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Sample records for air pouch inflammation

  1. Models of inflammation: carrageenan air pouch.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Djane B; Vasko, Michael R; Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2012-03-01

    The subcutaneous air pouch is an in vivo model that can be used to study acute and chronic inflammation, the resolution of the inflammatory response, and the oxidative stress response. Injection of irritants into an air pouch in rats or mice induces an inflammatory response that can be quantified by the volume of exudate produced, the infiltration of cells, and the release of inflammatory mediators. The model presented in this unit has been extensively used to identify potential anti-inflammatory drugs.

  2. Models of Inflammation: Carrageenan Air Pouch.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Djane B; Vasko, Michael R; Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2016-03-18

    The subcutaneous air pouch is an in vivo model that can be used to study the components of acute and chronic inflammation, the resolution of the inflammatory response, the oxidative stress response, and potential therapeutic targets for treating inflammation. Injection of irritants into an air pouch in rats or mice induces an inflammatory response that can be quantified by the volume of exudate produced, the infiltration of cells, and the release of inflammatory mediators. The model presented in this unit has been extensively used to identify potential anti-inflammatory drugs.

  3. Natural honey: a new and potent anti-angiogenic agent in the air-pouch model of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Eteraf-Oskouei, T; Najafi, M; Gharehbagheri, A

    2014-10-01

    Despite reports indicating anti-inflammatory effects of honey, the anti-angiogenic effect of honey and its impact on inflammatory mediators in the air pouch model of inflammation have not yet been studied. The aims of present study were to investigate the effects of honey on angiogenesis, inflammatory cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level as an important marker of angiogenesis and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the rat air pouch model of inflammation. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized, and then 20 ml and 10 ml of sterile air were injected subcutaneously in the back on days 0 and 3, respectively. On day 6, inflammation was induced by injection of 1 ml of carrageenan 1% into pouches. After 72 h, the rats were sacrificed; pouch fluid was collected in order to determine PGE2 concentration and VEGF level. The Pouches were dissected out and weighed. Angiogenesis of granulomatous tissue was assayed using a hemoglobin kit. Honey was able to reduce granulation tissue weight and angiogenesis as well as showing potent inhibitory activities against PGE2 and VEGF in air pouch model of inflammation. The decrease in angiogenesis correlates with the inhibition of PGE2 and VEGF. Honey is potentially useful in the treatment of granulomatous inflammatory conditions. It seems that the anti-angiogenic activities of honey are mediated through modulation of PGE2 and VEGF production.

  4. Induction of CCR2-Dependent Macrophage Accumulation by Oxidized Phospholipids in the Air-Pouch Model of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kadl, Alexandra; Galkina, Elena; Leitinger, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Objective Macrophages are key players in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid synovitis as well as in atherosclerosis. To determine whether atherogenic oxidized phospholipids potentially contribute to synovial inflammation and subsequent monocyte/macrophage recruitment, we examined the effects of oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-3-glycero-phosphorylcholine (OxPAPC) on chemokine expression and leukocyte recruitment in a facsimile synovium in vivo using the murine air-pouch model. Methods Air pouches were raised by 2 injections of sterile air, and inflammation was induced by injecting either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or OxPAPC into the pouch lumen. Inflammation was assessed by analysis of inflammatory gene expression using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction or immunohistochemical analysis, and leukocytes were quantified in the lavage fluid and in the pouch wall after staining with Giemsa or after enzymatic digestion followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. Results Application of OxPAPC resulted in selective recruitment of monocyte/macrophages into the air-pouch wall, but not in the lumen. In contrast, LPS induced both monocyte and neutrophil accumulation in the pouch lumen as well as in the wall. LPS, but not OxPAPC, induced the expression of adhesion molecules E-selectin, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. OxPAPC increased the expression of the CCR2 ligands monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), MCP-3, and MCP-5, as well as RANTES and growth-related oncogene α (GROα), while it down-regulated the expression of CCR2 on macrophages. Moreover, oxidized phospholipid–induced macrophage accumulation was abrogated in CCR2−/− mice. Conclusion These data demonstrate that oxidized phospholipids trigger a type of inflammatory response that leads to selective macrophage accumulation in vivo, a process relevant for the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases. PMID:19404946

  5. Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Leukocytes Enhance Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Production in a Mouse Air-Pouch-Type Inflammation Model.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Natsumi; Hatayama, Takahiro; Jiangxu, Dong; Hiratsuka, Masahiro; Endo, Yasuo; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2016-08-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a key cytokine that exacerbates allergic and fibrotic reactions. Several microbes and virus components have been shown to induce TSLP production, mainly in epithelial cells. TLR4 activators, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induce TSLP production in vivo, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the contribution of LPS-activated leukocytes to the production of TSLP in a mouse air-pouch-type inflammation model. LPS induced the production of TSLP in this model but not in the mouse keratinocyte cell line PAM212. Transfer of the infiltrated leukocytes collected from an LPS-injected air pouch to the air pouch of another mouse enhanced TSLP production. Further, the LPS-activated leukocytes produced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β); a deficiency in these cytokines attenuated the LPS-induced production of TSLP. TSLP production was induced by TNF-α and enhanced by IL-1β and LPS in the PAM212 cells. These results demonstrated that TNF-α and IL-1β, which are partly produced by LPS-activated leukocytes, contribute to TSLP production via TLR4 activation in vivo.

  6. Methanolic Extract of Ficus carica Linn. Leaves Exerts Antiangiogenesis Effects Based on the Rat Air Pouch Model of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Allahyari, Saeideh; Akbarzadeh-Atashkhosrow, Arezu; Delazar, Abbas; Pashaii, Mahdiyeh; Gan, Siew Hua; Najafi, Moslem

    2015-01-01

    The antiangiogenesis effect of Ficus carica leaves extract in an air pouch model of inflammation was investigated in rat. Inflammation was induced by injection of carrageenan into pouches. After antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) investigations, the extract was administered at 5, 25, and 50 mg/pouch, and then the volume of exudates, the cell number, TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF levels were measured. Angiogenesis of granulation tissues was determined by measuring hemoglobin content. Based on the DPPH assay, the extract had significant antioxidant activity with TPC of 11.70 mg GAE/100 g dry sample. In addition, leukocyte accumulation and volume of exudate were significantly inhibited by the extract. Moreover, it significantly decreased the production of TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF, while angiogenesis was significantly inhibited by all administered doses. Interestingly, attenuation of angiogenesis and inflammatory parameters (except leukocyte accumulation) by the extract was similar to that shown by diclofenac. The extract has anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorated cell influx and exudation to the site of the inflammatory response which may be related to the local inhibition of TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF levels as similarly shown by diclofenac. The antiangiogenesis and anti-VEGF effects of Ficus carica may be correlated with its significant antioxidant potentials. PMID:25977699

  7. Effect of aspirin, paracetamol and their nitric oxide donating derivatives on exudate cytokine and PGE2 production in zymosan-induced air pouch inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Mamuk, Soner; Melli, Mehmet

    2007-04-30

    Effects of different doses of aspirin, compared to equimolar doses of nitric oxide (NO)-donating aspirin (NCX 4016), and of a single dose of paracetamol, compared to an equimolar dose of NO-donating paracetamol (NCX 701) were investigated in acute zymosan-induced air pouch inflammation in rats. Treatments were administered by orogastric route, and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) levels in the exudates were analysed 4 h after zymosan injection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Aspirin, at 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg doses, increased IL-1beta levels in exudates, however, only the highest dose lead to a significant increase when compared to control, whereas a significant increase in TNF-alpha level was observed at all doses tested. NCX 4016, at equimolar doses for aspirin, i.e., 18.6, 55.8 and 186 mg/kg, respectively, did not cause any changes in exudate IL-1beta or TNF-alpha levels. These effects were significantly different, when aspirin was compared with the corresponding NCX 4016 group. Nevertheless, the ability of aspirin and NCX 4016 to inhibit PGE(2) synthesis in the exudate where comparable. Although paracetamol significantly increased exudate TNF-alpha level compared to the control group and NCX 701 group, neither paracetamol, nor NCX701 treatments changed the levels of exudate IL-1beta significantly. As expected, paracetamol and NCX 701 showed poor PGE(2) inhibition. At high doses, aspirin and NCX 4016 decreased the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the exudate. However, this inhibition was not significantly different from the control group. Paracetamol and NO-paracetamol did not cause any change in the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in exudate. These results indicated that aspirin and NCX 4016 possessed different effects on cytokine production or release, despite the fact that both drugs inhibited the synthesis of PGE(2) in a similar way. Unlike paracetamol, which increased exudate

  8. Suppression of local and systemic responses in streptococcal cell wall-induced acute inflammation of the air pouch by cyclosporine A. Comparison with the effects of two anti-inflammatory bis-benzimidazoles.

    PubMed Central

    Dieter Geratz, J.; Pryzwansky, K. B.; Schwab, J. H.; Anderle, S. K.; Tidwell, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Injection of streptococcus group A cell wall-derived peptidoglycan polysaccharide into a subcutaneous air pouch causes local outpouring of neutrophils and macrophages and distant hemopoietic proliferation in spleen and bone marrow. Cyclosporine A (CyA) suppressed neutrophil accumulation and all cell lines of hemopoiesis. trans-1,2-Bis(5-amidino-2-benzimidazolyl)ethene (BBE) also interfered with neutrophil exudation, yet reduced only the erythroid component of the hemopoietic process. The ethane analogue of BBE, on the other hand, did not prevent neutrophil emigration, but held down splenic erythropoiesis and myelopoiesis. All three compounds stimulated streptococcus group A cell wall-derived peptidoglycan polysaccharide uptake by pouch macrophages. CyA being the least active, BBE and its ethane analogue also produced a shift of wear-and-tear pigment from large numbers of small splenic macro-phages into small numbers of large macrophages. The pouch model is very useful in the study of anti-inflammatory compounds and has furnished the first evidence of CyA interference with massive neutrophilic infiltration and with hemopoietic signals. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8475995

  9. Mucus accumulation and necrosis of the ventral air pouch in a marabou stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus) with productive rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Collarile, Tommaso; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo; Melidone, Raffaele

    2013-09-01

    A captive-born marabou stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus) was presented for swelling of the ventral air pouch of 1 month's duration. The pouch appeared fluid filled, and its distal third wall was markedly inspissated. The thickened distal portion of the pouch wall was removed surgically. During anesthesia, mucous discharge from the nares was evident and the nasal mucosa was hyperemic. Aeromonas and Proteus species were isolated from a nasal culture. Postoperative therapy that consisted of nasal flushing, antimicrobial agents, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was effective in managing the disease. On histologic examination, diffuse hemorrhage, necrosis, and multifocal vasculitis with moderate-to-severe heterophilic inflammation were present within sections of the ventral pouch. To our knowledge this is the first report of a mucus-filled ventral air pouch with associated pathologic changes secondary to a productive infection of the upper respiratory tract in a marabou stork. The unique communication between nasal cavities and the ventral air pouch should be considered in future cases of respiratory infection in marabou storks.

  10. High Capacity Pouch-Type Li-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Deyu; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-05-05

    The pouch-type Li-air batteries operated in ambient condition are reported in this work. The battery used a heat sealable plastic membrane as package material, O2¬ diffusion membrane and moisture barrier. The large variation in internal resistance of the batteries is minimized by a modified separator which can bind the cell stack together. The cells using the modified separators show improved and repeatable discharge performances. It is also found that addition of about 20% of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) in PC:EC (1:1) based electrolyte solvent improves can improve the wetability of carbon electrode and the discharge capacities of Li-air batteries, but further increase in DME amount lead to a decreased capacity due to increase electrolyte loss during discharge process. The pouch-type Li-air batteries with the modified separator and optimized electrolyte has demonstrated a specific capacity of 2711 mAh g-1 based on carbon and a specific energy of 344 Wh kg-1 based on the complete batteries including package.

  11. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) modulates oxidative burst and nitric oxide production in carrageenan-elicited granulocytes from rat air pouch.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Stanojević, Stanislava; Mićić, Stana; Vujić, Vesna; Kovacević-Jovanović, Vesna; Mitić, Katarina; von Hörsten, Stephan; Kosec, Dusko

    2006-12-01

    We studied the effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and NPY-related receptor specific peptides on functions of carrageenan-elicited granulocytes in vitro and ability of NPY to modulate carrageenan-induced air pouch inflammation in rats in vivo. Anti-inflammatory effect of NPY comprises reduced granulocyte accumulation into the air pouch, to some extent attenuation of phagocytosis, attained via Y1 receptor, and considerable decrease in peroxide production, albeit mediated via Y2 and Y5 receptors activation. Conversely, NPY increases nitric oxide production and this potentiation is mediated via Y1 receptor. It is concluded that NPY Y1 and Y2/Y5 receptors' interaction participates in NPY-induced modulation of granulocyte functions related to inflammation.

  12. Carvedilol alleviates adjuvant-induced arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema: Modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Arab, Hany H.; El-Sawalhi, Maha M.

    2013-04-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease with cardiovascular complications as the leading cause of morbidity. Carvedilol is an adrenergic antagonist which has been safely used in treatment of several cardiovascular disorders. Given that carvedilol has powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to investigate its protective potential against arthritis that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness especially in RA patients with concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Two models were studied in the same rat; adjuvant arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 21 days) effectively suppressed inflammation in both models with comparable efficacy to the standard anti-inflammatory diclofenac (5 mg/kg/day p.o.). Notably, carvedilol inhibited paw edema and abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates. The latter observation was confirmed by the histopathological assessment of the pouch lining that revealed mitigation of immuno-inflammatory cell influx. Carvedilol reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and protein thiols) and lowered the release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), and eicosanoids (PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4}) in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. Interestingly, carvedilol, per se, didn't present any effect on assessed biochemical parameters in normal rats. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-arthritic effects of carvedilol that could be mediated through attenuation of leukocyte migration, alleviation of oxidative stress and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids. - Highlights: ► Carvedilol possesses promising anti-arthritic properties. ► It markedly suppressed inflammation in adjuvant arthritis and air pouch edema. ► It abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates and linings. ► It reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers in sera and exudates of

  13. A mouse air pouch model for evaluating the immune response to Taenia crassiceps infection.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Emanuelle B; Sakai, Yuriko I; Gaspari, Elizabeth De

    2014-02-01

    The experimental system of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci infection in BALB/c mice is considered to be the most representative model of cysticercosis. In our work, mice were sacrificed 7 and 30days after infection, and pouch fluid was collected to determine the number of accumulated cells and the concentrations of IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and nitric oxide. The injection of 50 nonbudding cysticerci into normal mouse dorsal air pouches induced a high level of IFNγ and nitric oxide production relative to the parasite load. The air pouch provides a convenient cavity that allows studying the cellular immunological aspects of the T. crassiceps parasite. The nonbudding cysticerci recovered from the air pouches contained cells that can reconstitute complete cysts in the peritoneal cavity of mice. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the air pouch model is an alternative tool for the evaluation of the immune characteristics of T. crassiceps infection.

  14. Effect of Withania somnifera on glycosaminoglycan synthesis in carrageenin-induced air pouch granuloma

    SciTech Connect

    Begum, V.H.; Sadique, J.

    1987-12-01

    The effect of W. somnifera on glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the granulation tissue of carrageenin-induced air pouch granuloma was studied. W. somnifera was shown to exert significant inhibitory effect on incorporation of /sup 35/S into the granulation tissue. The uncoupling effect on oxidative phosphorylation (ADP/O ratio reduction) was also observed in the mitochondria of granulation tissue. Further, Mg/sup 2 +/ dependent ATPase activity was found to be influenced by W. somnifera. W. somnifera also reduced the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in the mitochondria of granulation tissue.

  15. Sesamin inhibits bacterial formylpeptide-induced inflammatory responses in a murine air-pouch model and in THP-1 human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Youhong; Hou, Xinwei; Chen, Juan; Xie, Lianying; Yang, Lang; Le, Yingying

    2010-02-01

    The reaction of human leukocytes to chemoattractants is an important component of the host immune response and also plays a crucial role in the development of inflammation. Sesamin has been shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation and regulate cytokine production. In this study, we examined the effect of sesamin on inflammatory responses elicited by the bacterial chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) in vitro and in vivo and explored the mechanisms involved. fMLF is recognized by a human G protein-coupled receptor formyl peptide receptor (FPR) on phagocytic leukocytes. Sesamin at concentrations between 12.5 and 50 micromol/L inhibited fMLF-induced chemotaxis of human monocyte cell line THP-1 differentiated with dibutyryl cyclic AMP (P < 0.01). Similarly, sesamin inhibited FPR-transfected rat basophilic leukemia cell [epitope-tagged human FPR (ETFR) cell] migration toward fMLF (P < 0.01). In fMLF-induced inflammation in a murine air-pouch model, intraperitoneal administration of sesamin (12 mgkg(-1)d(-1) for 2 d) suppressed leukocyte infiltration into the air pouch induced by fMLF [(62.89 +/- 7.93) x 10(4) vs. (19.67 +/- 4.43) x 10(4) cells/air pouch; n = 9; P < 0.001]. Ca(2+) mobilization and mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) activation are involved in fMLF-induced leukocyte migration. Pretreatment of ETFR cells with sesamin inhibited fMLF-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner but did not affect fMLF-induced Ca(2+) flux. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that pretreatment of THP-1 cells with sesamin dose dependently inhibited fMLF-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. These results suggest that sesamin inhibits leukocyte activation by fMLF through ERK1/2- and NF-kappaB-related signaling pathways and thus is a potential compound for the management of inflammatory diseases.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Essential Oil Citral in Experimental Infection with Staphylococcus aureus in a Model Air Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Hellen Braga; Selis, Nathan das Neves; Souza, Clarissa Leal Silva e; Nascimento, Flávia S.; de Carvalho, Suzi Pacheco; Gusmão, Lorena D'Oliveira; Nascimento, Jannine dos Santos; Brito, Anne Karoline Pereira; de Souza, Samira Itana; de Oliveira, Marcio Vasconcelos; Timenetsky, Jorge; Yatsuda, Regiane

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes to implement an alternative and effective strategy for local treatment of disease provoked by S. aureus. For the analysis of possible anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil, after establishing an air pouch model, 48 male mice of Balb/c were treated, infected, and euthanized at 4 and 8 h. Thus, the total and differential white blood cells were counted in the animal's blood, and cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were titrated using ELISA in the air pouch lavage. Moreover, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression was analyzed through an RT-qPCR array, and S. aureus was quantified using qPCR. Our results, p < 0.05, showed that EOC reduced the quantity of microorganisms. The group of mice treated with essential oil citral showed a significant decrease in TNF-α levels in tests demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity. There is no data about the mutual influence of the air pouch model, essential oil citral, and S. aureus. Thus, considering the interaction of these variables and the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil citral, we demonstrated, by alternative local treatment, a new antimicrobial agent that is not an antibiotic. PMID:28316634

  17. Use of the air pouch model to investigate immune responses to a hookworm vaccine containing the Na-ASP-2 protein in rats.

    PubMed

    Mendez, S; D' Samuel, A; Antoine, A D; Ahn, S; Hotez, P

    2008-01-01

    Hookworms are gastrointestinal nematodes that affect approximately 600 million people in developing countries. Using the air pouch model, we have examined the effects of vaccination with the recombinant hookworm larval antigen Na-ASP-2 and the adjuvant Alhydrogel on the skin immune response to hookworms in Sprague Dawley rats. Following vaccination, rats were inoculated 100 Necator americanus L3 into the air pouch, and the exudates and cell infiltrates were collected from the pouch 24 h later. Larval inoculation induced leucocyte recruitment into the pouch. Exudates of rats vaccinated with Na-ASP-2 showed an increase of cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, IFN-gamma and especially, IL-5, as well as IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies. The increased amount of antigen-presenting cells and cytokines in the pouch of vaccinated animals suggests that vaccination could potentially restrain this parasite to the inoculation site, avoiding its migration and establishment in the host. Moreover, the air pouch model could constitute an alternative to screen immune responses to L3 antigens.

  18. Let it burn: distinguishing inflammable airs 1766-1790.

    PubMed

    Tomory, Leslie

    2009-11-01

    The issue of the number of species of inflammable air was debated particularly in the period 1777-1786. The work of Henry Cavendish in 1766 and Alessandro Volta in 1777 in characterising two species of inflammable air set the stage for the work of other chemists, particularly in Paris, as they debated this question, mostly concerning heavy inflammable air. Different ways of generating gases were discovered up to 1783, when the synthesis of water and the proposal of carbon as an element created a framework for the question to be answered. In 1785-1786, Claude-Louis Berthollet reported the composition of heavy inflammable air and volatile alkali, while Philippe Gengembre analysed phosphorated hydrogen and hepatic air. In the end, it was the new chemical nomenclature of 1787 that spread their results widely.

  19. Ileal J-Pouch Perforation: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dogan, U; Dogan, B; Habibi, M; Erol, M K; Mayir, B; Aslaner, A; Bulbuller, N

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old male patient who had undergone total colectomy and J-pouch ileanal anastomosis subsequent to diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis five years previously was admitted to the emergency room with complaints of severe abdominal pain of a four-day duration. Physical examination revealed widespread tenderness throughout the abdomen, especially in the lower quadrant. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed fluid between intestinal loops and computed tomography revealed free air and fluid in the abdomen. During laparotomy to expand the ileal J-pouch to approximately 12 cm in diameter, a 2-mm perforation was detected in the blind end of the ileal J-pouch. The perforation was repaired primarily and protective ileostomy was performed. During postoperative endoscopy, neither obstruction nor stasis was observed, but pouchitis was observed in the ileal J-pouch. The patient was postoperatively discharged on the 20th day and followed endoscopically. The endoscopic findings were normal in the sixth month postsurgery.

  20. Total proctocolectomy and ileal - anal pouch

    MedlinePlus

    Restorative proctocolectomy; Ileal-anal resection; Ileal-anal pouch; J-pouch; S-pouch; Pelvic pouch; Ileal-anal pouch; Ileal ... RD, Mahmoud N, Maron DJ, Ross HM, Rombeau J. Colon and rectum. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, ...

  1. Changing your urostomy pouch

    MedlinePlus

    ... can stand over a toilet or use rolled up gauze or paper towels below your stoma to absorb the urine. When you remove the old pouch, push down on your skin to loosen it. DO NOT pull the pouch off your skin. Before you put ...

  2. Therapeutic potential of the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib on titanium particle-induced inflammation in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xin; Pan, Xiaoyun; Cheng, Tao; Zhang, Xianlong

    2012-06-01

    Wear particle-induced aseptic loosening has been recognized as a harmful inflammatory process that jeopardizes the longevity of total joint replacement. The proteasome controls the activation of NF-κB and subsequent inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and IL-1β; thus, we investigated whether proteasome inhibition can ameliorate wear particle-induced inflammation in a murine model. A total of 48 BALB/C mice were divided into four groups. Titanium (Ti) particles were injected into the established air pouches of all mice (except negative controls) to provoke inflammation, and then 0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg of Bortezomib (Bzb, a proteasome inhibitor) was administered to ameliorate the inflammation response, while air pouches without Bzb administration were used as loading controls. The air pouches were harvested 2 or 7 days after Bzb injection for molecular and histological analyses. Inflammation responses in the air pouch tissues of Bzb treatment groups are lower than those in the Ti-stimulated group, and this occurs in a dose-dependent manner. Bzb can significantly attenuate the severity of Ti-induced inflammation in air pouches.

  3. Ileostomy - changing your pouch

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pouch. Push the skin away from the seal. DO NOT pull the ostomy away from your skin. Wash your stoma and the skin around it carefully with soapy water. Use mild soap, such as Ivory, Safeguard, or ...

  4. Inflammatory pouch disease: The spectrum of pouchitis

    PubMed Central

    Zezos, Petros; Saibil, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal-pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the operation of choice for medically refractory ulcerative colitis (UC), for UC with dysplasia, and for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). IPAA can be a treatment option for selected patients with Crohn’s colitis without perianal and/or small bowel disease. The term “pouchitis” refers to nonspecific inflammation of the pouch and is a common complication in patients with IPAA; it occurs more often in UC patients than in FAP patients. This suggests that the pathogenetic background of UC may contribute significantly to the development of pouchitis. The symptoms of pouchitis are many, and can include increased bowel frequency, urgency, tenesmus, incontinence, nocturnal seepage, rectal bleeding, abdominal cramps, and pelvic discomfort. The diagnosis of pouchitis is based on the presence of symptoms together with endoscopic and histological evidence of inflammation of the pouch. However, “pouchitis” is a general term representing a wide spectrum of diseases and conditions, which can emerge in the pouch. Based on the etiology we can sub-divide pouchitis into 2 groups: idiopathic and secondary. In idiopathic pouchitis the etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear, while in secondary pouchitis there is an association with a specific causative or pathogenetic factor. Secondary pouchitis can occur in up to 30% of cases and can be classified as infectious, ischemic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced, collagenous, autoimmune-associated, or Crohn’s disease. Sometimes, cuffitis or irritable pouch syndrome can be misdiagnosed as pouchitis. Furthermore, idiopathic pouchitis itself can be sub-classified into types based on the clinical pattern, presentation, and responsiveness to antibiotic treatment. Treatment differs among the various forms of pouchitis. Therefore, it is important to establish the correct diagnosis in order to select the appropriate treatment and further

  5. AIR POLLUTION, INFLAMMATION AND PRETERM BIRTH: A POTENTIAL MECHANISTIC LINK

    PubMed Central

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G.; O´Neill, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:24382337

  6. Air pollution, inflammation and preterm birth: a potential mechanistic link.

    PubMed

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A; Sánchez, Brisa N; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G; O'Neill, Marie S

    2014-02-01

    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth.

  7. Crohn's Disease of the Ileoanal Pouch.

    PubMed

    Lightner, Amy L; Pemberton, John H; Loftus, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) of the pouch is an increasingly recognized diagnosis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. This post-ileal pouch-anal anastomosis diagnosis in conjunction with pouchitis remains the leading reason for pouch excision. Unfortunately, CD of the pouch remains a difficult diagnosis with lack of a uniform definition largely because of its similarity to common postoperative pouch complications, including pouchitis, abscess formation, or stricture at the anastomosis. Once diagnosed, treatment algorithms largely include multimodal therapy including biologics. This review focuses on the definition, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment for CD of the pouch, a postoperative de novo diagnosis of CD.

  8. Ileal pouch surgery for ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Simon P; Mortensen, Neil J

    2007-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing and remitting disease characterised by chronic mucosal and submucosal inflammation of the colon and rectum. Treatment may vary depending upon the extent and severity of inflammation. Broadly speaking medical treatments aim to induce and then maintain remission. Surgery is indicated for inflammatory disease that is refractory to medical treatment or in cases of neoplastic transformation. Approximately 25% of patients with UC ultimately require colectomy. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the standard of care for patients with ulcerative colitis who ultimately require colectomy. This review will examine indications for IPAA, patient selection, technical aspects of surgery, management of complications and long term outcome following this procedure. PMID:17659667

  9. Reduction of urate crystal-induced inflammation by root extracts from traditional oriental medicinal plants: elevation of prostaglandin D2 levels

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Mun; Schumacher, H Ralph; Kim, Hocheol; Kim, Miyeon; Lee, Seoung Hoon; Pessler, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Dried roots of the plants Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis are used in traditional oriental medicine and reportedly possess anti-inflammatory properties. Using the murine air pouch model of inflammation, we investigated the efficacy and mode of action of an extract from these three plants in crystal-induced inflammation. Air pouches were raised on the backs of 8-week-old BALB/c mice. Mice were fed 100 mg/kg body weight of root extracts (A. senticosus:A. sinensis:S. baicalensis mixed in a ratio of 5:4:1 by weight) or vehicle only on days 3–6. Inflammation was elicited on day 6 by injecting 2 mg of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals into the pouch. Neutrophil density and IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA levels were determined in the pouch membrane, and the leukocyte count and IL-6, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) levels were determined in the pouch exudate. Treatment with the root extracts led to a reduction in all inflammatory parameters: the leukocyte count in the pouch exudate decreased by 82%; the neutrophil density in the pouch membrane decreased by 68%; IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA levels in the pouch membrane decreased by 100%; the IL-6 concentration in the pouch fluid decreased by 50%; and the PGE2 concentration in the pouch fluid decreased by 69%. Remarkably, the concentration of the potentially anti-inflammatory PGD2 rose 5.2-fold in the pouch exudate (p < 0.005), which led to a normalization of the PGD2:PGE2 ratio. A 3.7-fold rise in hematopoietic PGD synthase (h-PGDS) mRNA paralleled this rise in PGD2 (p = 0.01). Thus, the root extracts diminished MSU crystal-induced inflammation by reducing neutrophil recruitment and expression of pro-inflammatory factors and increasing the level of the potentially anti-inflammatory PGD2. These results support a need for further studies of the efficacy of these extracts in the treatment of inflammatory arthropathies and suggest elevation of PGD2 levels as a novel mechanism for an anti

  10. Scintigraphic Small Intestinal Transit Time and Defaecography in Patients with J-Pouch.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend; Kjeldsen, Jens; Gerke, Oke; Qvist, Niels

    2015-10-10

    Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL). This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105-365). Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF) was 49% (3-77) and 62% (17-98) after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100-360). A median daily stool frequency of nine (4-25) was reported and three (14%) patients suffered from daytime incontinence. No patients had symptomatic or endoscopic pouchitis; however, the histology showed unspecific inflammation in 19 (90%) patients. There was no correlation between transit time, evacuation fraction (EF) and pouch function in univariate analysis. However, we found a high body mass index (BMI) and a low bowel movement frequency to be associated with a longer transit time by multivariate analysis. Scintigraphic determination of transit time and defaecography are feasible methods in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, but the clinical relevance is yet doubtful.

  11. Scintigraphic Small Intestinal Transit Time and Defaecography in Patients with J-Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Kjaer, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend; Kjeldsen, Jens; Gerke, Oke; Qvist, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL). This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105–365). Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF) was 49% (3–77) and 62% (17–98) after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100–360). A median daily stool frequency of nine (4–25) was reported and three (14%) patients suffered from daytime incontinence. No patients had symptomatic or endoscopic pouchitis; however, the histology showed unspecific inflammation in 19 (90%) patients. There was no correlation between transit time, evacuation fraction (EF) and pouch function in univariate analysis. However, we found a high body mass index (BMI) and a low bowel movement frequency to be associated with a longer transit time by multivariate analysis. Scintigraphic determination of transit time and defaecography are feasible methods in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, but the clinical relevance is yet doubtful. PMID:26854162

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of Ajmodadi Churna extract against acute inflammation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ram, H. N. Aswatha; Sriwastava, Neeraj K.; Makhija, Inder K.; Shreedhara, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations are widely prescribed for a wide range of inflammatory conditions, yet, despite widespread use, there has been no systematic documentation of their safety and efficacy. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of Ajmodadi churna (AJM) in rats. Materials and Methods: Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and air pouch inflammation models were used for the study. Results: The extracts showed significant antiinflammatory activity, reducing paw edema volume by 0.417 ± 0.097 and 0.379 ± 0.049, respectively. In the carrageenan-induced air pouch model, AJM reduced total leukocyte count by 73.09 ± 7.13 and 62.17 ± 10.53, granulocyte count by 69.48 ± 5.44 and 63.33 ± 4.13, and myeloperoxidase activity by 14.84 ± 0.91 and 18.44 ± 3.18, respectively, compared to controls. Discussion and Conclusion: AJM significantly reduced paw edema, during the second phase of edema development. In the carrageenan-induced air pouch model, AJM inhibited cellular infiltration into the air pouch fluid. We conclude that AJM is an effective candidate for prevention or treatment of acute inflammation PMID:22529678

  13. Brain inflammation and Alzheimer's-like pathology in individuals exposed to severe air pollution.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Reed, William; Maronpot, Robert R; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Delgado-Chavez, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana; Dragustinovis, Irma; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Solt, Anna C; Altenburg, Michael; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Swenberg, James A

    2004-01-01

    Air pollution is a complex mixture of gases (e.g., ozone), particulate matter, and organic compounds present in outdoor and indoor air. Dogs exposed to severe air pollution exhibit chronic inflammation and acceleration of Alzheimer's-like pathology, suggesting that the brain is adversely affected by pollutants. We investigated whether residency in cities with high levels of air pollution is associated with human brain inflammation. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), an inflammatory mediator, and accumulation of the 42-amino acid form of beta-amyloid (Abeta42), a cause of neuronal dysfunction, were measured in autopsy brain tissues of cognitively and neurologically intact lifelong residents of cities having low (n:9) or high (n:10) levels of air pollution. Genomic DNA apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, nuclear factor-kappaB activation and apolipoprotein E genotype were also evaluated. Residents of cities with severe air pollution had significantly higher COX2 expression in frontal cortex and hippocampus and greater neuronal and astrocytic accumulation of Abeta42 compared to residents in low air pollution cities. Increased COX2 expression and Abeta42 accumulation were also observed in the olfactory bulb. These findings suggest that exposure to severe air pollution is associated with brain inflammation and Abeta42 accumulation, two causes of neuronal dysfunction that precede the appearance of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Reconstruction for chronic dysfunction of ileoanal pouches.

    PubMed Central

    Fonkalsrud, E W; Bustorff-Silva, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A retrospective review was performed to determine the results after surgical reconstruction for chronic dysfunction of ileal pouch-anal procedures for ulcerative colitis and familial colonic polyposis at a university medical center. METHODS: During the 20-year period from 1978 to 1998, 601 patients underwent colectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis, familial colonic polyposis, or Hirschsprung's disease. A J pouch was used for 351 patients, a lateral pouch for 221, an S pouch for 6, and a straight pull-through for 23. Acute complications after pouch construction have been detailed in previous publications and are not included in this study. Chronic pouch stasis with diarrhea, frequency, urgency, and soiling gradually became more severe in 164 patients (27.3%), associated with pouch enlargement, an elongated efferent limb, and obstruction to pouch outflow, largely related to the pouch configuration used during the authors' early clinical experience. These patients were sufficiently symptomatic to be considered for reconstruction (mean 68 months after IPAA). Transanal resection of an elongated IPAA spout was performed on 58 patients; abdominoperineal mobilization of the pouch with resection and tapering of the lower end (AP reconstruction) and ileoanal anastomosis on 83; pouch removal and new pouch construction on 7; and conversion of a straight pull-through to a pouch on 16. RESULTS: Good long-term results (mean 7.7 years) with improvement in symptoms occurred in 98% of transanal resections, 91.5% of AP reconstructions, 86% of new pouch constructions, and 100% of conversions of a straight pull-through to a pouch. The average number of bowel movements per 24 hours at 6 months was 4.8. Complications occurred in 11.6% of reconstructed patients. Five of the 164 patients (3.1%) required eventual pouch removal and permanent ileostomy. The high rate of pouch revision in this series of patients undergoing IPAA is due to a policy of

  15. Air pollution, inflammation and preterm birth in Mexico City: study design and methods.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Marie S; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A; Sánchez, Brisa N; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Castillo-Castrejon, Marisol; Mordhukovich, Irina B; Brown, Daniel G; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2013-03-15

    Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and is associated with long-term adverse health consequences for surviving infants. Preterm birth rates are rising worldwide, and no effective means for prevention currently exists. Air pollution exposure may be a significant cause of prematurity, but many published studies lack the individual, clinical data needed to elucidate possible biological mechanisms mediating these epidemiological associations. This paper presents the design of a prospective study now underway to evaluate those mechanisms in a cohort of pregnant women residing in Mexico City. We address how air quality may act together with other factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Data collection includes: biomarkers relevant to inflammation in cervico-vaginal exudate and peripheral blood, along with full clinical information, pro-inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms and air pollution data to evaluate spatial and temporal variability in air pollution exposure. Samples are collected on a monthly basis and participants are followed for the duration of pregnancy. The data will be used to evaluate whether ambient air pollution is associated with preterm birth, controlling for other risk factors. We will evaluate which time windows during pregnancy are most influential in the air pollution and preterm birth association. In addition, the epidemiological study will be complemented with a parallel toxicology invitro study, in which monocytic cells will be exposed to air particle samples to evaluate the expression of biomarkers of inflammation.

  16. Treatment of nasal inflammation decreases the ability of subjects with asthma to condition inspired air.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jayant M; Assanasen, Paraya; Baroody, Fuad M; Naureckas, Edward; Solway, Julian; Naclerio, Robert M

    2004-10-15

    We previously showed that individuals with seasonal allergy have a reduced ability to condition air, which was improved by nasal inflammation. We also showed that subjects with asthma have a reduced ability to condition air. Because individuals with asthma usually have inflammation in the nose, we hypothesized that treatment with an intranasal steroid would reduce nasal inflammation and further decrease nasal conditioning capacity. We performed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover study on 20 subjects with asthma comparing the effect of treatment with intranasal budesonide for 2 weeks on nasal conditioning. Treatment with budesonide caused no significant effect on nasal conditioning as compared with placebo. When we evaluated the subgroup of nonsmoking subjects, budesonide caused a significant reduction in nasal conditioning. We speculate that nasal inflammation in nonsmoking individuals with asthma increases the conditioning capacity and reducing it with an intranasal steroid worsens the ability of the nose to condition air. In addition, smoking causes an increase in nasal conditioning capacity by non-steroid-dependent factors. These observations help us understand the pathophysiology of nasal conditioning, but do not negate the positive clinical benefits of budesonide on treating nasal inflammation.

  17. Source-specific fine particulate air pollution and systemic inflammation in ischaemic heart disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Siponen, Taina; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Aurela, Minna; Dufva, Hilkka; Hillamo, Risto; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Huttunen, Kati; Pekkanen, Juha; Pennanen, Arto; Salonen, Iiris; Tiittanen, Pekka; Salonen, Raimo O; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare short-term effects of fine particles (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) from different sources on the blood levels of markers of systemic inflammation. Methods We followed a panel of 52 ischaemic heart disease patients from 15 November 2005 to 21 April 2006 with clinic visits in every second week in the city of Kotka, Finland, and determined nine inflammatory markers from blood samples. In addition, we monitored outdoor air pollution at a fixed site during the study period and conducted a source apportionment of PM2.5 using the Environmental Protection Agency's model EPA PMF 3.0. We then analysed associations between levels of source-specific PM2.5 and markers of systemic inflammation using linear mixed models. Results We identified five source categories: regional and long-range transport (LRT), traffic, biomass combustion, sea salt, and pulp industry. We found most evidence for the relation of air pollution and inflammation in LRT, traffic and biomass combustion; the most relevant inflammation markers were C-reactive protein, interleukin-12 and myeloperoxidase. Sea salt was not positively associated with any of the inflammatory markers. Conclusions Results suggest that PM2.5 from several sources, such as biomass combustion and traffic, are promoters of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25479755

  18. Male issues of the ileal pouch.

    PubMed

    Kani, Haluk T; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-01

    : Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the standard surgical treatment modality for patients with ulcerative colitis who require colectomy. There are special issues related to male gender. We performed systemic literature review on the topic, incorporating the experience in our specialized Center for Ileal Pouch Disorders, and provide recommendations for the identification and management for the gender-specific issues in male patients with ileal pouches. Chronic pouchitis, particularly ischemic pouchitis, anastomotic leak, and presacral sinus are more common in male patients than their female counterparts. Sexual dysfunction can occur after pouch surgery, particularly in those with pouch failure. Diagnosis and management of benign and malignant prostate diseases can be challenging due to the altered pelvic anatomy from the surgery. Digital rectal examination for prostate cancer screening is not reliable. Transpouch biopsy of prostate may lead to pouch fistula or abscess. Pelvic radiation therapy may have an adverse impact on the pouch function. In conclusion, sexual dysfunction and enlarged prostate can occur in patients with the ileal pouch. The measurement of serum prostate-specific antigen is a preferred method for the screening of prostate cancer. If biopsy of the prostate is needed, the perineal route is recommended. The risk for pouch dysfunction and the benefit for oncologic survival of pelvic radiation for prostate cancer should be carefully balanced.

  19. Efficient Inhibition of wear debris-induced inflammation by locally delivered siRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Xiaochun; Tao Kun; Cheng Tao; Zhu Junfeng; Zhang Xianlong

    2008-12-12

    Aseptic loosening is the most common long-term complication of total joint replacement, which is associated with the generation of wear debris. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) on wear debris-induced inflammation. A local delivery of lentivirus-mediated TNF-{alpha} siRNA into the modified murine air pouch, which was stimulated by polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles, resulted in significant blockage of TNF-{alpha} both in mRNA and protein levels for up to 4 weeks. In addition, significant down-regulation of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was observed in TNF-{alpha} siRNA-treated pouches. The safety profile of gene therapy was proven by Bioluminescent assay and quantitative fluorescent flux. Histological analysis revealed less inflammatory responses (thinner pouch membrane and decreased cellular infiltration) in TNF-{alpha} siRNA-treated pouches. These findings suggest that local delivery of TNF-{alpha} siRNA might be an excellent therapeutic candidate to inhibit particle-induced inflammation.

  20. Effect of naturally occurring ozone air pollution episodes on pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pirozzi, Cheryl; Sturrock, Anne; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Greene, Tom; Scholand, Mary Beth; Kanner, Richard; Paine, Robert

    2015-05-12

    This study aimed to determine if naturally occurring episodes of ozone air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley in Utah, USA, during the summer are associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, increased respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to controls. We measured biomarkers (nitrite/nitrate (NOx), 8-isoprostane) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), spirometry, and respiratory symptoms in 11 former smokers with moderate-to-severe COPD and nine former smokers without airflow obstruction during periods of low and high ozone air pollution. High ozone levels were associated with increased NOx in EBC in both COPD (8.7 (±8.5) vs. 28.6 (±17.6) μmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p < 0.01) and control participants (7.6 (±16.5) vs. 28.5 (±15.6) μmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p = 0.02). There was no difference in pollution effect between COPD and control groups, and no difference in EBC 8-isoprostane, pulmonary function, or respiratory symptoms between clean air and pollution days in either group. Former smokers both with and without airflow obstruction developed airway oxidative stress and inflammation in association with ozone air pollution episodes.

  1. Effect of Naturally Occurring Ozone Air Pollution Episodes on Pulmonary Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pirozzi, Cheryl; Sturrock, Anne; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Greene, Tom; Scholand, Mary Beth; Kanner, Richard; Paine, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if naturally occurring episodes of ozone air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley in Utah, USA, during the summer are associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, increased respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to controls. We measured biomarkers (nitrite/nitrate (NOx), 8-isoprostane) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), spirometry, and respiratory symptoms in 11 former smokers with moderate-to-severe COPD and nine former smokers without airflow obstruction during periods of low and high ozone air pollution. High ozone levels were associated with increased NOx in EBC in both COPD (8.7 (±8.5) vs. 28.6 (±17.6) μmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p < 0.01) and control participants (7.6 (±16.5) vs. 28.5 (±15.6) μmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p = 0.02). There was no difference in pollution effect between COPD and control groups, and no difference in EBC 8-isoprostane, pulmonary function, or respiratory symptoms between clean air and pollution days in either group. Former smokers both with and without airflow obstruction developed airway oxidative stress and inflammation in association with ozone air pollution episodes. PMID:25985308

  2. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  3. The association of ambient air pollution with airway inflammation in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing-Yu; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Lee, Chung-Te; Cheng, Tsun-Jen; Huang, Wen-Chuan; Jhou, Ji-Ci; Han, Yueh-Ying; Chen, Chu-Chih; Guo, Yue Leon

    2012-04-15

    The biologic mechanisms involved in airway inflammatory response to air pollution are not clearly understood. The authors conducted a longitudinal study to investigate whether exposure to ambient air pollutants affected inflammatory cells and mediators from nasal lavage in schoolchildren. Study participants were 100 elementary and middle-school students in New Taipei City, Taiwan. A structured respiratory health questionnaire was administered in September 2007, followed by monthly measurement of nasal inflammation from October 2007 to November 2009. During the study period, daily concentrations of air pollutants were obtained from the Environmental Protection Administration monitoring station and the Aerosol Supersite. Mixed-effects models were applied to examine the association between air pollution and nasal inflammatory cells and mediators, including percentages of neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes in lavaged cells and interleukin-8. A total of 824 measurements were obtained from 100 participants over a period of 10 months. The level of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM(2.5)) was found to be associated with percentage of neutrophils (β = 3.45%, 95% confidence interval: 0.89, 6.01) and interleukin-8 level (β = 29.98 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval: 3.26, 56.69) in the nasal lavage on the day of exposure. In this longitudinal cohort study of schoolchildren, results indicated that exposure to PM(2.5) might induce nasal inflammation.

  4. Curcumin Attenuates Titanium Particle-Induced Inflammation by Regulating Macrophage Polarization In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Hu, Yan; Zhao, Yaochao; Cheng, Mengqi; Qin, Hui; Cheng, Tao; Wang, Qiaojie; Peng, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2017-01-01

    Periprosthetic inflammatory osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening are commonly observed in total joint arthroplasty. Other than revision surgery, few approved treatments are available for this complication. Wear particle-induced inflammation and macrophage polarization state play critical roles in periprosthetic osteolysis. We investigated the effects of curcumin, a polyphenol extracted from Curcuma longa, on titanium (Ti) particle-induced inflammation and macrophage polarization in vitro using the murine cell line RAW 264.7 and in vivo using a murine air pouch model. The expression of specific macrophage markers was qualitatively analyzed by immunofluorescence (inducible nitric oxide synthase and CD206) and quantitatively analyzed by flow cytometry (CCR7 and CD206), representing M1 and M2 macrophages, respectively. Our results show that curcumin induced a higher percentage of M2 macrophages together with a higher concentration of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and a lower percentage of M1 macrophages with a lower concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6). The genes encoding CD86 (M1) and CD163 (M2), two additional markers, were shifted by curcumin toward an M2 phenotype. C57BL/J6 mice were injected with air and Ti particles to establish an air pouch model. Curcumin reduced cell infiltration in the pouch membrane and decreased membrane thickness. The analysis of exudates obtained from pouches demonstrated that the effects of curcumin on macrophage polarization and cytokine production were similar to those observed in vitro. These results prove that curcumin suppresses Ti particle-induced inflammation by regulating macrophage polarization. Thus, curcumin could be developed as a new therapeutic candidate for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory osteolysis and aseptic loosening. PMID:28197150

  5. Curcumin Attenuates Titanium Particle-Induced Inflammation by Regulating Macrophage Polarization In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Hu, Yan; Zhao, Yaochao; Cheng, Mengqi; Qin, Hui; Cheng, Tao; Wang, Qiaojie; Peng, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2017-01-01

    Periprosthetic inflammatory osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening are commonly observed in total joint arthroplasty. Other than revision surgery, few approved treatments are available for this complication. Wear particle-induced inflammation and macrophage polarization state play critical roles in periprosthetic osteolysis. We investigated the effects of curcumin, a polyphenol extracted from Curcuma longa, on titanium (Ti) particle-induced inflammation and macrophage polarization in vitro using the murine cell line RAW 264.7 and in vivo using a murine air pouch model. The expression of specific macrophage markers was qualitatively analyzed by immunofluorescence (inducible nitric oxide synthase and CD206) and quantitatively analyzed by flow cytometry (CCR7 and CD206), representing M1 and M2 macrophages, respectively. Our results show that curcumin induced a higher percentage of M2 macrophages together with a higher concentration of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and a lower percentage of M1 macrophages with a lower concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6). The genes encoding CD86 (M1) and CD163 (M2), two additional markers, were shifted by curcumin toward an M2 phenotype. C57BL/J6 mice were injected with air and Ti particles to establish an air pouch model. Curcumin reduced cell infiltration in the pouch membrane and decreased membrane thickness. The analysis of exudates obtained from pouches demonstrated that the effects of curcumin on macrophage polarization and cytokine production were similar to those observed in vitro. These results prove that curcumin suppresses Ti particle-induced inflammation by regulating macrophage polarization. Thus, curcumin could be developed as a new therapeutic candidate for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory osteolysis and aseptic loosening.

  6. Technical aspects of ileoanal pouch surgery.

    PubMed

    Carne, Peter W G; Pemberton, John H

    2004-02-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the surgical procedure of choice for chronic ulcerative colitis. Since the initial description of the technique, various modifications have facilitated its evolution into a safe operation with excellent long-term outcomes. However, some aspects of the operation remain contentious. Our aim is to describe the technical aspects of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and review the current literature in the areas of controversy.

  7. Antimicrobial Protection of Marsupial Pouch Young

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Belov, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Marsupials diverged from eutherian mammals about 148 million years ago and represent a unique lineage of mammals with distinctive morphological and reproductive characteristics. Marsupials have significantly shorter gestation periods than eutherians. Pregnancy typically ranges from 15 to 35 days, with young being born at a very early developmental stage and lacking differentiated lymphoid tissues and mature effector cells. Recent microbiome studies of the marsupial pouch revealed that marsupial young can face intense microbial challenges after birth, as the pouch contains a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrobials are believed to play a significant role in the immune protection of marsupial newborns during their pouch life. The skin of the post-reproductive pouch secretes antimicrobial lysozyme and dermcidin, which may contribute to the decreased density of certain bacteria in the pouch. A range of antimicrobial agents, such as immunoglobulins, lysozyme, transferrin, and cathelicidins, have been identified in marsupial milk. Antimicrobial assays have revealed that marsupial cathelicidins have broad-spectrum activity against a variety of bacteria and fungi, including several multi-drug resistant strains. In this article, we will review the action mechanisms of these antimicrobial compounds and discuss how they protect marsupial newborns from potentially pathogenic bacteria inside the pouch. We will also discuss the potential of marsupial antimicrobial compounds as a source of novel antibiotics. PMID:28326070

  8. The Promoting Effect of Carbamide Peroxide Teeth Bleaching Gel in a Preclinical Model of Head and Neck Cancer in Hamster Buccal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Vilela, Wadson; Vilela Gonçalves, Reggiani; Tavares Rheingantz, Maria Gabriela; Minello, Luiz Fernando; Braga da Silva, Jefferson Luis; Oliveira de Oliveira, Laura Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to verify the promoting effect of carbamide peroxide on dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis in the hamster buccal pouch, in order to reduce the period of latency for tumor formation. Methods Sixteen hamsters were randomized into two groups of eight animals each. The hamsters of the group I had their right buccal pouches treated with 0.5% DMBA and 10% carbamide peroxide teeth bleaching gel for 55 days. The animals of the group II had their right pouches treated only with DMBA. After, six animals of each group had their pouches prepared for light microscopy. Histomorphometry was performed to assess the presence of keratinization, nuclear polymorphism, pattern of invasion, number of blood vessels, and inflammatory infiltrate in the tumor front. Furthermore, the newly formed lesions were graded according the Bryne's grading system. The remaining animals had the vascular system of the pouches casted by Mercox and qualitatively analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results Histopathological analysis of the buccal pouches treated with DMBA and carbamide peroxide exhibited formation of squamous cell carcinoma well-differentiated with a high degree of malignancy in all pouches. The development of this neoplasm was associated with a significant increase in the number of blood vessels, presence of keratin pearls, and inflammatory infiltrate. The pouches of the group II showed inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma in only three right pouches. The analysis of the electron micrographs of the pouches chemically inducted with DBMA and carbamide peroxide reveled formation of a new vascular network characteristic of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion The protocol presented here, using DMBA associated with carbamide peroxide, shortens the period of latency to produce squamous cell carcinoma in the hamster buccal pouch, decreasing the time and costs of the experiments. PMID:25177438

  9. Systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and activation in clinically healthy children exposed to air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Villarreal-Calderon, R; Valencia-Salazar, G; Henríquez-Roldán, C; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, P; Torres-Jardón, R; Osnaya-Brizuela, N; Romero, L; Torres-Jardón, R; Solt, A; Reed, W

    2008-03-01

    Mexico City children are chronically exposed to significant concentrations of air pollutants and exhibit chronic respiratory-tract inflammation. Epidemiological, controlled human exposures, laboratory-based animal models, and in vitro/in vivo studies have shown that inflammatory, endothelial dysfunction, and endothelial damage mediators are upregulated upon exposure to particulate matter (PM). Endothelial dysfunction is a critical event in cardiovascular disease. The focus of this work was to investigate whether exposure to ambient air pollution including PM(2.5) produces systemic inflammation and endothelial injury in healthy children. We measured markers of endothelial activation, and inflammatory mediators in 52 children age 8.6+/-0.1 yr, residents of Mexico City (n: 28) or of Polotitlán (n: 24), a city with low levels of pollutants. Mexico City children had significant increases in inflammatory mediators and vasoconstrictors, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, prostaglandin (PG) E2, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1beta, and endothelin-1. There was a significant anti-inflammatory response, and a downregulation of vascular adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and -2, and selectins sE and sL. Results from linear regression found TNF a positively associated with 24- and 48-h cumulative levels of PM(2.5), while the 7-d PM(2.5) value was negatively associated with the numbers of white blood cells in peripheral blood in highly exposed children. Systemic subclinical inflammation, increased endothelin- 1, and significant downregulation of soluble adhesion molecules are seen in Mexico City children. Children chronically exposed to fine PM above the standard could be at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, stroke, and other systemic effects later in life.

  10. The hamster cheek pouch model for field cancerization studies.

    PubMed

    Monti-Hughes, Andrea; Aromando, Romina F; Pérez, Miguel A; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, Maria E

    2015-02-01

    External carcinogens, such as tobacco and alcohol, induce molecular changes in large areas of oral mucosa, which increase the risk of malignant transformation. This condition, known as 'field cancerization', can be detected in biopsy specimens using histochemical techniques, even before histological alterations are identified. The efficacy of these histochemical techniques as biomarkers of early cancerization must be demonstrated in appropriate models. The hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, universally employed in biological studies and in studies for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer, is also an excellent model of field cancerization. The carcinogen is applied in solution to the surface of the mucosa and induces alterations that recapitulate the stages of cancerization in human oral mucosa. We have demonstrated that the following can be used for the early detection of cancerized tissue: silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions; the Feulgen reaction to stain DNA followed by ploidy analysis; immunohistochemical analysis of fibroblast growth factor-2, immunohistochemical labeling of proliferating cells to demonstrate an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in the absence of inflammation; and changes in markers of angiogenesis (i.e. those indicating vascular endothelial growth factor activity, endothelial cell proliferation and vascular density). The hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer was also proposed and validated by our group for boron neutron capture therapy studies for the treatment of oral cancer. Clinical trials of this novel treatment modality have been performed and are underway for certain tumor types and localizations. Having demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy to control tumors in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, we adapted the model for the long-term study of field cancerized tissue. We demonstrated the inhibitory effect of boron neutron capture therapy on tumor development in field

  11. Disconnection, pouch revision and reconnection of the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Sagar, P M; Dozois, R R; Wolff, B G; Kelly, K A

    1996-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcome of patients with a dysfunctional pelvic ileal reservoir in whom disconnection of an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), pouch revision and reanastomosis had been carried out. There were 23 patients (15 women). At the revision operation functional problems were found to be due to a long efferent spout (nine patients), sepsis and/or fistula (four), a redundant blind limb (three), a twisted pouch (three), anastomotic problems (three) or no reservoir (one). The pouch was salvaged in 16 patients and a new pouch was constructed in seven. The pouch-anal anastomosis was resutured in 22 patients and stapled in one. Postoperative complications (all minor) occurred in six patients. Two patients underwent two revision of IPAA. At a median follow-up of 5 (range 1-10) years, 11 patients reported good to excellent function, five reported fair function and one reported recurrent pouchitis. Revision surgery was unsuccessful in six of 23 patients (three had gross incontinence, two excessive bowel movements and one Crohn's disease), and they subsequently underwent pouch excision. It is concluded that revision of an ileal reservoir and IPAA can be undertaken safely with good results in carefully selected patients.

  12. Mitochondrial Genetic Background Modifies the Relationship between Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure and Systemic Biomarkers of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wittkopp, Sharine; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Gillen, Daniel; Daher, Nancy; Shafer, Martin; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Human mitochondrial haplogroups are linked to differences in ROS production and oxidative-stress induced inflammation that may influence disease pathogenesis, including coronary artery disease (CAD). We previously showed that traffic-related air pollutants were associated with biomarkers of systemic inflammation in a cohort panel of subjects with CAD in the Los Angeles air basin. Objective We tested whether air pollutant exposure-associated inflammation was stronger in mitochondrial haplogroup H than U (high versus low ROS production) in this panel (38 subjects and 417 observations). Methods Inflammation biomarkers were measured weekly in each subject (≤12 weeks), including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 soluble receptor and tumor necrosis factor-soluble receptor II. We determined haplogroup by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Air pollutants included nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), organic carbon, elemental and black carbon (EC, BC); and particulate matter mass, three size fractions (<0.25 µm, 0.25–2.5 µm, and 2.5–10 µm in aerodynamic diameter). Particulate matter extracts were analyzed for organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and in vitro oxidative potential of aqueous extracts. Associations between exposures and biomarkers, stratified by haplogroup, were analyzed by mixed-effects models. Results IL-6 and TNF-α were associated with traffic-related air pollutants (BC, CO, NOx and PAH), and with mass and oxidative potential of quasi-ultrafine particles <0.25 µm. These associations were stronger for haplogroup H than haplogroup U. Conclusions Results suggest that mitochondrial haplogroup U is a novel protective factor for air pollution-related systemic inflammation in this small group of subjects. PMID:23717615

  13. Fourth branchial pouch sinus: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, R M; Biller, H F

    1991-07-01

    The fourth branchial pouch sinus (FBPS) is a rare translaryngeal anomaly with diverse manifestations, including neonatal stridor and recurrent deep neck infection. Review of the world literature reveals 23 reports of sinuses consistent with fourth pouch origin. We present two additional cases, including the only example of a right-sided FBPS. Retrograde excision, beginning at the piriform apex, ensures complete removal of the tract and protection of the recurrent nerve. The posterior border of the thyroid ala must be resected or retracted for adequate exposure. Failure to remove the translaryngeal portion of the tract almost guarantees recurrence.

  14. Copper-dependent inflammation and nuclear factor-kappaB activation by particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, T; Ghio, A J; Reed, W; Samet, J; Zagorski, J; Quay, J; Carter, J; Dailey, L; Hoidal, J R; Devlin, R B

    1998-09-01

    Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical determinants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in respiratory symptoms in relation to levels of particulate pollution has been well documented. Provo particulates caused cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-dependent inflammation of rat lungs. Provo particulates stimulated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 production, increased IL-8 messenger RNA (mRNA) and enhanced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in cultured BEAS-2B cells, and stimulated IL-8 secretion in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelium. Cytokine secretion was preceded by activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and was reduced by treatment of cultures with superoxide dismutase, deferoxamine, or N-acetylcysteine. These biologic effects were replicated by culturing BEAS cells with quantities of Cu2+ found in Provo extract. IL-8 secretion by BEAS cells could be modified by addition of normal constituents of airway lining fluid to the culture medium. Mucin significantly reduced IL-8 secretion, and ceruloplasmin significantly increased IL-8 secretion and activation of NF-kappaB. These findings suggest that copper ions may cause some of the biologic effects of inhaled particulate air pollution in the Provo region of the United States, and may provide an explanation for the sensitivity of asthmatic individuals to Provo particulates that has been observed in epidemiologic studies.

  15. Gene-environment interactions linking air pollution and inflammation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-Chen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Lill, Christina M; Bertram, Lars; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Hansen, Johnni; Ritz, Beate

    2016-11-01

    Both air pollution exposure and systemic inflammation have been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD). In the PASIDA study, 408 incident cases of PD diagnosed in 2006-2009 and their 495 population controls were interviewed and provided DNA samples. Markers of long term traffic related air pollution measures were derived from geographic information systems (GIS)-based modeling. Furthermore, we genotyped functional polymorphisms in genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines, namely rs1800629 in TNFα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) and rs16944 in IL1B (interleukin-1β). In logistic regression models, long-term exposure to NO2 increased PD risk overall (odds ratio (OR)=1.06 per 2.94μg/m(3) increase, 95% CI=1.00-1.13). The OR for PD in individuals with high NO2 exposure (≧75th percentile) and the AA genotype of IL1B rs16944 was 3.10 (95% CI=1.14-8.38) compared with individuals with lower NO2 exposure (<75th percentile) and the GG genotype. The interaction term was nominally significant on the multiplicative scale (p=0.01). We did not find significant gene-environment interactions with TNF rs1800629. Our finds may provide suggestive evidence that a combination of traffic-related air pollution and genetic variation in the proinflammatory cytokine gene IL1B contribute to risk of developing PD. However, as statistical evidence was only modest in this large sample we cannot rule out that these results represent a chance finding, and additional replication efforts are warranted.

  16. Glyphosate-rich air samples induce IL-33, TSLP and generate IL-13 dependent airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Khodoun, Marat; Kettleson, Eric M; McKnight, Christopher; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Adhikari, Atin

    2014-11-05

    Several low weight molecules have often been implicated in the induction of occupational asthma. Glyphosate, a small molecule herbicide, is widely used in the world. There is a controversy regarding a role of glyphosate in developing asthma and rhinitis among farmers, the mechanism of which is unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of glyphosate induced pulmonary pathology by utilizing murine models and real environmental samples. C57BL/6, TLR4-/-, and IL-13-/- mice inhaled extracts of glyphosate-rich air samples collected on farms during spraying of herbicides or inhaled different doses of glyphosate and ovalbumin. The cellular response, humoral response, and lung function of exposed mice were evaluated. Exposure to glyphosate-rich air samples as well as glyphosate alone to the lungs increased: eosinophil and neutrophil counts, mast cell degranulation, and production of IL-33, TSLP, IL-13, and IL-5. In contrast, in vivo systemic IL-4 production was not increased. Co-administration of ovalbumin with glyphosate did not substantially change the inflammatory immune response. However, IL-13-deficiency resulted in diminished inflammatory response but did not have a significant effect on airway resistance upon methacholine challenge after 7 or 21 days of glyphosate exposure. Glyphosate-rich farm air samples as well as glyphosate alone were found to induce pulmonary IL-13-dependent inflammation and promote Th2 type cytokines, but not IL-4 for glyphosate alone. This study, for the first time, provides evidence for the mechanism of glyphosate-induced occupational lung disease.

  17. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or reexportation... technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Sudan via...

  18. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or reexportation... technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Sudan via...

  19. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or reexportation... technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Sudan via...

  20. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or reexportation... technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Sudan via...

  1. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or reexportation... technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Sudan via...

  2. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale, or... goods or technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to...

  3. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale, or... goods or technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to...

  4. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale, or... goods or technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to...

  5. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale, or... goods or technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to...

  6. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale, or... goods or technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to...

  7. Characterization of Commercial Li-ion Cells in Pouch Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The li-ion pouch design cells exhibit similar behavior under off-nominal conditions as those in metal cans that do not have the internal safety devices. Safety should be well characterized before batteries are designed. Some of the li-ion pouch cell designs studied in this program reacted most violently to overcharge conditions at the medium rates but were tolerant to overcharge at very low rates. Some pouch cell designs have higher tolerance to vacuum exposures than some others. A comparison of the pouch material itself does not show a correlation between this tolerance and the number of layers or composition of the pouch indicating that this is a property of the electrode stack design inside the pouch. Reduced pressure (8 to 10 psi) test environments show that the extent of capacity degradation under reduced pressure environments is much less than that observed under vacuum conditions. Lithium-ion Pouch format cells are not necessarily true polymer cells.

  8. Air Pollution, Airway Inflammation, and Lung Function in a Cohort Study of Mexico City Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Sunyer, Jordi; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Escamilla-Nuñez, Maria Consuelo; Sienra-Monge, Juan Jose; Ramírez-Aguilar, Matiana; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Holguin, Fernando; Diaz-Sánchez, David; Olin, Anna Carin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Background The biological mechanisms involved in inflammatory response to air pollution are not clearly understood. Objective In this study we assessed the association of short-term air pollutant exposure with inflammatory markers and lung function. Methods We studied a cohort of 158 asthmatic and 50 nonasthmatic school-age children, followed an average of 22 weeks. We conducted spirometric tests, measurements of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), interleukin-8 (IL-8) in nasal lavage, and pH of exhaled breath condensate every 15 days during follow-up. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. Results An increase of 17.5 μg/m3 in the 8-hr moving average of PM2.5 levels (interquartile range) was associated with a 1.08-ppb increase in FeNO [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–1.16] and a 1.07-pg/mL increase in IL-8 (95% CI 0.98–1.19) in asthmatic children and a 1.16 pg/ml increase in IL-8 (95% CI, 1.00–1.36) in nonasthmatic children. The 5-day accumulated average of exposure to particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diamter (PM2.5) was significantly inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) (p = 0.048) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (p = 0.012) in asthmatic children and with FVC (p = 0.021) in nonasthmatic children. FeNO and FEV1 were inversely associated (p = 0.005) in asthmatic children. Conclusions Exposure to PM2.5 resulted in acute airway inflammation and decrease in lung function in both asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. PMID:18560490

  9. CCL2 nitration is a negative regulator of chemokine-mediated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Catriona E.; Thompson, Sarah; O’Boyle, Graeme; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Sheerin, Neil S.; Ali, Simi; Kirby, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Chemokines promote leukocyte recruitment during inflammation. The oxidative burst is an important effector mechanism, this leads to the generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including peroxynitrite (ONOO). The current study was performed to determine the potential for nitration to alter the chemical and biological properties of the prototypical CC chemokine, CCL2. Immunofluorescence was performed to assess the presence of RNS in kidney biopsies. Co-localisation was observed between RNS-modified tyrosine residues and the chemokine CCL2 in diseased kidneys. Nitration reduced the potential of CCL2 to stimulate monocyte migration in diffusion gradient chemotaxis assays (p < 0.05). This was consistent with a trend towards reduced affinity of the nitrated chemokine for its cognate receptor CCR2b. The nitrated chemokine was unable to induce transendothelial monocyte migration in vitro and failed to promote leukocyte recruitment when added to murine air pouches (p < 0.05). This could potentially be attributed to reduced glycosaminoglycan binding ability, as surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy showed that nitration reduced heparan sulphate binding by CCL2. Importantly, intravenous administration of nitrated CCL2 also inhibited the normal recruitment of leukocytes to murine air pouches filled with unmodified CCL2. Together these data suggest that nitration of CCL2 during inflammation provides a mechanism to limit and resolve acute inflammation. PMID:28290520

  10. CCL2 nitration is a negative regulator of chemokine-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Barker, Catriona E; Thompson, Sarah; O'Boyle, Graeme; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Sheerin, Neil S; Ali, Simi; Kirby, John A

    2017-03-14

    Chemokines promote leukocyte recruitment during inflammation. The oxidative burst is an important effector mechanism, this leads to the generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including peroxynitrite (ONOO). The current study was performed to determine the potential for nitration to alter the chemical and biological properties of the prototypical CC chemokine, CCL2. Immunofluorescence was performed to assess the presence of RNS in kidney biopsies. Co-localisation was observed between RNS-modified tyrosine residues and the chemokine CCL2 in diseased kidneys. Nitration reduced the potential of CCL2 to stimulate monocyte migration in diffusion gradient chemotaxis assays (p < 0.05). This was consistent with a trend towards reduced affinity of the nitrated chemokine for its cognate receptor CCR2b. The nitrated chemokine was unable to induce transendothelial monocyte migration in vitro and failed to promote leukocyte recruitment when added to murine air pouches (p < 0.05). This could potentially be attributed to reduced glycosaminoglycan binding ability, as surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy showed that nitration reduced heparan sulphate binding by CCL2. Importantly, intravenous administration of nitrated CCL2 also inhibited the normal recruitment of leukocytes to murine air pouches filled with unmodified CCL2. Together these data suggest that nitration of CCL2 during inflammation provides a mechanism to limit and resolve acute inflammation.

  11. Auto-inflammatory diseases in ileal pouch patients with NOD2/CARD15 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Seril, Darren N.; Yao, Qingping; Shen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Pouchitis is common in ulcerative colitis patients undergoing total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, and chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis occurs in a subgroup of the patients. Auto-inflammatory diseases are characterized by systemic inflammation, manifesting as periodic fever, rash, arthritis, and serositis. We describe two cases with ulcerative colitis and an ileal pouch, who presented with extra-intestinal manifestations and genetic features atypical for inflammatory bowel disease alone. Case 1 had a spectrum of clinical manifestations including refractory pouchitis, intermittent fevers, polyarthralgia, and pericarditis. Case 2 presented with oral ulcers, migratory oligoarthritis, and periodic papular rash. Genetic testing in both cases revealed mutations of the NOD2/CARD15 gene, including the IVS8+158 mutation commonly detected among patients with NOD2-associated auto-inflammatory disease. Both of the patients demonstrated clinical improvement of these diverse systemic complaints following treatment with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory therapies. PMID:25313006

  12. Auto-inflammatory diseases in ileal pouch patients with NOD2/CARD15 mutations.

    PubMed

    Seril, Darren N; Yao, Qingping; Shen, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Pouchitis is common in ulcerative colitis patients undergoing total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, and chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis occurs in a subgroup of the patients. Auto-inflammatory diseases are characterized by systemic inflammation, manifesting as periodic fever, rash, arthritis, and serositis. We describe two cases with ulcerative colitis and an ileal pouch, who presented with extra-intestinal manifestations and genetic features atypical for inflammatory bowel disease alone. Case 1 had a spectrum of clinical manifestations including refractory pouchitis, intermittent fevers, polyarthralgia, and pericarditis. Case 2 presented with oral ulcers, migratory oligoarthritis, and periodic papular rash. Genetic testing in both cases revealed mutations of the NOD2/CARD15 gene, including the IVS8(+158) mutation commonly detected among patients with NOD2-associated auto-inflammatory disease. Both of the patients demonstrated clinical improvement of these diverse systemic complaints following treatment with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory therapies.

  13. [J-pouch after total gastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Prete, F; Montemurro, S; Rucci, A; Rinaldi, S; Liguori, P

    1992-04-01

    The Authors report their initial experience with the construction of a J-pouch as restorative surgery following total gastrectomy (TG) for malignant neoplasms. In the last 10 months of the 1990 upon 52 interventions for gastric cancer 31 TG were performed, and in 13 cases a J-pouch on the proximal end of the jejunal segment was constructed. No mortality or specific morbidity was registered using the totally stapled technique. Within one month 3/4 of the patients had normal meals as far as quantity and quality; also the foamy regurgitation seemed to be minimal. The ease of the reconstructive technique and the short term results obtained encourage the use of such approach.

  14. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... collection of fecal material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically... colostomy appliance, ostomy collector, colostomy pouch, urinary ileostomy bag, urine collecting...

  15. Repeat ileal pouch-anal anastomosis to salvage septic complications of pelvic pouches: clinical outcome and quality of life assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, V W; Wu, J S; Lavery, I C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of repeat ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for septic complications of pelvic pouch surgery; to assess the relationship between diagnosis and outcome; to assess quality of life after surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pelvic and perineal sepsis due to ileal pouch-anal anastomotic leaks frequently results in pouch loss. Many surgeons believe that pelvic sepsis and/or dense pelvic fibrosis makes salvage surgery unsafe or that pouches salvaged under these circumstances may not function well. As a result, there are few studies of pouch salvage procedures for septic indications. METHODS: The authors reviewed records of Cleveland Clinic Foundation patients who had undergone repeat IPAA surgery after septic complications from previous pelvic pouch surgery and who had completed at least 6 months of follow-up. Final diagnoses included ulcerative colitis (n = 22), Crohn's disease (n = 10), indeterminate colitis (n = 1), and familial polyposis (n = 2). Patients with functioning pouches were interviewed about functional problems and quality of life using an in-house questionnaire and the validated SF-36 Health Survey. RESULTS: Of 35 patients, 30 (86%) had a functioning pouch 6 months after repeat IPAA. In 4 patients, complications led to pouch removal or fecal diversion. One patient declined stoma closure. Of the patients with mucosal ulcerative colitis (MUC), 95% (21/22) had a functioning pouch 6 months after surgery. For patients with Crohn's disease (CD) 60% (6/10) have maintained a functioning pouch. Of the 30 patients with functioning pouches, 17 (57%) rated their quality of life as either "good" or "excellent," the remaining 13 (43%) selected "fair" or "poor." All said they would choose repeat IPAA surgery again. An SF-36 Health Survey completed by all patients with a functioning pouch at follow-up showed a mean physical component scale of 46.4 and a mean mental component scale of 47.6, scores well within the normal limit. CONCLUSIONS

  16. Mangiferin from Pueraria tuberosa reduces inflammation via inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Bulugonda, Ramakrishna K.; kumar, Kotha Anil; Gangappa, D.; Beeda, Harshavardhan; Philip, Gundala Harold; Muralidhara Rao, Dowlathabad; Faisal, Syed M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated the role of phyto-constituents in modulating inflammatory responses. Mangiferin isolated from Mangifera indica is known to induce potent anti-oxidative, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity is not properly understood. In this study we have isolated Mangiferin from the tubers of Pueraria tuberosa (PT-Mangiferin) and analysed the mechanism of its potent anti-inflammatory effects in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line and in a carrageenan induced air pouch model. PT-Mangiferin was non-toxic to primary cells but showed significant toxicity and apoptotic effect on cancerous cells. It significantly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (COX-2, iNOS and TNF-α) in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Further, it has also reduced the generation of ROS and inhibited LPS induced NF-kB translocation in these cells. Additionally, PT-Mangiferin significantly reduced inflammation in a mouse air pouch model by inhibiting the infiltration of monocytes and neutrophils and reducing the production of cytokines. These effects were mediated via inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome complex and its downstream signalling molecules. Taken together these results suggest that PT-Mangiferin is potent anti-inflammatory compound that reduces inflammation and holds promise in development of herbal based anti-inflammatory therapeutics in future. PMID:28218280

  17. Care of patients with stomas: the pouch change procedure.

    PubMed

    Rust, Julie

    This article discusses basic stoma care in relation to management of the pouch change procedure in a ward-based setting immediately following planned stoma-forming surgery. The article highlights psychological and practical preparation of the patient. It describes the equipment that is needed to change a pouch and examines the rationale and evidence base for the procedure.

  18. Congenital pouch colon: is it really a rare pathology?

    PubMed

    Atabek, Cüneyt; Demirbağ, Suzi; Sürer, Ilhami; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Ongürü, Onder; Calişkan, Bahadir; Oztürk, Haluk

    2007-12-01

    Congenital pouch colon is a condition of a shortened and pouch-like dilated colon and it is usually associated with an anorectal malformation. The pathogenesis and embryology of congenital pouch colon are not well understood, but dietary, environmental factors and familial inheritance may be contributing factors in this pathology. Most of the cases in the literature have been reported from India. This increased regional incidence may be attributed to the lack of awareness of this pathology or its mislabeling rather than regional distribution. Congenital pouch colon is classified into four types based on the length of the abnormal colon. A variable dilatation of the rectum and sigmoid is always present in anorectal malformation. However, there is no clear definition of a limit for the dilatation of the rectum and sigmoid observed in anorectal malformation. Furthermore, many surgeons do not routinely take a biopsy from a dilated rectum or sigmoid during a colostomy procedure in anorectal malformation cases. For these reasons, type IV congenital pouch colon can be easily underdiagnosed. Surgical treatment options in type IV congenital pouch colon include resection of the affected sites of the colon or excisional tapering coloplasty. In the undiagnosed cases, congenital pouch colon results in severe constipation and overflow incontinence. We herein report two additional new cases of type IV congenital pouch colon.

  19. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ostomy pouch and accessories. 876.5900 Section 876.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED..., but excludes ostomy pouches which incorporate arsenic-containing compounds. (b) Classification....

  20. Acute Respiratory Inflammation in Children and Black Carbon in Ambient Air before and during the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Weiwei; Huang, Wei; Hu, Min; Brunekreef, Bert; Zhang, Yuanhang; Liu, Xingang; Cheng, Hong; Gehring, Ulrike; Li, Chengcai; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence for a causative association between black carbon (BC) and health outcomes is limited. Objectives: We estimated associations and exposure–response relationships between acute respiratory inflammation in schoolchildren and concentrations of BC and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in ambient air before and during the air pollution intervention for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Methods: We measured exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) as an acute respiratory inflammation biomarker and hourly mean air pollutant concentrations to estimate BC and PM2.5 exposure. We used 1,581 valid observations of 36 subjects over five visits in 2 years to estimate associations of eNO with BC and PM2.5 according to generalized estimating equations with polynomial distributed-lag models, controlling for body mass index, asthma, temperature, and relative humidity. We also assessed the relative importance of BC and PM2.5 with two-pollutant models. Results: Air pollution concentrations and eNO were clearly lower during the 2008 Olympics. BC and PM2.5 concentrations averaged over 0–24 hr were strongly associated with eNO, which increased by 16.6% [95% confidence interval (CI), 14.1–19.2%] and 18.7% (95% CI, 15.0–22.5%) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in BC (4.0 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (149 μg/m3), respectively. In the two-pollutant model, estimated effects of BC were robust, but associations between PM2.5 and eNO decreased with adjustment for BC. We found that eNO was associated with IQR increases in hourly BC concentrations up to 10 hr after exposure, consistent with effects primarily in the first hours after exposure. Conclusions: Recent exposure to BC was associated with acute respiratory inflammation in schoolchildren in Beijing. Lower air pollution levels during the 2008 Olympics also were associated with reduced eNO. PMID:21642045

  1. Association of air pollution sources and aldehydes with biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary inflammation, and systemic oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Altemose, Brent; Robson, Mark G; Kipen, Howard M; Ohman Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Gong, Jicheng; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guangfa; Rich, David Q; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Junfeng

    2016-07-20

    Using data collected before, during, and after the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing, this study examines associations between biomarkers of blood coagulation (vWF, sCD62P and sCD40L), pulmonary inflammation (EBC pH, EBC nitrite, and eNO), and systemic oxidative stress (urinary 8-OHdG) with sources of air pollution identified utilizing principal component analysis and with concentrations of three aldehydes of health concern. Associations between the biomarkers and the air pollution source types and aldehydes were examined using a linear mixed effects model, regressing through seven lag days and controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, gender, and day of week for the biomarker measurements. The biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation, particularly EBC pH and eNO, were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The biomarkers for blood coagulation, particularly vWF and sCD62p, were most consistently associated with oil combustion. Systemic oxidative stress biomarker (8-OHdG) was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. The associations of the biomarkers were generally not significant or consistent with secondary formation of pollutants and with the aldehydes. The findings support policies to control anthropogenic pollution sources rather than natural soil or road dust from a cardio-respiratory health standpoint.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 20 July 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.38.

  2. Air pollution, airway inflammation and lung function in Mexico City school children

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: The biological mechanisms involved in inflammatory response to air pollution are not clearly understood. OBJECTIVE: In this study we assessed the association of short-term air pollutant exposure with inflammatory markers and lung function. METHODS: We studied a cohort...

  3. Embryo oxygenation in pipefish brood pouches: novel insights.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Ines Braga; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-06-01

    The pipefish brood pouch presents a unique mode of parental care that enables males to protect, osmoregulate, nourish and oxygenate the developing young. Using a very fine O2 probe, we assessed the extent to which males of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) oxygenate the developing embryos and are able to maintain pouch fluid O2 levels when brooding in normoxia (100% O2 saturation) and hypoxia (40% O2 saturation) for 24 days. In both treatments, pouch fluid O2 saturation levels were lower compared with the surrounding water and decreased throughout the brooding period, reflecting greater offspring demand for O2 during development and/or decreasing paternal ability to provide O2 to the embryos. Male condition (hepatosomatic index) was negatively affected by hypoxia. Larger males had higher pouch fluid O2 saturation levels compared with smaller males, and levels were higher in the bottom section of the pouch compared with other sections. Embryo size was positively correlated with O2 availability, irrespective of their position in the pouch. Two important conclusions can be drawn from our findings. First, our results highlight a potential limitation to brooding within the pouch and dismiss the notion of closed brood pouches as well-oxygenated structures promoting the evolution of larger eggs in syngnathids. Second, we provide direct evidence that paternal care improves with male size in this species. This finding offers an explanation for the documented strong female preference for larger partners because, in terms of oxygenation, the brood pouch can restrict embryo growth.

  4. A convex urostomy pouch with adhesive border: a patient survey.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Jacqueline; Nichols, Thom; Menier, Melissa

    Patients previously using a standard-wear convex skin barrier urostomy pouch were invited by letter from a Dispensing Appliance Contractor to evaluate a similar pouching system, but with the addition of an extended-wear convex barrier and adhesive border. A total of 47 patients agreed to take part. Patients were asked to try three pouches and complete one evaluation form. Study participants found the addition of an extended-wear convex barrier and adhesive border, was easy to use, provided them with security and the potential for longer wear time.

  5. COPPER-DEPENDENT INFLAMMATION AND NUCLEAR FACTOR-KB ACTIVATION BY PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical determinants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in ...

  6. Spores of Aspergillus versicolor isolated from indoor air of a moisture-damaged building provoke acute inflammation in mouse lungs.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Juha; Komulainen, Hannu; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Nevalainen, Aino; Pelkonen, Jukka; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2002-12-01

    Microbial growth in moisture-damaged buildings has been associated with respiratory health effects, and the spores of the mycotoxin producing fungus Aspergillus versicolor are frequently present in the indoor air. To characterize the potential of these spores to cause harmful respiratory effects, mice were exposed via intratracheal instillation to a single dose of the spores of A. versicolor (1 x 10(5), 1 x 10(6), 5 x 10(6), 1 x 10(7), or 1 x 10(8) spores), isolated from the indoor air of a moisture-damaged building. Inflammation and toxicity in lungs were evaluated 24 h later by assessment of biochemical markers and histopathology. The time course of the effects was investigated with the dose of 5 x 10(6) spores for up to 28 days. The exposure to the spores increased transiently proinflammatory cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor [TNF] alpha and interleukin [IL]-6) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The cytokine responses were dose and time dependent. The highest cytokine concentrations were measured at 6 h after the dose, and they returned to the control level by 3 days. Moreover, the spores of A. versicolor recruited inflammatory cells into airways: Neutrophils peaked transiently at 24 h, macrophages at 3 days, and lymphocytes at 7 days after the dosing. The inflammatory cell response did not completely disappear during the subsequent 28 days, though no histopathological changes were seen at that time point. The spores did not induce expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in lavaged cells. Only the highest spore dose (1 x 10(8)) markedly increased serum IL-6, increased vascular leakage, and caused cytotoxicity (i.e., increased levels of albumin, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and hemoglobin in BALF) in the airways. In summary, the spores of A. versicolor caused acute inflammation in mouse lungs. This indicates that they have potential to provoke adverse health effects in the occupants of moisture-damaged buildings.

  7. Occurrence and structure of epipharyngeal pouches in bears (Ursidae)

    PubMed Central

    WEISSENGRUBER, G. E.; FORSTENPOINTNER, G.; KÜBBER-HEISS, A.; RIEDELBERGER, K.; SCHWAMMER, H.; GANZBERGER, K.

    2001-01-01

    The infrequent mention of epipharyngeal pouches occurring in some species of bears indicates the scarcity of morphological and functional knowledge about these structures. In order to provide precise morphological data on the structure of these remarkable formations and to verify their taxonomic utility, the pharyngeal regions of 1 spectacled bear and 3 brown bears were examined. All these individuals possessed epipharyngeal pouches, which are tubular, blind-ending outpouchings of the caudodorsal pharyngeal wall equipped with respiratory epithelium and a thick layer of elastic fibres. While the spectacled bear and Ursus arctos syriacus possessed a single pouch on the caudodorsal wall of the nasopharynx, in Ursus arctos and Ursus arctos beringianus 2 unequally sized pouches were present. Two additional sacs of smaller size, representing outpouchings of the lateral pharyngeal wall, occurred in the spectacled bear. These findings prove epipharyngeal pouches to be constant and unique morphological features of the family Ursidae, the anatomical features suggesting involvement in the respiratory system most probably in important aspects of ursid phonation. This is the first description of epipharyngeal pouches in the spectacled bear. PMID:11322723

  8. CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR PARTICLES INDUCE PULMONARY INFLAMMATION IN HEALTHY HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    We tested the hypothesis that exposure of healthy volunteers to concentrated ambient particles (CAPS) is associated with an influx of inflammatory cells into the lower respiratory tract. Thirty-eight volunteers were exposed to either filtered air or particles concentrated fro...

  9. Air pollution and markers of coagulation, inflammation and endothelial function: Associations and epigene-environment interactions in an elderly cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bind, Marie-Abele; Baccarelli, Andrea; Zanobetti, Antonella; Tarantini, Letizia; Suh, Helen; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previous studies suggest that air pollution is related to thrombosis, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Mechanisms and sources of susceptibility are still unclear. One possibility is that these associations can be modified by DNA methylation states. METHODS We conducted a cohort study with repeated measurements of fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in 704 elderly men participating in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study (2000-2009). We investigated short- and intermediate-term air pollution effects on these blood markers, and epigene-environment interactions by DNA methylation of Alu, LINE-1, tissue factor (F3), Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR-2), and ICAM-1. RESULTS We found effects of particle number, black carbon, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) on fibrinogen. Ozone was a significant predictor of C-reactive protein and ICAM-1. Particle number, black carbon, NO2, CO, PM2.5, and sulfates were associated with ICAM-1and VCAM-1. An interquartile range increase in 24-hour exposure for NO2; was associated with a 1.7% (95% confidence interval = 0.2% to 3.3%) increase in fibrinogen for ozone a 10.8% (2.2% to 20.0%) increase in C-reactive protein for particle number, a 5.9% (3.6% to 8.3%) increase in ICAM-1; and for PM2.5 a 3.7% (1.7% to 5.8%) increase in VCAM-1. The air pollution effect was stronger among subjects having higher Alu, lower LINE-1, tissue factor, or TLR-2 methylation status. CONCLUSION We observed associations of traffic-related pollutants on fibrinogen, and both traffic and secondary particles on C-reactive protein, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. There was effect modification by DNA methylation status, indicating that epigenetic states can convey susceptibility to air pollution. PMID:22237295

  10. Effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory tract complaints and airway inflammation in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Altuğ, Hicran; Gaga, Eftade O; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Van Doorn, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution were studied in 605 school children 9 to 13 years in Eskişehir, Turkey. Each child performed a fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurement and a lung function test (LFT). Self-reported respiratory tract complaints (having cold, complaints of throat, runny nose and shortness of breath/wheezing) in the last 7 days and on the day of testing were also recorded. As acute health outcomes were investigated, weekly average ambient concentrations of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were determined by passive sampling in the school playgrounds simultaneously with the health survey. Effects of air pollution on respiratory tract complaints and exhaled NO/lung function were estimated by multivariate logistic regression and multivariate linear mixed effects models, respectively. Upper respiratory tract complaints were significantly (p<0.05) associated with weekly average O3 concentrations during the health survey (adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 1.21 and 1.28 for a 10 μgm(-3) increment for having cold and a runny nose on day of testing, respectively). FENO levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased in children with various upper respiratory tract complaints (ratio in FENO varied between 1.16 and 1.40). No significant change in FENO levels was detected in association with any of the measured pollutants (p ≥ 0.05). Lung function was not associated with upper respiratory tract complaints and FENO levels. Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) levels were negatively associated with weekly average O3 levels for children without upper respiratory tract complaints. In summary, elevated levels of air pollutants increased respiratory tract complaints in children.

  11. Association of Systemic Inflammation with Marked Changes in Particulate Air Pollution in Beijing in 2008

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohua; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao; Lv, Peng; Zhong, Mianhua; Liu, Cuiqing; Wang, Aixia; Tzan, Kevin; Jiang, Silis Y.; Lippmann, Morton; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Qu, Qingshan; Chen, Lung-Chi; Sun, Qinghua

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have linked ambient fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) air pollution to increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases in the general population, but the biologic mechanisms of these associations are yet to be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between daily variations in exposure to PM2.5 and inflammatory responses in mice during and for 2 months after the Beijing Olympic Games. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to Beijing PM2.5 or filtered air (FA) in 2008 during the 2 months of Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games, and for 2 months after the end of the Games. During the Games, circulating monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and interleukin 6 were increased significantly in the PM2.5 exposure group, when compared with the FA control group, although there were no significant inter-group differences in tumor necrosis factor α or interferon γ, or in macrophages, neutrophils or lymphocytes in the spleen or thymus between these 2 groups. However, macrophages were significantly increased in the lung and visceral fat with increasing PM2.5. After the Olympic Games, there were no significant PM2.5-associated differences for macrophages, neutrophils or lymphocytes in the thymus, but macrophages were significantly elevated in the lung, spleen, subcutaneous and visceral fat with increasing PM2.5, and the numbers of macrophages were even higher after than those during the Games. Moreover, the number of neutrophils was markedly higher in the spleen for the PM2.5-exposed- than the FA-group. These data suggest that short-term increases in exposure to ambient PM2.5 leads to increased systemic inflammatory responses, primarily macrophages and neutrophils in the lung, spleen, and visceral adipose tissue. Short-term air quality improvements were significantly associated with reduced overall inflammatory responses. PMID:22617750

  12. Association Between Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution and Biomarkers Related to Insulin Resistance, Subclinical Inflammation, and Adipokines.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Kathrin; Popp, Anita; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Hampel, Regina; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Herder, Christian; Roden, Michael; Koenig, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Christa; Peters, Annette

    2016-11-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is present long before the onset of type 2 diabetes and results not only from inherited and lifestyle factors but also likely from environmental conditions. We investigated the association between modeled long-term exposure to air pollution at residence and biomarkers related to IR, subclinical inflammation, and adipokines. Data were based on 2,944 participants of the KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region Augsburg) F4 study conducted in southern Germany (2006-2008). We analyzed associations between individual air pollution concentration estimated by land use regression and HOMA-IR, glucose, insulin, HbA1c, leptin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels from fasting samples using multivariable linear regression models. Effect estimates were calculated for the whole study population and subgroups of individuals who did not have diabetes, had prediabetes, or had diabetes. Among all participants, a 7.9 μg/m(3) increment in particulate matter of <10 μm was associated with higher HOMA-IR (15.6% [95% CI 4.0; 28.6]) and insulin (14.5% [3.6; 26.5]). Nitrogen dioxide was associated with HOMA-IR, glucose, insulin, and leptin. Effect estimates for individuals with prediabetes were much larger and highly statistically significant, whereas individuals who did not have diabetes or had diabetes showed rather weak associations. No association was seen for HbA1c level. Our results suggested an association between long-term exposure to air pollution and IR in the general population was attributable mainly to individuals with diabetes.

  13. Potential role of mast cells in hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aromando, Romina F; Pérez, Miguel A; Heber, Elisa M; Trivillin, Verónica A; Tomasi, Víctor H; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, María E

    2008-11-01

    During the process of activation, mast cells release products stored in their granules. Tryptase, a protease released from mast cell granules after activation, induces tumor cell proliferation through the activation of PAR-2 (protease activated receptor 2) on the plasma membrane of carcinoma cells. Chemical cancerization (DMBA) of the hamster cheek pouch is the most accepted model of oral cancer. However, there are no reports on the activation of mast cells during experimental carcinogenesis or on the correlation between mast cell activation and cell proliferation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential effect of mast cells on the proliferation of epithelial cells at different times during the cancerization process. Paraffin serial sections of cancerized, tumor-bearing pouches were stained with Alcian Blue-Safranin to identify the different degrees of mast cell activation. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify BrdU-positive cells to study tumor cell proliferation. Mast cells were counted and grouped into two categories: inactive mast cells AB-S+++ (red) and active mast cells AB+++S- (blue). Mast cell counts were performed in tumor stroma, base of the tumor (connective tissue immediately below the exophytic tumor), connective and muscle tissue underlying the cancerized epithelium (pouch wall) and adventitious tissue underlying the pouch wall. There was a significant increase in the number of mast cells at the base of tumors (p<0.001) compared to the number of mast cells in the wall of the pouch and in tumor stroma. In normal non-cancerized pouches, inactive mast cells were prevalent both in the wall (AB:S=1:2.15; p<0.001) and in the adventitious tissue (AB:S=1:1.6; p<0.004) of the hamster cheek pouch. At most of the experimental times examined, the ratio of active/inactive mast cells (AB/S) in the wall approximated unity and even reverted. The ratio of mast cells was AB:S 1:1.05 at the base of the tumor and 1:0.24 in tumor stroma (p<0

  14. Left Atrial Septal Pouch in Cryptogenic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jonathan M.; Lombardo, Dawn M.; Barseghian, Ailin; Dhoot, Jashdeep; Hundal, Harkawal S.; Salcedo, Jonathan; Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Wong, Nathan D.; Fisher, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background: The left atrial septal pouch (LASP), an anatomic variant of the interatrial septum, has uncertain clinical significance. We examined the association between LASP and ischemic stroke subtypes in patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Methods: We determined the prevalence of LASP among consecutive patients who underwent TEE at our institution. Patients identified with ischemic strokes were further evaluated for stroke subtype using standard and modified criteria from the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST). We compared the prevalence of LASP in ischemic stroke, cryptogenic stroke, and non-stroke patients using prevalence ratios (PR). Results: The mean age of all 212 patients (including stroke and non-stroke patients) was 57 years. The overall prevalence of LASP was 17% (n = 35). Of the 75 patients who were worked-up for stroke at our institution during study period, we classified 31 as cryptogenic using standard TOAST criteria. The prevalence of LASP among cryptogenic stroke patients (using standard and modified TOAST criteria) was increased compared to the prevalence among other ischemic stroke patients (26 vs. 9%, p = 0.06; PR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1–3.1, and 30 vs. 10%, p = 0.04; PR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2–4.1, respectively). Conclusion: In this population of relatively young patients, prevalence of LASP was increased in cryptogenic stroke compared to stroke patients of other subtypes. These findings suggest LASP is associated with cryptogenic stroke, which should be verified by future large-scale studies. PMID:25852636

  15. Household air pollution causes dose-dependent inflammation and altered phagocytosis in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rylance, Jamie; Fullerton, Duncan G; Scriven, James; Aljurayyan, Abdullah N; Mzinza, David; Barrett, Steve; Wright, Adam K A; Wootton, Daniel G; Glennie, Sarah J; Baple, Katy; Knott, Amy; Mortimer, Kevin; Russell, David G; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Stephen B

    2015-05-01

    Three billion people are exposed to household air pollution from biomass fuel use. Exposure is associated with higher incidence of pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Understanding mechanisms underlying these defects would improve preventive strategies. We used human alveolar macrophages obtained from healthy Malawian adults exposed naturally to household air pollution and compared them with human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed in vitro to respirable-sized particulates. Cellular inflammatory response was assessed by IL-6 and IL-8 production in response to particulate challenge; phagosomal function was tested by uptake and oxidation of fluorescence-labeled beads; ingestion and killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured by microscopy and quantitative culture. Particulate ingestion was quantified by digital image analysis. We were able to reproduce the carbon loading of naturally exposed alveolar macrophages by in vitro exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages. Fine carbon black induced IL-8 release from monocyte-derived and alveolar macrophages (P < 0.05) with similar magnitude responses (log10 increases of 0.93 [SEM = 0.2] versus 0.74 [SEM = 0.19], respectively). Phagocytosis of pneumococci and mycobacteria was impaired with higher particulate loading. High particulate loading corresponded with a lower oxidative burst capacity (P = 0.0015). There was no overall effect on killing of M. tuberculosis. Alveolar macrophage function is altered by particulate loading. Our macrophage model is comparable morphologically to the in vivo uptake of particulates. Wood smoke-exposed cells demonstrate reduced phagocytosis, but unaffected mycobacterial killing, suggesting defects related to chronic wood smoke inhalation limited to specific innate immune functions.

  16. Household Air Pollution Causes Dose-Dependent Inflammation and Altered Phagocytosis in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Duncan G.; Scriven, James; Aljurayyan, Abdullah N.; Mzinza, David; Barrett, Steve; Wright, Adam K. A.; Wootton, Daniel G.; Glennie, Sarah J.; Baple, Katy; Knott, Amy; Mortimer, Kevin; Russell, David G.; Heyderman, Robert S.; Gordon, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Three billion people are exposed to household air pollution from biomass fuel use. Exposure is associated with higher incidence of pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Understanding mechanisms underlying these defects would improve preventive strategies. We used human alveolar macrophages obtained from healthy Malawian adults exposed naturally to household air pollution and compared them with human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed in vitro to respirable-sized particulates. Cellular inflammatory response was assessed by IL-6 and IL-8 production in response to particulate challenge; phagosomal function was tested by uptake and oxidation of fluorescence-labeled beads; ingestion and killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured by microscopy and quantitative culture. Particulate ingestion was quantified by digital image analysis. We were able to reproduce the carbon loading of naturally exposed alveolar macrophages by in vitro exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages. Fine carbon black induced IL-8 release from monocyte-derived and alveolar macrophages (P < 0.05) with similar magnitude responses (log10 increases of 0.93 [SEM = 0.2] versus 0.74 [SEM = 0.19], respectively). Phagocytosis of pneumococci and mycobacteria was impaired with higher particulate loading. High particulate loading corresponded with a lower oxidative burst capacity (P = 0.0015). There was no overall effect on killing of M. tuberculosis. Alveolar macrophage function is altered by particulate loading. Our macrophage model is comparable morphologically to the in vivo uptake of particulates. Wood smoke–exposed cells demonstrate reduced phagocytosis, but unaffected mycobacterial killing, suggesting defects related to chronic wood smoke inhalation limited to specific innate immune functions. PMID:25254931

  17. Manufacturability of Heat and Serve Ration in Institutional Pouch System Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    If a four-seal tester (designed to pressurize filled pouches by use of a hypodermic needle through the pouch wall) is used, all four seals can be...COMBAT RATION NETWORK FOR TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION Manufacturability of Heat and Serve Ration in Institutional Pouch “System Analysis ...5 ,QFOXGHDUHDFRGH August 2006 Final May 2005 - September 2006 Manufacturability of Heat and Serve Ration in Institutional Pouch System Analysis

  18. Optimization of process conditions for Rohu fish in curry medium in retortable pouches using instrumental and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Dhar, Bahni; Roy, Deepayan; Saha, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    'Kalia', a popular preparation of Rohu fish, packed in four-layered laminated retort pouch was processed in a steam/air mixture over-pressure retort at 121.1 °C to three different F 0 values of 7, 8 and 9 min. Time-temperature data were collected during heat processing using an Ellab Sterilization Monitoring System. Texture profile such as hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness decreased as the F 0 value increased. The L* values decreased whereas a* and b* values increased with increasing F 0 value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, colour and texture profile analysis, F 0 value of 8 min and cook value of 66 min, with a total process time of 41.7 min at 121.1 °C was found satisfactory for the preparation of Rohu fish curry (Kalia) in retort pouches.

  19. Kakkalide and its metabolite irisolidone ameliorate carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice by inhibiting NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Min, Sung-Won; Park, Young-Jun; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-10-01

    The anti-inflammatory activities of kakkalide, a major constituent of the flower of Pueraria thunbergiana, and irisolidone, a metabolite of kakkalide produced by intestinal microflora, against carrageenan-induced inflammation in air pouches on the backs of mice and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages were investigated. Kakkalide and irisolidone down-regulated the gene expression of cytokines [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)] and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, and inflammatory mediators, NO and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. These agents also inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Orally administered kakkalide and irisolidone significantly reduced carrageenan-induced inflammatory markers, leukocyte number, and protein amount in the exudates of the air pouch. These constituents also inhibited PGE(2) production and COX-2 inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression. These agents also inhibited NF-κB activation. The anti-inflammatory effects of irisolidone were more potent than those of kakkalide. Based on these findings, kakkalide and irisolidone may inhibit inflammatory reactions via NF-κB pathway, and irisolidone, a metabolite of kakkalide, may more potently inhibit these inflammatory reactions.

  20. Using Giant African Pouched Rats ("Cricetomys Gambianus") to Detect Landmines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Within the past decade, giant pouched rats have been used successfully to detect landmines. This manuscript summarizes how these rats are trained and used operationally. The information provided is intended to be of practical value toward strengthening best practices in using "Cricetomys" for humanitarian purposes while simultaneously…

  1. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  2. Pouch brooding marsupial frogs transfer nutrients to developing embryos.

    PubMed

    Warne, Robin W; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    Marsupial frogs have a unique reproductive mode in which females carry eggs enclosed in a sealed dorsal brood pouch. While most anurans are considered to be oviparous with lecithotrophic eggs, the extensively vascularized membrane of the brood pouch in marsupial frogs suggests potential opportunities for nutrient transfer. We tested for matrotrophy in the live-bearing Gastrotheca excubitor (Hemiphractidae), through feeding insects labelled with a (13)C-fatty acid and a (15)N-amino acid to brooding marsupial frogs. We observed significant increases of δ(13)C and δ(15)N in both maternal pouch tissues and embryos, suggesting nutrient transfer. Embryo dry mass also increased with developmental stage, providing further direct evidence for matrotrophy. These results suggest that in addition to gas exchange, the vascularized brood pouch membrane of G. excubitor also enables maternal nutrient transfer. This finding revealed a suspected but untested trait in the evolution of parental care in marsupial frogs, in contrast to previous work on Gastrotheca species that release tadpoles, and suggests greater complexity in reproductive and provisioning modes than previously thought.

  3. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  5. Common Inflammatory Disorders and Neoplasia of the Ileal Pouch: A Review of Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalo, David Hernandez; Collinsworth, Amy L.; Liu, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the standard restorative procedure after proctocolectomy in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who require colectomy. The ileal pouch is susceptible to a variety of insults including mechanical injury, ischemia, fecal stasis, and infectious agents. In addition, the development of recurrent and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease and neoplasia may occur in the ileal pouch. Although clinical, endoscopic, and radiographic examination can diagnose many ileal pouch diseases, histologic examination plays an essential role in diagnosis and management, particularly in cases with antibiotic refractory chronic pouchitis and pouch neoplasia. PMID:27785322

  6. Markers of respiratory inflammation in horses in relation to seasonal changes in air quality in a conventional racing stable.

    PubMed

    Riihimäki, Miia; Raine, Amanda; Elfman, Lena; Pringle, John

    2008-10-01

    Airborne factors in a conventionally managed racing stable and markers of pulmonary inflammation in the stabled horses were investigated on 3 occasions at 6-month intervals, including 2 winter periods and the intervening summer period. The stable measurements included inside and outside ambient temperature and relative humidity, levels of total and respirable dust, endotoxin, and 1,3-beta-glucan. Horses (n = 12) were examined in detail clinically as well as by endoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of BAL-cells for IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA. Indoor measurements showed low dust levels irrespective of season. Inhalable dust, as well as 1,3-beta-glucan, were higher during the winter stabling period, whereas endotoxin levels were higher during summer. Complete data from all sampling occasions to be used for further evaluation was obtained for only 8 of the horses. There was a trend for elevation of BAL neutrophils in the horses during winter stabling that coincided with a 3.7-fold increased expression of IL-6 mRNA in BAL cells (P = 0.014). Compared to summer sampling, IL-10 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in only 1 of the winter sampling occasions, implicating influence on immune regulation by factor/s apart from seasonal differences. Our findings suggest up-regulation of innate immunity in the airways of stabled horses; in particular involving IL-6 in association with mild elevations in respirable dust, 1,3-beta-glucan, and/or cold ambient air. However, given that this study was observational, other unmeasured environmental factors associated with winter stabling need to be considered.

  7. Dysphagia caused by focal guttural pouch mycosis: mononeuropathy of the pharyngeal ramus of the vagal nerve in a 20-year-old pony mare

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A 20-year-old pony mare was presented to the equine hospital with a ten-day history of dysphagia, regurgitation and coughing. An obstruction of the oesophagus was excluded via endoscopy, but the proximal oesophagus appeared to be distended and circular contractions were missing. A guttural pouch endoscopy revealed a single, black-mottled plaque on the pharyngeal ramus of the vagus nerve in the left guttural pouch, causing a local swelling of this nerve. The pharyngeal ramus seemed to be atrophic distal to the lesion. A biopsy was taken from the lesion and histopathological findings proved the reasonable suspicion of a guttural pouch mycosis with a high degree of purulent-necrotic inflammation and invasion of fungal hyphae. There were no signs of neoplasia, such as melanoma. Daily guttural pouch irrigations with a clotrimazole emulsion (20 g Canesten® Gyn4 solved in 500 ml water), led to a good recovery of the mucosa above the nerve. Periodic endoscopic examination of the left guttural pouch showed that local thickening and distal atrophy of this pharyngeal ramus did not improve, neither did the clinical symptoms. Due to progressive weight loss, acute respiratory distress and aspiration pneumonia, the 20-year-old pony mare unfortunately had to be euthanized three weeks after discharge. This case report emphasizes the enormous importance of a single nerve for the realization of the swallowing process. The one-sided loss of function of the pharyngeal branch of the vagal nerve cannot be compensated neither by the remaining ipsilateral nerves nor by the contralateral normal functioning glossopharyngeal and vagal nerves and thus inevitably leads to severe dysphagia. PMID:23845027

  8. MicroRNAs Expression in the Ileal Pouch of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis Is Robustly Up-Regulated and Correlates with Disease Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sherman Horev, Hadas; Elad, Hofit; Baram, Liran; Issakov, Ofer; Tulchinsky, Hagit; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Shomron, Noam; Dotan, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Background Gene expression alterations are associated with disease behavior in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). microRNAs (miRNAs) are dominant in the regulation of gene expression, and may affect IBD phenotype. Our aim was to assess mucosal miRNA expression in IBD and the correlation with intestinal inflammation. Methods We performed a large-scale analysis of ileal mucosal miRNA. Biopsies were retrieved from patients with ileal Crohn’s disease (CD), unoperated ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, UC patients after pouch surgery, and normal controls (NC). Pouch UC patients were classified as having a normal pouch (NP), chronic pouchitis (CP), and Crohn’s-like disease of the pouch (CLDP). miRNA expression was analyzed by parallel massive (next-generation) sequencing (NGS). Bioinformatics tools were applied for clustering and the detection of potential targets. Results Sixty-one subjects were recruited. The ileum of unoperated UC patients was comparable with NC. There were significant miRNA expression alterations (fold change ≥2, corrected P ≤.05) in NP (n = 6), CP (n = 40) and CLDP (n = 139), but only two expression alterations were noted in CD. More than 90% of the altered miRNAs were up-regulated, and many were predicted to be associated with significantly decreased transcripts. miRNAs alterations were generally clustered with disease phenotypes. Conclusions Ileal inflammation causes increased miRNA expression. miRNA alterations correlate with IBD phenotype, apparently by controlling the down-regulation of specific mRNAs. PMID:27536783

  9. [Food protective property of new liquid food container PID (Pouch in Dispenser) for microbes].

    PubMed

    Tominari, Keita; Tanaka, Asato; Shinoda, Yuma; Futase, Katsunori; Nei, Daisuke; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    We examined the content protection characteristics of the PID (Pouch in Dispenser) when it was used in the usual manner and when it was polluted artificially. When the PID was used in the usual manner, the nozzle was opened, and experiments were carried out with and without air-blowing. The invasion of bacteria into the PID was not detected. Also, no bacteria were detected in the material poured from the nozzle of the PID. When 3 strains of bacteria suspensions were intentionally smeared on the nozzle of the PID, invasion of bacteria was observed. When the PID was wiped with a dirty cloth, no invasion of bacteria into the PID was detected. It may be necessary to label the PID with the instruction that the nozzle should not be touched. The effected of changes in the water activity and pH, and the preservatives used, may also need to be considered, depending on the contents in the PID.

  10. Neutron Imaging of Lithium Concentration in Battery Pouch Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    battery pouch cell is constructed based on the material densities and dimensions. This model is aug- mented with simulation of the neutron...the electrolyte solution limit the performance and longevity of the battery [2], [3]. The electrode material can be modeled as a distribution of...based and scalable battery models of the spatiotemporal varia- tions in lithium concentration throughout the electrode and electrolyte . Although

  11. A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G.; Hart, Robert W.; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H.

    2011-01-01

    A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer’s design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum. PMID:22125359

  12. The Kock pouch reconsidered: an alternative surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Alison; Williams, Julia; Woodhouse, Fran

    The psychological impact stoma surgery can have on an individual is well documented within the literature (White and Hunt, 1997; Borwell, 2009; Williams, 2005; Brown, 2005). For many years, surgeons have explored and developed innovations in surgical techniques, in particular restorative procedures with a view of preventing permanent stoma formation; ileal anal pouch (IAP) now being the surgical procedure of choice for treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, high morbidity rates are associated with pouch longevity (Castillo et al 2005; Nessar and Wu, 2012) and once removed can lead to a high-output ileostomy with risks of electrolyte imbalance and malabsorption. This then creates the dilemma of whether the Kock pouch (KP) should be offered as a surgical option. This article offers a historical perspective of the KP and its place in the surgical management of UC and FAP. This article also presents results from a recent audit funded by the Ileostomy Association (IA), highlighting how patients manage their KP and the importance of maintaining bowel control and being free of an incontinent stoma as a means of coming to terms with their condition.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effect of selenium nanoparticles on the inflammation induced in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    El-Ghazaly, M A; Fadel, N; Rashed, E; El-Batal, A; Kenawy, S A

    2017-02-01

    Selenium (Se) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties, but its bioavailability and toxicity are considerable limiting factors. The present study aimed to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of selenium nanoparticles (Nano-Se) on inflammation induced in irradiated rats. Paw volume and nociceptive threshold were measured in carrageenan-induced paw edema and hyperalgesia model. Leukocytic count, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBAR), and total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) were estimated in the exudate collected from 6 day old air pouch model. Irradiated rats were exposed to 6 Gy gamma (γ)-irradiation. Nano-Se were administered orally in a dose of 2.55 mg/kg once before carrageenan injection in the first model and twice in the second model. The paw volume but not the nociceptive response produced by carrageenan in irradiated rats was higher than that induced in non-irradiated rats. Nano-Se were effective in reducing the paw volume in non-irradiated and irradiated rats but it did not alter the nociceptive threshold. The inflammation induced in irradiated rats increased all the estimated parameters in the exudate whereas; Nano-Se decreased their elevation in non-irradiated and irradiated rats. Nano-Se possess a potential anti-inflammatory activity on inflammation induced in irradiated rats.

  14. Plasmodium berghei-Hamster Cheek Pouch Model for the Study of Severe Malaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-21

    rCFILE COY ] Plasmodium berghei-llansler Cheek Pouch Model for the study of Severe Malaria Lfl C) David R. Franz, Wallace B. Baze, G. David Young...PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Plasmodium bergehei-Hamster Cheek Pouch Model...CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necesry and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Hamster cheek pouch, Plasmodium berghei

  15. A review of complementary mechanisms which protect the developing marsupial pouch young.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M J; Hinds, L A; Deane, E M; Deakin, J E

    2012-06-01

    Marsupials are born without a functioning adaptive immune system, into a non-sterile environment where they continue to develop. This review examines the extent of exposure of pouch young to microorganisms and describes the protective mechanisms that are complementary to adaptive immunity in the developing young. Complementary protective mechanisms include the role of the innate immune system and maternal protection strategies, such as immune compounds in milk, prenatal transfer of immunoglobulins, antimicrobial compounds secreted in the pouch, and chemical or mechanical cleaning of the pouch and pouch young.

  16. Chemical constituents of ambient particulate air pollution and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and homocysteine in healthy adults: A prospective panel study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ambient air pollution has been associated with activation of systemic inflammation and hypercoagulability and increased plasma homocysteine, but the chemical constituents behind the association are not well understood. We examined the relations of various chemical constituents of fine particles (PM2.5) and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and homocysteine in the context of traffic-related air pollution. Methods A panel of 40 healthy college students underwent biweekly blood collection for 12 times before and after their relocation from a suburban campus to an urban campus with changing air pollution contents in Beijing. Blood samples were measured for circulatory biomarkers of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), von Willebrand factor (vWF), soluble platelet selectin (sP-selectin), and total homocysteine (tHcy). Various air pollutants were measured in a central air-monitoring station in each campus and 32 PM2.5 chemical constituents were determined in the laboratory. We used three different mixed-effects models (single-constituent model, constituent-PM2.5 joint model and constituent residual model) controlling for potential confounders to estimate the effects of PM2.5 chemical constituents on circulatory biomarkers. Results We found consistent positive associations between the following biomarkers and PM2.5 chemical constituents across different models: TNF-α with secondary organic carbon, chloride, zinc, molybdenum and stannum; fibrinogen with magnesium, iron, titanium, cobalt and cadmium; PAI-1 with titanium, cobalt and manganese; t-PA with cadmium and selenium; vWF with aluminum. We also found consistent inverse associations of vWF with nitrate, chloride and sodium, and sP-selectin with manganese. Two positive associations of zinc with TNF-α and of cobalt with fibrinogen, and two inverse

  17. Exposure to Severe Urban Air Pollution Influences Cognitive Outcomes, Brain Volume and Systemic Inflammation in Clinically Healthy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E.; Bryant, Christopher; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes,…

  18. Short-term Effects of Air Temperature on Blood Markers of Coagulation and Inflammation in Potentially Susceptible Individuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives: Changes in air temperature are associated with an increase in cardiovascular events, but the role of pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory blood markers is still poorly understood. We investigated the association between air temperature and fibrinogen, plasminogen act...

  19. Safety and Long-Term Performance of Lithium-ion Pouch Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have the highest energy density of the batteries available in the commercial market today. Although most lithium-ion cell designs use a metal can design, this has changed significantly in recent years. Cell designs are offered in the pouch format as they offer better volumetric and gravimetric energy densities and in some cases, higher tolerance to abuse or off-nominal conditions. In the past decade, several state-of-the-art lithium-ion pouch cell designs have been tested. The pouch cell designs have become more robust in the past two years but there are still a few issues that need to be looked into for optimization. The pouch cells seem to have a tendency to swell when left in storage under ambient conditions. The cells also swell under overvoltage and undervoltage conditions. A significant issue that has been observed is the swelling of the cells under a vacuum condition which could lead to deformation of the cell pouch after this exposure. This last factor would be very critical in the use of these cell designs for space applications as vacuum exposure is used to check for cell and battery leaks before it is flown into space. In rare cases, corrosion of the aluminum layer of the pouches has been observed in stored cells. Pouch material analysis has been carried out in an effort to understand the strength of the pouches and determine if this is a factor in the corrosion as well as unsafe condition of the cells as deformation of the inner layers of the pouch could occur when the cells swell under the various conditions described above. Pouch materials are typically aluminized plastic, made up of a layer of Al sandwiched between one or more layers of polymeric material. Deformations or cell manufacturing processes could lead to a compromise of the inner polymeric layer/s of the pouch leading to the corrosion of the Al layer in the aluminized pouch material. The safety of the pouch cell designs has been determined for cells from various

  20. Parafilm-M®, An Available Cost-Effective Alternative for Immuno-blot Pouches.

    PubMed

    Quadri, Syed M S

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available standard immuno-blot pouches do play an efficient role in antibody incubation in performing an immuno-blot, but are not readily available in the laboratory and have to be specifically ordered. We have developed an equally efficient technique to make an immune-blot more cost-effective with more conservation of antibodies by using a common and readily available laboratory product Parafilm-M(®). Parafilm-M(®) which serves as a sealant for various items of laboratory equipment can be used for antibody incubation. Manually made Parafilm-M(®) pouch has a clear advantage over standard immuno-blot pouches in terms of availability, cost-effectiveness, and consumption of antibodies that ultimately reduces the cost of an immuno-blot. We have performed a series of experiments to check the efficacy of both the techniques. Samples with equal amount of protein were analyzed on separate SDS PAGE gels. The proteins were transferred electrophoretically to the nitrocellulose membrane using Trans-Blot(®) Turbo™ Mini Nitrocellulose Transfer Pack. Antibody incubation was done using standard immuno-blot pouch, standard container and Parafilm-M(®) sealed pouch. The expression of protein was determined and the results of immuno-blots were compared. We found that antibodies are binding the membrane in Parafilm-M(®) pouches as efficiently as in container method or in standard immuno-blot pouches. By restricting the membrane, the surface area of the manually made Parafilm-M(®) pouch can be reduced, less diluent is required to cover the membrane as a result less antibodies are consumed. We also calculated that each immuno-blot pouch cost around $0.1906, whereas the cost for Parafilm-M(®) pouch is 0.0695 which is almost one-third the price of an immuno-blot pouch. Thus, Parafilm-M(®) method distinctly provides a cost-effective solution for antibody incubation.

  1. Measurement of inflammation and oxidative stress following drastic changes in air pollution during the Beijing Olympics: a panel study approach.

    PubMed

    Kipen, Howard; Rich, David; Huang, Wei; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Guangfa; Hu, Min; Lu, Shou-en; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuedan; Zhang, Jim Junfeng

    2010-08-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality in epidemiology studies. Frequently, oxidative and nitrosative stress are hypothesized to mediate these pollution effects, however precise mechanisms remain unclear. This paper describes the methodology for a major panel study to examine air pollution effects on these and other mechanistic pathways. The study took place during the drastic air pollution changes accompanying the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, China. After a general description of air pollution health effects, we provide a discussion of panel studies and describe the unique features of this study that make it likely to provide compelling results. This study should lead to a clearer and more precise definition of the role of oxidative and nitrosative stress, as well as other mechanisms, in determining acute morbidity and mortality from air pollution exposure.

  2. Measurement of inflammation and oxidative stress following drastic changes in air pollution during the Beijing Olympics: a panel study approach

    PubMed Central

    Kipen, Howard; Rich, David; Huang, Wei; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Guangfa; Hu, Min; Lu, Shou-en; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuedan; Zhang, Jim (Junfeng)

    2014-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality in epidemiology studies. Frequently, oxidative and nitrosative stress are hypothesized to mediate these pollution effects, however precise mechanisms remain unclear. This paper describes the methodology for a major panel study to examine air pollution effects on these and other mechanistic pathways. The study took place during the drastic air pollution changes accompanying the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, China. After a general description of air pollution health effects, we provide a discussion of panel studies and describe the unique features of this study that make it likely to provide compelling results. This study should lead to a clearer and more precise definition of the role of oxidative and nitrosative stress, as well as other mechanisms, in determining acute morbidity and mortality from air pollution exposure. PMID:20716299

  3. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  4. Tunguska, 1908: the gas pouch and soil fluidization hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Siberian taiga explosion of 30 June 1908 remains one of the great mysteries of the 20th century: millions of trees put down over an area of 2200 km2 without trace of a crater or meteorite fragments. Hundred years of failed searches have followed, resulting in as many flawed hypothesis which could not offer satisfactory explanations: meteorite, comet, UFO, etc. In the author's opinion, the cause is that the energy the explorers looked for was simply not there! The author's hypothesis is that a meteoroid encountered a gas pouch in the atmosphere, producing a devastating explosion, its effects being amplified by soil fluidization.

  5. Chemical compositions responsible for inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung by coarse and fine particulate samples from contrasting air pollution in Europe.

    PubMed

    Happo, Mikko S; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Halinen, Arja I; Jalava, Pasi I; Pennanen, Arto S; Sillanpaa, Markus; Hillamo, Risto; Salonen, Raimo O

    2008-11-01

    Inflammation is regarded as an important mechanism in mortality and morbidity associated with exposures of cardiorespiratory patients to urban air particulate matter. We investigated the association of the chemical composition and sources of urban air fine (PM(2.5-0.2)) and coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate samples with the inflammatory activity in the mouse lung. The particulate samples were collected during selected seasons in six European cities using a high-volume cascade impactor. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose (10 mg/kg) of the particulate samples. At 4, 12, and 24 h after the exposure, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation and tissue damage: cell number, total protein, and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, interleukin [IL]-6, and KC). Dicarboxylic acids and transition metals, especially Ni and V, in PM(2.5-0.2) correlated positively and some secondary inorganic ions (NO3(-), NH4(+)) negatively with the inflammatory activity. Total organic matter and SO4(2-) had no consistent correlations. In addition, the soil-derived constituents (Ca2+, Al, Fe, Si) showed positive correlations with the PM(2.5-0.2)-induced inflammatory activity, but their role in PM(10-2.5) remained obscure, possibly due to largely undefined biogenic material. Markers of poor biomass and coal combustion, i.e., monosaccharide anhydrides and As, were associated with elevated PAH contents in PM(2.5-0.2) and a consistent immunosuppressive effect. Overall, our results support epidemiological findings that the local sources of incomplete combustion and resuspended road dust are important in urban air particulate pollution-related health effects.

  6. DNA damage in nasal and brain tissues of canines exposed to air pollutants is associated with evidence of chronic brain inflammation and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Maronpot, Robert R; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Schoonhoven, Robert; Acuña-Ayala, Hilda; Villarreal-Calderón, Anna; Nakamura, Jun; Fernando, Reshan; Reed, William; Azzarelli, Biagio; Swenberg, James A

    2003-01-01

    's-type pathology in dogs chronically exposed to air pollutants. Respiratory tract inflammation and deteriorating olfactory and respiratory barriers may play a role in the observed neuropathology. These data suggest that Alzheimer's disease may be the sequela of air pollutant exposures and the resulting systemic inflammation.

  7. Pharyngeal neuromuscular dysfunction associated with bilateral guttural pouch tympany in a foal

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Chris

    2007-01-01

    A 2-month-old warmblood filly was presented for a 1-week history of a large, nonpainful, fluctuant swelling of the parotid and laryngeal area. Bilateral guttural pouch tympany was diagnosed. Surgical correction resolved the guttural pouch tympany; however, postoperative pharyngeal neuromuscular dysfunction developed. PMID:17334035

  8. Discovery and SAR of PF-4693627, a potent, selective and orally bioavailable mPGES-1 inhibitor for the potential treatment of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Arhancet, Graciela B; Walker, Daniel P; Metz, Sue; Fobian, Yvette M; Heasley, Steven E; Carter, Jeffrey S; Springer, John R; Jones, Darin E; Hayes, Michael J; Shaffer, Alexander F; Jerome, Gina M; Baratta, Michael T; Zweifel, Ben; Moore, William M; Masferrer, Jaime L; Vazquez, Michael L

    2013-02-15

    Inhibition of mPGES-1, the terminal enzyme in the arachidonic acid/COX pathway to regulate the production of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin PGE2, is considered an attractive new therapeutic target for safe and effective anti-inflammatory drugs. The discovery of a novel series of orally active, selective benzoxazole piperidinecarboxamides as mPGES-1 inhibitors is described. Structure-activity optimization of lead 5 with cyclohexyl carbinols resulted in compound 12, which showed excellent in vitro potency and selectivity against COX-2, and reasonable pharmacokinetic properties. Further SAR studies of the benzoxazole ring substituents lead to a novel series of highly potent compounds with improved PK profile, including 23, 26, and 29, which were effective in a carrageenan-stimulated guinea pig air pouch model of inflammation. Based on its excellent in vitro and in vivo pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and safety profile and ease of synthesis, compound 26 (PF-4693627) was advanced to clinical studies.

  9. Cheek pouch use in relation to interspecific competition and predator risk for three guenon monkeys (Cercopithecus spp.).

    PubMed

    Buzzard, Paul J

    2006-10-01

    Forest guenons (Cercopithecus spp.) are often found in polyspecific associations that may decrease predator risk while increasing interspecific competition for food. Cheek pouch use may mitigate interspecific competition and predator risk by reducing the time spent in areas of high competition/predator risk. I investigated these ideas in three forest guenons: Campbell's monkey (Cercopithecus campbelli), spot-nosed monkey (C. petaurista), and Diana monkey (C. diana). I present 13 months of scan sample data from Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire, including 3,675, 3,330, and 5,689 records of cheek pouch distention, to quantify cheek pouch use, for Campbell's, spot-nosed, and Diana monkeys, respectively. Cheek pouches are often used to hold fruit, so I first predicted that the most frugivorous species, Diana monkeys, would have the most cheek pouch distension. Spot-nosed monkeys ate the least amount of fruit over the study period and had the least distended cheek pouches, suggesting the importance of frugivory in relation to cheek pouch distension for this species. This was not a sufficient explanation for Campbell's monkeys; Campbell's ate fruit less than Diana monkeys, but had more distended cheek pouches, suggesting that cheek pouch use was not simply a reflection of high frugivory. From the interspecific competition hypothesis, I predicted that Campbell's monkeys would have more distended cheek pouches than Diana and spot-nosed monkeys, and more distended cheek pouches when associated with Diana because Campbell's monkeys have the highest potential for interspecific competition with dominant Diana monkeys. From the predator risk hypothesis, I predicted that Campbell's would have more distended cheek pouches when not associated with highly vigilant Diana monkeys. Campbell's monkeys had the most distended cheek pouches overall, but had more distended cheek pouches when not in association with Diana, suggesting the greater importance of predator risk rather than

  10. Manipulating the air-filled zebrafish swim bladder as a neutrophilic inflammation model for acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuefei; Liu, Hongcui; Yao, Junlin; Huang, Yanfeng; Qin, Shenlu; Sun, Zheng; Xu, Yingchun; Wan, Shu; Cheng, Hongqiang; Li, Chunqi; Zhang, Xue; Ke, Yuehai

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are life-threatening diseases that are associated with high mortality rates due to treatment limitations. Neutrophils play key roles in the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS by promoting the inflammation and injury of the alveolar microenvironment. To date, in vivo functional approaches have been limited by the inaccessibility to the alveolar sacs, which are located at the anatomical terminal of the respiratory duct in mammals. We are the first to characterize the swim bladder of the zebrafish larva, which is similar to the mammalian lung, as a real-time in vivo model for examining pulmonary neutrophil infiltration during ALI. We observed that the delivery of exogenous materials, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Poly IC and silica nanoparticles, by microinjection triggered significant time- and dose-dependent neutrophil recruitment into the swim bladder. Neutrophils infiltrated the LPS-injected swim bladder through the blood capillaries around the pneumatic duct or a site near the pronephric duct. An increase in the post-LPS inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels coincided with the in vivo neutrophil aggregation in the swim bladder. Microscopic examinations of the LPS-injected swim bladders further revealed in situ injuries, including epithelial distortion, endoplasmic reticulum swelling and mitochondrial injuries. Inhibitor screening assays with this model showed a reduction in neutrophil migration into the LPS-injected swim bladder in response to Shp2 inhibition. Moreover, the pharmacological suppression and targeted disruption of Shp2 in myeloid cells alleviated pulmonary inflammation in the LPS-induced ALI mouse model. Additionally, we used this model to assess pneumonia-induced neutrophil recruitment by microinjecting bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients into swim bladders; this injection enhanced neutrophil aggregation relative to the control. In conclusion, our findings

  11. Endothelial CD47 promotes Vascular Endothelial-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation and participates in T-cell recruitment at sites of inflammation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Azcutia, Veronica; Stefanidakis, Michael; Tsuboi, Naotake; Mayadas, Tanya; Croce, Kevin J.; Fukuda, Daiju; Aikawa, Masanori; Newton, Gail; Luscinskas, Francis W.

    2012-01-01

    At sites of inflammation, endothelial adhesion molecules bind leukocytes and transmit signals required for transendothelial migration (TEM). We previously reported that adhesive interactions between endothelial cell CD47 and leukocyte Signal Regulatory Proteinγ (SIRPγ) regulate human T-cell TEM. The role of endothelial CD47 in T-cell TEM in vivo, however, has not been explored. Here, CD47−/− mice showed reduced recruitment of blood T-cells as well as neutrophils and monocytes in a dermal air pouch model of TNF-α induced inflammation. Reconstitution of CD47−/− mice with wild type bone marrow (BM) cells did not restore leukocyte recruitment to the air pouch, indicating a role for endothelial CD47. The defect in leukocyte TEM in the CD47−/− endothelium was corroborated by intravital microscopy of inflamed cremaster muscle microcirculation in BM chimera mice. In an in vitro human system, CD47 on both HUVEC and T-cells were required for TEM. Although previous studies showed CD47-dependent signaling required Gαi coupled pathways, this was not the case for endothelial CD47 because pertussis toxin (PTX), which inactivates Gαi, had no inhibitory effect, whereas Gαi was required by the T-cell for TEM. We next investigated the endothelial CD47-dependent signaling events that accompany leukocyte TEM. Antibody-induced crosslinking of CD47 revealed robust actin cytoskeleton reorganization and Src and Pyk-2 kinase dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the VE-cadherin cytoplasmic tail. This signaling was PTX insensitive suggesting that endothelial CD47 signaling is independent of Gαi. These findings suggest that engagement of endothelial CD47 by its ligands triggers “outside-in” signals in endothelium that facilitate leukocyte TEM. PMID:22815286

  12. Retroperitoneal inflammation

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001255.htm Retroperitoneal inflammation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Retroperitoneal inflammation is swelling that occurs in the retroperitoneal space. ...

  13. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Transitional Zone after Ileal Pouch Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis: Systematic Review and Treatment Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pellino, Gianluca; Kontovounisios, Christos; Tait, Diana; Nicholls, John; Tekkis, Paris P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Few cases of pouch-related cancers have been reported in ulcerative colitis (UC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is very rare. Method A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify all unequivocal cases of pouch-related SCC in UC patients. Results Eight cases of SCC developing after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) have been observed since 1978. Two arose from the pouch mucosa and 6 from below. The pooled cumulative incidence of SCC is below 0.06% after IPAA. Many patients had neoplasia on the preoperative specimen, but squamous metaplasia of the pouch or anorectal mucosa may have an important role in SCC. These patients are rarely offered chemoradiation therapy and the outcome is poor. Selected patients with SCC located close to the pouch outlet can be treated with chemoradiation prior to consideration of surgery and salvage their pouch. A chemoradiation regimen is suggested to avoid pouch excision in these patients. Conclusions SCC is rare after pouch surgery but associated with extremely poor survival. Very low SCC can be managed with chemoradiation treatment, preserving the pouch and avoiding surgery, even in older patients. The role of pouch metaplasia, surveillance frequency, and treatment modalities after IPAA need further studying. PMID:28203173

  14. Exposure to severe urban air pollution influences cognitive outcomes, brain volume and systemic inflammation in clinically healthy children.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E; Bryant, Christopher; González-González, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes, cognitive abilities (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, WISC-R), and serum inflammatory mediators were collected in 20 Mexico City (MC) children (10 with white matter hyperintensities, WMH(+), and 10 without, WMH(-)) and 10 matched controls (CTL) from a low polluted city. There were significant differences in white matter volumes between CTL and MC children - both WMH(+) and WMH(-) - in right parietal and bilateral temporal areas. Both WMH(-) and WMH(+) MC children showed progressive deficits, compared to CTL children, on the WISC-R Vocabulary and Digit Span subtests. The cognitive deficits in highly exposed children match the localization of the volumetric differences detected over the 1 year follow-up, since the deficits observed are consistent with impairment of parietal and temporal lobe functions. Regardless of the presence of prefrontal WMH, Mexico City children performed more poorly across a variety of cognitive tests, compared to CTL children, thus WMH(+) is likely only partially identifying underlying white matter pathology. Together these findings reveal that exposure to air pollution may perturb the trajectory of cerebral development and result in cognitive deficits during childhood.

  15. Development of Stainless Steel Laminate Li-Ion Pouch Cell for Space Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooto, Hiroki; Koide, Kazuya; Ohira, Kenji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Abe, Hidetoshi; Toyota, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Takanobu; Takahashi, Yu; Hirose, Kazuyuki

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the development of stainless steel laminate Li-ion pouch battery cells for space application. Currently, the cells have a high specific energy of 118 Wh/kg for 10-Ah cells at the moment. Unlike conventional Li-ion pouch cells for terrestrial use, where the casing is made of aluminum laminate, Li-ion pouch cells made with stainless steel laminate neither expand nor lose their capacity after charge/discharge cycles in vacuum. The results of a mechanical environment test show that the cell also meet the requirements for vibration and pyroshock tolerance during launch.

  16. A Novel Lithium-ion Laminated Pouch Cell Tested For Performance And Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Inoue, Takefumi

    2006-01-01

    A new Li-ion 4.0 Ah pouch cell from GS Yuasa has been tested to determine its performance and safety. The cell is of a laminate pouch design with liquid electrolyte. The rate, thermal and vacuum performance capabilities have been tested to determine the optimum parameters. Under vacuum conditions, the cells were cycled under restrained and unrestrained configurations. The burst pressure of the laminate pouch was also determined. The overcharge, overdischarge into reversal and external short circuit safety tests were also performed to determine the cell s tolerance to abuse. Key Words: Li-ion, safety, vacuum test, abuse, COTS batteries, rate capability

  17. The effect of distending a pouch of the left atrium on the heart rate

    PubMed Central

    Ledsome, J. R.; Linden, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    1. A pouch has been prepared consisting of a part of the wall of the left atrium together with the left pulmonary vein—atrial junctions. 2. An increase of perfusion pressure in the pouch caused a reflex increase in heart rate. 3. The afferent path of the reflex was in the vagus nerves and the efferent path was in the sympathetic nerves. 4. The receptors most likely to be stimulated by an increase in pressure in the pouch are those receptors situated in the subendocardium of the pulmonary vein—left atrial junctions. PMID:16992279

  18. [Therapeutic effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor givinostat on air inflammation and high airway resistance in a murine asthma model].

    PubMed

    Su, X M; Ren, Y; Kong, L F; Kang, J

    2017-02-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effects of givinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), on the development of chronic asthma with airway inflammation, airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Methods: BALB/C mice were randomly divided into control group, asthma group, dexamethasone group and givinostat group (n=12 per group). AHR was assessed. Total cell numbers and differential counts, interleukin-4(IL-4), interleukin-5(IL-5) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured in the above 4 groups. The pathology of lung tissue was evaluated. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and Western blot were used to detect α smooth muscle actin(α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β1(TGFβ1). Results: Compared with the asthma only group, givinostat treatment relieved airway resistance (2.96±1.01 vs 6.50±0.79, P<0.05). Total inflammatory cells [(33.04±5.62)×10(4)/ml vs (98.04±9.27)×10(4)/ml, P<0.01], eosinophil cells [(9.17±2.33)×10(4)/ml vs(37.64±6.98)×10(4)/ml, P<0.01], IL-4 [(10.12±2.98)ng/ml vs (16.88±2.78)ng/ml, P<0.05] and IL-5 [(27.09±3.62)ng/ml vs (37.86±7.34)ng/ml, P<0.05] levels were all reduced in givinostat group, while IFNγ [(91.86±23.73)pg/ml vs (60.49±11.88)pg/ml, P>0.05] was enhanced in BALF. Inflammatory cell infiltration around the airway was reduced, with decreased inflammatory cell score[(1.60±0.69)points vs (3.40±0.68) points, P<0.01] and inflammatory cell number (111.65±31.41 vs 601.25±186.85, P<0.01). The goblet cell metaplasia [(26.36±2.33)% vs (57.21±11.56)%] and collagen deposition area [(52.77±7.58)μm(2)/μm vs (111.81±12.40)μm(2)/μm] were obviously reduced (P<0.01). The expressions of α-SMA and TGFβ1 in the lung tissue were both significantly decreased (P<0.01). Conclusion: Givinostat treatment can reduce airway inflammation, airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness in chronic asthma. Its effect is comparable to that of glucocorticoid

  19. Carcinoid tumor of the ileoanal pouch in a patient with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Murray; Pricolo, Victor; Chen, Sonja

    2013-01-04

    Carcinoid tumors have been reported to occur in various locations, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. The relationship between the development of carcinoids and ulcerative colitis has been an unclear and controversial one. The association of ulcerative colitis and the development of ileal-pouch carcinoids has not, however, been well documented. We report a case of carcinoid tumor arising in an ileoanal pouch and discuss its unique diagnostic and therapeutic considerations.

  20. High-G Verification of Lithium-Polymer (Li-Po) Pouch Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-19

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 766 Technical Report ARMET-TR-15067 HIGH-G VERIFICATION OF LITHIUM- POLYMER (LI-PO) POUCH...TITLE AND SUBTITLE HIGH-G VERIFICATION OF LITHIUM- POLYMER (LI-PO) POUCH CELLS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT... ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army ARDEC, METC Fuze & Precision Armaments Technology Directorate (RDAR-MEF-I) Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806

  1. Seahorse Brood Pouch Transcriptome Reveals Common Genes Associated with Vertebrate Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Camilla M; Griffith, Oliver W; Qi, Weihong; Thompson, Michael B; Wilson, Anthony B

    2015-12-01

    Viviparity (live birth) has evolved more than 150 times in vertebrates, and represents an excellent model system for studying the evolution of complex traits. There are at least 23 independent origins of viviparity in fishes, with syngnathid fishes (seahorses and pipefish) unique in exhibiting male pregnancy. Male seahorses and pipefish have evolved specialized brooding pouches that provide protection, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and limited nutrient provisioning to developing embryos. Pouch structures differ widely across the Syngnathidae, offering an ideal opportunity to study the evolution of reproductive complexity. However, the physiological and genetic changes facilitating male pregnancy are largely unknown. We used transcriptome profiling to examine pouch gene expression at successive gestational stages in a syngnathid with the most complex brood pouch morphology, the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Using a unique time-calibrated RNA-seq data set including brood pouch at key stages of embryonic development, we identified transcriptional changes associated with brood pouch remodeling, nutrient and waste transport, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and immunological protection of developing embryos at conception, development and parturition. Key seahorse transcripts share homology with genes of reproductive function in pregnant mammals, reptiles, and other live-bearing fish, suggesting a common toolkit of genes regulating pregnancy in divergent evolutionary lineages.

  2. Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis: A narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Sofo, Luigi; Caprino, Paola; Sacchetti, Franco; Bossola, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (RP-IPAA) is the gold standard surgical treatment for ulcerative colitis. However, despite the widespread use of RP-IPAA, many aspects of this treatment still remain controversial, such as the approach (open or laparoscopic), number of stages in the surgery, type of pouch, and construction type (hand-sewn or stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis). The present narrative review aims to discuss current evidence on the short-, mid-, and long-term results of each of these technical alternatives as well as their benefits and disadvantages. A review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Ovid databases was performed to identify studies published through March 2016. Few large, randomized, controlled studies have been conducted, which limits the conclusions that can be drawn regarding controversial issues. The available data from retrospective studies suggest that laparoscopic surgery has no clear advantages compared with open surgery and that one-stage RP-IPAA may be indicated in selected cases. Regarding 2- and 3-stage RP-IPAA, patients who underwent these surgeries differed significantly with respect to clinical and laboratory variables, making any comparisons extremely difficult. The long-term results regarding the pouch type show that the W- and J-reservoirs do not differ significantly, although the J pouch is generally preferred by surgeons. Hand-sewn and stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomoses have their own advantages, and there is no clear benefit of one technique over the other. PMID:27648159

  3. Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Sofo, Luigi; Caprino, Paola; Sacchetti, Franco; Bossola, Maurizio

    2016-08-27

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (RP-IPAA) is the gold standard surgical treatment for ulcerative colitis. However, despite the widespread use of RP-IPAA, many aspects of this treatment still remain controversial, such as the approach (open or laparoscopic), number of stages in the surgery, type of pouch, and construction type (hand-sewn or stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis). The present narrative review aims to discuss current evidence on the short-, mid-, and long-term results of each of these technical alternatives as well as their benefits and disadvantages. A review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Ovid databases was performed to identify studies published through March 2016. Few large, randomized, controlled studies have been conducted, which limits the conclusions that can be drawn regarding controversial issues. The available data from retrospective studies suggest that laparoscopic surgery has no clear advantages compared with open surgery and that one-stage RP-IPAA may be indicated in selected cases. Regarding 2- and 3-stage RP-IPAA, patients who underwent these surgeries differed significantly with respect to clinical and laboratory variables, making any comparisons extremely difficult. The long-term results regarding the pouch type show that the W- and J-reservoirs do not differ significantly, although the J pouch is generally preferred by surgeons. Hand-sewn and stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomoses have their own advantages, and there is no clear benefit of one technique over the other.

  4. Association Between Changes in Air Pollution Levels During the Beijing Olympics and Biomarkers of Inflammation and Thrombosis in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rich, David Q.; Kipen, Howard M.; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guangfa; Wang, Yuedan; Zhu, Ping; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Hu, Min; Philipp, Claire; Diehl, Scott R.; Lu, Shou-En; Tong, Jian; Gong, Jicheng; Thomas, Duncan; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim)

    2014-01-01

    Context Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying biological mechanisms are not well understood. Objective To determine whether markers related to CVD pathophysiological pathways (biomarkers for systemic inflammation and thrombosis, heart rate, and blood pressure) are sensitive to changes in air pollution. Design, Setting, and Participants Using a quasi-experimental opportunity offered by greatly restricted air pollution emissions during the Beijing Olympics, we measured pollutants daily and the outcomes listed below in 125 healthy young adults before, during, and after the 2008 Olympics (June 2-October 30). We used linear mixed-effects models to estimate the improvement in outcome levels during the Olympics and the anticipated reversal of outcome levels after pollution controls ended to determine whether changes in outcome levels were associated with changes in pollutant concentrations. Main Outcome Measures C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), soluble P-selectin (sCD62P) concentrations; white blood cell count (WBC); heart rate; and blood pressure. Results Concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants decreased substantially (−13% to −60%) from the pre-Olympic period to the during-Olympic period. Using 2-sided tests conducted at the .003 level, we observed statistically significant improvements in sCD62P levels by −34.0% (95% CI, −38.4% to −29.2%; P<.001) from a pre-Olympic mean of 6.29 ng/mL to a during-Olympic mean of 4.16 ng/mL and von Willebrand factor by −13.1% (95% CI, −18.6% to −7.5%; P<.001) from 106.4% to 92.6%. After adjustments for multiple comparisons, changes in the other outcomes were not statistically significant. In the post-Olympic period when pollutant concentrations increased, most outcomes approximated pre-Olympic levels, but only sCD62P and systolic blood pressure were significantly worsened from the during-Olympic period

  5. Role of endogenous interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in regulating fever induced by localised inflammation in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Cartmell, T; Luheshi, G N; Hopkins, S J; Rothwell, N J; Poole, S

    2001-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1 is a mediator of host defence responses to inflammation and injury, including fever, but its sites of synthesis and action have not been fully elucidated. The actions of IL-1 are antagonised by IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). The present study tested the hypothesis that IL-1 and IL-1ra are produced locally at sites of peripheral inflammation in rats, and that endogenous IL-1ra acts to limit the fever resulting from the inflammation. Injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg kg−1) into a subcutaneous air pouch (i.po.) of rats induced a significant increase in body temperature. Virtually all (∼85 %) of the injected LPS was recovered from the pouch between 1 and 8 h (when the experiment was terminated) after injection of LPS, but LPS was undetectable (< 50 pg ml−1) in plasma at any time. Concentrations of immunoreactive IL-1α and IL-1β were increased significantly in the pouch at 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 h after injection of LPS, corresponding with the rise in body temperature and the fever peak. The appearance of IL-1ra was delayed until 2 h. Thereafter, the concentrations of IL-1β and IL-1ra increased in parallel with the development of fever, while the concentrations of IL-1α remained constant. IL-1ra, but not IL-1α or IL-1β, was detected in significant quantities in the plasma of LPS-injected animals. Treatment of rats with an anti-IL-1ra serum (2 ml, i.po.) at the time of injection of LPS (10 or 100 μg kg−1, i.po.) abolished the appearance of IL-1ra in the circulation. Although neutralisation of endogenous IL-1ra did not affect the maximum body temperature reached after injection of submaximum (10 μg kg−1, i.po.) or maximum (100 μg kg−1, i.po.) doses of LPS, the duration of the fever was significantly prolonged, and was associated with a 3- to 4-fold increase in immunoreactive IL-1β concentrations in the pouch fluid, but not in the plasma, at the 8 h time point. These data show that effects of local (i.po.) injection of LPS

  6. Discovery and preclinical characterization of novel small molecule TRK and ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of cancer and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Yepuru, Muralimohan; Coss, Christopher C; Wu, Zhongzhi; Bauler, Matthew N; Barrett, Christina M; Mohler, Michael L; Wang, Yun; Kim, Juhyun; Snyder, Linda M; He, Yali; Levy, Nelson; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2013-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), in response to their growth factor ligands, phosphorylate and activate downstream signals important for physiological development and pathological transformation. Increased expression, activating mutations and rearrangement fusions of RTKs lead to cancer, inflammation, pain, neurodegenerative diseases, and other disorders. Activation or over-expression of ALK, ROS1, TRK (A, B, and C), and RET are associated with oncogenic phenotypes of their respective tissues, making them attractive therapeutic targets. Cancer cDNA array studies demonstrated over-expression of TRK-A and ROS1 in a variety of cancers, compared to their respective normal tissue controls. We synthesized a library of small molecules that inhibit the above indicated RTKs with picomolar to nanomolar potency. The lead molecule GTx-186 inhibited RTK-dependent cancer cell and tumor growth. In vitro and in vivo growth of TRK-A-dependent IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells and ROS1-overexpressing NIH3T3 cells were inhibited by GTx-186. GTx-186 also inhibited inflammatory signals mediated by NFκB, AP-1, and TRK-A and potently reduced atopic dermatitis and air-pouch inflammation in mice and rats. Moreover, GTx-186 effectively inhibited ALK phosphorylation and ALK-dependent cancer cell growth. Collectively, the RTK inhibitor GTx-186 has a unique kinase profile with potential to treat cancer, inflammation, and neuropathic pain.

  7. Experimental modal analysis of lithium-ion pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, James Michael; Marco, James

    2015-07-01

    If future electric and hybrid electric vehicle batteries are to be designed such that the impact of vibration induced resonance is minimized, engineers tasked with the design of the vehicle's energy storage system must have a rigorous understanding of key system attributes such as the natural frequencies of the cell, the level of damping present and the mode shapes induced within the battery under mechanical load. This paper describes the underpinning theory and experimental method employed when using the impulse excitation technique to quantify the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a commercially available 25 Ah Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Laminate Pouch Cell. Experimental results are presented for fifteen cells at five different values of state of charge (SOC). The results indicate that irrespective of the energy content within the cell, the same four modes of vibration (torsion and bending) exist within a frequency range of 191 Hz-360 Hz. This is above the frequency range (0-150 Hz) typically associated with road-induced vibration. The results also indicate that the cell's natural frequencies of vibration and damping do not vary with changing values of SOC.

  8. Inheritance of guttural pouch tympany in the arabian horse.

    PubMed

    Blazyczek, I; Hamann, H; Ohnesorge, B; Deegen, E; Distl, O

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the mode of inheritance of guttural pouch tympany (GPT) using pedigrees of Arabian horses. Complex segregation analyses were employed to test for the significance of nongenetic transmission and for monogenic, polygenic, and mixed monogenic-polygenic modes of inheritance. Horses affected by GPT comprised 27 Arabian purebred foals. Of these 27 animals, 22 were patients at the Clinic for Horses, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany, between 1994 and 2001 and 5 Arabian foals were from stud farms. Information on the pedigrees of these patients allowed us to classify the affected foals into four families with a total of 276 animals. The regressive logistic model analysis took into account the nonrandomness of the pedigrees through multiple single ascertainment correction. The complex segregation analysis showed that, among all other models employed, a polygenic and a mixed monogenic-polygenic model best explained the segregation of Arabian foals with GPT. Models including only nongenetic distributions and monogenic inheritance could be significantly rejected. This is the first report in which a genetic component could be shown to be responsible for GPT in horses.

  9. Comparison of the InPouch TV culture system and Diamond's modified medium for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed Central

    Levi, M H; Torres, J; Piña, C; Klein, R S

    1997-01-01

    This study compared the use of Diamond's modified medium to InPouch for the culture of Trichomonas vaginalis from pooled vaginal secretions. The sensitivity for InPouch was 82.4% (61/74) versus 87.8% (65/74) for Diamond's modified medium. There were no significant differences in the sensitivity and negative predictive value of InPouch compared to Diamond's modified medium. PMID:9399542

  10. Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

  11. Design of small-size pouch motors for rat gait rehabilitation device.

    PubMed

    Shih-Yin Chang; Takashima, Kenta; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Niiyama, Ryuma; Someya, Takao; Onodera, Hiroshi; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that active gait training can recover voluntary locomotive ability of paralyzed rats. Rehabilitation devices used for studying spinal cord injury to date are usually fixed on a treadmill, but they have been used only slightly for active training. To process active rehabilitation, a wearable, lightweight device with adequate output is needed. Pouch motors, soft pneumatic actuators, are extremely light and have other benefits such as low cost, easy fabrication, and highly customizable design. They can be used to develop active gait rehabilitation devices. However, performance details of different motor designs have not been examined. As described herein, to build a wearable gait assistive device for rat study, we specifically examine how to design small pouch motors with a good contraction ratio and force output. Results show that pouch performance decreases dramatically with size, but better output is obtainable by separation into small 0.8 length-to-width ratio rooms. We used this knowledge to produce an assistive robot suit for gait rehabilitation and to test it with paralyzed rats. Results show that these small pouches can produce sufficient power to control hip joint movements during gait training. They can reveal the potential for new pouch motor applications for spinal cord injury studies.

  12. Hog barn dust extract increases macromolecular efflux from the hamster cheek pouch.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Israel; Von Essen, Susanna G

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether short-term exposure to an aqueous extract of hog barn dust increases macromolecular efflux from the intact hamster cheek pouch and, if so, to begin to determine the mechanism(s) underlying this response. By using intravital microscopy, we found that suffusion of hog barn dust extract onto the intact hamster cheek pouch for 60 min elicited a significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and increase in clearance of FITC-labeled dextran (molecular mass, 70 kDa). This response was significantly attenuated by suffusion of catalase (60 U/ml), but not by heat-inactivated catalase, and by pretreatment with dexamethasone (10 mg/kg iv) (P < 0.05). Catalase had no significant effects on adenosine-induced increase in macromolecular efflux from the cheek pouch. Suffusion of hog barn dust extract had no significant effects on arteriolar diameter in the cheek pouch. Taken together, these data indicate that hog barn dust extract increases macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch, in part, through local elaboration of reactive oxygen species that are inactivated by catalase. This response is specific and attenuated by corticosteroids. We suggest that plasma exudation plays an important role in the genesis of upper airway dysfunction evoked by short-term exposure to hog barn dust.

  13. Development of an immunomodulatory biomaterial: using resolvin D1 to modulate inflammation.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Daniela P; Costa, Madalena; Amaral, Isabel F; Barbosa, Mário A; Águas, Artur P; Barbosa, Judite N

    2015-01-01

    In our search for immunomodulatory biomaterials capable of modulating the inflammatory response through M2 macrophage polarization, we report here on a new strategy that resulted from the incorporation of resolvin D1 (RvD1), a pro-resolution lipid mediator in porous 3D chitosan (Ch) scaffolds, followed by its lyophilisation. We have investigated the inflammatory response caused by this biomaterial in vivo using a mouse air-pouch model of inflammation. We found that this developed material caused a decrease in inflammatory cells recruited to the implant site, together with higher numbers of F4/80(+)/CD206(+) cells (M2 macrophages) and lower numbers of F4/80(+)/CCR7(+) cells (M1 macrophages). It also induced a general decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines, and caused a decrease in the inflammatory cells observed around and within the implanted scaffolds, when compared with Ch alone or Ch not submitted to lyophilisation after RvD1 incorporation. Our results demonstrate that we were able to develop an immunomodulating biomaterial that triggers a shift in the macrophage response towards a M2 reparative response that will be advantageous for the host.

  14. The role of CD69 in acute neutrophil-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lamana, Amalia; Sancho, David; Cruz-Adalia, Aránzazu; del Hoyo, Gloria Martínez; Herrera, Ada María; Feria, Manuel; Díaz-González, Federico; Gómez, Manuel; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2006-10-01

    The leukocyte activation marker CD69 functions as a negative regulator of the immune response, both in NK-dependent tumor rejection and in the inflammation associated with lymphocyte-dependent collagen-induced arthritis. In contrast, it has been reported that CD69-deficient mice are refractory to the neutrophil-dependent acute inflammatory response associated with anti-type II collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), suggesting a positive regulatory role for CD69 in neutrophil function during arthritis induction. To clarify this discrepancy, the CAIA response was independently analyzed in our CD69-deficient mice. In these experiments, the inflammatory response was unaffected by CD69 deficiency. Additionally, the in vivo down-regulation of CD69 expression by treatment of wild-type mice with the anti-CD69 mAb 2.2, which mimics the CD69-deficient phenotype, did not affect the course of arthritis in this model. Moreover, down-regulation of CD69 expression increased expression in arthritic joints of key inflammatory mediators, including IL-1beta, IL-6 and the chemokine MCP-1. Neutrophil accumulation in zymosan-treated air pouches and in thioglycolate-treated peritoneal cavities was also unaffected in CD69-deficient mice. In addition, CD69 expression was absent in activated neutrophils. Taken together, these results rule out a significant stimulatory role for CD69 in acute inflammatory responses mediated by neutrophils.

  15. Retort pouch processing of Chettinad style goat meat curry - a heritage meat product.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Dushyanthan, K; Das, Arun K

    2010-08-01

    Chettinad style goat meat curry, a heritage meat product, was thermal processed in retort pouches having 4 layer configurations. Physical properties of retort pouches indicated that they are suitable for processing. Pouches filled with 150 g of goat meat and 100 g of curry medium were retorted to a F O value of 12.1 min. Retort cooked products were tested for sterility and quality characteristics. Retorting decreased the product pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and shear force values. Retort processed products had significantly lower L*, a*, b* and chroma values. Product was superior in all sensory attributes. It is concluded that Chettinad style goat meat product retorted to a F O value of 12.1 min, had acceptable sensory quality characteristics.

  16. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  17. Morphological characteristics of the temporomandibular joint in the pouch young of the Tasmanian devil.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Sugisaki, M; Kino, K; Ishikawa, T; Kawashima, S; Amemiya, T

    2015-04-01

    We recently reported the absence of the articular disc, which is a constant structure in mammals, in the temporomandibular joint of the adult Tasmanian devil. However, whether the articular disc disappears with growth of the animal was unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether a pouch young of the Tasmanian devil has the articular disc. The temporomandibular joint of a fresh carcass of the pouch young, whose crown-rump length was 43 mm, was examined microscopically and by microcomputed tomography. The absence of the articular disc in the pouch young temporomandibular joint was histologically confirmed. It is suggested that the articular disc of the Tasmanian devil is naturally absent.

  18. Development and evaluation of a reflective solar disinfection pouch for treatment of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Walker, D Carey; Len, Soo-Voon; Sheehan, Brita

    2004-04-01

    A second-generation solar disinfection (SODIS) system (pouch) was constructed from food-grade, commercially available packaging materials selected to fully transmit and amplify the antimicrobial properties of sunlight. Depending upon the season, water source, and challenge organism, culturable bacteria were reduced between 3.5 and 5.5 log cycles. The system was also capable of reducing the background presumptive coliform population in nonsterile river water below the level of detection. Similar experiments conducted with a model virus, the F-specific RNA bacteriophage MS2, indicated that the pouch was slightly less efficient, reducing viable plaques by 3.5 log units in comparison to a 5.0 log reduction of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O18:H11 within the same time period. These results suggest that water of poor microbiological quality can be improved by using a freely available resource (sunlight) and a specifically designed plastic pouch constructed of food-grade packaging materials.

  19. Laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy ileal pouch anal anastomosis: How I do it?

    PubMed Central

    Madnani, Manish A; Mistry, Jitendra H; Soni, Harshad N; Shah, Atul J; Patel, Kantilal S; Haribhakti, Sanjiv P

    2015-01-01

    Surgery for ulcerative colitis is a major and complex colorectal surgery. Laparoscopy benefits these patients with better outcomes in context of cosmesis, pain and early recovery, especially in young patients. For surgeons, it is a better tool for improving vision and magnification in deep cavities. This is not the simple extension of the laparoscopy training. Starting from preoperative preparation to post operative care there are wide variations as compared to open surgery. There are also many variations in steps of laparoscopic surgery. It involves left colon, right colon and rectal mobilisation, low division of rectum, pouch creation and anastomosis of pouch to rectum. Over many years after standardisation of this technique, it takes same operative time as open surgery at our centre. So we present our standardized technique of laparoscopic assisted restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). PMID:26195886

  20. Laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy ileal pouch anal anastomosis: How I do it?

    PubMed

    Madnani, Manish A; Mistry, Jitendra H; Soni, Harshad N; Shah, Atul J; Patel, Kantilal S; Haribhakti, Sanjiv P

    2015-01-01

    Surgery for ulcerative colitis is a major and complex colorectal surgery. Laparoscopy benefits these patients with better outcomes in context of cosmesis, pain and early recovery, especially in young patients. For surgeons, it is a better tool for improving vision and magnification in deep cavities. This is not the simple extension of the laparoscopy training. Starting from preoperative preparation to post operative care there are wide variations as compared to open surgery. There are also many variations in steps of laparoscopic surgery. It involves left colon, right colon and rectal mobilisation, low division of rectum, pouch creation and anastomosis of pouch to rectum. Over many years after standardisation of this technique, it takes same operative time as open surgery at our centre. So we present our standardized technique of laparoscopic assisted restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA).

  1. Computed tomography-guided endoscopic needle knife therapy for ileal pouch sinus.

    PubMed

    Nyabanga, Custon T; Veniero, Joseph; Shen, Bo

    2016-11-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis surgery can be complicated by anastomotic leaks, leading to the formation of abscess and chronic sinus that have been routinely managed by a surgical approach. We developed the endoscopic needle knife sinusotomy (NKSi) technique, which has become a valid alternative. The basic principle of endoscopic NKSi is dissection and drainage of the sinus through its orifice internally into the lumen of pouch body. The success of NKSi requires an access to the sinus from the pouch side. One of the most challenging situations for NKSi is a closed orifice of the sinus, which leaves an isolated chronic abscess cavity. Here we report a case of complicated presacral sinus with a closed orifice that was not amenable to NKSi, necessitating a CT-guided guide wire placement and subsequent NKSi.

  2. The Quechua Manta Pouch: A Caretaking Practice for Buffering the Peruvian Infant against the Multiple Stressors of High Altitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronick, E. Z.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the caretaking practices employed by the Peruvian Quechua mountain people, who swaddle infants in cloths and blankets (known as a manta pouch) to protect them from the harsh and frigid environment. The practices of 14 mother-infants pairs are examined in detail, and the benefits and drawbacks of the manta pouch are examined. (MDM)

  3. Giant African Pouched Rats as Detectors of Tuberculosis in Human Sputum: Comparison of Two Techniques for Sputum Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alisha M.; Mahoney, Amanda; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Jubitana, Maureen; Kazwala, Rudovic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S.; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that pouched rats can detect the presence of "Mycobacterium tuberculosis," which causes tuberculosis, in human sputum samples obtained from clinical facilities. Although pouched rats evaluate sputum samples quickly, preparing the samples is relatively slow. The present study evaluated whether the rats can detect…

  4. Endoscopic closure instead of surgery to close an ileal pouch fistula with the over-the-scope clip system

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yao; Gong, Jian-Feng; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2017-01-01

    An ileal pouch fistula is an uncommon complication after an ileal pouch anal anastomosis. Most patients who suffer from an ileal pouch fistula will need surgical intervention. However, the surgery can be invasive and has a high risk compared to endoscopic treatment. The over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system was initially developed for hemostasis and leakage closure in the gastrointestinal tract during flexible endoscopy. There have been many successes in using this approach to apply perforations to the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, this approach has not been used for ileal pouch fistulas until currently. In this report, we describe one patient who suffered a leak from the tip of the “J” pouch and was successfully treated with endoscopic closure via the OTSC system. A 26-year-old male patient had an intestinal fistula at the tip of the “J” pouch after an ileal pouch anal anastomosis procedure. He received endoscopic treatment via OTSC under intravenous anesthesia, and the leak was closed successfully. Endoscopic closure of a pouch fistula could be a simpler alternative to surgery and could help avoid surgery-related complications. PMID:28250903

  5. Puborectal sling interposition combined with seton drainage for pouch-vaginal fistula after rectal cancer surgery with colonic J pouch-anal reconstruction: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Aya; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Okigami, Masato; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Hiro, Junichiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koji; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The management of postoperative rectovaginal fistula (RVF) after rectal cancer surgery is difficult and requires reconstruction of the anastomotic site and fistula. Though various surgical procedures have been reported for the repair of RVFs, the results of surgical repair are often unsatisfactory, and failure of the initial repair leads to difficulty in the later operations. Furthermore, it has been reported that cases associated with local infection result in low success rates. We report a case of an 80-year-old woman with a recurrent colonic J pouch-vaginal fistula after anoabdominal rectal resection with partial internal sphincteric resection, who achieved a good outcome following a repair using a puborectal sling interposition combined with seton drainage. It may be a useful option for RVF management in repair of such pouch-vaginal fistula after coloanal anastomosis with intersphincteric resection.

  6. Using Trained Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus) to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  7. Using Trained Pouched Rats to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  8. Mycotic encephalitis, sinus osteomyelitis, and guttural pouch mycosis in a 3-year-old Arabian colt.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Barbara; Nation, Patrick N

    2011-12-01

    Mycotic encephalitis caused severe ataxia and other neurologic deficits in a horse. The finding of a single, large focus of cerebral malacia, with histopathologic evidence of fungal elements, suggested infection was a result of direct transfer from the frontal sinuses, rather than hematogenous spread from the guttural pouch.

  9. Pouch young removal and return to oestrus in wild southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Finlayson, G R; Taggart, D A; Shimmin, G A; White, C R; Dibben, R; Steele, V; Paris, M C J; Temple-Smith, P D

    2007-07-01

    The southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) is a seasonal breeding, burrowing marsupial adapted to a semi-arid environment and the closest relative of the endangered northern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii). Females typically give birth to one to two young every 3 years with young weaned at 360-400 days. This study examined the occurrence of polyoestry in a wild population of southern hairy-nosed wombats, and in particular the ability of this species to produce additional offspring in the same breeding season if a young was prematurely lost or removed. Pouch young were removed during the breeding seasons of 1996/1997 and 2003. No females from the 1996 (n=3)/1997 (n=3) group gave birth to a second pouch young in the same breeding season. However, two females in this group gave birth to young the following season. In contrast, all the 2003 group of females (n=6) produced a second offspring in the same breeding season after removal of pouch young (RPY). The reason for the different response to RPY between the two groups is unknown. These studies confirm that southern hairy-nosed wombats are polyoestrus in the wild and are capable of producing more than one offspring in a single breeding season. Females that failed to return to oestrus in the breeding season that pouch young were removed bred again in the following season. Rapid replacement of southern hairy-nosed wombat pouch young in the same breeding season as RPY suggests that this procedure, linked to either hand-rearing or interspecific cross-fostering, should be seriously considered as a priority conservation action to increase the population size of the critically endangered sister species, the northern hairy-nosed wombat.

  10. Measuring neoplastic transformation in the hamster cheek pouch using Fourier domain low-coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Robert N.; Chen, Xiaoxin; Brown, William; Wax, Adam

    2008-02-01

    Fourier Domain Low Coherence Interferometry (fLCI) is a promising technique which combines the depth resolution of low coherence interferometry with the sensitivity of light scattering spectroscopy for probing the health of epithelial tissue layers. Our new fLCI system configuration utilizes a white light Xe arc lamp source and a 4-f interferometer which re-images light scattered from the sample onto the detection plane. The system employs an imaging spectrometer at the detection plane to acquire depth resolved profiles from 252 adjacent spatial points without the need for any scanning. The limited spatial coherence of the light source requires the resolution of adjacent spatial points for the generation of depth information. Depth-resolved spectral information is recovered by performing a short-time Fourier transform on the detected spectra, similar to spectroscopic optical coherence tomography. Wavelength dependent variations in scattering intensity are analyzed as a function of depth to obtain information about the neoplastic transformation of the probed cells. Previous studies have demonstrated fLCI as an excellent technique for probing the scatterer morphology of simple phantoms and of in vitro cancer cell monolayers. We now seek to assess the ability of the new fLCI system to measure the health of subsurface tissue layers using the hamster cheek pouch model. Seven hamsters will have one cheek pouch treated with the known carcinogen DMBA. At the conclusion of the 24 week treatment period the animals will be anesthetized and the cheek pouches will be extracted. We will use the fLCI optical system to measure the neoplastic transformation of the in situ subsurface tissue layers in both the normal and DMBA-treated cheek pouches. Traditional histological analysis will be used to verify the fLCI measurements. We expect our results to establish the feasibility of fLCI to distinguish between healthy and dysplastic epithelial tissues in the hamster cheek pouch.

  11. The attraction of Mac-1+ phagocytes during acute inflammation by methyl-coated self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Judite N; Madureira, Pedro; Barbosa, Mário A; Aguas, Artur P

    2005-06-01

    We have used self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates on gold to study the contribution of methyl terminal functional groups in implant-triggered inflammation. The CH3-coated biomaterials were inserted in an air-pouch cavity of the BALB/c mouse and the in situ inflammatory response was monitored 4, 24, 48 and 72 h later. Flow cytometry was applied to define surface expression of the adhesion receptor Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18), a marker of activated leukocytes, and also of CD3 and B220 antigens (T and B lymphocytes). The CH3-coated surfaces caused a significant enhancement in the number of Mac-1+ cells in the implant. The only significant change in T and B lymphocytes was a transient increase in T cells detected 48 h after the implantation. Peak numbers of Mac-1+ phagocytes were observed 24 h after implantation. We conclude that if CH3 is present at the surface of implants, this chemical group will trigger a significant enhancement of activated phagocytes involved in the inflammatory reaction, and this phenomenon may extend the local phlogistic event.

  12. Crohn's-like complications in patients with ulcerative colitis after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, N S; Sanford, W W; Bodzin, J H

    1997-11-01

    Total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become an established surgical procedure for ulcerative colitis. Occasional patients who have undergone IPAA develop persistent or recurrent episodes of pouchitis (chronic pouchitis), from which a subset also develop gastrointestinal and systemic complications that are identical to those seen in Crohn's disease. These complications include enteric stenoses or fistulas in the pouch or pouch inlet segment, perianal fistulas or abscesses, pouch fistulas, arthritis, iridocyclitis, and pyoderma gangrenosum. The development of Crohn's-like gastrointestinal complications in a patient with chronic pouchitis frequently engenders concern that the pathologist misinterpreted the proctocolectomy specimen as ulcerative colitis instead of Crohn's disease. We describe eight patients who developed chronic pouchitis and Crohn's-like complications after IPAA and total proctocolectomy. In each case, concern was voiced about misinterpretation of the proctocolectomy specimen as ulcerative colitis instead of Crohn's disease after the development of the Crohn's-like complications. Preoperatively, all eight patients had characteristic clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of ulcerative colitis. Review of the pathology specimens indicated that all eight had ulcerative colitis. Crohn's-like complications are most likely related to chronic pouchitis, which probably is a form of recrudescent ulcerative colitis within the novel environment of the pouch. A diagnosis of Crohn's disease after IPAA surgery should only be made when reexamination of the original proctocolectomy specimen shows typical pathologic features of Crohn's disease, Crohn's disease arises in parts of the gastrointestinal tract distant from the pouch, pouch biopsies contain active enteritis with granulomas, or excised pouches show the characteristic features of Crohn's disease, including granulomas. There were no histologic differences in the total

  13. Quantile Regression Analysis of the Distributional Effects of Air Pollution on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate Variability, Blood Lipids, and Biomarkers of Inflammation in Elderly American Men: The Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Bind, Marie-Abele; Peters, Annette; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have observed associations between air pollution and heart disease. Susceptibility to air pollution effects has been examined mostly with a test of effect modification, but little evidence is available whether air pollution distorts cardiovascular risk factor distribution. Objectives: This paper aims to examine distributional and heterogeneous effects of air pollution on known cardiovascular biomarkers. Methods: A total of 1,112 men from the Normative Aging Study and residents of the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area with mean age of 69 years at baseline were included in this study during the period 1995–2013. We used quantile regression and random slope models to investigate distributional effects and heterogeneity in the traffic-related responses on blood pressure, heart rate variability, repolarization, lipids, and inflammation. We considered 28-day averaged exposure to particle number, PM2.5 black carbon, and PM2.5 mass concentrations (measured at a single monitor near the site of the study visits). Results: We observed some evidence suggesting distributional effects of traffic-related pollutants on systolic blood pressure, heart rate variability, corrected QT interval, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). For example, among participants with LDL cholesterol below 80 mg/dL, an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 black carbon exposure was associated with a 7-mg/dL (95% CI: 5, 10) increase in LDL cholesterol, while among subjects with LDL cholesterol levels close to 160 mg/dL, the same exposure was related to a 16-mg/dL (95% CI: 13, 20) increase in LDL cholesterol. We observed similar heterogeneous associations across low versus high percentiles of the LDL distribution for PM2.5 mass and particle number. Conclusions: These results suggest that air pollution distorts the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors, and that, for several outcomes, effects may be

  14. Pulmonary Inflammation Impacts on CYP1A1-Mediated Respiratory Tract DNA Damage Induced by the Carcinogenic Air Pollutant Benzo[a]pyrene

    PubMed Central

    Arlt, Volker M.; Krais, Annette M.; Godschalk, Roger W.; Riffo-Vasquez, Yanira; Mrizova, Iveta; Roufosse, Candice A.; Corbin, Charmaine; Shi, Quan; Frei, Eva; Stiborova, Marie; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan; Phillips, David H.; Spina, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammation can contribute to the development of lung cancer in humans. We investigated whether pulmonary inflammation alters the genotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the lungs of mice and what mechanisms are involved. To model nonallergic acute inflammation, mice were exposed intranasally to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 20 µg/mouse) and then instilled intratracheally with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP; 0.5 mg/mouse). BaP-DNA adduct levels, measured by 32P-postlabeling analysis, were approximately 3-fold higher in the lungs of LPS/BaP-treated mice than in mice treated with BaP alone. Pulmonary Cyp1a1 enzyme activity was decreased in LPS/BaP-treated mice relative to BaP-treated mice suggesting that pulmonary inflammation impacted on BaP-induced Cyp1a1 activity in the lung. Our results showed that Cyp1a1 appears to be important for BaP detoxification in vivo and that the decrease of pulmonary Cyp1a1 activity in LPS/BaP-treated mice results in a decrease of pulmonary BaP detoxification, thereby enhancing BaP genotoxicity (ie, DNA adduct formation) in the lung. Because less BaP was detoxified by Cyp1a1 in the lungs of LPS/BaP-treated mice, more BaP circulated via the blood to extrapulmonary tissues relative to mice treated with BaP only. Indeed, we observed higher BaP-DNA adduct levels in livers of LPS/BaP-treated mice compared with BaP-treated mice. Our results indicate that pulmonary inflammation could be a critical determinant in the induction of genotoxicity in the lung by PAHs like BaP. Cyp1a1 appears to be involved in both BaP bioactivation and detoxification although the contribution of other enzymes to BaP-DNA adduct formation in lung and liver under inflammatory conditions remains to be explored. PMID:25911668

  15. Cystic Endometrioma with Coexisting Fibroma Originating in a Supernumerary Ovary in the Rectovaginal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Asumi; Kodama, Hiroko; Ogura, Kanako; Miwa, Ayako; Sugimori, Yayoi; Matuoka, Shozo; Matsumoto, Toshiharu

    2017-01-01

    A supernumerary ovary is an exceedingly rare disorder, in which the structure containing ovarian tissue is located at some distance from the normally placed ovary. 16 cases of endometriosis or tumors originating in a supernumerary ovary have been published in the English literature, but no case of coexisting endometriosis and a tumor has been published. We present the case of a 40-year-old female with cystic endometrioma with coexisting fibroma originating in a supernumerary ovary in the rectovaginal pouch. The present case is the first to be reported with coexisting endometriosis and a tumor originating in a supernumerary ovary. Our experience with this case and the results of our previous studies of rectovaginal endometriosis indicated that the possibility of originating in a supernumerary ovary shall be examined in cases of cystic endometrioma in the rectovaginal pouch. PMID:28210515

  16. The relationship between hatching rate and number of embryos of the brood pouch in Littorina saxatilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde-Padín, P.; Carballo, M.; Caballero, A.; Rolán-Alvarez, E.

    2008-10-01

    Littorina saxatilis is an ovoviviparous organism in which shelled embryos can be directly observed in nearly all mature females captured in the wild. This characteristic has been used a number of times as an indirect estimate for fecundity of natural populations. However, there is no experimental corroboration that the number of embryos within a female brood pouch is actually related to the rate of hatching per unit of time, a more realistic estimate of female fecundity. In order to make this corroboration we estimated the correlation between the number of embryos in the brood pouch and the hatching rate of isolated females grown in the laboratory. We also compared the hatching rates of females from two sympatric ecotypes (RB and SU) of this species, which differ significantly in the number of embryos. We found a high agreement between hatching rate and number of embryos, concluding that the latter is a good proxy for fecundity.

  17. Determination of thermal process schedule for emulsion type buffalo meat block in retort pouch.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Mendirtta, S K; Murthy, T R K

    2014-11-01

    The process temperature for buffalo met blocks processed in retort pouches calculated based on the heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 in Phosphate buffer saline (PBS- Ph 7.0) as reference medium and in buffalo meat block (pH 6.28) was in the range of 110-121°C. The D values and Z values calculated for C.sporogenes PA 3679 confirmed that the suspension was best suited for conducting thermal resistance studies. The experiment for indirect confirmation of microbial safety of the products involving inoculating the buffalo meat emulsion filled in pouches with C.sporogenes PA 3679 and processed at Fo 12.13 min showed no growth of microorganisms.

  18. Nd:YAG photovaporization of residual equine guttural-pouch mycotic lesions after internal carotid occlusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Lloyd P.; Tudor, R. A.; Little, Edwina D. E.

    1998-07-01

    Hospital records reviewed over a 12-year period determined that 6 horses had been presented for guttural pouch mycosis. All had a history of epistaxis and several had accompanying neurologic signs, including dysphagia. Initially, conformation of the disease was obtained by radiographic and endoscopic examinations. Surgical treatment was directed at controlling and preventing additional hemorrhage by occluding the arterial source of the hemorrhage. Direct treatment of the mycotic plaque present within the guttural pouch was conducted using transendoscopic technique to direct irradiation from the Nd:YAG laser. The protocol described for the laser application was successful in resolving the lesions and was less complicated and stressful than previously reported topically applied chemical protocols.

  19. Guttural pouch mycosis in horses: a retrospective study of 28 cases.

    PubMed

    Dobesova, O; Schwarz, B; Velde, K; Jahn, P; Zert, Z; Bezdekova, B

    2012-12-01

    The medical records of 28 horses with guttural pouch mycosis were reviewed. The most commonly observed clinical signs were nasal discharge, epistaxis, dysphagia and/or cough. All 28 horses had the disease unilaterally, however, in five of them, it had spread into the contralateral pouch via the mesial septum. Three horses were treated medically, 11 horses underwent surgery and seven horses were treated both medically and surgically. Fifty percent of horses (14/28) were euthanased or died, fifty percent of horses (14/28) survived. There was no significant correlation between treatment method (medical, surgical, combination) and survival rate. The most common reason for euthanasia was dysphagia due to pharyngeal dysfunction. There was a highly significant correlation between the presence of dysphagia and non-survival (p=0.008).

  20. Marsupial tammar wallaby delivers milk bioactives to altricial pouch young to support lung development.

    PubMed

    Modepalli, Vengamanaidu; Hinds, Lyn A; Sharp, Julie A; Lefevre, Christophe; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2016-11-01

    Our research is exploiting the marsupial as a model to understand the signals required for lung development. Marsupials have a unique reproductive strategy, the mother gives birth to altricial neonate with an immature lung and the changes in milk composition during lactation in marsupials appears to provide bioactives that can regulate diverse aspects of lung development, including branching morphogenesis, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. These effects are seen with milk collected between 25 and 100days postpartum. To better understand the temporal effects of milk composition on postnatal lung development we used a cross-fostering technique to restrict the tammar pouch young to milk composition not extending beyond day 25 for 45days of its early postnatal life. These particular time points were selected as our previous study showed that milk protein collected prior to ~day 25 had no developmental effect on mouse embryonic lungs in culture. The comparative analysis of the foster group and control young at day 45 postpartum demonstrated that foster pouch young had significantly reduced lung size. The lungs in fostered young were comprised of large intermediate tissue, had a reduced size of airway lumen and a higher percentage of parenchymal tissue. In addition, expression of marker genes for lung development (BMP4, WNT11, AQP-4, HOPX and SPB) were significantly reduced in lungs from fostered young. Further, to identify the potential bioactive expressed by mammary gland that may have developmental effect on pouch young lungs, we performed proteomics analysis on tammar milk through mass-spectrometry and listed the potential bioactives (PDGF, IGFBP5, IGFBPL1 and EGFL6) secreted in milk that may be involved in regulating pouch young lung development. The data suggest that postnatal lung development in the tammar young is most likely regulated by maternal signalling factors supplied through milk.

  1. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Patients of Congenital Pouch Colon Following Definitive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Nand Kishor; Kumar, Praveen; Dabla, Pradeep Kumar; Jhanwar, Praveen; Chadha, Rajiv; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the nutritional status in 31 patients of congenital pouch colon (CPC) who had undergone definitive surgery and closure of a protective stoma, if any, at least 1 year earlier and were below 14 years age. Materials and Methods: The clinical history, demographic details, anthropometric measurements, and results of hematological and biochemical tests were recorded. In addition to collective data, analysis was also performed after grouping by age, subtype of CPC (Types I/II and Types III/IV CPC), and in Types I/II CPC patients, by whether the colonic pouch had been completely excised or else a segment preserved by tubular colorraphy (TC). Results: Severe fecal incontinence (FI) was common (64.52%). Anthropometry showed a significant malnutrition in 53.85–95.45% patients, especially stunting which was most prevalent in the 0–5 years age-group. Serum Vitamin B12, folate, and Vitamin D were lower than normal in 38.71%, 22.58%, and 74.19% patients, respectively, without statistically significant difference among the various groups studied. Patients with Types I/II CPC had a statistically significant higher incidence of anemia, low serum ferritin, and severe FI than patients with Types III/IV CPC. Patients with Types I/II CPC, managed by excision of the colonic pouch, had a higher incidence of severe FI, wasting, and thinness than those undergoing TC. Conclusions: On follow-up of the patients of CPC, anthropometry shows a high incidence of malnutrition, especially stunting in the 0–5 years age-group. There is an adequate adaptation of fluid-electrolyte homeostasis. Although Types I/II CPC patients have a significantly higher incidence of anemia and severe FI than Types III/IV CPC patients, long-term anthropometric parameters are similar. In Types I/II CPC, preservation of the colonic pouch by TC offers long-term benefit. PMID:28082770

  2. Expansion of Lithium Ion Pouch Cell Batteries: Observations from Neutron Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-21

    low C-rates the measured battery thickness was a function of State of Charge (SOC) and independent of a small external clamping force. A 0.3...Lee et al. in [4] measured the dimensional changes in lithium cobalt oxide pouch cells during cycling using a specialized dilatometer setup. They...and rates on electrode expansion was investigated. At low C-rates the measured battery thickness was a function of State of Charge (SOC) and independent

  3. Teaching Giant African Pouched Rats to Find Landmines: Operant Conditioning With Real Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532890

  4. Effects of chlorhexidine on the structure and permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, B.V.; Squier, C.A.; Hall, B.K.

    1984-10-01

    This study examined the effects of chlorhexidine (CHD) on the clinical appearance, morphology, and in vitro permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa. The cheek pouches were treated daily for 3 weeks with topical applications of saline, 0.2% CHD, or 2.0% CHD. Treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in the formation of discrete white lesions in every animal in the group, whereas no changes were identified in any animal treated with 0.2% CHD or saline. Upon microscopic examination it was determined that treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in a statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness, when compared to the other groups, and the lesions were found to consist of hyperplastic areas of epithelium with associated inflammatory cell accumulations. Daily treatments with 2.0% CHD, 0.2% CHD or saline had no effect on the very low permeability of cheek pouch mucosa to /sup 14/C-CHD. However, treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in decreased permeability to /sup 3/H/sub 2/O when compared to the other groups. Treatment with 2.0% CHD also resulted in a thickened permeability barrier, as determined using a tracer, horseradish peroxidase. It is concluded that topical applications of 0.2% T CHD have no detectable effect on cheek-pouch mucosa while applications of 2.0% CHD result in hyperplasia and a decrease in mucosal permeability. Results suggest that CHD should be used with caution clinically and at a concentration of 0.2% or less.

  5. Detecting neoplastic development in the hamster cheek pouch using Fourier domain low coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Robert N.; Robles, Francisco; Chen, Xiaoxin; Wax, Adam

    2009-02-01

    Fourier Domain Low Coherence Interferometry (fLCI) is an optical technique that recovers depth-resolved spectroscopic information about scatterers. The current fLCI system utilizes a white light Xe arc lamp source, a 4-f interferometer, and an imaging spectrometer at the detection plane to acquire spectra from 256 adjacent spatial points. This configuration permits the acquisition of ultrahigh depth resolution Fourier domain OCT images without the need for any beam scanning. fLCI has traditionally obtained depth-resolved spectral information by performing a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) on the detected spectra, similar to the processing techniques of spectroscopic OCT. We now employ a dual Gaussian window processing method which simultaneously obtains high spectral and temporal resolution, thus avoiding the resolution trade-off normally associated with the STFT. Wavelength dependent variations in scattering intensity are analyzed as a function of depth to obtain structural information about the probed scatterers. We now verify fLCI's ability to distinguish between normal and dysplastic epithelial tissue using the hamster cheek pouch model. Thirty hamsters will have one cheek pouch treated with the known carcinogen DMBA. At the conclusion of the 24 week treatment period the animals will be anesthetized and the cheek pouches will be extracted. We will use the fLCI optical system to measure the neoplastic transformation of the in situ subsurface tissue layers in both the normal and DMBA-treated cheek pouches. Traditional histological analysis will be used to verify the fLCI measurements. Our results will further establish fLCI as an effective method for distinguishing between normal and dysplastic epithelial tissues.

  6. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled “Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting,” as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  7. Comparative rice seed toxicity tests using filter paper, growth pouch-tm, and seed tray methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.

    1993-01-01

    Paper substrate, especially circular filter paper placed inside a Petri dish, has long been used for the plant seed toxicity test (PSTT). Although this method is simple and inexpensive, recent evidence indicates that it gives results that are significantly different from those obtained using a method that does not involve paper, especially when testing metal cations. The study compared PSTT using three methods: filter paper, Growth Pouch-TM, and seed tray. The Growth Pouch-TM is a commercially available device. The seed tray is a newly designed plastic receptacle placed inside a Petri dish. The results of the Growth Pouch-TM method showed no toxic effects on rice for Ag up to 40 mg L-1 and Cd up to 20 mg L-1. Using the seed tray method, IC50 (50% inhibitory effect concentration) values were 0.55 and 1.4 mg L-1 for Ag and Cd, respectively. Although results of filter paper and seed tray methods were nearly identical for NaF, Cr(VI), and phenol, the toxicities of cations Ag and Cd were reduced by using the filter paper method; IC50 values were 22 and 18 mg L-1, respectively. The results clearly indicate that paper substrate is not advisable for PSTT.

  8. Sunitinib Improves Some Clinical Aspects and Reverts DMBA-Induced Hyperplasic Lesions in Hamster Buccal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Fernanda Lopes; Oliveira, Mariana; Nunes, Marianne Brochado; Serafim, Lucas Horstmann; Azambuja, Alan Arrieira; Braga, Luisa Maria G. de M.; Saur, Lisiani; de Souza, Maria Antonieta Lopes; Xavier, Léder Leal

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a public health problem. The hamster buccal pouch model is ideal for analyzing the development of OSCC. This research analysed the effects of sunitinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) in precancerous lesions induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in this model. Thirty-four male hamsters, divided into six groups: control—C (n = 7), acetone—A (n = 12), carbamide peroxide—CP (n = 5 ), acetone and CP—A+CP (n = 8), 1% DMBA in acetone and CP—DA+CP (n = 6), and 1% DMBA in acetone and CP and 4-week treatment with sunitinib—DA+CP+S (n = 7). The aspects evaluated were anatomopathological features (peribuccal area, paws, nose, and fur), histological sections of the hamster buccal pouches (qualitatively analyzed), epithelium thickness, and the rete ridge density (estimated). Sunitinib was unable to attenuate the decrease in weight gain induced by DMBA; no increase in volume was detected in the pouch and/or ulceration, observed in 43% of the animals in the DA+CP group. DA+CP groups presented a significant increase in rete ridge density compared to the control groups (P < 0.01) which was reverted by sunitinib in the DA+CP+S group. Sunitinib seems to have important benefits in early stage carcinogenesis and may be useful in chemoprevention. PMID:24693453

  9. Endoscopic treatment of leak at the tip of the “J” ileal pouch

    PubMed Central

    Kochhar, Gursimran Singh; Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims The tip of the “J” of the ileal pouch is the vulnerable location for leak after restorative proctocolectomy, which has normally been treated with surgery. We aimed to describe a novel endoscopic method to treat the same. Patients and methods A cohort of 12 consecutive patients with a leak at the tip of the “J” was identified in our prospectively maintained Pouch Registry. The endoscopic over-the-scope clipping (OTSC) system was used for the closure of the leak. Results Eight patients (66.6 %) achieved complete closure of the leak documented by endoscopy confirmed with guidewire and/or contrasted pouchogram, with 6 requiring a single endoscopic session and 2 undergoing a repeat session. Four patients (33.3 %) had a persistent leak and required surgical intervention, of whom 1 developed abscess in the pre-spine region 14 days after the endoscopic procedure and underwent pouch revision surgery. Conclusions OSTC appears to be safe and effective in treating the leak at the tip of the “J” in the majority of patients. PMID:28180150

  10. Air pollution source apportionment before, during, and after the 2008 Beijing Olympics and association of sources to aldehydes and biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress in healthy young adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altemose, Brent A.

    Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of air pollution data collected during the Summer Olympic Games held in Beijing, China during 2008, the five source types of air pollution identified -- natural soil/road dust, vehicle and industrial combustion, vegetative burning, oil combustion, and secondary formation, were all distinctly lower during the Olympics. This was particularly true for vehicle and industrial combustion and oil combustion, and during the main games period between the opening and closing ceremonies. The reduction in secondary formation was reflective of a reduction in nitrogen oxides, but this also contributed to increased ozone concentrations during the Olympic period. Among three toxic aldehydes measured in Beijing during the same time period, only acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Accordingly, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion, and with several pollutants emitted mainly from primary sources. In contrast, formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the Olympic air pollution control period; accordingly both were significantly correlated with ozone and with the secondary formation source type. These findings indicate primary sources may dominate for acetaldehyde while secondary sources may dominate for formaldehyde and acrolein. Biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation (exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, exhaled nitric oxide, and EBC nitrite) and hemostasis and blood coagulation (vWF and sCD62p) were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The systemic inflammation biomarker 8-OHdG was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. In contrast, the associations between the biomarkers and the aldehydes were generally not significant or in the hypothesized direction, although

  11. Dietary turmeric modulates DMBA-induced p21{sup ras}, MAP kinases and AP-1/NF-{kappa}B pathway to alter cellular responses during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Rachana; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish

    2008-11-01

    The chemopreventive efficacy of turmeric has been established in experimental systems. However, its mechanism(s) of action are not fully elucidated in vivo. The present study investigates the mechanism of turmeric-mediated chemoprevention in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 weeks. Dietary turmeric (1%) led to decrease in DMBA-induced tumor burden and multiplicity, and enhanced the latency period in parallel, to its modulatory effects on oncogene products and various cellular responses during HBP tumorigenesis. DMBA-induced expression of ras oncogene product, p21 and downstream target, the mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly decreased by turmeric during HBP carcinogenesis. Turmeric also diminished the DMBA-induced mRNA expression of proto-oncogenes (c-jun, c-fos) and NF-{kappa}B, leading to decreased protein levels and in further attenuation of DMBA-induced AP-1/NF-{kappa}B DNA-binding in the buccal pouch nuclear extracts. Besides, buccal pouch of hamsters receiving turmeric diet showed significant alterations in DMBA-induced effects: (a) decrease in cell proliferation (diminished PCNA and Bcl2 expression), (b) enhanced apoptosis (increased expression of Bax, caspase-3 and apoptotic index), (c) decrease in inflammation (levels of Cox-2, the downstream target of AP-1/NF-{kappa}B, and PGE2) and (d) aberrant expression of differentiation markers, the cytokeratins (1, 5, 8, and 18). Together, the protective effects of dietary turmeric converge on augmenting apoptosis of the initiated cells and decreasing cell proliferation in DMBA-treated animals, which in turn, is reflected in decreased tumor burden, multiplicity and enhanced latency period. Some of these biomarkers are likely to be helpful in monitoring clinical trials and evaluating drug effect measurements.

  12. Inflammation and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Inflammation and Heart Disease Updated:Oct 12,2016 Understand the risks of ... inflammation causes cardiovascular disease, inflammation is common for heart disease and stroke patients and is thought to be ...

  13. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in rats after intratracheal instillation or oral exposure to ambient air and wood smoke particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Autrup, Herman; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Wallin, Håkan; Møller, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Wood combustion is a significant source of ambient particulate matter (PM) in many regions of the world. Exposure occurs through inhalation or ingestion after deposition of wood smoke particulate matter (WSPM) on crops and food. We investigated effects of ambient PM and WSPM by intragastric or intratracheal exposure in terms of oxidative stress, inflammation, genotoxicity, and DNA repair after 24 h in liver and lung tissue of rats. Rats were exposed to WSPM from high or low oxygen combustion and ambient PM collected in areas with and without many operating wood stoves or carbon black (CB) at the dose of 0.64 mg/kg body weight. The levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine, and 1-N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (εdG) were significantly increased with 23% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-45%), 54% (95% CI:18-90%), and 73% (95% CI: 31-134%) in the liver of rats exposed orally to CB, respectively. Rats orally exposed to PM from the wood stove area and low oxygen combustion WSPM (LOWS) had 35% (95% CI: 0.1-71%) and 45% (95% CI: 10-82%) increased levels of εdG in the liver, respectively. No significant differences were observed for bulky DNA adducts. Increased gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, heme oxygenase-1, and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 was observed in the liver following intragastric exposure and in the lung following instillation in particular of LOWS. Exposure to LOWS also increased the proportion of neutrophils in BAL fluid. These results indicate that WSPM and CB exert the strongest effect in terms of oxidative stress-induced response, inflammation, and genotoxicity in the organ closest to the port of entry.

  14. Localised inhibition of FGF signalling in the third pharyngeal pouch is required for normal thymus and parathyroid organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Jennifer R; Jackson, Abigail L; Gordon, Julie; Lickert, Heiko; Manley, Nancy R; Basson, M Albert

    2012-09-01

    The thymus and parathyroid glands are derived from the third pharyngeal pouch endoderm. The mechanisms that establish distinct molecular domains in the third pouch and control the subsequent separation of these organ primordia from the pharynx are poorly understood. Here, we report that mouse embryos that lack two FGF feedback antagonists, Spry1 and Spry2, display parathyroid and thymus hypoplasia and a failure of these organ primordia to completely separate from the pharynx. We show that FGF ligands and downstream reporter genes are expressed in highly regionalised patterns in the third pouch and that sprouty gene deletion results in upregulated FGF signalling throughout the pouch endoderm. As a consequence, the initiation of markers of parathyroid and thymus fate is altered. In addition, a normal apoptotic programme that is associated with the separation of the primordia from the pharynx is disrupted, resulting in the maintenance of a thymus-pharynx attachment and a subsequent inability of the thymus to migrate to its appropriate position above the heart. We demonstrate that the sprouty genes function in the pharyngeal endoderm itself to control these processes and that the defects in sprouty-deficient mutants are, at least in part, due to hyper-responsiveness to Fgf8. Finally, we provide evidence to suggest that parathyroid hypoplasia in these mutants is due to early gene expression defects in the third pouch, whereas thymus hypoplasia is caused by reduced proliferation of thymic epithelial cells in the thymus primordium.

  15. Postprocess contamination of flexible pouches challenged by in situ immersion biotest.

    PubMed

    Song, Y S; Hargraves, W A

    1998-12-01

    Packages were evaluated for leaks by determining microbial penetration through microchannels as a function of test organism concentration, location in a retort, and microchannel diameter and length. A flexible pouch was used in an in situ immersion biotest coupled with a state-of-the-art retort. Microchannel diameters of 10 to 661 microm with 3- and 6-mm lengths were created by placing tungsten wires in vacuum heat-sealed flexible pouches. After removing the wires, these pouches were subsequently heat processed under pressure. They were then biotested in cooling water containing 10(3) and 10(6) CFU of motile Enterobacter aerogenes per ml for 30 min and were dried immediately after manual unloading. After incubation at 37 degrees C for 3 days, they were visually examined for contamination. The high-temperature retorting process was shown to decrease microchannel diameters by an average of 20%. Generally, the smaller the microchannel diameter, the greater the percent shrinkage. Statistical analysis of the biotesting data showed that microchannel diameter and length had strong effects on microbial penetration (P < 0.01). Microbial concentration had a borderline significant effect (P < 0.05), but the effect of package location in the retort was not significant. At conservative conditions, such as a 3-mm microchannel length and a cooling water contamination level of 10(6) CFU/ml, the selected microorganism can penetrate microchannels with diameters as small as 7 microm. However, the minimum microchannel diameter for penetration could be as large as 46 microm at practical conditions of 6-mm microchannel length and contamination levels of 10(3) CFU/ml.

  16. Association between gastro-intestinal symptoms and menstruation in patients with ileal pouches

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Wu, Xian-rui; Barber, Matthew D.; Queener, Elaine; Graff, Lesley; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Gastro-intestinal (GI) symptoms are often experienced by healthy women during menstruation. An increased frequency of GI symptoms during menses has also been reported in women with irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, IBD patients with restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomoses (IPAA) have not been studied. We aimed to examine the association between GI symptoms before and during menses in patients with IPAA, and to assess factors for exacerbation of GI symptoms in those patients. Methods: Adult women recorded in the Pouchitis Registry were invited to participate in a mailed survey. Participants reported on GI symptoms 1–5 days prior to- (pre-menses) and during the days of their menses in recent months. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained through the survey and chart review. Results: One hundred and twenty-eight (21.3%) out of 600 women with IPAA responded to the survey questionnaire. Forty-three (33.5%) were excluded for reasons including post-menopausal (n = 25), hysterectomy (n = 14) and use of contraceptives (n = 4). Abdominal pain (P = 0.001), diarrhea (P = 0.021), and urgency (P = 0.031) were more commonly reported during menses than pre-menses by the participants. Only a history of painful menses was significantly associated with increased GI symptoms during menses for patients with ileal pouch (odds ratio = 5.67; 95% confidence interval: 1.41–22.88; P = 0.015). Conclusion: GI symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and urgency are commonly associated with menses in patients with ileo-anal pouch. Painful menses may be associated with worsening of GI symptoms. PMID:25016379

  17. In vitro inhibitory effect of onion extract on hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Niukian, K; Schwartz, J; Shklar, G

    1987-01-01

    In vitro studies were performed that used varying concentrations of onion extract added to cell cultures of an epidermoid carcinoma cell line derived from hamster buccal pouch carcinoma (HCPC-1). The studies demonstrated tumor growth inhibition beginning after 24 hours of incubation at an onion extract concentration of 25% and above in culture media. After 4 days and 10 days of incubation, there was a noted decrease in tumor proliferation. The plating efficiency for 24 hours was observed to produce a 54-89% inhibition in plating density. The results indicated here provide in vitro evidence of the inhibitory and cytotoxic activity on an oral carcinoma cell line.

  18. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Rajiv; Puri, Manju; Saxena, Rahul; Agarwala, Surendrakumar; Puri, Archana; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC), uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract.

  19. The Effects of Antigen-Specific IgG1 Antibody for the Pulmonary-Hypertension-Phenotype and B Cells for Inflammation in Mice Exposed to Antigen and Fine Particles from Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Chen, Wen-Chi; Durmus, Nedim; Bleck, Bertram; Reibman, Joan; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Grunig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is known to exacerbate chronic inflammatory conditions of the lungs including pulmonary hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and autoimmune diseases. Directly pathogenic antibodies bind pro-inflammatory cell receptors and cause or exacerbate inflammation. In contrast, anti-inflammatory antibody isotypes (e.g. mouse immunoglobulin G1, IgG1) bind inhibitory cell receptors and can inhibit inflammation. Our previous studies showed that co-exposure to antigen and urban ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) induced severe pulmonary arterial thickening and increased right ventricular systolic pressures in mice via T-cell produced cytokines, Interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-17A. The aim of the current study was to understand how B cell and antibody responses integrate into this T cell cytokine network for the pulmonary hypertension phenotype. Special focus was on antigen-specific IgG1 that is the predominant antibody in the experimental response to antigen and urban ambient PM2.5. Wild type and B cell-deficient mice were primed with antigen and then challenged with antigen and urban particulate matter and injected with antibodies as appropriate. Our data surprisingly showed that B cells were necessary for the development of increased right ventricular pressures and molecular changes in the right heart in response to sensitization and intranasal challenge with antigen and PM2.5. Further, our studies showed that both, the increase in right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular molecular changes were restored by reconstituting the B cell KO mice with antigen specific IgG1. In addition, our studies identified a critical, non-redundant role of B cells for the IL-17A-directed inflammation in response to exposure with antigen and PM2.5, which was not corrected with antigen-specific IgG1. In contrast, IL-13-directed inflammatory markers, as well as severe pulmonary arterial remodeling induced by challenge with antigen and PM2.5 were similar in B cell

  20. Redo Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis combined with anti-TNF-α maintenance therapy for Crohn's disease with pelvic fistula: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Araki, Toshimitsu; Okita, Yoshiki; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Ohi, Masaki; Tanaka, Koji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-10-01

    Pouch failure has been reported to occur after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for Crohn's disease. We report two cases of patients with Crohn's disease, who underwent redo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (redo-IPAA) combined with anti-TNF-α maintenance therapy, with good functional results. The first patient, a man with presumed ulcerative colitis, suffered pelvic fistula recurrence and anastomotic dehiscence. He underwent redo-IPAA, at which time longitudinal ulcers were found. Infliximab was started 4 days postoperatively and continued. The second patient, a woman treated for ulcerative colitis, underwent laparoscopic IPAA 8 years later. After the development of a pelvic fistula, twisted mesentery of the ileal pouch was found intraoperatively and Crohn's disease was diagnosed. Adalimumab therapy resulted in fistula closure. Redo-IPAA was performed to normalize the twisted mesentery of the ileal pouch. No complications have been observed in either patient, both of whom have experienced good functional results after closure of the covering stomas.

  1. Thermal behavior and electrochemical heat generation in a commercial 40 Ah lithium ion pouch cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Elke; Ziebert, Carlos; Melcher, Andreas; Rohde, Magnus; Seifert, Hans Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative data on the thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries under charging and discharging conditions are essential for designing thermal management systems and improving battery safety. In this work, commercial 40 Ah lithium ion pouch cells with Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathodes were tested under isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions in an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter at different charging/discharging currents from 5 A to 40 A. Adiabatic tests simulate the worst-case scenario of a battery pack without cooling. For charging and discharging an overall exothermic behavior was found and a total temperature increase for one half cycle between 3 and 11 K. Isoperibolic tests simulate a single cell under constant environmental temperature. Here an exothermic behavior for discharging and an endothermic behavior for charging were observed. To transfer the measured temperature changes into heat data, the effective specific heat capacity and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. For the first time the heat generation data for a large format pouch cell have been determined using both isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions. These data were compared with the total heat data calculated as the sum of reversible and irreversible heat that were measured by potentiometric and current interruption techniques respectively. A good agreement was found between all three heat generation determination methods.

  2. The pouch and tunnel technique for management of multiple gingival recession defects

    PubMed Central

    Dani, Sneha; Dhage, Aditi; Gundannavar, Gayatri

    2014-01-01

    The desire for improved esthetics has increased tremendously over the years. Periodontal plastic surgery deals with regenerative procedures designed to restore form, function and enhance esthetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of subepithelial connective tissue graft using pouch and tunnel technique as root coverage procedure. Three patients corresponding to a total of 8 sites participated in the study. Maxillary teeth with miller's class I gingival recession were included in the study. All the sites were treated using subepithelial connective tissue graft using pouch and tunneling technique. Patients were followed up for a period of 6 months and 1 year. All the treated teeth showed 100% root coverage at the end of 6 months and 1 year. Gingival recession is a common occurrence and its prevalence increases with age. It can lead to clinical problems, diminished cosmetic appeal and hence esthetic concern. There are various techniques for root coverage. Subepithelial connective tissue graft has shown the best predictability (95%) of root coverage in Millers class I & II cases. This technique preserves the intermediate papilla, accelerates the initial wound healing & also applies less traction. Due to minimal trauma at the recipient site, this procedure may be advantageous in treatment of recession as compared to other treatment modalities. PMID:25624637

  3. Perchloric acid-soluble proteins from goat liver inhibit chemical carcinogenesis of Syrian hamster cheek-pouch carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzo, F; Berta, G N; Bussolati, B; Bosio, A; Corvetti, G; Di Carlo, F; Bussolati, G; Guglielmone, R; Bartorelli, A

    1999-01-01

    Chemically induced Syrian hamster cheek-pouch squamous cell carcinoma is very similar to the corresponding human tumour. This paper describes a blind study in which inhibition of dimethylbenzanthracene-induced cheek-pouch tumours by a goat liver extract denominated UK101 was investigated. Less than 40% of animals treated with UK101 developed tumours compared with 100% of the controls. Intermediate results (80%) were noted in a positive control group treated with Calmette–Guérin bacillus. Immunocytochemical testing of cheek-pouch mucosa by Mib5 showed significantly less proliferating cells in UK101 animals than in the controls. The effect of UK101 was completely reversed when dexamethasone was added in a third control group. A significant difference in complement-mediated cytotoxicity was noted in the sera of UK101-tested and control animals. These findings suggest that an immune mechanism is responsible for the inhibition of hamster cheek-pouch carcinoma by UK101. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408693

  4. Severe Dumping Syndrome in a 6-year-old Girl with Congenital Microgastria Treated by Hunt-Lawrence Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Filisetti, Claudia; Maestri, Luciano; Meroni, Milena; Marinoni, Federica; Riccipetitoni, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    Microgastria is a rare congenital condition often associated with other anomalies. In the present report we describe the case of a 6-year-old girl with isolated CM who presented with dumping syndrome successfully treated by a Hunt-Lawrence pouch. PMID:28361011

  5. Pouchitis-associated iritis (uveitis) following total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-to-anal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Freeman, H J

    2001-02-01

    A 26-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis treated with a proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-to-anal anastomosis developed an erosive and ulcerative pouchitis. Although no ophthalmological manifestations were present before the staged surgical procedures, iritis developed after appearance of the pouchitis. Both conditions subsequently resolved with oral corticosteroids and metronidazole.

  6. Relation Between Inflammables and Ignition Sources in Aircraft Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scull, Wilfred E

    1950-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to determine the relation between aircraft ignition sources and inflammables. Available literature applicable to the problem of aircraft fire hazards is analyzed and, discussed herein. Data pertaining to the effect of many variables on ignition temperatures, minimum ignition pressures, and minimum spark-ignition energies of inflammables, quenching distances of electrode configurations, and size of openings incapable of flame propagation are presented and discussed. The ignition temperatures and the limits of inflammability of gasoline in air in different test environments, and the minimum ignition pressure and the minimum size of openings for flame propagation of gasoline - air mixtures are included. Inerting of gasoline - air mixtures is discussed.

  7. Relation between inflammables and ignition sources in aircraft environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scull, Wilfred E

    1951-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to determine the relation between aircraft ignition sources and inflammables. Available literature applicable to the problem of aircraft fire hazards is analyzed and discussed. Data pertaining to the effect of many variables on ignition temperatures, minimum ignition pressures, minimum spark-ignition energies of inflammables, quenching distances of electrode configurations, and size of openings through which flame will not propagate are presented and discussed. Ignition temperatures and limits of inflammability of gasoline in air in different test environments, and the minimum ignition pressures and minimum size of opening for flame propagation in gasoline-air mixtures are included; inerting of gasoline-air mixtures is discussed.

  8. FGF23 and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf El Din, Usama A A; Salem, Mona M; Abdulazim, Dina O

    2017-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is a recognized feature in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The role of systemic inflammation in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification was recently settled. FGF23 was recently accused as a direct stimulus of systemic inflammation. This finding explains the strong association of FGF23 to vascular calcification and increased mortality among CKD. PMID:28101453

  9. Label-free vascular imaging in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model for pre-cancer detection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fangyao; Morhard, Robert; Liu, Heather; Murphy, Helen; Farsiu, Sina; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2016-03-01

    Inducing angiogenesis is one hallmark of cancer. Tumor induced neovasculature is often characterized as leaky, tortuous and chaotic, unlike a highly organized normal vasculature. Additionally, in the course of carcinogenesis, angiogenesis precedes a visible lesion. Tumor cannot grow beyond 1-2 mm in diameter without inducing angiogenesis. Therefore, capturing the event of angiogenesis may aid early detection of pre-cancer -important for better treatment prognoses in regions that lack the resources to manage invasive cancer. In this study, we imaged the neovascularization in vivo in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model using a, non-invasive, label-free, high resolution, reflected-light spectral darkfield microscope. Hamsters' cheek pouches were painted with 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to induce pre-cancerous to cancerous changes, or mineral oil as control. High resolution spectral darkfield images were obtained over the course of pre-cancer development and in control cheek pouches. The vasculature was segmented with a multi-scale Gabor filter with an 85% accuracy compared with manually traced masks. Highly tortuous vasculature was observed only in the DMBA treated cheek pouches as early as 6 weeks of treatment. In addition, the highly tortuous vessels could be identified before a visible lesion occurred later during the treatment. The vessel patterns as determined by the tortuosity index were significantly different from that of the control cheek pouch. This preliminary study suggests that high-resolution darkfield microscopy is promising tool for pre-cancer and early cancer detection in low resource settings.

  10. J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after gastrectomy: functional assessment and quality of life (randomized trial)

    PubMed Central

    Zonča, Pavel; Malý, Tomáš; Ihnát, Peter; Peteja, Matus; Kraft, Otakar; Kuca, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and functional emptying of J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after total gastrectomy for malignancy. Methods This study was designed as a prospective, nonblinded, randomized, parallel clinical trial (Trial Number: MN Ostrava, 200604). With informed consent, patients undergoing gastrectomy for malignancy were randomized to J-pouch or Roux-en-Y reconstruction. The time taken for a test semisolid meal labeled with 99mTc-sulfur colloid to exit the reconstructed parts was measured by dynamic scintigraphy 1 year after resection. Quality of life was measured using the Eypasch questionnaire at the same time as functional emptying assessment. This trial was investigator-initiated. Results In all, 72 patients were included into the study. The time taken for the test meal to exit the postgastrectomy reconstruction was 16.5±10.0 minutes (mean ± standard deviation) in the Roux-en-Y group and 89.4±37.8 minutes in the “J-pouch” group; the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Emptying of the J-pouch appeared to be a linear decreasing function compared to the exponential pattern seen in the Roux-en-Y group. The quality of life measurement showed scores of 106±18.8 points (mean ± standard deviation) in the Roux-en-Y group compared to 122±22.5 points in the J-pouch group; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0016). There were no important adverse events. Conclusion After total gastrectomy, a J-pouch reconstruction empties more slowly and is associated with higher quality of life compared to Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Whether these two observations have a direct causative link remains unanswered. PMID:28031718

  11. Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch: initial development and preliminary performance assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Iseli, A.M.; Kwen, H.D.; Ul-Alam, M.; Balasubramanian, M.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2011-11-07

    The objective is to produce a proof of concept prototype Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch (ECHRP) with self-decontamination capability to provide increased protection to emergency response personnel. The key objective was to decrease the concentration of toxic chemicals through the use of an absorbent and reactive nanocellulose liner. Additionally, nanomaterials with biocidal properties were developed and tested as a 'stand-alone' treatment. The setting was a private company research laboratory. The main outcome measures were production of a functional prototype. A functional prototype capable of mitigating the threats due to sulfur mustard, Soman, and a large variety of liquid and vapor toxic industrial chemicals was produced. Stand-alone biocidal treatment efficacy was validated. The ECHRP provides superior protection from both chemical and biological hazards to various emergency response personnel and human remains handlers.

  12. Ultrasonography of wallaby prenatal development shows that the climb to the pouch begins in utero

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Barbara; Roellig, Kathleen; Menzies, Brandon R.; Shaw, Geoff; Buentjen, Ina; Herbert, Catherine A.; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Renfree, Marilyn B.

    2013-01-01

    Marsupials have a functional placenta for a shorter period of time compared to that of eutherian species, and their altricial young reach the teats without any help from the mother. We have monitored the short intrauterine development of one marsupial, the tammar wallaby, with high-resolution ultrasound from reactivation of the 100-cell diapausing blastocyst to birth. The expanding blastocyst could be visualized when it had reached a diameter of 1.5 mm. From at least halfway through pregnancy, there are strong undulating movements of the endometrium that massage the expanding vesicle against the highly secretory endometrial surface. These unique movements possibly enhance exchange of uterine secretions and gases between the mother and embryo. There was a constant rate of development measured ultrasonographically from mid-gestation, regardless of when the blastocyst reactivated. Interestingly climbing movements by the fetus began in utero about 3 days before birth, mimicking those required to climb to the pouch. PMID:23492830

  13. USING TRAINED POUCHED RATS TO DETECT LAND MINES: ANOTHER VICTORY FOR OPERANT CONDITIONING

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m2 of land, finding 41 mines and 54 other explosive devices. Humans with metal detectors found no additional mines. On average, the rats emitted 0.33 false alarm for every 100 m2 searched, which is below the threshold given by International Mine Action Standards for accrediting mine-detection animals. These findings indicate that Cricetomys are accurate mine-detection animals and merit continued use in this capacity. PMID:21709791

  14. Combination chemoprevention of hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by bovine milk lactoferrin and black tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Mohan, K V P Chandra; Letchoumy, P Vidjaya; Hara, Y; Nagini, S

    2008-03-01

    Combination chemoprevention is a promising approach for oral cancer prevention. The authors evaluated the combined chemopreventive effects of bovine milk lactoferrin (bLF) and black tea polyphenols (Polyphenon-B) in a clinically relevant in vivo model of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Although dietary administration of bLF and Polyphenon-B alone significantly reduced the tumor incidence, combined administration of bLF and polyphenon-B was more effective in inhibiting DMBA-induced genotoxicity and development of HBP carcinomas by modulation of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and cellular redox status. These results suggest that a "designer item" approach will be useful for human oral cancer prevention strategies.

  15. Ultrasonography of wallaby prenatal development shows that the climb to the pouch begins in utero.

    PubMed

    Drews, Barbara; Roellig, Kathleen; Menzies, Brandon R; Shaw, Geoff; Buentjen, Ina; Herbert, Catherine A; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2013-01-01

    Marsupials have a functional placenta for a shorter period of time compared to that of eutherian species, and their altricial young reach the teats without any help from the mother. We have monitored the short intrauterine development of one marsupial, the tammar wallaby, with high-resolution ultrasound from reactivation of the 100-cell diapausing blastocyst to birth. The expanding blastocyst could be visualized when it had reached a diameter of 1.5 mm. From at least halfway through pregnancy, there are strong undulating movements of the endometrium that massage the expanding vesicle against the highly secretory endometrial surface. These unique movements possibly enhance exchange of uterine secretions and gases between the mother and embryo. There was a constant rate of development measured ultrasonographically from mid-gestation, regardless of when the blastocyst reactivated. Interestingly climbing movements by the fetus began in utero about 3 days before birth, mimicking those required to climb to the pouch.

  16. Using giant African pouched rats to detect human tuberculosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Mahoney, Amanda; Beyene, Negussie; Mgode, Georgies; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Durgin, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Despite its characteristically low sensitivity, sputum smear microscopy remains the standard for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in resource-poor countries. In an attempt to develop an alternative or adjunct to microscopy, researchers have recently examined the ability of pouched rats to detect TB-positive human sputum samples and the microbiological variables that affect their detection. Ten published studies, reviewed herein, suggest that the rats are able to detect the specific odor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes TB, and can substantially increase new-case detections when used for second-line TB screening following microscopy. Further research is needed to ascertain the rats' ability to detect TB in children and in HIV-positive patients, to detect TB when used for first-line screening, and to be useful in broad-scale applications where cost-effectiveness is a major consideration.

  17. Malignant familial adenomatous polyposis treated by laparoscopic colectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zaharie, Florin; Ciorogar, George; Zaharie, Roxana; Tantau, Marcel; Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Lucian

    2014-12-01

    The mean age of colorectal cancer in untreated familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is 39 years. We present the case of a 21-year-old patient with FAP and colorectal cancer. The patient was detected with significant family history: her mother died at age 45 with colon cancer; two uncles were diagnosed with colon cancer at the age of 40 and 43 and one aunt at the age of 45 with colon cancer and gastric cancer. The treatment was laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy with total excision of the mesorectum and ileal pouch anal anastomosis completed with endoanal excision of inferior rectal polyps. The histopathological report described a well differentiated rectal adenocarcinoma T1N1aMx developed on a tubulo-villous adenoma located on the rectosigmoid jonction, the rest of the polyps with benign histology.

  18. Chronic treatment of female tammar wallabies with deslorelin implants during pouch life: effects on reproductive maturation.

    PubMed

    Herbert, C A; Eckery, D C; Trigg, T E; Cooper, D W

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on attempts to delay puberty in a model marsupial species using the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist deslorelin. Female tammar wallaby pouch young received deslorelin (5 mg) or placebo implants (n=8/group) when they were 193±2 days old. Sexual maturity was significantly delayed in deslorelin-treated animals, with the first successful production of offspring in treated and control animals occurring at 813±62 and 430±42 days of age, respectively. This delay was associated with a period of retarded pouch and teat development. Progesterone concentrations remained at basal levels throughout the first breeding season, indicating the absence of luteal cycles in treated females. Recovery and maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis was a gradual process. Treated animals failed to respond to GnRH challenge at 12 months of age and had a reduced LH response at 18 months of age, before attaining full responsiveness by 24 months of age. Despite this apparent pituitary recovery by 24 months of age, as evidenced by complete teat eversion and LH responsiveness to GnRH, the time to first parturition was significantly delayed beyond this time in three females. This suggests that there may be longer-lasting effects at the level of the ovary and/or on FSH secretion. The significant delay in the onset of sexual maturation in response to chronic GnRH agonist treatment in this model marsupial species may be of practical significance to the management of fertility in captive and semi-free range marsupial populations.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE GASTRO-JEJUNO-DUODENAL TRANSIT AFTER JEJUNAL POUCH INTERPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Alcino Lázaro; GOMES, Célio Geraldo de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Background : The jejunal pouch interposition between the gastric body and the duodenum after the gastrectomy, although not frequent in the surgical practice today, has been successfully employed for the prevention and treatment of the postgastrectomy syndromes. In the latter, it is included the dumping syndrome, which affects 13-58% of the patients who undergo gastrectomy. Aim : Retrospective assessment of the results of this procedure for the prevention of the dumping syndrome. Methods : Fourty patients were selected and treatetd surgically for peptic ulcer, between 1965 and 1970. Of these, 29 underwent vagotomy, antrectomy, gastrojejunalduodenostomy at the lesser curvature level, and the 11 remaining were submitted to vagotomy, antrectomy, gastrojejunal-duodenostomy at the greater curvature level. The gastro-jejuno-duodenal transit was assessed in the immediate or late postoperative with the contrasted study of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. The clinical evolution was assessed according to the Visick grade. Results : Of the 40 patients, 28 were followed with the contrast evaluation in the late postoperative. Among those who were followed until the first month (n=22), 20 (90%) had slow gastro-jejuno-duodenal transit and in two (10%) the transit was normal. Among those who were followed after the first month (n=16), three (19%) and 13 (81%) had slow and normal gastric emptying, respectively. None had the contrasted exam compatible with the dumping syndrome. Among the 40 patients, 22 underwent postoperative clinical evaluation. Of these, 19 (86,5%) had excellent and good results (Visick 1 and 2, respectively). Conclusions : The jejunal pouch interposition showed to be a very effective surgical procedure for the prevention of the dumping syndrome in gastrectomized patients. PMID:26734789

  20. Cross-fostering of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) pouch young accelerates fore-stomach maturation.

    PubMed

    Kwek, Joly H L; Iongh, Robbert De; Digby, Matthew R; Renfree, Marilyn B; Nicholas, Kevin R; Familari, Mary

    2009-01-01

    There are two phases of fore-stomach development during the first 200 days of pouch life in tammar wallaby. For the first 170 days, the mucosa displays an immature gastric glandular phenotype that changes to a cardia glandular phenotype, which remains for the rest of the animal's life. During this 200-day period after birth, the pouch young (PY) is dependent on maternal milk, which progressively changes in composition. We showed previously that PY cross-fostered to host mothers at a later stage of lactation accelerated development. In this study, we investigated whether cross-fostering and exposure to late lactation stage milk affected the transition to cardia glandular phenotype. In fostered PY fore-stomach, there was increased apoptosis, but no change in cell proliferation. The parietal cell population was significantly reduced, and expression of gastric glandular phenotype marker genes (ATP4A, GKN2, GHRL and NDRG2) was down-regulated, suggesting down-regulation of gastric phenotype in fostered PY fore-stomach. The expression of cardia glandular phenotype genes (MUC4, KRT20, CSTB, ITLN2 and LPLUNC1) was not changed in fostered PY. These data suggest that fore-stomach maturation proceeds via two temporally distinct processes: down-regulation of gastric glandular phenotype and initiation of cardia glandular phenotype. In fostered PY, these two processes appear uncoupled, as gastric glandular phenotype was down-regulated but cardia glandular phenotype was not initiated. We propose that milk from later stages of lactation and/or herbage consumed by the PY may play independent roles in regulating these two processes.

  1. A First Look at the Structure of the Wave Pouch during the 2009 PREDICT-GRIP Dry Runs over the Atlantic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    importance of a Lagrangian recirculation region within a tropical-wave critical layer (the so-called pouch), where persistent deep convection and...emphasizes the importance of a Lagrangian recirculation region within a tropical-wave critical layer (the so-called pouch) where persistent deep convection...for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data and the satellite brightness temperature between 1979 and 2001, Hopsch et al. (2010

  2. Detection of vesicant-induced upper airway mucosa damage in the hamster cheek pouch model using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer-Wilson, Marie J.; Nguyen, Vi; Jung, Woong-Gyu; Ahn, Yehchen; Chen, Zhongping; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Hamster cheek pouches were exposed to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide [CEES, half-mustard gas (HMG)] at a concentration of 0.4, 2.0, or 5.0 mg/ml for 1 or 5 min. Twenty-four hours post-HMG exposure, tissue damage was assessed by both stereomicrography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Damage that was not visible on gross visual examination was apparent in the OCT images. Tissue changes were found to be dependent on both HMG concentration and exposure time. The submucosal and muscle layers of the cheek pouch tissue showed the greatest amount of structural alteration. Routine light microscope histology was performed to confirm the OCT observations.

  3. The surgical technique of the Fobi-Pouch operation for obesity (the transected silastic vertical gastric bypass).

    PubMed

    Fobi, M A; Lee, H

    1998-06-01

    The Fobi-Pouch operation (FPO) for obesity is the product of clinical trials, more than 15 years of personal clinical experience and information gathered from publications, scientific meetings, and personal communications with other bariatric surgeons. The essence of the operation is the small vertical pouch (< 25 ml), an externally supported stoma, the interposed Roux-en-Y limb, the gastrostomy and the bypassed stomach marker to facilitate percutaneous transabdominal access to the bypassed segment. Patients undergoing this operation are usually given bowel prep the day before the operation, admitted the morning of the operation and started on subcutaneous heparin, prophylactic antibiotic and hydration. Antithrombotic sequential compression devices are regularly used. The hospital stay is usually 4 days. Our results and those of other surgeons who have used this modification substantiate the rationale for the modifications entailed in the FPO. Our longer-term experience and results are being compiled for publication.

  4. Postpartum complications in a patient with a previous proctocolectomy and ileo-pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Spina, Vincenzo; Giovannini, Massimo; Fabiani, Cristina; Vetrano, Giuseppe; Bagolan, Pietro; Colizza, Sergio; Aleandri, Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    This case report regards pregnancy and delivery of a patient who had undergone proctocolectomy and ileo-pouch-anal-anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis. The patient delivered through cesarean section and experienced serious complications postpartum. Such complications have been described in association with Chron's disease and have never been described after proctocolectomy and IPAA for ulcerative colitis. This case report suggests that the limit between these two diseases is not sharp.

  5. Further Assessment of Monkeypox Virus Infection in Gambian Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus) Using In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Lorenzsonn, Faye; Salzer, Johanna S.; Hutson, Christina L.; Doty, Jeffrey; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Carroll, Darin S.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003, Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence of the Gambian pouched rat for MPXV by utilizing a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods. We inoculated three animals by the intradermal route and three animals by the intranasal route, with one mock-infected control for each route. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was used to track replicating virus in infected animals and virological assays (e.g. real time PCR, cell culture) were used to determine viral load in blood, urine, ocular, nasal, oral, and rectal swabs. Intradermal inoculation resulted in clinical signs of monkeypox infection in two of three animals. One severely ill animal was euthanized and the other affected animal recovered. In contrast, intranasal inoculation resulted in subclinical infection in all three animals. All animals, regardless of apparent or inapparent infection, shed virus in oral and nasal secretions. Additionally, BLI identified viral replication in the skin without grossly visible lesions. These results suggest that Gambian pouched rats may play an important role in transmission of the virus to humans, as they are hunted for consumption and it is possible for MPXV-infected pouched rats to shed infectious virus without displaying overt clinical signs. PMID:26517839

  6. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Chen, Ying-Ru; Lee, Jeng-Woei

    2010-02-01

    One of the best strategies to prevent the occurrence of oral cancer is to eliminate oral precancers and block their further malignant transformation. Previous studies showed that photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy (photosan-PDT) is very effective for human head and neck cancers. To avoid the systemic photodynamic toxicity of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twelve 10-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were used in this study. DMBA was applied to the left buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks and mineral oil was painted on the right buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks as the normal controls. Six hamsters were euthanized for tissue harvest. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were consistently induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions in the remaining 6 hamsters were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan-gel. We found that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan-gel. The precancerous lesions in 4 hamsters were treated with topical photosan-PDT using the 635-nm LED light once or twice a week. Complete regression of the precancerous lesions was found after 2-4 PDT treatments by visual and histological examination. Our findings indicate that topical photosan-PDT is a very effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  7. Further assessment of Monkeypox Virus infection in Gambian pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) using in vivo bioluminescent imaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falendysz, Elizabeth; Lopera, Juan G.; Faye Lorenzsonn,; Salzer, Johanna S.; Hutson, Christina L.; Doty, Jeffrey; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Carroll, Darin S.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003,Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence of the Gambian pouched rat for MPXV by utilizing a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods. We inoculated three animals by the intradermal route and three animals by the intranasal route, with one mock-infected control for each route. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was used to track replicating virus in infected animals and virological assays (e.g. real time PCR, cell culture) were used to determine viral load in blood, urine, ocular, nasal, oral, and rectal swabs. Intradermal inoculation resulted in clinical signs of monkeypox infection in two of three animals. One severely ill animal was euthanized and the other affected animal recovered. In contrast, intranasal inoculation resulted in subclinical infection in all three animals. All animals, regardless of apparent or inapparent infection, shed virus in oral and nasal secretions. Additionally, BLI identified viral replication in the skin without grossly visible lesions. These results suggest that Gambian pouched rats may play an important role in transmission of the virus to humans, as they are hunted for consumption and it is possible for MPXV-infected pouched rats to shed infectious virus without displaying overt clinical signs.

  8. Development and on-orbit operation of lithium-ion pouch battery for small scientific satellite “REIMEI”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Keita; Takeda, Yasuo; Sone, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Koji; Mita, Makoto; Saito, Hirobumi

    2011-10-01

    A lithium-ion battery was developed using off-the-shelf pouch cells and launched with a small scientific satellite "REIMEI." The cells were potted with polyurethane or epoxy resin to protect the battery from vacuum in space. Preliminary experimental test results of pouch cells potted in a soft aluminum cap suggested that the cells tended to swell in vacuum, although they had been reinforced with the resins. Bread board models (BBMs), in which pouch cells were potted with resins in a hard aluminum case, were fabricated for cycle life performance tests in the laboratory. The test results indicated that the performance of epoxy-potted BBM was superior to that of the polyurethane-potted BBM. The measured cell resistance implied that the electrolyte solution leaked through the polyurethane resin, resulting in premature deterioration. The epoxy resin was used for the flight battery. The end-of-discharge-voltage (EoDV) trend of the flight battery on orbit was compared with the laboratory test results corrected based on a post-launch cycle test using a fresh cell. The corrected EoDV trend in the laboratory was in good agreement with the on-orbit trend for the early cycle period, indicating that the on-orbit battery was not inadvertently affected by conditions in space.

  9. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  10. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  11. Electrochemical properties of large-sized pouch-type lithium ion batteries with bio-inspired organic cathode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Jae-Seong; Yoo, Eun-Ji; Ha, Sang-Hyeon; Cheong, Dong-Ik; Cho, Sung-Baek

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the feasibility of scaling up bio-inspired organic materials as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries, large-sized pouch cells are successfully prepared via tape casting using lumichrome with an alloxazine structure and aqueous styrene butadiene rubber-carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR-CMC) binders. A battery module with a two-in-series, six-in-parallel (2S6P) configuration is also successfully fabricated and is able to power blue LEDs (850 mW). Lumichrome shows no structural changes during the fabrication processes used to produce the positive electrode. The large-sized pouch cells show two sets of cathodic and anodic peaks with average potentials of 2.58 V and 2.26 V vs. Li/Li+, respectively. The initial discharge capacities are 142 mAh g-1 and 148 mAh g-1 for ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate (EC-DMC) and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) electrolytes, respectively, similar to that of a coin cell (149 mAh g-1). The EC-DMC-injected pouch cells exhibit higher rate performance and cyclability than the TEGDME-injected ones. The TEGDME electrolyte is not suitable for lithium metal anodes because of electrolyte decomposition and subsequent cell swelling.

  12. Rhythmic motor activity and interlimb co-ordination in the developing pouch young of a wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed Central

    Ho, S M

    1997-01-01

    1. The forelimb motor behaviour of developing wallaby was studied. A clock-like alternating movement was reactivated whenever the animal was removed from the pouch. 2. Forelimb stepping frequency increased during the first 3 weeks of development, while the phase relationship remained constant. Forelimb activity could be affected by altering the afferent feedback from the contralateral limb, or an increase in ambient temperature. 3. In vitro experiments were performed using an isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparation from animals up to 6 weeks postnatal. Fictive locomotor activity could be evoked by electrical stimulation or bath-applied NMDA (< 10 microM). 4. Bath-applied strychnine (10-25 microM) and bicuculline (10-50 microM) disrupted the phase relationship between motor pools, while rhythmic motor discharge remained in the absence of these inhibitory pathways. 5. The present findings indicate that the pattern generator that underlies the robust forelimb movement during the first journey to the pouch is retained for different motor functions during in-pouch development. The neural network that underlies such behaviour can be divided into two major components, a rhythm generator within each hemicord, and a pattern co-ordinating pathway which involve both glycinergic and GABAergic interneurones. PMID:9218221

  13. Triggers of airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kerrebijn, K F

    1986-01-01

    Most asthmatics have hyperresponsive airways. This makes them more sensitive than non-asthmatics to bronchoconstricting environmental exposures which, in their turn, may enhance responsiveness. Airway inflammation is considered to be a key determinant of airway hyperresponsiveness: the fact that chronic airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis does not lead to airway hyperresponsiveness of any importance indicates, however, that the role of airway inflammation is complex and incompletely elucidated. The main inducers of airway inflammation are viral infections, antigens, occupational stimuli and pollutants. Although exercise, airway cooling and hyper- or hypotonic aerosols are potent stimuli of bronchoconstriction, it is questionable if airway inflammation is involved in their mode of action. Each of the above-mentioned stimuli is discussed, with emphasis laid on the relation of symptoms to mechanisms.

  14. Heat penetration characteristics and physico-chemical properties of in-pouch processed dairy dessert (kheer).

    PubMed

    Jha, Alok; Patel, A A; Gopal, T K Srinivasa; Ravishankar, C N

    2014-10-01

    Kheer, a traditional milk product of South East Asia, containing cooked rice grains in a creamy sweetened concentrated milk, has no large-scale production due to its poor shelf life. Shelf-life was improved by development of a process based on in-pouch thermal processing employing a rotary retort. Product development included optimization of rice-to-milk solids ratio (0.18-0.52) and total milk solids levels (16-26 %) to simulate the conventional product in taste, appearance and textural attributes. Various Fo values (12.4-14.8) were examined with regard to product quality. While the TBA value tended to increase (0.073-0.081) the reflectance value (35.3-43.4) declined with increasing Fo. The pH of the product (6.04-6.10) showed a slight tendency to increase with Fo. Sensorily, the product was found to be acceptable for a period of 150 days at 37 °C.

  15. Processing and storage of restructured surimi stew product in retortable pouches.

    PubMed

    Hema, K; Shakila, R Jeya; Shanmugam, S A; Jeevithan, E

    2015-03-01

    Restructured surimi gel product was prepared using short nosed white tripod (Triacanthus brevirosterus) with egg white as additive at 1 %. Heat setting was done initially at 45 °C for 30 min followed by heat processing 90 °C for 45 min. Restructured surimi gel in stew was standardized using four most popular recipes available in local cuisine based on the sensory acceptance and the Kerala fish stew was considered best. Restructured surimi gel in Kerala fish stew was then heat processed in 4 ply laminated retort pouch of dimension 150× 200 mm, at 15 psi gauge pressure for varying time duration and the Fo values ranged from 13.10 to 22.58 min. Products examined of their organoleptic and microbial qualities showed those processed with Fo value of 13.10 min was acceptable with excellent eating quality with no fishy flavour and was microbial sterile until the storage period of 6 months.

  16. Dark field optical imaging reveals vascular changes in an inducible hamster cheek pouch model during carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fangyao; Morhard, Robert; Murphy, Helen A.; Zhu, Caigang; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a low-cost cross-polarized dark field microscopy system for in vivo vascular imaging to detect head and neck cancer. A simple-to-use Gabor-filter-based image processing technique was developed to objectively and automatically quantify several important vascular features, including tortuosity, length, diameter and area fraction, from vascular images. Simulations were performed to evaluate the accuracies of vessel segmentation and feature extraction for our algorithm. Sensitivity and specificity for vessel segmentation of the Gabor masks both remained above 80% at all contrast levels when compared to gold-standard masks. Errors for vascular feature extraction were under 5%. Moreover, vascular contrast and vessel diameter were identified to be the two primary factors which affected the segmentation accuracies. After our algorithm was validated, we monitored the blood vessels in an inducible hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model over 17 weeks and quantified vascular features during carcinogenesis. A significant increase in vascular tortuosity and a significant decrease in vessel length were observed during carcinogenesis. PMID:27699096

  17. Whole-genome scan for guttural pouch tympany in Arabian and German warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, A; Spötter, A; Blazyczek, I; Diesterbeck, U; Ohnesorge, B; Deegen, E; Distl, O

    2009-12-01

    Equine guttural pouch tympany (GPT) is a hereditary disease in foals of several breeds, including thoroughbreds, Arabian, Quarter and warmblood horses. We performed a whole-genome scan for GPT in 143 horses from five Arabian and five German warmblood families and genotyped 257 microsatellites. Chromosome-wide significant linkage was detected on ECA2 and ECA15 using multipoint non-parametric linkage analyses. Analyses stratified by sex revealed chromosome-wide significant linkage on ECA2 for fillies and chromosome-wide significant linkage on ECA15 for colts. For Arabian colts, the quantitative trait locus (QTL) on ECA15 was genome-wide significant. Haplotypes including two to four microsatellites within the QTL on ECA2 and 15 in fillies and colts, respectively, were significantly associated with GPT for both breeds. Thus, our analysis indicated sex-specific QTL, a fact which is in agreement with a two- to fourfold higher incidence of GPT in females. This is the first report of QTL for equine GPT and a first step towards identifying genes responsible for GPT.

  18. Noncontact point spectroscopy guided by two-channel fluorescence imaging in a hamster cheek pouch model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Victor X.; Yeow, Jenny; Lilge, Lothar D.; Kost, James; Mang, Thomas S.; Wilson, Brian C.

    1999-07-01

    A system for in vivo, fluorescence image-guided, non-contact point fluorescence spectroscopy is presented. A 442 nm HeCd laser is used as the fluorescence excitation source. An intensified CCD serves as the detector for both imaging and spectroscopy, on which two regions of 300 X 300 pixels were used for green (500 +/- 18 nm) and red (630 +/- 18 nm) imaging channels, and a strip of 600 X 120 pixels are used for emission spectroscopy (450 - 750 nm). At a working distance of 40 mm, the system has a spatial resolution of 0.16 mm and a spectral resolution of 5 nm. System performance is demonstrated in a carcinogenesis model in hamsters, where tumors were induced by painting DMBA in the cheek pouch. Autofluorescence and Photofrin-induced fluorescence measurements were performed every 2 weeks during the 18 weeks of tumor induction. Punch biopsies on selected animals were taken for histological staging. The results show that autofluorescence fluorescence can distinguish dysplasia from normal mucosal tissue model, utilizing the peak red intensity (or the red-to-green intensity ratio). Photofrin-induced fluorescence was superior to autofluorescence for differentiating high grade dysplasia from invasive cancer.

  19. Society for Reproductive Biology Founders' Lecture 2006 - life in the pouch: womb with a view.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Marilyn B

    2006-01-01

    Marsupials give birth to an undeveloped altricial young after a relatively short gestation period, but have a long and sophisticated lactation with the young usually developing in a pouch. Their viviparous mode of reproduction trades placentation for lactation, exchanging the umbilical cord for the teat. The special adaptations that marsupials have developed provide us with unique insights into the evolution of all mammalian reproduction. Marsupials hold many mammalian reproductive 'records', for example they have the shortest known gestation but the longest embryonic diapause, the smallest neonate but the longest sperm. They have contributed to our knowledge of many mammalian reproductive events including embryonic diapause and development, birth behaviour, sex determination, sexual differentiation, lactation and seasonal breeding. Because marsupials have been genetically isolated from eutherian mammals for over 125 million years, sequencing of the genome of two marsupial species has made comparative genomic biology an exciting and important new area of investigation. This review will show how the study of marsupials has widened our understanding of mammalian reproduction and development, highlighting some mechanisms that are so fundamental that they are shared by all today's marsupial and eutherian mammals.

  20. The Antarctic holothurian genus Echinopsolus Gutt, 1990 (Dendrochirotida, Cucumariidae): brood pouches, spermatozoa, spermatozeugmata and taxonomic implications.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Jens Michael; Heß, Martin

    2014-07-29

    An examination of seven Antarctic brooding cucumariid and psolid holothurian species revealed a variety of characters all of them have in common: (1) All are gonochoric. (2) A genital papilla is present on the oral disc (permanent and digitiform in males). (3) Females brood their offspring in five anterior interradial brood pouches that are situated at the transition of body to introvert. (4) Multiple spermatozoa are always bundled to bunch-like spermato-zeugmata. (5) The spermatozoa have a fusiform head and a hollow cylinder-like mid-piece encircling the anterior end of the flagellum. This combination of characters so far is unique, and indicates a close relationship based on common origin. As a consequence, we unite all species sharing this set of synapomorphies in the genus Echinopsolus Gutt, 1990. The herewith included species are: E. acanthocola Gutt, 1990, E. acutus (Massin, 1992) comb. nov., E. charcoti (Vaney, 1906) comb. nov., E. koehleri (Vaney, 1914) comb. nov., E. mollis (Ludwig & Heding, 1935) comb. nov., E. parvipes Massin, 1992 and E. splendidus (Gutt, 1990) comb. nov.. Because the current assignment of Echinopsolus to the family Psolidae can not be retained, the genus is tranferred to the family Cucumariidae, as relationships to taxa within this family are obvious. The peculiar spermatozoa and spermato-zeugmata of all Echinopsolus species are described using light- and electron-microscopical techniques and the results are evaluated and discussed concerning their taxonomy and phylogeny. 

  1. Distribution and ecology of lesser pouched rat, Beamys hindei, in Tanzanian coastal forests.

    PubMed

    Sabuni, Christopher A; Sluydts, Vincent; Mulungu, Loth S; Maganga, Samwel L S; Makundi, Rhodes H; Leirs, Herwig

    2015-11-01

    The lesser pouched rat, Beamys hindei, is a small rodent that is patchily distributed in the Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests in East Africa. The ecology of this species and its current distribution in coastal forests is not well known. Therefore, we conducted a study in selected coastal forests to assess the current distribution of the species and to investigate the population ecology in terms of abundance fluctuations and demographic patterns. Assessments of the species distribution were conducted in 5 forests through trapping with Sherman live traps. Data on ecology were obtained from monthly capture-mark-recapture studies conducted for 5 consecutive nights per month in two 1 ha grids set in Zaraninge Forest over a 2-year period. The results indicate the presence of B. hindei in 3 forests where it was not previously recorded. The population abundance estimates ranged from 1 to 40 animals per month, with high numbers recorded during rainy seasons. Reproduction patterns and sex ratios did not differ between months. Survival estimates were not influenced by season, and recruitment was low, with growth rate estimates of 1 animal per month. These estimates suggest a stable population of B. hindei in Zaraninge Forest. Further studies are recommended to establish the home range, diet and burrowing behavior of the species in coastal forests in East Africa.

  2. Failure statistics for commercial lithium ion batteries: A study of 24 pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Stephen J.; Harris, David J.; Li, Chen

    2017-02-01

    There are relatively few publications that assess capacity decline in enough commercial cells to quantify cell-to-cell variation, but those that do show a surprisingly wide variability. Capacity curves cross each other often, a challenge for efforts to measure the state of health and predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of individual cells. We analyze capacity fade statistics for 24 commercial pouch cells, providing an estimate for the time to 5% failure. Our data indicate that RUL predictions based on remaining capacity or internal resistance are accurate only once the cells have already sorted themselves into ;better; and ;worse; ones. Analysis of our failure data, using maximum likelihood techniques, provide uniformly good fits for a variety of definitions of failure with normal and with 2- and 3-parameter Weibull probability density functions, but we argue against using a 3-parameter Weibull function for our data. pdf fitting parameters appear to converge after about 15 failures, although business objectives should ultimately determine whether data from a given number of batteries provides sufficient confidence to end lifecycle testing. Increased efforts to make batteries with more consistent lifetimes should lead to improvements in battery cost and safety.

  3. Multi-analyte approach for determining the extraction of tobacco constituents from pouched snus by consumers during use

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Snus is a smokeless oral tobacco product with a significant history of use in Sweden, where it is regulated under food legislation. Users place a small porous sachet or a pinch of loose snus between the upper jaw and cheek for approximately one hour, leading to partial intake of tobacco constituents. To understand user exposure to tobacco, a multi-analyte approach based on the extraction of pouches by methanol, ethanol and water was validated and applied to the measurement of various constituents, including nicotine, four tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), propylene glycol, water, ammonium, nitrate, sodium, chloride, linalool, citronellol, linalyl acetate and geraniol, extracted from snus pouches during use by human consumers. Results After validation against established single-analyte methods, the multi-analyte approach was used to determine constituent levels in snus pouches before and after one hour of use. Although the concentrations in the snus pouches varied from nanogram (e.g. TSNAs) to milligram (e.g. nicotine, sodium and propylene glycol) quantities (25.1 ng to 35.3 mg per 1 g pouch), the mean percentage extracted varied only from 19.2% for linalyl acetate to 37.8% for the TSNA 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) among all constituents analyzed. The TSNAs, some of which are known carcinogens, showed the highest percentage extraction (range 34.6%–37.8%). Measurement variability was low for all analytes, ranging from 2.4% (total TSNAs, NAT) to 9.5% (geraniol). By contrast, inter-subject variability ranged from 6.7% (NAB) to 52.2% (linalyl acetate), and was greater than 20% for eight of the constituents analyzed. Intra-subject variability ranged from 3.4% (citronellol) to 29.7% (geraniol). Conclusions Generally, less than a third of each constituent tested was extracted during one hour of snus use, independent of constituent concentration. The variable nature of in-use extraction was shown to be driven by inter

  4. The resolution of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Christopher D; Gilroy, Derek W; Serhan, Charles N; Stockinger, Brigitta; Tak, Paul P

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Nature Reviews Immunology organized a conference that brought together scientists and clinicians from both academia and industry to discuss one of the most pressing questions in medicine--how do we turn off rampant, undesirable inflammation? There is a growing appreciation that, similarly to the initiation of inflammation, the resolution of inflammation is an intricate and active process. Can we therefore harness the mediators involved in resolution responses to treat patients with chronic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases? Here, we ask five of the speakers from the conference to share their thoughts on this emerging field.

  5. Cholinergic Modulation of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Valentin A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that cytokine levels and inflammation can be regulated by specifically augmenting cholinergic signaling via the efferent vagus nerve and the α7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Cholinergic modalities, acting through vagus nerve- and/or α7nAChR-mediated mechanisms have been shown to suppress excessive inflammation in several experimental models of disease, including endotoxemic shock, sepsis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, hemorrhagic shock, colitis, postoperative ileus and pancreatitis. These studies have advanced the current understanding of the mechanisms regulating inflammation. They have also provided a rationale for exploring new possibilities to treat excessive, disease-underlying inflammation by applying selective cholinergic modalities in preclinical and clinical settings. An overview of this research is presented here. PMID:19079659

  6. Inflammation of the Orbit

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Allergic Conjunctivitis (Video) Overview of the Eyes (News) Stem Cells ... and covers the white of the eye. Allergic conjunctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by an ...

  7. Longchain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and microvascular reactivity: observation in the hamster cheek pouch.

    PubMed

    Conde, Cristiane M S; Cyrino, Fatima Z G A; Bottino, Daniel A; Gardette, Jean; Bouskela, Eliete

    2007-05-01

    Previous experiments in our laboratory, using the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation, have shown that precapillary vessels exhibit spontaneous rhythmic luminal variations, termed vasomotion, a myogenic activity sustained by a balance between membrane currents among which polarizing K(+) currents play an important role. In these microvessels, endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs) seem to regulate arteriolar diameter [via nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP] and vasomotion [probably via endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)]. Fish or fish oil diet can decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases, probably by modifying the conductance of selective ion channels, such as K(+) and/or Ca(++), and/or increasing the production of vasodilators, such as NO. To investigate its effect on microvascular reactivity, using the same preparation and an intravital microscope coupled to a closed circuit TV system, male hamsters were treated for 14 days, twice a day, with 0.4 mL/100 g body weight with fish or olive oil. An attempt was also undertaken to record in arterioles, in vivo, the membrane potential of smooth muscle cells during their vasomotor activity combining conventional microelectrode and intravital microscopy techniques. The effects of topical application of two vasodilators, acetylcholine [endothelium-dependent one, NO release and membrane hyperpolarization via Ca(++)-activated K(+) channels (K(Ca))] and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent, NO donor and no change on membrane potential) and two vasoconstrictors which elicited membrane depolarization via Ca(++) channels, phenylephrine (alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor agonist) and serotonin (5-hydroxi-tryptamine) on mean internal diameter of arterioles and venules, arteriolar blood flows, spontaneous arteriolar vasomotion frequency and amplitude and functional capillary density (FCD, number of capillaries with flowing red blood cells per unit area of tissue) were determined. Anesthesia was induced by

  8. Vitamin D and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cannell, John J; Grant, William B; Holick, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Several studies found an inverse relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and markers of inflammation. A controversy exists as to whether vitamin D lowers inflammation or whether inflammation lowers 25(OH)D concentrations. Certainly 25(OH)D concentrations fall after major surgery. However, is this due to inflammation lowering 25(OH)D or is 25(OH)D being metabolically cleared by the body to quell inflammation. We searched the literature and found 39 randomized controlled trials (RCT) of vitamin D and markers of inflammation. Seventeen found significantly reduced inflammatory markers, 19 did not, one was mixed and one showed adverse results. With few exceptions, studies in normal subjects, obesity, type 2 diabetics, and stable cardiovascular disease did not find significant beneficial effects. However, we found that 6 out of 7 RCTS of vitamin D3 in highly inflammatory conditions (acute infantile congestive heart failure, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, SLE, active TB and evolving myocardial infarction) found significant reductions. We found baseline and final 25(OH)D predicted RCTs with significant reduction in inflammatory markers. Vitamin D tends to modestly lower markers of inflammation in highly inflammatory conditions, when baseline 25(OH)D levels were low and when achieved 25(OH)D levels were higher. Future inquiries should: recruit subjects with low baseline 25(OH)D levels, subjects with elevated markers of inflammation, subjects with inflammatory conditions, achieve adequate final 25(OH)D levels, and use physiological doses of vitamin D. We attempted to identify all extant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D that used inflammatory markers as primary or secondary endpoints. PMID:26413186

  9. Impact of electrolyte solvent and additive choices on high voltage Li-ion pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Nelson, K. J.; Lu, Zhonghua; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    The effects that various electrolyte solvents and electrolyte additives had on both LaPO4-coated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 and uncoated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite pouch cells were studied using automated storage, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, gas production and long-term cycling experiments. Storage experiments showed that the voltage drop during storage at 4.3 or 4.4 V for both coated and uncoated cells was very similar for the same electrolyte choice. At 4.5 V or above, the LaPO4-coated cells had a significantly smaller voltage drop than the uncoated cells except when fluorinated electrolytes were used. Automated charge discharge cycling/impedance spectroscopy testing of cells held at 4.5 V for 24 h every cycle showed that all cells containing ethylene carbonate:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte or sulfolane:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte exhibited severe capacity fade. By contrast, cells containing fluorinated electrolytes had the best capacity retention and smallest impedance growth during these aggressive cycling/hold tests. Long-term cycling experiments to 4.5 V confirmed that cells containing fluorinated electrolyte had the best cycling performance in the uncoated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite cells while cells containing sulfolane:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte had the best cycling performance in coated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite cells.

  10. Gastric pouches and the mucociliary sole: setting the stage for nervous system evolution.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Detlev; Benito-Gutierrez, Elia; Brunet, Thibaut; Marlow, Heather

    2015-12-19

    Prerequisite for tracing nervous system evolution is understanding of the body plan, feeding behaviour and locomotion of the first animals in which neurons evolved. Here, a comprehensive scenario is presented for the diversification of cell types in early metazoans, which enhanced feeding efficiency and led to the emergence of larger animals that were able to move. Starting from cup-shaped, gastraea-like animals with outer and inner choanoflagellate-like cells, two major innovations are discussed that set the stage for nervous system evolution. First, the invention of a mucociliary sole entailed a switch from intra- to extracellular digestion and increased the concentration of nutrients flowing into the gastric cavity. In these animals, an initial nerve net may have evolved via division of labour from mechanosensory-contractile cells in the lateral body wall, enabling coordinated movement of the growing body that involved both mucociliary creeping and changes of body shape. Second, the inner surface of the animals folded into metameric series of gastric pouches, which optimized nutrient resorption and allowed larger body sizes. The concomitant acquisition of bilateral symmetry may have allowed more directed locomotion and, with more demanding coordinative tasks, triggered the evolution of specialized nervous subsystems. Animals of this organizational state would have resembled Ediacarian fossils such as Dickinsonia and may have been close to the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor. In the bilaterian lineage, the mucociliary sole was used mostly for creeping, or frequently lost. One possible remnant is the enigmatic Reissner's fibre in the ventral neural tube of cephalochordates and vertebrates.

  11. Quality and shelf life of buffalo meat blocks processed in retort pouches.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Mendirtta, S K; Murthy, T R K

    2014-12-01

    The shelf life of buffalo meat blocks processed in 3-ply retort pouches at Fo = 12.13 in a stock sterilizer were evaluated at 15 days interval for physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes for a period of 3 months. The pH of the product was 6.28 at 0 day and a gradual decline was noticed during storage. Texture of the product as indicated by shear force values had decreased slowly. The residual nitrite content had significantly declined from 82.67 ppm at 0 day to 45.00 ppm on 90th day of storage. The TBARS values were 0.24 and 0.67 mg malonaldehyde/kg, respectively at 0 day and 90 days of storage. Tyrosine value had significantly increased from 0.37 mg/100 g at 0 day to 0.58 mg/100 g during storage. Free aminoacid content increased gradually from an initial level of 124.32 to 217.51 at 90(th) day of storage. The SDS-PAGE hydrolysis pattern showed barely discernible 205 KDa protein and presence of subfragments in the molecular range of 63 KDa to 29 KDa protein. The sensory studies indicated that the products were well acceptable up to a period of 90 days. As the storage period increased pH, reidual nitrite, sensory attributes declined significantly and TBARS value, tyrosine value and free aminoacid content significantly increased. Mesophillic aerobes and anerobes were found to be absent. The shelf life study indicated that the products were well acceptable up to a period of 90 days based on the assessment of physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes.

  12. fras1 shapes endodermal pouch 1 and stabilizes zebrafish pharyngeal skeletal development

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Jared Coffin; Walker, Macie B.; Carney, Thomas J.; Huycke, Tyler R.; Yan, Yi-Lin; BreMiller, Ruth A.; Gai, Linda; DeLaurier, April; Postlethwait, John H.; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Kimmel, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Lesions in the epithelially expressed human gene FRAS1 cause Fraser syndrome, a complex disease with variable symptoms, including facial deformities and conductive hearing loss. The developmental basis of facial defects in Fraser syndrome has not been elucidated. Here we show that zebrafish fras1 mutants exhibit defects in facial epithelia and facial skeleton. Specifically, fras1 mutants fail to generate a late-forming portion of pharyngeal pouch 1 (termed late-p1) and skeletal elements adjacent to late-p1 are disrupted. Transplantation studies indicate that fras1 acts in endoderm to ensure normal morphology of both skeleton and endoderm, consistent with well-established epithelial expression of fras1. Late-p1 formation is concurrent with facial skeletal morphogenesis, and some skeletal defects in fras1 mutants arise during late-p1 morphogenesis, indicating a temporal connection between late-p1 and skeletal morphogenesis. Furthermore, fras1 mutants often show prominent second arch skeletal fusions through space occupied by late-p1 in wild type. Whereas every fras1 mutant shows defects in late-p1 formation, skeletal defects are less penetrant and often vary in severity, even between the left and right sides of the same individual. We interpret the fluctuating asymmetry in fras1 mutant skeleton and the changes in fras1 mutant skeletal defects through time as indicators that skeletal formation is destabilized. We propose a model wherein fras1 prompts late-p1 formation and thereby stabilizes skeletal formation during zebrafish facial development. Similar mechanisms of stochastic developmental instability might also account for the high phenotypic variation observed in human FRAS1 patients. PMID:22782724

  13. Gastric pouches and the mucociliary sole: setting the stage for nervous system evolution

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Detlev; Benito-Gutierrez, Elia; Brunet, Thibaut; Marlow, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Prerequisite for tracing nervous system evolution is understanding of the body plan, feeding behaviour and locomotion of the first animals in which neurons evolved. Here, a comprehensive scenario is presented for the diversification of cell types in early metazoans, which enhanced feeding efficiency and led to the emergence of larger animals that were able to move. Starting from cup-shaped, gastraea-like animals with outer and inner choanoflagellate-like cells, two major innovations are discussed that set the stage for nervous system evolution. First, the invention of a mucociliary sole entailed a switch from intra- to extracellular digestion and increased the concentration of nutrients flowing into the gastric cavity. In these animals, an initial nerve net may have evolved via division of labour from mechanosensory-contractile cells in the lateral body wall, enabling coordinated movement of the growing body that involved both mucociliary creeping and changes of body shape. Second, the inner surface of the animals folded into metameric series of gastric pouches, which optimized nutrient resorption and allowed larger body sizes. The concomitant acquisition of bilateral symmetry may have allowed more directed locomotion and, with more demanding coordinative tasks, triggered the evolution of specialized nervous subsystems. Animals of this organizational state would have resembled Ediacarian fossils such as Dickinsonia and may have been close to the cnidarian–bilaterian ancestor. In the bilaterian lineage, the mucociliary sole was used mostly for creeping, or frequently lost. One possible remnant is the enigmatic Reissner's fibre in the ventral neural tube of cephalochordates and vertebrates. PMID:26554050

  14. Use of a laparoscopic specimen retrieval pouch to facilitate removal of intact or fragmented cystic calculi from standing sedated horses: 8 cases (2012-2015).

    PubMed

    Katzman, Scott A; Vaughan, Betsy; Nieto, Jorge E; Galuppo, Larry D

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the use of a laparoscopic specimen retrieval pouch for removal of intact or fragmented cystic calculi from standing horses. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 8 horses (5 geldings and 3 mares) with cystic calculi. PROCEDURES Physical examination and cystoscopic, ultrasonographic, and hematologic evaluations of urinary tract function were performed for each horse. A diagnosis of cystic calculus was made on the basis of results of cystoscopy and ultrasonography. Concurrent urolithiasis or other urinary tract abnormalities identified during preoperative evaluation were recorded. Horses were sedated and placed in standing stocks, and the perineum was aseptically prepared. Direct access to the urinary bladder was gained in geldings via perineal urethrotomy or in mares by a transurethral approach. Calculi were visualized endoscopically, manipulated into the retrieval pouch, and removed intact or fragmented (for larger calculi). RESULTS For 4 geldings and 1 mare, fragmentation was necessary to facilitate calculus removal. Mean duration of surgery was 125 minutes, and trauma to the urinary bladder and urethra was limited to areas of hyperemia and submucosal petechiation. No postoperative complications were encountered for any horse. When lithotripsy was required, the retrieval pouch provided an effective means of stabilizing calculi and containing the fragments for removal. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Use of the laparoscopic specimen retrieval pouch was an effective, minimally traumatic method for retrieving cystic calculi from standing horses. The pouch protected the urinary bladder and urethra from trauma during calculus removal and allowed for stabilization, containment, and fragmentation of calculi when necessary.

  15. High-energy metal air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-09

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  16. High-energy metal air batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  17. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

    PubMed Central

    Letchoumy, Paramasivame Vidjaya; Mohan, Kurapathy Venkata Poorna Chandra; Prathiba, Duvuru; Hara, Yukihiko; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2007-01-01

    Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer. PMID:18053169

  18. Blake's pouch cyst and Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: Report of a new association and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shohoud, Sherien A.; Azab, Waleed A.; Alsheikh, Tarek M.; Hegazy, Rania M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: We report a case of a neonate with proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type 1 (also known as Werdnig-Hoffmann disease or severe infantile acute SMA) associated with a Blake's pouch cyst; a malformation that is currently classified within the spectrum of Dandy-Walker complex. The association of the two conditions has not been previously reported in the English literature. A comprehensive review of the pertinent literature is presented. Case Description: A male neonate was noted to have paucity of movement of the four limbs with difficulty of breathing and poor feeding soon after birth. Respiratory distress with tachypnea, necessitated endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Pregnancy was uneventful except for decreased fetal movements reported by the mother during the third trimester. Neurological examination revealed generalized hypotonia with decreased muscle power of all limbs, nonelicitable deep tendon jerks, and occasional tongue fasciculations. Molecular genetic evaluation revealed a homozygous deletion of both exons 7 and 8 of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, and exon 5 of the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene on the long arm of chromosome 5 consistent with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease (SMA type 1). At the age of 5 months, a full anterior fontanelle and abnormal increase of the occipito-frontal circumference were noted. Computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a tetraventricular hydrocephalus and features of Blake's pouch cyst of the fourth ventricle. Conclusions: This case represents a previously unreported association of Blake's pouch cyst and SMA type 1. PMID:25225621

  19. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Nigg; William Bauer; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  20. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: combined administration of BSH and BPA.

    PubMed

    Garabalino, Marcela A; Heber, Elisa M; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Molinari, Ana J; Nigg, David W; Bauer, William; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70-85ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  1. Communication—indentation of Li-ion pouch cell: Effect of material homogenization on prediction of internal short circuit

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, A.; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Simunovic, Srdjan; ...

    2016-09-12

    We performed finite element simulations of spherical indentation of Li-ion pouch cells. Our model fully resolves different layers in the cell. The results of the layer resolved models were compared to the models available in the literature that treat the cell as an equivalent homogenized continuum material. Simulations were carried out for different sizes of the spherical indenter. Here, we show that calibration of a failure criterion for the cell in the homogenized model depends on the indenter size, whereas in the layer-resoled model, such dependency is greatly diminished.

  2. Blister pouches for effective reagent storage and release for low cost point-of-care diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Sewart, Rene; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter; Gärtner, Claudia; Becker, Holger

    2016-03-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices are often applied to point-of-care diagnostic solutions as they are low-cost, compact, disposable, and require only small sample volumes. For such devices, various reagents are required for sample preparation and analysis and, for an integrated solution to be realized, on-chip reagent storage and automated introduction are required. This work describes the implementation and characterization of effective liquid reagent storage and release mechanisms utilizing blister pouches applied to various point-of-care diagnostic device applications. The manufacturing aspects as well as performance parameters are evaluated.

  3. GASTRIN, INFLAMMATION, AND CARCINOGENESIS

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Celia; Hellmich, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Chronic infection of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter pylori has long been recognized as a significant risk factor for gastric cancer, and indeed, this model represents the prototypical inflammation-associated cancer. In this review, we present the latest clinical and experimental evidence showing that gastrin peptides and their receptors (the cholecystokinin [CCK2] receptors) potentiate the progression of gastric cancer and other gastrointestinal malignancies in the presence of inflammation. Recent Findings We highlight the feed-forward mechanisms by which gastrin and CCK2 receptor expression are upregulated during inflammation and in GI cancers, summarize gastrin’s pro-inflammatory role by inducing the production cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), and relate evidence suggesting that gastrin and their receptors modulate the function of immune cells and fibroblasts following cellular stress, injury, repair, as well as during cancer progression. Summary We discuss trends for future studies directed toward the elucidation of gastrin peptides’ role in regulating inter-cellular molecular signaling mechanisms between local and circulating immune cells, fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and other cell-types in the microenvironments of inflammation-related cancers. Elucidation of the molecular and cellular pathways that relate inflammation with cancer may provide additional opportunities to develop complementary therapies that target the inflammatory microenvironment of the cancer. PMID:19907321

  4. [Connective tissue and inflammation].

    PubMed

    Jakab, Lajos

    2014-03-23

    The author summarizes the structure of the connective tissues, the increasing motion of the constituents, which determine the role in establishing the structure and function of that. The structure and function of the connective tissue are related to each other in the resting as well as inflammatory states. It is emphasized that cellular events in the connective tissue are part of the defence of the organism, the localisation of the damage and, if possible, the maintenance of restitutio ad integrum. The organism responds to damage with inflammation, the non specific immune response, as well as specific, adaptive immunity. These processes are located in the connective tissue. Sterile and pathogenic inflammation are relatively similar processes, but inevitable differences are present, too. Sialic acids and glycoproteins containing sialic acids have important roles, and the role of Siglecs is also highlighted. Also, similarities and differences in damages caused by pathogens and sterile agents are briefly summarized. In addition, the roles of adhesion molecules linked to each other, and the whole event of inflammatory processes are presented. When considering practical consequences it is stressed that the structure (building up) of the organism and the defending function of inflammation both have fundamental importance. Inflammation has a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and the unimpaired somato-psychological state of the organism. Thus, inflammation serves as a tool of organism identical with the natural immune response, inseparably connected with the specific, adaptive immune response. The main events of the inflammatory processes take place in the connective tissue.

  5. [Mechanisms of gout inflammation].

    PubMed

    Ea, Hang-Korng

    2011-09-01

    Gout inflammation is an acute and self-resolving reaction. MSU crystals can stimulate cells through either crystal-cell membrane interaction or after their phagocytosis. The onset of gout inflammation relies on non-hematopoietic resident cells whereas the amplification of the reaction is driven by phagocytic cells of immune innate system. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and polynuclear neutrophils play central role in gout inflammation. In vitro, MSU crystal-induced IL-1β secretion is secondary mainly to NLRP3 inflammasome activation although numerous proteases are also involved. Mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation remain unclear involving mostly reactive oxygen species production. Gout resolution involves several mechanisms including monocyte differentiation into macrophage, clearance of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages, production of Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β) and modification of protein coating on MSU crystal surface.

  6. Inflammation and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Terzić, Janos; Grivennikov, Sergei; Karin, Eliad; Karin, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The connection between inflammation and tumorigenesis is well-established and in the last decade has received a great deal of supporting evidence from genetic, pharmacological, and epidemiological data. Inflammatory bowel disease is an important risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Inflammation is also likely to be involved with other forms of sporadic as well as heritable colon cancer. The molecular mechanisms by which inflammation promotes cancer development are still being uncovered and could differ between colitis-associated and other forms of colorectal cancer. Recent work has elucidated the role of distinct immune cells, cytokines, and other immune mediators in virtually all steps of colon tumorigenesis, including initiation, promotion, progression, and metastasis. These mechanisms, as well as new approaches to prevention and therapy, are discussed in this review.

  7. Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yao; Yao, Jiaying; Han, Chunyan; Yang, Jiaxin; Chaudhry, Maria Tabassum; Wang, Shengnan; Liu, Hongnan; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties, dietary sources, absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of quercetin, especially main effects of quercetin on inflammation and immune function. According to the results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, good perspectives have been opened for quercetin. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to better characterize the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of quercetin on inflammation and immunity. PMID:26999194

  8. Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Yao, Jiaying; Han, Chunyan; Yang, Jiaxin; Chaudhry, Maria Tabassum; Wang, Shengnan; Liu, Hongnan; Yin, Yulong

    2016-03-15

    In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties, dietary sources, absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of quercetin, especially main effects of quercetin on inflammation and immune function. According to the results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, good perspectives have been opened for quercetin. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to better characterize the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of quercetin on inflammation and immunity.

  9. Anemia of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2014-08-01

    Anemia of inflammation (AI, also called anemia of chronic disease) is a common, typically normocytic, normochromic anemia that is caused by an underlying inflammatory disease. It is diagnosed when serum iron concentrations are low despite adequate iron stores, as evidenced by serum ferritin that is not low. In the setting of inflammation, it may be difficult to differentiate AI from iron deficiency anemia, and the 2 conditions may coexist. Treatment should focus on the underlying disease. Recent advances in molecular understanding of AI are stimulating the development of new pathophysiologically targeted experimental therapies.

  10. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  11. Roles for FGF in lamprey pharyngeal pouch formation and skeletogenesis highlight ancestral functions in the vertebrate head.

    PubMed

    Jandzik, David; Hawkins, M Brent; Cattell, Maria V; Cerny, Robert; Square, Tyler A; Medeiros, Daniel M

    2014-02-01

    A defining feature of vertebrates (craniates) is a pronounced head supported and protected by a cellularized endoskeleton. In jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), the head skeleton is made of rigid three-dimensional elements connected by joints. By contrast, the head skeleton of modern jawless vertebrates (agnathans) consists of thin rods of flexible cellular cartilage, a condition thought to reflect the ancestral vertebrate state. To better understand the origin and evolution of the gnathostome head skeleton, we have been analyzing head skeleton development in the agnathan, lamprey. The fibroblast growth factors FGF3 and FGF8 have various roles during head development in jawed vertebrates, including pharyngeal pouch morphogenesis, patterning of the oral skeleton and chondrogenesis. We isolated lamprey homologs of FGF3, FGF8 and FGF receptors and asked whether these functions are ancestral features of vertebrate development or gnathostome novelties. Using gene expression and pharmacological agents, we found that proper formation of the lamprey head skeleton requires two phases of FGF signaling: an early phase during which FGFs drive pharyngeal pouch formation, and a later phase when they directly regulate skeletal differentiation and patterning. In the context of gene expression and functional studies in gnathostomes, our results suggest that these roles for FGFs arose in the first vertebrates and that the evolution of the jaw and gnathostome cellular cartilage was driven by changes developmentally downstream from pharyngeal FGF signaling.

  12. A flexible and low-cost polypropylene pouch for naked-eye detection of herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Sharifun; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin; Safavieh, Mohammadali; Rochette, Annie; Toro, Carla; Zourob, Mohammed

    2015-02-07

    Effective viral detection is a key goal in the development of point of care (POC) diagnostic devices. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) could potentially be a valuable tool for rapid viral detection and diagnosis in commercial and hospital laboratories and resource limited settings. Here, we present a novel polypropylene pouch (PP) for detection of HSV-1 and HSV-2. With this plastic pouch we could detect up to 6.08 × 10(1) copies per μL of HSV-1 DNA and 0.598 copies per μL of HSV-2 DNA within 45 minutes. Since LAMP itself is less sensitive to inhibitory substances present in the real sample, we could also detect viral DNA without the need for viral DNA extraction and purification. The result from LAMP could be evaluated by naked eye due to the addition of hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB) dye in the reaction mixture. Since this proposed device is easy to handle, portable, user friendly and low cost, it offers a tremendous potential to be a perfect candidate for POC diagnostic device for use in resource limited settings.

  13. Gene expression signature of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas: modulation by chlorophyllin and ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Vidya Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Imran; Thiyagarajan, Paranthaman; Kondaiah, Paturu; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophyllin (CHL), a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound in berries, grapes, and nuts have been reported to exert anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines and in animal tumour models. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying chemoprevention and changes in gene expression pattern induced by dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model by whole genome profiling using pangenomic microarrays. In hamsters painted with DMBA, the expression of 1,700 genes was found to be altered significantly relative to control. Dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid modulated the expression profiles of 104 and 37 genes respectively. Microarray analysis also revealed changes in the expression of TGFβ receptors, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may play a crucial role in the transformation of the normal buccal pouch to a malignant phenotype. This gene expression signature was altered on treatment with chlorophyllin and ellagic acid. Our study has also revealed patterns of gene expression signature specific for chlorophyllin and ellagic acid exposure. Thus dietary chlorophyllin and ellagic acid that can reverse gene expression signature associated with carcinogenesis are novel candidates for cancer prevention and therapy.

  14. Differential expression of p53, p63 and p73 protein and mRNA for DMBA-induced hamster buccal-pouch squamous-cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Huse, Shue-Sang; Lin, Li-Min

    2004-01-01

    Abnormalities in the p53 gene are regarded as the most consistent of the genetic abnormalities associated with oral squamous-cell carcinoma. Two related members of the p53 gene family, p73 and p63, have shown remarkable structural similarity to p53, suggesting possible functional and biological interactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential expression of p73, p63 and p53 genes for DMBA-induced hamster buccal-pouch squamous-cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis for protein expression and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for mRNA expression were performed for 40 samples of hamster buccal pouches, the total being separated into one experimental group (15-week DMBA-treated; 20 animals) and two control groups (untreated and mineral oil-treated; 10 animals each). Using immunohistochemical techniques, nuclear staining of p53 and p73 proteins was detected in a subset of hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens treated with DMBA for a period of 15 weeks, whereas p63 proteins were noted for all of the 20 hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens treated with DMBA for 15 weeks as well as for all of the untreated and mineral oil-treated hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens. Differential expression of p63, p73 and p53 protein for the experimental group was as follows: p63+/p73+/p53+ (n = 14; 70%); p63+/p73+/p53− (n = 2; 10%); p63+/p73−/p53− (n = 4; 20%) and p63+/p73−/p53− (untreated [n = 10] and mineral oil-treated mucosa [n = 10]; 100% each). Upon RT-PCR, ΔNp63mRNA was detected within all of the 20 hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens treated with DMBA for 15 weeks, whereas expression of TAp63 was not detected. Furthermore, p73 mRNA was identified for 16 of the hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens treated with DMBA for 15 weeks, whereas p53 mRNA was noted for 14 15-week DMBA-treated pouches. The proportional (percentage) expression of ΔNp63, p73 and p53 mRNA for the hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens

  15. Sclerosing idiopathic orbital inflammation.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Paul A; Kersten, Robert C; Kulwin, Dwight R

    2006-01-01

    A 5-year-old girl referred for orbital cellulitis was found to have a right orbital mass. Computed tomography revealed a mass occupying the inferotemporal orbit, extending into the maxillary sinus. Biopsy yielded a diagnosis of sclerosing idiopathic orbital inflammation. She was successfully treated with prednisone.

  16. Dietary modulation of inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation is heightened innate immune response caused by infection or wound. It is a part of essential immune responses for host defense against invading pathogens and wound healing which are the key biological processes necessary for the survival of all multi-cellular organisms. In mammals, it i...

  17. Ion channels in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Eisenhut, Michael; Wallace, Helen

    2011-04-01

    Most physical illness in vertebrates involves inflammation. Inflammation causes disease by fluid shifts across cell membranes and cell layers, changes in muscle function and generation of pain. These disease processes can be explained by changes in numbers or function of ion channels. Changes in ion channels have been detected in diarrhoeal illnesses, pyelonephritis, allergy, acute lung injury and systemic inflammatory response syndromes involving septic shock. The key role played by changes in ion transport is directly evident in inflammation-induced pain. Expression or function of all major categories of ion channels like sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, transient receptor potential, purinergic receptor and acid-sensing ion channels can be influenced by cyto- and chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, histamine, ATP, reactive oxygen species and protons released in inflammation. Key pathways in this interaction are cyclic nucleotide, phosphoinositide and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signalling, direct modification by reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide, ATP or protons and disruption of the cytoskeleton. Therapeutic interventions to modulate the adverse and overlapping effects of the numerous different inflammatory mediators on each ion transport system need to target adversely affected ion transport systems directly and locally.

  18. Markers of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Germolec, Dori R; Frawley, Rachel P; Evans, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex and necessary component of an organism's response to biological, chemical or physical stimuli. In the acute phase, cells of the immune system migrate to the site of injury in a carefully orchestrated sequence of events that is mediated by cytokines and acute phase proteins. Depending upon the degree of injury, this acute phase may be sufficient to resolve the damage and initiate healing. Persistent inflammation as a result of prolonged exposure to stimulus or an inappropriate reaction to self molecules can lead to the chronic phase, in which tissue damage and fibrosis can occur. Chronic inflammation is reported to contribute to numerous diseases including allergy, arthritis, asthma, atherosclerosis, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, and cancer, and to conditions of aging. Hematology and clinical chemistry data from standard toxicology studies can provide an initial indication of the presence and sometimes location of inflammation in the absence of specific data on the immune tissues. These data may suggest more specific immune function assays are necessary to determine the existence or mechanism(s) of -immunomodulation. Although changes in hematology dynamics, acute phase proteins, complement factors and cytokines are common to virtually all inflammatory conditions and can be measured by a variety of techniques, individual biomarkers have yet to be strongly associated with specific pathologic events. The specific profile in a given inflammatory condition is dependent upon species, mechanisms, severity, chronicity, and capacity of the immune system to respond and adapt.

  19. Development of cooling strategy for an air cooled lithium-ion battery pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongguang; Dixon, Regan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a cooling strategy development method for an air cooled battery pack with lithium-ion pouch cells used in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The challenges associated with the temperature uniformity across the battery pack, the temperature uniformity within each individual lithium-ion pouch cell, and the cooling efficiency of the battery pack are addressed. Initially, a three-dimensional battery pack thermal model developed based on simplified electrode theory is correlated to physical test data. An analytical design of experiments (DOE) approach using Optimal Latin-hypercube technique is then developed by incorporating a DOE design model, the correlated battery pack thermal model, and a morphing model. Analytical DOE studies are performed to examine the effects of cooling strategies including geometries of the cooling duct, cooling channel, cooling plate, and corrugation on battery pack thermal behavior and to identify the design concept of an air cooled battery pack to maximize its durability and its driving range.

  20. Role of the Chinese Herbal Medicine Xianhuayin on the Reversal of Premalignant Mucosal Lesions in the Golden Hamster Buccal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-zhi; Qiu, Yong-le; An, Zhi-guang; Yang, Feng-ying

    2010-01-01

    Aim To investigate the role of the Chinese herbal medicine Xianhuayin on the reversal of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced premalignant mucosal lesions in the oral buccal pouch of golden hamsters. Methodology The animals were randomly divided into a non-diseased control group (n=5) and an experimental group including 50 animals in which the buccal mucosa had been painted with DMBA (0.5% in acetone) to generate an oral mucosa premalignant lesion. Animals in the experimental group were further divided into Xianhuayin-treated group (n=30), untreated premalignant lesion group (n=10) and normal saline (NS)-treated group (n=10). The cheek (buccal) pouch mucosa of the golden hamsters in each group was observed with light and electron microscopy eight weeks after intragastric administration with NS or Xianhuayin. Results In the non-diseased control group, the buccal mucosa was keratinized and stratified squamous epithelium under a light microscope. In the untreated premalignant lesion group, variable degrees of epithelial dysplasia was observed. The irregular epithelial mucosa gradually became distinct in the Xianhuayin-treated group. Scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) analysis showed that surface of the cells exhibited honeycomb structures in the hamster of untreated-group. The cells were morphologically irregular, overlapped and loosened in the untreated premalignant lesion group. Most of the cell surface exhibited honeycomb structure in the Xianhuayin-treated group. Transmission electronic microscopic (TEM) analysis showed that buccal mucosal epithelial cells were morphologically regular in the non-diseased control group. Desmosomes and tonofibrils were reduced and the nucleus was morphologically irregular in the untreated premalignant lesion group. In the Xianhuayin-treated group, the widening intercellular gap was gradually reduced, desmosomes and the cells becoming morphologically regular. No significant difference was observed between the hamsters in

  1. Gut Microbiota and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hakansson, Asa; Molin, Goran

    2011-01-01

    Systemic and local inflammation in relation to the resident microbiota of the human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract and administration of probiotics are the main themes of the present review. The dominating taxa of the human GI tract and their potential for aggravating or suppressing inflammation are described. The review focuses on human trials with probiotics and does not include in vitro studies and animal experimental models. The applications of probiotics considered are systemic immune-modulation, the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and radiation-induced enteritis. When the major genomic differences between different types of probiotics are taken into account, it is to be expected that the human body can respond differently to the different species and strains of probiotics. This fact is often neglected in discussions of the outcome of clinical trials with probiotics. PMID:22254115

  2. Stress, Inflammation and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lavretsky, Helen; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This editorial provides a summary of the state of research on stress-related changes associated with aging and discuss how factors such as inflammation and sex steroid alterations may interact with psychosocial stress to affect the risk for mood and cognitive disturbance in older individuals. The authors provide an integrated summary of four studies reported in this issue of the journal and views on future direction in stress and aging research and interventions targeting resilience to stress. PMID:22874577

  3. TWEAK Promotes Peritoneal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Ana Belen; Aroeira, Luiz Stark; Bellon, Teresa; del Peso, Gloria; Jimenez-Heffernan, Jose; Santamaria, Beatriz; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel; Lopez-Cabrera, Manuel; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Selgas, Rafael; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is complicated by peritonitis episodes that cause loss of mesothelium and eventually sclerosing peritonitis. An improved understanding of the molecular contributors to peritoneal injury and defense may increase the therapeutic armamentarium to optimize peritoneal defenses while minimizing peritoneal injury. There is no information on the expression and function of the cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 during peritoneal injury. Fn14 expression and soluble TWEAK levels were measured in human PD peritoneal effluent cells or fluids with or without peritonitis. Fn14 expression was also analyzed in peritoneal biopsies from PD patients. Actions of intraperitoneal TWEAK were studied in mice in vivo. sTWEAK levels were increased in peritoneal effluent in PD peritonitis. Effluent sTWEAK levels correlated with the number of peritoneal macrophages (r = 0.491, p = 0.002). Potential TWEAK targets that express the receptor Fn14 include mesothelial cells and macrophages, as demonstrated by flow cytometry of peritoneal effluents and by analysis of peritoneal biopsies. Peritoneal biopsy Fn14 correlated with mesothelial injury, fibrosis and inflammation, suggesting a potential deleterious effect of TWEAK/Fn14. In this regard, intraperitoneal TWEAK administration to mice promoted peritoneal inflammation characterized by increased peritoneal effluent MCP-1, Fn14 and Gr1+ macrophages, increased mesothelial Fn14, MCP-1 and CCL21 expression and submesothelial tissue macrophage recruitment. Taken together these data suggest that the TWEAK/Fn14 system may promote inflammation and tissue injury during peritonitis and PD. PMID:24599047

  4. Cancer-related inflammation.

    PubMed

    Candido, Juliana; Hagemann, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Solid tumors consist of neoplastic cells, non-malignant stromal cells, and migratory hematopoietic cells. Complex interactions between the cell types in this microenvironment regulate tumor growth, progression, metastasis, and angiogenesis. The cells and mediators of inflammation form a major part of the epithelial tumor microenvironment. In some cancers, inflammatory conditions precede development of malignancy; in others, oncogenic change drives a tumor-promoting inflammatory milieu. Whatever its origin, this "smoldering" inflammation aids proliferation and survival of malignant cells, stimulates angiogenesis and metastasis, subverts adaptive immunity, and alters response to hormones and chemotherapy. Cytokines are major mediators of communication between cells in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. It is known that neoplastic cells often over-express proinflammatory mediators including proteases, eicosanoids, cytokines, and chemokines. Several cytokines such as macrophage migratory inhibitory factor (MIF), TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, IL-12, IL-23, IL-10, and TGF-β have been linked with both experimental and human cancers and can either promote or inhibit tumor development. MIF is a major cytokine in many cancers and there is evidence that the cytokine is produced by both malignant cells and infiltrating leukocytes. In this article we will discuss the role of cancer-associated inflammation and the particular role of MIF in malignant disease.

  5. Inflammation and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wersinger, Christophe; Sidhu, Anita

    2002-09-01

    Numerous recent findings indicate the possible involvement of an immune mechanism in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. The immune reaction could either act as a primary event, generating changes leading to cell death, or could be a secondary response to neuronal injury. In various neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's or Pick's disease, Down's syndrome, multiple sclerosis and the AIDS-dementia complex, the inflammatory pathomechanism is strongly supported by experimental and clinical studies. Such inflammatory mechanisms have also been postulated in Parkinson's disease (PD). This review summarizes some generalities about inflammation and immune reactions in the context of the brain, and provides clinical, epidemiological and experimental data showing that inflammation and immunity, or even auto-immunity, could be implicated in PD, either in its initial step or in its progression. Different experimental models useful for studying the role(s) of inflammation and (auto)immunity in the neurodegenerative process of the dopaminergic neurons in PD are examined. The major similarities and differences between PD and other neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

  6. Stress increases periodontal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA, CÉSAR; MONSALVE, FRANCISCO; SUAZO, IVÁN; BECERRA, JAVIERA

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of chronic restraint stress (RS) on the severity of experimental periodontal disease in rats. A total of 32 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: i) Rats receiving two treatment regimens, chronic stress induced by movement restriction in acrylic cylinders for 1–1.5 h daily and induction of experimental periodontal disease, using a nylon ligature which was placed around the first left mandibular molars (n=8); ii) induction of periodontal disease, without RS (n=8); iii) RS (n=8) and iv) control (n=8). After 15 days, blood samples were obtained, and blood glucose levels and the corticosterone concentration were measured as stress markers. The severity of periodontal disease was analyzed according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation, leading to compromise of the teeth involved. Chronic stress was induced with movement restriction (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and increased the severity (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) of experimental perio dontal disease in rats, according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation around the first left mandibular molars. The results of the present study showed that RS modulates periodontal inflammation and that the rat model described herein is suitable for investigating the association between stress and periodontal disease. PMID:23226743

  7. Cytotoxicity of liposomal α-tocopheryl succinate towards hamster cheek pouch carcinoma (HCPC-1) cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xinbin; Schwartz, Joel L.; Pang, Xiaowu; Zhou, Yanfei; Sirois, David A.; Sridhar, Rajagopalan

    2007-01-01

    There is compelling evidence for the cancer chemopreventive effects of vitamin E and related compounds. Of all the vitamin E derivatives that have been investigated to date, vitamin E acid succinate is the most effective anti-cancer agent. This report describes the preparation and testing of liposomal formulation of mono α-tocopheryl ester of succinic acid (α-TOS) for cytotoxicity against hamster cheek pouch carcinoma cell line (HCPC-1). Small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) of phosphatidylcholine incorporating 70 μM α-TOS were superior to α-TOS alone or SUV without incorporated α-TOS, as inducers of apoptosis in HCPC-1 cells. Liposomal α-TOS perturbed the lipid structure in cells, promoted apoptosis, and decreased cell viability. The mechanism of action of α-TOS appears to involve membrane damage and induction of ceramide mediated apoptosis. PMID:16271438

  8. Prospective radionuclide renal function evaluation and its correlation with radiological findings in patients with Kock pouch urinary diversion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.K.; Chang, L.S.; Chen, M.T.; Yeh, S.H. )

    1991-05-01

    In an attempt to understand better the status of renal function after Kock pouch urinary diversion we conducted a prospective evaluation of renal function in 25 patients using the radionuclide 131iodine-hippurate. Studies were done before, and at 1 month and every 6 months for 30 months postoperatively. The radionuclide results were then compared to excretory urography and contrast study of the reservoir. Our renal function study included the determination of individual and total effective renal plasma flow (ml. per minute), the time to maximal radioactivity over the kidney (peak time in minutes) and a renogram. The mean total (both kidneys) effective renal plasma flow rates before (25 patients) and at month 1 (19), month 6 (14), month 12 (12), month 18 (6), month 24 (6) and month 30 (7) after operation were 385.5 +/- 112.2, 310.5 +/- 109.9, 362.7 +/- 69.2, 442.0 +/- 97.5, 468.2 +/- 82.5, 405.7 +/- 70.6 and 414.0 +/- 65.1, respectively. A comparison of individual and total effective renal plasma flow before and after operation revealed that only the change of the flow at each or both sides of the kidney before and at 1 month after the operation reached statistically significant differences, respectively (p less than 0.05, paired t test). Postoperatively 5 of 6 patients with hydronephrosis had abnormal peak time and a third segment on the renogram was performed on the corresponding side of the kidney. No reflux was noted on contrast study of the reservoir of any patient followed for up to 30 months. In conclusion, the radionuclide renal function evaluation showed a significant decrease of renal function 1 month after Kock pouch diversion, then it resumed and remained stable (neither improved nor deteriorated) for 30 months. Also the abnormal peak time and third segment on the renogram usually implicated a dilated upper urinary tract.

  9. Development and verification of a mouse model for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery with a small gastric pouch.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zheng; Zhao, Zhiyun; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Ye, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Existing mouse models of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are not comparable to human RYGB in gastric pouch volume for a large or absent gastric volume. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a mouse RYGB model that closely replicates gastric pouch size of human RYGB surgery of about 5% of total gastric volume. We established this model in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice of C57BL/6J. This surgery resulted in a sustained 30% weight loss, entirely accounted for by decreased fat mass but not lean mass, compared to sham-operated mice on the high fat diet. Compared to sham-operated mice, energy expenditure corrected for total body weight was significantly increased by about 25%, and substrate utilization was shifted toward higher carbohydrate utilization at 8 weeks after RYGB when body weight had stabilized at the lower level. The energy expenditure persisted and carbohydrate utilization was even more pronounced when the mice were fed chow diet. Although significantly increased during daytime, overall locomotor activity was not significantly different. In response to cold exposure, RYGB mice exhibited an improved capacity to maintain the body temperature. In insulin tolerance test, exogenous insulin-induced suppression of plasma glucose levels was significantly greater in RYGB mice at 4 weeks after surgery. Paradoxically, food intake measured at 5 weeks after surgery was significantly increased, possibly in compensation for increased fecal energy loss and energy expenditure. In conclusion, this new model is a viable alternative to existing murine RYGB models and the model matches human RYGB surgery in anatomy. This model will be useful for studying molecular mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of RYGB on body weight and glucose homeostasis.

  10. Macrophages in Synovial Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Aisling; Fearon, Ursula; Veale, Douglas J.; Godson, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Synovial macrophages are one of the resident cell types in synovial tissue and while they remain relatively quiescent in the healthy joint, they become activated in the inflamed joint and, along with infiltrating monocytes/macrophages, regulate secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes involved in driving the inflammatory response and joint destruction. Synovial macrophages are positioned throughout the sub-lining layer and lining layer at the cartilage–pannus junction and mediate articular destruction. Sub-lining macrophages are now also considered as the most reliable biomarker for disease severity and response to therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is a growing understanding of the molecular drivers of inflammation and an appreciation that the resolution of inflammation is an active process rather than a passive return to homeostasis, and this has implications for our understanding of the role of macrophages in inflammation. Macrophage phenotype determines the cytokine secretion profile and tissue destruction capabilities of these cells. Whereas inflammatory synovial macrophages have not yet been classified into one phenotype or another it is widely known that TNFα and IL-l, characteristically released by M1 macrophages, are abundant in RA while IL-10 activity, characteristic of M2 macrophages, is somewhat diminished. Here we will briefly review our current understanding of macrophages and macrophage polarization in RA as well as the elements implicated in controlling polarization, such as cytokines and transcription factors like NFκB, IRFs and NR4A, and pro-resolving factors, such as LXA4 and other lipid mediators which may promote a non-inflammatory, pro-resolving phenotype, and may represent a novel therapeutic paradigm. PMID:22566842

  11. Pulmonary oxidative stress, inflammation and dysregulated iron homeostatis in rat models of cardiovascular disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered a risk factor for the exacerbation of air pollution health effects. Therefore, rodent models of CVD are increasingly used to examine mechanisms ofvariation in susceptibility. Pulmonary oxidative stress, inflammation and altere...

  12. Eicosanoids in skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Eicosanoids play an integral part in homeostatic mechanisms related to skin health and structural integrity. They also mediate inflammatory events developed in response to environmental factors, such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and inflammatory and allergic disorders, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. This review article discusses biochemical aspects related to cutaneous eicosanoid metabolism, the contribution of these potent autacoids to skin inflammation and related conditions, and considers the importance of nutritional supplementation with bioactives such as omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant-derived antioxidants as means of addressing skin health issues.

  13. Prostaglandins and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ricciotti, Emanuela; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandins are lipid autacoids derived from arachidonic acid. They both sustain homeostatic functions and mediate pathogenic mechanisms, including the inflammatory response. They are generated from arachidonate by the action of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes and their biosynthesis is blocked by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including those selective for inhibition of COX-2. Despite the clinical efficacy of NSAIDs, prostaglandins may function in both the promotion and resolution of inflammation. This review summarizes insights into the mechanisms of prostaglandin generation and the roles of individual mediators and their receptors in modulating the inflammatory response. Prostaglandin biology has potential clinical relevance for atherosclerosis, the response to vascular injury and aortic aneurysm. PMID:21508345

  14. Inflammation in Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ruilong; Liang, Helena; Clarke, Elizabeth; Jackson, Christopher; Xue, Meilang

    2016-01-01

    Non-healing chronic wounds present a major biological, psychological, social, and financial burden on both individual patients and the broader health system. Pathologically extensive inflammation plays a major role in the disruption of the normal healing cascade. The causes of chronic wounds (venous, arterial, pressure, and diabetic ulcers) can be examined through a juxtaposition of normal healing and the rogue inflammatory response created by the common components within chronic wounds (ageing, hypoxia, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and bacterial colonisation). Wound bed care through debridement, dressings, and antibiotics currently form the basic mode of treatment. Despite recent setbacks, pharmaceutical adjuncts form an interesting area of research. PMID:27973441

  15. Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Collard, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease. PMID:25846532

  16. [Inflammation and obesity (lipoinflammation)].

    PubMed

    Izaola, Olatz; de Luis, Daniel; Sajoux, Ignacio; Domingo, Joan Carles; Vidal, Montse

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease with multiple origins. It is a widespread global phenomenon carrying potentially serious complications which requires a multidisciplinary approach due to the significant clinical repercussions and elevated health costs associated with the disease. The most recent evidence indicates that it shares a common characteristic with other prevalent, difficult-to-treat pathologies: chronic, low-grade inflammation which perpetuates the disease and is associated with multiple complications. The current interest in lipoinflammation or chronic inflammation associated with obesity derives from an understanding of the alterations and remodelling that occurs in the adipose tissue, with the participation of multiple factors and elements throughout the process. Recent research highlights the importance of some of these molecules, called pro-resolving mediators, as possible therapeutic targets in the treatment of obesity. This article reviews the evidence published on the mechanisms that regulate the adipose tissue remodelling process and lipoinflammation both in obesity and in the mediators that are directly involved in the appearance and resolution of the inflammatory process.

  17. Obesity, Inflammation and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hansongyi; Lee, In Seok

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a state in which there is an over-accumulation of subcutaneous and/or abdominal adipose tissue. This adipose tissue is no longer considered inert and mainly devoted to storing energy; it is emerging as an active tissue in the regulation of physiological and pathological processes, including immunity and inflammation. Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin), as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-4, IL-6, and others). Adipose tissue is also implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Obesity is thus an underlying condition for inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Diet or dietary patterns play critical roles in obesity and other pathophysiological conditions. A healthy diet and some nutrients are generally considered beneficial; however, some dietary nutrients are still considered controversial. In this article, dietary factors that influence inflammation associated with obesity are discussed. PMID:24224147

  18. Anemia of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Roy, Cindy N

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation arising from various etiologies, including infection, autoimmune disorders, chronic diseases, and aging, can promote anemia. The anemia of inflammation (AI) is most often normocytic and normochromic and is usually mild. Characteristic changes in systemic iron handling, erythrocyte production, and erythrocyte life span all contribute to AI. The preferred treatment is directed at the underlying disease. However, when the inflammatory insult is intractable, or the cause has not been diagnosed, there are limited options for treatment of AI. Because anemia is a comorbid condition that is associated with poor outcomes in various chronic disease states, understanding its pathogenesis and developing new tools for its treatment should remain a priority. Hepcidin antimicrobial peptide has taken center stage in recent years as a potent modulator of iron availability. As the technology for quantitative hepcidin analysis improves, hepcidin's role in various disease states is also being revealed. Recent insights concerning the regulatory pathways that modify hepcidin expression have identified novel targets for drug development. As the field advances with such therapeutics, the analysis of the impact of normalized hemoglobin on disease outcomes will confirm whether anemia is a reversible independent contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with inflammatory diseases.

  19. SOCS, inflammation, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki-Ohara, Kyoko; Kondo, Taisuke; Ito, Minako; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways elicited by cytokines and hormones have been shown to regulate distinct stages of development. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are negative feedback regulators of cytokine signaling mediated by the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. In particular, SOCS1 and SOCS3 are potent inhibitors of JAKs and can play pivotal roles in inflammation, as well as in the development and progression of cancers. Abnormal expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in cancer cells has been reported in human carcinoma associated with dysregulation of signals from cytokine receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and hormone receptors, resulting in malignancies. In this review, we focus on the role of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in cancer development. In addition, the potential of SOCS as a therapeutic target and diagnostic aid will be discussed. PMID:24069550

  20. Sleep Loss and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Norah S.; Meier-Ewert, Hans K.; Haack, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Controlled, experimental studies on the effects of acute sleep loss in humans have shown that mediators of inflammation are altered by sleep loss. Elevations in these mediators have been found to occur in healthy, rigorously screened individuals undergoing experimental vigils of more than 24 hours, and have also been seen in response to various durations of sleep restricted to between 25 and 50% of a normal 8 hour sleep amount. While these altered profiles represent small changes, such sub-clinical shifts in basal inflammatory cytokines are known to be associated with the future development of metabolic syndrome disease in healthy, asymptomatic individuals. Although the mechanism of this altered inflammatory status in humans undergoing experimental sleep loss is unknown, it is likely that autonomic activation and metabolic changes play key roles. PMID:21112025

  1. Inflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Johnny; Kern, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes causes a number of metabolic and physiologic abnormalities in the retina, but which of these abnormalities contribute to recognized features of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is less clear. Many of the molecular and physiologic abnormalities that have been found to develop in the retina in diabetes are consistent with inflammation. Moreover, a number of anti-inflammatory therapies have been found to significantly inhibit development of different aspects of DR in animal models. Herein, we review the inflammatory mediators and their relationship to early and late DR, and discuss the potential of anti-inflammatory approaches to inhibit development of different stages of the retinopathy. We focus primarily on information derived from in vivo studies, supplementing with information from in vitro studies were important. PMID:21635964

  2. Nucleotide signalling during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Idzko, Marco; Ferrari, Davide; Eltzschig, Holger K.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory conditions are associated with the extracellular release of nucleotides, particularly ATP. In the extracellular compartment, ATP predominantly functions as a signalling molecule through the activation of purinergic P2 receptors. Metabotropic P2Y receptors are G-protein-coupled, whereas ionotropic P2X receptors are ATP-gated ion channels. Here we discuss how signalling events through P2 receptors alter the outcomes of inflammatory or infectious diseases. Recent studies implicate a role for P2X/P2Ysignalling in mounting appropriate inflammatory responses critical for host defence against invading pathogens or tumours. Conversely, P2X/P2Y signalling can promote chronic inflammation during ischaemia and reperfusion injury, inflammatory bowel disease or acute and chronic diseases of the lungs. Although nucleotide signalling has been used clinically in patients before, research indicates an expanding field of opportunities for specifically targeting individual P2 receptors for the treatment of inflammatory or infectious diseases. PMID:24828189

  3. Infections, inflammation and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Vezzani, Annamaria; Fujinami, Robert S.; White, H. Steve; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Blümcke, Ingmar; Sander, Josemir W.; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is the tendency to have unprovoked epileptic seizures. Anything causing structural or functional derangement of brain physiology may lead to seizures, and different conditions may express themselves solely by recurrent seizures and thus be labelled “epilepsy.” Worldwide, epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition. The range of risk factors for the development of epilepsy varies with age and geographic location. Congenital, developmental and genetic conditions are mostly associated with the development of epilepsy in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Head trauma, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and tumours may occur at any age and may lead to the development of epilepsy. Infections of the CNS are a major risk factor for epilepsy. The reported risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of survivors of CNS infections from developed countries is between 6.8 and 8.3 %, and is much higher in resource-poor countries. In this review, the various viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infectious diseases of the CNS which result in seizures and epilepsy are discussed. The pathogenesis of epilepsy due to brain infections, as well as the role of experimental models to study mechanisms of epileptogenesis induced by infectious agents, is reviewed. The sterile (non-infectious) inflammatory response that occurs following brain insults is also discussed, as well as its overlap with inflammation due to infections, and the potential role in epileptogenesis. Furthermore, autoimmune encephalitis as a cause of seizures is reviewed. Potential strategies to prevent epilepsy resulting from brain infections and non-infectious inflammation are also considered. PMID:26423537

  4. Inflammation, atrophy, and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.

    2006-01-01

    The association between chronic inflammation and cancer is now well established. This association has recently received renewed interest with the recognition that microbial pathogens can be responsible for the chronic inflammation observed in many cancers, particularly those originating in the gastrointestinal system. A prime example is Helicobacter pylori, which infects 50% of the world’s population and is now known to be responsible for inducing chronic gastric inflammation that progresses to atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer. This Review provides an overview of recent progress in elucidating the bacterial properties responsible for colonization of the stomach, persistence in the stomach, and triggering of inflammation, as well as the host factors that have a role in determining whether gastritis progresses to gastric cancer. We also discuss how the increased understanding of the relationship between inflammation and gastric cancer still leaves many questions unanswered regarding recommendations for prevention and treatment. PMID:17200707

  5. Retinoic acid is required for specification of the ventral eye field and for Rathke's pouch in the avian embryo.

    PubMed

    Maden, Malcolm; Blentic, Aida; Reijntjes, Susan; Seguin, Sophie; Gale, Emily; Graham, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the role of retinoic acid (RA) in eye development using the vitamin A deficient quail model system, which overcomes problems of retinoic acid synthesising enzyme redundancy in the embryo. In the absence of retinoic acid, the ventral optic stalk and ventral retina are missing, whereas the dorsal optic stalk and dorsal retina develop appropriately. Other ocular abnormalities observed were a thinner retina and the lack of differentiation of the lens. In an attempt to explain this, we studied the expression of various dorsally and ventrally expressed genes such as Pax2, Pax6, Tbx6, Vax2, Raldh1 and Raldh3 and noted that they were unchanged in their expression patterns. In contrast, the RA catabolising enzymes Cyp26A1 and Cyp26B1 which are known to be RA-responsive were not expressed at all in the developing eye. At much earlier stages, the expression domain of Shh in the prechordal plate was reduced, as was Nkx2.1 and we suggest a model whereby the eye field is specified according to the concentration of SHH protein that is present. We also describe another organ, Rathke's pouch which fails to develop in the absence of retinoic acid. We attribute this to the down-regulation of Bmp2, Shh and Fgf8 which are known to be involved in the induction of this structure.

  6. Stereological studies of differentiation in hamster cheek pouch epithelium: variations in the volume and frequency of mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    White, F H; Gohari, K

    1983-01-01

    The present report describes quantitative studies of mitochondria from stratified squamous epithelial cells from hamster cheek pouch mucosa in differentiating compartments. Mucosa was processed for electron microscopy and, using strict sampling procedures, electron micrographs of epithelium from defined basal, spinous and granular strata were acquired. Using stereological and other morphometric methods, the volume density, numerical density and volume-to-surface ratio of mitochondria were estimated in each cellular layer, and these data were transformed into absolute values characterising the average cell in these layers. The results suggest that both volumetric and numerical densities of mitochondria decreased progressively during epithelial differentiation; conversely, the total volume and number of mitochondria present in granular cells were consistently higher than in basal cells, as was the volume of individual mitochondria. These quantitative changes may reflect functional alterations in the metabolism of epithelial cells during differentiation and provide a base line for further work on experimental epithelial biology and pathology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6350250

  7. Fast and slow ion diffusion processes in lithium ion pouch cells during cycling observed with fiber optic strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Lars Wilko; Kiesel, Peter; Ganguli, Anurag; Lochbaum, Alexander; Saha, Bhaskar; Schwartz, Julian; Bae, Chang-Jun; Alamgir, Mohamed; Raghavan, Ajay

    2015-11-01

    Cell monitoring for safe capacity utilization while maximizing pack life and performance is a key requirement for effective battery management and encouraging their adoption for clean-energy technologies. A key cell failure mode is the build-up of residual electrode strain over time, which affects both cell performance and life. Our team has been exploring the use of fiber optic (FO) sensors as a new alternative for cell state monitoring. In this present study, various charge-cycling experiments were performed on Lithium-ion pouch cells with a particular class of FO sensors, fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), that were externally attached to the cells. An overshooting of the volume change at high SOC that recovers during rest can be observed. This phenomenon originates from the interplay between a fast and a slow Li ion diffusion process, which leads to non-homogeneous intercalation of Li ions. This paper focuses on the strain relaxation processes that occur after switching from charge to no-load phases. The correlation of the excess volume and subsequent relaxation to SOC as well as temperature is discussed. The implications of being able to monitor this phenomenon to control battery utilization for long life are also discussed.

  8. Raman spectroscopic detection of early stages in DMBA-induced tumor evolution in hamster buccal pouch model: an exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanate, Avinash D.; Kumar, G.; Talathi, Sneha; Maru, G. B.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2010-12-01

    Oral cancers are the serious health problem in developing as well as developed world, and more so in India and other south Asian countries. Survival rate of these cancers, despite advances in treatment modalities are one of the poorest which is attributed to lack of reliable screening and early detection methods. The hamster buccal pouch (HBP)carcinogenesis model closely mimics human oral cancers. Optical spectroscopy methods are sensitive enough to detect subtle biochemical changes and thus hold great potential in early detection of cancers. However, efficacy of these techniques in classifying of sequential evolution of tumors has never been tested. Therefore, in this study, we have explored the feasibility of Raman spectroscopic classification of different stages of cancers in hamster model. Strong vibrational modes of lipids (1440, 1654, and 1746 cm-1) are seen in control tissue spectra, whereas strong protein bands are seen in spectra of DMBA treated tissues. These differences were exploited to classify control and treated tissues using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Principle Component Analysis (PCA)-Limit test, Factorial Discriminant Analysis (FDA), Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA), PLS-DA and non- linear decision tree methods. All these techniques have shown good classification between spectra of different stages of tumor evolution and results were further successfully verified by leave-one-out and single blinded methods. Thus findings of this study, first of its kind,demonstrate the feasibility of Raman spectroscopic detection of early changes in tumor evolution.

  9. Raman spectroscopic detection of early stages in DMBA-induced tumor evolution in hamster buccal pouch model: an exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanate, Avinash D.; Kumar, G.; Talathi, Sneha; Maru, G. B.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2011-08-01

    Oral cancers are the serious health problem in developing as well as developed world, and more so in India and other south Asian countries. Survival rate of these cancers, despite advances in treatment modalities are one of the poorest which is attributed to lack of reliable screening and early detection methods. The hamster buccal pouch (HBP)carcinogenesis model closely mimics human oral cancers. Optical spectroscopy methods are sensitive enough to detect subtle biochemical changes and thus hold great potential in early detection of cancers. However, efficacy of these techniques in classifying of sequential evolution of tumors has never been tested. Therefore, in this study, we have explored the feasibility of Raman spectroscopic classification of different stages of cancers in hamster model. Strong vibrational modes of lipids (1440, 1654, and 1746 cm-1) are seen in control tissue spectra, whereas strong protein bands are seen in spectra of DMBA treated tissues. These differences were exploited to classify control and treated tissues using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Principle Component Analysis (PCA)-Limit test, Factorial Discriminant Analysis (FDA), Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA), PLS-DA and non- linear decision tree methods. All these techniques have shown good classification between spectra of different stages of tumor evolution and results were further successfully verified by leave-one-out and single blinded methods. Thus findings of this study, first of its kind,demonstrate the feasibility of Raman spectroscopic detection of early changes in tumor evolution.

  10. Chronic treatment of male tammar wallabies with deslorelin implants during pouch life: effects on development, puberty, and reproduction in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Herbert, C A; Eckery, D C; Trigg, T E; Cooper, D W

    2007-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of chronic GnRH agonist (deslorelin) treatment on sexual maturation in the male tammar wallaby. Slow-release deslorelin or placebo implants were administered to male pouch young (n = 10/group) when they were between 180 and 200 days old, to determine if disruption of the pituitary-testicular axis during development altered the timing of sexual maturation or had long-term effects on adult reproductive function. Deslorelin treatment caused retardation of testicular growth and reduced the serum FSH and testosterone concentrations between 12 and 24 mo of age. Maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis was also delayed in treated animals at 13 and 19 mo of age. Despite these alterations in the pattern and timing of neuroendocrine development, sexual maturation was not permanently blocked in these animals and deslorelin-treated animals reached sexual maturity at the same age as treated animals, as evidenced by a fully functional pituitary-testicular axis and proven fertility at 25 mo of age. The ability of the treated animals to reach puberty at the same time as control animals, despite delayed maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, suggests that puberty in the male tammar wallaby is additionally regulated by other, gonadotropin-independent factors.

  11. Ontogenetic shifts in brain scaling reflect behavioral changes in the life cycle of the pouched lamprey Geotria australis

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Carlos A.; Yopak, Kara E.; Warrington, Rachael E.; Hart, Nathan S.; Potter, Ian C.; Collin, Shaun P.

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies have described brain scaling in vertebrates throughout ontogeny and none in lampreys, one of the two surviving groups of the early agnathan (jawless) stage in vertebrate evolution. The life cycle of anadromous parasitic lampreys comprises two divergent trophic phases, firstly filter-feeding as larvae in freshwater and secondly parasitism as adults in the sea, with the transition marked by a radical metamorphosis. We characterized the growth of the brain during the life cycle of the pouched lamprey Geotria australis, an anadromous parasitic lamprey, focusing on the scaling between brain and body during ontogeny and testing the hypothesis that the vast transitions in behavior and environment are reflected in differences in the scaling and relative size of the major brain subdivisions throughout life. The body and brain mass and the volume of six brain structures of G. australis, representing six points of the life cycle, were recorded, ranging from the early larval stage to the final stage of spawning and death. Brain mass does not increase linearly with body mass during the ontogeny of G. australis. During metamorphosis, brain mass increases markedly, even though the body mass does not increase, reflecting an overall growth of the brain, with particularly large increases in the volume of the optic tectum and other visual areas of the brain and, to a lesser extent, the olfactory bulbs. These results are consistent with the conclusions that ammocoetes rely predominantly on non-visual and chemosensory signals, while adults rely on both visual and olfactory cues. PMID:26283894

  12. A new species of pouched octopus, Cistopus Gray, 1849 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from the southwest coast of India.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, Vijayamma; Norman, Mark D; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2015-12-16

    Octopuses of the genus Cistopus Gray, 1849 are commercially valuable catches in the cephalopod fisheries of India. The primary and unique diagnostic character of this genus is the possession of eight small mucous pouches embedded in the oral faces of the webs between the bases of each arm. Historically only a single species of Cistopus, C. indicus, had been reported from Indian waters. In reviewing the octopod fauna off the Kerala coast, we have detected three species of Cistopus, of which one is described here as a new species. Cistopus platinoidus sp. nov. is distinct from Cistopus species described to date (C. indicus, C. taiwanicus and C. chinensis) on the basis of sucker counts, the number and position of enlarged suckers in males, and presence/absence of a calamus. Our studies of catch composition of Kerala octopod fisheries indicate a higher diversity of target species than previously suspected, including a number of undescribed species. Taxonomic resolution and collation of biological and distributional data are required for effective monitoring and management of these valuable fisheries.

  13. Diabetes Is Reversed in a Murine Model by Marginal Mass Syngeneic Islet Transplantation Using a Subcutaneous Cell Pouch Device

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, Andrew R.; Pawlick, Rena; Gala-Lopez, Boris; MacGillivary, Amanda; Mazzuca, Delfina M.; White, David J. G.; Toleikis, Philip M.; Shapiro, A. M. James

    2015-01-01

    Background Islet transplantation is a successful β-cell replacement therapy for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Although high rates of early insulin independence are achieved routinely, long-term function wanes over time. Intraportal transplantation is associated with procedural risks, requires multiple donors, and does not afford routine biopsy. Stem cell technologies may require potential for retrievability, and graft removal by hepatectomy is impractical. There is a clear clinical need for an alternative, optimized transplantation site. The subcutaneous space is a potential substitute, but transplantation of islets into this site has routinely failed to reverse diabetes. However, an implanted device, which becomes prevascularized before transplantation, may alter this equation. Methods Syngeneic mouse islets were transplanted subcutaneously within Sernova Corp's Cell Pouch (CP). All recipients were preimplanted with CPs 4 weeks before diabetes induction and transplantation. After transplantation, recipients were monitored for glycemic control and glucose tolerance. Results Mouse islets transplanted into the CP routinely restored glycemic control with modest delay and responded well to glucose challenge, comparable to renal subcapsular islet grafts, despite a marginal islet dose, and normoglycemia was maintained until graft explantation. In contrast, islets transplanted subcutaneously alone failed to engraft. Islets within CPs stained positively for insulin, glucagon, and microvessels. Conclusions The CP is biocompatible, forms an environment suitable for islet engraftment, and offers a potential alternative to the intraportal site for islet and future stem cell therapies. PMID:26308506

  14. Inflammation, Sanitation, and Consternation

    PubMed Central

    Raison, Charles L.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Rook, Graham A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Context Inflammation is increasingly recognized as contributing to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD), even in individuals who are otherwise medically healthy. Most studies in search of sources for this increased inflammation have focused on factors such as psychosocial stress and obesity that are known to activate inflammatory processes and increase the risk for depression. However, MDD may be so prevalent in the modern world not just because proinflammatory factors are widespread, but also because we have lost contact with previously available sources of anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory signaling. Objective To examine evidence that disruptions in co-evolved relationships with a variety of tolerogenic microorganisms that were previously ubiquitous in soil, food, and the gut, but that are largely missing from industrialized societies, may contribute to increasing rates of MDD in the modern world. Data Sources Relevant studies were identified using PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE. Study Selection Included were laboratory animal and human studies relevant to immune functioning, the hygiene hypothesis, and major depressive disorder identified via PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE searches. Data Extraction Studies were reviewed by all authors, and data considered to be potentially relevant to the contribution of hygiene-related immune variables to major depressive disorder were extracted. Data Synthesis Significant data suggest that a variety of microorganisms (frequently referred to as the “old friends”) were tasked by coevolutionary processes with training the human immune system to tolerate a wide array of nonthreatening but potentially proinflammatory stimuli. Lacking such immune training, vulnerable individuals in the modern world are at significantly increased risk of mounting inappropriate inflammatory attacks on harmless environmental antigens (leading to asthma), benign food contents and commensals in the gut (leading to inflammatory bowel disease), or

  15. Diabetes mellitus and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lontchi-Yimagou, Eric; Sobngwi, Eugene; Matsha, Tandi E; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly common worldwide. Related complications account for increased morbidity and mortality, and enormous healthcare spending. Knowledge of the pathophysiological derangements involved in the occurrence of diabetes and related complications is critical for successful prevention and control solutions. Epidemiologic studies have established an association between inflammatory biomarkers and the occurrence of T2DM and complications. Adipose tissue appears to be a major site of production of those inflammatory biomarkers, as a result of the cross-talk between adipose cells, macrophages, and other immune cells that infiltrate the expanding adipose tissue. The triggering mechanisms of the inflammation in T2DM are still ill-understood. Inflammatory response likely contributes to T2DM occurrence by causing insulin resistance, and is in turn intensified in the presence of hyperglycemia to promote long-term complications of diabetes. Targeting inflammatory pathways could possibly be a component of the strategies to prevent and control diabetes and related complications.

  16. Thermography in ocular inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kawali, Ankush A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ocular inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions using commercially available thermal camera. Materials and Methods: A non-contact thermographic camera (FLIR P 620) was used to take thermal pictures of seven cases of ocular inflammation, two cases of non-inflammatory ocular pathology, and one healthy subject with mild refractive error only. Ocular inflammatory cases included five cases of scleritis, one case of postoperative anterior uveitis, and a case of meibomian gland dysfunction with keratitis (MGD-keratitis). Non-inflammatory conditions included a case of conjunctival benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (BRLH) and a case of central serous chorio-retinopathy. Thermal and non-thermal photographs were taken, and using analyzing software, the ocular surface temperature was calculated. Results: Patient with fresh episode of scleritis revealed high temperature. Eyes with MGD-keratitis depicted lower temperature in clinically more affected eye. Conjunctival BRLH showed a cold lesion on thermography at the site of involvement, in contrast to cases of scleritis with similar clinical presentation. Conclusion: Ocular thermal imaging is an underutilized diagnostic tool which can be used to distinguish inflammatory ocular conditions from non-inflammatory conditions. It can also be utilized in the evaluation of tear film in dry eye syndrome. Its applications should be further explored in uveitis and other ocular disorders. Dedicated “ocular thermographic” camera is today's need of the hour. PMID:24347863

  17. Mast cells and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Stassen, Michael; Hültner, Lothar; Müller, Christian; Schmitt, Edgar

    2002-01-01

    Mast cells have long been recognized as potent producers of a large panel of biologically highly active mediators such as biogenic amines, arachidonic acid metabolites, cytokines and chemokines, but most of their biological functions have been elusive and speculative. By taking advantage of mast cell-deficient mice, the role of mast cells in a variety of experimental settings can now be studied in detail and such approaches have dramatically altered and enlarged our knowledge about mast cell biology and function. Herein we will focus on the role of mast cells in inflammatory reactions of diverse origin, such as delayed type hypersensitivity, atopy, immune complex-mediated inflammation and innate immune responses. From the current standpoint, there is no doubt that the most outstanding and beneficial feature of mast cells is their recently discovered ability to induce a life-saving inflammatory response rapidly upon encountering microbes and microbial constituents. Nevertheless, the picture is also emerging that mast cells are deeply involved in the induction and maintenance of a variety of severe allergic and autoimmune diseases. However, a deeper understanding of their activation and immune-modulatory capacity might open a new window for the development of curative strategies.

  18. Mechanisms Underlying Inflammation in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Christopher K.; Saijo, Kaoru; Winner, Beate; Marchetto, Maria Carolina; Gage, Fred H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. In this Review, we discuss inducers, sensors, transducers, and effectors of neuroinflammation that contribute to neuronal dysfunction and death. Although inducers of inflammation may be generated in a disease-specific manner, there is evidence for a remarkable convergence in the mechanisms responsible for the sensing, transduction, and amplification of inflammatory processes that result in the production of neurotoxic mediators. A major unanswered question is whether pharmacological inhibition of inflammation pathways will be able to safely reverse or slow the course of disease. PMID:20303880

  19. [Inflammation of the parathyroid glands].

    PubMed

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Sheu, S-Y; Schmid, K W

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation of the parathyroid glands is rare when compared to other endocrine organs. This leads to the use of descriptive terms as well as the lack of a generally accepted classification for inflammatory disorders of the parathyroid glands. This review article proposes that parathyroid inflammation be subdivided morphologically into (a) non-specific lymphocytic infiltration, which is more an expression of damage to small vessels, due to e. g. severe systemic inflammation or myocardial infarction, (b) autoimmunogenic lymphocytic parathyroiditis, (c) nonimmunogenic inflammation caused by granulomatous diseases or infections and (d) invasive sclerosing (peri) parathyroiditis. As only parathyroid glands removed due to hyperparathyroidism and normal parathyroid glands incidentally removed during thyroid surgery are seen almost exclusively in routine histopathology, virtually no information about the morphological correlate of hypoparathyroidism is available.

  20. Inflammation in diabetic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Patricia M; Getino-Melián, María A; Domínguez-Pimentel, Virginia; Navarro-González, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus entails significant health problems worldwide. The pathogenesis of diabetes is multifactorial, resulting from interactions of both genetic and environmental factors that trigger a complex network of pathophysiological events, with metabolic and hemodynamic alterations. In this context, inflammation has emerged as a key pathophysiology mechanism. New pathogenic pathways will provide targets for prevention or future treatments. This review will focus on the implications of inflammation in diabetes mellitus, with special attention to inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25126391

  1. Breastfeeding, overweight status, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Olson, Julie Skalamera; Hayward, Mark D

    2017-05-01

    Research documents a host of health benefits of breastfeeding for infants and children, including long-term health conditions arising from inflammation. Here, we provide new evidence about this association, focusing on the link between breastfeeding in infancy and inflammation in early adulthood. Our study is based on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) which allows us investigate a potentially important mediating pathway - overweight status from early adolescence into young adulthood. Results from pathway analyses in a structural equation modeling framework indicate that, in addition to a direct pathway linking breastfeeding and inflammation, an indirect pathway through overweight status across adolescence into young adulthood partially explains the association between breastfeeding and inflammation. Overweight status, moreover, links breastfeeding to inflammation not only through proximal timing of overweight status, but also through an indirect cascading process of overweight status over the life course that is evident in adolescence. Overall, this study highlights the importance of considering breastfeeding, overweight status and inflammation as dynamic life course processes that contribute to development of health inequalities.

  2. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  3. Laboratory Investigations of African Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus) as a Potential Reservoir Host Species for Monkeypox Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, Christina L.; Nakazawa, Yoshinori J.; Self, Joshua; Olson, Victoria A.; Regnery, Russell L.; Braden, Zachary; Weiss, Sonja; Malekani, Jean; Jackson, Eddie; Tate, Mallory; Karem, Kevin L.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Damon, Inger K.; Carroll, Darin S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease endemic to central and western Africa, where it is a major public health concern. Although Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and monkeypox disease in humans have been well characterized, little is known about its natural history, or its maintenance in animal populations of sylvatic reservoir(s). In 2003, several species of rodents imported from Ghana were involved in a monkeypox outbreak in the United States with individuals of three African rodent genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, Funisciurus) shown to be infected with MPXV. Here, we examine the course of MPXV infection in Cricetomys gambianus (pouched Gambian rats) and this rodent species’ competence as a host for the virus. We obtained ten Gambian rats from an introduced colony in Grassy Key, Florida and infected eight of these via scarification with a challenge dose of 4X104 plaque forming units (pfu) from either of the two primary clades of MPXV: Congo Basin (C-MPXV: n = 4) or West African (W-MPXV: n = 4); an additional 2 animals served as PBS controls. Viral shedding and the effect of infection on activity and physiological aspects of the animals were measured. MPXV challenged animals had significantly higher core body temperatures, reduced activity and increased weight loss than PBS controls. Viable virus was found in samples taken from animals in both experimental groups (C-MPXV and W-MPXV) between 3 and 27 days post infection (p.i.) (up to 1X108 pfu/ml), with viral DNA found until day 56 p.i. The results from this work show that Cricetomys gambianus (and by inference, probably the closely related species, Cricetomys emini) can be infected with MPXV and shed viable virus particles; thus suggesting that these animals may be involved in the maintenance of MPXV in wildlife mammalian populations. More research is needed to elucidate the epidemiology of MPXV and the role of Gambian rats and other species. PMID:26517724

  4. Laboratory Investigations of African Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus) as a Potential Reservoir Host Species for Monkeypox Virus.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Christina L; Nakazawa, Yoshinori J; Self, Joshua; Olson, Victoria A; Regnery, Russell L; Braden, Zachary; Weiss, Sonja; Malekani, Jean; Jackson, Eddie; Tate, Mallory; Karem, Kevin L; Rocke, Tonie E; Osorio, Jorge E; Damon, Inger K; Carroll, Darin S

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease endemic to central and western Africa, where it is a major public health concern. Although Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and monkeypox disease in humans have been well characterized, little is known about its natural history, or its maintenance in animal populations of sylvatic reservoir(s). In 2003, several species of rodents imported from Ghana were involved in a monkeypox outbreak in the United States with individuals of three African rodent genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, Funisciurus) shown to be infected with MPXV. Here, we examine the course of MPXV infection in Cricetomys gambianus (pouched Gambian rats) and this rodent species' competence as a host for the virus. We obtained ten Gambian rats from an introduced colony in Grassy Key, Florida and infected eight of these via scarification with a challenge dose of 4X104 plaque forming units (pfu) from either of the two primary clades of MPXV: Congo Basin (C-MPXV: n = 4) or West African (W-MPXV: n = 4); an additional 2 animals served as PBS controls. Viral shedding and the effect of infection on activity and physiological aspects of the animals were measured. MPXV challenged animals had significantly higher core body temperatures, reduced activity and increased weight loss than PBS controls. Viable virus was found in samples taken from animals in both experimental groups (C-MPXV and W-MPXV) between 3 and 27 days post infection (p.i.) (up to 1X108 pfu/ml), with viral DNA found until day 56 p.i. The results from this work show that Cricetomys gambianus (and by inference, probably the closely related species, Cricetomys emini) can be infected with MPXV and shed viable virus particles; thus suggesting that these animals may be involved in the maintenance of MPXV in wildlife mammalian populations. More research is needed to elucidate the epidemiology of MPXV and the role of Gambian rats and other species.

  5. Macroscopic anatomy of the lower respiratory system in a nocturnal burrowing rodent: African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse 1840).

    PubMed

    Ibe, C S; Salami, S O; Onyeanusi, B I

    2011-04-01

    Cricetomys gambianus is a rat that lives principally in burrows, coming out at night in search of food. The design and structure of the lower respiratory system reflects its oxygen and metabolic demand which can be attributed to its habitat. A morphological and morphometric investigation of its lower respiratory system was undertaken to document the normal anatomical features and assess its morpho-functional paradigm. Specifically, an anatomical detail of the lungs and conductive airway was described, the structures being elucidated by dissection and radiography. Evaluation of dissected specimens showed that tracheal cartilages ranged from 21 to 33 rings with an average of 25.5. They exhibited a random pattern of anastomoses between adjacent rings. Transverse diameters of the principal bronchus in the male and female rats were 3.767 and 3.759 mm respectively. The right lung consisted of four lobes while the left lung was not lobed. Bronchogram revealed that lung lobation corresponded with bronchial tree division. Inter-lobar fissures were absent on the right lung except for the ventral boarder separating the cranial lobe from the caudal lobe. The entire lungs provided stability to the heart in situ, through the cardiac notch. This study also included correlation analysis of the dimensions, weights and volumes of the lower respiratory organs with the nose-rump length and body weight of 18 African giant pouched rats of both sexes. The relationship of the anatomy of the lower respiratory system of the rodent to the oxygen tension in their burrow and to their energy utilization is discussed.

  6. Ceramide-CD300f Binding Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-induced Skin Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Emiko; Izawa, Kumi; Kaitani, Ayako; Isobe, Masamichi; Maehara, Akie; Uchida, Koichiro; Maeda, Keiko; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Kitamura, Toshio; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Kitaura, Jiro

    2017-02-17

    LPS triggers inflammatory responses; however, the negative regulation of LPS responses in vivo remains poorly understood. CD300f is an inhibitory receptor among the CD300 family of paired activating and inhibitory receptors. We have previously identified ceramide as a ligand for CD300f and shown that the binding of ceramide to CD300f inhibits IgE-mediated mast cell activation and allergic responses in mouse models. Here we identify the critical role of CD300f in inhibiting LPS-induced skin inflammation. CD300f deficiency remarkably enhanced LPS-induced skin edema and neutrophil recruitment in mice. Higher levels of factors that increase vascular permeability and of factors that induce neutrophil recruitment were detected in LPS-injected skin pouch exudates of CD300f(-/-) mice as compared with wild-type mice. CD300f was highly expressed in mast cells and recruited neutrophils, but not in macrophages, among skin myeloid cells. CD300f deficiency failed to influence the intrinsic migratory ability of neutrophils. Ceramide-CD300f binding suppressed the release of chemical mediators from mast cells and from neutrophils in response to LPS. Adoptive transfer experiments indicated that mast cells mediated enhanced edema in LPS-stimulated skin of CD300f(-/-) mice, whereas mast cells together with recruited neutrophils mediated robust neutrophil accumulation. Importantly, administering a ceramide antibody or ceramide-containing vesicles enhanced or suppressed LPS-induced skin inflammation of wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, ceramide-CD300f binding inhibits LPS-induced skin inflammation, implicating CD300f as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in vivo.

  7. Ceramide-CD300f Binding Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-induced Skin Inflammation*

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Emiko; Izawa, Kumi; Kaitani, Ayako; Isobe, Masamichi; Maehara, Akie; Uchida, Koichiro; Maeda, Keiko; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Kitamura, Toshio; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Kitaura, Jiro

    2017-01-01

    LPS triggers inflammatory responses; however, the negative regulation of LPS responses in vivo remains poorly understood. CD300f is an inhibitory receptor among the CD300 family of paired activating and inhibitory receptors. We have previously identified ceramide as a ligand for CD300f and shown that the binding of ceramide to CD300f inhibits IgE-mediated mast cell activation and allergic responses in mouse models. Here we identify the critical role of CD300f in inhibiting LPS-induced skin inflammation. CD300f deficiency remarkably enhanced LPS-induced skin edema and neutrophil recruitment in mice. Higher levels of factors that increase vascular permeability and of factors that induce neutrophil recruitment were detected in LPS-injected skin pouch exudates of CD300f−/− mice as compared with wild-type mice. CD300f was highly expressed in mast cells and recruited neutrophils, but not in macrophages, among skin myeloid cells. CD300f deficiency failed to influence the intrinsic migratory ability of neutrophils. Ceramide-CD300f binding suppressed the release of chemical mediators from mast cells and from neutrophils in response to LPS. Adoptive transfer experiments indicated that mast cells mediated enhanced edema in LPS-stimulated skin of CD300f−/− mice, whereas mast cells together with recruited neutrophils mediated robust neutrophil accumulation. Importantly, administering a ceramide antibody or ceramide-containing vesicles enhanced or suppressed LPS-induced skin inflammation of wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, ceramide-CD300f binding inhibits LPS-induced skin inflammation, implicating CD300f as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in vivo. PMID:28073916

  8. Inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis and its derived carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    TOYOHARA, YUKIYO; HASHITANI, SUSUMU; KISHIMOTO, HIROMITSU; NOGUCHI, KAZUMA; YAMAMOTO, NOBUTO; URADE, MASAHIRO

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) on carcinogenesis and tumor growth, using a 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, as well as the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages against HCPC-1, a cell line established from DMBA-induced cheek pouch carcinoma. DMBA application induced squamous cell carcinoma in all 15 hamsters of the control group at approximately 10 weeks, and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden within 20 weeks. By contrast, 2 out of the 14 hamsters with GcMAF administration did not develop tumors and the remaining 12 hamsters showed a significant delay of tumor development for approximately 3.5 weeks. The growth of tumors formed was significantly suppressed and none of the hamsters died within the 20 weeks during which they were observed. When GcMAF administration was stopped at the 13th week of the experiment in 4 out of the 14 hamsters in the GcMAF-treated group, tumor growth was promoted, but none of the mice died within the 20-week period. On the other hand, when GcMAF administration was commenced after the 13th week in 5 out of the 15 hamsters in the control group, tumor growth was slightly suppressed and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden. However, the mean survival time was significantly extended. GcMAF treatment activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo, and these activated macrophages exhibited a marked cytocidal effect on HCPC-1 cells. Furthermore, the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages was enhanced by the addition of tumor-bearing hamster serum. These findings indicated that GcMAF possesses an inhibitory effect on tumor development and growth in a DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model. PMID:22848250

  9. Inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis and its derived carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Toyohara, Yukiyo; Hashitani, Susumu; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu; Noguchi, Kazuma; Yamamoto, Nobuto; Urade, Masahiro

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) on carcinogenesis and tumor growth, using a 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, as well as the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages against HCPC-1, a cell line established from DMBA-induced cheek pouch carcinoma. DMBA application induced squamous cell carcinoma in all 15 hamsters of the control group at approximately 10 weeks, and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden within 20 weeks. By contrast, 2 out of the 14 hamsters with GcMAF administration did not develop tumors and the remaining 12 hamsters showed a significant delay of tumor development for approximately 3.5 weeks. The growth of tumors formed was significantly suppressed and none of the hamsters died within the 20 weeks during which they were observed. When GcMAF administration was stopped at the 13th week of the experiment in 4 out of the 14 hamsters in the GcMAF-treated group, tumor growth was promoted, but none of the mice died within the 20-week period. On the other hand, when GcMAF administration was commenced after the 13th week in 5 out of the 15 hamsters in the control group, tumor growth was slightly suppressed and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden. However, the mean survival time was significantly extended. GcMAF treatment activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo, and these activated macrophages exhibited a marked cytocidal effect on HCPC-1 cells. Furthermore, the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages was enhanced by the addition of tumor-bearing hamster serum. These findings indicated that GcMAF possesses an inhibitory effect on tumor development and growth in a DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model.

  10. Topical chlorophyll-pheophytin derivative-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chung-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Lee, Jeng-Woei; How, Mon-Hsin

    2010-02-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has become a prominent cancer because of its highest annual increase rate among all cancer diseases. Betel quid chewing habit is a major risk factor for oral precancerous and cancerous lesions and there are more than two million people who have this habit in Taiwan. Our previous studies showed that chlorophyll-pheophytin derivative (CPD)-mediated PDT is very effective for killing of SCC-4 cell lines in vitro. In order to decrease the systemic phototoxic effect of CPD, this study was designed to use a topical CPD-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical CPD-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when CPD reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of CPD gel. We found that CPD reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 1 hour (range, 0 to 30 hours) after topical application of CPD gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical CPD-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 200 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 100 J/cm2) using the portable WonderLight LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device once or twice a week. Visual and histological examination demonstrated that topical CPD-mediated PDT was partially effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  11. Late-onset fistula presenting as buttock abscess in two patients with ileo-anal J-pouches for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S; Farquharson, M; Cecil, T D; Gold, D; Moran, B J

    2004-03-01

    Two cases are described of patients who presented with a buttock abscess 3 and 5 years after restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis. In both the abscess was secondary to a fistula, which was shown on further investigation to be a track traversing the greater sciatic notch. Both patients had had an ileo-anal J-pouch after a proctectomy which had included a mesorectal excision. The possibility that these unusual fistulae might be more common following removal of the mesorectum rather than a close rectal dissection is explored.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON INFLAMMATION

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Elizabeth Pauline

    1921-01-01

    acute inflammation, such as cantharidin, histamine, or turpentine, are found to be positively chemotactic by this method, but substances, such as mustard gas, which produce a marked necrotizing effect are found to be negatively chemotactic, or neutral, though physiologically they would appear to be positively chemotactic. 9. All amino-acids and amines are positively chemotactic to a certain extent. It seems that the longer the carbon chain, the greater the degree of chemotaxis, though this is not absolute. Tyramine is one exception to this, for it causes a peculiar clumping of the cells, so that it is impossible to count the number adhering, and thus determine whether or not tyramine is positively chemotactic. 10. The time that the blood of animals is examined after eating makes a marked difference in the number of cells adhering, for shortly after eating, within 30 minutes, very many more cells will adhere to the agar than at a later time. 11. The blood of different species of animals reacts differently towards different reagents. The chemical composition of these agents seems to have nothing to do with this difference in reaction as far as we could determine. 12. With frozen serial sections it has been found that the depth of penetration of the leucocytes into the agar is proportional to the positive chemotaxis produced by the substance combined with the agar, as demonstrated by the number of leucocytes adherent to the walls of the test chambers. PMID:19868564

  13. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk. PMID:26389951

  14. Pancreatic cancer, inflammation, and microbiome.

    PubMed

    Zambirinis, Constantinos P; Pushalkar, Smruti; Saxena, Deepak; Miller, George

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. No effective screening methods exist, and available treatment modalities do not effectively treat the disease. Inflammatory conditions such as pancreatitis represent a well-known risk factor for pancreatic cancer development. Yet only in the past 2 decades has pancreatic cancer been recognized as an inflammation-driven cancer, and the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenic role of inflammation are beginning to be explored in detail. A substantial amount of preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that bacteria are likely to influence this process by activating immune receptors and perpetuating cancer-associated inflammation. The recent explosion of investigations of the human microbiome have highlighted how perturbations of commensal bacterial populations can promote inflammation and promote disease processes, including carcinogenesis. The elucidation of the interplay between inflammation and microbiome in the context of pancreatic carcinogenesis will provide novel targets for intervention to prevent and treat pancreatic cancer more efficiently. Further studies toward this direction are urgently needed.

  15. Novel insights into the aetiology and pathophysiology of increased airway inflammation during COPD exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Tsoumakidou, Maria; Siafakas, Nikolaos M

    2006-05-22

    Airway inflammation increases during acute exacerbations of COPD. Extrinsic factors, such as airway infections, increased air pollution, and intrinsic factors, such as increased oxidative stress and altered immunity may contribute to this increase. The evidence for this and the potential mechanisms by which various aetiological agents increase inflammation during COPD exacerbations is reviewed. The pathophysiologic consequences of increased airway inflammation during COPD exacerbations are also discussed. This review aims to establish a cause and effect relationship between etiological factors of increased airway inflammation and COPD exacerbations based on recently published data. Although it can be speculated that reducing inflammation may prevent and/or treat COPD exacerbations, the existing anti-inflammatory treatments are modestly effective.

  16. Parkinson's disease and systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Carina C; Tarelli, Rodolfo

    2011-02-22

    Peripheral inflammation triggers exacerbation in the central brain's ongoing damage in several neurodegenerative diseases. Systemic inflammatory stimulus induce a general response known as sickness behaviour, indicating that a peripheral stimulus can induce the synthesis of cytokines in the brain. In Parkinson's disease (PD), inflammation was mainly associated with microglia activation that can underlie the neurodegeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Peripheral inflammation can transform the "primed" microglia into an "active" state, which can trigger stronger responses dealing with neurodegenerative processes. Numerous evidences show that systemic inflammatory processes exacerbate ongoing neurodegeneration in PD patient and animal models. Anti-inflammatory treatment in PD patients exerts a neuroprotective effect. In the present paper, we analyse the effect of peripheral infections in the etiology and progression in PD patients and animal models, suggesting that these peripheral immune challenges can exacerbate the symptoms in the disease.

  17. Parkinson's Disease and Systemic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Carina C.; Tarelli, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral inflammation triggers exacerbation in the central brain's ongoing damage in several neurodegenerative diseases. Systemic inflammatory stimulus induce a general response known as sickness behaviour, indicating that a peripheral stimulus can induce the synthesis of cytokines in the brain. In Parkinson's disease (PD), inflammation was mainly associated with microglia activation that can underlie the neurodegeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Peripheral inflammation can transform the “primed” microglia into an “active” state, which can trigger stronger responses dealing with neurodegenerative processes. Numerous evidences show that systemic inflammatory processes exacerbate ongoing neurodegeneration in PD patient and animal models. Anti-inflammatory treatment in PD patients exerts a neuroprotective effect. In the present paper, we analyse the effect of peripheral infections in the etiology and progression in PD patients and animal models, suggesting that these peripheral immune challenges can exacerbate the symptoms in the disease. PMID:21403862

  18. Mitigation of inflammation with foods.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianli; Schauss, Alexander G

    2012-07-11

    Constant overproduction of pro-inflammatory molecules leads to chronic inflammation. Unlike acute inflammation, which is essential for healing, chronic inflammation can delay healing and, if left unchecked, contribute to a host of diseases. There is growing evidence that some dietary factors can play important roles in maintaining health and even reversing the progression of chronic diseases, with anti-inflammatory effects as important underlying mechanism. Such findings add to the body of evidence that certain dietary components, including polyphenols and other types of compounds, found in various dietary factors including fruits, berries, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, and foods of marine origin, can play an important role in attenuating and mitigating chronic pro-inflammatory processes associated with chronic diseases.

  19. Inhalation of Environmental Stressors & Chronic Inflammation: Autoimmunity and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E.; Zhai, Zili; Akram, Hammad; Pye, Quentin N.; Hensley, Kenneth; Kurien, Biji T.; Scofield, R. Hal; Ramirez, Dario C.

    2009-01-01

    Human life expectancy and welfare has decreased because of the increase in environmental stressors in the air. An environmental stressor is a natural or human-made component present in our environment that upon reaching an organic system produces a coordinated response. This response usually involves a modification of the metabolism and physiology of the system. Inhaled environmental stressors damage the airways and lung parenchyma, producing irritation, recruitment of inflammatory cells, and oxidative modification of biomolecules. Oxidatively modified biomolecules, their degradation products, and adducts with other biomolecules can reach the systemic circulation, and when found in higher concentrations than normal they are considered to be biomarkers of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. We classify them as metabolic stressors because they are not inert compounds; indeed, they amplify the inflammatory response by inducing inflammation in the lung and other organs. Thus the lung is not only the target for environmental stressors, but it is also the source of a number of metabolic stressors that can induce and worsen pre-existing chronic inflammation. Metabolic stressors produced in the lung have a number of effects in tissues other than the lung, such as the brain, and they can also abrogate the mechanisms of immunotolerance. In this review, we discuss recent published evidence that suggests that inflammation in the lung is an important connection between air pollution and chronic inflammatory diseases such as autoimmunity and neurodegeneration, and we highlight the critical role of metabolic stressors produced in the lung. The understanding of this relationship between inhaled environmental pollutants and systemic inflammation will help us to: 1) understand the molecular mechanism of environment-associated diseases, and 2) find new biomarkers that will help us prevent the exposure of susceptible individuals and/or design novel therapies. PMID:18977456

  20. Surgical inflammation: a pathophysiological rainbow

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Jose-Ignacio; Aller, María-Angeles; Arias, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Tetrapyrrole molecules are distributed in virtually all living organisms on Earth. In mammals, tetrapyrrole end products are closely linked to oxygen metabolism. Since increasingly complex trophic functional systems for using oxygen are considered in the post-traumatic inflammatory response, it can be suggested that tetrapyrrole molecules and, particularly their derived pigments, play a key role in modulating inflammation. In this way, the diverse colorfulness that the inflammatory response triggers during its evolution would reflect the major pathophysiological importance of these pigments in each one of its phases. Therefore, the need of exploiting this color resource could be considered for both the diagnosis and treatment of the inflammation. PMID:19309494

  1. Oral inflammation in small animals.

    PubMed

    Lommer, Milinda J

    2013-05-01

    The oral cavity can be affected by a wide variety of disorders characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and/or oral mucosa. In dogs and cats, differential diagnoses for generalized oral inflammatory disorders include plaque-reactive mucositis, chronic gingivostomatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex, pemphigus and pemphigoid disorders, erythema multiforme, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, endodontic or periodontal abscesses, infectious conditions, reactive lesions, and neoplastic conditions may initially present with localized or generalized inflammation of the oral mucosa. Determination of the underlying cause of an oral inflammatory condition relies on a thorough history, complete physical and oral examination, and incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination of lesions.

  2. Effect of different binders on the physico-chemical, textural, histological, and sensory qualities of retort pouched buffalo meat nuggets.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Babji, Y

    2010-01-01

    The functional properties of 4 binders, namely corn starch, wheat semolina, wheat flour, and tapioca starches, were evaluated to improve the quality of buffalo meat nuggets processed in retort pouches at F(0) 12.13. Incorporation of corn starch in buffalo meat nuggets produced more stable emulsion than other binders used. Product yield, drip loss, and pH did not vary significantly between the products with different binders. Shear force value was significantly higher for product with corn starch (0.42 +/- 0.0 Kg/cm(3)) followed by refined wheat flour (0.36 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)), tapioca starch (0.32 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)), and wheat semolina (0.32 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)). Type of binder used had no significant effect on frying loss, moisture, and protein content of the product. However, fat content was higher in products with corn starch when compared to products with other binders. Texture profile indicated that products made with corn starch (22.17 +/- 2.55 N) and refined wheat flour (21.50 +/- 0.75 N) contributed firmer texture to the product. Corn starch contributed greater chewiness (83.8 +/- 12.51) to the products resulting in higher sensory scores for texture and overall acceptability. Products containing corn starch showed higher sensory scores for all attributes in comparison to products with other binders. Panelists preferred products containing different binders in the order of corn starch (7.23 +/- 0.09) > refined wheat flour (6.48 +/- 0.13) > tapioca starch (6.45 +/- 0.14) > wheat semolina (6.35 +/- 0.13) based on sensory scores. Histological studies indicated that products with corn starch showed dense protein matrix, uniform fat globules, and less number of vacuoles when compared to products made with other binders. The results indicated that corn flour is the better cereal binder for developing buffalo meat nuggets when compared to all other binders based on physico-chemical and sensory attributes.

  3. Laboratory investigations of African Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus) as a potential reservoir host species for Monkeypox Virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, Christina L.; Nakazawa, Yoshinori J.; Self, Joshua; Olson, Victoria A.; Regnery, Russell L.; Braden, Zachary; Weiss, Sonja; Malekani, Jean; Jackson, Eddie; Tate, Mallory; Karem, Kevin L.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Damon, Inger K.; Carroll, Darin S.

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease endemic to central and western Africa, where it is a major public health concern. Although Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and monkeypox disease in humans have been well characterized, little is known about its natural history, or its maintenance in animal populations of sylvatic reservoir(s). In 2003, several species of rodents imported from Ghana were involved in a monkeypox outbreak in the United States with individuals of three African rodent genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, Funisciurus) shown to be infected with MPXV. Here, we examine the course of MPXV infection in Cricetomys gambianus (pouched Gambian rats) and this rodent species’ competence as a host for the virus. We obtained ten Gambian rats from an introduced colony in Grassy Key, Florida and infected eight of these via scarification with a challenge dose of 4X104 plaque forming units (pfu) from either of the two primary clades of MPXV: Congo Basin (C-MPXV: n = 4) or West African (W-MPXV: n = 4); an additional 2 animals served as PBS controls. Viral shedding and the effect of infection on activity and physiological aspects of the animals were measured. MPXV challenged animals had significantly higher core body temperatures, reduced activity and increased weight loss than PBS controls. Viable virus was found in samples taken from animals in both experimental groups (C-MPXV and W-MPXV) between 3 and 27 days post infection (p.i.) (up to 1X108pfu/ml), with viral DNA found until day 56 p.i. The results from this work show that Cricetomys gambianus (and by inference, probably the closely related species, Cricetomys emini) can be infected with MPXV and shed viable virus particles; thus suggesting that these animals may be involved in the maintenance of MPXV in wildlife mammalian populations. More research is needed to elucidate the epidemiology of MPXV and the role of Gambian rats and other species.

  4. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  5. Effect of mangrove black tea extract from Ceriops decandra (Griff.) on hematology and biochemical changes in dimethyl benz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sithranga Boopathy, N; Kathiresan, K; Jeon, Y J

    2011-09-01

    Effect of the black tea extracted from a mangrove plant species, Ceriops decandra (Griff.) was studied on dimethyl benz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced changes in blood hematology and plasma non-enzymatic antioxidants in male hamsters. Hamsters were painted with 0.5% solution of DMBA in liquid paraffin on the right buccal pouch three times in a week up to 14 weeks. Each application treated with 0.4mg of DMBA. The mangrove black tea extract (MBTE) was administrated orally with 5mgkg(-1) twice a day and then with DMBA on alternate days. Results showed that the DMBA caused a significant (P<0.05) decline in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin-C, -E, red blood cells, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and hematocrit; and increase in the levels of WBC, platelets, lymphocytes and neutrophils. The MBTE prevented the DMBA-induced adverse changes significantly in blood and biochemical parameters of the male hamsters. This work concluded that the black tea extracted from the coastal mangrove species C. decandra prevented the DMBA-induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters.

  6. Quality of life, social impact and functional outcome following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Raviram, S; Rajan, Ramesh; Sindhu, R S; Bonny, N; Kuruvilla, A P; Subhalal, N

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to assess quality of life (QoL), functional outcome, and social impact following ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) since Indian data is limited. Data was collected prospectively from patients who underwent IPAA for UC or FAP from 2004 to 2013. QoL and functional outcome at 1, 3, and 5 years after surgery, return to work, and change of job (social impact) were documented. QoL was assessed using the validated Cleveland Global Quality of Life (CGQL) score, the normal score being 1.0. Twenty-five patients were analyzed. Mean CGQL scores before surgery and at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0.5, 0.63, 0.73, and 0.8, respectively. FAP patients had better scores at 3 and 5 years. Only 40 % returned to same job. Sixty-four percent returned to work within a year. The median number of bowel movements per 24 h was less for FAP patients at 3 and 5 years. UC patients on long-term steroids had poorer function at 3 years. Long-term QoL and functional outcomes following IPAA are acceptable. Initial deterioration in QoL, mainly in FAP and long-term adverse social impact in both groups should not be underestimated. UC patients on long-term steroids showed delayed improvement in pouch function.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of meso-(tetrahydroxyphenyl)chlorin (m-THPC) studied by fluorescence spectroscopy on early cancer of the cheek pouch mucosa of Golden Syrian hamsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Braichotte, Daniel; Forrer, Martin; Wagnieres, Georges A.; van den Bergh, Hubert; Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe

    1995-01-01

    Golden Syrian hamsters are evaluated as an animal model for phototherapy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus and the tracheobronchial tree. Carcinomas of this type are induced on the hamster cheek pouch mucosa by the application of the carcinogen 7,12 DMBA. For phototherapeutic experiments on the animals we utilized meso- (tetrahydoxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC). The same drug is currently in phase I, II clinical trials for ENT patients with superficial squamous cell carcinomas. By means of light induced fluorescence (LIF) we measured in vivo the kinetics of the uptake and removal of mTHPC in the normal and tumoral cheek mucosa and in the skin. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) reaction of the tissue after excitation of the photosensitizer by laser light at 652 nm was studied. Both pharmacokinetics and PDT efficacy are compared between animal model and clinical results with special emphasis on selectivity between normal and tumoral mucosa. These first experiments show that this tumor model in the hamster cheek pouch seems to be suitable for tests of a number of PDT variables of new photosensitizers preceding their clinical application as well as for optimization of the multiple parameters of clinical phototherapy.

  8. Virilization of the male pouch young of the tammar wallaby does not appear to be mediated by plasma testosterone or dihydrotestosterone.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J D; George, F W; Shaw, G; Renfree, M B

    1999-08-01

    Virilization of the male urogenital tract of all mammals, including marsupials, is mediated by androgenic hormones secreted by the testes. We have previously demonstrated profound sexual dimorphism in the concentrations of gonadal androgens in pouch young of the tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii during the interval when the urogenital sinus virilizes. To provide insight into the mechanisms by which androgens are transported from the testes to the target tissues, we measured testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in plasma pools from tammar pouch young from the day of birth to Day 150. Plasma testosterone levels were measurable (0.5-2 ng/ml) at all times studied, but there were no differences between males and females. These low concentrations of plasma testosterone appear to be derived from the adrenal glands and not the testes. Plasma dihydrotestosterone levels in plasma pools from these animals were also low and not sexually dimorphic. We conclude that virilization of the male urogenital tract cannot be explained by the usual transport of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone in plasma but may be mediated by the direct delivery of androgens to the urogenital tract via the Wolffian ducts. Alternatively, circulating prohormones may be converted to androgens in target tissues.

  9. Gastric-type extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma arising in the blind pouch of a bypassed stomach, presenting as colonic pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Sarah; Manivel, Carlos J; Ramaswamy, Archana; Mesa, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma after gastric bypass is rare. Extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (EWDA) of the stomach is a rare variant that has been mostly reported in Japan. We present a case of a 68-year-old man with EWDA arising in the bypassed stomach that presented as a colonic pseudo-obstruction (CPO). Several imaging, endoscopic and pathologic studies performed in the course of 2 months were non-diagnostic. An iatrogenic duodenal perforation during a diagnostic procedure led to an emergent exploratory laparotomy in which the dilated colonic segment was resected. Pathologic examination showed metastatic EWDA in the colonic wall. Post-operative complications led to the patient's demise. At autopsy the primary tumor was identified in the blind pouch of the bypassed stomach. A literature review on gastric EWDA and carcinomas arising in bypassed stomachs is discussed. EWDA of the stomach is rare, difficult to diagnose, and shows an aggressive clinical course discordant with its near-benign histology. Gastric cancer arising in a bypassed stomach is uncommon; when it occurs it is usually diagnosed at advanced stage. Surveillance of the blind pouch is not currently recommended. Malignant infiltration of the colonic wall should be included in the differential diagnosis of CPO of unclear etiology.

  10. An extended polarization model to study the influence of current collector geometry of large-format lithium-ion pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, Stephan; Rheinfeld, Alexander; Erhard, Simon V.; Jossen, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    In this work, depth-of-discharge and temperature distribution of a large-format lithium-ion pouch cell are examined by means of a two-dimensional electro-thermal polarization model. A method of improving the dynamic behavior of the model while maintaining its accuracy under constant current loads by applying intermittent charge and discharge data is given. The model is validated with the aid of experimental data gained from dynamic and constant current discharge profiles applied to a commercial 40 Ah Li-ion pouch cell. Two major design studies are carried out focusing on a variation of geometrical parameters, namely the size and the positioning of the cell tabs. For each design, the influence of current collector thickness on the uniformity of the temperature and depth-of-discharge distribution is investigated during a 4C constant current discharge operation. Simulation results show that reducing the current collector thickness results in a moderate increase of 3 °C in maximum temperature and 1.5% in depth-of-discharge imbalance if the tab size is increased. In consequence, lowering the share of inactive components within a lithium-ion cell by optimizing the thickness of the current collector foils should be further considered to enhance the performance of typical lithium-ion cell designs.

  11. Endogenous Inhibitors of Kidney Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Trostel, Jessica; Garcia, Gabriela E.

    2015-01-01

    Although inflammation is the physiological response to pathogen invasion and tissue damage, it can also be responsible for significant tissue damage. Therefore, the inflammatory response must be carefully regulated to prevent critical inflammatory damage to vital organs. Typically, local endogenous regulatory mechanisms adjust the magnitude of the response such that the injurious condition is resolved and homeostasis is mantained. Humoral mechanisms that restrain or inhibit inflammation include glucocorticoid hormones, anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and soluble cytokine receptors; other mediators facilitate tissue healing, like lipoxins and resolvins. There is growing evidence that inflammation plays a critical role in the development and progression of heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes, kidney diseases, sepsis, and several fibroproliferative disorders. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms that regulate inflammation may offer therapeutic targets for inhibiting the progression of several diseases. In this article, we review the significance of several novel endogenous anti-inflammatory mediators in the protection from kidney injury and the potential of these regulatory molecules as therapeutic targets for treatment of kidney inflammatory diseases. PMID:26779569

  12. Purinergic receptors in ocular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Aranguez, Ana; Gasull, Xavier; Diebold, Yolanda; Pintor, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly "tuned," can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P(1),P(4)-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), and P(1),P(5)-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A) are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-5'-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101) have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases) can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation.

  13. Imaging techniques for myocardial inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, J.B.; Henkin, R.E.; Robinson, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) represents a heterogeneous group of disorders which results in morbidity and mortality in young individuals. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of these patients have histologic evidence of myocarditis which is potentially treatable with immunosuppression. The identification of myocardial inflammation may therefore lead to development of therapeutic regimens designed to treat the cause rather than the effect of the myocardial disease. Ultimately, this may result in improvement in the abysmal prognosis of DC. The currently accepted technique for identification of active myocardial inflammation is endomyocardial biopsy. This technique is not perfect, however, since pathologic standards for the diagnosis of myocarditis have not been established. Furthermore, focal inflammation may give rise to sampling error. The inflammation-avid radioisotope gallium-67 citrate has been used as an adjunct to biopsy improving the yield of myocarditis from 7 percent to 36 percent. Serial imaging correlates well to biopsy results. Future studies are designed to study the applicability of lymphocyte labelling techniques to myocardial inflammatory disease.

  14. Platelets in inflammation and infection.

    PubMed

    Jenne, Craig N; Kubes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Although platelets are traditionally recognized for their central role in hemostasis, many lines of research clearly demonstrate these rather ubiquitous blood components are potent immune modulators and effectors. Platelets have been shown to directly recognize, sequester and kill pathogens, to activated and recruit leukocytes to sites of infection and inflammation, and to modulate leukocyte behavior, enhancing their ability to phagocytose and kill pathogens and inducing unique effector functions, such as the production of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). This multifaceted response to infection and inflammation is due, in part, to the huge array of soluble mediators and cell surface molecules expressed by platelets. From their earliest origins as primordial hemocytes in invertebrates to their current form as megakaryocyte-derived cytoplasts, platelets have evolved to be one of the key regulators of host intravascular immunity and inflammation. In this review, we present the diverse roles platelets play in immunity and inflammation associated with autoimmune diseases and infection. Additionally, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of platelet behavior made possible through the use of advanced imaging techniques that allow us to visualize platelets and their interactions, in real-time, within the intact blood vessels of a living host.

  15. Targeting inflammation in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Welty, Francine K; Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Elajami, Tarec K

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is comprised of a cluster of closely related risk factors, including visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, hypertension, high triglyceride, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; all of which increase the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A chronic state of inflammation appears to be a central mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and MetS. In this review, we summarize recent research which has provided insight into the mechanisms by which inflammation underlies the pathophysiology of the individual components of MetS including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. On the basis of these mechanisms, we summarize therapeutic modalities to target inflammation in the MetS and its individual components. Current therapeutic modalities can modulate the individual components of MetS and have a direct anti-inflammatory effect. Lifestyle modifications including exercise, weight loss, and diets high in fruits, vegetables, fiber, whole grains, and low-fat dairy and low in saturated fat and glucose are recommended as a first line therapy. The Mediterranean and dietary approaches to stop hypertension diets are especially beneficial and have been shown to prevent development of MetS. Moreover, the Mediterranean diet has been associated with reductions in total and cardiovascular mortality. Omega-3 fatty acids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonists lower high levels of triglyceride; their role in targeting inflammation is reviewed. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone blockers comprise pharmacologic therapies for hypertension but also target other aspects of MetS including inflammation. Statin drugs target many of the underlying inflammatory pathways involved in MetS.

  16. Microbial deprivation, inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    von Hertzen, Leena C; Joensuu, H; Haahtela, T

    2011-06-01

    Dysregulated immune function is involved in the pathogenesis of many common human diseases. Living in urban, microbe-poor environment may have a profound influence on the immune function and eventually also on carcinogenesis. Unfortunately, few studies have thus far addressed the role of exposure to the environmental microbiota on the risk of cancer. Which mechanisms are broken in individuals prone to develop chronic inflammation in response to exposure that does not cause harm in others? Recent work in immunology has revealed that Th17 cells, a third subset of Th cells, and inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-23, are closely linked with tumour-associated inflammation. Albeit the precise role of Th17 cells in cancer is still unclear and a matter of debate, accumulating evidence shows that Th17 cells are enriched in a wide range of human tumours, and that these tumour-derived Th17 cells may promote angiogenesis, tumour growth and inflammation. Regulatory T cells, in turn, appear to have counter-regulatory effects on Th17 cells and can inhibit their function. Thus, the regulatory network, induced and strengthened by continuous exposure to environmental microbiota, may play an important role in tumour immunobiology in preventing the establishment of chronic inflammation in its early phases. In addition, the discovery of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) system has brought micro-organisms to new light; continuous signalling via these TLRs and other receptors that sense microbial components is necessary for epithelial cell integrity, tissue repair, and recovery from injury. In this communication, we summarise the epidemiological data of living in environments with diverse microbial exposures and the risk of cancer, and discuss the related immunological mechanisms, focusing on the links between environmental microbiota, the Th17/IL-23 axis and cancer-associated inflammation.

  17. Changing your ostomy pouch

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mosby; 2014:chap 35. Read More Colon cancer Intestinal obstruction repair Large bowel resection Ulcerative colitis Patient Instructions Diet - full liquid Intestinal or bowel obstruction - discharge Large bowel resection - discharge Review Date 12/ ...

  18. Sphingolipids: A Potential Molecular Approach to Treat Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wai Y.; Bonder, Claudine S.

    2012-01-01

    Allergic inflammation is an immune response to foreign antigens, which begins within minutes of exposure to the allergen followed by a late phase leading to chronic inflammation. Prolonged allergic inflammation manifests in diseases such as urticaria and rhino-conjunctivitis, as well as chronic asthma and life-threatening anaphylaxis. The prevalence of allergic diseases is profound with 25% of the worldwide population affected and a rising trend across all ages, gender, and racial groups. The identification and avoidance of allergens can manage this disease, but this is not always possible with triggers being common foods, prevalent air-borne particles and only extremely low levels of allergen exposure required for sensitization. Patients who are sensitive to multiple allergens require prophylactic and symptomatic treatments. Current treatments are often suboptimal and associated with adverse effects, such as the interruption of cognition, sleep cycles, and endocrine homeostasis, all of which affect quality of life and are a financial burden to society. Clearly, a better therapeutic approach for allergic diseases is required. Herein, we review the current knowledge of allergic inflammation and discuss the role of sphingolipids as potential targets to regulate inflammatory development in vivo and in humans. We also discuss the benefits and risks of using sphingolipid inhibitors. PMID:23316248

  19. New York Power Authority Pouch Terminal Power Plant, Staten Island, NY; Petition to Object to Title V Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database.

  20. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  1. Infection, Inflammation, and Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, M.V.; Puleo, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Various strategies have been developed to promote bone regeneration in the craniofacial region. Most of these interventions utilize implantable materials or devices. Infections resulting from colonization of these implants may result in local tissue destruction in a manner analogous to periodontitis. This destruction is mediated via the expression of various inflammatory mediators and tissue-destructive enzymes. Given the well-documented association among microbial biofilms, inflammatory mediators, and tissue destruction, it seems reasonable to assume that inflammation may interfere with bone healing and regeneration. Paradoxically, recent evidence also suggests that the presence of certain pro-inflammatory mediators is actually required for bone healing. Bone injury (e.g., subsequent to a fracture or surgical intervention) is followed by a choreographed cascade of events, some of which are dependent upon the presence of pro-inflammatory mediators. If inflammation resolves promptly, then proper bone healing may occur. However, if inflammation persists (which might occur in the presence of an infected implant or graft material), then the continued inflammatory response may result in suboptimal bone formation. Thus, the effect of a given mediator is dependent upon the temporal context in which it is expressed. Better understanding of this temporal sequence may be used to optimize regenerative outcomes. PMID:21248364

  2. Chronic Inflammation in Skin Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is linked to the development and progression of multiple cancers, including those of the lung, stomach, liver, colon, breast and skin. Inflammation not only drives the oncogenic transformation of epithelial cells under the stress of chronic infection and autoimmune diseases, but also promotes the growth, progression and metastatic spread of cancers. Tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells are comprised of a diverse population of myeloid and immune cell types, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, T and B cells, and others. Different myeloid and lymphoid cells within tumor microenvironment exert diverse, often contradicting, effects during skin cancer development and progression. The nature of tumor-immune interaction determines the rate of cancer progression and the outcome of cancer treatment. Inflammatory environment within skin tumor also inhibits naturally occurring anti-tumor immunity and limits the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. In this article we aim to give an overview on the mechanism by which inflammation interferes with the development and therapeutic intervention of cancers, especially those of the skin.

  3. High Performance Cathodes for Li-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Yangchuan

    2013-08-22

    The overall objective of this project was to develop and fabricate a multifunctional cathode with high activities in acidic electrolytes for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions for Li-air batteries. It should enable the development of Li-air batteries that operate on hybrid electrolytes, with acidic catholytes in particular. The use of hybrid electrolytes eliminates the problems of lithium reaction with water and of lithium oxide deposition in the cathode with sole organic electrolytes. The use of acid electrolytes can eliminate carbonate formation inside the cathode, making air breathing Li-air batteries viable. The tasks of the project were focused on developing hierarchical cathode structures and bifunctional catalysts. Development and testing of a prototype hybrid Li-air battery were also conducted. We succeeded in developing a hierarchical cathode structure and an effective bifunctional catalyst. We accomplished integrating the cathode with existing anode technologies and made a pouch prototype Li-air battery using sulfuric acid as catholyte. The battery cathodes contain a nanoscale multilayer structure made with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. The structure was demonstrated to improve battery performance substantially. The bifunctional catalyst developed contains a conductive oxide support with ultra-low loading of platinum and iridium oxides. The work performed in this project has been documented in seven peer reviewed journal publications, five conference presentations, and filing of two U.S. patents. Technical details have been documented in the quarterly reports to DOE during the course of the project.

  4. [A case of low anterior resection combined with resection of the prostate seminal vesicle urethra for douglas' pouch metastasis of the colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Kato, Ryo; Yokouchi, Hideoki; Murata, Kohei

    2011-11-01

    A-71-year-old man with sigmoid colon cancer underwent sigmoidectomy in 2004. Ascites cytology was positive. He had a postoperative chemotherapy, but cancer recurred on the Douglas' pouch in the first year after the surgery. After chemoradiation, he underwent a low anterior resection with combined resection of the prostate seminal vesicle urethra in 2005. Four years after the recurrence, metastasis of the right lung S9 occurred, and he underwent right lower lobectomy. One year later, metastasis of the left lung S6 occurred, he underwent a partial resection of S6. Later a local recurrence has not been observed. Among the colon cancer recurrence, we think the surgery was effective for local recurrence disease with adequate observation.

  5. The neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibit hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis by modulating xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, DNA damage, antioxidants, invasion and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi Vidya; Manikandan, Palrasu; Kumar, Gurram Harish; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2009-05-01

    The neem tree has attracted considerable research attention as a rich source of limonoids that have potent antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of the neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide based on in vitro antioxidant assays and in vivo inhibitory effects on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Both azadirachtin and nimbolide exhibited concentration-dependent anti-radical scavenging activity and reductive potential in the order: nimbolide > azadirachtin > ascorbate. Administration of both azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibited the development of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by influencing multiple mechanisms including prevention of procarcinogen activation and oxidative DNA damage, upregulation of antioxidant and carcinogen detoxification enzymes and inhibition of tumour invasion and angiogenesis. On a comparative basis, nimbolide was found to be a more potent antioxidant and chemopreventive agent and offers promise as a candidate agent in multitargeted prevention and treatment of cancer.

  6. Development of a gastric pouch-aorto-colic fistula as a complication of a revisionary open roux-en-y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Mario Raul; Villalba, Mario Ramon

    2009-02-01

    A 45-year-old female presented with an enterocutaneous fistula and intraabdominal abscesses weeks after undergoing an open roux-en-y gastric bypass 20 years after a previous bariatric procedure. Initial management consisted of exploration with resection of the fistula, open abscess drainage, percutaneous drains, and culture-directed intravenous antibiotics. Months later, the patient developed a gastrocolic fistula and massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastro-aortic fistula. The patient underwent resection of the gastrocolic fistula followed by a damage control operation including a left thoracotomy with aortic cross-clamping for the gastro-aortic fistula. Final reconstruction necessitated an extra-anatomic opening in the diaphragm for creation of an intrathoracic esophagojejunostomy and marsupialization of the distal esophagus and gastric pouch with concomitant mucusectomy. This rare but devastating complication requires prompt surgical management. In the appropriate setting, a high suspicion must be maintained in order to act swiftly for the patient's benefit.

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy mediated by boron-rich liposomes for oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model.

    PubMed

    Heber, Elisa M; Hawthorne, M Frederick; Kueffer, Peter J; Garabalino, Marcela A; Thorp, Silvia I; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Maitz, Charles A; Jalisatgi, Satish S; Nigg, David W; Curotto, Paula; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2014-11-11

    The application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by liposomes containing (10)B-enriched polyhedral borane and carborane derivatives for the treatment of head and neck cancer in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model is presented. These liposomes are composed of an equimolar ratio of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] (MAC) in the bilayer membrane while encapsulating the hydrophilic species Na3[ae-B20H17NH3] (TAC) in the aqueous core. Unilamellar liposomes with a mean diameter of 83 nm were administered i.v. in hamsters. After 48 h, the boron concentration in tumors was 67 ± 16 ppm whereas the precancerous tissue contained 11 ± 6 ppm, and the tumor/normal pouch tissue boron concentration ratio was 10:1. Neutron irradiation giving a 5-Gy dose to precancerous tissue (corresponding to 21 Gy in tumor) resulted in an overall tumor response (OR) of 70% after a 4-wk posttreatment period. In contrast, the beam-only protocol gave an OR rate of only 28%. Once-repeated BNCT treatment with readministration of liposomes at an interval of 4, 6, or 8 wk resulted in OR rates of 70-88%, of which the complete response ranged from 37% to 52%. Because of the good therapeutic outcome, it was possible to extend the follow-up of BNCT treatment groups to 16 wk after the first treatment. No radiotoxicity to normal tissue was observed. A salient advantage of these liposomes was that only mild mucositis was observed in dose-limiting precancerous tissue with a sustained tumor response of 70-88%.

  8. Hamsters chewing betel quid or areca nut directly show a decrease in body weight and survival rates with concomitant epithelial hyperplasia of cheek pouch.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chang, Mei-Chi; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Chang, Julia Yu-Fong; Lee, Po-Hsuen; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2004-08-01

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is strongly associated with the occurrence of oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral cancer. There are about 200-600 million BQ chewers in the world. Previous animal studies support the potential carcinogenicity of BQ in different test systems. However, little animal experiment has let hamsters or rats to chew BQ directly, similar to that in humans. In the present study, we established a hamster model of chewing BQ or areca nut (AN). A total of 81 2-week-old hamsters were randomly divided into three groups: 25 for control group, 28 for BQ-chewing group, and 28 for AN-chewing group. These animals were fed with powdered diet with/without BQ or AN for 18 months. Although the consumption of BQ or AN showed some variations, hamsters fed with powdered diet could chew and grind AN or BQ into small pieces of coarse fibers during the entire experimental period. The survival rate of AN-chewing hamsters decreased significantly after 6 months of exposure. The mean survival time was 15.6 +/- 0.9 months for control animals, 13.6 +/- 0.98 months for AN-chewing animals, and 15.7 +/- 0.55 months for BQ-chewing animals. The body weight of BQ- or AN-chewing animals also decreased after 4-13 months. Hamsters fed with AN for 18 months showed hyperkeratosis in 80% and acanthosis in 50% of cheek pouches. Animals fed with BQ for 18 months also showed hyperkeratosis in 93% and acanthosis in 14% of cheek pouches. These results indicate that AN and BQ components may induce alterations in proliferation and differentiation of oral epithelial cells. Animal model of chewing BQ or AN can be useful for future tumor initiation, promotion and chemoprevention experiments simulating the condition of BQ chewing in humans.

  9. Effects of babassu nut oil on ischemia/reperfusion-induced leukocyte adhesion and macromolecular leakage in the microcirculation: Observation in the hamster cheek pouch

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The babassu palm tree is native to Brazil and is most densely distributed in the Cocais region of the state of Maranhão, in northeastern Brazil. In addition to the industrial use of refined babassu oil, the milk, the unrefined oil and the nuts in natura are used by families from several communities of African descendants as one of the principal sources of food energy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of babassu oil on microvascular permeability and leukocyte-endothelial interactions induced by ischemia/reperfusion using the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation as experimental model. Methods Twice a day for 14 days, male hamsters received unrefined babassu oil (0.02 ml/dose [BO-2 group], 0.06 ml/dose [BO-6 group], 0.18 ml/dose [BO-18 group]) or mineral oil (0.18 ml/dose [MO group]). Observations were made in the cheek pouch and macromolecular permeability increase induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or topical application of histamine, as well as leukocyte-endothelial interaction after I/R were evaluated. Results The mean value of I/R-induced microvascular leakage, determined during reperfusion, was significantly lower in the BO-6 and BO-18 groups than in the MO one (P < 0.001). In addition, histamine-induced increase of microvascular permeability was significantly less pronounced in BO groups compared to MO one. No significant differences among groups in terms of leukocyte adhesion, concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1, and interleukin 6 were found. Conclusions Our findings suggest that unrefined babassu oil reduced microvascular leakage and protected against histamine-induced effects in postcapillary venules and highlights that these almost unexploited nut and its oil might be secure sources of food energy. PMID:23158555

  10. Therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy mediated by boron-rich liposomes for oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model

    PubMed Central

    Heber, Elisa M.; Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Kueffer, Peter J.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Pozzi, Emiliano C. C.; Hughes, Andrea Monti; Maitz, Charles A.; Jalisatgi, Satish S.; Nigg, David W.; Curotto, Paula; Trivillin, Verónica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    2014-01-01

    The application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by liposomes containing 10B-enriched polyhedral borane and carborane derivatives for the treatment of head and neck cancer in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model is presented. These liposomes are composed of an equimolar ratio of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] (MAC) in the bilayer membrane while encapsulating the hydrophilic species Na3[ae-B20H17NH3] (TAC) in the aqueous core. Unilamellar liposomes with a mean diameter of 83 nm were administered i.v. in hamsters. After 48 h, the boron concentration in tumors was 67 ± 16 ppm whereas the precancerous tissue contained 11 ± 6 ppm, and the tumor/normal pouch tissue boron concentration ratio was 10:1. Neutron irradiation giving a 5-Gy dose to precancerous tissue (corresponding to 21 Gy in tumor) resulted in an overall tumor response (OR) of 70% after a 4-wk posttreatment period. In contrast, the beam-only protocol gave an OR rate of only 28%. Once-repeated BNCT treatment with readministration of liposomes at an interval of 4, 6, or 8 wk resulted in OR rates of 70–88%, of which the complete response ranged from 37% to 52%. Because of the good therapeutic outcome, it was possible to extend the follow-up of BNCT treatment groups to 16 wk after the first treatment. No radiotoxicity to normal tissue was observed. A salient advantage of these liposomes was that only mild mucositis was observed in dose-limiting precancerous tissue with a sustained tumor response of 70–88%. PMID:25349432

  11. The effects of celecoxib, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, on acute inflammation induced in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Khayyal, M T; El-Ghazaly, Mona A; El-Hazek, R M; Nada, A S

    2009-10-01

    The potential value of selective and non-selective COX-2 inhibitors in preventing some of the biochemical changes induced by ionizing radiation was studied in rats exposed to carrageenan-induced paw edema and 6-day-old air pouch models. The animals were exposed to different exposure levels of gamma-radiation, namely either to single doses of 2 and 7.5 Gy or a fractionated dose level of 7.5 Gy delivered as 0.5 Gy twice weekly for 7.5 weeks. The inflammatory response produced by carrageenan in irradiated rats was markedly higher than that induced in non-irradiated animals, and depended on the extent of irradiation. Celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, in doses of 3, 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg was effective in reducing paw edema in irradiated and non-irradiated rats in a dose-dependent manner as well as diclofenac (3 mg/kg), a non-selective COX inhibitor. Irradiation of animals before the induction of the air pouch by an acute dose of 2 Gy led to a significant increase in leukocytic count, as well as in the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), LTB(4), PGE(2) (as an index of COX-2 activity), TXB(2) (as an index of COX-1 activity), and the plasma level of MDA. This increase in level of these parameters was more marked than that observed in the non-irradiated animals subjected to the inflammagen. The blood GSH level was not affected by the dose of irradiation used, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was suppressed. In many respects, celecoxib (5 mg/kg) was as potent as diclofenac in decreasing the elevated levels of IL-6, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, LTB(4), PGE(2), but lacked any significant effect on TXB(2) level. Since it is mostly selective for COX-2 with a rare effect on COX-1 enzyme, both drugs at the selected dose levels showed no effect on level of MDA, GSH, and SOD activity.

  12. Inflammation and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shigdar, Sarah; Li, Yong; Bhattacharya, Santanu; O'Connor, Michael; Pu, Chunwen; Lin, Jia; Wang, Tao; Xiang, Dongxi; Kong, Lingxue; Wei, Ming Q; Zhu, Yimin; Zhou, Shufeng; Duan, Wei

    2014-04-10

    Cancer stem cells are becoming recognised as being responsible for metastasis and treatment resistance. The complex cellular and molecular network that regulates cancer stem cells and the role that inflammation plays in cancer progression are slowly being elucidated. Cytokines, secreted by tumour associated immune cells, activate the necessary pathways required by cancer stem cells to facilitate cancer stem cells progressing through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migrating to distant sites. Once in situ, these cancer stem cells can secrete their own attractants, thus providing an environment whereby these cells can continue to propagate the tumour in a secondary niche.

  13. Peroxisomes, oxidative stress, and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Terlecky, Stanley R; Terlecky, Laura J; Giordano, Courtney R

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles mediating a wide variety of biosynthetic and biodegradative reactions. Included among these are the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide and other reactive species, molecules whose levels help define the oxidative state of cells. Loss of oxidative equilibrium in cells of tissues and organs potentiates inflammatory responses which can ultimately trigger human disease. The goal of this article is to review evidence for connections between peroxisome function, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the context of human health and degenerative disease. Dysregulated points in this nexus are identified and potential remedial approaches are presented. PMID:22649571

  14. Chemokines in cancer related inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Allavena, Paola; Germano, Giovanni; Marchesi, Federica; Mantovani, Alberto

    2011-03-10

    Chemokines are key players of the cancer-related inflammation. Chemokine ligands and receptors are downstream of genetic events that cause neoplastic transformation and are abundantly expressed in chronic inflammatory conditions which predispose to cancer. Components of the chemokine system affect multiple pathways of tumor progression including: leukocyte recruitment, neo-angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation and survival, invasion and metastasis. Evidence in pre-clinical and clinical settings suggests that the chemokine system represents a valuable target for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies.

  15. The linkage between inflammation and immune tolerance: interfering with inflammation in cancer.

    PubMed

    Rogovskii, Vladimir Stanislavovich

    2017-01-09

    Inflammation is linked to immune tolerance. In pregnancy and in immune privileged organs constitutive low-grade inflammation is required for maintaining immunological tolerance. Apart from immune tolerance in normality, there is the phenomenon of immune tolerance in cancer which mediates tumor escape from the immune system. It is widely accepted that, in many situations, chronic inflammation critically contributes to cancer. Like other types of immune tolerance, tumor-induced tolerance is also mediated by inflammation. In this review, the main mechanisms that link inflammation and tolerance are considered. We discuss drug targets that are in use to interfere with inflammation in cancer.

  16. Homeostasis, Inflammation, and Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Kotas, Maya E.; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    While modernization has dramatically increased lifespan, it has also witnessed the increasing prevalence of diseases such as obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Such chronic, acquired diseases result when normal physiologic control goes awry and may thus be viewed as failures of homeostasis. However, while nearly every process in human physiology relies on homeostatic mechanisms for stability, only some have demonstrated vulnerability to dysregulation. Additionally, chronic inflammation is a common accomplice of the diseases of homeostasis, yet the basis for this connection is not fully understood. Here we review the design of homeostatic systems and discuss universal features of control circuits that operate at the cellular, tissue and organismal levels. We suggest a framework for classification of homeostatic signals that is based on different classes of homeostatic variables they report on. Finally, we discuss how adaptability of homeostatic systems with adjustable set points creates vulnerability to dysregulation and disease. This framework highlights the fundamental parallels between homeostatic and inflammatory control mechanisms and provides a new perspective on the physiological origin of inflammation. PMID:25723161

  17. Leukotrienes orchestrating allergic skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Christian D; Sezin, Tanya; Kim, Nancy D

    2013-11-01

    Leukotrienes constitute a group of lipid mediators, which may be subdivided into two groups, with leukotriene B4 on the one hand and cysteinyl leukotrienes on the other. Although leukotrienes are abundantly expressed in skin affected by diverse chronic inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid, their pathological roles in these diseases have remained elusive. Recent data now reveal that both leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes are indispensable in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, with leukotriene B4 initiating the recruitment of inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils and TH 2 cells into the skin, and cysteinyl leukotrienes later inducing characteristic structural alterations of chronically affected skin, specifically skin fibrosis and keratinocyte proliferation. Thus, these results reveal a sequential cooperation of LTB4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes to initiate and perpetuate allergic skin inflammation. These new insights highlight leukotrienes as promising therapeutic targets in allergic skin inflammation and should encourage more research into the role of leukotrienes in other inflammatory skin diseases.

  18. Lymphocyte 'homing' and chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is a response to prolonged exposure to injurious stimuli that harm and destroy tissues and promote lymphocyte infiltration into inflamed sites. Following progressive accumulation of lymphocytes, the histology of inflamed tissue begins to resemble that of peripheral lymphoid organs, which can be referred to as lymphoid neogenesis or formation of tertiary lymphoid tissues. Lymphocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues is also reminiscent of lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymphoid organs. In the latter, under physiological conditions, homing receptors expressed on lymphocytes adhere to vascular addressin expressed on high endothelial venules (HEVs), initiating a lymphocyte migration process composed of sequential adhesive interactions. Intriguingly, in chronic inflammation, HEV-like vessels are induced de novo, despite the fact that the inflamed site is not originally lymphoid tissue, and these vessels contribute to lymphocyte recruitment in a manner similar to physiological lymphocyte homing. In this review, we first describe physiological lymphocyte homing mechanisms focusing on vascular addressins. We then describe HEV-like vessel-mediated pathogenesis seen in various chronic inflammatory disorders such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autoimmune pancreatitis and sclerosing sialadenitis, as well as chronic inflammatory cell neoplasm MALT lymphoma, with reference to our work and that of others.

  19. Hyperglycemia, tumorigenesis, and chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Chun; Yang, Wei-Chung Vivian

    2016-12-01

    Hyperglycemia is the most prominent sign that characterizes diabetes. Hyperglycemia favors malignant cell growth by providing energy to cancer cells. Clinical studies also showed an increased risk of diabetes being associated with different types of cancers. In addition, poorly regulated glucose metabolism in diabetic patients is often found with increased levels of chronic inflammatory markers, e.g., interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and emerging evidence has highlighted activation of the immune response in the progression and development of cancer cells. Therefore, uncontrolled proinflammatory responses could conceivably create a chronic inflammatory state, promoting a tumor-favorable microenvironment and potentially triggering immune overactivation and cancer growth. To further understand how hyperglycemia contributes to immune overactivation, the tumor microenvironment and the development of chronic inflammation-associated tumors may provide insights into tumor biology and immunology. This paper provides a brief introduction to hyperglycemia-associated diseases, followed by a comprehensive overview of the current findings of regulatory molecular mechanisms of glycosylation on proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix under hyperglycemic conditions. Then, the authors discuss the role of hyperglycemia in tumorigenesis (particularly in prostate, liver, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers), as well as the contribution of hyperglycemia to chronic inflammation. The authors end with a brief discussion on the future perspectives of hyperglycemia/tumorigenesis and potential applications of alternative/effective therapeutic strategies for hyperglycemia-associated cancers.

  20. Blood Coagulation, Inflammation and Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Seydel, Karl B.; Monteiro, Robson Q.

    2010-01-01

    I. ABSTRACT Malaria remains a highly prevalent disease in more than 90 countries and accounts for at least 1 million deaths every year. Plasmodium falciparum infection is often associated with a procoagulant tonus characterized by thrombocytopenia and activation of the coagulation cascade and fibrinolytic system; however, bleeding and hemorrhage are uncommon events, suggesting that a compensated state of blood coagulation activation occurs in malaria. This article i) reviews the literature related to blood coagulation and malaria in a historic perspective, ii) describes basic mechanisms of coagulation, anticoagulation, and fibrinolysis, iii) explains the laboratory changes in acute and compensated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), iv) discusses the implications of tissue factor (TF) expression in the endothelium of P. falciparum-infected patients, and v) emphasizes the pro-coagulant role of parasitized erythrocytes (pRBC) and activated platelets in the pathogenesis of malaria. This article also presents the ‘Tissue Factor Model’ (TFM) for malaria pathogenesis, which places TF as the interface between sequestration, endothelial cell activation, blood coagulation disorder and inflammation often associated with the disease. The relevance of the coagulation-inflammation cycle for the multiorgan dysfunction and coma is discussed in the context of malaria pathogenesis. PMID:18260002

  1. Focal brain inflammation and autism.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Asadi, Shahrzad; Patel, Arti B

    2013-04-09

    Increasing evidence indicates that brain inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social and learning disabilities that affect as many as 1/80 children in the USA. There is still no definitive pathogenesis or reliable biomarkers for ASD, thus significantly curtailing the development of effective therapies. Many children with ASD regress at about age 3 years, often after a specific event such as reaction to vaccination, infection, stress or trauma implying some epigenetic triggers, and may constitute a distinct phenotype. ASD children respond disproportionally to stress and are also affected by food and skin allergies. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is secreted under stress and together with neurotensin (NT) stimulates mast cells and microglia resulting in focal brain inflammation and neurotoxicity. NT is significantly increased in serum of ASD children along with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). NT stimulates mast cell secretion of mtDNA that is misconstrued as an innate pathogen triggering an auto-inflammatory response. The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutation, associated with the higher risk of ASD, which leads to hyper-active mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling that is crucial for cellular homeostasis. CRH, NT and environmental triggers could hyperstimulate the already activated mTOR, as well as stimulate mast cell and microglia activation and proliferation. The natural flavonoid luteolin inhibits mTOR, mast cells and microglia and could have a significant benefit in ASD.

  2. Inhibiting macrophage proliferation suppresses atherosclerotic plaque inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Lobatto, Mark E; Hassing, Laurien; van der Staay, Susanne; van Rijs, Sarian M; Calcagno, Claudia; Braza, Mounia S; Baxter, Samantha; Fay, Francois; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Sager, Hendrik; Astudillo, Yaritzy M; Leong, Wei; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Storm, Gert; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Reiner, Thomas; Cormode, David P; Strijkers, Gustav J; Stroes, Erik S G; Swirski, Filip K; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Fisher, Edward A; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M

    2015-04-01

    Inflammation drives atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture, and is a compelling therapeutic target. Consequently, attenuating inflammation by reducing local macrophage accumulation is an appealing approach. This can potentially be accomplished by either blocking blood monocyte recruitment to the plaque or increasing macrophage apoptosis and emigration. Because macrophage proliferation was recently shown to dominate macrophage accumulation in advanced plaques, locally inhibiting macrophage proliferation may reduce plaque inflammation and produce long-term therapeutic benefits. To test this hypothesis, we used nanoparticle-based delivery of simvastatin to inhibit plaque macrophage proliferation in apolipoprotein E deficient mice (Apoe(-/-) ) with advanced atherosclerotic plaques. This resulted in rapid reduction of plaque inflammation and favorable phenotype remodeling. We then combined this short-term nanoparticle intervention with an eight-week oral statin treatment, and this regimen rapidly reduced and continuously suppressed plaque inflammation. Our results demonstrate that pharmacologically inhibiting local macrophage proliferation can effectively treat inflammation in atherosclerosis.

  3. Inhibiting macrophage proliferation suppresses atherosclerotic plaque inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jun; Lobatto, Mark E.; Hassing, Laurien; van der Staay, Susanne; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Calcagno, Claudia; Braza, Mounia S.; Baxter, Samantha; Fay, Francois; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Sager, Hendrik B.; Astudillo, Yaritzy M.; Leong, Wei; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Storm, Gert; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Reiner, Thomas; Cormode, David P.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Swirski, Filip K.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation drives atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture, and is a compelling therapeutic target. Consequently, attenuating inflammation by reducing local macrophage accumulation is an appealing approach. This can potentially be accomplished by either blocking blood monocyte recruitment to the plaque or increasing macrophage apoptosis and emigration. Because macrophage proliferation was recently shown to dominate macrophage accumulation in advanced plaques, locally inhibiting macrophage proliferation may reduce plaque inflammation and produce long-term therapeutic benefits. To test this hypothesis, we used nanoparticle-based delivery of simvastatin to inhibit plaque macrophage proliferation in apolipoprotein E–deficient mice (Apoe−/−) with advanced atherosclerotic plaques. This resulted in the rapid reduction of plaque inflammation and favorable phenotype remodeling. We then combined this short-term nanoparticle intervention with an 8-week oral statin treatment, and this regimen rapidly reduced and continuously suppressed plaque inflammation. Our results demonstrate that pharmacologically inhibiting local macrophage proliferation can effectively treat inflammation in atherosclerosis. PMID:26295063

  4. Sclerosing Orbital Inflammation Caused by Leishmania braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Antonio Augusto V; Alves-Ferreira, Eliza V C; Milbratz-Moré, Gherusa; Chahud, Fernando; Ruy, Patricia C; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Cruz, Angela Kaysel

    2017-01-11

    Orbital biopsy of nonspecific orbital inflammation, commonly referred to as "orbital pseudotumor," typically shows a combination of polyclonal lymphocytes, plasmocytes, leukocytes, macrophages, and variable degrees of collagen deposition. Herein, we report a patient with a positive history of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis who presented with an orbital mass with a histological profile of idiopathic orbital inflammation. Immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of the orbital specimens demonstrated that the orbital inflammation was associated with the presence of antigens of Leishmania braziliensis and DNA from the parasite.

  5. Epidemiology of air pollution and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thiering, Elisabeth; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution affects a large proportion of the global population. Air pollutants are hypothesized to exert their effects via impaired endothelial function, elevated systemic inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, all of which are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we review epidemiological studies aimed at answering whether diabetes patients are more vulnerable to ambient (outdoor) air pollution exposure and whether air pollution is associated with diabetes development or other predisposing conditions for T2D. Current evidence suggests an association between air pollution exposure and T2D, but more critical analysis is warranted. Understanding the associations between air pollution exposure and the development of T2D is critical in our efforts to control sources of air pollution and their impact on the disease.

  6. Resolution of inflammation: a new therapeutic frontier.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, James N; Gilroy, Derek W

    2016-08-01

    Dysregulated inflammation is a central pathological process in diverse disease states. Traditionally, therapeutic approaches have sought to modulate the pro- or anti-inflammatory limbs of inflammation, with mixed success. However, insight into the pathways by which inflammation is resolved has highlighted novel opportunities to pharmacologically manipulate these processes - a strategy that might represent a complementary (and perhaps even superior) therapeutic approach. This Review discusses the state of the art in the biology of resolution of inflammation, highlighting the opportunities and challenges for translational research in this field.

  7. RAZOR EX anthrax air detection system.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Usha K; Christensen, Clarissa J; Crisp, Robert J; Vaughn, Michael B; Trauscht, Robert C; Gardner, Jordan R; Thatcher, Stephanie A; Clemens, Kristine M; Teng, David H F; Bird, Abigail; Ota, Irene M; Hadfield, Ted; Ryan, Valorie; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    The RAZOR EX Anthrax Air Detection System, developed by Idaho Technology, Inc. (ITI), is a qualitative method for the detection of Bacillus anthracis spores collected by air collection devices. This system comprises a DNA extraction kit, a freeze-dried PCR reagent pouch, and the RAZOR EX real-time PCR instrument. Each pouch contains three assays, which distinguish potentially virulent B. anthracis from avirulent B. anthracis and other Bacillus species. These assays target the pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids and chromosomal DNA. When all targets are detected, the instrument makes an "anthrax detected" call, meaning that virulence genes of the anthrax bacillus are present. This report describes results from AOAC Method Developer (MD) and Independent Laboratory Validation (ILV) studies, which include matrix, inclusivity/exclusivity, environmental interference, upper and lower LOD of DNA, robustness, product consistency and stability, and instrument variation testing. In the MD studies, the system met the acceptance criteria for sensitivity and specificity, and the performance was consistent, stable, and robust for all components of the system. For the matrix study, the acceptance criteria of 95/96 expected calls was met for three of four matrixes, clean dry filters being the exception. Ninety-four of the 96 clean dry filter samples tested gave the expected calls. The nucleic acid limit of detection was 5-fold lower than AOAC's acceptable minimum detection limit. The system demonstrated no tendency for false positives when tested with Bacillus cereus. Environmental substances did not inhibit accurate detection of B. anthracis. The ILV studies yielded similar results for the matrix and inclusivity/exclusivity studies. The ILV environmental interference study included environmental substances and environmental organisms. Subsoil at a high concentration was found to negatively interfere with the pXO1 reaction. No interference was observed from the environmental organisms. The

  8. Postischemic Inflammation in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Consoli, Arturo; Arnaboldi, Marco; Consoli, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is caused by arterial occlusion due to a thrombus or an embolus. Such occlusion induces multiple and concomitant pathophysiological processes that involve bioenergetic failure, acidosis, loss of cell homeostasis, excitotoxicity, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. All of these mechanisms contribute to neuronal death, mainly via apoptosis or necrosis. The immune system is involved in this process in the early phases after brain injury, which contributes to potential enlargement of the infarct size and involves the penumbra area. Whereas inflammation and the immune system both exert deleterious effects, they also contribute to brain protection by stimulating a preconditioning status and to the concomitant repair of the injured parenchyma. This review describes the main phases of the inflammatory process occurring after arterial cerebral occlusion, with an emphasis on the role of single mediators. PMID:28079313

  9. Histiocytoses: emerging neoplasia behind inflammation.

    PubMed

    Haroche, Julien; Cohen-Aubart, Fleur; Rollins, Barret J; Donadieu, Jean; Charlotte, Frédéric; Idbaih, Ahmed; Vaglio, Augusto; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Emile, Jean-François; Amoura, Zahir

    2017-02-01

    Histiocytoses are disorders characterised by inflammation and the accumulation of cells derived from the monocyte and macrophage lineages, which results in tissue damage. Although they are often considered rare disorders with protean clinical manifestations, considerable advances in the understanding of their genetics have led to increased clinical recognition of these conditions, and fuelled further insights into their pathogenesis. In this Review, we describe insights into the cells of origin, molecular pathology, clinical features, and treatment strategies for some of the most common histiocytic disorders, including Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Erdheim-Chester disease, and Rosai-Dorfman disease. With the discovery of recurrent mutations affecting the mitogen-activated protein kinase and mTOR-AKT pathways in some of these histiocytoses, our understanding of these diseases has now evolved from the concept of a primary inflammatory condition to that of a clonal neoplastic disease. This understanding has led to the development of effective mechanism-based therapeutic strategies for patients with histiocytic diseases.

  10. Inflammation in chronic venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Raffetto, J D

    2013-03-01

    Chronic venous ulcers (CVUs) occur in approximately 1% of the general population. Risk factors for chronic venous disease (CVD) include heredity, age, female sex and obesity. Although not restricted to the elderly, the prevalence of CVD, especially leg ulcers, increases with age. CVD has a considerable impact on health-care resources. It has been estimated that venous ulcers cause the loss of approximately two million working days and incur treatment costs of approximately $3 billion per year in the USA. Overall, CVD has been estimated to account for 1-3% of the total health-care budgets in countries with developed health-care systems. The pathophysiology of dermal abnormalities in CVU is reflective of a complex interplay that involves sustained venous hypertension, inflammation, changes in microcirculation, cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation, resulting in altered cellular function and delayed wound healing.

  11. Pulpal vascular changes in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K

    1992-01-01

    Changes in pulpal vessels in experimentally induced acute and chronic pulpitis in dog tooth were investigated using corrosive resin casts and scanning electron microscopic examination. Following a cavity preparation without water spray, increased permeability of blood vessels occurred in the primary stage of acute pulpitis. This was evidenced by the extravasation of resin from the vessel. This phenomenon was found initially in the venular network as well as in the capillary network located under the dentin. The morphological change was minimal in the vascular network underneath the cavity. This is in contrast to an expanded and tortuous vascular network representing an ulceration which was found around an abscess in chronic pulpitis. Furthermore, formation of vascular loops and AVAlc close to the inflamed region may represent a protective change in the pulp against inflammation.

  12. Polyphenols, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tangney, Christy; Rasmussen, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols are compounds found in foods such as tea, coffee, cocoa, olive oil, and red wine and have been studied to determine if their intake may modify cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Historically, biologic actions of polyphenols have been attributed to antioxidant activities, but recent evidence suggests that immunomodulatory and vasodilatory properties of polyphenols may also contribute to CVD risk reduction. These properties will be discussed, and recent epidemiological evidence and intervention trials will be reviewed. Further identification of polyphenols in foods and accurate assessment of exposures through measurement of biomarkers (i.e., polyphenol metabolites) could provide the needed impetus to examine the impact of polyphenol-rich foods on CVD intermediate outcomes (especially those signifying chronic inflammation) and hard endpoints among high risk patients. Although we have mechanistic insight into how polyphenols may function in CVD risk reduction, further research is needed before definitive recommendations for consumption can be made. PMID:23512608

  13. Lipid Chaperones and Metabolic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Masato; Ishimura, Shutaro; Ota, Hideki; Miura, Tetsuji

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, a large body of evidence has emerged demonstrating an integration of metabolic and immune response pathways. It is now clear that obesity and associated disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a metabolically driven, low-grade, chronic inflammatory state, referred to as “metaflammation.” Several inflammatory cytokines as well as lipids and metabolic stress pathways can activate metaflammation, which targets metabolically critical organs and tissues including adipocytes and macrophages to adversely affect systemic homeostasis. On the other hand, inside the cell, fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), a family of lipid chaperones, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria play significant roles in promotion of metabolically triggered inflammation. Here, we discuss the molecular and cellular basis of the roles of FABPs, especially FABP4 and FABP5, in metaflammation and related diseases including obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. PMID:22121495

  14. Nanoparticles size-dependently initiate self-limiting NETosis-driven inflammation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Luis E; Bilyy, Rostyslav; Biermann, Mona H C; Kienhöfer, Deborah; Maueröder, Christian; Hahn, Jonas; Brauner, Jan M; Weidner, Daniela; Chen, Jin; Scharin-Mehlmann, Marina; Janko, Christina; Friedrich, Ralf P; Mielenz, Dirk; Dumych, Tetiana; Lootsik, Maxim D; Schauer, Christine; Schett, Georg; Hoffmann, Markus; Zhao, Yi; Herrmann, Martin

    2016-10-04

    The critical size for strong interaction of hydrophobic particles with phospholipid bilayers has been predicted to be 10 nm. Because of the wide spreading of nonpolar nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment, we aimed to reveal the ability of living organisms to entrap NPs via formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Upon interaction with various cell types and tissues, 10- to 40-nm-sized NPs induce fast (<20 min) damage of plasma membranes and instability of the lysosomal compartment, leading to the immediate formation of NETs. In contrast, particles sized 100-1,000 nm behaved rather inertly. Resulting NET formation (NETosis) was accompanied by an inflammatory reaction intrinsically endowed with its own resolution, demonstrated in lungs and air pouches of mice. Persistence of small NPs in joints caused unremitting arthritis and bone remodeling. Small NPs coinjected with antigen exerted adjuvant-like activity. This report demonstrates a cellular mechanism that explains how small NPs activate the NETosis pathway and drive their entrapping and resolution of the initial inflammatory response.

  15. Nanoparticles size-dependently initiate self-limiting NETosis-driven inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Luis E.; Biermann, Mona H. C.; Kienhöfer, Deborah; Maueröder, Christian; Hahn, Jonas; Brauner, Jan M.; Weidner, Daniela; Chen, Jin; Scharin-Mehlmann, Marina; Janko, Christina; Friedrich, Ralf P.; Mielenz, Dirk; Dumych, Tetiana; Lootsik, Maxim D.; Schauer, Christine; Schett, Georg; Hoffmann, Markus; Zhao, Yi; Herrmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The critical size for strong interaction of hydrophobic particles with phospholipid bilayers has been predicted to be 10 nm. Because of the wide spreading of nonpolar nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment, we aimed to reveal the ability of living organisms to entrap NPs via formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Upon interaction with various cell types and tissues, 10- to 40-nm-sized NPs induce fast (<20 min) damage of plasma membranes and instability of the lysosomal compartment, leading to the immediate formation of NETs. In contrast, particles sized 100–1,000 nm behaved rather inertly. Resulting NET formation (NETosis) was accompanied by an inflammatory reaction intrinsically endowed with its own resolution, demonstrated in lungs and air pouches of mice. Persistence of small NPs in joints caused unremitting arthritis and bone remodeling. Small NPs coinjected with antigen exerted adjuvant-like activity. This report demonstrates a cellular mechanism that explains how small NPs activate the NETosis pathway and drive their entrapping and resolution of the initial inflammatory response. PMID:27647892

  16. A comparative study between detached leaf and plastic growth pouches techniques on the infection of pseudocercospora leaf spot disease of cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sinsiri, N; Laohasiriwong, S

    2009-03-01

    This glasshouse experiment was carried out in the 2004 at the Department of Agricultural Production, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 4400, Northeast Thailand to compare amounts of infection of Pseudocercospora leaf spot disease in leaves of cowpea cultivars being screened between detached leaf and plastic growth pouches techniques. The experiment was laid in a factorial arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. KVC7, IT81D-1228-14-1 and KKU25 cowpea cultivars were used as factor A, detached leaf and plastic growth pouches techniques were used as factor B and four levels of the concentrations of the spores of the disease, i.e., 0, l x 10(4), 5 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(5) of disease forming units mL(-1) of distilled water were used as factor C. The results showed that KVC7 and IT81D-1228-14-1 cultivars possessed immune and high resistant properties against the disease, respectively, whereas KKU25 cultivar ranked as a susceptible cultivar. Detached leaf technique gave higher amount of infection of the disease than plastic growth pouches technique and the differences were highly significant. A plentiful amount of Infected disease was attained with an inoculation rate of l x 10(5) forming units mL(-1) of distilled water, which was considered too high and the most appropriate concentrations for use lie on both concentrations, i.e., 1 x 10(4) and 5 x 10(4) forming units mL(-1) of distilled water. An interaction among factors AxBxC was severely found with KKU25 cultivar, particularly on day 28 after inoculation, whilst other two cultivars gave a minute amount of disease incidences (%) where detached leaf technique gave much higher disease incidences than plastic growth pouches technique, thus detached leaf technique should be of higher advantages.

  17. Effects of diesel exhaust on lung inflammation related to bacterial endotoxin in mice.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ken-Ichiro; Takano, Hirohisa; Yanagisawa, Rie; Sakurai, Miho; Ueki, Naoko; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2006-11-01

    We have previously shown that intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles enhances lung inflammation and lung expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines related to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) in mice. The present study was designed to elucidate the effects of inhalation of diesel exhaust on lung inflammation related to lipopolysaccharide. ICR mice were exposed for 12 hr to clean air or diesel exhaust at a soot concentration of 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/m(3) after intratracheal challenge with 125 microg/kg of lipopolysaccharide. Lung inflammation and lung expression of proinflammatory chemokines such as macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 and keratinocyte chemoattractant were evaluated 24 hr after intratracheal administration. Diesel exhaust inhalation decreased lipopolysaccharide-elicited inflammatory cell recruitment into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as compared with clean air inhalation. Histological study demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust did not affect lipopolysaccharide-enhanced neutrophil recruitment into the lung parenchyma. Lipopolysaccharide instillation elevated lung expression of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 and keratinocyte chemoattractant under clean air or diesel exhaust inhalation. However, diesel exhaust exposure did not influence but rather did suppress these levels in the presence of lipopolysaccharide. These results suggest that short-term exposure to diesel exhaust did not exacerbate lung inflammation related to bacterial endotoxin.

  18. The impact of inflammation on respiratory plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hocker, Austin D; Stokes, Jennifer A; Powell, Frank L; Huxtable, Adrianne G

    2017-01-01

    Breathing is a vital homeostatic behavior and must be precisely regulated throughout life. Clinical conditions commonly associated with inflammation, undermine respiratory function may involve plasticity in respiratory control circuits to compensate and maintain adequate ventilation. Alternatively, other clinical conditions may evoke maladaptive plasticity. Yet, we have only recently begun to understand the effects of inflammation on respiratory plasticity. Here, we review some of common models used to investigate the effects of inflammation and discuss the impact of inflammation on nociception, chemosensory plasticity, medullary respiratory centers, motor plasticity in motor neurons and respiratory frequency, and adaptation to high altitude. We provide new data suggesting glial cells contribute to CNS inflammatory gene expression after 24h of sustained hypoxia and inflammation induced by 8h of intermittent hypoxia inhibits long-term facilitation of respiratory frequency. We also discuss how inflammation can have opposite effects on the capacity for plasticity, whereby it is necessary for increases in the hypoxic ventilatory response with sustained hypoxia, but inhibits phrenic long term facilitation after intermittent hypoxia. This review highlights gaps in our knowledge about the effects of inflammation on respiratory control (development, age, and sex differences). In summary, data to date suggest plasticity can be either adaptive or maladaptive and understanding how inflammation alters the respiratory system is crucial for development of better therapeutic interventions to promote breathing and for utilization of plasticity as a clinical treatment.

  19. Susceptibility to chronic inflammation: an update.

    PubMed

    Nasef, Noha Ahmed; Mehta, Sunali; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2017-03-01

    Chronic inflammation is defined by the persistence of inflammatory processes beyond their physiological function, resulting in tissue destruction. Chronic inflammation is implicated in the progression of many chronic diseases and plays a central role in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease. As such, this review aims to collate some of the latest research in relation to genetic and environmental susceptibilities to chronic inflammation. In the genetic section, we discuss some of the updates in cytokine research and current treatments that are being developed. We also discuss newly identified canonical and non-canonical genes associated with chronic inflammation. In the environmental section, we highlight some of the latest updates and evidence in relation to the role that infection, diet and stress play in promoting inflammation. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the latest research to build on our current understanding of chronic inflammation. It highlights the complexity associated with chronic inflammation, as well as provides insights into potential new targets for therapies that could be used to treat chronic inflammation and consequently prevent disease progression.

  20. Pain related inflammation analysis using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Bardhan, Shawli; Das, Kakali; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nath, Satyabrata

    2016-05-01

    Medical Infrared Thermography (MIT) offers a potential non-invasive, non-contact and radiation free imaging modality for assessment of abnormal inflammation having pain in the human body. The assessment of inflammation mainly depends on the emission of heat from the skin surface. Arthritis is a disease of joint damage that generates inflammation in one or more anatomical joints of the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent appearing form of arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most threatening form of them. In this study, the inflammatory analysis has been performed on the infrared images of patients suffering from RA and OA. For the analysis, a dataset of 30 bilateral knee thermograms has been captured from the patient of RA and OA by following a thermogram acquisition standard. The thermograms are pre-processed, and areas of interest are extracted for further processing. The investigation of the spread of inflammation is performed along with the statistical analysis of the pre-processed thermograms. The objectives of the study include: i) Generation of a novel thermogram acquisition standard for inflammatory pain disease ii) Analysis of the spread of the inflammation related to RA and OA using K-means clustering. iii) First and second order statistical analysis of pre-processed thermograms. The conclusion reflects that, in most of the cases, RA oriented inflammation affects bilateral knees whereas inflammation related to OA present in the unilateral knee. Also due to the spread of inflammation in OA, contralateral asymmetries are detected through the statistical analysis.

  1. Resolution of acute inflammation in the lung.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruce D; Serhan, Charles N

    2014-01-01

    Acute inflammation in the lung is essential to health. So too is its resolution. In response to invading microbes, noxious stimuli, or tissue injury, an acute inflammatory response is mounted to protect the host. To limit inflammation and prevent collateral injury of healthy, uninvolved tissue, the lung orchestrates the formation of specialized proresolving mediators, specifically lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins. These immunoresolvents are agonists for resolution that interact with specific receptors on leukocytes and structural cells to blunt further inflammation and promote catabasis. This process appears to be defective in several common lung diseases that are characterized by excess or chronic inflammation. Here, we review the molecular and cellular effectors of resolution of acute inflammation in the lung.

  2. [Signaling mechanisms involved in resolution of inflammation].

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Villagrana, Rodolfo Daniel; Cervantes-Villagrana, Alberto Rafael; Presno-Bernal, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a physiological process, which eliminates pathogens and induces repair of damaged tissue. This process is controlled by negative feedback mechanisms, but if the inflammation persists, it generates a deleterious autoimmune process or can to contribute with diseases such as obesity or cancer. The inflammation resolution involves mechanisms such as decrease of proliferation and maturation of immune cells, phagocytosis and apoptosis of immune cells, and decrease of proinflammatory mediators. Therefore, is relevant to study the physiological effects of specific receptors that participate in inflammation resolution and the design of specific agonists as conventional anti-inflammatory therapeutics, without dramatic collateral effects. In this review, we study some mechanisms associated with inflammation inhibition, particularly the transduction of receptors for ligands with anti-inflammatory effects and that are relevant for their potential therapeutic.

  3. Resolution of Acute Inflammation In The Lung

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Bruce D.; Serhan, Charles N.

    2015-01-01

    Acute inflammation in the lung is essential to health. So too is its resolution. In response to invading microbes, noxious stimuli or tissue injury, an acute inflammatory response is mounted to protect the host. To limit inflammation and prevent collateral injury of healthy, uninvolved tissue, the lung orchestrates the formation of specialized pro-resolving mediators, specifically lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins. These immunoresolvents are agonists for resolution that interact with specific receptors on leukocytes and structural cells to blunt further inflammation and promote catabasis. This process appears to be defective in several common lung diseases that are characterized by excess or chronic inflammation. Here, we review the molecular and cellular effectors of resolution of acute inflammation in the lung. PMID:24313723

  4. Infections and inflammation in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sfanos, Karen S; Isaacs, William B; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2013-12-25

    The frequent observation of both acute and chronic inflammation of unknown stimulus in the adult prostate has motivated a large body of research aimed at identifying potential infectious agents that may elicit prostatic inflammation. The overarching hypothesis is that infection-induced inflammation may be associated with prostate cancer development or progression, as inflammation is known to serve as an "enabling characteristic" of cancer. With recent advances in molecular techniques for microorganism identification, a panoply of microorganisms has been scrutinized in prostate tissues and in relation to prostate carcinogenesis. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for infectious agents as a contributing factor to prostatic inflammation and prostate cancer, and to highlight recent literature suggesting an infectious etiology to the biogenesis of prostatic corpora amylacea and on the development of mouse models of prostatic infections.

  5. Investigation of inflammable liquids by terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Matsushita, Akira; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Minami, Yukio; Yamaguchi, Mariko; Yamamoto, Kohji; Tani, Masahiko; Hangyo, Masanori

    2005-07-01

    We have examined a nondestructive and contactless screening method for water and inflammable liquids stored in common beverage plastic bottles by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. No THz transmission has been observed between 10 and 60cm-1 for 45-mm-thick water in plastic bottles. Part of the THz wave, on the other hand, has been transmitted through the commercially available inflammable liquids in the same bottles. The differences in the absorption intensities and the refractive indices in the THz region, which reflect the ingredients of organic compounds, allow us to distinguish these inflammable liquids. We confirm that the screening method based on the THz transmission can be applied to classifying the commercially available inflammable liquids stored in plastic bottles and to distinguishing these inflammable liquids from water as well.

  6. Infections and inflammation in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sfanos, Karen S; Isaacs, William B; Marzo, Angelo M De

    2013-01-01

    The frequent observation of both acute and chronic inflammation of unknown stimulus in the adult prostate has motivated a large body of research aimed at identifying potential infectious agents that may elicit prostatic inflammation. The overarching hypothesis is that infection-induced inflammation may be associated with prostate cancer development or progression, as inflammation is known to serve as an “enabling characteristic” of cancer. With recent advances in molecular techniques for microorganism identification, a panoply of microorganisms has been scrutinized in prostate tissues and in relation to prostate carcinogenesis. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for infectious agents as a contributing factor to prostatic inflammation and prostate cancer, and to highlight recent literature suggesting an infectious etiology to the biogenesis of prostatic corpora amylacea and on the development of mouse models of prostatic infections. PMID:25110720

  7. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  8. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Climate Change on Children's Health: Session Two: Air Quality Impacts MODERATOR: Susan Anenberg, EPA Meredith McCormack, Johns ... University • Effects of Climate Change on Children’s Health: Air Quality Impacts Frederica Perera, Columbia University • Air quality Impacts ...

  9. “Sequential” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ana J. Molinari; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Marcela A. Garabalino; Silvia I. Thorp; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Jorge Quintana; Gustavo A. Santa Cruz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2011-04-01

    In the present study we evaluated the therapeutic effect and/or potential radiotoxicity of the novel “Tandem” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (T-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model at RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with “Tandem BNCT”, i.e. BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (T-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (T-48h-BNCT) later. A total tumor dose-matched single application of BNCT mediated by BPA and GB-10 administered jointly [(BPA + GB-10)-BNCT] was administered to an additional group of animals. At 28 days post-treatment, T-24h-BNCT and T-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor control (OTC) of 95% and 91%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Tumor response for the single application of (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75%, significantly lower than for T-BNCT. The T-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47% and 60% of the animals respectively. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was associated to tumor control for any of the protocols. “Tandem” BNCT enhances tumor control in oral cancer and reduces or, at worst, does not increase, mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  10. Long-term follow-up after ileocaecal continent cutaneous urinary diversion (Mainz I pouch): A retrospective study of a monocentric experience

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Fahd; Fellahi, Saad; Ouslim, Hicham; Mhanna, Tarik; El Houmaidi, Amine; Aynaou, Mohammed; Boteng, Paapa Dua; Barki, Ali; Nouini, Yassine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the long-term follow-up after ileocaecal continent cutaneous reservoir (ICCR) and to review the late complications. Patients and methods In all, 756 patients underwent an ICCR in our department, with long-term follow-up data available in 50 patients. The inclusion criterion was ICCR regardless of the indication and the exclusion criteria were orthotopic neobladder or other continent urinary diversions not performed with the ileocaecum. Patients were followed to record primary outcomes and late complications. Complications were stratified according to the Clavien–Dindo classification. Results The mean patient age was 44 years and pelvic malignancies were the first indication for urinary diversion. The mean (range) follow-up was 19 (9–36) years. A stoma stenosis was the most frequent outlet-related complication requiring re-intervention, followed by ischaemic outlet degeneration, and stoma incontinence. Six renal units (RUs) developed obstruction at the anastomotic site and were managed by open surgery. Three RUs had to be removed due to deterioration. A dederivation was necessary in three patients (6%). Conclusion The ICCR is a safe and established technique when an orthotopic pouch is impossible. The long-term follow-up shows acceptable complication rates and satisfactory continence conditions. However, large population studies are necessary to confirm this observation. PMID:26609442

  11. Genome-wide linkage and association analysis identifies major gene loci for guttural pouch tympany in Arabian and German warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Julia; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Equine guttural pouch tympany (GPT) is a hereditary condition affecting foals in their first months of life. Complex segregation analyses in Arabian and German warmblood horses showed the involvement of a major gene as very likely. Genome-wide linkage and association analyses including a high density marker set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were performed to map the genomic region harbouring the potential major gene for GPT. A total of 85 Arabian and 373 German warmblood horses were genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip. Non-parametric multipoint linkage analyses showed genome-wide significance on horse chromosomes (ECA) 3 for German warmblood at 16-26 Mb and 34-55 Mb and for Arabian on ECA15 at 64-65 Mb. Genome-wide association analyses confirmed the linked regions for both breeds. In Arabian, genome-wide association was detected at 64 Mb within the region with the highest linkage peak on ECA15. For German warmblood, signals for genome-wide association were close to the peak region of linkage at 52 Mb on ECA3. The odds ratio for the SNP with the highest genome-wide association was 0.12 for the Arabian. In conclusion, the refinement of the regions with the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip is an important step to unravel the responsible mutations for GPT.

  12. "Sequential" boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): a novel approach to BNCT for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Ana J; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Heber, Elisa M; Garabalino, Marcela A; Thorp, Silvia I; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Nigg, David W; Quintana, Jorge; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2011-04-01

    In the present study the therapeutic effect and potential toxicity of the novel "Sequential" boron neutron capture therapy (Seq-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer was evaluated in the hamster cheek pouch model at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with "Sequential" BNCT, i.e., BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (Seq-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (Seq-48h-BNCT) later. In an additional group of animals, BPA and GB-10 were administered concomitantly [(BPA + GB-10)-BNCT]. The single-application BNCT was to the same total physical tumor dose as the "Sequential" BNCT treatments. At 28 days post-treatment, Seq-24h-BNCT and Seq-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor responses of 95 ± 2% and 91 ± 3%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Overall response for the single treatment with (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75 ± 5%, significantly lower than for Seq-BNCT. Both Seq-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in the dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47 ± 12% and 60 ± 22% of the animals, respectively. No normal tissue toxicity was associated with tumor response for any of the protocols. "Sequential" BNCT enhanced tumor response without an increase in mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  13. Ligation of the ipsilateral common carotid artery and topical treatment for the prevention of epistaxis from guttural pouch mycosis in horses.

    PubMed

    Cousty, M; Tricaud, C; De Beauregard, T; Picandet, V; Bizon-Mercier, C; Tessier, C

    2016-01-09

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of ligation of the ipsilateral common carotid artery (CCA) combined with various antimycotic treatments for the prevention of epistaxis in horses with guttural pouch mycosis. For each case, ipsilateral ligation of the CCA was performed, followed by application of various topical medications under endoscopic guidance. Frequency and number of treatments, outcome and recurrence of haemorrhage were retrospectively recorded. Twenty-four horses were included. Topical medication was administered by detachment of the diphtheric membrane and spraying (n=16) or by intralesional injection directly in the plaques using a transendoscopic needle (n=8). Epistaxis recurred in five horses (20.8 per cent), causing death of four horses (16.6 per cent). The mean number of treatments was 6.3±4.0 (range 2-14) for all topical treatments. Ligation of the ipsilateral CCA and topical medication carries a fair prognosis for avoidance of recurrent episodes of epistaxis, but fatal haemorrhage can occur. Removal of the fungal plaque and topical treatment of the underlying lesion appeared to speed up resolution of the mycotic mucosal lesions. The described technique is a salvage procedure when financial or technical constraints prevent the use of transarterial catheter occlusion techniques.

  14. Long-term function of islets encapsulated in a re-designed alginate microcapsule construct in omentum pouches of immune-competent diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Pareta, Rajesh; McQuilling, John P; Sittadjody, Sivanandane; Jenkins, Randy; Bowden, Stephen; Orlando, Giuseppe; Farney, Alan C; Brey, Eric M; Opara, Emmanuel C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our study aim was to determine encapsulated islet graft viability in an omentum pouch and the effect of FGF-1 released from our redesigned alginate microcapsules on the function of the graft. Methods Isolated rat islets were encapsulated in an inner core made with 1.5% low-viscosity high-mannuronic acid (LVM) alginate followed by an external layer made with 1.25% low-viscosity high-guluronic acid (LVG) alginate with or without FGF-1, in microcapsules measuring 300 – 400 μm in diameter. The two alginate layers were separated by a perm-selective membrane made with 0.1 % Poly-L-Ornithine (PLO), and the inner LVM core was partially chelated using 55 mM sodium citrate for 2 min. Results A marginal mass of encapsulated islet allografts (~2000 islets/kg) in Streptozotocin-diabetic Lewis rats caused significant reduction in blood glucose levels similar to the effect observed with encapsulated islet isografts. Transplantation of allo-islets co-encapsulated with FGF-1 did not result in better glycemic control, but induced greater body weight maintenance in transplant recipients compared to those that received only allo-islets. Histological examination of the retrieved tissue demonstrated morphologically and functionally intact islets in the microcapsules, with no signs of fibrosis. Conclusion We conclude that the omentum is a viable site for encapsulated islet transplantation. PMID:24681880

  15. Resistance to P. brasiliensis Experimental Infection of Inbred Mice Is Associated with an Efficient Neutrophil Mobilization and Activation by Mediators of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Felipe Fornias; Fernandes, Gisele Pesquero; Mendes, Ana Carolina Silvério Cerqueira; Bani, Giulia Maria de Alencar Castro; Calich, Vera Lucia Garcia; Burger, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic fungal infection, endemic in Brazil, that leads to severe morbidity and even mortality if not correctly treated. Patients may respond differently to PCM depending on the pattern of the acquired immune response developed. The onset of protective immune response is notably mediated by neutrophils (PMN) that play an important role through directly killing the fungi and also by interacting with other cell types to modulate the acquired protective immune response that may follow. In that way, this study aimed to present and compare different experimental models of PCM (intraperitoneal and subcutaneous) regarding PMN production and maturation inside femoral bone marrow and also PMN infiltration in peritoneal and subcutaneous exudates of resistant and susceptible mice. We also assessed the fungal colony forming units and the levels of soluble inflammatory mediators (LTB4, KC, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and IL-10) inside subcutaneous air-pouches to compare the efficiency of the PMN present at this site in relation to the two main neutrophil functions: initial lysis of the invading pathogen and modulation of the acquired immune response. P. brasiliensis inoculated intraperitoneally was able to disseminate to the bone marrow of susceptible mice, causing a more marked alteration of PMN production and maturation than that observed after resistant mice infection by the same route. Subcutaneous air-pouch inoculation of P. brasiliensis elicited a controlled and limited infection that produced a PMN-rich exudate, thus favoring the study of the interaction between the fungus and the neutrophils. Susceptible mice produced higher numbers of PMN; however, these cells were less effective in killing the fungi. Inflammatory cytokines were more pronounced in resistant mice, which supports their PCM raised resistance. PMID:26819497

  16. Mast Cell Proteases and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hongyan; Korthuis, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Mast cells are best known for their role in allergic reactions but are also now recognized for their important contributions to a number of disparate inflammatory conditions through the release of inflammatory mediators, serglycin and other proteoglycans, and proteases. Because these tissue resident inflammatory cells express proteases in such great abundance and their enzymatic activity results in cleavage of a multitude of proteins and peptides, which in turn modify tissue function, their substrate specificity, tissue distribution, and mode of action have become the subjects of great interest. Although mast cell protease-dependent proteolysis is critical to host defense against invading pathogens, regulation of these hydrolytic enzymes is essential to limiting self-induced damage as well. Indeed, dysregulated release of mast cell proteases is now recognized to contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory conditions including asthma, abdominal aortic aneurysm formation, vessel damage in atherosclerosis and hypertension, arthritis, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Understanding how mast cell proteases contribute to inflammation will thus help unravel molecular mechanisms that underlie such immunologic disorders and will help identify new therapeutic targets for drug development. PMID:22125569

  17. Red cell DAMPs and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Rafaela; Silveira, Angélica A A; Conran, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Intravascular hemolysis, or the destruction of red blood cells in the circulation, can occur in numerous diseases, including the acquired hemolytic anemias, sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, as well as during some transfusion reactions, preeclampsia and infections, such as those caused by malaria or Clostridium perfringens. Hemolysis results in the release of large quantities of red cell damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) into the circulation, which, if not neutralized by innate protective mechanisms, have the potential to activate multiple inflammatory pathways. One of the major red cell DAMPs, heme, is able to activate converging inflammatory pathways, such as toll-like receptor signaling, neutrophil extracellular trap formation and inflammasome formation, suggesting that this DAMP both activates and amplifies inflammation. Other potent DAMPs that may be released by the erythrocytes upon their rupture include heat shock proteins (Hsp), such as Hsp70, interleukin-33 and Adenosine 5' triphosphate. As such, hemolysis represents a major inflammatory mechanism that potentially contributes to the clinical manifestations that have been associated with the hemolytic diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension and leg ulcers, and likely plays a role in specific complications of sickle cell disease such as endothelial activation, vaso-occlusive processes and tissue injury.

  18. Fruit polyphenols, immunity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    González-Gallego, Javier; García-Mediavilla, M Victoria; Sánchez-Campos, Sonia; Tuñón, María J

    2010-10-01

    Flavonoids are a large class of naturally occurring compounds widely present in fruits, vegetables and beverages derived from plants. These molecules have been reported to possess a wide range of activities in the prevention of common diseases, including CHD, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and others. The effects appear to be related to the various biological/pharmacological activities of flavonoids. A large number of publications suggest immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of these compounds. However, almost all studies are in vitro studies with limited research on animal models and scarce data from human studies. The majority of in vitro research has been carried out with single flavonoids, generally aglycones, at rather supraphysiological concentrations. Few studies have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of physiologically attainable flavonoid concentrations in healthy subjects, and more epidemiological studies and prospective randomised trials are still required. This review summarises evidence for the effects of fruit and tea flavonoids and their metabolites in inflammation and immunity. Mechanisms of effect are discussed, including those on enzyme function and regulation of gene and protein expression. Animal work is included, and evidence from epidemiological studies and human intervention trials is reviewed. Biological relevance and functional benefits of the reported effects, such as resistance to infection or exercise performance, are also discussed.

  19. Obesity, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Iantorno, M; Campia, U; Di Daniele, N; Nistico, S; Forleo, G B; Cardillo, C; Tesauro, M

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in obese individuals. Obesity dramatically increases the risk of development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. This risk appears to originate from disruption in adipose tissue function leading to a chronic inflammatory state and to dysregulation of the endocrine and paracrine actions of adipocyte-derived factors. These, in turn, impair vascular homeostasis and lead to endothelial dysfunction. An altered endothelial cell phenotype and endothelial dysfunction are common among all obesity-related complications. A crucial aspect of endothelial dysfunction is reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. A systemic pro-inflammatory state in combination with hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress and activation of the renin angiotensin system are systemic disturbances in obese individuals that contribute independently and synergistically to decreasing NO bioavailability. On the other hand, pro-inflammatory cytokines are locally produced by perivascular fat and act through a paracrine mechanism to independently contribute to endothelial dysfunction and smooth muscle cell dysfunction and to the pathogenesis of vascular disease in obese individuals. The promising discovery that obesity-induced vascular dysfunction is, at least in part, reversible, with weight loss strategies and drugs that promote vascular health, has not been sufficiently proved to prevent the cardiovascular complication of obesity on a large scale. In this review we discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying inflammation and vascular damage in obese patients.

  20. Platelets, inflammation and tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Nurden, Alan T

    2011-05-01

    Blood platelets have long been recognised to bring about primary haemostasis with deficiencies in platelet production and function manifesting in bleeding while upregulated function favourises arterial thrombosis. Yet increasing evidence indicates that platelets fulfil a much wider role in health and disease. First, they store and release a wide range of biologically active substances including the panoply of growth factors, chemokines and cytokines released from a-granules. Membrane budding gives rise to microparticles (MPs), another active participant within the blood stream. Platelets are essential for the innate immune response and combat infection (viruses, bacteria, micro-organisms). They help maintain and modulate inflammation and are a major source of pro-inflammatory molecules (e.g. P-selectin, tissue factor, CD40L, metalloproteinases). As well as promoting coagulation, they are active in fibrinolysis; wound healing, angiogenesis and bone formation as well as in maternal tissue and foetal vascular remodelling. Activated platelets and MPs intervene in the propagation of major diseases. They are major players in atherosclerosis and related diseases, pathologies of the central nervous system (Alzheimers disease, multiple sclerosis), cancer and tumour growth. They participate in other tissue-related acquired pathologies such as skin diseases and allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, liver disease; while, paradoxically, autologous platelet-rich plasma and platelet releasate are being used as an aid to promote tissue repair and cellular growth. The above mentioned roles of platelets are now discussed.

  1. Metabolic Syndrome, Inflammation and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Rodolfo; Bolego, Chiara; Poli, Andrea; Cignarella, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The inflammatory component of atherogenesis has been increasingly recognized over the last decade. Inflammation participates in all stages of atherosclerosis, not only during initiation and during evolution of lesions, but also with precipitation of acute thrombotic complications. The metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for development of both cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes in humans. Central obesity and insulin resistance are thought to represent common underlying factors of the syndrome, which features a chronic low-grade inflammatory state. Diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome occurs using defined threshold values for waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose and dyslipidemia. The metabolic syndrome appears to affect a significant proportion of the population. Therapeutic approaches that reduce the levels of proinflammatory biomarkers and address traditional risk factors are particularly important in preventing cardiovascular disease and, potentially, diabetes. The primary management of metabolic syndrome involves healthy lifestyle promotion through moderate calorie restriction, moderate increase in physical activity and change in dietary composition. Treatment of individual components aims to control atherogenic dyslipidemia using fibrates and statins, elevated blood pressure, and hyperglycemia. While no single treatment for the metabolic syndrome as a whole yet exists, emerging therapies offer potential as future therapeutic approaches. PMID:17319458

  2. Rhinoviruses, Allergic Inflammation, and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gavala, Monica; Bertics, Paul J.; Gern, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Viral infections affect wheezing and asthma in children and adults of all ages. In infancy, wheezing illnesses are usually viral in origin, and children with more severe wheezing episodes are more likely to develop recurrent episodes of asthma and to develop asthma later in childhood. Children who develop allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (allergic sensitization), and those who wheeze with rhinoviruses (HRV) are at especially high risk for asthma. In older children and adults, HRV infections generally cause relatively mild respiratory illnesses and yet contribute to acute and potentially severe exacerbations in patients with asthma. These findings underline the importance of understanding the synergistic nature of allergic sensitization and infections with HRV in infants relative to the onset of asthma and in children and adults with respect to exacerbations of asthma. This review discusses clinical and experimental evidence of virus/allergen interactions and evaluates theories which relate immunologic responses to respiratory viruses and allergens to the pathogenesis and disease activity of asthma. Greater understanding of the relationship between viral respiratory infections, allergic inflammation, and asthma is likely to suggest new strategies for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:21682739

  3. Prebiotics in Chronic Intestinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Looijer–van Langen, Mirjam A.C.; Dieleman, Levinus A.

    2016-01-01

    Prebiotics are nondigestible fermentable fibers that are reported to have health benefits for the host. Older as well as more recent studies show beneficial effects in experimental colitis and lately also in human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and chronic pouchitis. In this review we give an overview of the benefits of prebiotics in rodent IBD models and in IBD patients and discuss their possible protective mechanisms. Commensal intestinal bacteria induce and perpetuate chronic intestinal inflammation, whereas others are protective. However, most of the current medications are directed against the exaggerated proinflammatory immune response of the host, some of them toxic and costly. Feeding prebiotics changes the composition of the intestinal microflora toward more protective intestinal bacteria and alters systemic and mucosal immune responses of the host. Therapy for IBD targeting intestinal bacteria and their function is just emerging. Prebiotics have the promise to be relatively safe, inexpensive, and easy to administer. Unraveling their protective mechanisms will help to develop rational applications of prebiotics. However, the initial promising results with dietary prebiotics in preclinical trials as well as small studies in human IBD will need to be confirmed in large randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:18831524

  4. Mathematical modeling of heat exchange between mine air and rock mass during fire

    SciTech Connect

    A.E. Krasnoshtein; B.P. Kazakov; A.V. Shalimov

    2006-05-15

    Solution of problems on heat exchange between ventilating air and rock mass and on gas admixture propagation in mine workings serve as a base for considering changes in heat-gas-air state at a mine after inflammation. The presented mathematical relations allow calculation of a varied velocity and movement direction of air flows, their temperatures and smoking conditions during fire.

  5. Pathogenesis of tendinopathies: inflammation or degeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Michele; Gravare-Silbernagel, Karin; Siljeholm, Carl; Di Iorio, Angelo; De Amicis, Daniele; Salini, Vincenzo; Werner, Suzanne; Paganelli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The intrinsic pathogenetic mechanisms of tendinopathies are largely unknown and whether inflammation or degeneration has the prominent role is still a matter of debate. Assuming that there is a continuum from physiology to pathology, overuse may be considered as the initial disease factor; in this context, microruptures of tendon fibers occur and several molecules are expressed, some of which promote the healing process, while others, including inflammatory cytokines, act as disease mediators. Neural in-growth that accompanies the neovessels explains the occurrence of pain and triggers neurogenic-mediated inflammation. It is conceivable that inflammation and degeneration are not mutually exclusive, but work together in the pathogenesis of tendinopathies. PMID:19591655

  6. Autophagy in infection, inflammation, and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Tatsuya; Akira, Shizuo

    2017-01-01

    Preface Autophagy is a fundamental cell biological pathway affecting immunity. Whereas autophagy is an antimicrobial effector of conventional pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), autophagic adaptors termed SLRs represent a new subset of PRRs and provide the mechanistic basis for autophagic elimination of intracellular microbes. Autophagy controls inflammation via regulatory interactions with innate immunity signalling, by removing endogenous inflammasome agonists, and thorough effects on secretion of immune mediators. Autophagy contributes to antigen presentation, T cell homeostasis, and affects T cell repertories and polarization including Th17 inflammation. Here, we review the above relationships organized into four principal roles of autophagy in infection, inflammation, and immunity. PMID:24064518

  7. The dynamics of acute inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rukmini

    The acute inflammatory response is the non-specific and immediate reaction of the body to pathogenic organisms, tissue trauma and unregulated cell growth. An imbalance in this response could lead to a condition commonly known as "shock" or "sepsis". This thesis is an attempt to elucidate the dynamics of acute inflammatory response to infection and contribute to its systemic understanding through mathematical modeling and analysis. The models of immunity discussed use Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) to model the variation of concentration in time of the various interacting species. Chapter 2 discusses three such models of increasing complexity. Sections 2.1 and 2.2 discuss smaller models that capture the core features of inflammation and offer general predictions concerning the design of the system. Phase-space and bifurcation analyses have been used to examine the behavior at various parameter regimes. Section 2.3 discusses a global physiological model that includes several equations modeling the concentration (or numbers) of cells, cytokines and other mediators. The conclusions drawn from the reduced and detailed models about the qualitative effects of the parameters are very similar and these similarities have also been discussed. In Chapter 3, the specific applications of the biologically detailed model are discussed in greater detail. These include a simulation of anthrax infection and an in silico simulation of a clinical trial. Such simulations are very useful to biologists and could prove to be invaluable tools in drug design. Finally, Chapter 4 discusses the general problem of extinction of populations modeled as continuous variables in ODES is discussed. The average time to extinction and threshold are estimated based on analyzing the equivalent stochastic processes.

  8. Neurotoxicity of traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lucio G; Cole, Toby B; Coburn, Jacki; Chang, Yu-Chi; Dao, Khoi; Roqué, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    The central nervous system is emerging as an important target for adverse health effects of air pollution, where it may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Air pollution comprises several components, including particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM), gases, organic compounds, and metals. An important source of ambient PM and UFPM is represented by traffic-related air pollution, primarily diesel exhaust (DE). Human epidemiological studies and controlled animal studies have shown that exposure to air pollution, and to traffic-related air pollution or DE in particular, may lead to neurotoxicity. In particular, air pollution is emerging as a possible etiological factor in neurodevelopmental (e.g. autism spectrum disorders) and neurodegenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's disease) disorders. The most prominent effects caused by air pollution in both humans and animals are oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation. Studies in mice acutely exposed to DE (250-300μg/m(3) for 6h) have shown microglia activation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuro-inflammation in various brain regions, particularly the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. An impairment of adult neurogenesis was also found. In most cases, the effects of DE were more pronounced in male mice, possibly because of lower antioxidant abilities due to lower expression of paraoxonase 2.

  9. Air Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Iraq. To provide a background for understanding why Britain commenced the policy of air policing, this paper begins with a review of contemporary...7 Omissi, Air Power, XV. 8 policing actions or the pushing home of advantages gained by the air.” Within the context of this paper , the...control operations, and therefore within the context of this paper , the term coercive airpower refers to the threat of harming a population or the threat

  10. Inflammation boosts bacteriophage transfer between Salmonella spp.

    PubMed

    Diard, Médéric; Bakkeren, Erik; Cornuault, Jeffrey K; Moor, Kathrin; Hausmann, Annika; Sellin, Mikael E; Loverdo, Claude; Aertsen, Abram; Ackermann, Martin; De Paepe, Marianne; Slack, Emma; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2017-03-17

    Bacteriophage transfer (lysogenic conversion) promotes bacterial virulence evolution. There is limited understanding of the factors that determine lysogenic conversion dynamics within infected hosts. A murine Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) diarrhea model was used to study the transfer of SopEΦ, a prophage from STm SL1344, to STm ATCC14028S. Gut inflammation and enteric disease triggered >55% lysogenic conversion of ATCC14028S within 3 days. Without inflammation, SopEΦ transfer was reduced by up to 10(5)-fold. This was because inflammation (e.g., reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, hypochlorite) triggers the bacterial SOS response, boosts expression of the phage antirepressor Tum, and thereby promotes free phage production and subsequent transfer. Mucosal vaccination prevented a dense intestinal STm population from inducing inflammation and consequently abolished SopEΦ transfer. Vaccination may be a general strategy for blocking pathogen evolution that requires disease-driven transfer of temperate bacteriophages.

  11. Monocyte trafficking in acute and chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Molly A; Platt, Andrew M; Potteaux, Stephane; Randolph, Gwendalyn J

    2011-10-01

    Environmental signals at the site of inflammation mediate rapid monocyte mobilization and dictate differentiation programs whereby these cells give rise to macrophages or dendritic cells. Monocytes participate in tissue healing, clearance of pathogens and dead cells, and initiation of adaptive immunity. However, recruited monocytes can also contribute to the pathogenesis of infection and chronic inflammatory disease, such as atherosclerosis. Here, we explore monocyte trafficking in the context of acute inflammation, relying predominantly on data from microbial infection models. These mechanisms will be compared to monocyte trafficking during chronic inflammation in experimental models of atherosclerosis. Recent developments suggest that monocyte trafficking shares common themes in diverse inflammatory diseases; however, important differences exist between monocyte migratory pathways in acute and chronic inflammation.

  12. Hyaluronan, a Crucial Regulator of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Petrey, Aaron C.; de la Motte, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), plays a key role in regulating inflammation. Inflammation is associated with accumulation and turnover of HA polymers by multiple cell types. Increasingly through the years, HA has become recognized as an active participant in inflammatory, angiogenic, fibrotic, and cancer promoting processes. HA and its binding proteins regulate the expression of inflammatory genes, the recruitment of inflammatory cells, the release of inflammatory cytokines, and can attenuate the course of inflammation, providing protection against tissue damage. A growing body of evidence suggests the cell responses are HA molecular weight dependent. HA fragments generated by multiple mechanisms throughout the course of inflammatory pathologies, elicit cellular responses distinct from intact HA. This review focuses on the role of HA in the promotion and resolution of inflammation. PMID:24653726

  13. Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease National Hematologic Diseases Information Service What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which a person has ... also cause low blood iron levels. People with anemia may feel tired because their blood does not ...

  14. Critical role of calpain in inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jingjing; Su, Lei; Liu, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Calpains are a family of cysteine proteases, implicated in a wide range of cellular calcium-regulated functions. Evidence from previous studies using an inhibitor of calpain indicates that calpain activation is involved in the process of numerous inflammation-associated diseases. As a result of in-depth studies, calpains have been proposed to influence the process of inflammation via a variety of mechanisms. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of recent reports regarding the role of calpain in the process of inflammation, including regulation of immune cell migration, modulation of the activation of inflammatory mediators, degradation of certain associated proteins and induction of cell apoptosis. Understanding these mechanisms may contribute to the investigation of novel therapeutic targets for inflammation-associated diseases. PMID:28101338

  15. Mouse models of intestinal inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Aya M; Szakmary, Akos; Schiestl, Robert H

    2016-09-01

    Chronic inflammation is strongly associated with approximately one-fifth of all human cancers. Arising from combinations of factors such as environmental exposures, diet, inherited gene polymorphisms, infections, or from dysfunctions of the immune response, chronic inflammation begins as an attempt of the body to remove injurious stimuli; however, over time, this results in continuous tissue destruction and promotion and maintenance of carcinogenesis. Here, we focus on intestinal inflammation and its associated cancers, a group of diseases on the rise and affecting millions of people worldwide. Intestinal inflammation can be widely grouped into inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) and celiac disease. Long-standing intestinal inflammation is associated with colorectal cancer and small-bowel adenocarcinoma, as well as extraintestinal manifestations, including lymphomas and autoimmune diseases. This article highlights potential mechanisms of pathogenesis in inflammatory bowel diseases and celiac disease, as well as those involved in the progression to associated cancers, most of which have been identified from studies utilizing mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Mouse models of intestinal inflammation can be widely grouped into chemically induced models; genetic models, which make up the bulk of the studied models; adoptive transfer models; and spontaneous models. Studies in these models have lead to the understanding that persistent antigen exposure in the intestinal lumen, in combination with loss of epithelial barrier function, and dysfunction and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses lead to chronic intestinal inflammation. Transcriptional changes in this environment leading to cell survival, hyperplasia, promotion of angiogenesis, persistent DNA damage, or insufficient repair of DNA damage due to an excess of proinflammatory mediators are then thought to lead to sustained malignant transformation. With

  16. Stretching Impacts Inflammation Resolution in Connective Tissue.

    PubMed

    Berrueta, Lisbeth; Muskaj, Igla; Olenich, Sara; Butler, Taylor; Badger, Gary J; Colas, Romain A; Spite, Matthew; Serhan, Charles N; Langevin, Helene M

    2016-07-01

    Acute inflammation is accompanied from its outset by the release of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), including resolvins, that orchestrate the resolution of local inflammation. We showed earlier that, in rats with subcutaneous inflammation of the back induced by carrageenan, stretching for 10 min twice daily reduced inflammation and improved pain, 2 weeks after carrageenan injection. In this study, we hypothesized that stretching of connective tissue activates local pro-resolving mechanisms within the tissue in the acute phase of inflammation. In rats injected with carrageenan and randomized to stretch versus no stretch for 48 h, stretching reduced inflammatory lesion thickness and neutrophil count, and increased resolvin (RvD1) concentrations within lesions. Furthermore, subcutaneous resolvin injection mimicked the effect of stretching. In ex vivo experiments, stretching of connective tissue reduced the migration of neutrophils and increased tissue RvD1 concentration. These results demonstrate a direct mechanical impact of stretching on inflammation-regulation mechanisms within connective tissue.

  17. Resolution of Inflammation: What Controls Its Onset?

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Michelle A.; Sousa, Lirlândia P.; Pinho, Vanessa; Perretti, Mauro; Teixeira, Mauro M.

    2016-01-01

    An effective resolution program may be able to prevent the progression from non-resolving acute inflammation to persistent chronic inflammation. It has now become evident that coordinated resolution programs initiate shortly after inflammatory responses begin. In this context, several mechanisms provide the fine-tuning of inflammation and create a favorable environment for the resolution phase to take place and for homeostasis to return. In this review, we focus on the events required for an effective transition from the proinflammatory phase to the onset and establishment of resolution. We suggest that several mediators that promote the inflammatory phase of inflammation can simultaneously initiate a program for active resolution. Indeed, several events enact a decrease in the local chemokine concentration, a reduction which is essential to inhibit further infiltration of neutrophils into the tissue. Interestingly, although neutrophils are cells that characteristically participate in the active phase of inflammation, they also contribute to the onset of resolution. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate resolution may be instrumental to develop pro-resolution strategies to treat complex chronic inflammatory diseases, in humans. The efforts to develop strategies based on resolution of inflammation have shaped a new area of pharmacology referred to as “resolution pharmacology.” PMID:27199985

  18. Resolution of Inflammation: What Controls Its Onset?

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Michelle A; Sousa, Lirlândia P; Pinho, Vanessa; Perretti, Mauro; Teixeira, Mauro M

    2016-01-01

    An effective resolution program may be able to prevent the progression from non-resolving acute inflammation to persistent chronic inflammation. It has now become evident that coordinated resolution programs initiate shortly after inflammatory responses begin. In this context, several mechanisms provide the fine-tuning of inflammation and create a favorable environment for the resolution phase to take place and for homeostasis to return. In this review, we focus on the events required for an effective transition from the proinflammatory phase to the onset and establishment of resolution. We suggest that several mediators that promote the inflammatory phase of inflammation can simultaneously initiate a program for active resolution. Indeed, several events enact a decrease in the local chemokine concentration, a reduction which is essential to inhibit further infiltration of neutrophils into the tissue. Interestingly, although neutrophils are cells that characteristically participate in the active phase of inflammation, they also contribute to the onset of resolution. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate resolution may be instrumental to develop pro-resolution strategies to treat complex chronic inflammatory diseases, in humans. The efforts to develop strategies based on resolution of inflammation have shaped a new area of pharmacology referred to as "resolution pharmacology."

  19. Lung inflammation caused by inhaled toxicants: a review

    PubMed Central

    Wong, John; Magun, Bruce E; Wood, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of the lungs to airborne toxicants from different sources in the environment may lead to acute and chronic pulmonary or even systemic inflammation. Cigarette smoke is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, although wood smoke in urban areas of underdeveloped countries is now recognized as a leading cause of respiratory disease. Mycotoxins from fungal spores pose an occupational risk for respiratory illness and also present a health hazard to those living in damp buildings. Microscopic airborne particulates of asbestos and silica (from building materials) and those of heavy metals (from paint) are additional sources of indoor air pollution that contributes to respiratory illness and is known to cause respiratory illness in experimental animals. Ricin in aerosolized form is a potential bioweapon that is extremely toxic yet relatively easy to produce. Although the aforementioned agents belong to different classes of toxic chemicals, their pathogenicity is similar. They induce the recruitment and activation of macrophages, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, inhibition of protein synthesis, and production of interleukin-1 beta. Targeting either macrophages (using nanoparticles) or the production of interleukin-1 beta (using inhibitors against protein kinases, NOD-like receptor protein-3, or P2X7) may potentially be employed to treat these types of lung inflammation without affecting the natural immune response to bacterial infections. PMID:27382275

  20. Interleukin 32, inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin Tae; Son, Dong Ju; Lee, Chong Kil; Yoon, Do-Young; Lee, Dong Hun; Park, Mi Hee

    2017-02-14

    Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a novel cytokine involved in inflammation and cancer development. IL-32 gene consists of eight small exons, and IL-32 mRNA has nine alternative spliced isoforms, and was thought to be secreted because it contains an internal signal sequence and lacks a transmembrane region. IL-32 is initially expressed selectively in activated T cells by mitogen and activated NK cells and their expression is strongly augmented by microbes, mitogens, and other cytokines. The IL-32 is induced mainly by pathogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but IL-32 is more prominent in immune cells than in non-immune tissues. The IL-32 transcript is expressed in various human tissues and organs such as the spleen, thymus, leukocyte, lung, small intestine, colon, prostate, heart, placenta, liver, muscle, kidney, pancreas, and brain. Cytokines are critical components of cell signaling pathways that are involved in the regulation of cell growth, metabolism, hormone signaling, immune regulation and a variety of other physiological functions. Earlier studies have demonstrated that IL-32 regulates cell growth, metabolism and immune regulation and is therefore involved in the pathologic regulator or protectant of inflammatory diseases. Previous studies defined that IL-32 is upregulated in the patients with several inflammatory diseases, and is induced by inflammatory responses. However, several reports suggested that IL-32 is downregulated in several inflammatory diseases including asthma, HIV infection disease, neuronal diseases, metabolic disorders, experimental colitis and metabolic disorders. IL-32 is also involved in various cancer malignancies including renal cancer, esophageal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, lymphoma, osteosarcoma, breast cancer, colon cancer and thyroid carcinoma. Other studies suggested that IL-32 decreases tumor development including cervical cancer, colon cancer and prostate cancer

  1. Antioxidants, inflammation and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mangge, Harald; Becker, Kathrin; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gostner, Johanna M

    2014-06-26

    Multiple factors are involved in the etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pathological changes occur in a variety of cell types long before symptoms become apparent and diagnosis is made. Dysregulation of physiological functions are associated with the activation of immune cells, leading to local and finally systemic inflammation that is characterized by production of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Patients suffering from inflammatory diseases often present with diminished levels of antioxidants either due to insufficient dietary intake or, and even more likely, due to increased demand in situations of overwhelming ROS production by activated immune effector cells like macrophages. Antioxidants are suggested to beneficially interfere with diseases-related oxidative stress, however the interplay of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants with the overall redox system is complex. Moreover, molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress in CVD are not fully elucidated. Metabolic dybalances are suggested to play a major role in disease onset and progression. Several central signaling pathways involved in the regulation of immunological, metabolic and endothelial function are regulated in a redox-sensitive manner. During cellular immune response, interferon γ-dependent pathways are activated such as tryptophan breakdown by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in monocyte-derived macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial and epithelial cells. Neopterin, a marker of oxidative stress and immune activation is produced by GTP-cyclohydrolase I in macrophages and dendritic cells. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is induced in several cell types to generate nitric oxide (NO). NO, despite its low reactivity, is a potent antioxidant involved in the regulation of the vasomotor tone and of immunomodulatory signaling pathways. NO inhibits the expression and function of IDO. Function of NOS requires the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is produced in

  2. Tumor suppressor p16INK4A/Cdkn2a alterations in 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch tumors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junan; Warner, Blake; Casto, Bruce C.; Knobloch, Thomas J.; Weghorst, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of p16INK4A/CDKN2A genetic alterations in human oral cancers indicates that the p16 gene could be a potent and appropriate target for novel intervention. Chemically induced hamster cheek pouch (HCP) tumors are highly similar to human oral cancers in both histology and genetics and may be a good choice as a surrogate model for human oral cancers. Nevertheless, little is known about the genetic events in the p16 gene in the HCP tumor model. The purpose of this study was to evaluate chemically induced HCP tumor specimens for potential inactivating p16 alterations. HCP tumors were induced with 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), and DNA extracted from 34 such specimens were analyzed for homozygous/hemizygous deletions, aberrant methylation of 5’ CpG islands, and point mutations using real-time multiplex PCR, methylation-specific PCR, and direct sequencing/cold single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), respectively. Homozygous deletions, hemizygous deletions, aberrant methylation of 5’-CpG islands, and point mutation were identified in 11, 4, 9, and 1 of 34 specimens, respectively. While the overall incidence of p16 alterations was 70.6% (24 of 34 specimens), the majority of inactivating events (67.6%) stemmed from deletion or methylation, which is consistent with the observations that in human oral SCC, the significant p16-inactivating events have been reported to be deletion and methylation. Our results strongly support the use of DMBA-induced HCP tumor model in evaluating novel p16-targeted therapy and prevention of human oral SCC. PMID:18247379

  3. Comparison of brush and biopsy sampling methods of the ileal pouch for assessment of mucosa-associated microbiota of human subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mucosal biopsy is the most common sampling technique used to assess microbial communities associated with the intestinal mucosa. Biopsies disrupt the epithelium and can be associated with complications such as bleeding. Biopsies sample a limited area of the mucosa, which can lead to potential sampling bias. In contrast to the mucosal biopsy, the mucosal brush technique is less invasive and provides greater mucosal coverage, and if it can provide equivalent microbial community data, it would be preferable to mucosal biopsies. Results We compared microbial samples collected from the intestinal mucosa using either a cytology brush or mucosal biopsy forceps. We collected paired samples from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who had previously undergone colectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA), and profiled the microbial communities of the samples by sequencing V4-V6 or V4-V5 16S rRNA-encoding gene amplicons. Comparisons of 177 taxa in 16 brush-biopsy sample pairs had a mean R2 of 0.94. We found no taxa that varied significantly between the brush and biopsy samples after adjusting for multiple comparisons (false discovery rate ≤0.05). We also tested the reproducibility of DNA amplification and sequencing in 25 replicate pairs and found negligible variation (mean R2 = 0.99). A qPCR analysis of the two methods showed that the relative yields of bacterial DNA to human DNA were several-fold higher in the brush samples than in the biopsies. Conclusions Mucosal brushing is preferred to mucosal biopsy for sampling the epithelial-associated microbiota. Although both techniques provide similar assessments of the microbial community composition, the brush sampling method has relatively more bacterial to host DNA, covers a larger surface area, and is less traumatic to the epithelium than the mucosal biopsy. PMID:24529162

  4. The effects of packaging method (vacuum pouch vs. plastic tray) on spoilage in a cook-chill pork-based dish kept under refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pedro; Garrido, María Dolores; Bañón, Sancho

    2010-03-01

    The effects of two packaging methods on the spoilage of a cook-chill pork-based dish kept under refrigeration were studied. Raw pork cuts and pre-cooked tomato sauce were packed under vacuum "sous vide" in polyamide-polypropylene pouches (SV) or into translucent polypropylene trays under modified atmosphere (80% N(2)+20% CO(2)) and sealed with a top film (PT). Samples were cooked inside the pack at an oven temperature/time of 70 degrees C/7h, chilled at 3 degrees C and stored at 2 degrees C for up to 90days. Microbial (psychrotrophs, lactic-acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts), physical-chemical (pH, water activity and total acidity) and sensory (colour, odour, flavour, texture and acceptance) parameters were determined. Heat penetration was faster in SV (2 degrees C/min) than in PT (1 degrees C/min) (core temperature). Both packaging methods were equally effective in protecting against microbial spoilage for 90 day at 2 degrees C. Minor counts were only detected for lactic-acid bacteria and anaerobic psychrotrophs in SV. No Enterobacteriaceae growth was found. Slight differences between SV and PT in pH and total acidity were observed. SV and PT had similar effects on the sensory preservation of the dishes. A gradual loss of acceptance of the cooked pork and tomato sauce was observed. Rancid flavour in PT and warmed-over-flavour in SV were noted in the final stages of storage. According to acceptance scores, the shelf-life of both SV and PT was 56 days at 2 degrees C. Both packaging methods can be used to manufacture sous vide meat-based dishes subsequently stored under refrigeration for catering use.

  5. Air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, F Handley

    1924-01-01

    I purpose (sic) in this paper to deal with the development in air transport which has taken place since civil aviation between England and the Continent first started at the end of August 1919. A great deal of attention has been paid in the press to air services of the future, to the detriment of the consideration of results obtained up to the present.

  6. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  7. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  8. The glutathione-S-transferase Mu 1 null genotype modulates ozone-induced airway inflammation in humans*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The Glutathione-S-Transferase Mu 1 null genotype has been reported to be a risk factor for acute respiratory disease associated with increases in ambient air ozone. Ozone is known to cause an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. Howev...

  9. The Yin and Yang of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, Marcia A.; Yates, Jennifer L.; Spencer, Cody M.; Vomhof-DeKrey, Emilie E.; Cooper, Andrea M.; Leadbetter, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is an essential protective part of the body’s response to infection, yet many diseases are the product of inflammation. For example, inflammation can lead to autoimmune disease and tissue damage, and is a key element in chronic health conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and also drives changes associated with aging. Animal models of infectious and chronic disease are important tools with which to dissect the pathways whereby inflammatory responses are initiated and controlled. Animal models therefore provide a prism through which the role of inflammation in health and disease can be viewed, and are important means by which to dissect mechanisms and identify potential therapies to be tested in the clinic. A meeting, “The Yin and Yang of Inflammation” was organized by Trudeau Institute and was held April 4–6′ 2014. The main goal was to bring together experts from biotechnology and academic organizations to examine and describe critical pathways in inflammation and place these pathways within the context of human disease. A group of ~80 scientists met for three days of intense formal and informal exchanges. A key focus was to stimulate interactions between basic research and industry. PMID:25323997

  10. Inflammation and epigenetic regulation in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Abu-Amer, Yousef; O'Keefe, Regis J.; McAlinden, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) was once defined as a non-inflammatory arthropathy, but it is now well-recognized that there is a major inflammatory component to this disease. In addition to synovial cells, articular chondrocytes and other cells of diarthrodial joints are also known to express inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed that targeting inflammation pathways could be a promising strategy to treat OA. There have been many reports of cross-talk between inflammation and epigenetic factors in cartilage. Specifically, inflammatory mediators have been shown to regulate levels of enzymes that catalyze changes in DNA methylation and histone structure, as well as alter levels of non-coding RNAs. In addition, expression levels of a number of these epigenetic factors have been shown to be altered in OA, thereby suggesting potential interplay between inflammation and epigenetics in this disease. This review provides information on inflammatory pathways in arthritis and summarizes published research on how epigenetic regulators are affected by inflammation in chondrocytes. Furthermore, we discuss data showing how altered expression of some of these epigenetic factors can induce either catabolic or anti-catabolic effects in response to inflammatory signals. A better understanding of how inflammation affects epigenetic factors in OA may provide us with novel therapeutic strategies to treat this condition. PMID:27389927

  11. Computational Modeling of Inflammation and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Ziraldo, Cordelia; Mi, Qi; An, Gary; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    Objective Inflammation is both central to proper wound healing and a key driver of chronic tissue injury via a positive-feedback loop incited by incidental cell damage. We seek to derive actionable insights into the role of inflammation in wound healing in order to improve outcomes for individual patients. Approach To date, dynamic computational models have been used to study the time evolution of inflammation in wound healing. Emerging clinical data on histo-pathological and macroscopic images of evolving wounds, as well as noninvasive measures of blood flow, suggested the need for tissue-realistic, agent-based, and hybrid mechanistic computational simulations of inflammation and wound healing. Innovation We developed a computational modeling system, Simple Platform for Agent-based Representation of Knowledge, to facilitate the construction of tissue-realistic models. Results A hybrid equation–agent-based model (ABM) of pressure ulcer formation in both spinal cord-injured and -uninjured patients was used to identify control points that reduce stress caused by tissue ischemia/reperfusion. An ABM of arterial restenosis revealed new dynamics of cell migration during neointimal hyperplasia that match histological features, but contradict the currently prevailing mechanistic hypothesis. ABMs of vocal fold inflammation were used to predict inflammatory trajectories in individuals, possibly allowing for personalized treatment. Conclusions The intertwined inflammatory and wound healing responses can be modeled computationally to make predictions in individuals, simulate therapies, and gain mechanistic insights. PMID:24527362

  12. Impact of Inflammation on Male Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Azenabor, Alfred; Ekun, Ayodele Oloruntoba; Akinloye, Oluyemi

    2015-01-01

    Fertility in the male is dependent on the proper production of sperm cells. This process, called spermatogenesis is very complex and involves the synchronization of numerous factors. The presence of pro–inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF–α), interleukin–1 alpha (IL–1 α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL–1 β) cytokines in the male reproductive tract (testis, epididymis and sperm) may have certain physiological functions. However, when the levels of these cytokines are higher than normal, as seen in conditions of inflammation, they become very harmful to sperm production. Moreover, inflammation is also associated with oxidative stress and the latter is well known to impair sperm function. Epidemiological studies regarding male infertility have revealed that more and more infertile men suffer from acute or chronic inflammation of the genitourinary tract, which often occurs without any symptoms. The inflammatory reactions within the male genital tract are inevitably connected with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, especially in sperm, is harmful because it damages sperm DNA and causes apoptosis in sperm. This article reviewed the suggested mechanisms and contribution of inflammation to male infertility. In addition, the review was further strengthened by discussing how inflammation affects both fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PMID:26913230

  13. Inflammation as a cause of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-03-01

    Inflammatory markers are highly amenable to appraise and adjust and could already serve as a diagnostic indicator and also as a predictor of prognosis over the management of many health problems. Inflammation is implicated in venous thromboembolism (VTE). However there is still an intense curiosity about whether it is a cause or only a consequence of the thromboembolic process. The more likely scenario is that some inflammatory mediators contribute to the development of VTE, which per se induces an inflammatory reaction. Here we will review evidences supporting the role of inflammation as a cause of VTE. Genetic association studies have provided possible links between inflammation-related genetic variants, especially cytokines (e.g. IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13), and VTE, leading to establish the fundamental role of genetic background in predisposition to VTE and variable inflammatory processes in individuals. Additionally, several inflammation-related conditions including aging, autoimmune disease, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hormone replacement therapy, infectious diseases, metabolic diseases, overweight or obesity, pregnancy or postpartum, respiratory diseases, and trauma have been associated with an increased risk of VTE. At this moment, despite their theoretical potential, to achieve the implementation of the inflammation-related laboratory tests in practice is a long task and future studies with larger sample sizes are required to address whether the properties of the inflammatory process, particularly intensity and duration, are useful in determining the risk of VTE and following outcomes.

  14. Persistence after birth of systemic inflammation associated with umbilical cord inflammation.

    PubMed

    Leviton, Alan; Hecht, Jonathan L; Allred, Elizabeth N; Yamamoto, Hidemi; Fichorova, Raina N; Dammann, Olaf

    2011-08-01

    Intrauterine inflammation is followed by elevated concentrations of inflammation-related proteins in the newborn's blood. Many of these proteins have short half-lives. The persistence of this postnatal inflammation has not previously been investigated. In a sample of 834 infants born before the 28th week of gestation, 12% (103) had grade 1 or 2, and 17% (142) had grade 3, 4, or 5 umbilical cord inflammation. Concentrations of nine proteins previously shown to be associated with umbilical cord inflammation at birth were measured on the first postnatal day and at two weekly intervals after birth. We evaluated the hypothesis that children who had umbilical cord inflammation were no more likely than others to have elevated concentrations of inflammation-related proteins in postnatal blood. The concentrations of seven of the nine proteins [C-reactive protein (CRP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), IL1β, IL8, TNFα, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM3), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP9)] showed a tendency to be elevated on day 7 among infants with funisitis. Adjusting for gestational age, growth restriction, and three postnatal exposures (ventilation on day 7, presumed and definite early bacteremia, and Bell stage III necrotizing endocolitis) did not diminish the elevated odds ratios of concentrations in the top quartile (for gestational age and day the specimen was obtained) of MPO, IL1β, TNFα, IL8, ICAM3, and MMP9. The persistence of a relationship between umbilical cord inflammation and elevated blood concentrations of inflammation-related proteins on postnatal day 7 suggests the existence of phenomena that contribute to a reinforcement loop and thereby sustained systemic inflammation.

  15. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  16. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Sunday, April 9, 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... general dentist, who has been trained in restorative dentistry techniques, will perform any procedures that use air- ...

  17. Neurobiology of Inflammation-Associated Anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Gautron, Laurent; Layé, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Compelling data demonstrate that inflammation-associated anorexia directly results from the action of pro-inflammatory factors, primarily cytokines and prostaglandins E2, on the nervous system. For instance, the aforementioned pro-inflammatory factors can stimulate the activity of peripheral sensory neurons, and induce their own de novo synthesis and release into the brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid. Ultimately, it results in the mobilization of a specific neural circuit that shuts down appetite. The present article describes the different cell groups and neurotransmitters involved in inflammation-associated anorexia and examines how they interact with neural systems regulating feeding such as the melanocortin system. A better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying inflammation-associated anorexia will help to develop appetite stimulants for cancer and AIDS patients. PMID:20582290

  18. Inflammation and Human Ovarian Follicular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Boots, Christina E.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a biologic process that mediates tissue effects including vasodilation, hyperemia, edema, collagenolysis and cell proliferation through complex immunologic pathways. In regards to the ovary, inflammation has key physiologic roles in ovarian folliculogenesis and ovulation. On the other hand inflammatory processes are subject to underlying pathology and if pushed, pro-inflammatory conditions may have a negative impact on ovarian follicular dynamics. Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) serve as examples of conditions associated with chronic endogenous production of low-grade pro-inflammatory cytokines. Both conditions negatively impact ovarian folliculogenesis and ovulation. The pages that follow summarize the role of inflammation in normal ovarian follicular dynamics and evidence for its role in mediating the negative effects of obesity and PCOS on ovarian follicular dynamics. The review concludes with a summary supporting a role for lifestyle factors that favorably impact inflammatory process involved in obesity and PCOS to improve ovarian function. PMID:26132931

  19. Linking resistin, inflammation, and cardiometabolic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeong Kyu; Kwak, Mi Kyung; Kim, Hye Jeong; Ahima, Rexford S.

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissue secretes a variety of bioactive substances that are associated with chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While resistin was first known as an adipocyte-secreted hormone (adipokine) linked to obesity and insulin resistance in rodents, it is predominantly expressed and secreted by macrophages in humans. Epidemiological and genetic studies indicate that increased resistin levels are associated with the development of insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Resistin also appears to mediate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by promoting endothelial dysfunction, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, arterial inflammation, and the formation of foam cells. Thus, resistin is predictive of atherosclerosis and poor clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease and heart failure. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that resistin is associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertension. The present review will focus on the role of human resistin in the pathogeneses of inflammation and obesity-related diseases. PMID:28192887

  20. Microbe- and danger-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Broggi, Achille; Granucci, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The ability of the immune system to give rise to an effective response against pathogens while maintaining tolerance towards self-tissues has always been an object of keen interest for immunologist. Over the years, different theories have been proposed to explain if and how the immune system is able to discriminate between self and non-self, including the Infectious Non-self theory from Charles Janeway and Polly Matzinger's Danger theory. Nowadays we know Janeway's theory is largely true, however the immune system does respond to injured, stressed and necrotic cells releasing danger signals (DAMPs) with a potent inflammatory response. To avoid unwanted prolonged autoimmune reactions, though, danger-induced inflammation should be tightly regulated. In the present review we discuss how prototypic DAMPs are able to induce inflammation and the peculiarity of danger-induced inflammation, as opposed to a complete immune response to fight pathogen invasions.

  1. Silencing nociceptor neurons reduces allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Sébastien; Abdulnour, Raja-Elie E.; Burkett, Patrick R.; Lee, Seungkyu; Cronin, Shane J.F.; Pascal, Maud A.; Laedermann, Cedric; Foster, Simmie L.; Tran, Johnathan V.; Lai, Nicole; Chiu, Isaac M.; Ghasemlou, Nader; DiBiase, Matthew; Roberson, David; Von Hehn, Christian; Agac, Busranour; Haworth, Oliver; Seki, Hiroyuki; Penninger, Josef M.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Bean, Bruce P.; Levy, Bruce D.; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lung nociceptors initiate cough and bronchoconstriction. To elucidate if these fibers also contribute to allergic airway inflammation we stimulated lung nociceptors with capsaicin and observed increased neuropeptide release and immune cell infiltration. In contrast, ablating Nav1.8+ sensory neurons or silencing them with QX-314, a charged sodium channel inhibitor that enters via large pore ion channels to specifically block nociceptors, substantially reduced ovalbumin or house dust mite-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We also discovered that IL-5, a cytokine produced by activated immune cells, acts directly on nociceptors to induce release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). VIP then stimulates CD4+ and resident innate lymphoid type 2 cells, creating an inflammatory signaling loop that promotes allergic inflammation. Our results indicate that nociceptors amplify pathological adaptive immune responses and that silencing these neurons with QX-314 interrupts this neuro-immune interplay, revealing a potential new therapeutic strategy for asthma. PMID:26119026

  2. Neurovascular aspects of skin neurogenic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Aubdool, Aisah A; Brain, Susan D

    2011-12-01

    Neurogenic inflammation is involved in skin inflammation. It is hypothesized that it is involved in the pathogenesis of the common chronic cutaneous vascular disorder rosacea, but the exact mechanism of action is currently unknown. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) are widely expressed on primary sensory neuron endings and non-neuronal cells such as keratinocytes. Here we describe the potential for TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors to be involved in the pathophysiology of rosacea due to their polymodal activation, including cold and hot temperature, pungent products from vegetable and spices, reactive oxygen species, and mechanical stimuli. We discuss the role of both receptors and the sensory neuropeptides that they release in inflammation and pain sensation and evidence suggesting that both TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors may be promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of the inflammatory symptoms of rosacea.

  3. Prostanoid receptors and acute inflammation in skin.

    PubMed

    Hohjoh, Hirofumi; Inazumi, Tomoaki; Tsuchiya, Soken; Sugimoto, Yukihiko

    2014-12-01

    Prostanoids such as prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxanes exert a wide variety of actions via nine types of G protein-coupled receptors, including four PGE2 receptors (EPs) and two PGD2 receptors (DPs). Recent studies have revealed that prostanoids trigger or modulate acute inflammation in the skin via multiple mechanisms involving distinct receptors and molecules; PGE2 elicits vascular permeability and edema formation via EP3 receptor on mast cells, and PGE2 increases blood flow by eliciting vasodilatation via EP2/EP4 receptors on smooth muscle cells. PGD2-DP1 signaling plays a role in mast cell maturation and mast cell-mediated inflammation. Therefore, the local inhibition of specific prostanoid receptor signaling is expected to be an effective strategy for the prevention and treatment of acute inflammation.

  4. The Changing Landscape of Renal Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ernandez, Thomas; Mayadas, Tanya Norton

    2016-02-01

    Kidney inflammation is a major contributor to progressive renal injury, leading to glomerulonephritis (GN) and chronic kidney disease. We review recent advances in our understanding of leukocyte accumulation in the kidney, emphasizing key chemokines involved in GN. We discuss features of renal inflammation such as the evolving concept of immune cell plasticity. We also describe certain aspects of organ-specific tissue microenvironments in shaping immune cell responses, as well as the current knowledge of how regulatory T lymphocytes impact on other immune effector cell populations to control inflammation. It is clear that present and future research in these areas may contribute to the development of novel targeted therapeutics, with the hope of alleviating the burden of end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

  5. Innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and immunity.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Andrew N J; Spits, Hergen; Eberl, Gerard

    2014-09-18

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were first described as playing important roles in the development of lymphoid tissues and more recently in the initiation of inflammation at barrier surfaces in response to infection or tissue damage. It has now become apparent that ILCs play more complex roles throughout the duration of immune responses, participating in the transition from innate to adaptive immunity and contributing to chronic inflammation. The proximity of ILCs to epithelial surfaces and their constitutive strategic positioning in other tissues throughout the body ensures that, in spite of their rarity, ILCs are able to regulate immune homeostasis effectively. Dysregulation of ILC function might result in chronic pathologies such as allergies, autoimmunity, and inflammation. A new role for ILCs in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis has started to emerge, underlining their importance in fundamental physiological processes beyond infection and immunity.

  6. Understanding migraine: Potential role of neurogenic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic inflammation, a well-defined pathophysiologial process is characterized by the release of potent vasoactive neuropeptides, predominantly calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and neurokinin A from activated peripheral nociceptive sensory nerve terminals (usually C and A delta-fibers). These peptides lead to a cascade of inflammatory tissue responses including arteriolar vasodilation, plasma protein extravasation, and degranulation of mast cells in their peripheral target tissue. Neurogenic inflammatory processes have long been implicated as a possible mechanism involved in the pathophysiology of various human diseases of the nervous system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract, and skin. The recent development of several innovative experimental migraine models has provided evidence suggestive of the involvement of neuropeptides (SP, neurokinin A, and CGRP) in migraine headache. Antidromic stimulation of nociceptive fibers of the trigeminal nerve resulted in a neurogenic inflammatory response with marked increase in plasma protein extravasation from dural blood vessels by the release of various sensory neuropeptides. Several clinically effective abortive antimigraine medications, such as ergots and triptans, have been shown to attenuate the release of neuropeptide and neurogenic plasma protein extravasation. These findings provide support for the validity of using animal models to investigate mechanisms of neurogenic inflammation in migraine. These also further strengthen the notion of migraine being a neuroinflammatory disease. In the clinical context, there is a paucity of knowledge and awareness among physicians regarding the role of neurogenic inflammation in migraine. Improved understanding of the molecular biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology of neurogenic inflammation may provide the practitioner the context-specific feedback to identify the novel and most effective therapeutic approach to treatment

  7. Reparative inflammation takes charge of tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Karin, Michael; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation underlies many chronic and degenerative diseases, but it also mitigates infections, clears damaged cells and initiates tissue repair. Many of the mechanisms that link inflammation to damage repair and regeneration in mammals are conserved in lower organisms, indicating that it is an evolutionarily important process. Recent insights have shed light on the cellular and molecular processes through which conventional inflammatory cytokines and Wnt factors control mammalian tissue repair and regeneration. This is particularly important for regeneration in the gastrointestinal system, especially for intestine and liver tissues in which aberrant and deregulated repair results in severe pathologies. PMID:26791721

  8. Both Preoperative pANCA and Anti-CBir1 Expression in Ulcerative Colitis Patients Influence Pouchitis Development after Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Fleshner, Phillip; Ippoliti, Andrew; Dubinsky, Marla; Vasiliauskas, Eric; Mei, Ling; Papadakis, Konstantinos A.; Rotter, Jerome; Landers, Carol; Targan, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS Acute pouchitis (AP) and chronic pouchitis (CP) are common after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to assess associations of preoperative pANCA (perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody) and anti-CBir1 flagellin on AP or CP development. METHODS Patients were prospectively assessed for clinically and endoscopically proven AP (antibiotic responsive) or CP (antibiotic dependent or refractory to antibiotic therapy). Sera from 238 patients were analyzed for ANCA and anti-CBir1 using ELISA. pANCA+ patients were substratified into high-level (>100 EU/ml) and low-level (<100 EU/ml) groups. RESULTS After a median followup of 47 months, 72 patients (30%) developed pouchitis. Pouchitis developed in 36% of pANCA+ patients vs. 16% of pANCA- patients (p=0.005), 46% of anti-CBir1+ patients vs. 26% of anti-CBir1- patients (p=0.02), and 54% of 35 pANCA+/anti-CBir1+ patients vs. 31% of 136 pANCA+/anti-CBir1- patients (p=0.02). AP developed in 37 pANCA+ patients (22%) vs. 6 pANCA- patients (9%) (p=0.02), and 12 anti-CBir1+ patients (26%) vs. 31 anti-CBir1- patients (16%) (p=0.1). Although AP was not influenced by pANCA level, AP was seen in 38% of low-level pANCA+/anti-CBir1+ patients vs. 18% low-level pANCA+/anti-CBir1- patients (p=0.03). CP was seen in 29% of high-level pANCA+ patients vs.11% of low-level pANCA+ patients (p=0.03). CONCLUSION Both pANCA and anti-CBir1 expression are associated with pouchitis after IPAA. Anti-CBir1 increases the incidence of AP only in patients who have low-level pANCA expression, and increases the incidence of CP only in patients who have high-level pANCA expression. Diverse patterns of reactivity to microbial antigens may manifest as different forms of pouchitis after IPAA. PMID:18378498

  9. Maternal inflammation during late pregnancy is lower in physically active compared with inactive obese women.

    PubMed

    Tinius, Rachel A; Cahill, Alison G; Strand, Eric A; Cade, W Todd

    2016-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare maternal plasma inflammation between physically active and inactive obese women during late pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between maternal plasma inflammation and lipid metabolism and maternal and neonatal metabolic health in these women. A cross-sectional, observational study design was performed in 16 obese-inactive (OBI; means ± SD; age, 25.0 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), 36.3 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); body fat percentage in late gestation, 37.7% ± 3.5%) and 16 obese-active (OBA; age, 28.9 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy BMI, 34.0 ± 3.7 kg/m(2); body fat in late gestation, 36.6% ± 3.8%) women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal plasma inflammation (C -reactive protein (CRP)) and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance) were measured at rest. Plasma lipid concentration and metabolism (lipid oxidation and lipolysis) were measured at rest, during a 30-min bout of low-intensity (40% peak oxygen uptake) exercise, and during a resting recovery period using indirect calorimetry. Umbilical cord blood was collected for measurement of neonatal plasma insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid concentration. Neonatal body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in OBI compared with OBA women (9.1 ± 4.0 mg/L vs. 6.3 ± 2.5 mg/L, p = 0.02). Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly associated with maternal lipolysis (r = 0.43, p = 0.02), baseline lipid oxidation rate (r = 0.39, p = 0.03), and baseline plasma free fatty acid concentration (r = 0.36, p = 0.04). In conclusion, maternal physical activity may reduce inflammation during pregnancy in obese women. Maternal lipid metabolism is related to systemic inflammation.

  10. Air pollution and brain damage.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Azzarelli, Biagio; Acuna, Hilda; Garcia, Raquel; Gambling, Todd M; Osnaya, Norma; Monroy, Sylvia; DEL Tizapantzi, Maria Rosario; Carson, Johnny L; Villarreal-Calderon, Anna; Rewcastle, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures of air pollutants produces inflammation in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Because the nasal cavity is a common portal of entry, respiratory and olfactory epithelia are vulnerable targets for toxicological damage. This study has evaluated, by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kappaB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosae, olfactory bulb, and cortical and subcortical structures from 32 healthy mongrel canine residents in Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), a highly polluted urban region. Findings were compared to those in 8 dogs from Tlaxcala, a less polluted, control city. In SWMMC dogs, expression of nuclear neuronal NF-kappaB and iNOS in cortical endothelial cells occurred at ages 2 and 4 weeks; subsequent damage included alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), degenerating cortical neurons, apoptotic glial white matter cells, deposition of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-positive lipid droplets in smooth muscle cells and pericytes, nonneuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Persistent pulmonary inflammation and deteriorating olfactory and respiratory barriers may play a role in the neuropathology observed in the brains of these highly exposed canines. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's may begin early in life with air pollutants playing a crucial role.

  11. Non-invasive biomarkers of pulmonary damage and inflammation: Application to children exposed to ozone and trichloramine

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Alfred . E-mail: bernard@toxi.ucl.ac.be; Carbonnelle, Sylviane; Nickmilder, Marc; Burbure, Claire de

    2005-08-07

    To date, airways injury or inflammation caused by air pollutants has been evaluated mainly by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage, an invasive technique totally unsuitable to children. The assessment of respiratory risks in this particularly vulnerable population has thus for a long time relied on spirometric tests and self-reported symptoms which are relatively late and inaccurate indicators of lung damage. Research in the field of biomarkers is now opening new perspectives with the development of non-invasive tests allowing to monitor inflammation and damage in the deep lung. Blood tests measuring lung-specific proteins (pneumoproteins) such as Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant-associated proteins (A, B or D) are now available to evaluate the permeability and/or the cellular integrity of the pulmonary epithelium. The application of these tests to children has recently led to the discovery of a lung epithelium hyperpermeability caused by trichloramine (nitrogen trichloride), an irritant gas contaminating the air of indoor-chlorinated pools. Serum CC16 can also serve to detect increases of airway permeability during short-term exposures to ambient ozone. Indicators measurable in exhaled air such as nitric oxide (NO) appear more useful to detect airway inflammation. By applying the exhaled NO test to children attending summer camps, we recently found that ambient ozone produces an acute inflammatory response in children from levels slightly lower than current air quality guidelines. In a study exploring the links between atopy, asthma, and exposure to chlorination products in indoor pools, we also found that the exhaled NO test can serve to detect the chronic airway inflammation associated with excessive exposure to trichloramine. Lung-specific proteins measurable in serum and markers in exhaled air represent sensitive tools that can be used to assess non-invasively the effects of air pollutants on the respiratory tract of children.

  12. Evaluation with mTHPC of early squamous cell carcinomas of the cheek pouch mucosa of Golden Syrian hamsters as a model for clinical PDT of early cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Forrer, Martin; Braichotte, Daniel; Wagnieres, Georges A.; van den Bergh, Hubert; Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe

    1995-03-01

    Golden Syrian hamsters are evaluated as an animal model for light induced fluorescence (LIF) photodetection and phototherapy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus, and the traecheo-bronchial tree. Carcinomas of this type are induced on the hamster cheek pouch mucosa by the application of the carcinogen 7,12-DMBA. For phototherapeutic experiments on the animals we utilized meso-(tetrahydoxyphenyl) chlorin (mTHPC). This drug is currently in phase I and II clinical trials for ENT patients presenting superficial `early' squamous cell carcinomas. By means of LIF we measured in vivo the kinetics of the uptake and removal of mTHPC in the normal and tumoral cheek mucosa and in the skin. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) reaction of the tissue after excitation of the photosensitizer with laser light at 652 nm was studied. Both pharmacokinetics and PDT efficacy are compared between animal model and clinical results with special emphasis on selectivity between normal and tumoral mucosa. These first experiments show that this tumor model in the hamster cheek pouch seems to be suitable for testing new photosensitizers preceding their clinical application as well as for optimization of the multiple parameters of clinical PDT.

  13. The therapeutic value of targeting inflammation in gastrointestinal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Beicheng; Karin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in the initiation and progression of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Inflammation also plays important roles in subverting immune tolerance, escape from immune surveillance, and conferring resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Targeting key regulators and mediators of inflammation represents an attractive strategy for GI cancer prevention and treatment. However, the targeting of inflammation in GI cancer is not straight-forward and sometimes inflammation may contribute to tumor regression. We discuss the origins and effects of inflammation in GI cancer and how to target it successfully. PMID:24881011

  14. Human health effects of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Folinsbee, L J

    1993-01-01

    Over the past three or four decades, there have been important advances in the understanding of the actions, exposure-response characteristics, and mechanisms of action of many common air pollutants. A multidisciplinary approach using epidemiology, animal toxicology, and controlled human exposure studies has contributed to the database. This review will emphasize studies of humans but will also draw on findings from the other disciplines. Air pollutants have been shown to cause responses ranging from reversible changes in respiratory symptoms and lung function, changes in airway reactivity and inflammation, structural remodeling of pulmonary airways, and impairment of pulmonary host defenses, to increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. Quantitative and qualitative understanding of the effects of a small group of air pollutants has advanced considerably, but the understanding is by no means complete, and the breadth of effects of all air pollutants is only partially understood. PMID:8354181

  15. Epoxygenated Fatty Acids Inhibit Retinal Vascular Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Megan E.; Hammer, Sandra S.; McCollum, Gary W.; Penn, John S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of elevating epoxygenated fatty acids on retinal vascular inflammation. To stimulate inflammation we utilized TNFα, a potent pro-inflammatory mediator that is elevated in the serum and vitreous of diabetic patients. In TNFα-stimulated primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells, total levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), but not epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs), were significantly decreased. Exogenous addition of 11,12-EET or 19,20-EDP when combined with 12-(3-adamantane-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA), an inhibitor of epoxide hydrolysis, inhibited VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression and protein levels; conversely the diol product of 19,20-EDP hydrolysis, 19,20-DHDP, induced VCAM1 and ICAM1 expression. 11,12-EET and 19,20-EDP also inhibited leukocyte adherence to human retinal microvascular endothelial cell monolayers and leukostasis in an acute mouse model of retinal inflammation. Our results indicate that this inhibition may be mediated through an indirect effect on NFκB activation. This is the first study demonstrating a direct comparison of EET and EDP on vascular inflammatory endpoints, and we have confirmed a comparable efficacy from each isomer, suggesting a similar mechanism of action. Taken together, these data establish that epoxygenated fatty acid elevation will inhibit early pathology related to TNFα-induced inflammation in retinal vascular diseases. PMID:27966642

  16. The role of inflammation in epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vezzani, Annamaria; Friedman, Alon; Dingledine, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary One compelling challenge in the therapy of epilepsy is to develop anti-epileptogenic drugs with an impact on the disease progression. The search for novel targets has focused recently on brain inflammation since this phenomenon appears to be an integral part of the diseased hyperexcitable brain tissue from which spontaneous and recurrent seizures originate. Although the contribution of specific proinflammatory pathways to the mechanism of ictogenesis in epileptic tissue has been demonstrated in experimental models, the role of these pathways in epileptogenesis is still under evaluation. We review the evidence conceptually supporting the involvement of brain inflammation and the associated blood-brain barrier damage in epileptogenesis, and describe the available pharmacological evidence where post-injury intervention with anti-inflammatory drugs has been attempted. Our review will focus on three main inflammatory pathways, namely the IL-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor signalling, COX-2 and the TGF-β signalling. The mechanisms underlying neuronal-glia network dysfunctions induced by brain inflammation are also discussed, highlighting novel neuromodulatory effects of classical inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and prostaglandins. The increase in knowledge about a role of inflammation in disease progression, may prompt the use of specific anti-inflammatory drugs for developing disease-modifying treatments. PMID:22521336

  17. Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    physical and mental functioning 2) pain , fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction 3) biomarkers of inflammation. All regulatory approvals for this...study comparing blood samples from Gulf War veterans with and without multiple symptoms of pain , fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. The goal of the... Pain , Fatigue, Cognitive Dysfunction Accomplishments 1st Quarter  The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Minneapolis

  18. Inflammation and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Haruhiko; Barger, Steven; Barnum, Scott; Bradt, Bonnie; Bauer, Joachim; Cole, Greg M.; Cooper, Neil R.; Eikelenboom, Piet; Emmerling, Mark; Fiebich, Berndt L.; Finch, Caleb E.; Frautschy, Sally; Griffin, W.S.T.; Hampel, Harald; Hull, Michael; Landreth, Gary; Lue, Lih–Fen; Mrak, Robert; Mackenzie, Ian R.; McGeer, Patrick L.; O’Banion, M. Kerry; Pachter, Joel; Pasinetti, Guilio; Plata–Salaman, Carlos; Rogers, Joseph; Rydel, Russell; Shen, Yong; Streit, Wolfgang; Strohmeyer, Ronald; Tooyoma, Ikuo; Van Muiswinkel, Freek L.; Veerhuis, Robert; Walker, Douglas; Webster, Scott; Wegrzyniak, Beatrice; Wenk, Gary; Wyss–Coray, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation clearly occurs in pathologically vulnerable regions of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain, and it does so with the full complexity of local peripheral inflammatory responses. In the periphery, degenerating tissue and the deposition of highly insoluble abnormal materials are classical stimulants of inflammation. Likewise, in the AD brain damaged neurons and neurites and highly insoluble amyloid β peptide deposits and neurofibrillary tangles provide obvious stimuli for inflammation. Because these stimuli are discrete, microlocalized, and present from early preclinical to terminal stages of AD, local upregulation of complement, cytokines, acute phase reactants, and other inflammatory mediators is also discrete, microlocalized, and chronic. Cumulated over many years, direct and bystander damage from AD inflammatory mechanisms is likely to significantly exacerbate the very pathogenic processes that gave rise to it. Thus, animal models and clinical studies, although still in their infancy, strongly suggest that AD inflammation significantly contributes to AD pathogenesis. By better understanding AD inflammatory and immunoregulatory processes, it should be possible to develop anti-inflammatory approaches that may not cure AD but will likely help slow the progression or delay the onset of this devastating disorder. PMID:10858586

  19. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Air Toxics Website Rules and Implementation Related Information Air Quality Data and Tools Clean Air Act Criteria Air ... Resources Visibility and Haze Voluntary Programs for Improving Air Quality Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, ...

  20. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  1. Links among inflammation, sexual activity and ovulation

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney K.; Worthman, Carol M.; Vitzthum, Virginia J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: We examined a mechanism that may coordinate trade-offs between reproduction and immune response in healthy women, namely, changes in inflammation across the ovarian cycle. Methodology: We investigated C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammation marker, across two consecutive ovarian cycles in 61 Bolivian women. Participants provided saliva samples every other day, and dried blood spots on 5–6 days spread across weeks 2–3 of each cycle. Cycles were characterized as ovulatory/anovulatory based on profiles of reproductive hormones. Participants also reported whether they were sexually partnered with a male or sexually abstinent during the study. Results: High early-cycle, but not late-cycle, CRP was associated with anovulation. High inflammation at the end of one cycle was not associated with anovulation in the subsequent cycle. Among ovulatory cycles, women with sexual partners had significantly lower CRP at midcycle, and higher CRP at follicular and luteal phases; in contrast, sexually abstinent women had little cycle-related change in CRP. In anovulatory cycles, partnership had no effect on CRP. CRP varied significantly with socioeconomic status (higher in better-off than in poorer women). Conclusions and implications: These findings suggest that the cycle-specific effect of inflammation on ovarian function may be a flexible, adaptive mechanism for managing trade-offs between reproduction and immunity. Sociosexual behavior may moderate changes in inflammation across the ovarian cycle, suggesting that these shifts represent evolved mechanisms to manage the trade-offs between reproduction and immunity. Clinically, these findings support considering both menstrual cycle phase and sexual activity in evaluations of pre-menopausal women’s CRP concentrations. PMID:26675298

  2. Aging-related inflammation in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Greene, M A; Loeser, R F

    2015-11-01

    It is well accepted that aging is an important contributing factor to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). The mechanisms responsible appear to be multifactorial and may include an age-related pro-inflammatory state that has been termed "inflamm-aging." Age-related inflammation can be both systemic and local. Systemic inflammation can be promoted by aging changes in adipose tissue that result in increased production of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα). Numerous studies have shown an age-related increase in blood levels of IL-6 that has been associated with decreased physical function and frailty. Importantly, higher levels of IL-6 have been associated with an increased risk of knee OA progression. However, knockout of IL-6 in male mice resulted in worse age-related OA rather than less OA. Joint tissue cells, including chondrocytes and meniscal cells, as well as the neighboring infrapatellar fat in the knee joint, can be a local source of inflammatory mediators that increase with age and contribute to OA. An increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators that include cytokines and chemokines, as well as matrix-degrading enzymes important in joint tissue destruction, can be the result of cell senescence and the development of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Further studies are needed to better understand the basis for inflamm-aging and its role in OA with the hope that this work will lead to new interventions targeting inflammation to reduce not only joint tissue destruction but also pain and disability in older adults with OA.

  3. A data-driven acute inflammation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acute inflammation is a severe medical condition defined as an inflammatory response of the body to an infection. Its rapid progression requires quick and accurate decisions from clinicians. Inadequate and delayed decisions makes acute inflammation the 10th leading cause of death overall in United States with the estimated cost of treatment about $17 billion annually. However, despite the need, there are limited number of methods that could assist clinicians to determine optimal therapies for acute inflammation. We developed a data-driven method for suggesting optimal therapy by using machine learning model that is learned on historical patients' behaviors. To reduce both the risk of failure and the expense for clinical trials, our method is evaluated on a virtual patients generated by a mathematical model that emulates inflammatory response. In conducted experiments, acute inflammation was handled with two complimentary pro- and anti-inflammatory medications which adequate timing and doses are crucial for the successful outcome. Our experiments show that the dosage regimen assigned with our data-driven method significantly improves the percentage of healthy patients when compared to results by other methods used in clinical practice and found in literature. Our method saved 88% of patients that would otherwise die within a week, while the best method found in literature saved only 73% of patients. At the same time, our method used lower doses of medications than alternatives. In addition, our method achieved better results than alternatives when only incomplete or noisy measurements were available over time as well as it was less affected by therapy delay. The presented results provide strong evidence that models from the artificial intelligence community have a potential for development of personalized treatment strategies for acute inflammation. PMID:24565439

  4. Microbiota, Immune Subversion, and Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Carolyn D.; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2017-01-01

    Several host-adapted pathogens and commensals have evolved mechanisms to evade the host innate immune system inducing a state of low-grade inflammation. Epidemiological studies have also documented the association of a subset of these microorganisms with chronic inflammatory disorders. In this review, we summarize recent studies demonstrating the role of the microbiota in chronic inflammatory diseases and discuss how specific microorganisms subvert or inhibit protective signaling normally induced by toll-like receptors (TLRs). We highlight our work on the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and discuss the role of microbial modulation of lipid A structures in evasion of TLR4 signaling and resulting systemic immunopathology associated with atherosclerosis. P. gingivalis intrinsically expresses underacylated lipid A moieties and can modify the phosphorylation of lipid A, leading to altered TLR4 signaling. Using P. gingivalis mutant strains expressing distinct lipid A moieties, we demonstrated that expression of antagonist lipid A was associated with P. gingivalis-mediated systemic inflammation and immunopathology, whereas strains expressing agonist lipid A exhibited modest systemic inflammation. Likewise, mice deficient in TLR4 were more susceptible to vascular inflammation after oral infection with P. gingivalis wild-type strain compared to mice possessing functional TLR4. Collectively, our studies support a role for P. gingivalis-mediated dysregulation of innate and adaptive responses resulting in immunopathology and systemic inflammation. We propose that anti-TLR4 interventions must be designed with caution, given the balance between the protective and destructive roles of TLR signaling in response to microbiota and associated immunopathologies. PMID:28348558

  5. Inflammatory cell recruitment and adhesion to methyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers: effect of implantation time.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Judite N; Barbosa, Mário A; Aguas, Artur P

    2005-01-01

    The contribution of methyl groups in implant-triggered inflammation was investigated in vivo using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols on gold. The CH(3)-coated implants were inserted in an air-pouch cavity induced in BALB/c mice. The in situ inflammatory response was monitored 24, 48, and 72 hours later. Inflammatory cells recovered from the air pouches were counted and observed by light microscopy. The cellularity of the implant surfaces was defined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In comparison with gold implants, the CH(3)-coated SAMs recruited a significantly higher number of inflammatory cells. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were more numerous than mononuclear cells (Mo) in the exudates recovered from the air pouches with CH(3)-coated SAMs. The opposite PMN/Mo proportion was observed in air pouches of the two control groups (mice receiving gold implants or sham-operated animals). A low density of adherent cells was seen on CH(3)-coated implants, with no significant quantitative differences during the time course of the study. In contrast, the gold-coated surfaces were covered with numerous cells during all of the 3 days of the inflammation. In conclusion, implants with CH(3) surfaces are likely to induce PMN-dominated local acute inflammation but these surfaces are not associated with a significant adherence of leukocytes to the implant.

  6. Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis: Current Findings in Epidemiological Trends, Causes and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Futoshi

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a definite cancer-causing factor as revealed by cumulative basic, clinical and epidemiological studies. It is mostly induced by infectious agents. For instance, infection with papillomaviruses associates with anogenital cancers, especially cervical cancers; Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach tends to increase the risk of stomach cancer; chronic hepatitis B & C viruses and fluke infections of the liver increase liver cancers; autoimmune diseases, e.g., inflammatory bowel diseases, associate with development of colorectal cancer, and aerial irritants (foreign bodies) such as asbestos or fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in outdoor air increase malignant pleural mesotheliomas or lung cancers. These are typical examples of inflammation-related carcinogenesis. It is apparent that the pathogens to induce inflammatory reactions in specific organs are not related to each other. However, the underlying pathogenesis in common is to induce and/or sustain inflammation. In this article, I would like to review the up-to-date findings of epidemiological trends, causes and mechanisms of inflammation-related carcinogenesis. PMID:25324587

  7. Ozone-induced IL-17A and neutrophilic airway inflammation is orchestrated by the caspase-1-IL-1 cascade.

    PubMed

    Che, Luanqing; Jin, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Lai, Tianwen; Zhou, Hongbin; Xia, Lixia; Tian, Baoping; Zhao, Yun; Liu, Juan; Wu, Yinfang; Wu, Yanping; Du, Jie; Li, Wen; Ying, Songmin; Chen, Zhihua; Shen, Huahao

    2016-01-07

    Ozone is a common environmental air pollutant leading to respiratory illness. The mechanisms regulating ozone-induced airway inflammation remain poorly understood. We hypothesize that ozone-triggered inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1 production regulate neutrophilic airway inflammation through IL-17A. Pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation was induced by extended (72 h) low-dose (0.7 ppm) exposure to ozone. IL-1 receptor 1 (Il1r1)(-/-), Il17a(-/-) mice and the caspase-1 inhibitor acetyl-YVAD-chloromethylketone (Ac-YVAD-cmk) were used for in vivo studies. Cellular inflammation and protein levels in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), cytokines, and IL-17A-producing γδT-cells, as well as mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) release, and inflammasome activation in lung macrophages were analyzed. Ozone-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation, accompanied an increased production of IL-1β, IL-18, IL-17A, Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), Interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and BALF protein in the lung. Ozone-induced IL-17A production was predominantly in γδT-cells, and Il17a-knockout mice exhibited reduced airway inflammation. Lung macrophages from ozone-exposed mice exhibited higher levels of mitochondrial ROS, enhanced cytosolic mtDNA, increased caspase-1 activation, and higher production of IL-1β. Il1r1-knockout mice or treatment with Ac-YVAD-cmk decreased the IL-17A production and subsequent airway inflammation. Taken together, we demonstrate that ozone-induced IL-17A and neutrophilic airway inflammation is orchestrated by the caspase-1-IL-1 cascade.

  8. Study Ties Inflammation, Gut Bacteria to Type 1 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163143.html Study Ties Inflammation, Gut Bacteria to Type 1 Diabetes However, it's not yet ... Italian study finds. Those changes include different gut bacteria and inflammation in the small intestine. The differences ...

  9. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  10. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  11. New York Power Authority Pouch Terminal Power Station, Staten Island, New York; Order Denying Petition for Objection to Title V Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database.

  12. Large artery inflammation in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Sokalski, D G; Copsey Spring, T R; Roberts, W N

    2013-08-01

    A 23-year-old African-American woman with a history of recurrent pneumonias presented to the hospital with 2 weeks of shortness of breath, chest pain, fevers, and lightheadedness. The histologic diagnosis proved to be lupus aortitis. Optimal Framingham risk factor management by itself may not be a completely successful approach in diminishing the extra risk of atherosclerosis conferred by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therefore it remains possible that important modifiable cardiovascular risk factors may include low-grade SLE disease activity in medium-sized vessels. The implication of the idea that subclinical vessel inflammation is widespread in patients with lupus-and that this inflammation confers a significant part of the patients' risk of accelerated atherosclerosis-might be a lowering of the threshold for aggressive disease-modifying treatment of lupus, essentially a "treat-to-target" approach to systemic lupus.

  13. Role of inflammation in the aging bones.

    PubMed

    Abdelmagid, Samir M; Barbe, Mary F; Safadi, Fayez F

    2015-02-15

    Chronic inflammation in aging is characterized by increased inflammatory cytokines, bone loss, decreased adaptation, and defective tissue repair in response to injury. Aging leads to inherent changes in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation, resulting in impaired osteoblastogenesis. Also, the pro-inflammatory cytokines increase with aging, leading to enhanced myelopoiesis and osteoclastogenesis. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) play pivotal roles in osteoblast differentiation, the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and subsequent bone repair. However, during aging, little is known about the role of macrophages in the differentiation and function of MSC and HSC. Aged mammals have higher circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines than young adults, supporting the hypothesis of increased inflammation with aging. This review will aid in the understanding of the potential role(s) of pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages in differentiation and function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in relation to aging.

  14. CIRCADIAN RHYTHM REPROGRAMMING DURING LUNG INFLAMMATION

    PubMed Central

    Haspel, Jeffrey A.; Chettimada, Sukrutha; Shaik, Rahamthulla S.; Chu, Jen-Hwa; Raby, Benjamin A.; Cernadas, Manuela; Carey, Vincent; Process, Vanessa; Hunninghake, G. Matthew; Ifedigbo, Emeka; Lederer, James A.; Englert, Joshua; Pelton, Ashley; Coronata, Anna; Fredenburgh, Laura E.; Choi, Augustine M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are known to regulate immune responses in healthy animals, but it is unclear whether they persist during acute illnesses where clock gene expression is disrupted by systemic inflammation. Here, we use a genome-wide approach to investigate circadian gene and metabolite expression in the lungs of endotoxemic mice and find that novel cellular and molecular circadian rhythms are elicited in this setting. The endotoxin-specific circadian program exhibits unique features, including a divergent group of rhythmic genes and metabolites compared to the basal state and a distinct periodicity and phase distribution. At the cellular level endotoxin treatment also alters circadian rhythms of leukocyte counts within the lung in a bmal1-dependent manner, such that granulocytes rather than lymphocytes become the dominant oscillating cell type. Our results show that inflammation produces a complex reorganization of cellular and molecular circadian rhythms that are relevant to early events in lung injury. PMID:25208554

  15. Matrix Metalloproteinases as Regulators of Periodontal Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Franco, Cavalla; Patricia, Hernández-Ríos; Timo, Sorsa; Claudia, Biguetti; Marcela, Hernández

    2017-02-17

    Periodontitis are infectious diseases characterized by immune-mediated destruction of periodontal supporting tissues and tooth loss. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key proteases involved in destructive periodontal diseases. The study and interest in MMP has been fuelled by emerging evidence demonstrating the broad spectrum of molecules that can be cleaved by them and the myriad of biological processes that they can potentially regulate. The huge complexity of MMP functions within the 'protease web' is crucial for many physiologic and pathologic processes, including immunity, inflammation, bone resorption, and wound healing. Evidence points out that MMPs assemble in activation cascades and besides their classical extracellular matrix substrates, they cleave several signalling molecules-such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, among others-regulating their biological functions and/or bioavailability during periodontal diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of emerging evidence of MMPs as regulators of periodontal inflammation.

  16. Neural reflexes in inflammation and immunity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian immune system and the nervous system coevolved under the influence of infection and sterile injury. Knowledge of homeostatic mechanisms by which the nervous system controls organ function was originally applied to the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and other body systems. Development of advanced neurophysiological and immunological techniques recently enabled the study of reflex neural circuits that maintain immunological homeostasis, and are essential for health in mammals. Such reflexes are evolutionarily ancient, dating back to invertebrate nematode worms that possess primitive immune and nervous systems. Failure of these reflex mechanisms in mammals contributes to nonresolving inflammation and disease. It is also possible to target these neural pathways using electrical nerve stimulators and pharmacological agents to hasten the resolution of inflammation and provide therapeutic benefit. PMID:22665702

  17. Cerulein Pancreatitis: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Cerulein pancreatitis is similar to human edematous pancreatitis, manifesting with dysregulation of digestive enzyme production and cytoplasmic vacuolization, the death of acinar cells, edema formation, and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the pancreas. Reactive oxygen species are involved in nuclear factor-κB activation, cytokine expression, apoptosis and pathogenesis of pancreatitis. There is recent evidence that cerulein activates NADPH oxidase, which is a major source of reactive oxygen species during inflammation and apoptosis in pancreatic acinar cells. In addition, the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway has been suggested as being involved in inflammatory signaling in the pancreas. This review discusses the involvement of oxidative stress in inflammation and apoptosis in pancreatic acinar cells stimulated with cerulein as an in vitro model of pancreatitis. PMID:20485614

  18. Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and related analogs in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Sumner H; Zurier, Robert B

    2009-03-01

    This review covers reports published in the last 5 years on the anti-inflammatory activities of all classes of cannabinoids, including phytocannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, synthetic analogs such as ajulemic acid and nabilone, the endogenous cannabinoids anandamide and related compounds, namely, the elmiric acids, and finally, noncannabinoid components of Cannabis that show anti-inflammatory action. It is intended to be an update on the topic of the involvement of cannabinoids in the process of inflammation. A possible mechanism for these actions is suggested involving increased production of eicosanoids that promote the resolution of inflammation. This differentiates these cannabinoids from cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors that suppress the synthesis of eicosanoids that promote the induction of the inflammatory process.

  19. The reciprocal relationship between inflammation and coagulation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Mauria

    2012-05-01

    Inflammation and coagulation constitute two host defense systems with complementary roles in eliminating invading pathogens, limiting tissue damage, and restoring homeostasis. Extensive cross talk exists between these 2 systems, whereby inflammation leads to activation of coagulation, and coagulation considerably affects inflammatory activity. Infection leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines that, in turn, stimulate the production of tissue factor. Activation of the coagulation system and ensuing thrombin generation are dependent on the expression of tissue factor. Conversely, activated coagulation proteases may affect specific receptors on inflammatory cells and endothelial cells and thereby modulate the inflammatory response. Activation of coagulation with the simultaneous down-regulation of endothelial-bound anticoagulant mechanisms and endogenous fibrinolysis characterizes the pathophysiology of sepsis. The mechanisms by which these highly complex and codependent defense strategies are linked together both in health and disease is the focus of this review.

  20. Matrix Metalloproteinases as Regulators of Periodontal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Cavalla; Patricia, Hernández-Ríos; Timo, Sorsa; Claudia, Biguetti; Marcela, Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis are infectious diseases characterized by immune-mediated destruction of periodontal supporting tissues and tooth loss. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key proteases involved in destructive periodontal diseases. The study and interest in MMP has been fuelled by emerging evidence demonstrating the broad spectrum of molecules that can be cleaved by them and the myriad of biological processes that they can potentially regulate. The huge complexity of MMP functions within the ‘protease web’ is crucial for many physiologic and pathologic processes, including immunity, inflammation, bone resorption, and wound healing. Evidence points out that MMPs assemble in activation cascades and besides their classical extracellular matrix substrates, they cleave several signalling molecules—such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, among others—regulating their biological functions and/or bioavailability during periodontal diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of emerging evidence of MMPs as regulators of periodontal inflammation. PMID:28218665