisis in air pollution manpower development within the United States today. The studies investigated the existing federal manpower program, air pollution educational requirements and the quality of graduate level university programs.…

  18. Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air…

  19. Air pollution and brain damage.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Azzarelli, Biagio; Acuna, Hilda; Garcia, Raquel; Gambling, Todd M; Osnaya, Norma; Monroy, Sylvia; DEL Tizapantzi, Maria Rosario; Carson, Johnny L; Villarreal-Calderon, Anna; Rewcastle, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures of air pollutants produces inflammation in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Because the nasal cavity is a common portal of entry, respiratory and olfactory epithelia are vulnerable targets for toxicological damage. This study has evaluated, by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kappaB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosae, olfactory bulb, and cortical and subcortical structures from 32 healthy mongrel canine residents in Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), a highly polluted urban region. Findings were compared to those in 8 dogs from Tlaxcala, a less polluted, control city. In SWMMC dogs, expression of nuclear neuronal NF-kappaB and iNOS in cortical endothelial cells occurred at ages 2 and 4 weeks; subsequent damage included alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), degenerating cortical neurons, apoptotic glial white matter cells, deposition of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-positive lipid droplets in smooth muscle cells and pericytes, nonneuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Persistent pulmonary inflammation and deteriorating olfactory and respiratory barriers may play a role in the neuropathology observed in the brains of these highly exposed canines. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's may begin early in life with air pollutants playing a crucial role.

  20. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited. PMID:25115476

  1. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  2. Transport and urban air pollution in India.

    PubMed

    Badami, Madhav G

    2005-08-01

    The rapid growth in motor vehicle activity in India and other rapidly industrializing low-income countries is contributing to high levels of urban air pollution, among other adverse socioeconomic, environmental, health, and welfare impacts. This paper first discusses the local, regional, and global impacts associated with air pollutant emissions resulting from motor vehicle activity, and the technological, behavioral, and institutional factors that have contributed to these emissions, in India. The paper then discusses some implementation issues related to various policy measures that have been undertaken, and the challenges of the policy context. Finally, the paper presents insights and lessons based on the recent Indian experience, for better understanding and more effectively addressing the transport air pollution problem in India and similar countries, in a way that is sensitive to their needs, capabilities, and constraints.

  3. Air pollutant transport in a street canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Luke Chen; Hsu-Cheng Chang

    1996-12-31

    An air pollutant (CO) distribution in a typical street canyon is simulated to evaluate pedestrian exposure. In this study, we consider factors those may affect the pollutant distribution in a typical street canyon. The considered factors include aspect ratio of a street canyon, atmospheric stability, traffic load and turbulent buoyancy effect. A two-dimensional domain that includes suburban roughness and urban street canyon is considered. The factors such as atmospheric stability, traffic load and turbulent buoyancy are imposed through the associated boundary conditions. With numerical simulation, the critical aspect ration of a street canyon the includes two vortices and results in pollutant accumulation are found. The buoyant effect is found to raise the same pollutant concentration up to the position higher than the results come out from the case without buoyancy. The pedestrian exposure to the street air pollutant under various traffic loads and atmospheric stability are evaluated. This study conclude that the local building regulations that specify the building height/street width ratio will not cause significant pedestrian exposure to the street air pollution in most of traffic loads and atmospheric stability conditions.

  4. A multi-year study of air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in three New York State metropolitan areas: results for 1988 and 1989 summers.

    PubMed

    Thurston, G D; Ito, K; Kinney, P L; Lippmann, M

    1992-01-01

    As part of a multi-year study of air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in the Buffalo, Albany, and New York City, New York, metropolitan areas, filter samples were collected daily at suburban air monitoring sites and analyzed for their content of particulate phase aerosol strong acidity (i.e., hydrogen ion, H+) and sulfate (SO4 = ). In addition, daily hospital admissions for respiratory causes, other community air pollutant measurements (e.g., ozone, O3), and meteorological data (e.g., temperature) were also obtained for these metropolitan areas. The summer months (June-August) were selected for analysis because that is when the highest H+ (and O3) are usually experienced at these sites, and because these months are rarely complicated by other major influences (e.g., high pollen counts). Thus, any pollution-admissions relationships were expected to be most clearly discernible in this season. Prior to the health effects analysis, the summer admissions and environmental data were first detrended to eliminate long-wave autocorrelations, and day-of-week effects were removed via regression. Cross-correlations of the filtered 1988 and 1989 admissions and environmental data revealed strong associations between elevated summer haze pollution (i.e., H+, SO4 =, and O3) and increased total respiratory and asthma admissions on the same day and/or on subsequent days in Buffalo and New York City, especially during the summer of 1988 (when pollution levels were more extreme). Regression analyses indicated that the pollution-admissions associations remained significant (p < 0.05) even after the simultaneous inclusion of lagged daily maximum temperature. Mean effects calculations for these cities indicated that summertime haze can play a significant role in the occurrence of respiratory admissions in that season: accounting for an average 6 to 24% of 1988 Buffalo and NYC asthma admissions (depending on the pollutant index employed). O3 consistently had the highest mean

  5. Dependence of urban air pollutants on meteorology.

    PubMed

    Elminir, Hamdy K

    2005-11-01

    Dependence of air pollutants on meteorology is presented with the aim of understanding the governing processes pollutants phase interaction. Intensive measurements of particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous materials (e.g., CO, NO2, SO2, and O3) are carried out regularly in 2002 at 14 measurement sites distributed over the whole territory of Great Cairo by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency to assess the characteristics of air pollutants. The discussions in this work are based upon measurements performed at Abbassiya site as a case study. The nature of the contributing sources has been investigated and some attempts have been made to indicate the role played by neighboring regions in determining the air quality at the site mentioned. The results hint that, wind direction was found to have an influence not only on pollutant concentrations but also on the correlation between pollutants. As expected, the pollutants associated with traffic were at highest ambient concentration levels when wind speed was low. At higher wind speeds, dust and sand from the surrounding desert was entrained by the wind, thus contributing to ambient particulate matter levels. We also found that, the highest average concentration for NO2 and O3 occurred at humidity

  6. Air Pollution and Control Legislation in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P Bhave, Prashant; Kulkarni, Nikhil

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution in urban areas arises from multiple sources, which may vary with location and developmental activities. Anthropogenic activities as rampant industrialization, exploitation and over consumption of natural resources, ever growing population size are major contributors of air pollution. The presented review is an effort to discuss various aspects of air pollution and control legislation in India emphasizing on the history, present scenario, international treaties, gaps and drawbacks. The review also presents legislative controls with judicial response to certain landmark judgments related to air pollution. The down sides related to enforcement mechanism for the effective implementation of environmental laws for air pollution control have been highlighted.

  7. Epidemiology of air pollution and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thiering, Elisabeth; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution affects a large proportion of the global population. Air pollutants are hypothesized to exert their effects via impaired endothelial function, elevated systemic inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, all of which are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we review epidemiological studies aimed at answering whether diabetes patients are more vulnerable to ambient (outdoor) air pollution exposure and whether air pollution is associated with diabetes development or other predisposing conditions for T2D. Current evidence suggests an association between air pollution exposure and T2D, but more critical analysis is warranted. Understanding the associations between air pollution exposure and the development of T2D is critical in our efforts to control sources of air pollution and their impact on the disease.

  8. Impact of air pollutants on athletic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E. )

    1989-05-01

    Human controlled and observational studies both lead to the conclusion of air pollution adversely affecting athletic performance during training and competition. The dosage of various air pollutants during exercise is much higher due to the marked increase in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. This is particularly true for sulfur dioxide which is a highly water-soluble gas and is normally absorbed in the upper airway during nasal breathing. With heavy exercise, oral pharyngeal breathing is the predominant mode of breathing and much larger amounts of sulfur dioxide are delivered to the lower airway resulting in significant impact upon the lower respiratory tract. More recently, several controlled human studies have shown that a combination of exercise and air pollutants such as ozone (O3) or sulfur dioxides (SO2) cause a significant increase in bronchoconstriction and air flow obstruction when compared to the same exposure at rest. In strenuous athletic competition such as the Olympic Games where small increments of time often determine the ultimate success of athletes, the impact of air pollutants and subsequent adverse ventilatory changes can affect athletic performance. 62 references.

  9. Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

  10. Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

    2007-05-01

    forest under strong demographic pressure and under heavy impact of air pollution. Flow patterns induced by complex terrain in the center of Mexico induce strong interaction between the mega city and the rural areas in the Mexico Basin. In and out mesoscale transport to and from the neighboring valleys with cities already larger than one million inhabitants increase the complexity of air pollution processes. Fast urbanization in these valleys suggests even more complicated and full of concerns scenarios. Some recent results on these issues will be shown.

  11. Air pollution control in the Mexico City Metropolitan area. Results for the short-term program. Consolidated final report (revised). Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The report represents the efforts of teams of experts from Mexico, Germany, France, and the United States in the area of air pollution control for the Mexico City metropolitan area. Specific tasks performed were: emissions data analysis; air quality monitoring program; control measure evaluation; and air quality modelling and analysis.

  12. [Molybdenum as an air pollutant].

    PubMed

    Lindner, R; Junker, E; Hoheiser, H

    1990-07-01

    Investigations into the reasons for the retarded growth and discolouration of a small area of a field of rape situated on the outskirts of Vienna revealed higher than normal levels of molybdenum in the soil (up to 430 micrograms/l) and in the water (up to 9.7 mg/l). The source of the pollution was traced to a neighbouring industrial plant that was emitting the metal via the chimney stack. A review of the literature on the toxic effects of molybdenum in general and as an air pollutant in particular is provided. This shows that, in contrast to animals, this effect is relatively small in humans and plants. Nevertheless, the occupation-related inhalation of the metal has been shown to be associated with pneumoconiosis and gout-like symptoms.

  13. Air pollution measurements from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, C. B.; Griggs, M.; Malkmus, W.; Bartle, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study is presented on the remote sensing of gaseous and particulate air pollutants which is an extension of a previous report. Pollutants can be observed by either active or passive remote sensing systems. Calculations discussed herein indicate that tropospheric CO, CO2, SO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, and CH4 can be measured by means of nadir looking passive systems. Additional species such as NO, HNO3, O3, and H2O may be measured in the stratosphere through a horizon experiment. A brief theoretical overview of resonance Raman scattering and resonance fluorescence is given. It is found that radiance measurements are most promising for general global applications, and that stratospheric aerosols may be measured using a sun occultation technique. The instrumentation requirements for both active and passive systems are examined and various instruments now under development are described.

  14. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Scientists and engineers in the Indoor Air Brand of EPS'a Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory are conducting research to increase the state of knowledge concerning indoor air pollution factors. A three phase program is being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to show how their approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Pollutants from two sources are examined: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters.

  15. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2003-06-01

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O(x), SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts.

  16. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  17. Air pollution, acid rain and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mellanby, K.

    1988-01-01

    This book reports on the Watt Committee's working group on acid rain, which was set up in 1981. The authors consider the relationship between natural and the man-made factors and the effects of possible remedial strategies. In the first phase of the study, the group looked at the fate of airborne pollution, vegetation and soils, freshwater and remedial strategy. In this report, which contains the results of a further phase of study, these topics are included and have been brought up to date. The scope of the report is extended to include buildings and non-living materials. Consideration is given to the problem of acid rain and air pollution worldwide. Emphasis is placed on the United Kingdom. The main conclusion is that more research is necessary on some aspects of acid rain and air pollution, but that some of the reports widespread damage caused by acid rain cannot be confirmed.

  18. Effects of particulate matter exposure on blood 5-hydroxymethylation: results from the Beijing truck driver air pollution study.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Guerra, Marco; Zheng, Yinan; Osorio-Yanez, Citlalli; Zhong, Jia; Chervona, Yana; Wang, Sheng; Chang, Dou; McCracken, John P; Díaz, Anaite; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Koutrakis, Petros; Kang, Choong-Min; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Byun, Hyang-Min; Schwartz, Joel; Hou, Lifang; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported epigenetic changes induced by environmental exposures. However, previous investigations did not distinguish 5-methylcytosine (5mC) from a similar oxidative form with opposite functions, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Here, we measured blood DNA global 5mC and 5hmC by ELISA and used adjusted mixed-effects regression models to evaluate the effects of ambient PM10 and personal PM2.5 and its elemental components-black carbon (BC), aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), iron (Fe), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), titanium (Ti), and zinc (Zn)-on blood global 5mC and 5hmC levels. The study was conducted in 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers in Beijing, China from The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study at 2 exams separated by one to 2 weeks. Blood 5hmC level (0.08%) was ∼83-fold lower than 5mC (6.61%). An inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in same-day PM10 was associated with increases in 5hmC of 26.1% in office workers (P = 0.004), 20.2% in truck drivers (P = 0.014), and 21.9% in all participants combined (P < 0.001). PM10 effects on 5hmC were increasingly stronger when averaged over 4, 7, and 14 d preceding assessment (up to 132.6% for the 14-d average in all participants, P < 0.001). PM10 effects were also significant after controlling for multiple testing (family-wise error rate; FWER < 0.05). 5hmC was not correlated with personal measures of PM2.5 and elemental components (FWER > 0.05). 5mC showed no correlations with PM10, PM2.5, and elemental components measures (FWER > 0.05). Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM10 affects 5hmC over time, but not 5mC. This finding demonstrates the need to differentiate 5hmC and 5mC in environmental studies of DNA methylation.

  19. Effects of particulate matter exposure on blood 5-hydroxymethylation: results from the Beijing truck driver air pollution study.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Guerra, Marco; Zheng, Yinan; Osorio-Yanez, Citlalli; Zhong, Jia; Chervona, Yana; Wang, Sheng; Chang, Dou; McCracken, John P; Díaz, Anaite; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Koutrakis, Petros; Kang, Choong-Min; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Byun, Hyang-Min; Schwartz, Joel; Hou, Lifang; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported epigenetic changes induced by environmental exposures. However, previous investigations did not distinguish 5-methylcytosine (5mC) from a similar oxidative form with opposite functions, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Here, we measured blood DNA global 5mC and 5hmC by ELISA and used adjusted mixed-effects regression models to evaluate the effects of ambient PM10 and personal PM2.5 and its elemental components-black carbon (BC), aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), iron (Fe), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), titanium (Ti), and zinc (Zn)-on blood global 5mC and 5hmC levels. The study was conducted in 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers in Beijing, China from The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study at 2 exams separated by one to 2 weeks. Blood 5hmC level (0.08%) was ∼83-fold lower than 5mC (6.61%). An inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in same-day PM10 was associated with increases in 5hmC of 26.1% in office workers (P = 0.004), 20.2% in truck drivers (P = 0.014), and 21.9% in all participants combined (P < 0.001). PM10 effects on 5hmC were increasingly stronger when averaged over 4, 7, and 14 d preceding assessment (up to 132.6% for the 14-d average in all participants, P < 0.001). PM10 effects were also significant after controlling for multiple testing (family-wise error rate; FWER < 0.05). 5hmC was not correlated with personal measures of PM2.5 and elemental components (FWER > 0.05). 5mC showed no correlations with PM10, PM2.5, and elemental components measures (FWER > 0.05). Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM10 affects 5hmC over time, but not 5mC. This finding demonstrates the need to differentiate 5hmC and 5mC in environmental studies of DNA methylation. PMID:25970091

  20. The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been interpreted to imply that tens of thousands of Americans are killed annually by small daily increments in PM. These epidemiology studies and their interpretations have been challenged, although it is accepted that high concentrations of air pollutants have claimed many lives in the past. Although reproducible and statistically significant, the relative risks associated with modern PM are very small and confounded by many factors. Neither toxicology studies nor human clinical investigations have identified the components and/or characteristics of PM that might be causing the health-effect associations. Currently, a massive worldwide research effort is under way in an attempt to identify whom might be harmed and by what substances and mechanisms. Finding the answers is important, because control measures have the potential not only to be costly but also to limit the availability of goods and services that are important to public health. PMID:19330148

  1. Health impact of air pollution to children.

    PubMed

    Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Dostal, Miroslav; Merkerova-Dostalova, Michaela; Libalova, Helena; Milcova, Alena; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Schmuczerova, Jana; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavova, Hana

    2013-08-01

    Health impact of air pollution to children was studied over the last twenty years in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during. The research program (Teplice Program) analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Study of pregnancy outcomes for newborns delivered between 1994 and 1998 demonstrated that increase in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with PM10 and c-PAHs exposure (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first month of gestation. Morbidity was followed in the cohort of newborns (N=1492) up to the age of 10years. Coal combustion in homes was associated with increased incidence of lower respiratory track illness and impaired early childhood skeletal growth up to the age of 3years. In preschool children, we observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs on development of bronchitis. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is characterized by high concentrations of c-PAHs due to industrial air pollution. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in the EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct molecular phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, two locations with different levels of pollution in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were also elevated in cord blood in Ceske Budejovice in comparison to Prague. Study of gene expression profiles in the cord blood showed

  2. Transboundary air Pollution in Peruvian Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis, S.; Luis, C.

    2007-05-01

    Biomass burning in the tropics is an important source of pollution to the atmosphere with different and not well understood consequences to the climate and the atmospheric chemistry. Burning over Amazonia is related mainly to land use cover change. During the dry season (May to November) high amount of fires are produced in Amazonia. The resulting pollutants under some conditions could produce tropospheric ozone, which reaches long distances far from the sources, the same occurs with aerosols, both could be detected by ground and satellite measurements. The work focused on the transboundary air pollution between Brazil and Peru during the last years. In this sense, this research determines the seasonal variations and the spatial coverage of this pollution in Peruvian Amazonia. We used satellite data and ground measurements to make a detailed evaluation of the transport and production of pollutants (tropospheric ozone and aerosols) related to biomass burning in order to quantify the levels of pollution based on tropospheric ozone and aerosol index and optical depth. Also, we evaluate the climatology of fires detected by satellites. It is expected that the results will provide basic information to policy makers about possible effects of this pollution in the natural resources of Peru. Also, we will provide the scientific basis for the National Program for Prevention of Forest Fires.

  3. CRITICAL HEALTH ISSUES OF CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter summarizes the key health information on ubiquitous outdoor air pollutants that can cause adverse health effects at current or historical ambient levels in the United States. Of the thousands of air pollutants, very few meet this definition. The Clean Air Act (CA...

  4. Airplanes on Air Pollution: Discover-AQ

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's launching a new mission, summer 2011, designed to gather data on air pollution and help expand our understanding of how it affects us, and that could allow pollutants to be monitored more pr...

  5. Air pollution modifies floral scent trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFrederick, Quinn S.; Kathilankal, James C.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    Floral hydrocarbons provide essential signals to attract pollinators. As soon as they are emitted to the atmosphere, however, hydrocarbons are destroyed by chemical reactions involving pollutants such as ozone. It is therefore likely that increased air pollution interferes with pollinator attracting hydrocarbon signals. To test this hypothesis, a Lagrangian diffusion model was used to determine the position of air parcels away from hydrocarbon sources and to estimate the rate of chemical destruction of hydrocarbons as air parcels moved across the landscape. The hydrocarbon compounds linalool, β-myrcene, and β-ocimene were chosen because they are known to be common scents released from flowers. The suppressed ambient abundances of volatile organic compounds were determined in response to increased regional levels of ozone, hydroxyl, and nitrate radicals. The results indicate that the documented increases in air pollution concentrations, from pre-industrial to present times, can lead to reductions in volatile compound concentrations insects detect as they pollinate flowers. For highly reactive volatiles the maximum downwind distance from the source at which pollinators can detect the scents may have changed from kilometers during pre-industrial times to <200 m during the more polluted conditions of present times. The increased destruction of floral signals in polluted air masses may have important implications for both pollinators and signaling plants. When patches of flowers are further apart than the visual range of pollinators, such as in fragmented landscapes, the loss of scent signals may mean that pollinators spend more time searching for patches and less time foraging. This decrease in pollinator foraging efficiency will simultaneously decrease the pollinator's reproductive output and the amount of pollen flow in flowering plants.

  6. Hazardous air pollutants and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Leikauf, George D

    2002-01-01

    Asthma has a high prevalence in the United States, and persons with asthma may be at added risk from the adverse effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Complex mixtures (fine particulate matter and tobacco smoke) have been associated with respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions for asthma. The toxic ingredients of these mixtures are HAPs, but whether ambient HAP exposures can induce asthma remains unclear. Certain HAPs are occupational asthmagens, whereas others may act as adjuncts during sensitization. HAPs may exacerbate asthma because, once sensitized, individuals can respond to remarkably low concentrations, and irritants lower the bronchoconstrictive threshold to respiratory antigens. Adverse responses after ambient exposures to complex mixtures often occur at concentrations below those producing effects in controlled human exposures to a single compound. In addition, certain HAPs that have been associated with asthma in occupational settings may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. Based on these observations and past experience with 188 HAPs, a list of 19 compounds that could have the highest impact on the induction or exacerbation of asthma was developed. Nine additional compounds were identified that might exacerbate asthma based on their irritancy, respirability, or ability to react with biological macromolecules. Although the ambient levels of these 28 compounds are largely unknown, estimated exposures from emissions inventories and limited air monitoring suggest that aldehydes (especially acrolein and formaldehyde) and metals (especially nickel and chromium compounds) may have possible health risk indices sufficient for additional attention. Recommendations for research are presented regarding exposure monitoring and evaluation of biologic mechanisms controlling how these substances induce and exacerbate asthma. PMID:12194881

  7. Predictions of thermal comfort and pollutant distributions for a thermostatically-controlled, air-conditioned, partitioned room: Numerical results and enhanced graphical presentation

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.D.; Eyler, L.L.

    1989-05-01

    An index of local thermal comfort and pollutant distributions have been computed with the TEMPEST computer code, in a transient simulation of an air-conditioned enclosure with an incomplete partition. This complex three-dimensional air conditioning problem included forced ventilation through inlet veins, flow through a partition, remote return air vents, and infiltration source, a pollutant source, and a thermostatically controlled air conditioning system. Five forced ventilation schemes that varied in vent areas and face velocities were simulated. Thermal comfort was modeled as a three-dimensional scalar field dependent on the fluid velocity and temperature fields; where humidity activity levels, and clothing were considered constants. Pollutants transport was incorporated through an additional constituent diffusion equation. Six distinct graphic techniques for the visualization of the three-dimensional data fields of air velocity, temperature, and comfort index were tested. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Hybrid regional air pollution models

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.L.

    1980-03-01

    This discussion deals with a family of air quality models for predicting and analyzing the fine particulate loading in the atmosphere, for assessing the extent and degree of visibility impairment, and for determining the potential of pollutants for increasing the acidity of soils and water. The major horizontal scales of interest are from 400km to 2000km; and the time scales may vary from several hours, to days, weeks, and a few months or years, depending on the EPA regulations being addressed. First the role air quality models play in the general family of atmospheric simulation models is described. Then, the characteristics of a well-designed, comprehensive air quality model are discussed. Following this, the specific objectives of this workshop are outlined, and their modeling implications are summarized. There are significant modeling differences produced by the choice of the coordinate system, whether it be the fixed Eulerian system, the moving Lagrangian system, or some hybrid of the two. These three systems are briefly discussed, and a list of hybrid models that are currently in use are given. Finally, the PNL regional transport model is outlined and a number of research needs are listed.

  9. Air Pollution in Road Tunnels

    PubMed Central

    Waller, R. E.; Commins, B. T.; Lawther, P. J.

    1961-01-01

    As a part of a study of pollution of the air by motor vehicles, measurements have been made in two London road tunnels during periods of high traffic density. The concentrations of smoke and polycyclic hydrocarbons found there are much higher than the average values in Central London, but they are of the same order of magnitude as those occurring during temperature inversions on winter evenings when smoke from coal fires accumulates at a low level. An attempt has been made to relate the concentration of each pollutant to the type and amount of traffic. Both diesel and petrol vehicles make some contribution to the amounts of smoke and polycyclic hydrocarbons found in the tunnels, but in the case of smoke, fluoranthene, 1: 2-benzpyrene, pyrene, and 3: 4-benzpyrene, the concentrations appear to be more closely related to the density of diesel traffic than to that of petrol traffic. The concentrations of lead and carbon monoxide have also been determined, and these are very closely related to the density of petrol traffic. During the morning and evening rush hours the mean concentration of carbon monoxide was just over 100 p.p.m. and peak values up to 500 p.p.m. were recorded at times. Oxides of nitrogen were determined in some of the experiments and there was always much more nitric oxide than nitrogen dioxide. Eye irritation was experienced but its cause was not investigated. The concentration of pollution in the tunnels does not appear to be high enough to create any special hazards for short-term exposures. The amosphere at peak periods may become very dirty and unpleasant and the concentration of carbon monoxide would be sufficient to produce some effect over a period of several hours' continuous exposure. The total emission of pollution from road vehicles must still be small in comparison with that from coal fires, but the effect of traffic on the concentration of smoke, polycyclic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and lead in the air of city streets deserves

  10. Air pollution and COPD in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoping; Zhong, Nanshan; Ran, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Haze, a severe form of outdoor air pollution, affected most parts of northern and eastern China in the past winter. In China, studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of outdoor air pollution and biomass smoke exposure on COPD; and most studies have focused on the role of air pollution in acutely triggering symptoms and exacerbations. Few studies have examined the role of air pollution in inducing pathophysiological changes that characterise COPD. Evidence showed that outdoor air pollution affects lung function in both children and adults and triggers exacerbations of COPD symptoms. Hence outdoor air pollution may be considered a risk factor for COPD mortality. However, evidence to date has been suggestive (not conclusive) that chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Cross-sectional studies showed biomass smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. A long-term retrospective study and a long-term prospective cohort study showed that biomass smoke exposure reductions were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and with a decreased risk of COPD. To fully understand the effect of air pollution on COPD, we recommend future studies with longer follow-up periods, more standardized definitions of COPD and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments.

  11. Air pollution and COPD in China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guoping; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Haze, a severe form of outdoor air pollution, affected most parts of northern and eastern China in the past winter. In China, studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of outdoor air pollution and biomass smoke exposure on COPD; and most studies have focused on the role of air pollution in acutely triggering symptoms and exacerbations. Few studies have examined the role of air pollution in inducing pathophysiological changes that characterise COPD. Evidence showed that outdoor air pollution affects lung function in both children and adults and triggers exacerbations of COPD symptoms. Hence outdoor air pollution may be considered a risk factor for COPD mortality. However, evidence to date has been suggestive (not conclusive) that chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Cross-sectional studies showed biomass smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. A long-term retrospective study and a long-term prospective cohort study showed that biomass smoke exposure reductions were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and with a decreased risk of COPD. To fully understand the effect of air pollution on COPD, we recommend future studies with longer follow-up periods, more standardized definitions of COPD and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments. PMID:25694818

  12. Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

    2002-10-25

    The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. Aerosol particles also reduce solar radiation penetration to the surface, which can suppress precipitation. In the middle troposphere, Asian and to a lesser extent North American pollution is transported from the west. Additional Asian pollution from the east, transported from the monsoon in the upper troposphere, crosses the Mediterranean tropopause, which pollutes the lower stratosphere at middle latitudes.

  13. EPA's indoor air/pollution prevention workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Leovic, K.W.; White, J.B.; Sarsony, C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses a workshop held as a step toward EPA's prioritizing potential areas of research for applying pollution prevention to indoor air quality (IAQ). The workshop involved technical experts in the fields of IAQ, pollution prevention, and selected industries. Workshop goals were to identify major IAQ issues and their pollution prevention opportunities, and to suggest research strategies for IAQ/pollution prevention. The paper summarizes the suggestions made by workshop participants and highlights opportunities for IAQ/pollution prevention research.

  14. Long-Term Exposure to Constituents of Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality: Results from the California Teachers Study

    PubMed Central

    Ostro, Bart; Lipsett, Michael; Reynolds, Peggy; Goldberg, Debbie; Hertz, Andrew; Garcia, Cynthia; Henderson, Katherine D.; Bernstein, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported associations between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular mortality. However, the health impacts of long-term exposure to specific constituents of PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) have not been explored. Methods We used data from the California Teachers Study, a prospective cohort of active and former female public school professionals. We developed estimates of long-term exposures to PM2.5 and several of its constituents, including elemental carbon, organic carbon (OC), sulfates, nitrates, iron, potassium, silicon, and zinc. Monthly averages of exposure were created using pollution data from June 2002 through July 2007. We included participants whose residential addresses were within 8 and 30 km of a monitor collecting PM2.5 constituent data. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for long-term exposure for mortality from all nontraumatic causes, cardiopulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and pulmonary disease. Results Approximately 45,000 women with 2,600 deaths lived within 30 km of a monitor. We observed associations of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and IHD mortality with PM2.5 mass and each of its measured constituents, and between pulmonary mortality and several constituents. For example, for cardiopulmonary mortality, HRs for interquartile ranges of PM2.5, OC, and sulfates were 1.55 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.43–1.69], 1.80 (95% CI, 1.68–1.93), and 1.79 (95% CI, 1.58–2.03), respectively. Subsequent analyses indicated that, of the constituents analyzed, OC and sulfates had the strongest associations with all four outcomes. Conclusions Long-term exposures to PM2.5 and several of its constituents were associated with increased risks of all-cause and cardiopulmonary mortality in this cohort. Constituents derived from combustion of fossil fuel (including diesel), as well as those of crustal origin, were associated with some of the greatest risks

  15. The myths of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, H.

    1993-03-01

    A popular myth holds that building energy conservation measures, implemented since the oil crises of the 1970s, cause indoor air pollution problems. This myth ignores the fact that most indoor air pollutant sources have little or nothing to do with energy conservation. Air studied inside buildings before 1973 was found to be more polluted than outdoor air even during severe air pollution events. In fact, only two types of conservation measures directly increase indoor air pollutant concentrations: inappropriately reduced ventilation and using sealants and caulks that emit pollutants. The myth ignores the fundamental responsibility (and ability) of architects, engineers, and building operators to create indoor environments that are both extremely habitable and environmentally responsible. Architects and other building design professionals must provide safe, healthy, and comfortable environments; minimize damage to the environment; and conserve energy and other resources. Achieving good indoor air quality (IAQ) is as essential as providing comfortable, healthy thermal conditions and functional, aesthetically sound lighting and acoustical environments. Reducing ventilation to conserve energy certainly increases concentrations of pollutants emitted from indoor sources. Adequate ventilation is essential to achieving and maintaining good IAQ. But there are many factors that determine IAQ and their interdependence is strong. Although ventilation is an important way to limit pollutant concentrations, limiting pollutant sources is far more effective. Pollutants from indoor sources that cannot be eliminated should be minimized by careful planning, design, specification, and construction. The preventive approach costs very little and it saves energy. 6 refs., 7 tabs.

  16. [Air pollution and the lung: epidemiological approach].

    PubMed

    Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Dab, William

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence has concurred with clinical and experimental evidence to correlate current levels of ambient air pollution, both indoors and outdoors, with respiratory effects. In this respect, the use of specific epidemiological methods has been crucial. Common outdoor pollutants are particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and ozone. Short-term effects of outdoor air pollution include changes in lung function, respiratory symptoms and mortality due to respiratory causes. Increase in the use of health care resources has also been associated with short-term effects of air pollution. Long-term effects of cumulated exposure to urban air pollution include lung growth impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and probably the development of asthma and allergies. Lung cancer and COPD have been related to a shorter life expectancy. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Further epidemiological research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of air pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health.

  17. Air pollution vulnerabiity of 22 midwestern parks

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.P.; Banerjee, N.

    1995-08-01

    Air pollution increases in United States national parks as sources grow closer. As this happens, biota will be increasingly affected. Can it be determined in advance which parks will be more impacted by these air pollutants that others? This study of 22 park units in the midwestern United States attempted to answer this question. Plant lists were compiled for the 22 parks, relative abundances of all species (common, intermediate, rare) estimated, their sensitivities from their life cycle types (annual, perennial-deciduous, perennial-evergreen) determined, and overall vulnerability as the average product of the two was calculated using a 3-2-1 scale for weighting the abundances. Scotts Bluff National Monument in western Nebraska was the most vulnerable park in the region, while Isle Royale National Park in Lake Superior was the least. This difference was due to the higher abundances of annual plant species in Scotts Bluff. Changing the values used for abundances changed the order of park vulnerabilites. Three air pollutants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, and sulfate) were found to increase from west to east in the midwest. Overlaying these patterns on the park vulnerabilities, and a customer analysis of the data, resulted in a determination of the air pollution risks to groups of parks. The parks most at risk (high vulnerability+high pollution levels) were two in Ohio (Hopewell Culture National Historical Park and Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area) and one in Indiana (Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial). Ten parks were grouped at lowest risk in an arc from Lake Superior, northern Minnesota, and Wisconsin through Nebraska and Kansas. Of three different surrogate methods tested for a relationship with overall vulnerability, only one appeared to be useful. Vulnerability could be directly calculated if a park`s vegetative structure was known without assembling the complete flora. 22 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Bønløkke, Jakob; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution. PMID:23762084

  19. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011-2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 2011. Seasonal differences were apparent for SO2 and NO2. Both the background and urban areas of Beijing experienced particulate matter pollution in 2011. In addition to local air pollution, Beijing was also affected by pollutants transported from other regions, especially during heavy air pollution episodes. PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations showed positive associations with numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology during winter. NO2 and SO2 also had adverse ear, nose, and throat health effects outside of winter. The ear, nose, and throat health risks caused by air pollutants were higher during the winter than during the summer. NO2 had stronger influence on increased the likelihood of outpatient visits than SO2. The findings provide additional information about air quality and health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  20. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  1. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 3: Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Air Pollution Control Officer's (APCO) Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties, The first two sections, which are…

  2. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  3. Managing residential sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.

    1994-12-31

    Sources of indoor air pollutants in residential environments can be managed to reduce occupant exposures. Techniques for managing indoor air pollution sources include: source elimination, substitution, modification, and pretreatment, and altering the amount, location, or time of use. Intelligent source management requires knowledge of the source`s emission characteristics, including chemical composition, emission rates, and decay rates. In addition, knowledge of outdoor air exchange rates, heating/air-conditioning duct flow rates, and kitchen/batch exhaust fan flow rates is needed to determine pollutant concentrations. Indoor air quality (IAQ) models use this information and occupant activity patterns to determine instantaneous and/or cumulative individual exposure. This paper describes a number of residential scenarios for various indoor air pollution VOC sources, several air flow conditions, and typical occupant activity patterns. IAQ model predictions of occupant exposures for these scenarios are given for selected source management options.

  4. Adverse health effects of outdoor air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Luke; Rea, William; Smith-Willis, Patricia; Fenyves, Ervin; Pan, Yaqin

    2006-08-01

    Much research on the health effects of outdoor air pollution has been published in the last decade. The goal of this review is to concisely summarize a wide range of the recent research on health effects of many types of outdoor air pollution. A review of the health effects of major outdoor air pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, acid gases, metals, volatile organics, solvents, pesticides, radiation and bioaerosols is presented. Numerous studies have linked atmospheric pollutants to many types of health problems of many body systems including the respiratory, cardiovascular, immunological, hematological, neurological and reproductive/ developmental systems. Some studies have found increases in respiratory and cardiovascular problems at outdoor pollutant levels well below standards set by such agencies as the US EPA and WHO. Air pollution is associated with large increases in medical expenses, morbidity and is estimated to cause about 800,000 annual premature deaths worldwide [Cohen, A.J., Ross Alexander, H., Ostro, B., Pandey, K.D., Kryzanowski, M., Kunzail, N., et al., 2005. The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 68: 1-7.]. Further research on the health effects of air pollution and air pollutant abatement methods should be very helpful to physicians, public health officials, industrialists, politicians and the general public. PMID:16730796

  5. Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

  6. Air Pollution and Its Control, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproull, Wayne T.

    A concise appraisal of our contemporary status and future prospects with regard to air pollution and its control are offered in this text for concerned laymen. What air pollution is, how it endangers health, the cost of controlling it, what is being done about it now, and what should be done are some of the basic questions considered. Topics cover…

  7. A Course in Air Pollution for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seapan, Mayis

    1982-01-01

    An air pollution course covering both the fundamentals and control of air pollution introduces a new sequential structure for its topic presentation. The new structure is built on the basis of theoretical principles and has minimized the traditional case study approach. A detailed course outline is included. (Author/JN)

  8. Career Guide for Air Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Lionel V.

    1975-01-01

    This guide to career opportunities in air pollution control includes resource information in this area and provides a listing of colleges and universities offering environmental science programs. The guide was prepared by the S-11 Education and Training Committee of the Air Pollution Control Association. (Author/BT)

  9. Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon…

  10. Air pollution problems in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzenfeld, H. )

    1992-01-01

    Air pollution and associated health problems in Latin America are on the rise. This article provides an overview of conditions indicated by the admittedly limited data available, notes some of the present situation's health implications, and points out areas where air pollution data procurement and control measures could be improved.

  11. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy. PMID:27331817

  12. Direct and indirect exposure to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Thron, R W

    1996-02-01

    Hazardous substances that originally are discharged as air pollutants may find their pathway to human exposure through multiple routes, including ingestion and dermal contact, as well as direct inhalation. The mechanisms for modeling and understanding the fate of air pollutants through atmospheric transport, deposition into water and soil, bioaccumulation, and ultimate uptake to receptor organs and systems in the human body are complex. Pollution prevention programs can be better engineered, pollution priorities can be identified, and greater environmental public health gains (attributable to pollution prevention) can be achieved by evaluating the multiple pathways to human exposure and through improved dosage calculations. A single contaminant source often may represent only a fraction of a total body pollutant burden. Further research is needed on source culpability and attributable risk, long-range transport of air pollutants, human dose contributions by various pathways, better techniques for health risk assessment, and an identification of human behavior patterns that affect exposure and dose.

  13. Air Pollution: Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation & CNS Disease

    PubMed Central

    Block, Michelle L.; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2009-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates air pollution as a chronic source of neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuropathology instigating central nervous system (CNS) disease. Stroke incidence, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease pathology are linked to air pollution. Recent reports reveal that air pollution components reach the brain. Further, systemic effects known to impact lung and cardiovascular disease also impinge upon CNS health. While mechanisms driving air pollution-induced CNS pathology are poorly understood, new evidence suggests that activation of microglia and changes in the blood brain barrier may be key to this process. Here, we summarize recent findings detailing the mechanisms through which air pollution reaches the brain and activates the resident innate immune response to become a chronic source of pro-inflammatory factors and ROS culpable in CNS disease. PMID:19716187

  14. Air Pollution and Environmental Justice Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution is not equally dispersed in all neighborhoods and this raises many social concerns, such as environmental justice. "Real world" data, whether extracted from online databases or collected in the field, can be used to demonstrate air quality patterns. When students explore these trends, they not only learn about atmospheric chemistry, but they also become socially aware of any inequities. This presentation outlines specific ways to link air pollution and environmental justice suitable for an undergraduate upper division Air Pollution or Atmospheric Chemistry course.

  15. Exposure to Household Air Pollution from Wood Combustion and Association with Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Nonsmoking Women: Results from the RESPIRE Trial, Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Esperanza; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Lie, Rolv T.; Bakke, Per; Balmes, John R.; Smith, Kirk R.; Bruce, Nigel G.

    2014-01-01

    Background With 40% of the world’s population relying on solid fuel, household air pollution (HAP) represents a major preventable risk factor for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Meta-analyses have confirmed this relationship; however, constituent studies are observational, with virtually none measuring exposure directly. Objectives We estimated associations between HAP exposure and respiratory symptoms and lung function in young, nonsmoking women in rural Guatemala, using measured carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in exhaled breath and personal air to assess exposure. Methods The Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) Guatemala study was a trial comparing respiratory outcomes among 504 women using improved chimney stoves versus traditional cookstoves. The present analysis included 456 women with data from postintervention surveys including interviews at 6, 12, and 18 months (respiratory symptoms) and spirometry and CO (ppm) in exhaled breath measurements. Personal CO was measured using passive diffusion tubes at variable times during the study. Associations between CO concentrations and respiratory health were estimated using random intercept regression models. Results: Respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, wheeze, or chest tightness) during the previous 6 months were positively associated with breath CO measured at the same time of symptom reporting and with average personal CO concentrations during the follow-up period. CO in exhaled breath at the same time as spirometry was associated with lower lung function [average reduction in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) for a 10% increase in CO was 3.33 mL (95% CI: –0.86, –5.81)]. Lung function measures were not significantly associated with average postintervention personal CO concentrations. Conclusions: Our results provide further support for the effects of HAP exposures on airway inflammation. Further longitudinal research modeling continuous

  16. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  17. Outdoor air pollution: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuh-Chin T

    2014-10-01

    Although the air quality in Western countries has continued to improve over the past decades, rapid economic growth in developing countries has left air quality in many cities notoriously poor. The World Health Organization estimates that urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths worldwide per year. The primary health concerns of outdoor air pollution come from particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Short-term exposure to PM2.5 increases cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to adverse perinatal outcomes and lung cancer. Excessive O3 exposure is known to increase respiratory morbidity. Patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are more susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution. Counseling these patients about air pollution and the associated risks should be part of the regular management plans in clinical practice.

  18. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  19. Evaluation and Application of Alternative Air Pollution Exposure Metrics in Air Pollution Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Periodic review, revision and subsequent implementation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants rely upon various types of scientific air quality, exposure, toxicological dose-response and epidemiological information. Exposure assessmen...

  20. Indoor air pollution: Acute adverse health effects and host susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Zummo, S.M.; Karol, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Increased awareness of the poor quality of indoor air compared with outdoor air has resulted in a significant amount of research on the adverse health effects and mechanisms of action of indoor air pollutants. Common indoor air agents are identified, along with resultant adverse health effects, mechanisms of action, and likely susceptible populations. Indoor air pollutants range from biological agents (such as dust mites) to chemical irritants (such as nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, and isocyanates). These agents may exert their effects through allergic as well as nonallergic mechanisms. While the public does not generally perceive poor indoor air quality as a significant health risk, increasing reports of illness related to indoor air and an expanding base of knowledge on the health effects of indoor air pollution are likely to continue pushing the issue to the forefront.

  1. Health, wealth, and air pollution: advancing theory and methods.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Marie S; Jerrett, Michael; Kawachi, Ichiro; Levy, Jonathan I; Cohen, Aaron J; Gouveia, Nelson; Wilkinson, Paul; Fletcher, Tony; Cifuentes, Luis; Schwartz, Joel

    2003-01-01

    The effects of both ambient air pollution and socioeconomic position (SEP) on health are well documented. A limited number of recent studies suggest that SEP may itself play a role in the epidemiology of disease and death associated with exposure to air pollution. Together with evidence that poor and working-class communities are often more exposed to air pollution, these studies have stimulated discussion among scientists, policy makers, and the public about the differential distribution of the health impacts from air pollution. Science and public policy would benefit from additional research that integrates the theory and practice from both air pollution and social epidemiologies to gain a better understanding of this issue. In this article we aim to promote such research by introducing readers to methodologic and conceptual approaches in the fields of air pollution and social epidemiology; by proposing theories and hypotheses about how air pollution and socioeconomic factors may interact to influence health, drawing on studies conducted worldwide; by discussing methodologic issues in the design and analysis of studies to determine whether health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution are modified by SEP; and by proposing specific steps that will advance knowledge in this field, fill information gaps, and apply research results to improve public health in collaboration with affected communities. PMID:14644658

  2. Air pollution and the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations.

  3. Association between Air Pollution and Hemoptysis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Olive, Ignasi; Radua, Joaquim; Fiz, Jose Antonio; Sanz-Santos, Jose; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relationship between air pollution and exacerbation of respiratory diseases is well established. Nevertheless, its association with hemoptysis has been poorly investigated. This paper describes the relationship of air pollutants with severe hemoptysis. Methods. All consecutive subjects with severe hemoptysis during a 5-year period were included. The relationship between the contamination measurements and the frequency of embolizations was analyzed using Poisson regressions. In these regressions, the dependent variable was the monthly number of embolizations in a given month and the independent variable was either the concentration of an air contaminant during the same month, the concentration of the air contaminant during the previous month, or the difference between the two. Results. A higher total number of embolizations per month were observed over the months with increases in the concentration of NO. The number of embolizations was 2.0 in the 33 months with no increases in the concentration of NO, 2.1 in the 12 months with small increases, 2.2 in the 5 months with moderate increases, 2.5 in the 4 months with large increases, and 4.0 in the 5 months with very large increases. Conclusion. There is association between hemoptysis and increases in the concentration of atmospheric NO in Badalona (Spain). PMID:27445569

  4. Association between Air Pollution and Hemoptysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Olive, Ignasi; Radua, Joaquim; Fiz, Jose Antonio; Sanz-Santos, Jose; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relationship between air pollution and exacerbation of respiratory diseases is well established. Nevertheless, its association with hemoptysis has been poorly investigated. This paper describes the relationship of air pollutants with severe hemoptysis. Methods. All consecutive subjects with severe hemoptysis during a 5-year period were included. The relationship between the contamination measurements and the frequency of embolizations was analyzed using Poisson regressions. In these regressions, the dependent variable was the monthly number of embolizations in a given month and the independent variable was either the concentration of an air contaminant during the same month, the concentration of the air contaminant during the previous month, or the difference between the two. Results. A higher total number of embolizations per month were observed over the months with increases in the concentration of NO. The number of embolizations was 2.0 in the 33 months with no increases in the concentration of NO, 2.1 in the 12 months with small increases, 2.2 in the 5 months with moderate increases, 2.5 in the 4 months with large increases, and 4.0 in the 5 months with very large increases. Conclusion. There is association between hemoptysis and increases in the concentration of atmospheric NO in Badalona (Spain). PMID:27445569

  5. Indoor air pollution: an edifice complex.

    PubMed

    Brooks, B O; Utter, G M; DeBroy, J A; Schimke, R D

    1991-01-01

    The collision of escalating technological sophistication and surging environmental awareness has caused the reexamination of many societal paradigms. Horror stories about lethal chemical exposures involving isolated cases of ignorance, carelessness or greed have caused the public to demand constant vigilance to prevent exposure to potentially hazardous substances. Accordingly, much time and resource has been expanded by the U.S. government and citizens to abate and prevent air and water pollution. While these efforts have met with measurable success, there is increasing public concern about a new generation of pollution-related human illness in office, home and transportation environments. New instances of Sick Building Syndrome or Building Related Illness are reported daily by the popular press. Human health effects such as cancer, infectious disease, allergy and irritation have been ascribed to indoor air pollution. The clinical aspects of indoor air pollution are often discounted by consulting engineers and industrial hygienists involved in indoor air quality. Physicians and clinically-trained scientists have received a "Macedonian call" to sift clinical relevance from the emotional aspects of indoor air quality problems. Point sources of pollutants, associated human health effects, and problem solving approaches associated with indoor air pollution are described. Regulatory and litigational aspects of indoor air pollution are also discussed. PMID:1920571

  6. The changing paradigm of air pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Emily G; Watkins, Timothy H; Solomon, Paul A; Thoma, Eben D; Williams, Ronald W; Hagler, Gayle S W; Shelow, David; Hindin, David A; Kilaru, Vasu J; Preuss, Peter W

    2013-10-15

    The air pollution monitoring paradigm is rapidly changing due to recent advances in (1) the development of portable, lower-cost air pollution sensors reporting data in near-real time at a high-time resolution, (2) increased computational and visualization capabilities, and (3) wireless communication/infrastructure. It is possible that these advances can support traditional air quality monitoring by supplementing ambient air monitoring and enhancing compliance monitoring. Sensors are beginning to provide individuals and communities the tools needed to understand their environmental exposures with these data individual and community-based strategies can be developed to reduce pollution exposure as well as understand linkages to health indicators. Each of these areas as well as corresponding challenges (e.g., quality of data) and potential opportunities associated with development and implementation of air pollution sensors are discussed.

  7. Air pollution modeling and its application III

    SciTech Connect

    De Wispelaere, C.

    1984-01-01

    This book focuses on the Lagrangian modeling of air pollution. Modeling cooling tower and power plant plumes, modeling the dispersion of heavy gases, remote sensing as a tool for air pollution modeling, dispersion modeling including photochemistry, and the evaluation of model performances in practical applications are discussed. Specific topics considered include dispersion in the convective boundary layer, the application of personal computers to Lagrangian modeling, the dynamic interaction of cooling tower and stack plumes, the diffusion of heavy gases, correlation spectrometry as a tool for mesoscale air pollution modeling, Doppler acoustic sounding, tetroon flights, photochemical air quality simulation modeling, acid deposition of photochemical oxidation products, atmospheric diffusion modeling, applications of an integral plume rise model, and the estimation of diffuse hydrocarbon leakages from petrochemical factories. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Thirteenth International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application held in France in 1982.

  8. Long-term concentrations of ambient air pollutants and incident lung cancer in California adults: results from the AHSMOG study.Adventist Health Study on Smog.

    PubMed Central

    Beeson, W L; Abbey, D E; Knutsen, S F

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of long-term concentrations of ambient air pollutants and risk of incident lung cancer in nonsmoking California adults. A cohort study of 6,338 nonsmoking, non-Hispanic, white Californian adults, ages 27-95, was followed from 1977 to 1992 for newly diagnosed cancers. Monthly ambient air pollution data were interpolated to zip code centroids according to home and work location histories, cumulated, and then averaged over time. The increased relative risk (RR) of incident lung cancer in males associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in 100 ppb ozone (O3) was 3.56 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-9.42]. Incident lung cancer in males was also positively associated with IQR increases for mean concentrations of particulate matter <10 microm (PM10; RR = 5.21; CI, 1.94-13.99) and SO2 (RR = 2.66; CI, 1.62-4.39). For females, incident lung cancer was positively associated with IQR increases for SO2 (RR = 2.14; CI, 1.36-3.37) and IQR increases for PM10 exceedance frequencies of 50 microg/m3 (RR = 1.21; CI, 0.55-2.66) and 60 microg/m3 (RR = 1.25; CI, 0.57-2.71). Increased risks of incident lung cancer were associated with elevated long-term ambient concentrations of PM10 and SO2 in both genders and with O3 in males. The gender differences for the O3 and PM10 results appeared to be partially due to gender differences in exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9831542

  9. Indoor Air Pollution and Delayed Measles Vaccination Increase the Risk of Severe Pneumonia in Children: Results from a Case-Control Study in Mwanza, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    PrayGod, George; Mukerebe, Crispin; Magawa, Ruth; Jeremiah, Kidola; Török, M. Estée

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality due to severe pneumonia during childhood in resource-constrained settings is high, but data to provide basis for interventions to improve survival are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for severe pneumonia in children aged under five years old in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods We conducted a case-control study of children aged 2 to 59 months at Sekou-Toure regional hospital in Mwanza City, north-western, Tanzania from May 2013 to March 2014. Cases were children with severe pneumonia and controls were children with other illnesses. Data on demography, social-economical status, nutritional status, environmental factors, vaccination status, vitamin A supplementation and deworming, and nasopharyngeal carriage were collected and analysed using logistic regression. Results 117 patients were included in the study. Of these, 45 were cases and 72 controls. Cases were younger than controls, but there were no differences in social-economic or nutritional status between the two groups. In multiple regression, we found that an increased risk of severe pneumonia was associated with cooking indoors (OR 5.5, 95% CI: 1.4, 22.1), and delayed measles vaccination (OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.1, 14.8). The lack of vitamin A supplementation in the preceding six month and Enterobacter spp nasopharyngeal carriage were not associated with higher risk of severe pneumonia. Age ≥24 months (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.8) and not receiving antibiotics before referral (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1, 0.9) were associated with lower risk for severe pneumonia. Conclusions Indoor air pollution and delayed measles vaccination increase the risk for severe pneumonia among children aged below five years. Interventions to reduce indoor air pollution and to promote timely administration of measles vaccination are urgently needed to reduce the burden of severe pneumonia in children in Tanzania PMID:27508389

  10. Source apportionment of indoor air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, Ken; Hayward, Steven B.

    An understanding of the relative contributions from important pollutant sources to human exposures is necessary for the design and implementation of effective control strategies. In the past, societal efforts to control air pollution have focused almost exclusively on the outdoor (ambient) environment. As a result, substantial amounts of time and money have been spent to limit airborne discharges from mobile and stationary sources. Yet it is now recognized that exposures to elevated pollutant concentrations often occur as a result of indoor, rather than outdoor, emissions. While the major indoor sources have been identified, their relative impacts on indoor air quality have not been well defined. Application of existing source apportionment models to nonindustrial indoor environments is only just beginning. It is possible that these models might be used to distinguish between indoor and outdoor emissions, as well as to distinguish among indoor sources themselves. However, before the feasibility and suitability of source-apportionment methods for indoor applications can be assessed adequately, it is necessary to take account of model assumptions and associated data requirements. This paper examines the issue of indoor source apportionment and reviews the need for emission characterization studies to support such source-apportionment efforts.

  11. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    SciTech Connect

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  12. Changes in RANKL and osteoprotegerin expression after chronic exposure to indoor air pollution as a result of cooking with biomass fuel.

    PubMed

    Saha, Hirak; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Bindhani, Banani; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    The impact of indoor air pollution as a result of cooking with unprocessed biomass on membrane-bound and serum receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa ligand 1 (RANKL), its soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteoclast precursor CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes was investigated. Seventy-four pre-menopausal women from eastern India using biomass and 65 control women who cooked with cleaner liquefied petroleum gas were enrolled. PM10 and PM2.5 levels in their indoor air were measured with real-time aerosol monitors. The levels of membrane-bound RANKL on leukocytes and percentage CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes in the subjects' blood were assayed by flow cytometry. Soluble RANKL and OPG in serum were measured by ELISA. The results showed that PM10 and PM2.5 levels were significantly higher in the indoor air of biomass-using households. Compared with the control women, the levels of CD4(+) and CD19(+) lymphocytes and circulating granulocytes with elevated levels of membrane-bound RANKL were higher in biomass users. The serum levels of RANKL were increased by 41% whereas serum OPG was reduced by 22% among biomass users. The absolute number of CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes was significantly increased in biomass users than the control women. After controlling for potential confounders, PM10 and PM2.5 levels were found to be positively associated with leukocyte and serum RANKL and CD14(+) CD16(+) monocyte levels, but negatively with serum OPG. From these results, we can conclude that chronic exposure to biomass smoke increased membrane-bound and soluble RANKL and circulating osteoclast precursors but decreased OPG, suggesting an increased risk of bone resorption and consequent osteoporosis in biomass-exposed women of a child-bearing age. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  14. The effects of air pollution on the health of children

    PubMed Central

    Buka, Irena; Koranteng, Samuel; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R

    2006-01-01

    The present article is intended to inform paediatricians about the associations between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes in children within the context of current epidemiological evidence. The majority of the current literature pertains to adverse respiratory health outcomes, including asthma, other respiratory symptoms, and deficits in lung function and growth, as well as exposure to ambient levels of criteria air pollutants. In addition to the above, the present article highlights mortality, pregnancy outcomes, vitamin D deficiency and alteration in the immune system of children. Some of the data on the impact of improved air quality on children’s health are provided, including the reduction of air pollution in former East Germany following the reunification of Germany, as well as the reduction in the rates of childhood asthma events during the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, due to a reduction in local motor vehicle traffic. However, there are many other toxic air pollutants that are regularly released into the air. These pollutants, which are not regularly monitored and have not been adequately researched, are also potentially harmful to children. Significant morbidity and mortality is attributed to ambient air pollution, resulting in a significant economic cost to society. As Canada’s cities grow, air pollution issues need to be a priority in order to protect the health of children and support sustainable development for future generations. PMID:19030320

  15. The effects of air pollution on the health of children.

    PubMed

    Buka, Irena; Koranteng, Samuel; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R

    2006-10-01

    The present article is intended to inform paediatricians about the associations between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes in children within the context of current epidemiological evidence.The majority of the current literature pertains to adverse respiratory health outcomes, including asthma, other respiratory symptoms, and deficits in lung function and growth, as well as exposure to ambient levels of criteria air pollutants. In addition to the above, the present article highlights mortality, pregnancy outcomes, vitamin D deficiency and alteration in the immune system of children.Some of the data on the impact of improved air quality on children's health are provided, including the reduction of air pollution in former East Germany following the reunification of Germany, as well as the reduction in the rates of childhood asthma events during the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, due to a reduction in local motor vehicle traffic. However, there are many other toxic air pollutants that are regularly released into the air. These pollutants, which are not regularly monitored and have not been adequately researched, are also potentially harmful to children.Significant morbidity and mortality is attributed to ambient air pollution, resulting in a significant economic cost to society. As Canada's cities grow, air pollution issues need to be a priority in order to protect the health of children and support sustainable development for future generations. PMID:19030320

  16. Air pollution problem in the Mexico City metropolitan zone: Photochemical pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, H.B.; Alvarez, P.S.; Echeverria, R.S.; Jardon, R.T.

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) represents an example of a megacity where the air pollution problem has reached an important evolution in a very short time, causing a risk in the health of a population of more than 20 million inhabitants. The atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, began several decades ago, but it increased drastically in the middle of the 80`s. It is important to recognize that in the 60`s, 70`s and the first half of the 80`s the main pollutants were sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. However since the second half of the 80`s until now, ozone is the most important air pollutant besides of the suspended particles (PM{sub 10}) and other toxic pollutants (1--8). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the ozone atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, as well as to analyze the results of several implemented air pollution control strategies.

  17. Health effects of outdoor air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. PMID:21841106

  18. Closing the research loop: a risk-based approach for communicating results of air pollution exposure studies.

    PubMed Central

    Payne-Sturges, Devon C; Schwab, Margo; Buckley, Timothy J

    2004-01-01

    Communities have long been concerned about the environmental health and environmental quality of their neighborhoods. Community-based exposure assessments have the potential to be an effective way to address these concerns. The success of such studies depends critically on the effective translation and communication of study results back to the study participants and the community. In this article we describe the communication approach applied as part of the South Baltimore Community Exposure Study. Specifically, in conjunction with collecting measurements, we asked the community to define questions they wanted answered and the way in which they wanted to receive study results. To meet their needs, we applied the risk assessment framework. The approach we developed helped residents interpret exposure assessment measurements and gave them the raw materials to effect change in their community. The risk-based approach to presenting participant and community results provides the means to move beyond traditional reporting of concentration values in three important ways. First, risk takes into consideration toxicity, thereby enabling a dialogue about community health concerns. Second, risk provides a common denominator so that exposure and risk can be compared and priorities identified. Third, exposure and risk can be summed, thereby meeting the community's need for information regarding cumulative exposure. This approach may be a useful model for other researchers conducting exposure assessments in response to community concerns. PMID:14698927

  19. AIR POLLUTION, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased incidents of classic and variant forms of neurodegenerative diseases suggest that environmental chemicals and susceptibility factors (e.g., genetics, diseased states, obesity, etc.) may be contributory. Particulate matter (PM) is a type of air pollution that is associat...

  20. A multi-year study of air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in three New York State metropolitan areas: results for 1988 and 1989 summers

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.D.; Ito, K.; Kinney, P.L.; Lippmann, M. )

    1992-10-01

    As part of a multi-year study of air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in the Buffalo, Albany, and New York City, New York, metropolitan areas, filter samples were collected daily at suburban air monitoring sites and analyzed for their content of particulate phase aerosol strong acidity (i.e., hydrogen ion, H+) and sulfate (SO4 =). In addition, daily hospital admissions for respiratory causes, other community air pollutant measurements (e.g., ozone, O3), and meteorological data (e.g., temperature) were also obtained for these metropolitan areas. The summer months (June-August) were selected for analysis because that is when the highest H+ (and O3) are usually experienced at these sites, and because these months are rarely complicated by other major influences (e.g., high pollen counts). Thus, any pollution-admissions relationships were expected to be most clearly discernible in this season. Prior to the health effects analysis, the summer admissions and environmental data were first detrended to eliminate long-wave autocorrelations, and day-of-week effects were removed via regression. Cross-correlations of the filtered 1988 and 1989 admissions and environmental data revealed strong associations between elevated summer haze pollution (i.e., H+, SO4 =, and O3) and increased total respiratory and asthma admissions on the same day and/or on subsequent days in Buffalo and New York City, especially during the summer of 1988 (when pollution levels were more extreme). Regression analyses indicated that the pollution-admissions associations remained significant (p < 0.05) even after the simultaneous inclusion of lagged daily maximum temperature. Mean effects calculations for these cities indicated that summertime haze can play a significant role in the occurrence of respiratory admissions in that season: accounting for an average 6 to 24% of 1988 Buffalo and NYC asthma admissions. O3 consistently had the highest mean effects estimates.

  1. Climate Change, Air Pollution, and the Economics of Health Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J.; Yang, T.; Paltsev, S.; Wang, C.; Prinn, R.; Sarofim, M.

    2003-12-01

    Climate change and air pollution are intricately linked. The distinction between greenhouse substances and other air pollutants is resolved at least for the time being in the context of international negotiations on climate policy through the identification of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and the per- and hydro- fluorocarbons as substances targeted for control. Many of the traditional air pollutant emissions including for example CO, NMVOCs, NOx, SO2, aerosols, and NH3 also directly or indirectly affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Among both sets of gases are precursors of and contributors to pollutants such as tropopospheric ozone, itself a strong greenhouse gas, particulate matter, and other pollutants that affect human health. Fossil fuel combustion, production, or transportation is a significant source for many of these substances. Climate policy can thus affect traditional air pollution or air pollution policy can affect climate. Health effects of acute or chronic exposure to air pollution include increased asthma, lung cancer, heart disease and bronchitis among others. These, in turn, redirect resources in the economy toward medical expenditures or result in lost labor or non-labor time with consequent effects on economic activity, itself producing a potential feedback on emissions levels. Study of these effects ultimately requires a fully coupled earth system model. Toward that end we develop an approach for introducing air pollution health impacts into the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a component of the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) a coupled economics-chemistry-atmosphere-ocean-terrestrial biosphere model of earth systems including an air pollution model resolving the urban scale. This preliminary examination allows us to consider how climate policy affects air pollution and consequent health effects, and to study the potential impacts of air pollution policy on climate. The novel contribution is the effort to

  2. Air Pollution over the States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    State plans for implementing air quality standards are evaluated together with problems in modeling procedures and enforcement. Monitoring networks, standards, air quality regions, and industrial problems are also discussed. (BL)

  3. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  4. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  5. [Air Pollution Unit, Edmonds School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

    This interdisciplinary program, developed for secondary students, contains 16 air pollution activities that can either be used directly in, or as a supplement to, curriculum in Science, Photography, Mathematics, English, Social Studies, Industrial Arts and Home Economics. The topics to be investigated include: pollutants from automobiles, exhaust…

  6. Developmental exposure to concentrated ambient ultrafine particulate matter air pollution in mice results in persistent and sex-dependent behavioral neurotoxicity and glial activation.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joshua L; Liu, Xiufang; Weston, Douglas; Prince, Lisa; Oberdörster, Günter; Finkelstein, Jacob N; Johnston, Carl J; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A

    2014-07-01

    The brain appears to be a target of air pollution. This study aimed to further ascertain behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of our previously observed preference for immediate reward (Allen, J. L., Conrad, K., Oberdorster, G., Johnston, C. J., Sleezer, B., and Cory-Slechta, D. A. (2013). Developmental exposure to concentrated ambient particles and preference for immediate reward in mice. Environ. Health Perspect. 121, 32-38), a phenotype consistent with impulsivity, in mice developmentally exposed to inhaled ultrafine particles. It examined the impact of postnatal and/or adult concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (CAPS) or filtered air on another behavior thought to reflect impulsivity, Fixed interval (FI) schedule-controlled performance, and extended the assessment to learning/memory (novel object recognition (NOR)), and locomotor activity to assist in understanding behavioral mechanisms of action. In addition, levels of brain monoamines and amino acids, and markers of glial presence and activation (GFAP, IBA-1) were assessed in mesocorticolimbic brain regions mediating these cognitive functions. This design produced four treatment groups/sex of postnatal/adult exposure: Air/Air, Air/CAPS, CAPS/Air, and CAPS/CAPS. FI performance was adversely influenced by CAPS/Air in males, but by Air/CAPS in females, effects that appeared to reflect corresponding changes in brain mesocorticolimbic dopamine/glutamate systems that mediate FI performance. Both sexes showed impaired short-term memory on the NOR. Mechanistically, cortical and hippocampal changes in amino acids raised the potential for excitotoxicity, and persistent glial activation was seen in frontal cortex and corpus callosum of both sexes. Collectively, neurodevelopment and/or adulthood CAPS can produce enduring and sex-dependent neurotoxicity. Although mechanisms of these effects remain to be fully elucidated, findings suggest that neurodevelopment and/or adulthood air pollution exposure may represent

  7. Developmental Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Ultrafine Particulate Matter Air Pollution in Mice Results in Persistent and Sex-Dependent Behavioral Neurotoxicity and Glial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joshua L.; Liu, Xiufang; Weston, Douglas; Prince, Lisa; Oberdörster, Günter; Finkelstein, Jacob N.; Johnston, Carl J.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The brain appears to be a target of air pollution. This study aimed to further ascertain behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of our previously observed preference for immediate reward (Allen, J. L., Conrad, K., Oberdorster, G., Johnston, C. J., Sleezer, B., and Cory-Slechta, D. A. (2013). Developmental exposure to concentrated ambient particles and preference for immediate reward in mice. Environ. Health Perspect. 121, 32–38), a phenotype consistent with impulsivity, in mice developmentally exposed to inhaled ultrafine particles. It examined the impact of postnatal and/or adult concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (CAPS) or filtered air on another behavior thought to reflect impulsivity, Fixed interval (FI) schedule-controlled performance, and extended the assessment to learning/memory (novel object recognition (NOR)), and locomotor activity to assist in understanding behavioral mechanisms of action. In addition, levels of brain monoamines and amino acids, and markers of glial presence and activation (GFAP, IBA-1) were assessed in mesocorticolimbic brain regions mediating these cognitive functions. This design produced four treatment groups/sex of postnatal/adult exposure: Air/Air, Air/CAPS, CAPS/Air, and CAPS/CAPS. FI performance was adversely influenced by CAPS/Air in males, but by Air/CAPS in females, effects that appeared to reflect corresponding changes in brain mesocorticolimbic dopamine/glutamate systems that mediate FI performance. Both sexes showed impaired short-term memory on the NOR. Mechanistically, cortical and hippocampal changes in amino acids raised the potential for excitotoxicity, and persistent glial activation was seen in frontal cortex and corpus callosum of both sexes. Collectively, neurodevelopment and/or adulthood CAPS can produce enduring and sex-dependent neurotoxicity. Although mechanisms of these effects remain to be fully elucidated, findings suggest that neurodevelopment and/or adulthood air pollution exposure may

  8. Indoor air pollution and airway disease.

    PubMed

    Viegi, G; Simoni, M; Scognamiglio, A; Baldacci, S; Pistelli, F; Carrozzi, L; Annesi-Maesano, I

    2004-12-01

    Scientific interest in indoor pollution has been increasing since the second half of the 1980s. Growing scientific evidence has shown that because people generally spend the majority of their time indoors, indoor pollution plays a significant role in affecting health and is thus an important health issue. Indoor environments include dwellings, workplaces, schools and day care centres, bars, discotheques and vehicles. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. In developing countries, relevant sources of indoor pollution include biomass and coal burning for cooking and heating. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Approximately 1 million of these deaths occur in children aged under 5 years due to acute respiratory infections, and significant proportions of deaths occur due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in women. Today, indoor air pollution ranks tenth among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of disease. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of indoor pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health.

  9. The public health relevance of air pollution abatement.

    PubMed

    Künzli, N

    2002-07-01

    Assuming a causal relationship between current levels of air pollution and morbidity/mortality, it is crucial to estimate the public health relevance of the problem. The derivation of air pollution attributable cases faces inherent uncertainties and requires influential assumptions. Based on the results of the trinational impact assessment study of Austria, France, and Switzerland, where prudent estimates of the air pollution attributable cases (mortality, chronic bronchitis incidence, hospital admissions, acute bronchitis among children, restricted activity days, asthma attacks) have been made, influential uncertainties are quantified in this review. The public health impact of smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and air pollution on the prevalence of chronic cough/phlegm are outlined. Despite all methodological caveats, impact assessment studies clearly suggest that public health largely benefits from better air quality. The studies are selective underestimates as they are strongly driven by mortality, but do not include full quantification of the impact on morbidity and their consequences on quality of life among the diseased and the caregivers. Air pollution abatement strategies are usually political in nature, targeting at polities, regulation and technology in mobile or stationary sources rather than at individuals. It is of note that key clean air strategies converge into abatement of climate change. In general, energy consumption is very closely related to both air pollution and greenhouse gases. The dominant causes of both problems are the excessive and inefficient combustion of fossil fuel. Thus, for many policy options, the benefit of air pollution abatement will go far beyond what prudent health-impact assessments may derive. From a climate change and air pollution perspective, improved energy efficiency and a strong and decisive departure from the "fossil fuel" combustion society is a science-based must. Health professionals must raise their voices

  10. Experience with urban air pollution in Paterson, New Jersey and implications for air pollution communication.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2012-01-01

    Communication about air pollution can help reduce health risks, but a scattered, largely qualitative literature on air pollution beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors raises questions about its effectiveness. A telephone survey of Paterson, New Jersey (USA) residents tested four hypotheses aimed toward integrating these findings. Self-reported sheltering indoors during high pollution, the recommended strategy, was predicted by perceived air quality and self-reported "sensitivity" to air pollution. Nearly a quarter of the sample reported mandatory outdoor activity (e.g., work) that might increase their exposures, but this factor did not significantly affect self-reported sheltering. Perceptions of air quality did not correlate strongly with official monitoring data (U.S. Air Quality Index (AQI)); even people who regularly sought AQI data relied upon sensory cues to high pollution, and secondarily upon health cues. Use of sensory and health cues, definitions of what makes someone sensitive to air pollution, and (less strongly) definitions of vulnerability to air pollution varied widely. The minority aware of the AQI were more likely to seek it if they had illnesses or saw themselves in the targeted AQI audience, yet less likely if they believed themselves sensitive to pollution. However, their sense of the AQI's match to their own experience was driven by whether they used sensory (yes) or health (no) cues, not by illness status. Some urban residents might not have access to AQI data, but this barrier seems outweighed by need to bridge interpretive gaps over definitions of air pollution, sensory perception, vulnerability, and health consequences.

  11. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch - Rapid Response System for Local Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, T.; Sawada, Y.; Kamei, A.; Uchiyama, A.

    2015-12-01

    GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) launched in 2009 and its successor, GOSAT-2, to be launched in FY 2017, have push-broom imaging systems with more than one UV band with higher spatial resolution than OMI, MODIS, and VIIRS. Such imaging systems are useful for mapping the spatial extent of the optically thick air mass with particulate matters. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch, a rapid response system mainly using GOSAT CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager) data for local air pollution issues is being developed in NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) GOSAT-2 Project. The current design of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch has three data processing steps as follows: Step 1) Making a cloud mask Step 2) Estimating AOT (Aerosol Optical Thickness) in the UV region (380 nm for CAI) Step 3) Converting AOT to atmospheric pollution parameters such as PM2.5 concentration Data processing algorithms in GOSAT Air Pollution Watch are based on GOSAT/GOSAT-2 algorithms for aerosol product generation with some modification for faster and timely data processing. Data from GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be used to inform the general public the current distribution of the polluted air. In addition, they will contribute to short term prediction of the spatial extent of the polluted air using atmospheric transport models. In this presentation, the background, the current status, and the future prospect of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be reported together with the development status of GOSAT-2.

  12. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  13. Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Koren, H S

    1995-01-01

    The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated not only in the United States, but also in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the United States, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O3, sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM), NOx, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O3, SO2, PM, and NO2, and are therefore at risk. High SO2 and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO2. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO2 develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to PM is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM10 levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. Epidemiologic studies of

  14. Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurjar, B. R.; Jain, A.; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Gupta, P.; Nagpure, A. S.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO 2, NO 2 and total suspended particles (TSP), concentration-response relationships and a population attributable-risk proportion concept are employed. Results suggest that some megacities like Los Angeles, New York, Osaka Kobe, Sao Paulo and Tokyo have very low excess cases in total mortality from these pollutants. In contrast, the approximate numbers of cases is highest in Karachi (15,000/yr) characterized by a very high concentration of total TSP (˜670 μg m -3). Dhaka (7000/yr), Beijing (5500/yr), Karachi (5200/yr), Cairo (5000/yr) and Delhi (3500/yr) rank highest with cardiovascular mortality. The morbidity (hospital admissions) due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) follows the tendency of cardiovascular mortality. Dhaka and Karachi lead the rankings, having about 2100/yr excess cases, while Osaka-Kobe (˜20/yr) and Sao Paulo (˜50/yr) are at the low end of all megacities considered. Since air pollution is increasing in many megacities, and our database of measured pollutants is limited to the period up to 2000 and does not include all relevant components (e.g. O 3), these numbers should be interpreted as lower limits. South Asian megacities most urgently need improvement of air quality to prevent excess mortality and morbidity due to exceptionally high levels of air pollution. The risk estimates obtained from Ri-MAP present a realistic baseline evaluation for the consequences of ambient air pollution in comparison to simple air quality indices, and can be expanded and improved in parallel with the development of air pollution monitoring networks.

  15. Air Pollution Potential from Electroplating Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Philip

    Measurements were made of emission rates from electroplating operations considered to have maximum air pollution potential. Sampling was performed at McClellan and additional data from a previous survey at Hill Air Force Base was used. Values obtained were extremely low. Based on existing Federal standards, no collectors are specifically required…

  16. Variance Design and Air Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrar, Terry A.; Brownstein, Alan B.

    1975-01-01

    Air pollution control authorities were forced to relax air quality standards during the winter of 1972 by granting variances. This paper examines the institutional characteristics of these variance policies from an economic incentive standpoint, sets up desirable structural criteria for institutional design and arrives at policy guidelines for…

  17. Topics in Air Pollution Control (SI: 428).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampacek, Anne; Chaput, Linda

    This course provides information about air pollution control efforts since the passage of the Clean Air Act and places in perspective various issues that have arisen since passage of the act--significant deterioration, maintenance of standards, indirect source review, and transportation controls. Court decisions affecting these issues are cited…

  18. Urban Air Pollution: State of the Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seinfeld, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the highly complex mixture of gaseous and particulate matter found in urban air. Explains progress made in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of air pollution, the effects of precursors on ozone, the role of biogenic hydrocarbons, and the principal benefit of methanol-fueled vehicles. (RT)

  19. Mobile Sensors and Applications for Air Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Executive Summary The public has long been interested in understanding what pollutants are in the air they breathe so they can best protect their environmental health and welfare. The current air quality monitoring network consists of discrete stations with expensive equipment ...

  20. Elderly exposure to indoor air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Wolterbeek, H. T.; Almeida, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the indoor air quality in Elderly Care Centers (ECCs) in order to assess the elders' daily exposure to air pollutants. Ten ECCs hosting 384 elderly were selected in Lisbon and Loures. Firstly, a time-budget survey was created based on questionnaires applied in the studied sites. Results showed that in average elders spend 95% of their time indoors splitted between bedrooms and living-rooms. Therefore, a set of physical and chemical parameters were measured continuously during the occupancy period in these two indoor micro-environments and in the outdoor. Results showed that indoor was the main environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure living in ECCs. In the indoor, the principal micro-environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure varied between bedrooms and living-rooms depending not only on the characteristics of the ECCs but also on the pollutants. The concentrations of CO2, VOCt, O3 and PM10 exceeded the limit values predominantly due to the insufficient ventilation preconized in the studied sites.

  1. Monitoring human exposure to urban air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Barale, R.; Barrai, I.; Sbrana, I.; Migliore, L.; Marrazzini, A.; Scarcelli, V.; Bacci, E.; Di Sibio, A.; Tessa, A.; Cocchi, L.; Lubrano, V.; Vassalle, C.; He, J.

    1993-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study on a general population exposed to vehicle exhaust was undertaken in Pisa in 1991. Environmental factors such as air pollution and those associated with lifestyle were studied. Meanwhile, biological and medical indicators of health condition were investigated. Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronuclei in lymphocytes were included for the assessment of the genotoxic risk. Because of the large number (3800) of subjects being investigated, standardization of protocols was compulsory. The results on data reproducibility are reported. To assess the reliability of the protocol on a large scale, the population of Porto Tolle, a village located in northeast Italy, was studied and compared to a subset of the Pisa population. Preliminary results showed that probable differences between the two populations and invididuals were present in terms of SCE frequencies. The study was potentially able to detect the effects of several factors such as age, smoking, genetics, and environment. The in vitro treatment of lymphocytes with diepoxybutane confirmed the presence of more responsive individuals and permitted us to investigate the genetic predisposition to genetic damage. The possible influence of environmental factors was studied by correlation analyses with external exposure to air pollutants as well as with several lifestyle factors. PMID:8143653

  2. Measurement of toxic and related air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Gay, B.W. Jr.

    1990-12-01

    A joint conference for the fifth straight year cosponsored by the Air and Waste Management Association's EM-3, EM-4, and ITF-2 technical committees, and the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency, was held in Raleigh, North Carolina, May 1-4, 1990. The technical program consisted of 187 presentations, held in 20 technical sessions, on recent advances in the measurement and monitoring of toxic and related pollutants found in ambient and source atmospheres. Covering a wide range of measurement topics and supported by 66 exhibitors of instrumentation and consulting services, the symposium was attended by more than 850 professionals from the US and other countries. This overview highlights a selection of the technical presentations. A synopsis of the keynote address to the symposium is also included. Presentations include: (1) radon, (2) atmospheric chemistry and fate of toxic pollutants, (3) supercritical fluid extraction, (4) acidic deposition, (5) determination of polar and volatile organic pollutants in ambient air, (6) Delaware Superfund innovative technology evaluation (SITE) study, (7) mobile sources emissions characterization, (8) Superfund site air monitoring, (9) exposure assessment, (10) chemometrics and environmental data analysis, (11) nicotine in environmental tobacco smoke, (12) source monitoring, (13) effects of air toxics on plants, (14) measurement of volatile organic pollutants, (15) general, (16) air pollution dispersion modeling, (17) measurement of hazardous waste emissions, (18) measurement of indoor toxic air contaminants, and (19) environmental quality assurance.

  3. The status of indoor air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Esmen, N A

    1985-01-01

    Indoor air pollution, specifically restricted in its meaning to chemicals in home indoor air environment, presents a new and probably an important challenge to the researchers of the air pollution field. The general overview of this topic suggests that the voluminous data generated in the past ten or so years have only defined the rudiments of the problem, and significant areas of research still exist. Among the important areas where information is lacking, the exposures to contaminants generated by the use of consumer products and through hobbies and crafts represent perhaps the most urgent need for substantial research. PMID:4085429

  4. Air pollution measurements in traffic tunnels.

    PubMed

    De Fré, R; Bruynseraede, P; Kretzschmar, J G

    1994-10-01

    Air pollution measurements during April 1991 are reported from the Craeybeckx highway tunnel in Antwerp, Belgium. The tunnel was used daily by an average of 45,000 vehicles, of which 60% were gasoline fueled passenger cars, 20% diesel cars, and 20% trucks. Of the gasoline cars, only 3% had three-way catalysts. Tunnel air concentrations of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and lead are presented. The traffic emissions in the tunnel are calculated by the carbon balance method, which uses the increase of the total carbon concentration in the tunnel air as the reference quantity. Division of the concentration of any pollutant by the total carbon concentration gives emission factors per kilogram of carbon. These emission factors can be converted directly to emissions relative to fuel consumption or per kilometer. The fraction of diesel used in the tunnel was derived from sulphur to carbon ratios in tunnel air. A calculation procedure with breakdown of emission factors according to vehicle categories was used to estimate countrywide emissions. The estimated emissions were compared to results from the Flanders Emissions Inventory [Emissie Inventaris Vlaamse Regio (EIVR)] and calculated emissions according to the emission factors proposed by the European Commissions CORINAIR Working Group. For NOx there is excellent agreement. For carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, the tunnel data produced higher emissions than the CORINAIR model would predict but lower than the official EIVR statistics. The estimated lead emissions from traffic are found to be 22 to 29% of the lead in gasoline.

  5. Evaluating strategies to reduce urban air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, L.; Relvas, H.; Silveira, C.; Ferreira, J.; Monteiro, A.; Gama, C.; Rafael, S.; Freitas, S.; Borrego, C.; Miranda, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    During the last years, specific air quality problems have been detected in the urban area of Porto (Portugal). Both PM10 and NO2 limit values have been surpassed in several air quality monitoring stations and, following the European legislation requirements, Air Quality Plans were designed and implemented to reduce those levels. In this sense, measures to decrease PM10 and NO2 emissions have been selected, these mainly related to the traffic sector, but also regarding the industrial and residential combustion sectors. The main objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of these reduction measures with regard to the improvement of PM10 and NO2 concentration levels over the Porto urban region using a numerical modelling tool - The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). TAPM was applied over the study region, for a simulation domain of 80 × 80 km2 with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km2. The entire year of 2012 was simulated and set as the base year for the analysis of the impacts of the selected measures. Taking into account the main activity sectors, four main scenarios have been defined and simulated, with focus on: (1) hybrid cars; (2) a Low Emission Zone (LEZ); (3) fireplaces and (4) industry. The modelling results indicate that measures to reduce PM10 should be focused on residential combustion (fireplaces) and industrial activity and for NO2 the strategy should be based on the traffic sector. The implementation of all the defined scenarios will allow a total maximum reduction of 4.5% on the levels of both pollutants.

  6. Infrared Photography as an Air Pollution Surveillance Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalinuovo, Anthony F.; Sawan, Alan

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the practicality of infrared photographic analysis to air pollution agencies, by the detection of plant damage from pollutants before they are visually identifiable. Results showed that photomicrographic imaging using infrared radiation should be considered a viable surveillance tool in similiar…

  7. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-Yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-Di; Hu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and venous thrombosis. Using a random-effects model, overall risk estimates were derived for each increment of 10 μg/m3 of pollutant concentration. Of the 485 in-depth reviewed studies, 8 citations, involving approximately 700,000 events, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the main air pollutants analyzed were not associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (OR = 1.005, 95% CI = 0.998–1.012 for PM2.5; OR = 0.995, 95% CI = 0.984–1.007 for PM10; OR = 1.006, 95% CI = 0.994–1.019 for NO2). Based on exposure period and thrombosis location, additional subgroup analyses provided results comparable with those of the overall analyses. There was no evidence of publication bias. Therefore, this meta analysis does not suggest the possible role of air pollution as risk factor for venous thrombosis in general population. PMID:27600652

  8. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-Yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-Di; Hu, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and venous thrombosis. Using a random-effects model, overall risk estimates were derived for each increment of 10 μg/m3 of pollutant concentration. Of the 485 in-depth reviewed studies, 8 citations, involving approximately 700,000 events, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the main air pollutants analyzed were not associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (OR = 1.005, 95% CI = 0.998–1.012 for PM2.5; OR = 0.995, 95% CI = 0.984–1.007 for PM10; OR = 1.006, 95% CI = 0.994–1.019 for NO2). Based on exposure period and thrombosis location, additional subgroup analyses provided results comparable with those of the overall analyses. There was no evidence of publication bias. Therefore, this meta analysis does not suggest the possible role of air pollution as risk factor for venous thrombosis in general population.

  9. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-Yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-Di; Hu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and venous thrombosis. Using a random-effects model, overall risk estimates were derived for each increment of 10 μg/m(3) of pollutant concentration. Of the 485 in-depth reviewed studies, 8 citations, involving approximately 700,000 events, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the main air pollutants analyzed were not associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (OR = 1.005, 95% CI = 0.998-1.012 for PM2.5; OR = 0.995, 95% CI = 0.984-1.007 for PM10; OR = 1.006, 95% CI = 0.994-1.019 for NO2). Based on exposure period and thrombosis location, additional subgroup analyses provided results comparable with those of the overall analyses. There was no evidence of publication bias. Therefore, this meta analysis does not suggest the possible role of air pollution as risk factor for venous thrombosis in general population. PMID:27600652

  10. [Air pollution and health - counselling options for physicians].

    PubMed

    Künzli, Nino; Kutlar, Meltem

    2013-12-01

    While air quality is usually an environmental condition patients can little do about, there are a few options and decisions that modify the personal exposure and risk. Location - in particular the residence - time and activity are the key determinants of personal exposure. Traffic-related primary pollutants such as ultrafine particles or diesel soot are highly concentrated along busy roads but reach urban background concentrations already some 100 - 200 meters off. Morbidity and mortality follow this spatial pattern, which is usually attributed to these pollutants. Depending on ventilation systems, indoor exposure can be substantially lower. Studies done in China confirm that the use of face masks in extremely polluted cities can reduce exposure, resulting in lower inflammatory and cardiovascular responses. A diet rich in antioxidants appears to also reduce some of the oxidative and inflammatory effects of air pollution and treatments such as leucotrien receptor antagonists or statins pay interfere with some of the adverse effects of pollution. However, the benefits, if any, are unlikely to be large. A quantitative comparison of the various pollution related health effects - namely from smoking, passive smoking and air pollution - reveal a typical paradox to be well understood: the individual risks related to air pollution and that one may reduce through personal decisions are rather small. However, given the large number of people exposed (i. e. in essence the entire population), the overall air pollution related health burden is rather substantial. This underscores that sustained clean air policies are indeed the most important and efficient solution to reduce the air pollution related health effects.

  11. Results of the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-2013: Impact of natural gas appliances on air pollutant concentrations

    DOE PAGES

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Russell, Marion L.; Spears, Michael; Less, Brennan D.; Singer, Brett C.

    2015-03-17

    This study was conducted to assess the current impact of natural gas appliances on air quality in California homes. Data were collected via telephone interviews and measurements inside and outside of 352 homes. Passive samplers measured time-resolved CO and time-integrated NOX, NO2, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde over ~6d periods in November 2011 - April 2012 and October 2012 - March 2013. The fraction of indoor NOX and NO2 attributable to indoor sources was estimated. NOX, NO2 and highest 1-h CO were higher in homes that cooked with gas and increased with amount of gas cooking. NOX and NO2 were higher inmore » homes with cooktop pilot burners, relative to gas cooking without pilots. Homes with a pilot burner on a floor or wall furnace had higher kitchen and bedroom NOX and NO2 compared to homes without a furnace pilot. When scaled to account for varying home size and mixing volume, indoor-attributed bedroom and kitchen NOX and kitchen NO2 were not higher in homes with wall or floor furnace pilot burners, though bedroom NO2 was higher. In homes that cooked 4 h or more with gas, self-reported use of kitchen exhaust was associated with lower NOX, NO2 and highest 1-h CO. Gas appliances were not associated with higher concentrations of formaldehyde or acetaldehyde.« less

  12. Results of the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-2013: impact of natural gas appliances on air pollutant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mullen, N A; Li, J; Russell, M L; Spears, M; Less, B D; Singer, B C

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the current impact of natural gas appliances on air quality in California homes. Data were collected via telephone interviews and measurements inside and outside of 352 homes. Passive samplers measured time-resolved CO and time-integrated NOX , NO2 , formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde over ~6-day periods in November 2011 - April 2012 and October 2012 - March 2013. The fraction of indoor NOX and NO2 attributable to indoor sources was estimated. NOX , NO2 , and highest 1-h CO were higher in homes that cooked with gas and increased with amount of gas cooking. NOX and NO2 were higher in homes with cooktop pilot burners, relative to gas cooking without pilots. Homes with a pilot burner on a floor or wall furnace had higher kitchen and bedroom NOX and NO2 compared to homes without a furnace pilot. When scaled to account for varying home size and mixing volume, indoor-attributed bedroom and kitchen NOX and kitchen NO2 were not higher in homes with wall or floor furnace pilot burners, although bedroom NO2 was higher. In homes that cooked 4 h or more with gas, self-reported use of kitchen exhaust was associated with lower NOX , NO2 , and highest 1-h CO. Gas appliances were not associated with higher concentrations of formaldehyde or acetaldehyde.

  13. Regional emissions of air pollutants in China.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.

    1998-10-05

    As part of the China-MAP program, sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, regional inventories of air pollutants emitted in China are being characterized, in order that the atmospheric chemistry over China can be more fully understood and the resulting ambient concentrations in Chinese cities and the deposition levels to Chinese ecosystems be determined with better confidence. In addition, the contributions of greenhouse gases from China and of acidic aerosols that counteract global warming are being quantified. This paper presents preliminary estimates of the emissions of some of the major air pollutants in China: sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon (C). Emissions are estimated for each of the 27 regions of China included in the RAINS-Asia simulation model and are subsequently distributed to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} grid using appropriate disaggregation factors. Emissions from all sectors of the Chinese economy are considered, including the combustion of biofuels in rural homes. Emissions from larger power plants are calculated individually and allocated to the grid accordingly. Data for the period 1990-1995 are being developed, as well as projections for the future under alternative assumptions about economic growth and environmental control.

  14. Results of the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-2013: Impact of natural gas appliances on air pollutant concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Russell, Marion L.; Spears, Michael; Less, Brennan D.; Singer, Brett C.

    2015-03-17

    This study was conducted to assess the current impact of natural gas appliances on air quality in California homes. Data were collected via telephone interviews and measurements inside and outside of 352 homes. Passive samplers measured time-resolved CO and time-integrated NOX, NO2, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde over ~6d periods in November 2011 - April 2012 and October 2012 - March 2013. The fraction of indoor NOX and NO2 attributable to indoor sources was estimated. NOX, NO2 and highest 1-h CO were higher in homes that cooked with gas and increased with amount of gas cooking. NOX and NO2 were higher in homes with cooktop pilot burners, relative to gas cooking without pilots. Homes with a pilot burner on a floor or wall furnace had higher kitchen and bedroom NOX and NO2 compared to homes without a furnace pilot. When scaled to account for varying home size and mixing volume, indoor-attributed bedroom and kitchen NOX and kitchen NO2 were not higher in homes with wall or floor furnace pilot burners, though bedroom NO2 was higher. In homes that cooked 4 h or more with gas, self-reported use of kitchen exhaust was associated with lower NOX, NO2 and highest 1-h CO. Gas appliances were not associated with higher concentrations of formaldehyde or acetaldehyde.

  15. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... itself. Household chemical cleaners Use baking soda or vinegar and water as household cleaners. For a job ... after each use by using one-part white vinegar to three-parts water. Let the pieces air- ...

  16. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2014-04-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed.

  17. Mode of action of air pollutants in injuring horticultural plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbitts, T.W.; Kobriger, J.M.

    1983-10-01

    An attempt has been made to condense the great volume of literature for many different air pollutants and from many different plant systems. Only those responses that have been reported for several species are emphasized and the discussion is limited to responses obtained with intact plants. The general outline provides a focus; uptake becomes the crucial aspect of whether or not plants are injured by air pollutants. Pollutants must get into the plant to cause injury and the primary portal of entry is through the open stomata. Once into the plant, pollutants alter biochemical reactions, resulting in cell injury and causing economic losses for horticulturists. The authors have developed this outline for the pollutants sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), hydrogen fluoride (HF), ozone (O/sub 3/), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), which are the most common and and most damaging gaseous pollutants in the ambient environment.

  18. Overview of Megacity Air Pollutant Emissions and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, C. E.

    2013-05-01

    The urban metabolism that characterizes major cities consumes very large qualities of humanly produced and/or processed food, fuel, water, electricity, construction materials and manufactured goods, as well as, naturally provided sunlight, precipitation and atmospheric oxygen. The resulting urban respiration exhalations add large quantities of trace gas and particulate matter pollutants to urban atmospheres. Key classes of urban primary air pollutants and their sources will be reviewed and important secondary pollutants identified. The impacts of these pollutants on urban and downwind regional inhabitants, ecosystems, and climate will be discussed. Challenges in quantifying the temporally and spatially resolved urban air pollutant emissions and secondary pollutant production rates will be identified and possible measurement strategies evaluated.

  19. Motor Vehicles, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jason

    2000-04-01

    Despite years of technical progress, motor vehicles continue to be a leading cause of environmental damage in the United States. For example, today's cars and trucks are the largest source of air pollution in many urban areas. US motor vehicles also account for 25 percent of the nation's carbon emissions, more than most countries emit from all sources combined. Fortunately, a host of technical improvements are emerging that could go a long ways towards taking vehicles out of the pollution picture. In the near-term, improving on the century-old internal combustion engine can deliver much-needed incremental gains. But electric drive vehicles--whether powered by batteries, small engines in hybrid configuration, or fuel cells--ultimately offer the greatest promise. Such technologies could dramatically reduce energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and key air pollutants. The bulk of technical attention in recent years has been focused on improving the passenger vehicle, which will be the dominant energy consumer in the transportation sector for years to come. But freight trucks are also of growing concern, both because their contribution to global warming is on the rise and because serious questions are being raised about the public health impact of diesel technology. As a result, heavy trucks are emerging as a priority issue. Capitalizing on the opportunity presented by new technologies will not only require continued technical innovation but also policy action. As research into improved engines, fuels, and drive systems bears fruit over the coming years, aggressive and prudent policies will ensure that these new options make it onto the road and deliver on their environmental promise.

  20. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  1. Air pollution and allergy: experimental studies on modulation of allergen release from pollen by air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, H; Becker, W M; Fritzsche, C; Sliwa-Tomczok, W; Tomczok, J; Friedrichs, K H; Ring, J

    1997-01-01

    The fact that allergic diseases increase in prevalence is a generally accepted and worldwide phenomenon. The causes for this increase are not known: only hypothetical concepts exist. Epidemiological studies comparing Eastern and Western European populations have shown a striking difference in the prevalence of respiratory atopic diseases, which is lower in the East. At the same time, different patterns of air pollution have been described, namely 'classical' type I, characterized by SO2 and dust prevailing in the East, and 'modern' type II, characterized by organic compounds, fine particles and ozone, which is more prominent in the West. Type II was associated in multivariate regression analysis with increased prevalence of IgE-mediated allergy. Pollen grains collected from industrial regions with high polyaromatic hydrocarbon load in West Germany, but not in East Germany, were shown to be agglomerated with airborne particles. In vitro exposure of pollen to particles indicated morphological changes and increased allergen release from the pollen. In vitro exposure of pollen to gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NO2) under different conditions of humidity resulted in SO2-induced, but not NO2-induced reduction of allergen release from pollen. It is concluded that the bioavailability of grass pollen allergens may be modulated by air pollutants, supporting the concept of an interaction between pollen and pollutants in the atmosphere outside the organism which in turn may affect allergy-relevant phenomena.

  2. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  3. Australians are not equally protected from industrial air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, B.; Green, D.

    2015-05-01

    Australian air pollution standards are set at national and state levels for a number of chemicals harmful to human health. However, these standards do not need to be met when ad hoc pollution licences are issued by state environment agencies. This situation results in a highly unequal distribution of air pollution between towns and cities, and across the country. This paper examines these pollution regulations through two case studies, specifically considering the ability of the regulatory regime to protect human health from lead and sulphur dioxide pollution in the communities located around smelters. It also considers how the proposed National Clean Air Agreement, once enacted, might serve to reduce this pollution equity problem. Through the case studies we show that there are at least three discrete concerns relating to the current licencing system. They are: non-onerous emission thresholds for polluting industry; temporal averaging thresholds masking emission spikes; and ineffective penalties for breaching licence agreements. In conclusion, we propose a set of new, legally-binding national minimum standards for industrial air pollutants must be developed and enforced, which can only be modified by more (not less) stringent state licence arrangements.

  4. Air pollution in autoimmune rheumatic diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Sylvia C L; Silva, Clovis A; Orione, Maria Angelica M; Campos, Lucia M A; Sallum, Adriana M E; Braga, Alfésio L F

    2011-11-01

    Air pollution consists of a heterogeneous mixture of gasses and particles that include carbon monoxide, nitrates, sulfur dioxide, ozone, lead, toxic by-product of tobacco smoke and particulate matter. Oxidative stress and inflammation induced by inhaled pollutants may result in acute and chronic disorders in the respiratory system, as well as contribute to a state of systemic inflammation and autoimmunity. This paper reviews the mechanisms of air contaminants influencing the immune response and autoimmunity, and it focuses on studies of inhaled pollutants triggering and/or exacerbating rheumatic diseases in cities around the world. Remarkably, environmental factors contribute to the onset of autoimmune diseases, especially smoking and occupational exposure to silica in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Other diseases such as scleroderma may be triggered by the inhalation of chemical solvents, herbicides and silica. Likewise, primary vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) may be triggered by silica exposure. Only few studies showed that air pollutants could trigger or exacerbate juvenile idiopathic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In contrast, no studies of tropospheric pollution triggering inflammatory myopathies and spondyloarthropathies were carried out. In conclusion, air pollution is one of the environmental factors involved in systemic inflammation and autoimmunity. Further studies are needed in order to evaluate air pollutants and their potentially serious effects on autoimmune rheumatic diseases and the mechanisms involved in the onset and the exacerbation of these diseases.

  5. School Students' Ideas about Air Pollution: Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, George; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The understanding of pupils in schools in England between the ages of 11 and 16 about air and air pollution has been studied using a closed-form questionnaire with over a thousand students. Items for the questionnaire were derived from the results of an earlier open-form questionnaire completed by a smaller number of students. The ideas explored…

  6. Associations between ambient air pollution and bone turnover markers in 10-year old children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuang; Fuertes, Elaine; Flexeder, Claudia; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Berdel, Dietrich; Hoffmann, Barbara; Kratzsch, Jürgen; von Berg, Andrea; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Negative associations between bone turnover markers and bone mineral density have been reported. In order to study the association between ambient air pollution and bone turnover markers, as indicators of bone loss, we investigated associations between land-use regression modeled air pollution (NO2, PM2.5 mass, PM2.5 - 10 [coarse particles], PM10 mass and PM2.5 absorbance) and bone turnover markers in 2264 children aged 10 years. Serum osteocalcin and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), measured by Modular-System (Roche), were the two bone turnover markers considered in this analysis. In total population, NO2, PM2.5 - 10 and PM10 mass exposure were positively and significantly associated with both osteocalcin and CTx. A 2.5 (95% CI: 0.6, 4.4) ng/ml increase in osteocalcin and a 24.0 (95% CI: 6.7, 41.3) ng/L increase in CTx were observed per IQR (6.7μg/m(3)) increase in NO2, independent of socioeconomic status, sex, age, pubertal status, fasting status and total physical activity. The estimated coefficients were 3.0 (95% CI: 0.1, 5.8) for osteocalcin and 32.3 (95% CI: 6.1, 58.5) for CTx with PM2.5 - 10; 3.2 (95% CI: 0.0, 6.4) for osteocalcin and 30.7 (95% CI: 1.7, 59.7) for CTx with PM10. Children living close to a major road (≤ 350m) had higher levels of both osteocalcin (1.4 [-1.2, 4.0] ng/ml) and CTx (16.2 [-7.4, 39.8] ng/L). The adverse impact of ambient air pollution on bone turnover rates observed in one of the study areas showed stimulation of more such studies.

  7. Acute Health Impact of Air Pollution in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, T.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, M.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution not only has long term health impact, but can affect health through acute exposure. This paper, using air pollution index (API) as overall evaluation of air quality, blood pressure and vital capacity as health outcomes, focuses on the acute health impact of air pollution in China. Current result suggests that after controlling smoking history, occupational exposure, income and education, API is positively associated with blood pressure and negatively associated with vital capacity. The associations became stronger for people with hypertension or pulmonary functional diseases, which indicates that these people are more sensitive to air pollution. Among three pollutants which API measures, that is inhalable particles (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), PM10 is most statistically associated with blood pressure increase and vital capacity decrease. Further study will focusing on the following two questions. The first question is how various time lags affect the associations among API, blood pressure and vital capacity. The second question is how differently people in various cohorts reacts to acute exposure to air pollution. The differences in reactions of blood pressure and vital capacity between people in urban and rural areas, genders, various age cohorts, distinct income and education groups will be further studied.

  8. Energy use, emissions and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Foell, W.; Green, C.; Sarkar, A.; Legler, J.

    1995-12-31

    The pace of economic progress and development experienced in many Asian countries has not occurred without costs to the natural environment. In particular, energy policies and technologies are a primary driving force behind air pollution problems arising from air pollution emissions in Asia. Economic growth, energy use, and reliance on fossil fuels are experiencing extremely high growth throughout most of the continent. Electric power expansion plans in many countries of Asia, particularly China and India, call for substantial increases in coal combustion. In the 1990`s, two-thirds of all power related investments in developing countries will be in Asia. In contrast to the situation in Europe and North America, emissions of air pollution species in Asia are increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air pollution problems and higher acidic deposition in many regions. In general, most Asian countries do not have a strong scientific nor public constituency for addressing potentially serious air pollution problems impacting important economic and cultural activities such as forestry, agriculture, and tourism. The complex political ramifications of trans-boundary air pollution in Asia have not yet begun to be addressed.

  9. Influence of air pollution on extrinsic childhood asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Berciano, F.A.; Dominguez, J.; Alvarez, F.V.

    1989-02-01

    A crossed comparative study was done with 248 extrinsic asthmatic children living either in polluted or non-polluted areas (mean emission per year of sedimentary material greater than or less than 300 mg/m2/day, respectively) to establish the influence of air pollution on childhood extrinsic asthma. The mean number of wheezing crises per year was significantly higher for the children living in polluted areas (10.4 versus 7.69). In addition, incidence of severe asthma (types II, III, and IV) in children living in polluted areas was markedly increased whereas the slight form of asthma (type I) was more frequent in children living in non-polluted areas. No correlation, however, between the wheezing episodes and levels of atmospheric contaminants (fumes and SO/sub 2/) was detected when a group of 84 extrinsic asthmatic children living in polluted areas was studied longitudinally for a year. The data indicate that air pollution, as an isolated agent, plays a transient role in the appearance of wheezing episodes in subjects with extrinsic asthma. Results also suggest that the air pollution may potentiate wheezing episodes via alternative mechanisms.

  10. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan... pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not provide complete... District (SCAQMD). (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey Bay Unified...

  11. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan... pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not provide complete... District (SCAQMD). (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey Bay Unified...

  12. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan... pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not provide complete... District (SCAQMD). (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey Bay Unified...

  13. Identifying the contribution of different urban highway air pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Peace, H; Owen, B; Raper, D W

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results, and draws conclusions from a large-scale source apportionment study undertaken in a large urban conurbation in the northwest of England. Annual average oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission and ambient air pollution contributions have been estimated for road traffic sources. Ground level air pollution concentrations were estimated over a 1552-km(2) area with a resolution of up to 20 m, using emissions estimates and the second generation ADMS-Urban Gaussian dispersion model. Road traffic emissions were split into car and motorcycles; heavy and light goods vehicles; and buses to represent domestic users; commercial users and bus companies. Car related emissions were split further in to journey lengths under 3 km; journeys between 3 and 8 km; and journeys over 8 km to represent journeys which could be either walked or cycled; journeys for which a bus can easily be used and other journeys. These source sections were chosen so that the relevant authorities could target key groups in terms of reducing air pollution. The results confirm that the areas most likely to exceed air quality objectives are typically close to main arterial routes and close to urban centres and that the major culprits of road traffic related air pollution are goods vehicles and car journeys over 8 km. The paper also discusses the implications of the results and suggests how these can be used in the assessment of actions to reduce air pollution concentrations. PMID:15504521

  14. Air Pollution and Acid Rain, Report 5. The effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats: rivers and streams

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, W.; Chang, B.K.Y.

    1982-06-01

    This report on rivers and streams is part of a series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and acid deposition on fish and wildlife resources. The effects of photochemical oxidants, particulates, and acidifying air pollutants on water quality and river and stream biota are summarized. The characteristics that reflect river and stream sensitivity to air pollutants, in particular acidifying pollutants, are presented. Socioeconomic aspects of air pollution impacts on river and stream ecosystems are discussed. 71 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Committee on air pollution effects research: 40 years of UK air pollution.

    PubMed

    Fowler, David; Dise, Nancy; Sheppard, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The UK Committee on Air Pollution Effects Research (CAPER) was established 40 years ago. This special section was compiled to mark this anniversary. During this time there have been dramatic changes in the composition of the air over the UK. The four papers in this special section of Environmental Pollution represent the current air pollution effects research focus on ozone and nitrogen deposition, two related issues and are proving from a policy perspective to be quite intractable issues. The UK CAPER research community continues to advance the underpinning science and engages closely with the user community in government departments.

  16. Ambient air pollution, climate change, and population health in China.

    PubMed

    Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Tong, Shilu

    2012-07-01

    As the largest developing country, China has been changing rapidly over the last three decades and its economic expansion is largely driven by the use of fossil fuels, which leads to a dramatic increase in emissions of both ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). China is now facing the worst air pollution problem in the world, and is also the largest emitter of carbon dioxide. A number of epidemiological studies on air pollution and population health have been conducted in China, using time-series, case-crossover, cross-sectional, cohort, panel or intervention designs. The increased health risks observed among Chinese population are somewhat lower in magnitude, per amount of pollution, than the risks found in developed countries. However, the importance of these increased health risks is greater than that in North America or Europe, because the levels of air pollution in China are very high in general and Chinese population accounts for more than one fourth of the world's totals. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that climate change has already affected human health directly and indirectly in China, including mortality from extreme weather events; changes in air and water quality; and changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. If China acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the resultant air pollution, it will reap not only the health benefits associated with improvement of air quality but also the reduced GHG emissions. Consideration of the health impact of air pollution and climate change can help the Chinese government move forward towards sustainable development with appropriate urgency.

  17. Ambient Air Pollution and Birth Defects in Brisbane, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Craig A.; Barnett, Adrian G.; Jalaludin, Bin B.; Morgan, Geoffrey G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Birth defects are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality. Observational studies have linked environmental pollution to adverse birth outcomes, including congenital anomalies. This study examined potential associations between ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects and cleft lip or palate among births in Brisbane, Australia (1998–2004). Methods Ambient air pollution levels were averaged over weeks 3–8 of pregnancy among 150,308 births. Using a case–control design, we used conditional logistic regression and matched cases to 5 controls. Analyses were conducted using all births, and then births where the mother resided within 6 and 12 kilometers of an ambient air quality monitor. Findings When analyzing all births there was no indication that ambient air pollution in Brisbane was associated with a higher risk of cardiac defects. Among births where the mother resided within 6 kilometers of an ambient air quality monitor, a 5 ppb increase in O3 was associated with an increased risk of pulmonary artery and valve defects (OR 2.96, 95% CI: 1.34, 7.52) while a 0.6 ppb increase in SO2 was associated with an increased risk of aortic artery and valve defects (OR 10.76, 95% CI: 1.50, 179.8). For oral cleft defects among all births, the only adverse association was between SO2 and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.62). However, various significant inverse associations were also found between air pollutants and birth defects. Conclusions This study found mixed results and it is difficult to conclude whether ambient air pollution in Brisbane has an adverse association with the birth defects examined. Studies using more detailed estimates of air pollution exposure are needed. PMID:19404385

  18. Air pollution induces heritable DNA mutations

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Christopher M.; Yauk, Carole L.; White, Paul A.; Parfett, Craig L. J.; Quinn, James S.

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of people worldwide live or work in close proximity to steel mills. Integrated steel production generates chemical pollution containing compounds that can induce genetic damage (1, 2). Previous investigations of herring gulls in the Great Lakes demonstrated elevated DNA mutation rates near steel mills (3, 4) but could not determine the importance of airborne or aquatic routes of contaminant exposure, or eliminate possible confounding factors such as nutritional status and disease burden. To address these issues experimentally, we exposed laboratory mice in situ to ambient air in a polluted industrial area near steel mills. Heritable mutation frequency at tandem-repeat DNA loci in mice exposed 1 km downwind from two integrated steel mills was 1.5- to 2.0-fold elevated compared with those at a reference site 30 km away. This statistically significant elevation was due primarily to an increase in mutations inherited through the paternal germline. Our results indicate that human and wildlife populations in proximity to integrated steel mills may be at risk of developing germline mutations more frequently because of the inhalation of airborne chemical mutagens. PMID:12473746

  19. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

  20. EVALUATING SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. mission factors developed in test chambers can be use...

  1. HANDBOOK: CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual is a revision of the first (1986) edition of the Handbook: Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants, which incorporated information from numerous sources into a single, self-contained reference source focusing on the design and cost of VOC and partic...

  2. Tracking far-range volcanogenic air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boichu, Marie; Chiapello, Isabelle; Goloub, Phillipe; Péré, Jean-Christophe; Thieuleux, François; Blarel, Luc; Podvin, Thierry; Mortier, Augustin; Brogniez, Colette; Sohne, Nathalie; Theys, Nicolas; Van Roozendael, Michel; Clarisse, Lieven; Bauduin, Sophie; Tanré, Didier

    2016-04-01

    The 2014-15 Holuhraun lava-flood eruption of Bárdarbunga volcano (Iceland) emitted prodigious amounts of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. This eruption triggered a long-distance episode of air pollution in September 2014, the first event of this magnitude recorded in the modern era. We gathered a wealth of complementary observations from satellite sensors (OMI, IASI), ground-based remote sensing (lidar, sunphotometry, differential optical absorption spectroscopy) and ground-level air quality monitoring networks to characterize both the spatial distribution of volcanic SO2 and aerosols as well as the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer. We take advantage of this exceptional panel of observations to quantitatively test our modeling ability to retrospectively simulate this event of far-range air pollution. Although the model captures the correct temporal dynamics, it fails to reproduce the intensity of the pollution. Paths worth exploring to get prepared to accurately forecast a future large-scale event of volcanogenic air pollution are discussed.

  3. Changing the Paradigm of Air Pollution Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, approaches for monitoring air pollution generally use expensive, complex, stationary equipment,1,2 which limits who collects data, why data are collected, and how data are accessed. This paradigm is changing with the materialization of lower-cost, easy-to...

  4. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  5. Implications of air pollution effects on athletic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E.; Covert, D.S.; Koenig, J.Q.; Namekata, T.; Kim, Y.S.

    1986-06-01

    Both controlled human studies and observational studies suggest that air pollution adversely affects athletic performance during both training and competition. The air pollution dosage during exercise is much higher than during rest because of a higher ventilatory rate and both nasal and oral breathing in the former case. For example, sulfur dioxide, which is a highly water-soluble gas, is almost entirely absorbed in the upper respiratory tract during nasal breathing. However, with oral pharyngeal breathing, the amount of sulfur dioxide that is absorbed is significantly less, and with exercise and oral pharyngeal breathing a significant decrease in upper airway absorption occurs, resulting in a significantly larger dosage of this pollutant being delivered to the tracheobronchial tree. Recently, several controlled human studies have shown that the combination of exercise and pollutant exposure (SO/sub 2/ or O/sub 3/) caused a marked bronchoconstriction and reduced ventilatory flow when compared to pollution exposure at rest. In a situation like the Olympic Games where milliseconds and millimeters often determine the success of athletes, air pollution can be an important factor in affecting their performance. This paper examines possible impacts of air pollution on athletic competition.

  6. Review: Implications of air pollution effects on athletic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, William E.; Covert, David S.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Namekata, Tsukasa; Kim, Yoon Shin

    Both controlled human studies and observational studies suggest air pollution adversely affects athletic performance during both training and competition. The air pollution dosage during exercise is much higher than during rest because of a higher ventilatory rate and both nasal and oral breathing in the former case. For example, SO 2 which is a highly water soluble gas, is almost entirely absorbed in the upper respiratory tract during nasal breathing. However, with oral pharyngeal breathing, the amount of sulfur dioxide that is absorbed is significantly less, and with exercise and oral pharyngeal breathing a significant decrease in upper airway absorption occurs, resulting in a significantly larger dosage of this pollutant being delivered to the tracheobronchial tree. Recently, several controlled human studies have shown that the combination of exercise and pollutant exposure (SO 2 or O 3) caused a marked bronchoconstriction and reduced ventilatory flow when compared with pollution exposure at rest. In a situation like the Olympic Games where ms and mm often determine success of athletes, air pollution can be an important factor in affecting their performance. This paper examines possible impacts of air pollution on athletic competition.

  7. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  8. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  9. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  10. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  11. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  12. Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

  13. Exposure measurement for air-pollution epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, B.G.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.

    1988-08-01

    The chapter describes the evolution of air-pollution epidemiology over a period when changes in pollution technologies have both lowered total exposures and dispersed them over vastly greater areas. Since personal exposure and microenvironmental measurements are expensive, studies oriented toward measurements of total exposure will be smaller and more intensive. The shift in emphasis to total human exposure also will affect health risk assessment and raise difficult issues in the regulatory domain. Considering that outdoor exposures (for which EPA has a regulatory mandate) occur in the context of exposures from other sources, the potential effect of regulatory action would probably be small. The regulatory issues are even more difficult for particulate air pollution since cigarette smoking is the strongest determinant of indoor levels but the EPA lacks regulatory responsibility for cigarette smoke.

  14. Acid rain and transported air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book considers aspects of the air pollutant controversy. It discusses the following: the policy dilemma - including impact on terrestrial and aquatic eco-systems, effects on human health, diplomatic issues, and how control would benefit some industries and hurt others; scientific uncertainties about the extent and location of current damage, future damage, the origin of transported air pollutants, and the efficacy of current and proposed emissions control programs; how three major pollutants - sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, and reactive hydrocarbons - are distributed geographically; the effect of current legislation on acid rain and its distribution; how geographic and economic risks are dispersed throughout the United States; and other risks, such as potential damage to buildings and metals.

  15. Respiratory effects of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Marbury, M.C.; Spengler, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    Since the early 1970s, the health effects of indoor air pollution have been investigated with increasing intensity. A large body of literature is now available on diverse aspects of indoor air pollution: sources, concentrations, health effects, engineering, and policy. This article provides a selective summary of this new information with an emphasis on health effects relevant to health care practitioners concerned primarily with immunologically mediated respiratory diseases. We address exposures associated with acute and chronic respiratory effects: tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide, wood smoke, and formaldehyde. The article also describes the diverse health problems experienced by workers in newer sealed office buildings. The importance of indoor concentrations in determining personal exposures to pollutants is emphasized.

  16. Exposures and health outcomes from outdoor air pollutants in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingheng; Hong, Chuanjie; Kan, Haidong

    2004-05-20

    China's economy has developed rapidly in the recent two decades. Economic development is usually linked with increase in energy consumption and consumption emissions, which in turn leads to worsening of air quality. Due to the adoption of various control measures, the ambient air quality in a number of large cities in China has actually improved. The ambient air TSP and SO(2) levels in China have been decreasing in the last decade. However, ambient air NO(x) level has been increasing due to the increased number of motor vehicles. Coal has been and is still the major source of energy in China. Ambient air pollution in large cities has changed from the conventional coal combustion type to the mixed coal combustion/motor vehicle emission type. A series of epidemiological studies on air pollution and health effects ranging from mortality, morbidity to functional changes have been conducted in China. The results showed that ambient air pollution had acute and chronic effects on mortality, morbidity, hospital admissions, clinical symptoms, lung function changes, etc. The exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and daily mortality, morbidity, hospital admissions, and lung function has been established accordingly.

  17. [Polluting agents and sources of urban air pollution].

    PubMed

    Cocheo, V

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an up-to-date review of the scientific evidence on mechanisms of pollutant generation and health effects for a number of urban air pollutants. The review focuses on main sources and health effect of ozone and photochemical smog, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. These agents are "priority pollutants", generated by vehicle traffic, and their regulation is currently being examined by the European Council and the European Commission. The aim is to reach, by the year 2010, values lower than 180 micrograms/m3 for ozone as maximum hourly concentration, 2.5 micrograms/m3 for benzene as an annual average, 93 micrograms/m3 for nitrogen dioxide as 98 degrees percentile of hourly concentrations, 50 micrograms/m3 for particulate as a daily average. The goal can be achieved only by means of immediate interventions on emissions. PMID:11293295

  18. Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S.

    1995-09-01

    The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the US, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O{sub 3}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), particulate matter (PM), NO{sub x}, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the US EPA with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} PM, and NO{sub 2}, and are therefore at risk. High SO{sub 2} and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO{sub 2}. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO{sub 2} develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to Pm is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM{sub 10} levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. 106 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D.

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test-house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. Emission factors developed in test chambers can be used to evaluate full-scale indoor environments. A PC-based IAQ model has been developed that can accurately predict indoor concentrations of specific pollutants under controlled conditions in a test house. The model is also useful in examining the effect of pollutant sinks and variations in ventilation parameters. Pollutants were examined from: (1) para-dichloro-benzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and, (2) particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. However, the approach has not been validated for other source types, including solvent based materials and aerosol products.

  20. Air pollution and stroke - an overview of the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Air pollution is being increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for stroke. There are numerous sources of air pollution including industry, road transport and domestic use of biomass and solid fuels. Early reports of the association between air pollution and stroke come from studies investigating health effects of severe pollution episodes. Several daily time series and case-crossover studies have reported associations with stroke. There is also evidence linking chronic air pollution exposure with stroke and with reduced survival after stroke. A conceptual framework linking air pollution exposure and stroke is proposed. It links acute and chronic exposure to air pollution with pathways to acute and chronic effects on stroke risk. Current evidence regarding potential mechanisms mainly relate to particulate air pollution. Whilst further evidence would be useful, there is already sufficient evidence to support consideration of reduction in air pollution as a preventative measure to reduce the stroke burden globally.

  1. Long-memory property in air pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelani, Asha

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper, long-memory in air pollutant concentrations is reviewed and outcome of the past studies is analyzed to provide the possible mechanism behind temporal evolution of air pollutant concentrations. It is observed that almost all the studies show air pollutant concentrations over time possess persistence up to a certain limit. Self-organized criticality of air pollution, multiplicative process of pollutant concentrations, and uniformity in emission sources leading to self-organized criticality are few of the phenomena behind the persistent property of air pollutant concentrations. The self-organized criticality of air pollution is linked to atmosphere's self-cleansing mechanism. This demonstrates that inspite of increasing anthropogenic emissions, self-organized criticality of air pollution is sustained and has low influence of human interventions. In the future, this property may, however, be perturbed due to continuous air pollution emissions, which may influence the accuracy in predictions.

  2. Air pollution and stroke - an overview of the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Air pollution is being increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for stroke. There are numerous sources of air pollution including industry, road transport and domestic use of biomass and solid fuels. Early reports of the association between air pollution and stroke come from studies investigating health effects of severe pollution episodes. Several daily time series and case-crossover studies have reported associations with stroke. There is also evidence linking chronic air pollution exposure with stroke and with reduced survival after stroke. A conceptual framework linking air pollution exposure and stroke is proposed. It links acute and chronic exposure to air pollution with pathways to acute and chronic effects on stroke risk. Current evidence regarding potential mechanisms mainly relate to particulate air pollution. Whilst further evidence would be useful, there is already sufficient evidence to support consideration of reduction in air pollution as a preventative measure to reduce the stroke burden globally. PMID:27494962

  3. Air pollution effects on ventricular repolarization.

    PubMed

    Lux, Robert L; Pope, C Arden

    2009-05-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of a set of previously published electrocardiographic data to investigate the possible direct association between levels of particulate air pollution and changes in ventricular repolarization -- the cardiac electrophysiologic process that manifests itself as the T wave* of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and that is definitively linked to and responsible for increased arrhythmogenesis. The published findings from this data set demonstrated a clear cardiac effect, namely, a reduction in heart rate variability (HRV) parameter values with increased levels of particulate air pollution (Pope et al. 2004), suggesting possible arrhythmogenic effects. Given this positive finding and the well-established sensitivity of cardiac repolarization to physiologic, pharmacologic, and neurologic interventions, and in light of emerging novel tools for assessing repolarization, we hypothesized that high levels of particulate air pollution would alter repolarization independent of changes in heart rate and, consequently, would increase arrhythmogenic risk. The likely mechanism of any deleterious effects on repolarization would be alteration of sodium, calcium, and potassium channels. The channel's structure, function, and kinetics are responsible for generating the cellular action potentials, which, when summed over the entire heart, result in the waves recorded by the ECG. A positive finding would provide evidence that increased levels of air pollution may be directly linked to increases in arrhythmogenic risk and, potentially, sudden cardiac death. The study population consisted of 88 nonsmoking, elderly subjects in whom multiple, continuous, 24-hour, 2-channel ECG recordings were collected, along with blood samples to evaluate inflammatory mechanisms (not pursued in the current study). The concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm) in daily samples was measured or estimated and

  4. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on health.

    PubMed

    Jakubiak-Lasocka, J; Lasocki, J; Siekmeier, R; Chłopek, Z

    2015-01-01

    Road transport contributes significantly to air quality problems through vehicle emissions, which have various detrimental impacts on public health and the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on health of Warsaw citizens, following the basics of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) method, and evaluate its social cost. PM10 was chosen as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure-response functions between air pollution and health impacts were employed. The value of statistical life (VSL) approach was used for the estimation of the cost of mortality attributable to traffic-related air pollution. Costs of hospitalizations and restricted activity days were assessed basing on the cost of illness (COI) method. According to the calculations, about 827 Warsaw citizens die in a year as a result of traffic-related air pollution. Also, about 566 and 250 hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively, and more than 128,453 restricted activity days can be attributed to the traffic emissions. From the social perspective, these losses generate the cost of 1,604 million PLN (1 EUR-approx. 4.2 PLN). This cost is very high and, therefore, more attention should be paid for the integrated environmental health policy.

  5. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on health.

    PubMed

    Jakubiak-Lasocka, J; Lasocki, J; Siekmeier, R; Chłopek, Z

    2015-01-01

    Road transport contributes significantly to air quality problems through vehicle emissions, which have various detrimental impacts on public health and the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on health of Warsaw citizens, following the basics of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) method, and evaluate its social cost. PM10 was chosen as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure-response functions between air pollution and health impacts were employed. The value of statistical life (VSL) approach was used for the estimation of the cost of mortality attributable to traffic-related air pollution. Costs of hospitalizations and restricted activity days were assessed basing on the cost of illness (COI) method. According to the calculations, about 827 Warsaw citizens die in a year as a result of traffic-related air pollution. Also, about 566 and 250 hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively, and more than 128,453 restricted activity days can be attributed to the traffic emissions. From the social perspective, these losses generate the cost of 1,604 million PLN (1 EUR-approx. 4.2 PLN). This cost is very high and, therefore, more attention should be paid for the integrated environmental health policy. PMID:25310941

  6. Respiratory effects of air pollution on children.

    PubMed

    Goldizen, Fiona C; Sly, Peter D; Knibbs, Luke D

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the global burden of disease is directly or indirectly attributable to exposure to air pollution. Exposures occurring during the periods of organogenesis and rapid lung growth during fetal development and early post-natal life are especially damaging. In this State of the Art review, we discuss air toxicants impacting on children's respiratory health, routes of exposure with an emphasis on unique pathways relevant to young children, methods of exposure assessment and their limitations and the adverse health consequences of exposures. Finally, we point out gaps in knowledge and research needs in this area. A greater understanding of the adverse health consequences of exposure to air pollution in early life is required to encourage policy makers to reduce such exposures and improve human health.

  7. [Air pollution and asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Just, J; Nisakinovic, L; Laoudi, Y; Grimfeld, A

    2006-07-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased world-wide during the last quarter of the 20th century, particularly among children and adolescents. No change common to all sites where asthma has increased throughout the world has been identified, suggesting that this 'epidemic' phenomenon is likely due to multiple factors. The following have been most discussed: exposure to indoor and outdoor allergens, modification of the patterns of respiratory infections, decreasing trends of physical activity, evolution in the make-up of environmental irritants, including tobacco smoke and urban air toxicants. In this review, we point out the role of exposure to air pollutants, in addition to and in combination with other asthma enhancers or precipitators. Whereas concentrations of the 'classical' air quality indicators (SO2, CO) have more or less steadily decreased, asthma prevalence augmented in developed countries during the same period. However, the nature of the air pollution mix has deeply evolved, and should also be considered. Ambient air concentrations of industrial and house heating combustion sources of pollutants in the city have substantially decreased, but by contrast the concentrations of various ultrafine particles have increased. Now, there is in vitro and in vivo evidence that exposure to urban air particles, and particularly to diesel exhausts, elicits chronic oxidative stress and repeated inflammatory responses, so that they may enhance allergic inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness. Several epidemiological studies suggested an association between traffic density close to places of children's residence and prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and more specifically of asthma or allergic rhinitis symptoms in them. Chronic exposure during infancy to traffic-related pollutants may accelerate or even provoke, among genetically sensitive subjects, disruption of the normal regulatory and repair processes eventually contributing to the increase

  8. The associations between traffic-related air pollution and noise with blood pressure in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuang; Fuertes, Elaine; Tiesler, Carla M T; Birk, Matthias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; von Berg, Andrea; Hoffmann, Barbara; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Although traffic emits both air pollution and noise, studies jointly examining the effects of both of these exposures on blood pressure (BP) in children are scarce. We investigated associations between land-use regression modeled long-term traffic-related air pollution and BP in 2368 children aged 10 years from Germany (1454 from Munich and 914 from Wesel). We also studied this association with adjustment of long-term noise exposure (defined as day-evening-night noise indicator "Lden" and night noise indicator "Lnight") in a subgroup of 605 children from Munich inner city. In the overall analysis including 2368 children, NO2, PM2.5 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5μm), PM10 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 10μm) and PM2.5 absorbance were not associated with BP. When restricting the analysis to the subgroup of children with noise information (N=605), a significant association between NO2 and diastolic BP was observed (-0.88 (95% confidence interval: -1.67, -0.08)). However, upon adjusting the models for noise exposure, only noise remained independently and significantly positively associated with diastolic BP. Diastolic BP increased by 0.50 (-0.03, 1.02), 0.59 (0.05, 1.13), 0.55 (0.03, 1.07), and 0.58 (0.05, 1.11)mmHg for every five decibel increase in Lden and by 0.59 (-0.05, 1.22), 0.69 (0.04, 1.33), 0.64 (0.02, 1.27), and 0.68 (0.05, 1.32)mmHg for every five decibel increase in Lnight, in different models of NO2, PM2.5 mass, PM10 mass and PM2.5 absorbance as the main exposure, respectively. In conclusion, air pollution was not consistently associated with BP with adjustment for noise, noise was independently and positively associated with BP in children.

  9. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

  10. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  11. Controlled Exposures to Air Pollutants and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Simon J.; Hunter, Amanda J.; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Bosson, Jenny A.; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R.; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E.; Mills, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in susceptible patient groups. Objectives: We investigated the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during and after controlled exposure to air pollutants in healthy volunteers and patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: We analyzed data from 13 double-blind randomized crossover studies including 282 participants (140 healthy volunteers and 142 patients with stable coronary heart disease) from whom continuous electrocardiograms were available. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was recorded for each exposure and study population. Results: There were no increases in any cardiac arrhythmia during or after exposure to dilute diesel exhaust, wood smoke, ozone, concentrated ambient particles, engineered carbon nanoparticles, or high ambient levels of air pollution in either healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusions: Acute controlled exposure to air pollutants did not increase the short-term risk of arrhythmia in participants. Research employing these techniques remains crucial in identifying the important pathophysiological pathways involved in the adverse effects of air pollution, and is vital to inform environmental and public health policy decisions. Citation: Langrish JP, Watts SJ, Hunter AJ, Shah AS, Bosson JA, Unosson J, Barath S, Lundbäck M, Cassee FR, Donaldson K, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE, Mills NL. 2014. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Environ Health Perspect 122:747–753; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307337 PMID:24667535

  12. Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanshan; Guo, Yuming; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major perinatal health problem, but factors leading to it are still not completely understood. Objectives: Our goal was to identify the relation between acute increase in ambient air pollution in a few hours before onset of labor and the risk of preterm birth. Methods: We collected registered birth outcome data and hourly ambient air pollution measurements during 2009‒2013 in Brisbane, Australia. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models with natural cubic splines, we assessed the shape of air pollution-preterm birth curve, after controlling for potential confounders. We also examined the effect modification of other factors. Results: The association between air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)] and preterm birth was nonlinear. Threshold concentrations for the mean of 0‒24 hr NO2, 24‒48 hr SO2, and 24‒48 hr CO before onset of labor were 7.6 parts per billion (ppb), 3.8 ppb, and 162.5 ppb, respectively. Increases in air pollution concentrations above thresholds were associated with increased risks of preterm birth. The odds ratios of preterm birth at the 95th percentile of NO2, SO2, and CO against the thresholds were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.27), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. The associations were modified by demographic factors, such as maternal smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Acute increases in ambient air pollution concentrations above certain levels before onset of labor may stimulate preterm birth. Citation: Li S, Guo Y, Williams G. 2016. Acute impact of hourly ambient air pollution on preterm birth. Environ Health Perspect 124:1623–1629; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP200 PMID:27128028

  13. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure on Olfaction: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Suh, Helen H.; Pinto, Jayant M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Olfactory dysfunction affects millions of people worldwide. This sensory impairment is associated with neurodegenerative disease and significantly decreased quality of life. Exposure to airborne pollutants has been implicated in olfactory decline, likely due to the anatomic susceptibility of the olfactory nerve to the environment. Historically, studies have focused on occupational exposures, but more recent studies have considered effects from exposure to ambient air pollutants. Objectives: To examine all relevant human data evaluating a link between ambient pollution exposure and olfaction and to review supporting animal data in order to examine potential mechanisms for pollution-associated olfactory loss. Methods: We identified and reviewed relevant articles from 1950 to 2015 using PubMed and Web of Science and focusing on human epidemiologic and pathophysiologic studies. Animal studies were included only to support pertinent data on humans. We reviewed findings from these studies evaluating a relationship between environmental pollutant exposure and olfactory function. Results: We identified and reviewed 17 articles, with 1 additional article added from a bibliography search, for a total of 18 human studies. There is evidence in human epidemiologic and pathologic studies that increased exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with olfactory dysfunction. However, most studies have used proxies for pollution exposure in small samples of convenience. Human pathologic studies, with supporting animal work, have also shown that air pollution can contact the olfactory epithelium, translocate to the olfactory bulb, and migrate to the olfactory cortex. Pollutants can deposit at each location, causing direct damage and disruption of tissue morphology or inducing local inflammation and cellular stress responses. Conclusions: Ambient air pollution may impact human olfactory function. Additional studies are needed to examine air pollution

  14. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    PubMed

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  15. Air Quality Modeling of Traffic-related Air Pollutants for the NEXUS Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of the model applications to estimate exposure metrics in support of an epidemiologic study in Detroit, Michigan. A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characteriz...

  16. Development of wireless sensor network for monitoring indoor air pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Shaharil Mad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Saad, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Yusof @ Kamarudin, Azman Muhamad

    2015-05-01

    The air that we breathe with everyday contains variety of contaminants and particles. Some of these contaminants and particles are hazardous to human health. Most of the people don't realize that the content of air they being exposed to whether it was a good or bad air quality. The air quality whether in indoor or outdoor environment can be influenced by physical factors like dust particles, gaseous pollutants (including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds) and biological like molds and bacteria growth which largely depend on temperature and humidity condition of a room. These kinds of pollutants can affect human health, physical reaction, comfort or work performance. In this study, a wireless sensor network (WSN) monitoring system for monitor air pollutant in indoor environment was developed. The system was divided into three parts: web-based interface program, sensing module and a base station. The measured data was displayed on the web which is can be accessed by the user. The result shows that the overall measured parameters were meet the acceptable limit, requirement and criteria of indoor air pollution inside the building. The research can be used to improve the indoor air quality level in order to create a comfortable working and healthy environment for the occupants inside the building.

  17. Changing perspectives on air-pollution stress

    SciTech Connect

    Bormann, F.H.; Likens, G.E.

    1987-06-01

    As more has been learned about the nature of air pollution and more sophisticated techniques have been developed for measurement, it has become apparent that acid rain is only one of an interrelated array of airshed-watershed problems. Despite important reductions in some pollutant emissions, the authors believe the situation today is worse than it appeared to be 15 years ago. Recently scientists have reported data showing that in some locations dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur, and nitrogen in coarse and fine particles and vapors may exceed the same substances measured in bulk precipitation. As scientists learned about acid rain, they also became more aware of photochemical oxidant pollution. Symptoms of ozone damage on crops and natural vegetation have been found in a majority of states. As understanding and measurement ability have increased, estimates of the magnitude of the air pollution problem have grown. The recent measurements of dry deposition, cloud-water deposition, and photochemical oxidant concentrations have greatly increased estimates of airborne pollutants reaching ecosystems. They have shown that the photochemical oxidant problem cannot be separated from the acid-rain problem and that the combined effects may be both episodic and long-term. These findings indicate that regional air pollution is more severe than it was perceived to be 15 years ago. Solving the problem will be extremely difficult and expensive both in terms of monitoring and assessing effects on ecosystems under realistic conditions. The longer the delays in setting an official policy of comprehensive correctional measures, the more environmental damage may occur. Extensive damage, in turn, would increase the cost of measures for protection and recovery.

  18. PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-10-09

    In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

  19. Chemiluminescent detection of organic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Chen, Yu-Harn

    1996-04-01

    Chemiluminescent reactions can be used for specific and highly sensitive detection of a number of air pollutants. Among these are chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with NO or organics and reactions of luminol with a variety of oxidants. Reported here are studies exploring (1) the use of the temperature dependence of the chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with organic pollutants as a means of differentiating types of hydrocarbon classes and (2) the use of luminol techniques to monitor atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and organic oxidants, specifically peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). Coupling gas chromatography to the chemiluminescent detectors allows the measurement of individual species at very low concentrations.

  20. Air quality and pollution control in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shu-Hwei; Chen, Hsiung-Wen

    Due to limited land and great emphasis on economic growth in the past, Taiwan has an extremely heavy environmental burden. Population density, factory density, as well as densities of motor vehicles are several times higher than those in the United States and Japan. According to the statistics of 1991, the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) fell mostly in the "moderate" category, i.e., in the range of 50-100. There were 16.25% of the monitored days with PSI above 100, and 0.51% with PSI beyond 200. Suspended particulates were the major pollutant responsible for PSI above 100, followed by carbon monoxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide. The measures adopted to control air pollution can be divided into four categories, namely law and regulations, control measures on stationary sources, mobile sources and construction projects. The latest amended Air Pollution Control Act was promulgated on 1 February 1992. Several major revisions were introduced to make the amended Act much more stringent than the 1982 amendment, especially on the offenses likely to endanger public health and welfare. In regard to stationary sources, a permit system was enacted to regulate the establishment and alteration of stationary sources. Designated stationary sources are required to be equipped with automatic monitoring facilities. An inspection and enforcement program have expanded to cover more than 10,000 factories. Major control measures for motor vehicles include introducing stringent emission standards for gasoline-fueled vehicles and diesel cars, setting up ratification and approval program for new vehicle model, promoting the inspection/maintenance program on in-used motorcycles and encouraging the use of unleaded and low sulfur fuels. In order to control the pollution caused by construction work, constructors are required to use low-pollution machinery and engineering methods and incorporate pollution prevention into the construction budget.

  1. Crop loss due to air pollution in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Eerden, L J; Tonneijck, A E; Wijnands, J H

    1988-01-01

    The extent of yield reduction and economic loss caused by air pollution has been estimated for The Netherlands. Based on available data on direct effects only, each species was designated as sensitive, moderately sensitive or tolerant. On a nationwide scale, only ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and hydrogen fluoride (HF) exceeded effect thresholds. Effects from pollutant combinations were assumed to be additive. Yield reductions were calculated, using 10 exposure-response relationships and concentration data from the Dutch air pollution monitoring network. Changes in air pollution levels result in changes in supply. By multiplying the supply with the current price, the so-called crop volume was calculated. Subsequently, changes in crop volume were converted into economic terms, taking into account demand elasticity. On the basis of these calculations, air pollution in The Netherlands reduces total crop volume by 5%:3.4% by O3, 1.2% by SO2, and 0.4% by HF. The slope of the nonlinear relationship between crop volume reduction and exposure level increases at higher concentrations. In general, air pollution causes relatively little loss to producers, since yield reductions are largely compensated by higher prices. If air pollution in The Netherlands would be reduced to background concentrations, consumers would experience a net gain of Dfl 640 million (US 320 million dollars). Although large amounts of data were attained through literature and our own experience for this study, many assumptions still had to be made to arrive at these conclusions. With the current available knowledge, validation of our results in the field is not yet possible. PMID:15092562

  2. Cheap Face Masks Little Help Against Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... News) -- Inexpensive cloth masks offer little protection against air pollution, a new study suggests. Many people in Asia ... or washable cloth masks to protect against small air pollution particles. But tests on different types of masks ...

  3. As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160914.html As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution To minimize exposure, researchers recommend shutting windows and ... Doing so can reduce your exposure to toxic air pollution from a traffic jam by up to 76 ...

  4. Effects on health of air pollution: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Harari, Sergio; Martinelli, Ida; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution is a complex and ubiquitous mixture of pollutants including particulate matter, chemical substances and biological materials. There is growing awareness of the adverse effects on health of air pollution following both acute and chronic exposure, with a rapidly expanding body of evidence linking air pollution with an increased risk of respiratory (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents). Elderly subjects, pregnant women, infants and people with prior diseases appear especially susceptible to the deleterious effects of ambient air pollution. The main diseases associated with exposure to air pollutants will be summarized in this narrative review.

  5. Recent trends of energy consumption and air pollution in China

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, H.Z.; Hao, J.M.; Hu, M.Y.; Nie, Y.F.

    2007-03-15

    The relationship between air pollution and energy consumption is a hot topic that is receiving increased attention by industry, regulatory agencies, as well as the public. China is currently undergoing a profound economic and social transition. Since the late 1990s, China's energy production and consumption have undergone an unexpectedly precipitous up-and-down fluctuation, and the related air pollution has changed dramatically. In this study, energy use and the related air pollution during the past years are analyzed and discussed in detail. Further, suggestions on sustainable energy use, air pollution control, as well as CO{sub 2}, abatement are proposed. By 2003, the total primary energy consumption of China had reached 1678.00 million tons (MT) of standard coal equivalent. As a result, emissions of SO{sub 2}, and NOx increased to 21.58 and 16.13 MT in 2003, respectively. Acid rain pollution worsened nationwide after 2000, with the areas of acid rain remaining stable while some seriously acid rain polluted areas worsened. This implies that more rigorous regulations, standards, and effective economic policies are needed.

  6. AIR POLLUTION AND INFANT HEALTH: LESSONS FROM NEW JERSEY*

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Janet; Neidell, Matthew; Schmieder, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    We examine the impact of three “criteria” air pollutants on infant health in New Jersey in the 1990s by combining information about mother’s residential location from birth certificates with information from air quality monitors. Our work offers three important innovations: First, we use the exact addresses of mothers to select those closest to air monitors to improve the accuracy of air quality exposure. Second, we include maternal fixed effects to control for unobserved characteristics of mothers. Third, we examine interactions of air pollution with smoking and other risk factors for poor infant health outcomes. We find consistently negative effects of exposure to carbon monoxide, both during and after birth, with effects considerably larger for smokers and older mothers. Since automobiles are the main source of carbon monoxide emissions, our results have important implications for regulation of automobile emissions. PMID:19328569

  7. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  8. Gene-air pollution interaction and cardiovascular disease: a review

    PubMed Central

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Baccarelli, Andrea; Schwartz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility is likely to play a role in response to air pollution. Hence, gene-environment interactions studies can be a tool for exploring the mechanisms and the importance of the pathway in the association between air pollution and a cardiovascular outcome. In this article we present a systematic review of the studies which have examined gene–environment interactions in relation to the cardiovascular health effects of air pollutants. We identified 16 papers meeting our search criteria. Of these studies, most have focused on individual functional polymorphisms or individual candidate genes. Moreover they were all based on three study populations that have been extensively investigated in relation to air pollution effects: the Normative Aging Study (NAS), AIRGENE and Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) study. Conclusions the studies differed substantially in both the cardiovascular outcomes examined and the polymorphisms examined, so there is little confirmation of results across cohorts. Gene-environment interactions studies can help explore the mechanisms and the potential pathway in the association between air pollution and a cardiovascular outcome; replication of findings and studies involving multiple cohorts would be needed to draw stronger conclusions. PMID:21414469

  9. Air pollutant intrusion into the Wieliczka Salt Mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salmon, L.G.; Cass, G.R.; Kozlowski, R.; Hejda, A.; Spiker, E. C.; Bates, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Wieliczka Salt Mine World Cultural Heritage Site contains many rock salt sculptures that are threatened by water vapor condensation from the mine ventilation air. Gaseous and particulate air pollutant concentrations have been measured both outdoors and within the Wieliczka Salt Mine, along with pollutant deposition fluxes to surfaces within the mine. One purpose of these measurements was to determine whether or not low deliquescence point ionic materials (e.g., NH4NO3) are accumulating on surfaces to an extent that would exacerbate the water vapor condensation problems in the mine. It was found that pollutant gases including SO2 and HNO3 present in outdoor air are removed rapidly and almost completely from the air within the mine by deposition to surfaces. Sulfur isotope analyses confirm the accumulation of air pollutant-derived sulfur in liquid dripping from surfaces within the mine. Particle deposition onto interior surfaces in the mine is apparent, with resulting soiling of some of those sculptures that have been carved from translucent rock salt. Water accumulation by salt sculpture surfaces was studied both experimentally and by approximate thermodynamic calculations. Both approaches suggest that the pollutant deposits on the sculpture surfaces lower the relative humidity (RH) at which a substantial amount of liquid water will accumulate by 1% to several percent. The extraordinarily low SO2 concentrations within the mine may explain the apparent success of a respiratory sanatorium located deep within the mine.

  10. Air pollution, inflammation and preterm birth: a potential mechanistic link.

    PubMed

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A; Sánchez, Brisa N; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G; O'Neill, Marie S

    2014-02-01

    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:24382337

  11. AIR POLLUTION, INFLAMMATION AND PRETERM BIRTH: A POTENTIAL MECHANISTIC LINK

    PubMed Central

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G.; O´Neill, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:24382337

  12. The Effects of Air Pollution and Temperature on COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Nadia N.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Kim, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects 12–16 million people in the United States and is the third-leading cause of death. In developed countries, smoking is the greatest risk factor for the development of COPD, but other exposures also contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Several studies suggest, though are not definitive, that outdoor air pollution exposure is linked to the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Among individuals with COPD, outdoor air pollutants are associated with loss of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms. In addition, outdoor air pollutants are also associated with COPD exacerbations and mortality. There is much less evidence for the impact of indoor air on COPD, especially in developed countries in residences without biomass exposure. The limited existing data suggests that indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are linked to increased respiratory symptoms among patients with COPD. In addition, with the projected increases in temperature and extreme weather events in the context of climate change there has been increased attention to the effects of heat exposure. Extremes of temperature—both heat and cold—have been associated with increased respiratory morbidity in COPD. Some studies also suggest that temperature may modify the effect of pollution exposure and though results are not conclusive, understanding factors that may modify susceptibility to air pollution in patients with COPD is of utmost importance. PMID:26683097

  13. Air pollution, inflammation and preterm birth: a potential mechanistic link.

    PubMed

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A; Sánchez, Brisa N; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G; O'Neill, Marie S

    2014-02-01

    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth.

  14. Basic mechanisms for adverse cardiovascular events associated with air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a significant cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the epidemiologic association between air pollution exposures and exacerbation of cardiovascular disease is well established, the mechanisms by which these exposures promote cardiovascular disease are incompletely understood. In this review I will give an overview of the components of air pollution, an overview of the cardiovascular effects of air pollution exposure and a review of the basic mechanisms that are activated by exposure to promote cardiovascular disease. PMID:25552258

  15. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  16. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  17. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease.

  18. Effects of particulate air pollution on asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, G.B.; Chai, H.; Dickey, D.W.; Jones, R.H.; Kinsman, R.A.; Morrill, C.G.; Spector, S.L.; Weiser, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four asthmatic subjects in Denver were followed from January through March 1979, a three-month period in which Denver air pollution levels are generally high and variable. Dichotomous, virtual impactor samplers provided daily measurements (micrograms/m3) of inhaled particulate matter (total mass, sulfates, and nitrates) for coarse (2.5--15 micrograms in aerodynamic diameter) and fine fractions (less than 2.5 micrometers). Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, temperature, and barometric pressure were also measured. Twice daily measurements of each subject's peak expiratory flow rates, use of as-needed aerosolized bronchodilators, and report of airways obstruction symptoms characteristic of asthma were tested for relationships to air pollutants using a random effects model across subjects. During the time actually observed, there were very few days in which high levels of suspended particulates were recorded. Of the environmental variables studied, only fine nitrates were associated with increased symptom reports and increased aerosolized bronchodilator usage.

  19. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-01

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  20. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-01

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  1. Monitoring air pollution in the Bialowieza Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzahn, Elżbieta; Sondej, Izabela; Paluch, Rafał

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution, as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), affects forest health negatively and can initiate forest dieback. Long-term monitoring (since 1986) and analyses are conducted in the Bialowieza Forest due to the threat by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. This forest has a special and unique natural value, as confirmed by the various forms of protection of national and international rank. The main aim of monitoring is to determine the level and trends of deposition of air pollutants and their effects on selected forest stands and forest communities in the Bialowieza Forest. Concentration measurements of gaseous pollutants and the chemical composition of the precipitation are performed at seven points within the forest area (62 219 ha). Measurement gauges are measuring gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx) by the passive method and collecting precipitation at each point at a height of three meters. The period of measuring by the instruments is 30 days. All analyses are conducted according to the methodology of the European forest monitoring program in the certified Laboratory of Natural Environment Chemistry of the Polish Forest Research Institute (IBL). The concentration of pollutant gases (dry deposition) in the years 2002-2015 accounted for only 6-13% of the limit in Poland, as defined by the Polish Ministry of Environment, and are of no threat to the forest environment. Wet deposition of pollutants, which dependents directly from the amount of precipitation and its concentration of pollutants, varied strongly between different months and years. Total deposition (dry and wet) of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) was calculated for seasonal and annual periods. On an annual basis, wet deposition represented approximately 80% of the total deposition of S and N. Total deposition of S did not exceed the average deposition values for forests in north-eastern Europe (5-10 kg ha‑1 year‑1) at any of the seven measuring points. Total deposition of N did

  2. Monitoring air pollution in the Bialowieza Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzahn, Elżbieta; Sondej, Izabela; Paluch, Rafał

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution, as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), affects forest health negatively and can initiate forest dieback. Long-term monitoring (since 1986) and analyses are conducted in the Bialowieza Forest due to the threat by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. This forest has a special and unique natural value, as confirmed by the various forms of protection of national and international rank. The main aim of monitoring is to determine the level and trends of deposition of air pollutants and their effects on selected forest stands and forest communities in the Bialowieza Forest. Concentration measurements of gaseous pollutants and the chemical composition of the precipitation are performed at seven points within the forest area (62 219 ha). Measurement gauges are measuring gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx) by the passive method and collecting precipitation at each point at a height of three meters. The period of measuring by the instruments is 30 days. All analyses are conducted according to the methodology of the European forest monitoring program in the certified Laboratory of Natural Environment Chemistry of the Polish Forest Research Institute (IBL). The concentration of pollutant gases (dry deposition) in the years 2002-2015 accounted for only 6-13% of the limit in Poland, as defined by the Polish Ministry of Environment, and are of no threat to the forest environment. Wet deposition of pollutants, which dependents directly from the amount of precipitation and its concentration of pollutants, varied strongly between different months and years. Total deposition (dry and wet) of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) was calculated for seasonal and annual periods. On an annual basis, wet deposition represented approximately 80% of the total deposition of S and N. Total deposition of S did not exceed the average deposition values for forests in north-eastern Europe (5-10 kg ha-1 year-1) at any of the seven measuring points. Total deposition of N did not

  3. A review of methods for predicting air pollution dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, J. J., Jr.; Grose, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Air pollution modeling, and problem areas in air pollution dispersion modeling were surveyed. Emission source inventory, meteorological data, and turbulent diffusion are discussed in terms of developing a dispersion model. Existing mathematical models of urban air pollution, and highway and airport models are discussed along with their limitations. Recommendations for improving modeling capabilities are included.

  4. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  5. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  7. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the... of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects of these...

  9. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  10. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  12. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  13. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  14. Assessment of socioeconomic costs to China's air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yang; Guan, Dabo; Jiang, Xujia; Peng, Liqun; Schroeder, Heike; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Particulate air pollution has had a significant impact on human health in China and it is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and high mortality and morbidity. These health impacts could be translated to reduced labor availability and time. This paper utilized a supply-driven input-output (I-O) model to estimate the monetary value of total output losses resulting from reduced working time caused by diseases related to air pollution across 30 Chinese provinces in 2007. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution was used as an indicator to assess impacts to health caused by air pollution. The developed I-O model is able to capture both direct economic costs and indirect cascading effects throughout inter-regional production supply chains and the indirect effects greatly outnumber the direct effects in most Chinese provinces. Our results show the total economic losses of 346.26 billion Yuan (approximately 1.1% of the national GDP) based on the number of affected Chinese employees (72 million out of a total labor population of 712 million) whose work time in years was reduced because of mortality, hospital admissions and outpatient visits due to diseases resulting from PM2.5 air pollution in 2007. The loss is almost the annual GDP of Vietnam in 2010. The proposed modelling approach provides an alternative method for health-cost measurement with additional insights on inter-industrial and inter-regional linkages along production supply chains.

  15. Air pollutants effects on forest ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the effects of acid rain on forests. The conference was sponsored by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Topics considered at the conference included the status of US research on acid deposition and its effects contributing factors to the decline of forests, evidence for effects on ecosystems, the effects of air pollutants on forest ecosystems in North America and Europe, forest management, and future scientific research programs and management approaches.

  16. Critical issues in air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M; Lioy, P J

    1985-01-01

    The epidemiological studies which have had significant impact on the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) were performed more than twenty years ago. Most of the more recent studies have been seriously flawed in their design and/or execution because they neglected to account for important variables such as: pollutant exposures other than those from ambient air; the influence of personal activity on pollutant uptake; host responsiveness; and the separate contributions of recent transient peak exposures and long-term chronic exposures on the effects endpoints. For particulate pollutants, the influence of composition and size distribution has also received too little consideration. In order to address these deficiencies, research and methods development are needed on: indices for particulate exposures; identification of exposures relevant to the effects; improved indices of effects; acquisition of response data; identification of exposed populations; and identification of susceptible subgroups. Approaches to these needs are discussed, along with brief reviews of several recent studies that have focused on critical issues of concern, made the necessary efforts to characterize the relevant exposures of the populations being studied, and demonstrated human responses to ambient pollutants at current exposure levels. PMID:4085428

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease secondary to household air pollution.

    PubMed

    Assad, Nour A; Balmes, John; Mehta, Sumi; Cheema, Umar; Sood, Akshay

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 3 billion people around the world cook and heat their homes using solid fuels in open fires and rudimentary stoves, resulting in household air pollution. Household air pollution secondary to indoor combustion of solid fuel is associated with multiple chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outcomes. The exposure is associated with both chronic bronchitis and emphysema phenotypes of COPD as well as a distinct form of obstructive airway disease called bronchial anthracofibrosis. COPD from household air pollution differs from COPD from tobacco smoke with respect to its disproportionately greater bronchial involvement, lesser emphysematous change, greater impact on quality of life, and possibly greater oxygen desaturation and pulmonary hypertensive changes. Interventions that decrease exposure to biomass smoke may decrease the risk for incident COPD and attenuate the longitudinal decline in lung function, but more data on exposure-response relationships from well-designed longitudinal studies are needed. PMID:26024348

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease secondary to household air pollution.

    PubMed

    Assad, Nour A; Balmes, John; Mehta, Sumi; Cheema, Umar; Sood, Akshay

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 3 billion people around the world cook and heat their homes using solid fuels in open fires and rudimentary stoves, resulting in household air pollution. Household air pollution secondary to indoor combustion of solid fuel is associated with multiple chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outcomes. The exposure is associated with both chronic bronchitis and emphysema phenotypes of COPD as well as a distinct form of obstructive airway disease called bronchial anthracofibrosis. COPD from household air pollution differs from COPD from tobacco smoke with respect to its disproportionately greater bronchial involvement, lesser emphysematous change, greater impact on quality of life, and possibly greater oxygen desaturation and pulmonary hypertensive changes. Interventions that decrease exposure to biomass smoke may decrease the risk for incident COPD and attenuate the longitudinal decline in lung function, but more data on exposure-response relationships from well-designed longitudinal studies are needed.

  19. Human health effects of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Kampa, Marilena; Castanas, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O(3)), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed.

  20. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AIR QUALITY MODELING SIMULATIONS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations of five hazardous air pollutants were simulated using the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Annual simulations were performed over the continental United States for the entire year of 2001 to support human exposure estimates. Results a...

  2. Effects of air emissions on wildlife resources. Air pollution and acid rain report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    This publication describes in general the pathways of contamination, direct and indirect effects of air emissions on wildlife resources, and the potential use of wildlife as biological indicators of air quality degradation. Also included in the report are summaries of air pollution incidents involving wildlife, responses of wildlife to air pollution, major target systems of selected air pollutants, and information on the capacity of some air pollutants to accumulate in body tissues.

  3. Indoor air pollution and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.; Qin, Y.; Cao, Z.; Shang, J.; Liu, Y.; Yang, X.; Deng, Y.; Huang, J.; Fu, Z.; Song, X. )

    1992-06-01

    Pulmonary function in winter time in 1,343 school children aged 10-13 years was measured in four cities located in northern and southern part of China. The results showed that FVC, FEV1, PEF, V75, V50 and V25 in children living in homes with coal stoves were decreased by 1.5-10.7% compared with children living in homes with gas or LPG stoves in Chengde and Shanghai. In contrast to this, no significant difference in pulmonary function was found in Shenyang and Wuhan. It suggested that this phenomenon was related to indoor air pollution, and partly related to passive smoking or outdoor air pollution.

  4. Forest fires, air pollution, and mortality in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Narayan

    2002-02-01

    I assess the population health effects in Malaysia of air pollution from a widespread series of fires that occurred in Indonesia between April and November of 1997. I describe how the fires occurred and why the associated air pollution was so widespread and long lasting. The main objective is to uncover any mortality effects and to assess how large and important they were. I also investigate whether the mortality effects were persistent or whether they represented a short-term, mortality-harvesting effect. The results show that the smoke haze from the fires had a deleterious effect on the health of the population in Malaysia.

  5. Air pollution in China: Scientific and Public Policy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sever air pollution in China has in recent years caused intensive public, media and governmental attention. Many questions need to be answered about the air pollution in China, such as how harmful is the air pollution, especially PM2.5? Why suddenly so many reports about sever air pollution, is the air in China getting more polluted? How to design a policy that can control the air pollution most efficiently? After updated the national Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012 and included PM2.5 as one of the critical air pollutants, in 2013, Chinese central government released for the first time the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan". The plan has set goals to reduce annual mean concentration of PM2.5 up to 25% in 2017 in different regions in China. If the ambitious goals were achieved, this could be the most significant air pollution reduction in such a short time that affects so many people in human history. To achieve these goals, however, there are enormous scientific and public policy challenges to deal with. For example: Identify the key components, size fraction of PM that have the largest health effects; and identify the sources of PM that has the most harmful effects on human health and ecosystem. Reduce the uncertainty in health risk assessment. Understand complicate chemical transformation processes in air pollution formation with intensive emissions from industry, power plant, vehicles, agriculture. Interactions between air pollution, PBL, and atmospheric circulation at different scales. The accountability, feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of air pollution control policies. Integrate multi-pollutant control and achieve co-benefit with climate and energy policy. Regional coordinated air pollution control. The largest challenge in China for air pollution control remains how to strength the link between science and policy.

  6. Air pollution toxicology--a brief review of the role of the science in shaping the current understanding of air pollution health risks.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Lindsay Wichers; Brown, James S; Stanek, John; Gift, Jeff; Costa, Daniel L

    2011-03-01

    Human and animal toxicology has had a profound impact on our historical and current understanding of air pollution health effects. Early animal toxicological studies of air pollution had distinctively military or workplace themes. With the discovery that ambient air pollution episodes led to excess illness and death, there became an emergence of toxicological studies that focused on industrial air pollution encountered by the general public. Not only did the pollutants investigated evolve from ambient mixtures to individual pollutants but also the endpoints and outcomes evaluated became more sophisticated, resulting in our present state of the science. Currently, a large toxicological database exists for the effects of particulate matter and ozone, and we provide a focused review of some of the major contributions to the biological understanding for these two "criteria" air pollutants. A limited discussion of the toxicological advancements in the scientific knowledge of two hazardous air pollutants, formaldehyde and phosgene, is also included. Moving forward, the future challenge of air pollution toxicology lies in the health assessment of complex mixtures and their interactions, given the projected impacts of climate change and altered emissions on ambient conditions. In the coming years, the toxicologist will need to be flexible and forward thinking in order to dissect the complexity of the biological system itself, as well as that of air pollution in all its varied forms.

  7. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution.

  8. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution. PMID:26057478

  9. Urban air pollution and atmospheric diffusion research in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Datong; Whitney, Joseph B.; Yap, David

    1987-11-01

    Air pollution has become a serious problem in China as a result of that country's efforts in the last 30 years to become a great industrial power. The burning of coal, which currently provides over 70% of all China's energy needs, is a major source of air pollution. Because Chinese coal is high in sulfur and ash content and because most combustion devices in China have low efficiencies, SO2 and particulate emissions are a serious problem and are comparable to or exceed those found in many countries that are much more industrialized. Although most coal is burned in North China, acid precipitation is most severe in South China because of the lack of buffering loess dust found in the former region. The Chinese government has already taken major steps to mitigate air pollution, such as relocating polluting industries, supplying coal with lower sulfur content, using gas instead of coal for residential heating, and levying fines on industries that exceed pollution standards. Atmospheric environmental impact assessment (AEIA) is also required for all major new projects. This article describes three types of mathematical diffusion models and field and wind-tunnel experiments that are used in such assessments. The Chinese authorities believe that a range of technological, managerial, locational, and behavioral changes must be effected before the air of Chinese cities can be significantly improved.

  10. Approaches to characterize inequities in air pollution exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certain populations bear a disproportionate burden of air pollutant exposures resulting in inequity of risk. This may be due to proximity to outdoor sources such as major roadways and industry or increased prevalence of indoor sources such as cigarette smoking or gas stoves. Ther...

  11. Environmental inequality: Air pollution exposures in California's South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.

    Environmental inequality is quantified here using linear regression, based on results from a recent mobility-based exposure model for 25,064 individuals in California's South Coast Air Basin [Marshall et al., 2006. Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4381-4392]. For the four primary pollutants studied (benzene, butadiene, chromium particles, and diesel particles), mean exposures are higher than average for people who are nonwhite, are from lower-income households, and live in areas with high population density. For ozone (a secondary pollutant), the reverse holds. Holding constant attributes such as population density and daily travel distance, mean exposure differences between whites and nonwhites are 16-40% among the five pollutants. These findings offer a baseline to compare against future conditions or to evaluate the impact of proposed policies.

  12. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. )

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  13. Air pollution and sports performance in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Lippi, G; Guidi, G C; Maffulli, N

    2008-08-01

    The Beijing Olympics will begin in August 2008 and athletes will face an unpredictable challenge. Based on present data, Beijing is one of the most polluted megacities in the world; the air concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone, nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter approach or exceed the current limits established by U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Although the athletes who will be competing in Beijing are physiologically very different to the participants in most published studies, and it is therefore difficult to predict individual responses, there is little doubt that the presence of these air pollutants might be detrimental to athletic performance due to the marked increase (up to 20-fold) in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. Moreover, mouth breathing often bypasses the noise during strenuous exercise, increasing the deleterious effects of pollutants on health and athletic performance. Although limited, each decrement in athletic performance would have a potentially deleterious impact on top-class athletes competing in the next Olympics in China. Several Olympic records are regularly broken during the Olympics. Will this be the case for Beijing? PMID:18512178

  14. New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Khare, Mukesh; Harrison, Roy M.; Bloss, William J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Coe, Hugh; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Most major cities around the world experience periods of elevated air pollution levels, which exceed international health-based air quality standards (Kumar et al., 2013). Although it is a global problem, some of the highest air pollution levels are found in rapidly expanding cities in India and China. The sources, emissions, transformations and broad effects of meteorology on air pollution are reasonably well accounted in air quality control strategies in many developed cities; however these key factors remain poorly constrained in the growing cities of countries with emerging economies. We focus here on Delhi, one of the largest global population centres, which faces particular air pollution challenges, now and in the future.

  15. Impacts of Air Pollution on Health in Eastern China: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D.

    2004-12-01

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We quantify the impacts that air pollution in the Shandong region of eastern China has on public health in 2000 and quantify the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual, through the implementation of new energy technology. We first develop a highly-resolved emission inventory for the year 2000 for the Shandong region of China including emissions from large point, area, mobile and biogenic sources. We use the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE) to process emissions from this inventory for use in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) which we drive with the NCAR/PSU MM5 meso-scale meteorology model. We evaluate the inventory by comparing CMAQ results with available measurements of PM10 and SO2 from air pollution indices (APIs) reported in various Chinese municipalities during 2002-2004. We use epidemiological dose-response functions to quantify health impacts and values of a statistical life (VSL) and years-of-life-lost (YLL) to establish a range for the monetary value of these impacts. To examine health impacts and their monetary value, we focus explicitly on Zaozhuang, a coal-intensive city in the Shandong region of eastern China, and quantify the mortalities and morbidities resulting from air pollutants emitted from this city in 2000, and in 2020 using business-as-usual, best-available control technology, and advanced coal gasification technology scenarios. In all scenarios most health damages arise from exposure to particulate matter. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang accounted for 4-10% of its GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have doubled. With no new

  16. 75 FR 18061 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... amend 30 TAC Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. These revisions consist of the... to develop air pollution regulations and control strategies to ensure that air quality meets...

  17. Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaroff, William W.; Weschler, Charles J.

    Building occupants, including cleaning personnel, are exposed to a wide variety of airborne chemicals when cleaning agents and air fresheners are used in buildings. Certain of these chemicals are listed by the state of California as toxic air contaminants (TACs) and a subset of these are regulated by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone-terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical, which reacts rapidly with organics, leading to the formation of other potentially toxic air pollutants. Indoor reactive chemistry involving the nitrate radical and cleaning-product constituents is also of concern, since it produces organic nitrates as well as some of the same oxidation products generated by ozone and hydroxyl radicals. Few studies have directly addressed the indoor concentrations of TACs that might result from primary emissions or secondary pollutant formation following the use of cleaning agents and air fresheners. In this paper, we combine direct empirical evidence with the basic principles of indoor pollutant behavior and with information from relevant studies, to analyze and critically assess air pollutant exposures resulting from the use of cleaning products and air fresheners. Attention is focused on compounds that are listed as HAPs, TACs or Proposition 65 carcinogens/reproductive toxicants and compounds that can readily react to generate secondary pollutants. The toxicity of many of these secondary pollutants has yet to be evaluated. The inhalation

  18. Hematological and hemorheological effects of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Baskurt, O.K.; Levi, E.; Caglayan, S.; Dikmenoglu, N.; Kutman, M.N. )

    1990-07-01

    Selected hematological parameters and erythrocyte deformability indexes for 16 young male military students were compared before and after a period of exposure to heavy pollution. These students lived in Ankara, which has a serious air pollution problem. The mean sulfur dioxide levels measured at a station proximal to the campus where the students lived were 188 micrograms/m3 and 201 micrograms/m3 during first and second measurements, respectively. During the period between the two measurements, the mean sulfur dioxide level was 292 micrograms/m3. Significant erythropoiesis was indicated by increased erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Methemoglobin percentage was increased to 2.37 +/- 0.49% (mean +/- standard error) from 0.51 +/- 0.23%. Sulfhemoglobinemia was present in six subjects after the period of pollution, but it was not present in any student prior to this period. Significant increases in erythrocyte deformability indexes were observed after the period of pollution, i.e., from 1.13 +/- 0.01 to 1.21 +/0 0.02, implying that erythrocytes were less flexible, which might impair tissue perfusion.

  19. Rapid guide to hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Beim, H.J.; Spero, J.; Theodore, L.

    1998-12-31

    Concise and easy to use, this book brings together a wealth of hard-to-gather information in one compact pocket guide. It offers--in alphabetical order--detailed profiles of the 189 elements and compounds determined to be hazardous air pollutants by the 1990 Amendments of the Clean Air Act. The profile for each pollutant includes: fundamental identification data (CAS number, molecular formula, formula weight, synonyms); uses (primarily in the manufacture of chemicals and as a component in the manufacturing process); physical properties (such as boiling point, density, vapor pressures, color); chemical properties (such as air/water reactivity, reactivity with skin or metal, flash point, heat of combustion); health risks, including toxic exposure guidelines, toxicity data, and acute and chronic risks; hazard risks (the substance`s potential for accidents, fires, explosions, corrosion, and chemical incompatibility); exposure routes tracking the activities, environment, sources, and occupations that tend to lead to exposure; regulatory status, listing the primary laws and citations of regulated chemicals; and important additional information on symptoms, first aid, firefighting methods, protective equipment, and safe storage.

  20. Clean fuel vehicles: The air pollution solution

    SciTech Connect

    Meotti, M.P.

    1995-11-01

    Clean fuels for cars and trucks can do more for air quality, and do it sooner, than any other alternative on the drawing boards today. In much of the country, vehicles are the single biggest cause of air pollution. It`s not the industrial smoke stacks, but the tail pipes on cars that foul the air. Ninety percent of the carbon monoxide, 50% of the volatile organic compounds, and 40% of the ozone in metropolitan areas come from motor vehicles. Many state and local government officials are pursuing vehicle emission inspection, high occupancy vehicle lanes, and carpooling programs to reduce auto pollution. These efforts are valuable and should be continued. But clean fuels can quickly reduce auto emissions at a much lower cost. Alternative fuel vehicles produce fewer emissions, are much less dependent on foreign sources, and have the potential to create new jobs. One alternative fuel, natural gas, emits no particulates, 90% less carbon monoxide, and 85% fewer of the gases that form ozone.

  1. [Influence of atmospheric transport on air pollutant levels at a mountain background site of East China].

    PubMed

    Su, Bin-Bin; Xu, Ju-Yang; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Ji, Xian-Xin

    2014-08-01

    Transport characteristics of air pollutants transported to the background atmosphere of East China were investigated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) 4.8 model driven by NCEP reanalysis data during June 2011 to May 2012. Based on the air pollutants monitoring data collected at the National atmospheric background monitoring station (Wuyishan station) in Fujian Province, characteristics of different clustered air masses as well as the origins of highly polluted air masses were further examined. The results showed that 65% of all the trajectories, in which air masses mainly passed over highly polluted area of East China, Jiangxi province and upper air in desert areas of Northwest China, carried polluted air to the station, while the rest of trajectories (35%) with air masses originated from ocean could effectively remove air pollutants at the Wuyishan station. However, the impact on the air pollutants for each air mass group varied with seasons. Elevated SO2 concentrations observed at the background station were mainly influenced by coal burning activities in Northern China during heating season. The high CO concentrations were likely associated with the pollutants emission in the process of coal production and consumption in Anhui province. The elevated NO(x), O3, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were mostly impacted by East China with high levels of air pollutants.

  2. Air pollution and environmental justice in the Great Lakes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, Bryan

    While it is true that air quality has steadily improved in the Great Lakes region, air pollution remains at unhealthy concentrations in many areas. Research suggests that vulnerable and susceptible groups in society -- e.g., minorities, the poor, children, and poorly educated -- are often disproportionately impacted by exposure to environmental hazards, including air pollution. This dissertation explores the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution (interpolated concentrations of fine particulate matter, PM2.5) and sociodemographic factors (race, housing value, housing status, education, age, and population density) at the Census block-group level in the Great Lakes region of the United States. A relatively novel approach to quantitative environmental justice analysis, geographically weighted regression (GWR), is compared with a simplified approach: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. While OLS creates one global model to describe the relationship between air pollution exposure and sociodemographic factors, GWR creates many local models (one at each Census block group) that account for local variations in this relationship by allowing the value of regression coefficients to vary over space, overcoming OLS's assumption of homogeneity and spatial independence. Results suggest that GWR can elucidate patterns of potential environmental injustices that OLS models may miss. In fact, GWR results show that the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and sociodemographic characteristics is non-stationary and can vary geographically and temporally throughout the Great Lakes region. This suggests that regulators may need to address environmental justice issues at the neighborhood level, while understanding that the severity of environmental injustices can change throughout the year.

  3. Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford`s Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention.

  4. Survey of Ambient Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment Tools.

    PubMed

    Anenberg, Susan C; Belova, Anna; Brandt, Jørgen; Fann, Neal; Greco, Sue; Guttikunda, Sarath; Heroux, Marie-Eve; Hurley, Fintan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Medina, Sylvia; Miller, Brian; Pandey, Kiran; Roos, Joachim; Van Dingenen, Rita

    2016-09-01

    Designing air quality policies that improve public health can benefit from information about air pollution health risks and impacts, which include respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and premature death. Several computer-based tools help automate air pollution health impact assessments and are being used for a variety of contexts. Expanding information gathered for a May 2014 World Health Organization expert meeting, we survey 12 multinational air pollution health impact assessment tools, categorize them according to key technical and operational characteristics, and identify limitations and challenges. Key characteristics include spatial resolution, pollutants and health effect outcomes evaluated, and method for characterizing population exposure, as well as tool format, accessibility, complexity, and degree of peer review and application in policy contexts. While many of the tools use common data sources for concentration-response associations, population, and baseline mortality rates, they vary in the exposure information source, format, and degree of technical complexity. We find that there is an important tradeoff between technical refinement and accessibility for a broad range of applications. Analysts should apply tools that provide the appropriate geographic scope, resolution, and maximum degree of technical rigor for the intended assessment, within resources constraints. A systematic intercomparison of the tools' inputs, assumptions, calculations, and results would be helpful to determine the appropriateness of each for different types of assessment. Future work would benefit from accounting for multiple uncertainty sources and integrating ambient air pollution health impact assessment tools with those addressing other related health risks (e.g., smoking, indoor pollution, climate change, vehicle accidents, physical activity).

  5. Air Pollution Potential: Regional Study in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gassmann; Mazzeo

    2000-04-01

    / Air pollution potential is a measure of the atmospheric conditions that are unable to transport and dilute pollutants into the air, independently of the existence of sources. This potential can be determined from two atmospheric parameters: mixing height and transport wind. In this paper a statistical analysis of the mixing height and transport wind, in order to determine the areas with high or poor atmospheric ventilation in Argentina, is presented. In order to achieve this, meteorological data registered during 1979-1982 at eight meteorological stations were used. Daily values of the maximum mixing height were calculated from observations of daily temperatures at different heights and maximum surface temperature. At the same time as the maximum mixing height, the values of the transport wind were determined from the surface windspeed and the characteristics of the ground in the surroundings of each meteorological station. The mean seasonal values for both parameters were obtained. Isopleths of the mean seasonal of the maximum mixing heights were drawn. The percentage of seasonal frequencies of poor ventilation conditions were calculated and the frequency isopleths were also drawn to determine areas with minor and major relative frequencies. It was found that the northeastern and central-eastern regions of Argentina had a high air pollution potential during the whole year. Unfavorable atmospheric ventilation conditions were also found in the central-western side of the country during the cold seasons (37.5% in autumn and 56.9% in winter). The region with the greatest atmospheric ventilation is located south of 40 degrees S, where the frequency of poor ventilation varies between 8.0% in summer and 10.8% in winter.

  6. Urban Air Pollution by Nanoparticles in Ostrava Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdeňka, Kaličáková; Vladimír, Míčka; Karel, Lach; Pavel, Danihelka

    2013-04-01

    Air pollution harms human health and the environment. Ostrava's agglomeration and its immediate vicinity suffer regular exceeding of air pollution limits due to its geomorphologic location and present heavy industry. Maximum exceedances of air quality standards and especially PM10 which 24 hour limit value is in EU 50μg.m-3, must not be exceeded more than 35 days per year. This limit is being still often exceeded. In the year 2011 such as situation occurred 126 times. It is very important then for identify sources of air pollution to find out maximum information about air borne dust, like size distribution, chemical composition of individual size fractions, morphology of particulate matter together with other parameters like meteorological conditions, year season etc. Our measurement started two years ago. We focus on the critical situation when there are values of PM10 over a long period above the limit. In winter season it is so called inversion. By default, during the campaign it is measured size distribution of air born dust in range 5.6 nm -560nm by FMPS and using the sampler NanoId are collected samples in range 1nm - 35μm in 12 size fractions for chemical analysis and morphological observations. This contribution deals with results of size distributions only.

  7. Peat-fire-related air pollution in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hayasaka, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Izumi; Putra, Erianto Indra; Yulianti, Nina; Vadrevu, Krishna

    2014-12-01

    The past decade marked record high air pollution episodes in Indonesia. In this study, we specifically focus on vegetation fires in Palangkaraya located near a Mega Rice Project area in Indonesia. We analyzed various gaseous air pollution data such as particulate matter (PM10), SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 study region. We also conducted elemental analysis at two different sites. Results from 2001 to 2010 suggested the longest hazardous air pollution episode during 2002 lasting about 80 days from mid-August to late-October. Maximum peak concentrations of PM10, SO2, CO, and O3 were also observed during 2002 and their values reached 1905, 85.8, 38.3, and 1003×10(-6) gm(-3) respectively. Elemental analysis showed significant increase in concentrations during 2011 and 2010. Satellite retrieved fires and weather data could explain most of the temporal variations. Our results highlight peat fires as a major contributor of photochemical smog and air pollution in the region.

  8. Air pollutant effects on fetal and early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2007-09-01

    Numerical research on the health effects of air pollution has been published in the last decade. Epidemiological studies have shown that children's exposure to air pollutants during fetal development and early postnatal life is associated with many types of health problems including abnormal development (low birth weight [LBW], very low birth weight [VLBW], preterm birth [PTB], intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR], congenital defects, and intrauterine and infant mortality), decreased lung growth, increased rates of respiratory tract infections, childhood asthma, behavioral problems, and neurocognitive decrements. This review focuses on the health effects of major outdoor air pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur and nitrogen oxides (SO(2), NOx), ozone, and one common indoor air pollutant, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Animal data is presented that demonstrate perinatal windows of susceptibility to sidestream smoke, a surrogate for ETS, resulting in altered airway sensitivity and cell type frequency. A study of neonatal monkeys exposed to sidestream smoke during the perinatal period and/or early postnatal period that resulted in an altered balance of Th1-/Th2-cytokine secretion, skewing the immune response toward the allergy-associated Th2 cytokine phenotype, is also discussed. PMID:17963272

  9. Air pollution monitoring by advanced spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Hodgeson, J A; McClenny, W A; Hanst, P L

    1973-10-19

    The monitoring requirements related to air pollution are many and varied. The molecules of concern differ greatly in their chemical and physical properties, in the nature of their environment, and in their concentration ranges. Furthermore, the application may have specific requirements such as rapid response time, ultrasensitivity, multipollutant capability, or capability for remote measurements. For these reasons, no single spectroscopic technique appears to offer a panacea for all monitoring needs. Instead we have attempted to demonstrate in the above discussion that, regardless of the difficulty and complexity of the monitoring problems, spectroscopy offers many tools by which such problems may be solved.

  10. Air pollution biomonitoring survey in Morocco using k0-INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khoukhi, T.; Cherkaoui, R. M.; Gaudry, A.; Ayrault, S.; Senhou, A.; Chouak, A.; Moutia, Z.; Chakir, E.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental monitoring is an essential step in any economical and social development policy. The atmospheric pollution study is a principal task due to the importance of atmospheric transfer of pollutants. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by different micro-climates influencing, on one hand, the transfer range of trace elements and, on the other hand, the availability of biological organisms that can be used in trace element air pollution biodetection study. Tree-barks, lichens and mosses were used in this study to evaluate trace elements bioavailability in different regions of Morocco. Those organisms were analyzed using the multi-elemental k0-INAA technique. The quality control of the results was performed by the analysis of reference materials. The analysis results were interpreted in the form of enrichment factors reflecting the atmospheric availability of anthropogenic pollutant elements such as Cl, V, Cr, Zn, As, Se and Sr.

  11. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y.; Ni, R.; Lin, J.; Pan, D.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now one of the most polluted regions worldwide. Much attention has been paid to the global impacts of Chinese pollution via atmospheric transport processes. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. International trade allows for separation of regions producing and consuming the products, altering the spatial distribution of associated emissions and leading to substantial changes in regional air pollution and global transport. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Our previous work has shown considerable variability in the contributions of export-related emissions to Chinese total emissions from 2000 to 2009. Here, we attempt to assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and global impacts, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model. Given the distinctive contributions of different economic sectors to pollutant emissions, we also attempt to investigate the sectoral contributions to pollution loadings and transport. Our study will help understand the role of international trade in the trends and variability of Chinese pollution.

  12. Projection of hazardous air pollutant emissions to future years.

    PubMed

    Strum, Madeleine; Cook, Rich; Thurman, James; Ensley, Darrell; Pope, Anne; Palma, Ted; Mason, Richard; Michaels, Harvey; Shedd, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    Projecting a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventory to future years can provide valuable information for air quality management activities such as prediction of program successes and helping to assess future priorities. We have projected the 1999 National Emission Inventory for HAPs to numerous future years up to 2020 using the following tools and data: the Emissions Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants (EMS-HAP), the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM), emission reduction information resulting from national standards and economic growth data. This paper discusses these projection tools, the underlying data, limitations and the results. The results presented include total HAP emissions (sum of pollutants) and toxicity-weighted HAP emissions for cancer and respiratory noncancer effects. Weighting emissions by toxicity does not consider fate, transport, or location and behavior of receptor populations and can only be used to estimate relative risks of direct emissions. We show these projections, along with historical emission trends. The data show that stationary source programs under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and mobile source programs which reduce hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions, as well as toxic emission performance standards for reformulated gasoline, have contributed to and are expected to continue to contribute to large declines in air toxics emissions, in spite of economic and population growth. We have also analyzed the particular HAPs that dominate the source sectors to better understand the historical and future year trends and the differences across sectors.

  13. Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. )

    1991-03-01

    This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

  14. A growing role for gender analysis in air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Clougherty, Jane E

    2011-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies of air pollution effects on respiratory health report significant modification by sex, although results are not uniform. Importantly, it remains unclear whether modifications are attributable to socially derived gendered exposures, to sex-linked physiological differences, or to some interplay thereof. Gender analysis, which aims to disaggregate social from biological differences between males and females, may help to elucidate these possible sources of effect modification. Studies of children suggest stronger effects among boys in early life and among girls in later childhood. The qualitative review describes possible sources of difference in air pollution response between women and men, which may vary by life stage, coexposures, hormonal status, or other factors. The sources of observed effect modifications remain unclear, although gender analytic approaches may help to disentangle gender and sex differences in pollution response. A framework for incorporating gender analysis into environmental epidemiology is offered, along with several potentially useful methods from gender analysis. PMID:21584463

  15. Geospatial relationships of air pollution and acute asthma events across the Detroit-Windsor international border: study design and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Lawrence D; Lamerato, Lois E; Xu, Xiaohong; Booza, Jason C; Reiners, John J; Raymond Iii, Delbert M; Villeneuve, Paul J; Lavigne, Eric; Larkin, Dana; Krouse, Helene J

    2014-07-01

    The Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium (GeoDHOC) study investigated ambient air quality across the international border between Detroit, Michigan, USA and Windsor, Ontario, Canada and its association with acute asthma events in 5- to 89-year-old residents of these cities. NO2, SO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at 100 sites, and particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 50 sites during two 2-week sampling periods in 2008 and 2009. Acute asthma event rates across neighborhoods in each city were calculated using emergency room visits and hospitalizations and standardized to the overall age and gender distribution of the population in the two cities combined. Results demonstrate that intra-urban air quality variations are related to adverse respiratory events in both cities. Annual 2008 asthma rates exhibited statistically significant positive correlations with total VOCs and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) at 5-digit zip code scale spatial resolution in Detroit. In Windsor, NO2, VOCs, and PM10 concentrations correlated positively with 2008 asthma rates at a similar 3-digit postal forward sortation area scale. The study is limited by its coarse temporal resolution (comparing relatively short term air quality measurements to annual asthma health data) and interpretation of findings is complicated by contrasts in population demographics and health-care delivery systems in Detroit and Windsor.

  16. Geospatial relationships of air pollution and acute asthma events across the Detroit–Windsor international border: Study design and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Lawrence D; Lamerato, Lois E; Xu, Xiaohong; Booza, Jason C; Reiners, John J; Raymond III, Delbert M; Villeneuve, Paul J; Lavigne, Eric; Larkin, Dana; Krouse, Helene J

    2014-01-01

    The Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium (GeoDHOC) study investigated ambient air quality across the international border between Detroit, Michigan, USA and Windsor, Ontario, Canada and its association with acute asthma events in 5- to 89-year-old residents of these cities. NO2, SO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at 100 sites, and particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 50 sites during two 2-week sampling periods in 2008 and 2009. Acute asthma event rates across neighborhoods in each city were calculated using emergency room visits and hospitalizations and standardized to the overall age and gender distribution of the population in the two cities combined. Results demonstrate that intra-urban air quality variations are related to adverse respiratory events in both cities. Annual 2008 asthma rates exhibited statistically significant positive correlations with total VOCs and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) at 5-digit zip code scale spatial resolution in Detroit. In Windsor, NO2, VOCs, and PM10 concentrations correlated positively with 2008 asthma rates at a similar 3-digit postal forward sortation area scale. The study is limited by its coarse temporal resolution (comparing relatively short term air quality measurements to annual asthma health data) and interpretation of findings is complicated by contrasts in population demographics and health-care delivery systems in Detroit and Windsor. PMID:24220215

  17. Short-term effects of daily air pollution on mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Sahani, Mazrura; Aripin, Rasimah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The daily variations of air pollutants in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, which includes Kuala Lumpur were investigated for its association with mortality counts using time series analysis. This study located in the tropic with much less seasonal variation than typically seen in more temperate climates. Data on daily mortality for the Klang Valley (2000-2006), daily mean concentrations of air pollutants of PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, O3, daily maximum O3 and meteorological conditions were obtained from Malaysian Department of Environment. We examined the association between pollutants and daily mortality using Poisson regression while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors. Effects of the pollutants (Relative Risk, RR) on current-day (lag 0) mortality to seven previous days (lag 7) and the effects of the pollutants from the first two days (lag 01) to the first eight days (lag 07) were determined. We found significant associations in the single-pollutant model for PM10 and the daily mean O3 with natural mortality. For the daily mean O3, the highest association was at lag 05 (RR = 1.0215, 95% CI = 1.0013-1.0202). CO was found not significantly associated with natural mortality, however the RR's of CO were found to be consistently higher than PM10. In spite of significant results of PM10, the magnitude of RR's of PM10 was not important for natural mortality in comparison with either daily mean O3 or CO. There is an association between daily mean O3 and natural mortality in a two-pollutants model after adjusting for PM10. Most pollutants except SO2, were significantly associated with respiratory mortality in a single pollutant model. Daily mean O3 is also important for respiratory mortality, with over 10% of mortality associated with every IQR increased. These findings are noteworthy because seasonal confounding is unlikely in this relatively stable climate, by contrast with more temperate regions.

  18. Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution in Homes with Infants

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Anna Ruth; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Infants spend most of their indoor time at home; however, residential air quality is poorly understood. We investigated the air quality of infants’ homes in the New England area of the U.S. Participants (N = 53) were parents of infants (0–6 months) who completed telephone surveys to identify potential pollutant sources in their residence. Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤0.5 µm (PM0.5), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were measured in 10 homes over 4–7 days, and levels were compared with health-based guidelines. Pollutant levels varied substantially across homes and within homes with overall levels for some homes up to 20 times higher than for other homes. Average levels were 0.85 ppm, 663.2 ppm, 18.7 µg/m3, and 1626 µg/m3 for CO, CO2, PM0.5, and TVOCs, respectively. CO2, TVOCs, and PM0.5 levels exceeded health-based indoor air quality guidelines. Survey results suggest that nursery renovations and related potential pollutant sources may be associated with differences in urbanicity, income, and presence of older children with respiratory ailments, which could potentially confound health studies. While there are no standards for indoor residential air quality, our findings suggest that additional research is needed to assess indoor pollution exposure for infants, which may be a vulnerable population. PMID:22408586

  19. [Relationship between surface UV radiation and air pollution in Beijing].

    PubMed

    An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si; Li, Xin; Sun, Yang; Shen, Shuang-he

    2008-04-01

    Based on the data of solar radiation and air pollutants collected in Beijing, the relationship between surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the content of air pollutants were analyzed, using the radiative transfer model TUV4.4 (Tropospheric Ultraviolet Visible). The results show that average total ozone content is 329 DU and higher in winter and spring, lower in summer and autumn. The inverse relationship exists between ground level UV radiation and total ozone content. This study also shows that a substantial reduction (up to 50%) in the UV radiation on days with high levels of air pollution. Larger fluctuations are found in UV radiation in the summer. The effects of clouds and air pollution on UV are higher than on total solar radiation, and the reduction in UV is about twice as large as the total solar radiation values. Strong reduction in the UV radiation reaching the ground is associated with the increase of tropospheric ozone and nitrogen oxides in Beijing. The correlation coefficient between ozone concentration and decrease in UV radiation is 0.70 in the early afternoon.

  20. External contribution to urban air pollution.

    PubMed

    Grima, Ramon; Micallef, Alfred; Colls, Jeremy J

    2002-02-01

    Elevated particulate matter concentrations in urban locations have normally been associated with local traffic emissions. Recently it has been suggested that such episodes are influenced to a high degree by PM10 sources external to urban areas. To further corroborate this hypothesis, linear regression was sought between PM10 concentrations measured at eight urban sites in the U.K., with particulate sulphate concentration measured at two rural sites, for the years 1993-1997. Analysis of the slopes, intercepts and correlation coefficients indicate a possible relationship between urban PM10 and rural sulphate concentrations. The influences of wind direction and of the distance of the urban from the rural sites on the values of the three statistical parameters are also explored. The value of linear regression as an analysis tool in such cases is discussed and it is shown that an analysis of the sign of the rate of change of the urban PM10 and rural sulphate concentrations provides a more realistic method of correlation. The results indicate a major influence on urban PM10 concentrations from the eastern side of the United Kingdom. Linear correlation was also sought using PM10 data from nine urban sites in London and nearby rural Rochester. Analysis of the magnitude of the gradients and intercepts together with episode correlation analysis between the two sites showed the effect of transported PM10 on the local London concentrations. This article also presents methods to estimate the influence of rural and urban PM10 sources on urban PM10 concentrations and to obtain a rough estimate of the transboundary contribution to urban air pollution from the PM10 concentration data of the urban site. PMID:11878637

  1. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the "willingness-to-pay" metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution controls and particularly from the

  2. Air Pollution and Quality of Sperm: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Namvar, Farideh; Ghavami Ghanbarabadi, Vahid; Hadizadeh Talasaz, Zahra; Esmaeli, Mahin

    2015-01-01

    Context: Air pollution is common in all countries and affects reproductive functions in men and women. It particularly impacts sperm parameters in men. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the impact of air pollution on the quality of sperm. Evidence Acquisition: The scientific databases of Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, Cochrane Library, and Elsevier were searched to identify relevant articles published between 1978 to 2013. In the first step, 76 articles were selected. These studies were ecological correlation, cohort, retrospective, cross-sectional, and case control ones that were found through electronic and hand search of references about air pollution and male infertility. The outcome measurement was the change in sperm parameters. A total of 11 articles were ultimately included in a meta-analysis to examine the impact of air pollution on sperm parameters. The authors applied meta-analysis sheets from Cochrane library, then data extraction, including mean and standard deviation of sperm parameters were calculated and finally their confidence interval (CI) were compared to CI of standard parameters. Results: The CI for pooled means were as follows: 2.68 ± 0.32 for ejaculation volume (mL), 62.1 ± 15.88 for sperm concentration (million per milliliter), 39.4 ± 5.52 for sperm motility (%), 23.91 ± 13.43 for sperm morphology (%) and 49.53 ± 11.08 for sperm count. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis showed that air pollution reduces sperm motility, but has no impact on the other sperm parameters of spermogram. PMID:26023349

  3. Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lodovici, Maura; Bigagli, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms of air pollution-induced health effects involve oxidative stress and inflammation. As a matter of fact, particulate matter (PM), especially fine (PM2.5, PM < 2.5 μm) and ultrafine (PM0.1, PM < 0.1 μm) particles, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and transition metals, are potent oxidants or able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress can trigger redox-sensitive pathways that lead to different biological processes such as inflammation and cell death. However, it does appear that the susceptibility of target organ to oxidative injury also depends upon its ability to upregulate protective scavenging systems. As vehicular traffic is known to importantly contribute to PM exposure, its intensity and quality must be strongly relevant determinants of the qualitative characteristics of PM spread in the atmosphere. Change in the composition of this PM is likely to modify its health impact. PMID:21860622

  4. Air pollution detection using MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbula, Jan; Kopacková, Veronika

    2011-11-01

    The quality of the environment has a great impact on public health while air quality is a major factor that is especially relevant for respiratory diseases. PM10 (particulate matter below 10 μ) particles are among the most dangerous pollutants, which enter the lower respiratory tract and cause serious health problems. Obtaining reliable air pollution data is limited to a number of ground measuring stations and their spatial location. We used an alternative approach and created statistical models that employed remotely sensed imageries. To establish empirical relationships, we used multi-temporal (2006-2009) MODIS aerosol optical thickness data (product MOD04, Level 2) and the PM10 ground mass concentrations. The north-western part of the Czech Republic (namely the Karlovarský and the Ustecký regions) was chosen as a test site, as all the different types of cultural landscape (forest-economical, agricultural, mining, and urban) can be found within one MODIS scene. This study was focused on the various aspects as follows (i) analysis of MODIS AOT / stationary PM10 time-series trend between 2006-2009, (ii) establishing a linear relationship between PM10 and AOT values for each station and (iii) evaluation of a spatial relationship of the annual mean AE (Ångstrom Exponent) and PM10 values.

  5. Athletic performance and urban air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R J

    1984-01-01

    Air pollution may affect athletic performance. In Los Angeles, contaminants include carbon monoxide, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, whereas in older European cities, such as Sarajevo, "reducing smog" of sulfur dioxide is the main hazard. The carbon monoxide and ozone levels expected in Los Angeles this summer could affect the athletes' performance in endurance events at the Olympic Games. Carbon monoxide may also impair psychomotor abilities, and PAN causes visual disturbances. The only likely physiologic consequence from reducing smog is an increase in the workload of the respiratory system and thus a decrease in endurance performance. While carbon monoxide has been blamed for myocardial infarctions, nitrogen oxides for pulmonary edema and sulfur dioxide for deaths due to respiratory failure, the only illnesses that are likely to be more frequent than usual among young athletes exposed to high levels of these pollutants are upper respiratory tract infections. Therapeutic tactics include the avoidance of pollution, the administration of oxygen, vitamin C and vitamin E, and general reassurance. PMID:6744156

  6. Acute effects of air pollution changes in schoolchildren: the Gardanne coal basin study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpin, D.; Kleisbauer, J. P.; Fondarai, A.; Francheterre, A.; Fondarai, J.; Graland, B.; Viala, A.

    1988-12-01

    In the literature, studies devoted to shortterm effects of air pollution episodes in children have provided controversial results. To evaluate if acute air pollution changes in the Gardanne coal basin (France) could have deleterious effects on children's pulmonary function, we studied 160 children on two different days. Each in-school examination consisted of a short questionnaire and a spirometric assessment. The area included districts of high and low pollution levels. In the former, the two examinations took place at different air pollution levels whereas, in the latter, the air pollution levels were comparable. We obtained higher spirometric values during the second examination, regardless of air pollution changes and suggesting a learning effect, which vanished when we used FEV1/FVC ratio. The difference in FEV1/FVC between days of low and high pollution was significant but merely equal to 2%. There was no change of clinical symptom score.

  7. Monitoring strategy to assessment the air pollution level in Salamanca (México)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Adame, J. M.; Cortina-Januchs, M. G.; Andina, D.; Vega-Corona, A.

    2009-04-01

    Air pollution affects not only the quality of life and the health of the urban population but also forests and agriculture. Agricultural crops can be injured when exposed to high concentrations of various air pollutants. Air pollutants can generally be classed as either local or widespread. Local pollutants are those emitted from a specific stationary source and result in a well-defined zone of vegetation injury or contamination. Most common among the local pollutants are sulphur dioxide, fluorides, ammonia and particulate matter. The paper presents an air monitoring strategy based on data fusion and Artificial Neural Networks. The main objective is to classify automatically the air pollution level as a proposal to assessment the air pollution level affecting the agriculture in Salamanca (Mexico). Salamanca is catalogued as one of the most polluted cities in Mexico. Pollutant concentrations and meteorological variables have been consider in data fusion process in order to build a Representative Pollution Vector (RPV). Meteorological variables (Wind Direction and Wind Speed) are taken as a decision factor in the air pollutant concentration level. RPV is used to train an Artificial Neural Network in order to classify new pollutant events. In the experiments, real time series gathered from the Automatic Environmental Monitoring Network (AEMN) in Salamanca have been used.

  8. Health effects of air pollution in southern Europe: are there interacting factors?

    PubMed Central

    Katsouyanni, K

    1995-01-01

    Recent results suggest that adverse health effects of air pollution exist at levels of pollutants around or even below air quality standards set by national and international institutions. Furthermore, there are indications that air pollution effects on health may be partly determined by specific mixtures of air pollutants and may be altered by other environmental, behavioral, and social patterns. Southern European countries share some common characteristics in terms of climate, geography, and life activity patterns. Results from studies undertaken in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain investigating short- and long-term air pollution health effects are presented and their consistency demonstrated. These results provide adequate evidence that health effects--particularly short-term--of the currently measured urban air pollution levels exist. However, information available so far does not allow an assessment of regional differences in the health effects of air pollution as far as the Mediterranean region of Europe is concerned. It is suggested that the interaction between the traditional pollution (mainly characterized by high levels of black smoke and SO2) and photochemical pollution must be investigated in this area, as well as the possible interaction between air pollution and high temperature and other meteorologic factors. In addition, measurements of individual exposure to different pollutants, affected by the pollutant's levels in specific micro-environments and the individual's time-activity pattern, must be undertaken for a better understanding of the air pollution-health link. Finally, the importance of the reported air pollution health effects in terms of public health must be addressed more closely. PMID:7614942

  9. Opportunities for using spatial property assessment data in air pollution exposure assessments

    PubMed Central

    Setton, Eleanor M; Hystad, Perry W; Keller, C Peter

    2005-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies examining the relationships between adverse health outcomes and exposure to air pollutants use ambient air pollution measurements as a proxy for personal exposure levels. When pollution levels vary at neighbourhood levels, using ambient pollution data from sparsely located fixed monitors may inadequately capture the spatial variation in ambient pollution. A major constraint to moving toward exposure assessments and epidemiological studies of air pollution at a neighbourhood level is the lack of readily available data at appropriate spatial resolutions. Spatial property assessment data are widely available in North America and may provide an opportunity for developing neighbourhood level air pollution exposure assessments. Results This paper provides a detailed description of spatial property assessment data available in the Pacific Northwest of Canada and the United States, and provides examples of potential applications of spatial property assessment data for improving air pollution exposure assessment at the neighbourhood scale, including: (1) creating variables for use in land use regression modelling of neighbourhood levels of ambient air pollution; (2) enhancing wood smoke exposure estimates by mapping fireplace locations; and (3) using data available on individual building characteristics to produce a regional air pollution infiltration model. Conclusion Spatial property assessment data are an extremely detailed data source at a fine spatial resolution, and therefore a source of information that could improve the quality and spatial resolution of current air pollution exposure assessments. PMID:16262893

  10. Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A Benefit-Cost Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupnick, Alan J.; Portney, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The pros and cons of air pollution control efforts are discussed. Both national and regional air pollution control plans are described. Topics of discussion include benefit-cost analysis, air quality regulation, reducing ozone in the urban areas, the Los Angeles plan, uncertainties, and policy implications. (KR)

  11. Issue Backgrounder : Energy Efficient New Homes and Indoor Air Pollutants.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-07-01

    This booklet discusses what indoor air pollution is and how it can affect your health. It describes how energy-efficient new homes can affect indoor air quality. It also describes features that can help ensure clean indoor air, and tells how to detect and control indoor pollutants commonly found in homes.

  12. What you can do to reduce air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The pamphlet describes some major air pollutants, their sources, and their effects on both the environment and people. It also explains the goals of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and suggests various ways of preventing air pollution regionally, locally, and individually. Phone numbers for state environmental agencies and EPA regional offices are included in the back of the pamphlet.

  13. Mercury and Air Pollution: A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The Air Pollution Technical Information Center (APTIC) of the Office of Air Programs has selected and compiled this bibliography of abstracts on mercury and air pollution. The abstracted documents are considered representative of available literature, although not all-inclusive. They are grouped into eleven categories: (1) Emission Sources, (2)…

  14. THE CHALLENGES OF AIR POLLUTION AND RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT (EDITORIAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act (CAA), a comprehensive federal law that regulates air pollution from stationary and mobile sources, was first passed in 1963. The act has provided the primary framework for protecting human health and the environment. The CAA divides air pollutants into "criteri...

  15. Spatial and temporal characteristics of air quality and air pollutants in 2013 in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shujun; Cao, Hui; Chen, Ying; Wu, Chengzhen; Hong, Tao; Fan, Hailan

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution has become an ever more critical issue in Beijing in more recent years. In this study, we use the air quality index (AQI), corresponding primary pollutant types and meteorological data which are collected at 16 monitoring stations in Beijing between January 2013 and December, 2013 studying the spatial and temporal variations of air quality and air pollutants. The results show that PM2.5 was the most serious pollutant, followed by O3. The average PM2.5 mass concentration was 119.5 ± 13.8 μg m(-3) in Beijing. In addition, the air quality varies across different seasons. More specifically, winter season showed the worst air quality. Moreover, while particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations were relatively higher in the spring and winter seasons, gaseous pollutants (O3 and NO2) were more serious in the summer and autumn. In terms of spatial heterogeneity, the findings showed that AQI and PM2.5 concentrations were higher in south and lower in the north of the city, and the O3 showed exactly a pattern with the opposite direction-higher in the north and lower in the south. NO2 was found to have a greater impact on the central region compared with that in other regions. Furthermore, PM2.5 was found to be positively correlated with the relative humidity, but negatively correlated with wind speed and atmospheric pressure (P < 0.01). However, the dominant meteorological factors that influence the PM2.5 concentrations varied in different seasons. The results in this paper provide additional information for the effective control of the air pollution in Beijing. PMID:27040547

  16. Spatial and temporal characteristics of air quality and air pollutants in 2013 in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shujun; Cao, Hui; Chen, Ying; Wu, Chengzhen; Hong, Tao; Fan, Hailan

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution has become an ever more critical issue in Beijing in more recent years. In this study, we use the air quality index (AQI), corresponding primary pollutant types and meteorological data which are collected at 16 monitoring stations in Beijing between January 2013 and December, 2013 studying the spatial and temporal variations of air quality and air pollutants. The results show that PM2.5 was the most serious pollutant, followed by O3. The average PM2.5 mass concentration was 119.5 ± 13.8 μg m(-3) in Beijing. In addition, the air quality varies across different seasons. More specifically, winter season showed the worst air quality. Moreover, while particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations were relatively higher in the spring and winter seasons, gaseous pollutants (O3 and NO2) were more serious in the summer and autumn. In terms of spatial heterogeneity, the findings showed that AQI and PM2.5 concentrations were higher in south and lower in the north of the city, and the O3 showed exactly a pattern with the opposite direction-higher in the north and lower in the south. NO2 was found to have a greater impact on the central region compared with that in other regions. Furthermore, PM2.5 was found to be positively correlated with the relative humidity, but negatively correlated with wind speed and atmospheric pressure (P < 0.01). However, the dominant meteorological factors that influence the PM2.5 concentrations varied in different seasons. The results in this paper provide additional information for the effective control of the air pollution in Beijing.

  17. Dirty air, dirty power. Mortality and health damage due to air pollution from power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Conrad G.; Padian, M.

    2004-06-15

    The Clean Air Task Force commissioned Abt Associates, the consulting firm relied upon by US EPA to assess the health benefits of many of the agency's air regulatory programs. The report documents the asthma attacks, hospitalisations, lost work and school days, and premature deaths linked to pollution from power plants. A first report was released in 2000. The 2004 report documents for the first time the number of heart attacks and lung cancer deaths that would be caused by power plants in 2010 and 2020. It compares the premature deaths that would result under the Bush administration's air pollution plan, the existing US Clean Air Act, and a proposal sponsored by Senator Jim Jeffords to strengthen the Clean Air Act. In general it was found that the administration's plan would produce the fewest benefits. The full study is available from the EPA, abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database. 65 refs., 2 apps.

  18. Air Pollution and Acid Rain, Report 9. Effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats: deserts and steppes

    SciTech Connect

    Mirsky, E.N.; Harper, D.; Adler, D.

    1982-06-01

    This report on desert and steppe ecosystems is part of a series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and acid deposition on fish and wildlife resources. The features of desert and steppe ecosystems which determine the sensitivity of these ecosystems to air pollution are described. Data related to the effects of air pollutants on biota and whole ecosystems are reviewed. The data come from both field and laboratory studies. Some general information based on studies in other ecosystems is included. Suggestions are made for areas of further research. In general there has been less concern for the effects of air pollutants on the biota of deserts and steppes than for those of other ecosystems. Much of the concern for, and research on, air pollution in desert and steppe ecosystems is related to fossil fuel powered electric generating plants. 47 references, 3 figures, 8 tables.

  19. Air Pollution and Acid Rain, Report 8. Effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats: arctic tundra and alpine meadows

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.E.; Adler, D.

    1982-06-01

    This report on arctic tundra and alpine meadow ecosystems is part of a series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and acid deposition on fish and wildlife resources. Recently performed research reveals the growing air pollution problem in arctic tundra and alpine meadow ecosystems once thought to be relatively unpolluted. The ecosystem features which determine sensitivity to air pollution are described. Data related to the effects of air pollutants on biota and whole ecosystems are reviewed. Because very little work has been done on the effects of air pollution specifically in arctic and alpine ecosystems this report includes relevant information based on studies in other ecosystems. Suggestions are made for areas of further research. 68 references, 2 figures.

  20. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Wang, Jingxu; Yan, Yingying; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now the most polluted country. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Here, we assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and transport, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We find that both air pollution related to Chinese exports (PRE) which including nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), black carbon (BC), and primary organic aerosol (POA), and its share in total Chinese pollution have experienced continuous rapid growth until 2007, exposing more and more people to severely polluted air. After 2007, PRE decreases due to strengthened emission controls accompanied by declined exports as a result of the global financial crisis. Although production for exports contribute less than 35% SO2 over China in any year, the increasing trend of trade-related SO2 contributes 51% of integral trend. The changing PRE of China also affects its downwind regions such as the western United States. The contribution of export-related Chinese pollution to surface sulfate concentrations over the western United States has increased from 3% in 2000 to 12% in 2007. Overall, we find that the interannual variation of trade and associated production is a critical factor driving the trend of pollution over China and its downwind regions.

  1. Characterizing climate change impacts on human exposures to air pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to air pollutants such as ozone (O3) have the potential to be altered by changes in climate through multiple factors that drive population exposures, including: ambient pollutant concentrations, human activity patterns, population sizes and distributions, and hous...

  2. Health effects of air pollution and the Japanese compensation law

    SciTech Connect

    Namekata, T.; Duv Florey, C.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Part 1. Individual Presentations: I. Gas Cooking and Respiratory Disease in Children, II. Health Effects of Fossil Fuel Combustion Compared With Effects of Energy Shortages, III. Daily Symptoms of Lung Function in Relation to Air Pollution: A Study in West Berlin 1982/83, IV. Studies of the Acute Effects of London Smog, and Their Relevance to Present-Day Conditions, V. Epidemiological Issues on Air Pollution in the Japanese Pollution-Related Health Damage Compensation Law. Part 2. Panel Discussion: Epidemiological Issues on Air Pollution in the Japanese Pollution-Related Health Damage Compensation Law; Problems in Air Pollution Epidemiology; Exposure Criteria for Compensation; Problems in the Use of Respiratory Symptoms Questionnaires; Legal and Policy Issues in the Japanes Compensation Law. Part 3. Background Information: I. Legal and Policy Issues in the Japanese Compensation Law. II. Reappraisal of Air Pollution/Health Effects Studies in Japan.

  3. Seasonal pattern of the acute mortality effects of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhengmin; Lin, Hung-Mo; Stewart, Walter F; Kong, Linli; Xu, Fen; Zhou, Denjin; Zhu, Zhicao; Liang, Shengwen; Chen, Weiqing; Shah, Nirav; Stetter, Christy; He, Qingci

    2010-04-01

    Evidence of seasonal variation of acute mortality effects of air pollution is inconsistent. The seasonal patterns of associations between daily mortality and daily mean concentrations of particulate matter 10 microm or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were examined using 4 yr of data (2001-2004) in Wuhan, China. Four distinct seasons occur in Wuhan, where approximately 4.5 million residents live in the city core area of 201 km2. Air pollution levels are higher and pollution ranges are wider in Wuhan than in most cities. Quasi-likelihood estimation within the context of the generalized additive models (natural spline [NS] models in R) was used to model the natural logarithm of the expected daily death counts as a function of the predictor variables. The estimates of the interaction between seasons and pollution were obtained from the main effects and pollutant season interaction models. It was found that the interactions between three pollutants and cause-specific mortality were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The strongest effects occurred consistently in winter for all-natural, cardiovascular, stroke, and respiratory mortality. Every 10-microg/m3 increase in PM10 daily concentration at lag 0-1 days was associated with an increase in all-natural mortality of 0.69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44-0.94%) for winter, 0.34% (95% CI: 0.00-0.69%) for spring, 0.45% (95% CI: -0.13 to 1.04%) for summer, and -0.21% (95% CI: -0.54 to 0.12%) for fall. The results show a clear seasonal pattern of acute mortality effects of ambient air pollution and the strongest effects occurred during winter in the study city.

  4. Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

    1995-01-01

    Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution. Images Figure 1. PMID:7656877

  5. Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?

    PubMed

    Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

    1995-05-01

    Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution.

  6. Particulate air pollution: possible relevance in asthma.

    PubMed

    Glovsky, M M; Miguel, A G; Cass, G R

    1997-01-01

    The relative importance of air pollution in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma has been of interest for several decades. Numerous studies on the role of gaseous air pollution containing ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide have been published. Very little attention has been focused on the role of respirable particles in the causation of asthma. In this article we summarize some of our ongoing investigations into the sources and composition of airborne particles in the Los Angeles and Pasadena atmosphere, including the search for biologically active particles that may induce asthma attacks. If is found that the urban atmosphere contains not only combustion-derived particles from diesel engine exhaust and gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, but also particles formed from biological starting materials including plant debris, cigarette smoke, wood smoke, and meat smoke as well as tire debris containing some natural rubber and paved road dust. Paved road dust is a very complex mixture of particles including garden soil, tire dust, plant fragments, redeposited atmospheric particles of all types, and pollen fragments presumably ground up by passing traffic. We have shown previously that latex allergen can be extracted from tire dust, from roadside dust, and from respirable air samples taken at Los Angeles and Long Beach. At present, work is underway to identify the larger range of allergens that may be contributed by the entrainment of paved road dust into the atmosphere. The possible importance of pollen fragments present in paved road dust in very small particle sizes is discussed as well as their potential relevance in asthma.

  7. Regional and Global Impacts of Megacity Air Pollution in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renyi

    2014-05-01

    Air quality has deteriorated in many megacities of China because of their rapid economic developments. For example, as the world's second largest economy, China has experienced severe air pollution, with aerosols or fine particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) reaching unprecedented high levels across many cities in recent winters. In addition to the impacts of aerosols on air chemistry, visibility, and human health, intense aerosol pollution is believed to exert profound impacts on the regional and global atmosphere and climate. In the first part of the talk, perspectives are provided on formation and transformation of haze in China. In the second part the long-term impacts of aerosols on precipitation and lightning over a megacity area in China will be presented, on the basis of atmospheric observations and simulations using a cloud-resolving WRF model. Our results reveal that elevated aerosol loading suppresses light and moderate precipitation, but enhances heavy precipitation. Also, we demonstrate climatically modulated mid-latitude cyclones by Asian pollution over past three decades, using a novel hierarchical modeling approach and observational analysis. Our results unambiguously reveal a large impact of the Asian pollutant outflows on the global general circulation and climate.

  8. Evaluation of air pollution modelling tools as environmental engineering courseware.

    PubMed

    Souto González, J A; Bello Bugallo, P M; Casares Long, J J

    2004-01-01

    The study of phenomena related to the dispersion of pollutants usually takes advantage of the use of mathematical models based on the description of the different processes involved. This educational approach is especially important in air pollution dispersion, when the processes follow a non-linear behaviour so it is difficult to understand the relationships between inputs and outputs, and in a 3D context where it becomes hard to analyze alphanumeric results. In this work, three different software tools, as computer solvers for typical air pollution dispersion phenomena, are presented. Each software tool developed to be implemented on PCs, follows approaches that represent three generations of programming languages (Fortran 77, VisualBasic and Java), applied over three different environments: MS-DOS, MS-Windows and the world wide web. The software tools were tested by students of environmental engineering (undergraduate) and chemical engineering (postgraduate), in order to evaluate the ability of these software tools to improve both theoretical and practical knowledge of the air pollution dispersion problem, and the impact of the different environment in the learning process in terms of content, ease of use and visualization of results. PMID:15193095

  9. Air pollution, avoidance behaviour and children's respiratory health: evidence from England.

    PubMed

    Janke, Katharina

    2014-12-01

    Despite progress in air pollution control, concerns remain over the health impact of poor air quality. Governments increasingly issue air quality information to enable vulnerable groups to avoid exposure. Avoidance behaviour potentially biases estimates of the health effects of air pollutants. But avoidance behaviour imposes a cost on individuals and therefore may not be taken in all circumstances. This paper exploits panel data at the English local authority level to estimate the relationship between children's daily hospital emergency admissions for respiratory diseases and common air pollutants, while allowing for avoidance behaviour in response to air pollution warnings. A 1% increase in nitrogen dioxide or ozone concentrations increases hospital admissions by 0.1%. For the subset of asthma admissions - where avoidance is less costly - there is evidence of avoidance behaviour. Ignoring avoidance behaviour, however, does not result in statistically significant underestimation of the health effect of air pollution.

  10. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R.

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  11. 76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District...

  12. 76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution...

  13. Air pollution and birth weight in Britain in 1946.

    PubMed

    Bobak, M; Richards, M; Wadsworth, M

    2001-05-01

    Recent studies suggested that air pollution might be related to low birth weight. We tested this hypothesis on data from the British 1946 birth cohort. We found a strong association between birth weight and an air pollution index based on coal consumption. Babies born in the most polluted areas were on average 87 grams lighter than those born in the areas with the cleanest air. Adjustment for a number of sociodemographic factors did not change these estimates. While confounding by unmeasured factors cannot be ruled out, these historical data support the hypothesis that birth weight could be affected by air pollution.

  14. "Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health".

    PubMed

    Rizwan, Sa; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 μg/m3. Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution. Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution.

  15. Extended effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary mortality in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Rabczenko, Daniel; Moshammer, Hanns

    BackgroundCurrent standards for fine particulates and nitrogen dioxide are under revision. Patients with cardiovascular disease have been identified as the largest group which need to be protected from effects of urban air pollution. MethodsWe sought to estimate associations between indicators of urban air pollution and daily mortality using time series of daily TSP, PM 10, PM 2.5, NO 2, SO 2, O 3 and nontrauma deaths in Vienna (Austria) 2000-2004. We used polynomial distributed lag analysis adjusted for seasonality, daily temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and incidence of influenza as registered by sentinels. ResultsAll three particulate measures and NO 2 were associated with mortality from all causes and from ischemic heart disease and COPD at all ages and in the elderly. The magnitude of the effect was largest for PM 2.5 and NO 2. Best predictor of mortality increase lagged 0-7 days was PM 2.5 (for ischemic heart disease and COPD) and NO 2 (for other heart disease and all causes). Total mortality increase, lagged 0-14 days, per 10 μg m -3 was 2.6% for PM 2.5 and 2.9% for NO 2, mainly due to cardiopulmonary and cerebrovascular causes. ConclusionAcute and subacute lethal effects of urban air pollution are predicted by PM 2.5 and NO 2 increase even at relatively low levels of these pollutants. This is consistent with results on hospital admissions and the lack of a threshold. While harvesting (reduction of mortality after short increase due to premature deaths of most sensitive persons) seems to be of minor importance, deaths accumulate during 14 days after an increase of air pollutants. The limit values for PM 2.5 and NO 2 proposed for 2010 in the European Union are unable to prevent serious health effects.

  16. Emissions of air pollutants from indoor charcoal barbecue.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Lee, Whei-May Grace; Wu, Feng-Shu

    2016-01-25

    Ten types of commercial charcoal commonly used in Taiwan were investigated to study the potential health effects of air pollutants generated during charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The charcoal samples were combusted in a tubular high-temperature furnace to simulate the high-temperature charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The results indicated that traditional charcoal has higher heating value than green synthetic charcoal. The amount of PM10 and PM2.5 emitted during the smoldering stage increased when the burning temperature was raised. The EF for CO and CO2 fell within the range of 68-300 and 644-1225 g/kg, respectively. Among the charcoals, the lowest EF for PM2.5 and PM10 were found in Binchōtan (B1). Sawdust briquette charcoal (I1S) emitted the smallest amount of carbonyl compounds. Charcoal briquettes (C2S) emitted the largest amount of air pollutants during burning, with the EF for HC, PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde being the highest among the charcoals studied. The emission of PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde were 5-10 times those of the second highest charcoal. The results suggest that the adverse effects of the large amounts of air pollutants generated during indoor charcoal combustion on health and indoor air quality must not be ignored.

  17. Development of foamed emulsion bioreactor for air pollution control.

    PubMed

    Kan, Eunsung; Deshusses, Marc A

    2003-10-20

    A new type of bioreactor for air pollution control has been developed. The new process relies on an organic-phase emulsion and actively growing pollutant-degrading microorganisms, made into a foam with the air being treated. This new reactor is referred to as a foamed emulsion bioreactor (FEBR). As there is no packing in the reactor, the FEBR is not subject to clogging. Mathematical modeling of the process and proof of concept using a laboratory prototype revealed that the foamed emulsion bioreactor greatly surpasses the performance of existing gas-phase bioreactors. Experimental results showed a toluene elimination capacity as high as 285 g(toluene) m(-3) (reactor) h(-1) with a removal efficiency of 95% at a gas residence time of 15 s and a toluene inlet concentration of 1-1.3 g x m(-3). Oxygen limited the reactor performance at toluene concentration above about 0.7-1.0 g x m(-3); consequently, performance was significantly improved when pure oxygen was added to the contaminated air. The elimination capacity increased from 204 to 408 g x m(-3) h(-1) with >77% toluene removal at toluene inlet concentrations of 2-2.2 g x m(-3). Overall, the results show that the performance of the FEBR far exceeds that of currently used bioreactors for air pollution control.

  18. Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): A Multicity Study of Short-Term Effects of Air Pollution on Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Kan, Haidong; Qian, Zhengmin

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives Although the deleterious effects of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion have been demonstrated in many Western nations, fewer studies have been conducted in Asia. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project assessed the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on daily mortality in Bangkok, Thailand, and in three cities in China: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Methods Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for seasonality and other time-varying covariates that might confound the association between air pollution and mortality. Effect estimates were determined for each city and then for the cities combined using a random effects method. Results In individual cities, associations were detected between most of the pollutants [nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), and ozone] and most health outcomes under study (i.e., all natural-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality). The city-combined effects of the four pollutants tended to be equal or greater than those identified in studies conducted in Western industrial nations. In addition, residents of Asian cities are likely to have higher exposures to air pollution than those in Western industrial nations because they spend more time outdoors and less time in air conditioning. Conclusions Although the social and environmental conditions may be quite different, it is reasonable to apply estimates derived from previous health effect of air pollution studies in the West to Asia. PMID:18795163

  19. Air pollution and arrhythmic risk: the smog is yet to clear.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Alex; Danilewitz, Marlon; Kusha, Marjan; Massé, Stéphane; Urch, Bruce; Quadros, Kenneth; Spears, Danna; Farid, Talha; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated that air pollution may impair cardiovascular health, leading to potentially life-threatening arrhythmias. Efforts have been made, with the use of epidemiologic data and controlled exposures in diverse animal and human populations, to verify the relationship between air pollution and arrhythmias. The purpose of this review is to examine and contrast the epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence to date that relates airborne pollutants with cardiac arrhythmia. We have explored the potential biological mechanisms driving this association. Using the PubMed database, we conducted a literature search that included the terms "air pollution" and "arrhythmia" and eventually divergent synonyms such as "particulate matter," "bradycardia," and "atrial fibrillation." We reviewed epidemiologic studies and controlled human and animal exposures independently to determine whether observational conclusions were corroborated by toxicologic results. Numerous pollutants have demonstrated some arrhythmic capacity among healthy and health-compromised populations. However, some exposure studies have shown no significant correlation of air pollutants with arrhythmia, which suggests some uncertainty about the arrhythmogenic potential of air pollution and the mechanisms involved in arrhythmogenesis. While data from an increasing number of controlled exposures with human volunteers suggest a potential mechanistic link between air pollution and altered cardiac electrophysiology, definite conclusions regarding air pollution and arrhythmia are elusive as the direct arrhythmic effects of air pollutants are not entirely consistent across all studies. PMID:23219609

  20. Air pollution and arrhythmic risk: the smog is yet to clear.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Alex; Danilewitz, Marlon; Kusha, Marjan; Massé, Stéphane; Urch, Bruce; Quadros, Kenneth; Spears, Danna; Farid, Talha; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated that air pollution may impair cardiovascular health, leading to potentially life-threatening arrhythmias. Efforts have been made, with the use of epidemiologic data and controlled exposures in diverse animal and human populations, to verify the relationship between air pollution and arrhythmias. The purpose of this review is to examine and contrast the epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence to date that relates airborne pollutants with cardiac arrhythmia. We have explored the potential biological mechanisms driving this association. Using the PubMed database, we conducted a literature search that included the terms "air pollution" and "arrhythmia" and eventually divergent synonyms such as "particulate matter," "bradycardia," and "atrial fibrillation." We reviewed epidemiologic studies and controlled human and animal exposures independently to determine whether observational conclusions were corroborated by toxicologic results. Numerous pollutants have demonstrated some arrhythmic capacity among healthy and health-compromised populations. However, some exposure studies have shown no significant correlation of air pollutants with arrhythmia, which suggests some uncertainty about the arrhythmogenic potential of air pollution and the mechanisms involved in arrhythmogenesis. While data from an increasing number of controlled exposures with human volunteers suggest a potential mechanistic link between air pollution and altered cardiac electrophysiology, definite conclusions regarding air pollution and arrhythmia are elusive as the direct arrhythmic effects of air pollutants are not entirely consistent across all studies.

  1. Study of air pollution in Bucharest area for three years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, Sabina; Raicu, Cristina; Barladeanu, Raluca

    2010-05-01

    An important component of the air quality management and health risk assessment is improved by understanding of spatial and temporal variability of pollutant concentrations. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to assess the concentration levels of Particulate Matter (PM), NOx, SO2, CO and O3 in five urban sites in Bucharest, Romania. The key influences on the causes of high concentrations of pollutants include traffic characteristics and meteorology which affects the dispersion of pollutants. Our analysis of the measured pollutant concentrations, for the three years, 2005, 2006 and 2007 was related to traffic and meteorological conditions. The direct contribution of the traffic relative to the contribution from urban background was studied. The study has been performed for the all four seasons. The measurements shown that the highest NOx, SO2 and particulate matter (PM10) concentrations occur in the winter and summer periods, due to unfavorable meteorological dispersion conditions. Generally, the results show that the road traffic is the main contributor when the NOx and CO values exceed the limit value. For the PM10, both the traffic and resuspension of road dust are important, too. This type of study of spatial and temporal variability of pollutant concentrations allows evaluating the requirements of air quality models to represent the key effects.

  2. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In health studies, traffic-related air pollution is associated with adverse respiratory effects. Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect ...

  3. Sensory irritation. Relation to indoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S

    1992-04-30

    All mucosae of the body possess chemical sensitivity provided by the CCS. Airborne chemicals can stimulate the CCS through the ocular, nasal, and respiratory mucosae, evoking different pungent sensations, for example, stinging, irritation, burning, piquancy, prickling, freshness, and tingling. Pungent sensations elicited in the nose differ from odor sensations in various characteristics. They are achieved at considerably higher concentrations than those necessary to elicit odor, but they increase with the concentration of the stimulus in a steeper fashion than odor. Pungent sensations from mixtures of compounds show a higher degree of addition--relative to the pungency of the individual components--than that of odor sensations. Pungency is more resistant to adaptation than odor, and, unlike it, displays considerable temporal integration with continuous stimulation. Measurement of a reflex, transitory apnea produced upon inhalation of pungent chemicals holds promise as an objective indicator of the functional status of the CCS. Results from the measurement of this reflex have agreed quantitatively with sensory data in a number of studies, and have shown higher common chemical sensitivity in nonsmokers (compared to smokers), in females (compared to males), and in young adults (compared to the elderly). Research issues mentioned here include the following: 1. We can rarely validate the symptoms putatively caused by indoor air pollution objectively. Without such means, we will always have the potential problem of overreporting and embellishment. Although one person may seem more sensitive than another, the difference may lie in a greater proclivity to complain. 2. Studies of anosmic persons offer a simple means to understand the functional characteristics of the nasal CCS. Studies of chemical series in such subjects should eventually allow construction of quantitative structure-activity models for human pungency perception. The human data can be compared with relevant

  4. King Coal causes air pollution problems.

    PubMed

    Wang, A; Zhao, D; Liu, J

    1989-01-01

    Every year, China is blanketed with some 23 million tons of particulates from smoke and dust along with 17 million tons of sulphur dioxide from the use of coal in power plants, factories, and home furnaces. Elevated concentrations of sulphur dioxide are found in cities like Chongqing and Guiyang, which are plagued by stagnant air masses during the winter months. Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Xi'an, Guangzhou, Chongqing, and Guiyang all suffer from soot, ash, and dust fallout for much of the year. Northern cities like Beijing and Tianjin are also afflicted with high levels of heavy metals like lead, cadmium and even arsenic, which are bound to soot and dust particles. Hundreds of people in Xuanwei in Yunnan Province suffer from respiratory diseases and lung cancer brought on by pollution. Government studies have shown that between 1949 and 1979, cancer mortality in the Beijing area increased by 145%, with lung cancer being the most prevalent. Another atmospheric scourge that is spreading throughout China is acid rain. More than half of all rainfall events in large areas south of the Yangtze River have a pH of less than 5.6. The south-western part of China is also experiencing a forest dieback as severe as anything in Europe. For example, about half of all the pines on top of Mt. Nanshen (near Chongqing) have died, and nearly 40% of the fir forests on Mt. Emi have withered and died. On June 1, 1988, the National Prevention and Control of Air Pollution Law came into force. Acid rain research has been listed as one of the major priorities for the most recent National Five-Year Research Program, which runs from 1986 to 1990. For the future environmental protection measures must be taken into account when extracting coal; coal processing techniques must be improved: and new clean coal technologies should be introduced on a large scale.

  5. Heat Waves, Urban Vegetation, and Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkina, G.; Grote, R.; Butler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-track programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting the existence of this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how global change induced heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone levels. We also quantify other ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation (e.g., cooling and carbon storage) and their sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the heat waves in 2003 and 2006. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  6. Characterization of background air pollution exposure in urban environments using a metric based on Hidden Markov Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Losada, Álvaro; Pires, José Carlos M.; Pino-Mejías, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    Urban area air pollution results from local air pollutants (from different sources) and horizontal transport (background pollution). Understanding urban air pollution background (lowest) concentration profiles is key in population exposure assessment and epidemiological studies. To this end, air pollution registered at background monitoring sites is studied, but background pollution levels are given as the average of the air pollutant concentrations measured at these sites over long periods of time. This short communication shows how a metric based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) can characterise the air pollutant background concentration profiles. HMMs were applied to daily average concentrations of CO, NO2, PM10 and SO2 at thirteen urban monitoring sites from three cities from 2010 to 2013. Using the proposed metric, the mean values of background and ambient air pollution registered at these sites for these primary pollutants were estimated and the ratio of ambient to background air pollution and the difference between them were studied. The ratio indicator for the studied air pollutants during the four-year study sets the background air pollution at 48%-69% of the ambient air pollution, while the difference between these values ranges from 101 to 193 μg/m3, 7-12 μg/m3, 11-13 μg/m3 and 2-3 μg/m3 for CO, NO2, PM10 and SO2, respectively.

  7. Air pollution effects on the structure of Citrus aurantium leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Psaras, G.K.; Christodoulakis, N.S.

    1987-09-01

    Individual air pollutants cause acute and chronic plant injury, act on stomata and affect carbon dioxide exchange as well as plant growth and development. Inhibition of photosynthesis by several air pollutants has been reported repeatedly. Besides, structural modifications of cell organelles have been reported after fumigation by SO/sub 2/. Although chlorosis and subsequent necrosis are common phenomena caused by artificial treatment with pollutants, fine structural leaf characteristics of plants exposed to long-term air pollution in natural conditions are little explored. Light microscope examination of air pollution affected leaves of plants common in natural ecosystems of Athens' metropolitan area revealed chlorosis phenomena. Electron microscope examination of the leaves of a common subshrub of greek phryganic formations grown in a heavily air polluted natural ecosystem of Athens metropolitan area revealed pronounced ultrastructural anomalies of chloroplasts, mitochondria and microbodies of the mesophyll cells. This organelle destruction of the photosynthesizing tissue as well as the minimization of the ecosystem primary productivity are attributed to the compound action of several toxic air pollutants of the photochemical smog of Athens. This work describes the long-term air pollution effects on the structural features of the leaves of Citrus aurantium, a decorative species planted throughout the heavily air polluted city of Athens.

  8. Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, R R; Huffman, G J; Luke, W T; Nunnermacker, L J; Pickering, K E; Leslie, A C; Lindsey, C G; Slinn, W G; Kelly, T J; Daum, P H; Delany, A C; Greenberg, J P; Zimmerman, P R; Boatman, J F; Ray, J D; Stedman, D H

    1987-01-23

    Acid deposition and photochemical smog are urban air pollution problems, and they remain localized as long as the sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrocarbon pollutants are confined to the lower troposphere (below about 1-kilometer altitude) where they are short-lived. If, however, the contaminants are rapidly transported to the upper troposphere, then their atmospheric residence times grow and their range of influence expands dramatically. Although this vertical transport ameliorates some of the effects of acid rain by diluting atmospheric acids, it exacerbates global tropospheric ozone production by redistributing the necessary nitrogen catalysts. Results of recent computer simulations suggest that thunderstorms are one means of rapid vertical transport. To test this hypothesis, several research aircraft near a midwestern thunderstrom measured carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, ozone, and reactive nitrogen compounds. Their concentrations were much greater in the outflow region of the storm, up to 11 kilometers in altitude, than in surrounding air. Trace gas measurements can thus be used to track the motion of air in and around a cloud. Thunderstorms may transform local air pollution problems into regional or global atmospheric chemistry problems.

  9. An analysis of secondary pollutants in Buenos Aires City.

    PubMed

    Reich, Silvia; Magallanes, Jorge; Dawidowski, Laura; Gómez, Darío; Groselj, Neva; Zupan, Jure

    2006-08-01

    Air pollutant concentrations from a monitoring campaign in Buenos Aires City, Argentina, are used to investigate the relationships between ambient levels of ozone (O3), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as a function of NO(x) (= NO + NO2). This campaign undertaken by the electricity sector was aimed at elucidating the apportionment of thermal power plants to air quality deterioration. Concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were also registered. Photo stationary state (PSS) of the NO, NO2, O3 and peroxy radicals species has been analysed. The 'oxidant' level concept has been introduced, OX (= O3 + NO2), which varies with the level of NO(x). It is shown that this level is made up of NO(x)-independent and NO(x)-dependent contributions. The former is a regional contribution that equates the background O3 level, whereas the latter is a local contribution that correlates with the level of primary pollution. Furthermore, the anticorrelation between NO2 and O3 levels, which is a characteristic of the atmospheric photo stationary cycle has been verified. The analysis of the concentration of the primary pollutants CO and NO strongly suggests that the vehicle traffic is the principal source of them. Levels of continuous measurements of SO2 for Buenos Aires City are reported in this work as a complement of previously published results.

  10. [Analysis of an Air Pollution Process Using LiDAR in Nanjing, Spring of 2014].

    PubMed

    Bao, Qing; He, Jun-liang; Zha, Yong; Cheng, Feng; Li, Qian-nan

    2015-04-01

    Based on environmental monitoring data, meteorological data and the results of numerical simulation, a typical air pollution process in Nanjing, from 26th May to 1st June, 2014 was deeply analyzed combining aerosol extinction coefficient derived from LiDAR system. Experimental results showed that the entire pollution process was affected by both local pollution and exogenous inputs including dust and smoke. Meteorological factors played a significant role in the generation and elimination of pollutants. Low pressure and temperature inversion also hindered the diffusion of pollutants, while strong rainfall terminated the pollution process. During the pollution, the height of atmospheric boundary layer was lower than normal situation and changed little during the pollution period, which provided a poor diffusion condition for pollutants. LiDAR could accurately detect aerosol vertical structure which was able to capture the temporal and spatial variation of pollutant distributions. Therefore, LiDAR can be of great significance for the atmospheric pollution monitoring. PMID:26164889

  11. Economic Activity and Trends in Ambient Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mary E.; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Background One challenge in assessing the health effects of human exposure to air pollution in epidemiologic studies is the lack of widespread historical air pollutant monitoring data with which to characterize past exposure levels. Objectives Given the availability of long-term economic data, we relate economic activity levels to patterns in vehicle-related particulate matter (PM) over a 30-year period in New Jersey, USA, to provide insight into potential historical surrogate markers of air pollution. Methods We used statewide unemployment and county-level trucking industry characteristics to estimate historical coefficient of haze (COH), a marker of vehicle-related PM predominantly from diesel exhaust. A total of 5,920 observations were included across 25 different locations in New Jersey between 1971 and 2003. Results A mixed-modeling approach was employed to estimate the impact of economic indicators on measured COH. The model explained approximately 50% of the variability in COH as estimated by the overall R2 value. Peaks and lows in unemployment tracked negatively with similar extremes in COH, whereas employment in the trucking industry was positively associated with COH. Federal air quality regulations also played a large and significant role in reducing COH levels over the study period. Conclusions This new approach outlines an alternative method to reconstruct historical exposures that may greatly aid epidemiologic research on specific causes of health effects from urban air pollution. Economic activity data provide a potential surrogate marker of changes in exposure levels over time in the absence of direct monitoring data for chronic disease studies, but more research in this area is needed. PMID:20056563

  12. Effects of air pollution on children’s pulmonary health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabaku, Afrim; Bejtja, Gazmend; Bala, Silvana; Toci, Ervin; Resuli, Jerina

    2011-12-01

    IntroductionMany reports regarding the effects of air pollution on children's respiratory health have appeared in the scientific literature. Some investigators found increases in persistent cough and phlegm, bronchitis, and early respiratory infections in communities with poor air quality. The purpose of this survey was to compare the pulmonary function of children living in urban area of Tirana city with children living in suburban area of the city. Material and methodsThis survey is carried out during 2004-2005 period on 238 children living in urban area and in 72 children living in suburban area, measuring dynamic pulmonary function. A questionnaire was used to collect data on sex, current respiratory symptoms, allergy diagnosed by the physician, parent education and smoking habit of parents, presence of animals, synthetic carpets and moulds in their houses. The selection of schools, and children included in this survey was done by randomized method. Also, we have measured and classic air pollutants. ResultsComparing the results of values of pulmonary function of two groups of children, we have shown that differences were significant ( p 0.001), whereas comparing symptoms were for cough ( p 0.011) and for phlegm ( p 0.032). The level of particulate matter (PM10) and total suspended matter (TSP) were over the recommended limit values, whereas the levels of other pollutants have resulted within recommended levels of World Health Organization (WHO) ConclusionsThe results of this survey suggest that air pollution is associated with respiratory health of children causing a slight decrease in values of pulmonary function in children of urban area compared with those of suburban area.

  13. Clearing the air and breathing freely: the health politics of air pollution and asthma.

    PubMed

    Brown, Phil; Mayer, Brian; Zavestoski, Stephen; Luebke, Theo; Mandelbaum, Joshua; McCormick, Sabrina

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the growing debate around environmental causes of asthma in the context of federal regulatory disputes, scientific controversy, and environmental justice activism. A multifaceted form of social discovery of the effect of air pollution on asthma has resulted from multipartner and multiorganizational approaches and from intersectoral policy that deals with social inequality and environmental justice. Scientists, activists, health voluntary organizations, and some government agencies and officials have identified various elements of the asthma and air pollution connection. To tackle these issues, they have worked through a variety of collaborations and across different sectors of environmental regulation, public health, health services, housing, transportation, and community development. The authors examine the role of activist groups in discovering the increased rates of asthma and framing it as a social and environmental issue; give an overview of the current knowledge base on air pollution and asthma, and the controversies within science; and situate that science in the regulatory debate, discussing the many challenges to the air quality researchers. They then examine the implications of the scientific and regulatory controversies over linking air pollution to increases in asthma. The article concludes with a discussion of how alliances between activists and scientists lead to new research strategies and innovations. PMID:15088672

  14. Gestational Diabetes and Preeclampsia in Association with Air Pollution at Levels below Current Air Quality Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Kristina; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Rylander, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies have estimated associations between air pollution and birth outcomes, but few have evaluated potential effects on pregnancy complications. Objective: We investigated whether low-level exposure to air pollution is associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. Methods: High-quality registry information on 81,110 singleton pregnancy outcomes in southern Sweden during 1999–2005 was linked to individual-level exposure estimates with high spatial resolution. Modeled exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx), expressed as mean concentrations per trimester, and proximity to roads of different traffic densities were used as proxy indicators of exposure to combustion-related air pollution. The data were analyzed by logistic regression, with and without adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The prevalence of gestational diabetes increased with each NOx quartile, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.69 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.03) for the highest (> 22.7 µg/m3) compared with the lowest quartile (2.5–8.9 µg/m3) of exposure during the second trimester. The adjusted OR for acquiring preeclampsia after exposure during the third trimester was 1.51 (1.32, 1.73) in the highest quartile of NOx compared with the lowest. Both outcomes were associated with high traffic density, but ORs were significant for gestational diabetes only. Conclusion: NOx exposure during pregnancy was associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia in an area with air pollution levels below current air quality guidelines. PMID:23563048

  15. Clearing the air and breathing freely: the health politics of air pollution and asthma.

    PubMed

    Brown, Phil; Mayer, Brian; Zavestoski, Stephen; Luebke, Theo; Mandelbaum, Joshua; McCormick, Sabrina

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the growing debate around environmental causes of asthma in the context of federal regulatory disputes, scientific controversy, and environmental justice activism. A multifaceted form of social discovery of the effect of air pollution on asthma has resulted from multipartner and multiorganizational approaches and from intersectoral policy that deals with social inequality and environmental justice. Scientists, activists, health voluntary organizations, and some government agencies and officials have identified various elements of the asthma and air pollution connection. To tackle these issues, they have worked through a variety of collaborations and across different sectors of environmental regulation, public health, health services, housing, transportation, and community development. The authors examine the role of activist groups in discovering the increased rates of asthma and framing it as a social and environmental issue; give an overview of the current knowledge base on air pollution and asthma, and the controversies within science; and situate that science in the regulatory debate, discussing the many challenges to the air quality researchers. They then examine the implications of the scientific and regulatory controversies over linking air pollution to increases in asthma. The article concludes with a discussion of how alliances between activists and scientists lead to new research strategies and innovations.

  16. Indoor climate, air pollution, and human comfort.

    PubMed

    Mølhave, L

    1991-01-01

    The term sick building syndrome (SBS) is frequently used to describe a set of symptoms often reported by occupants of certain buildings. The symptoms are supposed to be direct or indirect consequences of an inadequate indoor climate. Typically, a majority of the occupants in these buildings complain, and the most frequent complaint is irritation of eyes, nose, and throat. Many different factors are known to be potential agents for the symptoms and no definitive causality has been identified yet. In consequence authors of publications on indoor air quality have been using the SBS term in different ways. A review of literature indicates that in supposed "sick buildings" only the prevalence of irritation of mucosal membranes and headaches seems to differ significantly from the prevalence in buildings considered to have a normal indoor climate. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are known to have a potency to cause symptoms like those included in SBS. A dose-response relation for sensory reactions and mucosal irritation caused by volatile organic air pollutants is discussed, and a tentative guideline at 3 mg/m3 (about 0.9 PPM toluene equivalent) for the total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) is suggested for the nonindustrial indoor climates.

  17. Application of cellular neural network (CNN) to the prediction of missing air pollutant data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Ülkü Alver; Bayat, Cuma; Uçan, Osman N.

    2011-07-01

    For air-quality assessments in most major urban centers, air pollutants are monitored using continuous samplers. Sometimes data are not collected due to equipment failure or during equipment calibration. In this paper, we predict daily air pollutant concentrations (PM 10 and SO 2) from the Yenibosna and Umraniye air pollution measurement stations in Istanbul for times at which pollution data was not recorded. We predicted these pollutant concentrations using the CNN model with meteorological parameters, estimating missing daily pollutant concentrations for two data sets from 2002 to 2003. These data sets had 50 and 20% of data missing. The results of the CNN model predictions are compared with the results of a multivariate linear regression (LR). Results show that the correlation between predicted and observed data was higher for all pollutants using the CNN model (0.54-0.87). The CNN model predicted SO 2 concentrations better than PM 10 concentrations. Another interesting result is that winter concentrations of all pollutants were predicted better than summer concentrations. Experiments showed that accurate predictions of missing air pollutant concentrations are possible using the new approach contained in the CNN model. We therefore proposed a new approach to model air-pollution monitoring problem using CNN.

  18. QUANTIFYING SUBGRID POLLUTANT VARIABILITY IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to properly assess human risk due to exposure to hazardous air pollutants or air toxics, detailed information is needed on the location and magnitude of ambient air toxic concentrations. Regional scale Eulerian air quality models are typically limited to relatively coar...

  19. Air Pollution Data for Model Evaluation and Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    One objective of designing an air pollution monitoring network is to obtain data for evaluating air quality models that are used in the air quality management process and scientific discovery.1.2 A common use is to relate emissions to air quality, including assessing ...

  20. Air pollution stress in the Bavarian Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, H. ); Molenaar, J. )

    1992-11-01

    Two objections expressed by Kandler (1992) to our results in a recent article (Visser and Molenaar 1992) are discussed. We argue that, although we did not use all data available from the fir stands under consideration, inclusion of the other measurements would not have changed our conclusions. We also point out that, contrary to Kandler's remark, deposition of pollutants (wet rather than dry deposition) may not be ignored as a potential stress factor in the Bavarian Forest. 6 refs., 1 figs.

  1. Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials.

  2. Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials. PMID:25242593

  3. [Superposition impact character of air pollution from decentralization docks in a freshwater port].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-chang; Li, Xing-hua; Xu, Hong-lei; Cheng, Jin-xiang; Wang, Zhong-dai; Xiao, Yang

    2013-05-01

    Air pollution from freshwater port is mainly caused by dust pollution, including material loading and unloading dust, road dust, and wind erosion dust from stockpile, bare soil. The dust pollution from a single dock characterized in obvious difference with air pollution from multiple scattered docks. Jining Port of Shandong Province was selected as a case study to get superposition impact contribution of air pollution for regional air environment from multiple scattered docks and to provide technical support for system evaluation of port air pollution. The results indicate that (1) the air pollution from freshwater port occupies a low proportion of pollution impact on regional environmental quality because the port is consisted of serveral small scattered docks; (2) however, the geometric center of the region distributed by docks is severely affected with the most superposition of the air pollution; and (3) the ADMS model is helpful to attain an effective and integrated assessment to predict a superposition impact of multiple non-point pollution sources when the differences of high-altitude weather conditions was not considered on a large scale.

  4. Improved Estimates of Air Pollutant Emissions from Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Eric C. D.

    2015-11-13

    We have attempted to use detailed kinetic modeling approach for improved estimation of combustion air pollutant emissions from biorefinery. We have developed a preliminary detailed reaction mechanism for biomass combustion. Lignin is the only biomass component included in the current mechanism and methane is used as the biogas surrogate. The model is capable of predicting the combustion emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) and criteria air pollutants (NO, NO2, CO). The results are yet to be compared with the experimental data. The current model is still in its early stages of development. Given the acknowledged complexity of biomass oxidation, as well as the components in the feed to the combustor, obviously the modeling approach and the chemistry set discussed here may undergo revision, extension, and further validation in the future.

  5. Using a choice experiment to measure the environmental costs of air pollution impacts in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun; Lee, Joo-Suk

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution, a by-product of economic growth, has been incurring extensive environmental costs in Seoul, Korea. Unfortunately, air pollution impacts are not treated as a commercial item, and thus it is difficult to measure the environmental costs arising from air pollution. There is an imminent need to find a way to measure air pollution impacts so that appropriate actions can be taken to control air pollution. Therefore, this study attempts to apply a choice experiment to quantifying the environmental costs of four air pollution impacts (mortality, morbidity, soiling damage, and poor visibility), using a specific case study of Seoul. We consider the trade-offs between price and attributes of air pollution impacts for selecting a preferred alternative and derive the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) estimate for each attribute. According to the results, the households' monthly WTP for a 10% reduction in the concentrations of major pollutants in Seoul was found to be approximately 5494 Korean won (USD 4.6) and the total annual WTP for the entire population of Seoul was about 203.4 billion Korean won (USD 169.5 million). This study is expected to provide policy-makers with useful information for evaluating and planning environmental policies relating specifically to air pollution.

  6. UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern air pollution regulation is first and foremost motivated by concerns about the effects of air pollutants on human health and secondarily by concerns about its effects on ecosystems, cultural artifacts, and quality of life values such as visibility. This order of priority ...

  7. Energy and Air Pollution: USA 1970-2020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smil, Vaclav

    1975-01-01

    The United States power industry has entered a transitory period of major changes. Uncertainties abound about future levels of air pollution and air pollution control. Computer simulations based on the best currently available consensus can reveal patterns of possible future alternatives. Three scenarios representing probable developments are…

  8. Perception of Air Pollution in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladen, W. A.; Karan, P. P.

    1976-01-01

    This study analyzed the perception of air pollution of people living in an industrial area of India. Although air pollution was perceived as a problem it was ranked less important than socio-economic problems. Differences in perception existed among the various cultural groups and among the residential zones. (MR)

  9. Air Pollution Monitoring Site Selection by Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Criteria air pollutants (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide) as well as toxic air pollutants are a global concern. A particular scenario that is receiving increased attention in the research is the exposure to t...

  10. Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giever, Paul M., Ed.

    Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

  11. Air Pollution and Exercise: A Perspective from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    China is experiencing an air pollution crisis, which has already had a significantly negative impact on the health of the Chinese people. Although exercising is considered a useful means to prevent chronic diseases, it could actually lead to adverse effects due to extra exposure to polluted air when done outdoors. After a brief description of the…

  12. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 20: Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Reference Materials Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. For the purposes of the gaming exercise, APEX…

  13. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 19: County Planner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The County Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  14. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 4: City Politicians' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The City Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  15. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 18: City Planner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The City Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  16. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 5: County Politicians' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The County Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

  17. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 1: Game Director's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Game Director's Manual is the first in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The participants, which may range in number from 18 to…

  18. Novel Approaches for Estimating Human Exposure to Air Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous health studies have used measurements from a few central-site ambient monitors to characterize air pollution exposures. Relying on solely on central-site ambient monitors does not account for the spatial-heterogeneity of ambient air pollution patterns, the temporal varia...

  19. Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (S...

  20. Air Pollution and Health: Emerging Information on Susceptible Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor air pollution poses risks to human health in communities around the world, and research on populations who are most susceptible continues to reveal new insights. Human susceptibility to adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution can be related to underlying dis...

  1. microRNAs: Implications for Air Pollution Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality ...

  2. Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Manny

    Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

  3. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 12: Developer's Manual No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 2 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  4. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  5. Anxiety, locus of control and appraisal of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, P.L.; Simpson-Housley, P.; de Man, A.F.

    1987-06-01

    100 residents of Santiago de Chile took part in a study of the relationship among locus of control, trait-anxiety, and perception of air pollution. Concern over the problem of atmospheric pollution and number of antipollution measures taken was related to trait-anxiety. Locus of control was associated with variation in awareness of pollution hazard.

  6. The health benefits of reducing air pollution in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Broome, Richard A; Fann, Neal; Cristina, Tina J Navin; Fulcher, Charles; Duc, Hiep; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2015-11-01

    Among industrialised countries, fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone levels in the Sydney metropolitan area of Australia are relatively low. Annual mean PM2.5 levels have historically remained below 8 μg/m(3) while warm season (November-March) ozone levels occasionally exceed the Australian guideline value of 0.10 ppm (daily 1 h max). Yet, these levels are still below those seen in the United States and Europe. This analysis focuses on two related questions: (1) what is the public health burden associated with air pollution in Sydney; and (2) to what extent would reducing air pollution reduce the number of hospital admissions, premature deaths and number of years of life lost (YLL)? We addressed these questions by applying a damage function approach to Sydney population, health, PM2.5 and ozone data for 2007 within the BenMAP-CE software tool to estimate health impacts and economic benefits. We found that 430 premature deaths (90% CI: 310-540) and 5800 YLL (95% CI: 3900-7600) are attributable to 2007 levels of PM2.5 (about 2% of total deaths and 1.8% of YLL in 2007). We also estimate about 630 (95% CI: 410-840) respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to 2007 PM2.5 and ozone exposures. Reducing air pollution levels by even a small amount will yield a range of health benefits. Reducing 2007 PM2.5 exposure in Sydney by 10% would, over 10 years, result in about 650 (95% CI: 430-850) fewer premature deaths, a gain of 3500 (95% CI: 2300-4600) life-years and about 700 (95% CI: 450-930) fewer respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits. These results suggest that substantial health benefits are attainable in Sydney with even modest reductions in air pollution.

  7. Modeling urban air pollution with optimized hierarchical fuzzy inference system.

    PubMed

    Tashayo, Behnam; Alimohammadi, Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Environmental exposure assessments (EEA) and epidemiological studies require urban air pollution models with appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. Uncertain available data and inflexible models can limit air pollution modeling techniques, particularly in under developing countries. This paper develops a hierarchical fuzzy inference system (HFIS) to model air pollution under different land use, transportation, and meteorological conditions. To improve performance, the system treats the issue as a large-scale and high-dimensional problem and develops the proposed model using a three-step approach. In the first step, a geospatial information system (GIS) and probabilistic methods are used to preprocess the data. In the second step, a hierarchical structure is generated based on the problem. In the third step, the accuracy and complexity of the model are simultaneously optimized with a multiple objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm. We examine the capabilities of the proposed model for predicting daily and annual mean PM2.5 and NO2 and compare the accuracy of the results with representative models from existing literature. The benefits provided by the model features, including probabilistic preprocessing, multi-objective optimization, and hierarchical structure, are precisely evaluated by comparing five different consecutive models in terms of accuracy and complexity criteria. Fivefold cross validation is used to assess the performance of the generated models. The respective average RMSEs and coefficients of determination (R (2)) for the test datasets using proposed model are as follows: daily PM2.5 = (8.13, 0.78), annual mean PM2.5 = (4.96, 0.80), daily NO2 = (5.63, 0.79), and annual mean NO2 = (2.89, 0.83). The obtained results demonstrate that the developed hierarchical fuzzy inference system can be utilized for modeling air pollution in EEA and epidemiological studies.

  8. The health benefits of reducing air pollution in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Broome, Richard A; Fann, Neal; Cristina, Tina J Navin; Fulcher, Charles; Duc, Hiep; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2015-11-01

    Among industrialised countries, fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone levels in the Sydney metropolitan area of Australia are relatively low. Annual mean PM2.5 levels have historically remained below 8 μg/m(3) while warm season (November-March) ozone levels occasionally exceed the Australian guideline value of 0.10 ppm (daily 1 h max). Yet, these levels are still below those seen in the United States and Europe. This analysis focuses on two related questions: (1) what is the public health burden associated with air pollution in Sydney; and (2) to what extent would reducing air pollution reduce the number of hospital admissions, premature deaths and number of years of life lost (YLL)? We addressed these questions by applying a damage function approach to Sydney population, health, PM2.5 and ozone data for 2007 within the BenMAP-CE software tool to estimate health impacts and economic benefits. We found that 430 premature deaths (90% CI: 310-540) and 5800 YLL (95% CI: 3900-7600) are attributable to 2007 levels of PM2.5 (about 2% of total deaths and 1.8% of YLL in 2007). We also estimate about 630 (95% CI: 410-840) respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to 2007 PM2.5 and ozone exposures. Reducing air pollution levels by even a small amount will yield a range of health benefits. Reducing 2007 PM2.5 exposure in Sydney by 10% would, over 10 years, result in about 650 (95% CI: 430-850) fewer premature deaths, a gain of 3500 (95% CI: 2300-4600) life-years and about 700 (95% CI: 450-930) fewer respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits. These results suggest that substantial health benefits are attainable in Sydney with even modest reductions in air pollution. PMID:26414085

  9. Meteorological and air pollution modeling for an urban airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, P. R.; Lee, I. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of numerical experiments modeling meteorology, multiple pollutant sources, and nonlinear photochemical reactions for the case of an airport in a large urban area with complex terrain. A planetary boundary-layer model which predicts the mixing depth and generates wind, moisture, and temperature fields was used; it utilizes only surface and synoptic boundary conditions as input data. A version of the Hecht-Seinfeld-Dodge chemical kinetics model is integrated with a new, rapid numerical technique; both the San Francisco Bay Area Air Quality Management District source inventory and the San Jose Airport aircraft inventory are utilized. The air quality model results are presented in contour plots; the combined results illustrate that the highly nonlinear interactions which are present require that the chemistry and meteorology be considered simultaneously to make a valid assessment of the effects of individual sources on regional air quality.

  10. The health effects of exercising in air pollution.

    PubMed

    Giles, Luisa V; Koehle, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well known. Many of the most accessible forms of exercise, such as walking, cycling, and running often occur outdoors. This means that exercising outdoors may increase exposure to urban air pollution. Regular exercise plays a key role in improving some of the physiologic mechanisms and health outcomes that air pollution exposure may exacerbate. This problem presents an interesting challenge of balancing the beneficial effects of exercise along with the detrimental effects of air pollution upon health. This article summarizes the pulmonary, cardiovascular, cognitive, and systemic health effects of exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide during exercise. It also summarizes how air pollution exposure affects maximal oxygen consumption and exercise performance. This article highlights ways in which exercisers could mitigate the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure during exercise and draws attention to the potential importance of land use planning in selecting exercise facilities.

  11. Overview of Issues in Health, Air Pollution, and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.; McKinley, G.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution contributes to mortality and respiratory disease worldwide, with developing countries at highest risk. The World Health Organization estimates that between 1.4 and 6 million people die each year from air pollution, and in some populations up to 30 % of all respiratory disease may be linked to air pollution. As the climate changes, increasing temperatures and changing precipitation patterns are expected to yield new health challenges and may worsen existing risks. This talk provides an overview of issues linking health impacts of air pollution and climate change, as an introduction for the session. Increasingly, health-driven projects are employing state-of-the-art modeling and measurement methodologies. We discuss how quantitative assessment methodologies have been used to understand the connections between health, air pollution and climate.

  12. Adverse respiratory effects of outdoor air pollution in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, M; Simoni, M; Baiz, N; Norback, D; Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Viegi, G; Annesi-Maesano, I

    2012-09-01

    Compared to the rest of the population, the elderly are potentially highly susceptible to the effects of outdoor air pollution due to normal and pathological ageing. The purpose of the present review was to gather data on the effects on respiratory health of outdoor air pollution in the elderly, on whom data are scarce. These show statistically significant short-term and chronic adverse effects of various outdoor air pollutants on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in the elderly. When exposed to air pollution, the elderly experience more hospital admissions for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and higher COPD mortality than others. Previous studies also indicate that research on the health effects of air pollution in the elderly has been affected by methodological problems in terms of exposure and health effect assessments. Few pollutants have been considered, and exposure assessment has been based mostly on background air pollution and more rarely on objective measurements and modelling. Significant progress needs to be made through the development of 'hybrid' models utilising the strengths of information on exposure in various environments to several air pollutants, coupled with daily activity exposure patterns. Investigations of chronic effects of air pollution and of multi-pollutant mixtures are needed to better understand the role of air pollution in the elderly. Lastly, smoking, occupation, comorbidities, treatment and the neighbourhood context should be considered as confounders or modifiers of such a role. In this context, the underlying biological, physiological and toxicological mechanisms need to be explored to better understand the phenomenon through a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:22871325

  13. Recent climate and air pollution impacts on Asian agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burney, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The impacts of climate change on agricultural production have important ramifications for food security and policy from local to global scales. Recent research investigating these impacts has focused on the roles of temperature and precipitation on yield. However, regional climate changes are due to both global emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) as well as local emissions of aerosols and other short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). SLCPs can impact plant growth both directly (e.g., ozone) and indirectly, by altering regional temperature, precipitation, and surface radiation. Existing estimates of the effects of SLCPs on crop yields have been drawn from field experiments and cultivar-specific dose-response relationships; no research has as yet examined the historic role of the direct and the indirect effects of SLCPs on yields. I will present results from a statistical model of the impact of climate and air pollution on wheat and rice yields in Asia over the past 3 decades (1980-2008). This builds on work we completed for India, which was the first such analysis combining the effects of climate, aerosols, and tropospheric ozone into a statistical model. Yields across Asia in 2008 were lower for wheat and rice than they otherwise would have been, absent climate and pollutant emissions trends. Most of these losses were due to SLCPs as opposed to longer-run temperature and precipitation trends, indicating that gains from addressing regional air pollution could significantly help in offsetting expected future losses due to rising temperatures and precipitation changes. This new insight into the relative importance of these climate and air pollution factors can help inform both climate policy discussions and agricultural adaptation efforts in this critical food security region.

  14. Asthma and low level air pollution in Helsinki

    SciTech Connect

    Poenkae A5 )

    1991-09-01

    The effects of relatively low levels of air pollution and weather conditions on the number of patients who had asthma attacks and who were admitted to a hospital were studied in Helsinki during a 3-y period. The number of admissions increased during cold weather (n = 4,209), especially among persons who were of working age but not among children. Even after standardization for temperature, all admissions, including emergency ward admissions, were significantly correlated with ambient air concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and total suspended particulates (TSP). Regression analysis revealed that NO and O3 were most strongly associated with asthma problems. Effects of air pollutants and cold were maximal if they occurred on the same day, except for O3, which had a more pronounced effect after a 1-d lag. The associations between pollutants, low temperature, and admissions were most significant among adults of working age, followed by the elderly. Among children, only O3 and NO were significantly correlated with admissions. Levels of pollutants were fairly low, the long-term mean being 19.2 micrograms/m3 for SO2, 38.6 micrograms/m3 for NO2, 22.0 micrograms/m3 or O3, and 1.3 mg/m3 for CO. In contrast, the mean concentration of TSP was high (76.3 micrograms/m3), and the mean temperature was low (+ 4.7 degrees C). These results suggest that concentrations of pollutants lower than those given as guidelines in many countries may increase the incidence of asthma attacks.

  15. A review of air pollutant damage to materials

    SciTech Connect

    Yocom, J.E.; Stankunas, A.R.; Bradow, F.V.P.

    1982-06-01

    Report prepared as U.S. contribution to Panel 3 of NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society Pilot Study on Air Pollution Control Strategies and Impact Modeling. Panel 3 focuses on air pollutant impact and will publish 4 reports on air pollutants effects; this is the first in the series and covers effects on materials. Reviewed here are physical and economic effects of sulfur oxides, particulate matter, nitrogen oxide, ozone, hydrogen sulfides, fluoride, and ammonia on metals, textiles, paint, building materials, leathers, paper and elastomers. Report is summary of pertinent information in EPA's air quality criteria and EPA-Funded NAS review documents.

  16. Effect of air pollutants on the pulmonary surfactant system.

    PubMed

    Müller, B; Seifart, C; Barth, P J

    1998-09-01

    Air pollutants have been recognized to influence the structure and function of the surfactant system. Agents that have received the most attention include ozone, nitrogen dioxide, hyperoxia, diesel exhaust, tobacco smoke, silica and fibrous materials such as asbestos. The deleterious effects of air pollutants on the surfactant system depend on the size of the agent, on its solubility in aqueous solutions and chemical reactivity and on its concentration and the duration of exposure. Hereby the following general rules apply: the smaller the agent's size and the less water soluble the pollutant is, the greater the tendency to reach the alveoli during breathing. In addition, the reactivity also determines the depth of penetration into alveoli. Compounds with high reactivity such as O3, which also fulfil the earlier rules, will react with the upper respiratory tract compared with compounds with slightly reduced reactivity, such as NO2, which will penetrate the alveoli. The common consequence of exposure to air pollutants is an accumulation of surfactant phospholipids and surfactant-specific proteins in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These components also are structurally altered, mainly by oxidant gases, resulting in impairment of their biological activity. Thus, for surfactant phospholipids, there is impaired adsorption to the air-liquid interface due to oxidation of their fatty acids. Also, surfactant protein A, regarded as a modulator of the surfactant system, shows impaired functions after exposure to oxidants. It is likely that in addition to the effects described in this review not all effects are known because the molecular effects of several key components (e.g. SP-B and C) have not been well studied.

  17. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P < 0.05), post hoc pairwise comparison indicated no significant difference in mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  18. Foreign versus Domestic Contributions to China's Ozone Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Lin, Weili; Yan, Yingying

    2016-04-01

    Ozone is a critical air pollutant because it damages human health and vegetation. Previous studies for the United States and Europe have shown large influences of foreign emissions on domestic ozone levels, whereas the relative contributions of foreign versus domestic emissions are much less clear for China' ozone pollution. Here, we use the global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) simulations to quantify the contributions of ozone transport from regions with large anthropogenic emissions to China. Our results indicate considerable influences of foreign anthropogenic pollution on China's ozone air quality. Of all ozone over China produced by global anthropogenic emissions, foreign anthropogenic emissions contribute 40% near the surface, and the foreign contribution increases with altitude and reaches up to 70% in the upper troposphere. The contributions by North America and Europe reach maximum levels in spring, in which season Chinese influence on the western United States also peaks. The springtime maxima are associated with strong westerly winds and frequent cyclonic activities favorable to the long-range transport. European anthropogenic pollution enhanced surface ozone concentrations by 1~4 ppbv over Western and Northern China in spring and winter. Despite much longer transport distance, the contribution from North America is distinctly greater than that from Europe due to the nearly tripled VOC emissions. Ozone contributed by Foreign Asian countries peaks in summer and autumn, widely dispersed to the upper troposphere over Southern China with strong upwelling. Therefore, although China produces large amounts of ozone precursor emissions, its domestic ozone pollution is still contributed significantly by foreign anthropogenic emissions. Our study is relevant to Chinese ozone pollution control and global collaboration.

  19. Estimating the benefits of pollution reduction on agricultural yields: Taiwan's air pollution emission fees program.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tser-yieth; Li, Chun-sheng

    2003-07-01

    Taiwan's implementation of the 1997 Air Pollution Emissions Fees Program will conceivably lead to long-term reductions in pollution emissions. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the benefits to Taiwan from the expected reduction in crop losses as a direct result of such a decrease in air pollution. We employ a demand-supply framework for rice production to estimate the change in social welfare resulting from changes in the concentration of certain pollutants in the atmosphere. Our empirical results show that, in the year 1997, social welfare increments resulting from the decline in sulfur dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere ranged between US dollars 946200 and US dollars 2435800. Meanwhile, during the same period, the increase in social welfare due to the decline in the ozone concentration in the atmosphere ranged between US dollars 838100 and US dollars 1927000. The average benefit from the reduction in both sulfur dioxide and ozone concentrations is calculated to be between US dollars 2.67 and US dollars 6.86 per acre (for sulfur dioxide), and from US dollars 2.36 to US dollars 5.43 per acre (for ozone). PMID:12837257

  20. Air pollution: An environmental factor contributing to intestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Beamish, Leigh A; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R; Wine, Eytan

    2011-08-01

    The health impacts of air pollution have received much attention and have recently been subject to extensive study. Exposure to air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) has been linked to lung and cardiovascular disease and increases in both hospital admissions and mortality. However, little attention has been given to the effects of air pollution on the intestine. The recent discovery of genes linked to susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) explains only a fraction of the hereditary variance for these diseases. This, together with evidence of increases in incidence of IBD in the past few decades of enhanced industrialization, suggests that environmental factors could contribute to disease pathogenesis. Despite this, little research has examined the potential contribution of air pollution and its components to intestinal disease. Exposure of the bowel to air pollutants occurs via mucociliary clearance of PM from the lungs as well as ingestion via food and water sources. Gaseous pollutants may also induce systemic effects. Plausible mechanisms mediating the effects of air pollutants on the bowel could include direct effects on epithelial cells, systemic inflammation and immune activation, and modulation of the intestinal microbiota. Although there is limited epidemiologic evidence to confirm this, we suggest that a link between air pollution and intestinal disease exists and warrants further study. This link may explain, at least in part, how environmental factors impact on IBD epidemiology and disease pathogenesis.